Learning The Spoken Language Report Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Theories and Activities

Guiding Principles for Teaching

Comprehensible Teaching



Reference List

Education is a one of the fast evolving spheres of knowledge in the world. Ever since the ancient times there have been multiple educators who practiced and promoted different approaches to teaching and learning. These days, language learning practice is undergoing a variety of changes and innovations. However, the theory of it is based on the works of psychologists and educators who worked in the 20th century such as Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, and Jerome Bruner.

As a result, the modern education is a complex and carefully crafted mixture of the wisdom of generations and the latest technologies. At the first sight, the theories of the educators and psychologists of the 20th century are very different in their bases and seem impossible to combine.

However, regardless of some noticeable differences, their overall focus was to deliver a learner-centered, diverse, and flexible approach that allows creating a comfortable and encouraging environment for the student. This paper serves to demonstrate how the approaches of the well-known psychologists of the past can be applied in the contemporary classroom of language learners using various activities and integrating modern technologies.

The paper was written as a reference for the teachers and covers such issues as the concept of discourse and its types, listening and speaking as the activities in language learning, the meaning of communication and personal involvement, and the importance of the use of technologies in the modern classroom.

The questions I attempted to answer using the presented activities in the classroom concerned the comprehensibility of the language input, the encouragement of the students’ enthusiasm for learning, and the best strategies to facilitate the language learning among the young students.

Theories and Activities Learning a foreign language can be divided into tasks targeting literacy skills (written language) and oral skills (spoken language). The theory of language learning is based on the approaches of several outstanding educational psychologists of the past – Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, and Jerome Bruner. The approach promoted by Piaget relied on the belief that children are learners by nature and are capable of active learning independently (Cameron, 2001).

According to Piaget’s constructivist approach knowledge is a subjective rather than objective concept, and it is constructed individually by each learner (Reusser, 2000). In the theory developed by Vygotsky, social interaction plays the most crucial role in learning (Cameron, 2001). In one of her works, DeVries (2000) noted that the application of Vygotsky’s approach has created both constructivist and behaviorist implications in the modern teaching practices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The works of Bruner rely on the term “scaffolding” as an activity that allows a child to take care of the tasks and concepts they are able to comprehend and solve, while the teacher is responsible for all the aspects and knowledge that are at that moment beyond a child’s understanding (Puntambekar


Using Leadership to Improve Ethical Performance Response Essay essay help online: essay help online

Background This paper is premised on an interview between the author and the head teacher of Delaware school. The interview centered on leadership whereby the author sought to unravel the connection between leadership and ethics. To achieve the stated objective, the author based the interview on pre-prepared questions that she posed to the interviewee. The interviewee’s responses were weighed against the literature to test their reliability.

How would you define leadership?

Based on the interviewee’s response, leadership refers to the provision of guidance and the necessary support to the junior staff by the managers. This definition of leadership is congruent with the definition offered by other scholars. Bolden and Gosling (2006) define leadership as the ability of a team leader to organize and plan tasks and to provide the necessary support to the junior staff in the course of dispensing their roles.

Selznick (2011) claims that leadership involves the use of the leadership skills to organize groups and to mobilize them to work hard towards achieving the set targets. It involves assigning tasks and conducting regular checks to detect any deviations from the normal business practice.

My interviewee noted that she cultivates a culture that fosters teamwork to achieve the objectives of the firm. Additionally, she consults her subordinates before making decisions that may affect the firm’s operations. She exercises a democratic style of leadership whereby the ideas of each employee counts. She claims that she furthers her leadership skills from listening to the employees’ ideas.

As a leader, what do you do when people on your team are not pulling their weight?

Schein (2010) states that personal issues coupled with the lack of skills contribute to the employees’ failure to work as expected. In that regard, leaders should avoid imposing punishments on employees for under performance. Instead, leaders should find the underlying cause of the problem to make an informed decision regarding the approach to adopt. My interviewee’s response to the stated question seems congruent with the findings in the literature.

She acknowledged the need to investigate the causes of the employee’s performance as opposed to confronting them. She stated that when faced with such a situation, she first talks to the employee personally to determine the reasons for the underperformance.

From the interview, I learnt that the leader exercises a servant style of leadership whereby she assists every employee in accomplishing his/her tasks. Where difficulties arise in accomplishing tasks, the leader investigates the causes of the underperformance. The leader then tailors the support to the problem identified.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is one of the greatest leadership challenges you have ever faced?

My interviewee cited dealing with negative attitudes towards children by tutors, as one of the greatest challenges she has ever faced in her career. The first instance occurred in Charles County, where the interviewee had to manage a group of staff who were not children oriented.

She responded by promoting a culture that would favor teamwork and promote employees’ development. Additionally, the leader held every individual personally liable for his/her actions. A universal code of ethics was formulated to guide the staff in their endeavors to mitigate undesirable behaviors. The leader embraced the code of ethics and encouraged employees to follow the suit. She acted ethically and encouraged others to follow suit.

Her actions to act ethically encouraged every other employee in the company to embrace ethical behavior. Northouse (2015) states that employees look at their leaders as their role models hence leaders need to be ethical and professional in their performance to encourage their juniors to follow the suit. The leader’s approach to act ethically and to mobilize her subordinates to do the same was based on the said view.

How would you describe your communication style?

Carroll, Levy


PESTEL and Trend Analysis for the Hotel Industry in Spain Report writing essay help

Hotel industry comprises one of the biggest areas of touristic business in Spain. PESTEL and trend analysis for the hotel industry in Spain reveals that though the severe financial crisis caused a temporary decline in this sector, hotel business quickly recovered from the crisis and is currently on the way to a new period of prosperity. Spanish political, economic, and legal conditions are rather advantageous for both employers and employees in the hotel industry and should encourage its extensive development in the nearest future.

Spain Political Analysis Government Stability

According to the data collected by The World Bank (2013), the index for political stability in Spain is currently growing, though it was significantly under 0.00 index during 2006-2011 (par. 2). Therefore, the risks of destabilization of the government are higher than in other Western European countries but are not as critical as it was during the previous years (A. M. Best Company Inc., 2015, p. 3).

The lowered rates of government stability experienced by Spain during the recent years Spain influenced hotel industry by making the country less attractive to foreign investors. However, current government stability is favorable for foreign investors.

Taxation Policy

The Value Added Tax in Spain is due for any services sold in the country, including hotels and cultural events.

2013: The Spanish government increased hotel tax from eight to ten percent (Berman, 2012, par. 2).

The taxation policy significantly affects the hotel industry, as high hotel taxes decrease the rates of tourism. The two percent hike in hotel tax in Spain has not caused significant changes in the hotel industry, but further tax hike is not desirable.

Hotel Industry Specific Regulations

In Spain, hotels are obliged to communicate the rates they apply to the Local Tourism Authority and to place them in a visible place (CMS guide, 2008, p. 58).

Detailed regulations approved by the Ministry of Industry govern health and safety issues in the hotels, including the size of the room, disabled access, fire and escape plans, etc. (CMS guide, 2008, p. 59).

A hotel license from the Regional Tourism Authorities is required to commence trading.

The hotel industry regulations in Spain are highly effective in ensuring the safety of the customers and the fairness of charged fees.

Social Welfare Policy

Spain has a smaller welfare state than most central and Northern European countries.

The social services provided by the Spanish social security include protection in case of maternity, illness, unemployment, retirement, etc.

Healthcare and education are universal (Aguilar, Escobedo,


Mallorca Hotel Industry: Porter Five Forces Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Porter’s five forces analysis is necessary for the Mallorca Hotel Industry as it assists in comprehension of the market strengths and weaknesses. Although the Mallorca Hotel Industry has been a household name in the general tourism industry in the last five decades, the hotels in Mallorca Island have expanded business portfolio as a strategic competitive advantage initiative.

The expanded portfolio provides the hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry with a competitive advantage in the sense that they can still maintain profitable performance even in instances where the market swings in the tourism industry are negatively skewed. Through diversification and portfolio balance, the hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry are in a position to survive turbulence in the harsh economic environment characterized by stiff competition and sensitivity to market dynamics.

The paper attempts to explicitly carry out a Porter’s five forces analysis for the Mallorca Hotel Industry by reviews the elements such as bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes, and industry rivalry. Besides the paper explores the hotel target market in Mallorca and how the market will evolve by 2020.

Mallorca Hotel Industry: Porter Five Forces The five forces determining the competitive advantage of hotels operating within the Mallorca Hotel Industry in the Mallorca Island are discussed below.

Potential entrants

The current players in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have been in existence for long and have very large production capacities. For instance, Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama hotels among others have diverse and very attractive tourism packages spread across the island. In fact, there are more than 1,200 well established hotels ranging from three stars, four stars, and five stars within the island.

Therefore, it is easy for these players to lower their prices as a competitive strategy since they directly benefit from economies of scale. Thus, a new entrant is disadvantaged in terms of pricing of its hotel services since it will not benefit from economies of scale in the same magnitude as the current industry players (Porter 21).

The cost of putting up a single well furnished hotel within the Mallorca Island is very expensive for a new entrant since the current players such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama hotels among others have breakeven and can easily manage the cost of running the hotels with clear market projections.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A new entrant will find itself in the mucky waters of trying to manage the cost of creating a new hotel brand name to compete the average industry cost, which may not be practical for a small establishment (Tynan and McKechnie 510). Players in the industry such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama hotels among others have diversified their products as part of portfolio balance strategy.

For instance, each of the above players have diversified hotel services to include business package, premium package, and economy package to boost the total revenues each year by serving clients within the high, middle, and low economic ends. A new entrant may not be able to compete with these players since their diverse products and strong brand presence is almost impossible to challenge, especially when the new entrant plans to start small (Porter 39).

The Mallorca Hotel Industry is characterized by capital intensive ventures since most of the hotel establishments are very expensive to maintain because of the high service quality standards and high cost of running the hotels. For instance, Playa de Plama has a capital worth of 1.2 billion dollars.

It is very difficult for a new entrant to easily enter this market and breakeven within two to three years since such ventures require a lot of capital in putting up the hotel, hiring skilled workers, and creating affordable and quality hotel services and packages targeting different classes of domestic and international tourists.

The cost of switching to different hotel service packages at the peak and off-peak periods is very high since it requires complete overhaul of the pricing, billing, service chatter, and logistic support (Tynan and McKechnie 509). This is not sustainable in the short run for new player with relatively limited capital. Within this aspect, switching cost for a new entrant may translate into closing down such a hotel.

The players in the Mallorca Hotel Industry such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama hotels among others have partnered booking agents spread across the Island and beyond, opening numerous business opportunities in all major cities and centers within the Spain territory. It would require massive capital for an aspiring investor to outperform their business prowess, in terms of established distribution channels.

A new entrant will be in a disadvantaged position when attempting to penetrate this industry. There are stringent rules by the government that must be followed by any player in this industry. As a legal requirement, each company in the industry is expected by the regulatory authorities to be tax compliant and meet the minimal threshold in terms of safety, environmental friendliness, labor laws, and other business requirements (Porter 36).

We will write a custom Report on Mallorca Hotel Industry: Porter Five Forces specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The approval process is very long and expensive for a new entrant with limited capital. From this analysis, it is apparent that the threat of a new entrant is very low since the switching cost and capital requirement are very high for a new player. Besides, the current players have high competitive advantage as a result of benefits from brand differentiation and economies of scale.

Threat of substitutes

Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, Playa de Plama, and other hotels pose the greatest threat to existence and business performance of a new player in the Mallorca Hotel Industry. These hotels have been in the industry for long period and are well established. The above hotels have almost similar hotel service packages that are customized and sometimes offer big discounts to customers.

In the Mallorca Hotel Industry, loyalty to a brand plays an important role in customer behavior since the hotel industry is very sensitive to changes in customer preference for different products and services (Tynan and McKechnie 511). Therefore, Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama among other hotels have the ability to offer an alternative perfect substitute to customers who may be unsatisfied with hotel service packages offered by other players within the Mallorca Hotel Industry.

Unsatisfied customers have other alternatives from where they can get similar and competitive hotel service packages within the Mallorca Hotel Industry from the numerous players (Porter 34).

However, the threat of substitutes is moderate since changing a brand is very expensive for customers in terms changing loyalty points, flexible services for repeat visits, and customized nature of the services in each hotel. In order to remain relevant, the hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry have established unique market for their customer through tailored optometry hotel products that are customized.

Power of suppliers

Suppliers in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have power owing to the existence of many players and high demand for different hotel related services used by the establishments within the Mallorca Island. Since suppliers within the Mallorca Hotel Industry operate at local and international levels, their influence differs (Tynan and McKechnie 513). For instance, China, India, and Spain supply the largest volume of services to the hotels within the Mallorca Island.

As a matter of fact, suppliers may instigate market demand and supply variances since most of the raw materials used in this industry such as menus, ingredients, transport services and booking are imported from Asia, Europe, and the US. All the players depend on the suppliers such as tour company operators directly for the delivery customers that can pay competitive prices for different services offered by hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry.

This leaves the suppliers with the power to dictate on proceedings in the industry such as the cost of agency fees as a percentage of each hotel service package and their availability (Tynan and McKechnie 513). However, through series of partnership agreements with independent manufacturers and ticket vendors, the players in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have managed to curtail the power of the suppliers to moderate since there are series of jointly negotiated deals on the cost of these services through formal contracts and outsourcing from more than one supplier. Besides, the major players in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have endeavored to use their deep reservoirs as a strategy for balancing the supply forces in the fragile hotel services market of the Mallorca Island.

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Reflectively, the amount of output in terms of turn over sales depends on the buyers’ purchasing power within the Mallorca Hotel Industry since the hotels fully depend on the availability of customers. The higher the purchasing power, the better the turnover in total sales realized over a definite period of time.

The performances of Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama among other hotels in the Mallorca Hotel Industry depend highly on the power of the hotel service package consumers who are local and international tourists visiting the Mallorca Island. On the other hand, unreliable and weak purchasing power translates into losses and underperformance (Porter 24).

For instance, during the off-peak (winter), most the hotels record booking equivalent to half of their capacity during peak season. The players must therefore do everything within their means to ensure that service delivery and quality meets the expectations of customers since the power of the buyers is very high in this industry by customizing the hotel service packages, offering discounts, and delivering high end services.


There are several players such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama among other hotels operating in the Mallorca Hotel Industry with virtually all of them dealing in a variety of hotel service packages, which can perform similar functions to customers. With many customers looking for good value for their money, quality, and affordability of the hotel service packages have remained the main basis upon which customers make their final decision to purchase products in the dynamic and stratified Mallorca Hotel Industry.

All the players in the industry are putting measures in place to ensure they attract more customers and therefore expand their market share through creation of a smooth supply chain, diversification, and brand positioning (Porter 19). Therefore, the size, in terms of space occupied by business premises, defines the temperature of the competition.

For instance, the hotels are divided into three stars, four stars, and five stars to serve specific customer segments. In line with this, the Playa de Plama boosts of being the biggest and most luxurious hotel in the Mallorca Island. The influence of rivalry is very high due to existence of very many players with the same product brands that have similar price range (Porter 24).

Conclusion From the above analysis, it is apparent that the Mallorca Hotel Industry is dominated by strong hotel brands that have been in the market for a long period of time. The players in the industry offer very competitive hotel service packages as a strategy for sustaining their business activities in the dynamic Mallorca Island. Apparently, the influences of all the five force of porter are very high in the Mallorca Hotel Industry.

For instance, it is difficult for a new hotel brand to enter and penetrate the industry due to high capital outlay, strong brand presence, and stringent registration and regulation laws. In terms of threat of substitute, a new entrant in the market will have to come up with very unique products since hotel package services within the Mallorca Hotel Industry are perfect substitutes, despite slight variances in pricing and packaging.

Suppliers in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have very high power due to existence of many hotels within the Mallorca Island demanding for services such as ticketing agencies, tour guides, and different menus/ingredients for local and international clients. The power of the buyer is very high since the common business-to-customer platform is dependent on customer satisfaction and perception of quality of the hotel package service.

The hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry are very sensitive to changes in customer preference. Therefore, the players in the industry must Endeavour to create high quality products that meet the expectations of customers to remain competitive.

Lastly, in terms of rivalry, the industry has several players such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama among other hotels competing for similar customer and market segments. Therefore, each player must expand its market share through creation of a smooth supply chain, diversification, and brand positioning to survive rivalry since the impact of rivalry is very high in the Mallorca Hotel Industry.

Hotel Target Market in Mallorca Targeted clients

The hotels in Mallorca target the domestic and international tourists in need of hotel package products such as accommodation, meals, and other services. The clients are further segmented into low end and high end customers. The low end customers are clients in need of affordable but comfortable hotel services while the high end customers are tourist in need of luxury hotel services (Cheverton 35). Each segment of the customers may consist of family, individual, corporate, and institution tourists visiting the Mallorca Island.

The needs of the targeted clients

The needs of the target customers are competitive prices, high quality products, flexible services, friendly environment, and authentic product presentation as part of the outcome driven creativity. This means that the targeted customer are interested in innovative service provision model that guarantee their satisfaction since choosing these hotels signifies deep trust they have towards the different hotel brand within the Mallorca Hotel Industry (Ulwick 28).

There is need to increase the scope of operations through strategic and innovative ideas of tourism service delivery to customers to meet the desires of the clients. There is also need to provide efficient, cost effective, and comprehensive logistics services to customers to guarantee complete satisfaction (Ulwick 29).

Te customer expect the hotels to incorporate interesting features to the existing hotel service so as to cater to the changing demands and needs of different service packages. Besides, the targeted customers want excellent marketing, advertisement and promotional strategies that can win their confidence and loyalty to the different hotel brands within the Mallorca Hotel Industry (Ulwick 31).

The other factor is the choice of distribution channel that the company decides to use. A company should choose a channel that is most appealing and convenient to customers. The second factor that determines success is the product line breadth of the company in addressing the desires of customers. For a company to be successful, it must offer a wide variety of differentiated products that are designed to meet the needs of different customers.

The third factor is the pricing strategy that the hotels use. A hotel within the Mallorca Hotel Industry will be well positioned in a business industry when its products are relatively cheaper as compared to its competitors as perceived by the customer. The final factor that can contribute to success as perceived by the customer in the Mallorca Hotel Industry is the geographical coverage of the hotel in terms of multiple product brands with different purchase/uptake bundles (Ulwick 21).

How Mallorca Market Will Evolve by 2020 The Mallorca market will evolve by 2020 into a more complex, technological oriented and highly stratified as the demographic dynamics of customers are not static. Since the industry targets clients across the globe, the customers may not be the same if integrative marketing strategies are misapplied.

In trying to ensure that the marketing strategies for the industry are effective, there is the challenge of sustainability, especially in the dynamic Mallorca market since majority of the targeted customers in this sector can easily change their preference (Bowden 69). It may not be easy to create a sustainable marketing plan to cover the market dynamics of the 2020 if the strategic marketing approach is skewed towards a single business platform.

Besides, the needs of the customers will not remain the same since clients are often responsive to innovative ideas and would want to associate with what they perceive as ideal. The difference in the need by the year 2020 could be attributed to the dynamics that determine customer behavior as influenced by the current and future customer relationship management strategies.

It is very difficult to create a strategic and effective customer relationship management approaches to guarantee customer loyalty for a period of more than five years since the needs of customers will not be the same. Through the laggard activism strategy, some hotels might be able to guarantee customer loyalty in the long term by offering premium customer experience, low charges, and compact customer care support.

In the long term, any hotel that wants to remain competitive by the year 2020 must establish a contact management system that integrates the standard operating procedures that promote consistency in customer service. These strategies are aimed at ensuring continuous expansion and customer satisfaction through the business to customer (B2C) strategy for sustainable business (Blythe 34).

Works Cited Blythe, Jean. Essentials of Marketing Communications, New York, NY: FT/Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.

Bowden, John. “The Process of Customer Engagement: A Conceptual Framework.” Journal of Marketing Theory


Big Box Store Competition Case Study argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary



Analysis and Evaluation

Costco SWOT Analysis

Sam’s Club SWOT Analysis

BJ’s Wholesale Club


Reference List

Executive Summary North America’s wholesale club industry is characterized by three major competitors. These competitors include Sam’s Club, Costco Wholesale, and BJ’s Wholesale Club (Thompson, Strickland,


Problems of Ethnic Discrimination in US Essay college essay help

The level of ethnic discrimination influences the average socioeconomic status and upward mobility of the second generation immigrant minorities. This is the most notable distinguishing factor followed by the different rates of cultural assimilation between the immigrant minorities and the non-immigrant majorities.

Ethnic/racial discrimination This issue determines the level of socioeconomic growth and the rate of upward mobility due to the existence of racial and ethnic inequalities that deny them chances they otherwise would have.

The Asian Americans are less discriminated by the vast non-immigrant population in America, especially when it comes to structural discrimination, as compared to the Latino Americans who are structurally more discriminated by the different generations of non-immigrant minorities. Thus they are less favored then Asian Americans are.

Social economic status of the immigrant parents influences the level of bias. It means if a person from a minority group happens to have well-to-do, prosperous parents, a child tends to be less discriminated as compared to the fellow immigrants whose parents have a low socioeconomic status.

Hence this affects their relations to other people as well as their socioeconomic status since those who are less discriminated have more chances to succeed socially and economically than their discriminated counterparts do.

The racial appearance of a person from the minority group includes one’s skin color and specific racial features. Black people face more discrimination than those who have white skin do. Discrimination of the Hispanic Americans is considered to be higher as compared to that of the Asian Americans due to a more intense skin pigmentation of the first group.

Different rates of cultural assimilation This is the second most significant factor that determines the difference in the average socioeconomic status and mobility of minorities of the second generation immigrants. Assimilation refers to the process of adaption to the cultural practices and norms of the indigenous population by an immigrant group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Hispanics are less assimilated as they are bilinguals, which makes them belong to two cultures at the same time. They also tend to have a stronger ethnic identity than their Asian American counterparts do.

Hispanics identify themselves by their nationality primarily, which refers to their country of origin and implies that if a person is a Cuban American, he/she considers him/herself as a Cuban or simply as the one having a pan-ethnic Latino identity.

The strong pan-ethnic identity shows that there is an increase in the ethnic and cultural diversity in the Latino community.

The Hispanics also have a high rate of intermarriages; there are about thirty percent of marriages with people from the other non-minority and nonimmigrant communities. Thus they have a high rate of assimilation and acceptance among the indigenous communities.

Though the number of non-Hispanic white Americans will considerably reduce in the future, they will still be socially and economically powerful since they will continue to hold high positions in the American society.

Cultural assimilation is vital since the rate of upward mobility is directly proportional to the rate of cultural assimilation. The intermarriages lead to a higher rate of acceptance of the second generation.

This creates a new race of biracial people, which leads to the elimination of ethnic and racial prejudices. Such a situation will lead to reduced racial discriminations, prejudices and inequalities, hence creating a free and fair second generation with a high rate of upward mobility.

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Major Trade Routes of the Post-Classical World Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The emergence of trade routes marked a major development in the history of humankind. Observably, the rise and fall of most classical empires played a crucial role in these historical developments. Indicatively, the sociopolitical and economic elements provided the greatest center stage for these historical advancements. In addition, the economic and religious factors also had remarkable levels of manipulation.

These were observable within different geographical destinations within the globe. Evidently, the major trade routes of the post-classical world helped in the emergence and establishment of an empire. A classical example is the initiation of the famous Roman Empire. Notably, all empires sprouted within or along major trade routes.

The availability of currency influenced the capacity to initiate taxation policy. Taxation and levies formed the fundamental backbone for most ancient empires (Rodriguez 1). For instance, Ceaser levied taxes on the traders within the territories of the kingdom. Religious concerns contributed immensely to the establishment of trade routes and empires. The failure of Han Empire in China led to many changes.

For example, Buddhism emerged in China because the Confucian administration lacked effective decentralization. When the Roman Empire collapsed, other small and fragmented regional authorities rose. It is imperative that these kingdoms were created along the major trade routes.

Political influences had significant impacts on these developments. These patterns of events were notable in India after the collapse of the famous Gupta Empire.

It is evident that the practice of Hinduism led to the establishment of trade lines within the region. Consequently, other small kingdoms emerged along these important trade lines. The period also marks the rise of the powerful Indian Ocean trade route. There was an obvious transfer and shift in the focal of power from the western Rome and China.

To some extent, historians argue that these developments could have also occurred due to favorable foreign policies. The major occurrences after 600 were purely influenced by religious groups and trade routes (Rodriguez 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is important to note that the religious formations catapulted the foundation of various dynasties and empires. These occurrences and formations can be traced in major parts of Africa, the western nations and the great Southwest Asia.

The influence of geopolitics and social orientations in these processes cannot be underestimated. A classic example is the Umayyad Caliphate of the 6661 C.E. This clan managed to initiate their own hereditary system of monarchy in Damascus. During the process of initiation, they conquered major destinations. The major trade routes acted as the basic guide towards these conquered geographic locations.

Some of the places that were conquered include the Syria, Persia, Egypt and North Africa. These operations were only possible due to a large base for taxation supported by the identified trade routes. All social practices and cultures were accepted within this dynasty so long as the subjects remained loyal to the taxation policies.

Trade routes were also instrumental in the rise of empires in western Africa. The Sahara trade route had its start point in Sub-Sahara Africa. It extended through the Sahara desert towards Europe. It is linked to the rise of empires in Mali and Mali. Many scholars note that trade was the way of life for the West African people, and it ensured growth of empires in the region.

Merchants who participated in the trade carried foodstuffs form Ghana Kingdom and exchanged them for products produced locally in Mali and Algiers. The commonly traded products included gold, cotton clothes, metal ornaments and salt.

Ghana Empire was endowed with a large quantity of gold while kingdoms located in the northern parts of Africa had plenty of salt. The exchange of gold and salt fueled the trade and ensured the success of some of the empires that participated in the trade.

The start point of the trade route was Sidjilmassa in Northern Africa (Rodriguez 1). The route passed through Taghaza village that was endowed with plenty of common salt. Finally, it ended in a Gold rich region called Wangara in the Ghana Empire. All these villages and towns flourished because of to the trade. The administration systems used in the towns along the trade route also ensured growth of the empires.

We will write a custom Essay on Major Trade Routes of the Post-Classical World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The leaders maintained control over valuable commodities, especially gold. This was done to ensure that the prices were maintained at high levels. Possession of gold nuggets was prohibited. Only the leader had gold pieces while the rest of the population held gold dust. Taxation in the kingdoms was also high. The administration levied taxes on all merchants who used the trade routes.

This also ensured the success of the empires along the trade route. Thus, it can be concluded that trade routes promoted the success of empires in Western Africa. However, the empires existed before the trade routes were formed.

From all the examples provided, it is evident that the empires existed before the trade routes were formed. The trade routes simply promoted the growth of the empires. Hence, this paper concludes that the trade routes resulted from the existence of empires.

Works Cited Rodriguez, Joel 2012, Questions of Periodization. Web.


Skopos Theory: Person’s Development as a Translator Report (Assessment) best essay help

Introduction The contemporary globalized world is associated with the need in development of various communicative approaches. The translator is playing an important role as a mediator between people pertaining to different cultural backgrounds (Cui, 2009: 8). The Skopos theory was developed in the 1970s to address the new trends that started appearing in the information era (Parker et al., 2008: 36).

I believe the theory provides a variety of valuable tools for translators to deal with numerous texts. The theory is applicable in the majority of spheres, but in some cases translators cannot rely on the tools offered.

Nonetheless, as far as I am concerned, a successful translator should be aware of the major peculiarities of the theory as this will help him/her self-develop and encounter a variety of interesting approaches to fulfil different tasks.

Major Peculiarities of the Theory The central point in the theory is that the target text is dominant as the original text is less important since it is based on different cultural peculiarities. For instance, when it comes to advertisement, the target text should appeal to the target audience and the exact translation is quite irrelevant as it tends to miss specific characteristics of a target audience pertaining to a different cultural background (Malmkjær, 2005: 35).

When translating an advertisement, translators should render ideas but speak the language the target audience will easily perceive. Importantly, proponents of the theory stress that it is not enough for a translator to be bilingual as the translator should be bicultural (Snell-Hornby, 2006: 52). Functionality of the translation is brought to the fore by the proponents of the theory.

Importance of the Theory for a Translator Where the Theory Is Applicable

I believe the major concept of the Skopos Theory is very important for a translator as it helps to achieve the major goal of translation, i.e. to make an original text understandable for a target group. As has been mentioned above, this approach is especially important in advertising as the major objective of an original text to tell about the product and sell it, i.e. make it attractive to potential customers (Garces, 2008: 124).

Thus, it is the translator who understands cultural peculiarities of the target audience and ‘sells’ the product to specific people. The theory is not only important for advertising, but it is also applicable in business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Translators become mediators when it comes to signing contracts and arranging deals (Gile, 2009: 250). Admittedly, translators have to take into account specific cultural background of the partners to make them speak the same language.

Where the Theory Should Be Used Carefully

However, translators should also understand that there are areas where the theory should not be employed to certain extent. For instance, legal communication needs precision in ideas and terms (Kocbek, 2008: 54). Sometimes complete adherence to concepts of the theory can be harmful as trying to make the terms clearer can lead to distortion of data (Cao, 2007: 35).

I go along with this view and think that translators should pay specific attention to legal terms. However, it does not mean the theory is absolutely inapplicable in legal communication as translators can make the target text clearer for recipients (Kocbek, 2006: 233). Of course, this will require a lot of effort and skills on the part of the translator.

Some may think that these difficulties cause troubles for translators, whereas I see lots of opportunities for self-development. In the sphere of legal communication importance of the major concepts of Skopos theory become evident.

The theory helps translators develop as adherence to major concepts of the theory will require a variety of skills. Translators need to know peculiarities of cultural backgrounds as well as legal systems of the original texts and target texts.

Where the Theory Should not Be Used

Nonetheless, there is a sphere where the theory should not be used or rather can be used only to a certain extent (Munday, 2008: 81). Literary works should not be perceived as a source of information to be understandable for the target audience.

The translator should understand that the literary work has a specific literary value which cannot be distorted by changing devices to fit the cultural background of the target text (Leon, 2008: 19). It is necessary to remember that any literary text is a certain introduction to the culture (Mason, 2001: 67).

We will write a custom Assessment on Skopos Theory: Person’s Development as a Translator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, reading a piece of fiction writing, the reader learns more about culture and the very way other people perceive the world. Every literary device serves for a fact about the other world. I believe it is crucial to make readers feel the difference in other people’s perception. Therefore, the translator should be much closer to the original when working with a literary work.

Why the Theory Can Be an Interesting Way to Self Develop Obviously, adherence to the concepts of Skopos theory makes it a bit harder to translate texts as translators have to take into account a variety of issues. Nonetheless, this also makes the translator’s work more interesting. Translators learn a lot of interesting facts about other cultures. I also think that it is interesting to try to find ties between two different cultures.

It is exciting to make a text perceivable for people brought up in a different cultural reality. Major concepts of the theory require attention to a broader scope of details and cultural interactions. As far as I am concerned, it is much more interesting to understand all tinges of meaning available in the text.

I believe that it is really interesting to see the whole cultural strata behind a phrase or even a single word. Therefore, it is clear that following major postulates of the theory is not only important for a translator’s development but it is interesting as well.

Conclusion It is necessary to note that the central concept of Skopos theory, i.e. to provide a target text which is understandable for the target audience rather than close to the original, can be regarded as one of the most important approaches for a translator. The theory provides tools which help translators self-develop. Adherence to the concepts of the theory is associated with learning more about different cultures.

Translators acquire a lot of skills and learn a variety of facts, which helps them develop. It is also important to note that concepts of Skopos theory make translator’s work really interesting as he/she does not only translate specific words, but translator searches for ties between two cultures. Therefore, Skopos theory can be regarded as an interesting way for a translator to self-develop.

List Of References Cao, D. (2007) Translating Law – Nop/077, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Cui, Y. (2009) ‘The Goal of Advertisement Translation: With Reference to C-E/E-C Advertisements’, Journal of Language


McDonald’s Restaurant Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Background of McDonald’s

Product Positioning

Key Issues

Analysis of the Issues

Hypothetical Strategies

Implementation Procedures

Expected Results


Works Cited

Fast food businesses managed to survive the global financial crisis that the entire world faced since 2007. However, the fast food businesses too began to suffer the consequences of the crisis. In 2009, some fast food chains closed some of their branches as they posted low sales levels. McDonald’s, Yum Brands, KFC and Pizza Hut all posted decline in sales in 2009. The crisis intensified competition in the fast food industry.

Participants in the industry tried to beat competitors through the introduction of new products and prices. McDonald’s is one of the companies that participate in the fast food industry. It faced stiff competition from numerous competitors worldwide. Some of the key competitors include Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), Pizza Hut and Yum Brands.

McDonald’s can use product positioning to ensure that it leads in the fast food industry. It can use this strategy to enhance its brand and lead other companies in the industry. This strategy requires that it pays close attention to the needs of the customers (The Times 100 1).

This is essential because there is international promotion and export, psychological and sociological issues that can affect the position of a product in a market. This paper examines product-positioning strategies that McDonald’s can use to promote itself and stay ahead of its competitors in the international market.

It mainly focuses on India and Africa as segments of the international markets. Additionally, it considers the international markets as areas outside the United States.

Background of McDonald’s McDonald’s is a well-known brand internationally. It is a company that has international operations. Two brothers, Dick and Mac, established the company in 1937. In 1948, the company began to sell fries, hamburgers, soft drinks and shakes. In 1953, the company began to franchise the business.

The first franchises were in California and Arizona. The brothers adopted a system of operations that was efficient and ensured fast movement of customers. Currently, the company operates approximately 31000 restaurants internationally. Moreover, the company has employed about 1.5 million individuals in its restaurants. The company has operations in more than 120 countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The advantage that the company has had is that it uses a system that ensures efficiency in operations. The company uses intense media hype to support the efficient process that it adopted. The media hype has been a campaign strategy that the company adopted.

Product Positioning Product positioning involves stimulation of a company’s brand and its services. The brand image of a company shows how clients perceive an organization. Companies promote their brands to develop personalities of their organizations.

Product positioning and branding are effective only if a company maintains consistency (The Times 100 1). Consistency is important in promotion strategies that a company adopts. Images and colours that a company uses in promotions like adverts provide a brand with distinguishable features. McDonald’s uses the Golden Arches logo to position its products in the fast food industry.

McDonald’s faces stiff competition in all the markets in which it has operations. In addition, it faces other challenges in its international operations. Economic statuses of some of the countries in which it operates pose promotion challenges. Technological and legal challenges also affect the operations and competitiveness of McDonald’s. Success of McDonald’s in some countries is also affected by social factors.

These challenges necessitate the need for identification of market needs. McDonald’s must identify the needs of customers to develop effective promotion strategies. After identification of the needs of customers is when it can position its products appropriately within each market (Mueller 29).

Through identification of the needs of the customers, McDonald’s has a better chance to satisfy the market compared to its competitors. The company has to identify its customers before it positions its products in the market. It must identify possible clients in all the markets in which it has business operations. To achieve this, McDonald’s must perform market research.

After McDonald’s has identified its target population, it has to develop a promotion mix that appeals to the recognized group. It has to develop a promotion strategy that incorporates price, product and place characteristics. The company has to ensure that its products are well received in the market, and the clients are able to afford the set prices (The Times 100 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on McDonald’s Restaurant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the company has to identify the television programmes that the targeted population like to watch. Identification of these programmes also assists the company to position its products appropriately. The identification of a promotion strategy and mix helps McDonald’s to improve sales and increase consumer loyalty.

Market research also assists McDonald’s to identify factors that influence the behaviours of its customers. There exist factors that influence the purchase decisions that people make. Thus, McDonald’s has to know that these factors complement the features of the products that it offers to the customers. These factors can be psychological, sociological or economical.

All these factors are vital in product positioning. Moreover, these factors can be crucial to the customers than the products sold. Through identification of these factors, McDonald’s can shape the minds of the customers. Hence, it can determine how to position its products appropriately within a market.

Key Issues McDonald’s faces a number of challenges in its attempts to position its products within the international markets. The challenges can be in terms of prices, perception and competition among others. The issues can be classified into three broad categories. These categories are international promotion and export management, psychological and sociological.

International promotion and export management relate to price strategy and methods of operations that a company uses in its overseas operations. McDonald’s faces challenge in the establishment of the appropriate price for its products in some of the markets in which it has operations. Poverty and low amount of disposable income are key issues that the organization has to tackle.

The products that the company offers are perceived as expensive in some countries. In Africa and India, for example, many people cannot afford the prices. Additionally, the company has to target cities only with the products that it offers. People in semi urban regions are unable to afford the products sold by the company. They have low levels of disposable incomes and most of them practice agriculture.

The layout of McDonald’s is also a source of challenge in some of the international markets. Some societies are used to the hotel environment and not the fast process system associated with McDonald’s operations. This challenge emanates from the consumption patterns of such societies. They are used to consumption of breakfast, lunch and supper. Normally, lunch and supper involves consumption of a balanced diet meal.

The composition of breakfast depends on the culture of a household. However, the layout of McDonald’s restaurants promotes the consumption of burgers and other fast foods. However, Burgers are not considered as healthy foods for consumption, especially at lunchtime in these societies (Misra and Yadav 27).

Not sure if you can write a paper on McDonald’s Restaurant by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Psychological challenges faced by the company in international markets relate mainly to religion, personality and lifestyle. McDonald’s sells hamburgers that contain beef or pork. However, extremely few people in some countries in which it operates consume beef and pork. In India and some Arab countries, cows are considered sacred (Tiffany 1).

Hence, it is a challenge for the company to enter these markets and increase overall sales revenues. Many people in such countries are vegetarians. They cannot consume the burgers that the company sells.

The company has to find ways through which it can capture these markets. These markets have high populations and can assist the company to increase revenues. India, for example, has a population of over one billion people (Misra and Yadav 28).

The perception and lifestyles of many people in international markets is also an issue that brings challenges to McDonald’s promotion strategies. Perception and lifestyle patterns are sociological issues. However, they affect the strategies that the company can use to position its products within some of the international markets.

Consumption patterns, for example, affect the strategies that the company can use to promote its products. People in some societies prefer to eat together at lunchtime. However, the pattern that McDonald’s has adopted encourages people to eat away from home. This is not common in some societies especially in Africa and India.

Analysis of the Issues Based on the challenges described above, McDonald’s must identify suitable solutions. It must identify the challenge that it faces in each market and formulate a strategy that will position its products appropriately. One psychological factor that McDonald’s can identify is vegetarianism. Vegetarianism is widespread in some of the countries in which it has operations.

Some of these countries have high populations and promise high sales returns. The company must identify a strategy through which it can position its products in these markets and increase its sales revenues. This can assist it to stay ahead of its competitors like KFC and Pizza Hut. For example, in India, consumption of beef is prohibited. However, India has a large population and can assist McDonald’s to increase its sales revenues.

Muslims and Indians do not consume beef or pork. Furthermore, they consider cows sacred. However, McDonald’s was interested in the high population of the country. Hence, it developed a product that was able to position itself appropriately within the Indian market. KFC and Pizza Hut do not have a product that can position itself in the Indian market like the Aloo-Tikki burger developed by McDonald’s (Amoako-Agyei 1).

The Hamburgers that McDonald’s normally produce are made of beef. However, since many people in India are vegetarians, the company developed Aloo-Tikki. It is made of potatoes and spices and with no beef. The company also made hamburgers made of chicken and fish fillets. Moreover, the company separated the preparation processes of the hamburgers.

This was done to promote the “vegetarian experience” idea that the company developed for the market. Thus, the company managed to position its products after it identified the needs of the market. It understood the psychological factors associated with beef consumption in the Indian market (Tiffany 1).

One sociological factor that influences product positioning is consumption habits. In many countries, people like to eat out only on extraordinary circumstances. In Africa, for example, people meet and eat at home to share their experiences during the day. However, due to globalization, growth of cities and increase in full time employment opportunities, the trends have changed.

The growth of cities has promoted the need for fast food restaurants. However, consumption behaviour in Africa is different from that of western societies. Hence, McDonald’s had to develop new products and services for the African market. The strategy positioned its products before those of its competitors. Many African countries are used to the restaurant environment and not the streamlined structure of fast food businesses.

Additionally, consumption pattern in many African countries involve breakfast, lunch and supper. Lunch and supper involve consumption of meals that provide appropriate nutritional balance. Breakfast is normally based on a household’s culture. McDonald’s had to develop a strategy that considered these factors. The strategy has helped the company to position its products appropriately within the African market (Amoako-Agyei 1).

Product positioning is also influenced by international promotion and export management factors. Valuation of food in monetary terms is a sensitive matter in some of the countries in which McDonald’s operates. McDonald’s had to adopt a strategy that focused on the ability of customers to pay. Normally, the strategy of McDonald’s is to enhance sales volume.

It normally provides its products and services at prices that are considered affordable. However, many people perceive the prices that it offers as high. Therefore, it has targeted certain sections of the populations with its products in international markets. For example, in India and Africa, it targets the wealthy and the upper middle class people with its products.

These people have the ability to pay for products offered by the company (Amoako-Agyei 1). Moreover, it targets people who have been exposed to western culture. It also operates in principal cities only in India and Africa. People in semi urban areas are not able to afford the set prices.

This strategy has helped the company to position its products appropriately within international markets. The strategy has ensured that the company operates in urban areas where there is continuous growth in disposable incomes. This has enabled the company to maintain leadership in the fast food industry.

Hypothetical Strategies There exist hypothetical strategies that the company can use to tackle the challenges identified. The company can determine an appropriate promotion strategy that can assist it to position its products in the international markets. It must identify the objectives of a promotion strategy that it can use. Objectives express the goals that a company hopes to achieve through a promotion strategy.

Objectives also direct the promotion plans adopted by a company and are vital in the assessment of the strategy used. Objectives can focus on acquisition of market share or improvement of sales volume and so on. The company has to identify its long term and short-term objectives to position its products. Notably, the long-term objectives can be divided into short-term objectives.

Hence, in India, the long-term objective can be to increase sales while the short-term objective can be to introduce the products in the market. On the other hand, the short-term objective in Africa can be to change consumption patterns while the long-term objectives can be to increase sales (Mueller 29).

The second step is to define the methods that can be used to achieve the objectives formulated. In this hypothetical strategy, a promotion mix can be used. McDonald’s has to offer products that clients want. The company has to ensure that there are numerous choices for its potential clients. It must also be ready to change products regularly to ensure that clients are satisfied.

Hence, in a market like India where people do not eat beef, the company can develop numerous alternatives to products that already exist. However, it has to ensure that it does not interfere with the sales growth of a product that customers already know.

Thus, it is essential for the company to monitor the life cycle of a product that it has developed for each market. Additionally, the company has to use adverts to position its new products within the international markets.

The promotion mix that the company can use also has to consider prices of products sold. The company has to consider the psychological aspects associated with prices of products. It must consider the perception of customers about the prices that it charges for products sold in the restaurants.

Hence, the company should charge relatively uniform prices in all markets even though some customers may feel that they are high. Low prices may make certain sections of the markets feel that the quality of the products is low. Thus, the company must protect the image and integrity of McDonald’s brand in its price strategy.

Low prices may also make competitors like KFC match with the costs of McDonald’s. This may not result into an increase in demand for products offered by the company. Hence, price reduction is not an effective strategy that McDonald’s can use to improve the position of its products within different markets.

Promotion mix that the company can use should include all communication methods. Adverts are the most effective method that the company can use to tackle sociological and psychological issues that affect a product’s position. The company can use radio and television adverts to promote the products that it sells. The company can then use adverts and other promotion methods like displays at the point of trade and fidelity schemes.

McDonald’s can develop a communication strategy that involves different promotion methods. This can assist the company to tackle the challenges posed by sociological and psychological factors associated with different markets. For example, television adverts can inform Indian clients that the hamburgers sold at McDonald’s do not contain beef.

On the other hand, newspaper adverts can provide the same Indian customers with more details about the hamburgers. Additionally, it is essential that the messages provided by the different promotion methods complement each other. Any contradictions may confuse the customer and affect the position of products sold by the company.

The promotions that the company adopts must also catch the attention of the customers. The adverts must ensure that psychological, sociological and other issues are tacked. The adverts must inform potential clients the benefits that the company provides.

For example, it can inform customers that the fast process system saves their time. It saves their time so they can be punctual at their work places. This can make customers who prefer to go home at lunchtimes reconsider their actions.

Finally, the company has to use layouts that are efficient and that make customers comfortable. The place of operation is vital in the promotion of a product. The place of operation has to consider many features other than the layout and points of distribution. McDonald’s must consider social aspects that are essential to some communities. For example, some communities like to eat together.

On the other hand, McDonald’s like a system that is fast and efficient. Hence, in such communities, the company can adopt a layout that considers the sociological needs of clients and at the same time ensures speed and efficiency in service delivery. The area of operation also has to consider the ease in management of all the activities that take place within the restaurants.

Implementation Procedures The first step is to conduct a market research. This can assist the company to identify the potential customers, their ability to pay and their characteristics. Additionally, the company can determine psychological, economic and sociological aspects of the markets that can affect the position of the products that it offers. Secondly, the company can determine the best market entry method.

The company can identify the best method based on the features and beliefs of the potential customers. It can develop and promote products that meet the needs and features of the customers. The company can then develop promotion methods that explain to the customers why the products suit them (Doole and Lowe 8).

In this way, the company will tackle issues that it identified through market research. The promotion strategies used must also ensure that the international brand of the company is not compromised by the modifications made on the products offered to the customers of a region.

Expected Results The implementation of the hypothetical strategies described should assist the company increase the volume of sales. The strategies can assist the company to shape the minds of clients and at the same time meet their needs. The strategies can enable the company to maintain international standards in promotion and export and tackle sociological and psychological issues associated with different international markets.

The strategies can also enable the company to develop new versions of products that it normally sells (Doole and Lowe 8). The new versions can suit the needs of different segments of the international markets.

Finally, the strategies can assist the company to maintain leadership in the fast food sector. This can be achieved since the strategies can assist the company position all its products appropriately within the different markets in which it has business operations.

Conclusions The goal of this paper was to determine ways through which McDonald’s could position its products within international markets. It examined ways through which the company could do so by identification of effective strategies. It considered international promotion and export, psychological and sociological issues that can affect the position of products offered by the company.

It then provided different examples in Africa and India and provided strategies that could be applied to solve the problems posed. Additionally, this paper provided hypothesized strategies that can be used to improve the position of products offered by McDonald’s.

It discussed promotion strategies that the company can employ to tackle the challenges posed by the different markets. It also discussed the advantages that can be realized through implementation of the strategies. Finally, it provided a brief procedure that can be used to implement the hypothesized strategies and the expected outcomes of the plans.

Works Cited Amoako-Agyei, Erika, Egypt’s McArabia: How McDonald’s and other global firms integrate into African markets. 2011. Web.

Doole, Isobel, and Lowe, R. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, London: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Misra, Sanjay, and Yadav, P. International Business: Text and Cases, New Delhi: PHI learning, 2009. Print.

Mueller, Barbara. Dynamics of International Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives, New York: Peter Lang, 2011. Print.

The Times 100, The marketing process: A McDonald’s Restaurants case study. 2012. Web.

Tiffany, Hsu, Vegetarian McDonald’s: Its first non-meat restaurant to open in India. 2012. Web.


Education and society Opinion Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Education plays a very important role in the development of a society right from the individual level all the way to the national level. Education helps develop a person’s critical thinking, expand their mental horizons and increase their capacity to innovate and think creatively.

Education helps develop a person’s ambition, and in the process follow their dreams and helps chart a person’s destiny towards self-actualization. This article aims to show the importance of school in development of an individual and society as a whole.

In life, change is inevitable but the crucial thing is to be able to adapt to changes that occur in our day-to-day environment. Change develops us as it challenges the status quo, hones our survival skills and keeps us in tune with the environment around us.

A degree in human resource management is important as it helps one understand people, and how to deal with them effectively, harnessing their talents and skills towards achieving organizational goals.

This has a ripple effect on the entire economy as a booming national economy is highly dependent on thriving business enterprises. Human resource management therefore, helps develop a person’s ambition, and enables them to achieve their dreams and live a more fulfilled life.

Developing HR in an organization has a roller effect of developing the society. Using Maslow theory, human beings will always strive to achieve more, which in turn leads to higher productivity.

An educated population will function better in high tech industries like IT and telecommunications, which are more efficient and have higher returns than low tech industries like agriculture. An educated population is also more innovative, leading to production of unique products and services that boosts the economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Homeland security plays an important role in protecting the lives of a country’s nationals and keeping the domestic environment peaceful. Without such peace, development and growth would be nonexistent or minimal. Homeland security therefore ensures that people are able to go about their day-to-day economic activities, thus ensuring a thriving economy.

It is for this reason that I would like to join Homeland Security after leaving the military. For me to get a well-paying position, I need to further my education. Over and above that, I now have the resources to pursue my education.

These resources are both in terms of finances and time, which will enable me, concentrate better on my studies. I also believe my experience in the military will be of great additional value as I have had ample knowledge in dealing with security related issues.

In conclusion, education is important to both the individual and the society as a whole. Education helps develop a person’s skills, which in turn are applied in the job market making the economy prosper more than, if the society was less educated. This paper has discussed the importance of education in the life of an individual, as well as the economy.


Miles Davis contribution to African American music Essay online essay help

The history of African American music is long and rich in content. This is why the question about who qualifies as the greatest African American musician of all time always elicits big debates. When it comes to the greatest African American musician of all time, more than a dozen names come up. There are those who came earlier like Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, and Charlie Parker.

Then there are later participants like Al Green, Jimi Hendrix, and Marvin Gaye. Both lists feature personalities of great talent. Most of these musicians qualify for the title of the greatest musician.

However, when it comes to modern music, I believe Jazz musician Miles Davis deserves this title. Miles, a Jazz trumpeter has his origins in Missouri. This paper will trace Miles’ roots, his career, his contribution to African American music, and his influences.

Unlike most African Americans of his time, Miles was brought up in a wealthy household. He was born in 1926 in Alton Illinois. His father Henry Davis was a successful dentist. His family owned a big town house as well as a 100-acre ranch. In his younger days, Miles frequented the ranch where he loved to ride horses. When he was young, Davis’ mother wanted her son to learn how to play the piano.

However, when he was about thirteen years old, his father gave him a trumpet. After noting the young boy’s interest in the instrument, Miles’ father decided to hire a tutor for his son. Therefore, St. Louis’ musician Elwood Buchanan became Mile’s first trumpet teacher. Buchanan was the one who taught Miles how to play the trumpet without vibrato. Miles used this style throughout his career.

Miles Davis was once quoted commenting on the role music played in his life. He said that music was “like a curse” to him because it dominated his every thought. However, as a young boy Miles dreamt of being a baseball player. This all changed when his father gave him his first trumpet.

At Lincoln high school, Miles’ talent was well known. It is said that his first encounters with jazz were on St. Louis-Mississippi’s riverboats where artists were paid to entertain commuters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Miles showed great talent when it came to playing the Trumpet. By the time he was seventeen years old, Miles had already managed to penetrate the music society. When in high school, Miles used to follow the performances of Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Finally, the two musicians asked Miles to replace a sick trumpeter in their band. This incident marked Miles’ first appearance with a popular band.

After a few gigs with Charlie Parker’s band, Miles moved to New York to study music. This was right after he had graduated from high school and Miles thought that a chance to study classical music at the prestigious Juilliard Music School would help launch his career. After arriving in New York, Miles sought to continue his music relationship with Tony Parker.

After he succeeded in doing so, Miles would be a student in the daytime and a professional musician at night. It was during these night jam sessions at Harlem nightclubs that he got the chance to interact with several musicians. Later in his career, he ended up collaborating with most of these musicians.

Mile Davis is considered a pioneer of bebop style of jazz. However, this style was invented by Charlie Parker one of Miles’ earliest jazz influences (Gridley and Cutler 34). This style would later be one of the main influences of modern jazz.

When studying music at Juilliard, Miles had a hard time adjusting to the school’s mostly European Classical music curriculum. It is possibly the reason why Miles opted to drop out of the school with his father’s blessings. However, in his biography Miles admitted to benefitting greatly from the training he got during his stint at the music school. After dropping out of music school, Miles became a full time Jazz musician.

The first band he worked with was Charlie Parker’s Quintet. Miles continued to work closely with Parker between 1945 and 1948. During the many times Davis recorded with Parker, it was becoming clear that he was already breaking out with a unique style. This style featured a deviation of Parker’s bebop style and it was later to be known as Cool Jazz (Meadows 98).

When with Parker’s quintet band, Miles Davis had the chance of touring expansively across the United States. It was during one of such tours in Los Angeles that Parker suffered a mental breakdown and had to be hospitalized for a few weeks. Following Parker’s absence, Davis found himself without a permanent band. It was during this period that Miles experimented and finally found his unique playing style.

We will write a custom Essay on Miles Davis contribution to African American music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During this period, Davis teamed up with other jazz artists like Charles Mingus and Billy Eckstine (Stewart 197). After Parker came out of the hospital, his relationship with Miles began becoming more strained. Finally, the two parted ways in 1948.

In 1949, Miles formed a band that featured his original ideas. The band incorporated extraordinary instruments such as the tuba. Using this band, Miles was able to make the first significant contribution to jazz music through his album “The Birth of Cool” (Meadows 45). His collaboration with composer and arranger Bill Evans was a significant development in the realization of this project.

His band at the time consisted of musician Roach, piano player John Lewis, and Saxophone player Gerry Mulligan. Initially, there was controversy over the inclusion of white members in Miles’ band. Soon after, Miles moved on to another band that he co-lead with piano player Tad Dameron. However, Davis’ career hit a roadblock when a heroin addiction proved too hard to manage.

By 1950, Miles’ recordings had become more haphazard mostly because of his drug problem. However, in 1951 he signed a deal to record for Prestige Records. His work for this label continued for the next few years. Somewhere in the mid 1950s, Davis was able to overcome his addiction and focus solely on his music.

The strongest indication that he had completely recovered was during his performance of “Round Midnight” during the Newport Jazz festival in 1955. This particular performance caught the eye of executives at Columbia Records a major recording label at the time. He then signed a very prestigious deal with the company.

His financial security made it possible for him to form a permanent band. In 1955, his Quintet began work on the band’s debut album at Columbia. The album was titled “Round about Midnight”. This band included drummer Philly Joe, base guitarist Paul Chambers, Saxophonist John Coltrane, and Red Garland as the pianist. His previous contract with Prestige Records was however not over and he still had some work left.

This meant he had to work with two recording outfits at the time. However, his new permanent band enabled him to finish his previous commitment with Prestige Records. This band also became one of Miles most recorded outfits. Later on, Miles again teamed up with Bill Evans to work on his second project for the new label. The album was called “Miles Ahead” and it included the flugelhorn as the lead instrument.

This album was later inducted into the Grammy hall of fame. After the release of this album in 1958, Miles Davis went to Paris where he met Cannonball Adderley an adept saxophone player. He then made the saxophonist an addition to his band making it a sextet. This new band’s first project was the album “Milestones”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Miles Davis contribution to African American music by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In July 1958, Miles collaborated with composer Bill Evans and an orchestra to record a compilation that was known as “Porgy and Bess”. By that time Miles had began experimenting with his sextet. He was trying to make his inventions based on music-scales as opposed to chord-changes. His next album “Kind of Blue” featured some of these experimentations and it went on to become one of the most influential jazz albums to date. The album is practically his most popular recording and it managed to sell over two million copies.

This is quite a milestone especially for a jazz album. From that time onwards, Miles formed a pattern of alternating his releases between collaborations with Evans and work with his sextet. One of his collaborations with Evans was “Sketches of Pain” an album that featured traditional Spanish music.

The album was quite successful. His subsequent works mostly featured Coltrane, the sixth member of his band, as a guest. His quintet was also involved in the recording of two LP sets in 1961.

In 1963, Miles recorded the album “Seven Steps to Heaven” using a completely new outfit. He featured future jazz heavy weights like Tony Williams and Ron Carter. The album performed well in both the charts and the awards circuit managing to earn a double nomination at the Grammys.

Using a saxophonist from his 1958 band and other players from his 1963 band, Miles was able to record back-to-back successful albums. These albums featured original compositions and they include “Miles in the Sky”, “Files de Kilimanjaro”, “Sorcerer”, and “Nefertiti”

In the following years, Miles kept alternating between old and new band members. With his new album of 1969 “In a Silent Way”, Miles was able to come up with an original Jazz-rock fusion. “Bitches Brew” was the most successful album that featured this new genre. In 1971, he was able to record five albums using this popular genre.

In the following year, Miles was involved in a car accident that rendered him inactive for the next five years. During this period, he fell back into alcohol and cocaine addiction. In 1980, he made a recovery from his drug addiction and made a successful comeback with “The Man with the Horn”.

Thereafter, he went on a successful tour. However, by this time he was already an honorary jazz-musician godfather. The next years marked an extensive touring period for Miles. He however continued to record music. His last recording was a collaboration with the famous musician Quincy Jones.

Miles Davis suffered from respiratory complications that took his life in1991. Some of his music was released posthumously. He also managed to win a Grammy award in 1993.

During his later years, Miles refused to perform his earlier recordings. When asked why he did not want to play them, he simply said that their influence was over (Iyer 56). Nevertheless, there were those who felt that his earlier work was more solid content-wise.

Miles is undoubtedly one of the greatest musicians in the history of African American Music. His innovative approach to music has come to dominate modern music. The Rolling Stone magazine noted that Miles was influential in every change assumed by Jazz music from the late 1940s. His role in this change has always been controversial.

There is no other musician in the history of Jazz music that came close to Miles in terms of influence. His “Kind of Blue” album is still the best selling jazz album to date (O’Meally 135). The album was also recognized by the United States House of Representatives. Miles has influenced tens of jazz musicians. Many other musicians also rose to prominence after being members of Miles’ ensembles.

One of the things that made Miles such a great performer was his incorporation of traditional African American Music into his work. For instance, his love for Blues was particularly great. Miles also managed to preserve some of the greatest elements of African American music in his recordings over the four decades he was active.

Works Cited Gridley, Mark and David Cutler. Jazz Styles, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978. Print.

Iyer, Vijay. “Microtiming in African-American Music.” Music Perception 19.3 (2002): 387- 414. Print.

Meadows, Eddie. Bebop to Cool: Context, Ideology, and Musical Identity, New York: Praeger Publishers, 2003. Print.

O’Meally, Robert. The Jazz Cadence of American Culture, New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Print.

Stewart, Earl. African American Music: An Introduction, New York: Schirmer Books, 1998. Print.


Advantages a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Numerous advantages accrue to teachers who utilize technology not only in their teaching but also as a tool to interact with students across space and time. One of the significant advantages of using technology is that it enables teachers to design and implement interactive course materials that could be used to enhance learning experiences that are more pleasurable and meaningful to students.

There are millions of readily available applications and downloadable programs that teachers could use to design self-assessment tests to be administered to students via online protocols, not mentioning that science teachers often benefit immensely from the use of these free programs to design animations and simulations that could be used to elaborate complex scientific content to students.

From own experience, it can be stated that using simulations designed to teach students about the blood circulation system not only expose learners to a more pleasurable and exciting learning experience, but also ensure that learning outcomes are grasped and internalized with relative ease.

The second advantage of using technology, especially the World Wide Web, is that it has the capacity to bring isolated learners together in “virtual” groups without the limitations of space or time. Unlike in a traditional classroom context, teachers using the Web for teaching purposes enjoy the opportunity to teach and interact with disparate groups of learners located in diverse locations around the world.

Recent discoveries in Web-based technologies ensure that teachers are now able to interact with their students in real-time and to share resources across the network. In my teaching experience, I have made use of virtual classrooms to reach out to numerous students without necessarily making physical contact, not mentioning that I have also made use of the Web to get learning materials from my course instructors.

The third advantage is rested on the premise that it is indeed possible to not only protect intellectual property through the application of passwords and access codes but also to support confidential exchange of learning materials and information between registered users (Cantillon et al. 2003).

This implies that online technologies avail a safe and secure framework where learning, communication, and exchange of information can take place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Using technology in education has obvious disadvantages. First, it is a well-known fact that teachers who use online assessments have no capacity to control the students’ unauthorized use of online resources and content to complete their assignments. Many teachers often face this hurdle and are unable to provide competitive assessments that could then be used to grade students on their performance.

However, in my view, performance in teaching should not be emphasized at the expense of task comprehension, implying that these assignments should be given in a manner that the teacher is able to evaluate the task comprehension of each student despite their use of online content to complete the tasks.

The second disadvantage arises from the fact that technology, if not well designed and adopted, will definitely provide students with the opportunity to collaborate with each other in taking their tests, therefore adversely affecting the core principles and justifications of good educational practice.

However, from own experience, it is indeed clear that teachers can now use the latest applications and plagiarism software not only to set availability dates and times for all assessments but also discourage students who would want to copy other people’s work and pass it as their own.


People Management in Siemens Evaluation Essay custom essay help

Siemens approach to people management is very effective and facilitates achievement of great results. The approach to people management is one of a kind and its components, which include encouragement of talent optimization, teamwork, and performance management, substantiate its importance.

Rainey explains that with a good people management approach also known as ‘People Excellence Program ’, Siemens Company is in a good position to achieve its goals and outsmart its competitors (235).

Consequently, the plans that Siemens has put in place make the sustainability of adopting the approach easy and efficient. Since the approach improves the level of motivation, the performance achieved is sustainable. By using people management approach in management of its employees, Siemens can successfully sustain the adopted approach.

Some of the factors that can influence the effectiveness of teams in Siemens include appraisals, goal setting, talent management, and creation of an innovative environment. By appraising employees and setting goals, Siemens can easily promote the level of performance that individuals undertake themselves as well as in teams. Evans and Evans note that for teamwork to thrive and produce the expected results, employees need personalized motivation (28).

Moreover, a shift from individual to team focus is paramount in advancing the performance required in the contemporary market characterized by the ever changing and trendy consumers.

With the understanding on the essence of shifting from individuals to team focus, the company undertakes effective talent management programs and creates a culture that encourages its employees to optimize their talents. When the company sets goals and gives each individual responsibility within the team, the individuals strive to achieve their goals, while meeting the collective goals incorporated in the team.

Appraisals are very important in helping create shared understanding about organization and employee objectives. Practically, genuine motivation that fosters success and excellent performance emanates from the heart of an individual after an appraisal (Vance and Paik 332; Johnson 207). The motivation transpires because appraisals recognize and appreciate the efforts that an individual undertakes to propel the organization towards success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When employees working in Siemens receive the recognition from the company, a feeling of respect and value develops within them and the willingness to deliver the best for the company increases. As such, the individuals can successfully meet their personal objectives, while meeting the objectives of the team.

On the other hand, Siemens provides an innovative environment and uses it as part of an overall focus to motivate its people. The environment created by the company facilitates innovation and development of new ideas that are useful in achievement of company’s progress. Notably, because the management of the company understands the essence of innovation and creativity, they skillfully develop an innovative environment and use it to foster the level of motivation amongst its human resources.

The appropriateness of the innovative methods used by Siemens is considerable. Berger and Berger state that innovative methods, which include talent, people, and performance management, are very important and are core ingredients that help organizations win the market share and optimize their human resources (25).

In effect, the methods of innovation that Siemens employs not only promote its success in the short run, but also facilitate long term and sustained development. Therefore, these methods are important and the roles that they play in effecting the company’s success are integral.

Principally, the innovative solution that can foster the working environment of Siemens has its basis on the Behavioral Management Theory, which explains that employee motivation is primary in achievement of company success. Therefore, it is important for Siemens to continue engaging in plans that enhance people management program.

According to Benowitz, the Behavioral Management Theory outlines that human resources are very important and their management determines the growth of a company (17). Therefore, for Siemens to continue enjoying the current market share and sustain the adopted programs, people management needs to employ advanced initiatives that transpire from extensive research of the working environments practiced by various successful organizations.

Works Cited Benowitz, Ellen. Cliffsquickreview Principles of Management. Hoboken: Wiley Pub, 2014. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on People Management in Siemens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Berger, Lance, and Dorothy Berger. The Talent Management Handbook: Creating Organizational Excellence by Identifying, Developing, and Promoting Your Best People. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.Print.

Evans, James, and James Evans. Quality and Performance Excellence: Management, Organization, and Strategy. Mason: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Johnson, Richard. Effective Performance Management. Victoria: Trafford, 2006. Print.

Rainey, David. Enterprise-wide Strategic Management: Achieving Sustainable Success through Leadership, Strategies, and Value Creation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Vance, Charles, and Yongsun Paik. Managing a Global Workforce. New York: Routledge, 2015. Print.