Leadership Skills And Development Research Paper Custom Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction


Solution to the Challenges

Reference List

Introduction Some people say leaders are born while others argue that leaders are made. My opinion stands that leaders can be born and leaders can be made thus everybody is born with a chance of becoming a leader if the desired effort and the required support come into play.

As a manager if you were not born, there are many existing literature that can help you become the leader you want. The process often involves enacting a development framework that involves among others a culture that values learning and development. In the past, our managers have been accused of lacking leadership skills or even developing a leadership that can move a company or organization forward.

Challenges The process of developing leadership skills involves not teaching but being a mentor to others. Most often our managers do not set expectations or goals and when they do, they do not reinforce the goals and rewards and thus they do not instill them as priorities to their staff. Therefore, most of the times they tend to lead a clueless delegation which does not know what is expected of them. Managers who develop internal management strategies have higher chances of succeeding than their counterparts who hire trainees from outside.

When you give a chance to those who are below you to learn from you it gives them an inspiration to act as it is supposed and to them you become a mentor. Most of our managers do not give a performance management program that gives priority to succession as this would also lead towards managers passing their skills to those who are below them in the helm to ensure the organization always succeeds in its endeavors (Brown, 2010).

Some people view coaching as the basic skill to efficient management but giving feed backs is also a major step in ensuring there is leadership development. To understand the development process our managers should be aware of what is expected of them and how they can make others learn from the skills they posses. Most of the times promotion, decisions, and performance rewards are not aligned with the success of the business rather promotions are given according to technical ability but not because of proven leadership.

This reduces chances of major innovators within the organization developing leadership since chances of recognition are very minimal. Another way of improving leadership has been through professional certification meetings. Attending to these meetings enables managers stay current in the field of specialization. It also provides a good place for networking and may also help the manager in learning new things in the market (Brown, 2010).

A development process is necessary when one wants to make a development plan. The plan should have the comparison of competencies being developed and meet the business goals and objectives. The objectives should be measurable and actionable rather than being writings on the paper alone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem with most of the development plans, though feasible, most managers assume they are not actionable and though they may promise to work on them they remains as a dream to many innovators who most of the times do not have influence over the company activities.

Another problem which our manager suffers from is lack of management skills. Instead of creating a comfortable and sound environment for one to air their views, some managers creates an environment full of tension between them and those who are learning and by creating the atmosphere that the manager is always at the top this does not auger well with any development plans.

When developing skills and leadership, management also lacks enough time and to ensure that an activity achieves the desired results, enough time should be given for the involved to learn and internalize the concepts.

Building learning into work is another good strategy since it creates an effective learning experience whereby one learns by doing the real work in this process through observation and practical work skills are passed from the management to the employees (Steeves and Frein, 2010).

Lack of feedback is another major hindrance to leadership development. For good results there should be repeated feedback until the desired level of proficiency is achieved. In ensuring the developed skill works, the manager should assign duties that ensure the learnt skills and knowledge is applied to work.

This involves deciding which projects offer the best opportunities for practice to the learning employee. A safer environment can also be created by which it is okay to make mistakes though not to repeat them as it is often said we learn best from our mistakes. When the risk involved is less there are usually high chances of learning and perfecting new skills. The new skills should be tied to the business needs and competencies related to the job.

Organizations should also change and develop projects that reward management for good leadership skills. As of true nature human beings are selfish and an idea of a reward or a promotion would lead to managers devoting more time and effort in leading and developing their junior employees.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Leadership Skills and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This brings out to the challenge that although many organizations have invested in framework for employee development unless there is something the manager gains from the coaching or mentoring it will remain not being a priority to the managers to pass their skills down the line. For any successful development process, a management team that understands the required skills should be put into work so as to ensure the desired skills are transferred from the leadership to the workforce (Brown, 2010).

Another problem which faces many managers is that most of the times they focus on monitoring individual performance although monitoring tactics could be the most helpful in fighting any crisis in case the results are not as desired. For example, you cannot expect to have the same results between a messenger and a computer scientist. Their skills are different and so should be their performance. Most of the times our managers lack any inspirations when they fail to define the required expectations and what reward will follow the effort invested in the activity.

Risk taking and challenging assumptions helps reinforce innovation in the organization capability which is one of the most important managerial tools to survive a crisis but in most occasions the managers are too risk averse to try any risky or challenging propositions by those below him in management and this leads to less leadership developments in the organization as most people view that their points are not of any importance to the company.

Solution to the Challenges The world seems to be too dominated by the males thus creation of female leaders to increase gender diversity would help very much in diversifying management strategies and line of thoughts. Many firms overlook the workers contribution and rewards are never offered. However, with occasions like economic crisis, most organizations engage the young crop of employees with tedious and unrewarding jobs. Instead they should give their employees the challenges they are seeking and cultivate more trust in them.

Another solution to the failing leadership and leadership development should be developing the do it yourself attitude. This results in accelerated learning and improved leadership and a changed nature of doing work. To achieve success there should also be a feedback process and a changed management process. Instead of creating programs that disengage employees from their actual work, we should help developing leaders do what they are supposed to do (Harris, 2010).

Knowledge sharing breeds leadership; when a trusting environment is created individuals freely collaborate in the process of creating and sharing new knowledge as long as there will be equitable allocations of the innovations many people share their innovative thoughts and this helps in creating a strong leadership.

Managers should know that knowledge is always widely distributed within and across organizational units. When trust and sensitivity are maintained most people benefit from the knowledge shared and are always satisfied as long as equitable distribution of rewards will be forth coming (Miles, 2007).

The main purpose of leadership development strategy is that it enables the efforts of all players in the industry feel appreciated. When the manager supports innovative ideas of their employees for example in exploring new market initiatives or launching of new products it increases the desire of new development of leadership skills within the employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership Skills and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most often the managers do not get involved in any innovations in the company by not investing in it or even being accountable this leads to loss of motivation and it kills any possible leadership skill that may be with in the initiator and thus unless the management becomes responsive to the new innovations, quality leadership will never be felt to be at work.

This acknowledgement enables the initiative be seen as a tool for organizational change. By the manager paying close attention to the project meaning that it is an important initiative and gives the employee the feeling of having a responsibility in the organization’s transformation.

Lastly, another activity which can help in leadership development is through quality improvement in an organization. This gives employees developing skills which make it possible for them to take up positions of influence within the organization they are working in. This involves engaging all the key stakeholders, reaching to agreements on what needs to be changed and which initiatives can bring the desired changes. Those who will take responsibility for leading them and what will be needed from them.

The process of creating a development within a leadership involves having a clear and shared vision among the industry players assessment of local leadership and management capability.

Creation of new interpersonal relationships through which you can create allies to your project is also an important process and understanding the perceptions of trust and risk taking behavior, establishing communication system, and understanding and interacting with the influential parties enables the development process become a success ( Hockey, et al., 2009).

Reference List Brown, P. (2010). Having Their Backs: Improving Managers’ Skills in Developing Others

Harris, P. (2010). Leadership role models earn trust and profits

Hockey, P; Tobin, A; Stanwick, S; Lees, P; Seewell, A; Smith, C; Green, P; Kitsell, F; Kerrigan, J; Kemp, J. (2009). Global health partnerships: leadership development for a purpose. London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Miles, R. (2007). Innovation and Leadership Values. California Management Review Vol. 50, No. 1 fall 2007.

Steeves, R; Frein, M. (2010). Determining what is necessary


African American Women and the Struggle for Racial Equality Report best essay help

Table of Contents The main argument of the article

The evidence provided in the article

The major strengthen of the article

The main shortcoming of the article



The main argument of the article The article under consideration deals with the role played by African American women in the struggle for racial equality. Sanders (2007) claims that although African American women made a great contribution in the movement, historians still do not mention great female fighters for racial equality.

Sanders (2007) also argues that sometimes the impact of these women’s activities was even larger than that of famous male fighters, like Martin Luther King, for instance. The researcher portrays several bright examples of such female fighters which makes her claims valid.

The evidence provided in the article Thus, Sanders (2007) depicts the major activities and achievements of the most influential representatives of female fighters for equality. These activities and therefore the achievements were revealed on different levels, however, all of them contributed to the development of movement and helped to raise “one-third of America’s black population to middle class status” (Sanders, 2007, p. 27). To support her statements Sanders (2007) reveals the activity of one of the most famous African American female fighters Ida B. Wells.

Wells was an activist who fought for equality rights. Her campaign against lynching was very effective and even led to the diminishing of that inhuman tradition. Wells also mobilized other women to participate in the movement, she took an active part in establishing Chicago branch of “the first black trade union” (Sanders, 2007, p.23).

Whereas Wells was rather a local activist, Sanders (2007) depicts another remarkable African American female fighter who played an important role in the movement on the level of the entire country. Thus, Mary McLeod Bethune was one of those who tried to change the situation on the national level. She was president of National Association of Colored Women, and later established National Counsil of Negro Women. She tried to obtain the support in Congress which, she believed, can change the situation dramatically.

Sanders (2007) points out that Bethune became the head of New Deal’s National Youth Administration. This position enabled her to make numerous changes which contributed greatly the movement for equality. Sanders (2007) provides more examples, including Condoleezza Rice, stating that women made a considerable impact in the struggle, which is still not totally completed.

The major strengthen of the article To my mind, the article’s major strengthen is its precision. Sanders precisely states her main objective and then proves it with valid arguments. It is easy to follow the article due to this precision. I would also like to point out that Sanders uses very good examples to prove that women not only took an active part in the struggle but reached definite results.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article portrays the major achievements of African American female fighters which are significant. Thus, Sanders does not contemplate on the unfairness of historian’s attention to different sexes, but provides certain facts to reveal it.

The main shortcoming of the article Of course, apart from great precision and comprehensiveness of the article there is a downside. To my mind, in the very end of the article Sanders is too imprecise. She notes that for the “two-thirds of black women” the equality remains “elusive” (Sanders, 2007, p.27). However, it is not clear what is meant: social status or personal life and rights. To my mind, this part is quite uncertain and should have been more precise, since the ending is one of the strongest parts of an article which should not contain such obscurities.

Conclusion In summary, the article under consideration deals with the importance of African American women in equality struggle and the lack of historians’ attention to it. Sanders is very precise which makes the article valid. However, the weak place of the article is its uncertain ending.

Reference Sanders, V. (2007). African American Women and the Struggle for Racial Equality: Viv Sanders Corrects the Male Bias in the Study of the Civil Rights Movement in the USA. History Review, (58), 22-27.


Concept of the Fashion Merchandising in Modern Business Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Food industries are major determinants of human health because of the direct impact they have on the environment. Retailers in these industries deal with either the production practices or trade.

Unfair trade has devastating effects on lives and clients way of living. Pollution through poor waste disposal mechanisms, pollution of the soil and toxic pesticides are fallouts of distinctive industries such as the fashion industries. The big brands have ability to influence go-green revolution, but majority are holding back on important initiatives such as the eco-friendliness, sustainability and charity work.

Currently, the campaigns on the need for eco-friendliness have a huge impact on performance. The big retailer companies of renowned brands such as Britain’s Marks and Spencer, Behemoth Nike Company known for their sports ware and H


American Ethnic Studies Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Human beings have always been enslaved by their fellow men as long as they have lived. All this time what varied were conditions of servitude or slavery. Inequality was employed by the ancient Mesopotamian, Mayan empires among other communities. Even in the Bible it is mentioned with the slavery of Israelites in Egypt (Friedman 3).

America for a long period was characterized by racism and favoritism among people of different skin colors. In fact it was just in the 19th and the early 20th centuries which marked increased efforts among the Americans of all states trying to apply all strategies that could end slavery and secure legal equality across all Americans regardless of their color, gender or race.

The process of achieving or attaining equal civil rights among the African-Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans and Chicanos has been slow but there have been quite a number of gains that have been achieved in the struggle against oppression. All races which were discriminated in one way or the other formed movements through which they fought for their rights (Friedman 8).

The Impacts of the Civil Rights to the: Blacks

Among the most oppressed and discriminated races in America were the Americans of African origin. In most of the places they were seen as servant by the whites and most of them used to work in the plantations of white Americans.

The struggle for equality among the blacks cannot be mentioned without remembering the special contributions of Malcolm. X, Booker. T, Martin Luther and Marcus Garvey among others. These men were the voice of resistance against white supremacy over blacks in the United States of America who fought against racism and white oppression.

It is through the efforts of these people that the whites discovered blacks were equal to whites it was just the color of their skin which differentiated them. Among the impacts of the struggle for civil rights was that there was change of attitude among the whites and while in the past the whites could not serve the blacks in their stores now it was an easy option without thinking of the skin color (Friedman 63).

The struggle for civil rights in America among the blacks also brought along the voting rights for the blacks in that though previously the blacks did not have the power to vote not only did they gain the powers to vote but in populations where the blacks were more than the whites the blacks voted one of their own. The improvements of these civil rights have of late seen blacks becoming mayors of major cities for example in New York. The US has also had a black secretary of state in the name of Collin Powell and Condoleezza Rice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the year 2009, Barrack Obama became the first African American president and that shows some of the impacts of civil rights struggles. Not only in the political arena but there has been dominance in other field such as sports and entertainment with Michael Jordan in the basket ball among other sportsmen and Denzel Washington in the entertainment arena among other greats.

Despite all these advances, a quarter of African-American citizens live in abject poverty and discrimination, though the authorities may not admit, is still rife in many places in the united states of America but nevertheless huge gains have been made since the beginning of the struggle to equal civil rights among the Americans of all states (Anon 4).

Native Americans

When the white Americans came from Europe they met the Native Americans in their country but fought them and grabbed their lands and the Native Americans started living as aliens in their own country. Along with the African-Americans, the Native Americans fought relentlessly against the government plans of relocating them into cities, a move that would see them assimilated. The Native Americans lost their land and among the Red Indians, it was hard for them to adopt in the urban life and this led to abject poverty and deprivation.

After watching the uprising of third world nationalism, the native Americans became even more aggressive and some of their leaders even went to courts to recover their tribal lands, which had been grabbed illegally and in the late 1960s there were many victories which guaranteed them water and land rights (US department of State 1).

Confrontations about their rights continued and the death of an Indian American and wounding of another forced the treaty to be reexamined. The Native Americans were appreciated as American citizens and their rights which they had been denied earlier were granted back. The right to own land anywhere was one of the major impacts and in the political arena the election of Colorado’s Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell in the year 1992 marked the entry of Native Americans into active politics (Perea 53).


Aware of the rise in African-American civil rights movements, Mexican Americans commonly known as Chicanos also struggled against white oppression and segregation (Inda 9). At that time most of Chicanos were excluded from the schools by common practices and were said to be less responsive to education compared to American children.

The Chicanos were also oppressed in the farms they used to work in and the farm worker movement spearheaded by an individual by the name of Cesar Chavez to protect the rights of exploited and brutalized Mexican American and Filipino workers in the state of California brought about the much needed turnaround of how Chicanos were viewed by the other Americans (Perea 54).

We will write a custom Essay on American Ethnic Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Chicanos fought against oppression in the education system where their kids were seen as less able and the less wages paid to them, they implemented a series of mass and direct action campaigns and when the farm workers struck against California farmers in the year 1965, refusing to pick grapes until their union was recognized, the movement was joined by other classes among the Chicanos for example the doctors. Through their national wide strike, the farm workers were recognized and their right to decent wages was also upheld (Inda 8).

The struggle movements taught Chicanos that they did not have to conform to social standards which made them look like a lower class of citizen otherwise the movements were mobilizing masses of people who had been disempowered by instilling confidence in them (Inda 9).

They also helped convince Chicanos that change was not going to come through established channels, but rather through mass action movements. These movements enabled the white Americans recognize the Chicanos as equal citizens and even the education system was changed into a system where the Chicanos and other Americans attended the same classes without segregation and were not seen as being any inferior.

Asian Americans

In the early parts of 20th century Japanese migration to California aroused fears within the United States and as a result the Japanese government was induced to voluntarily limit the emigration of its nationals to the United States in return for the promise of better treatment of those who were already in the country; but this agreement did not prevent California from enacting legislations which barred Japanese from purchasing land in the golden state. Asian immigrants were denied naturalization and also equal protection by laws (Fredrickson 8).

The Asian American movements combined the Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans. They were driven largely by student activists radicalized by the anti Vietnam war and the black power movements. The main aims of these movements were about challenging the stereotypes about Asian passivity and rejecting the exoticism and racism.

They mobilized this new consciousness against racism in the schools, media and residential among other forms of discrimination. Despite the fact that it was largely a representing the youth, this movement changed institutions for the older community into new ones. The movement conducted triumphant crusades in opposition to bills that prohibited interracial marriages (Gregory 1).

As the black movements arose so did the Asian Americans begin to actualize their identity as Americans and they formed groups with multi- ethnic roots. These movements fought against discrimination and their efforts were marked with changed legislation for Asian Americans during which the American government eased laws restricting immigration and opened doors to new Asian migration (Low 10).

The murder of Asian American Vincent Chin by two Americans during the period in which the Americans were blaming the Asians of job loss awakened the Asian community.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American Ethnic Studies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The shock that swept across the community made the Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, and Korean come together to fight for justice through a law suit and though justice was denied by overturning the sentences through technicalities, it raised the consciousness of hate crimes against Asian Americans it served as a catalyst for Asian Americans to look beyond their individual ethnic communities to organize the movement against anti Asian violence. These movements have enabled recognition of all people living in America as equal American citizens.

Conclusion It is imperative to recognize the African American, Native American, Chicanos and Asian Americans struggles for equality and civil rights. Recognizing the full scope of civil rights struggles is important in understanding the full measure of past injustices experienced in America. This is due to the simple fact that if we underestimate or we deny that there were no human rights violations to the African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Chicanos, then we underestimate the scope and the extent of white racism.

Every struggle against racism and oppression deserves recognition. Though much recognition has been given to the African American movements, it would be unfair to forget the efforts of the other movements as they all fought against oppression and discrimination of the same master. The study shows that everybody is capable of discriminating and discrimination and at least it shows that white Americans are capable of recognizing priorities higher than the maintenance of racial privilege. That may be something we can build upon.

Works Cited Anon. “African Americans.” English online, 2010. Web.

Fredrickson, George. “The Historical Construction of Race and Citizenship in the United States”, United Nations Research for Social Development. 2003. Web.

Friedman, Michael. “Free at last; the US civil rights movement.” Americagov, 2008. Web.

Gregory, James. “Seattle’s Asian American Movement.” University of Washington. Web.

Inda, Juan. “The Development of the East Los Angeles High School Blowouts.” Stanford University, 1990. Web.

Low, Elaine. “An unnoticed struggle, A concise history of Asian American civil rights.” Japanese American Citizen League. 2007. Web.

Perea P. Juan. “An essay on the iconic status of the civil rights movement and its unintended consequences.” Virginia Journal of Social Policy


How to Become a Registered Nurse Explicatory Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Unfortunately, the role of nurses is often underestimated, despite the fact that these healthcare professionals must have a great number of skills and competences such as excellent knowledge of medicine, ability to communicate with people of various backgrounds, leadership, quick decision-making and, most importantly, compassionate attitude toward the patient.

Without these qualities, one definitely should not start a nursing career, as it will be a disaster both for him and his patients. This paper aims to discuss those standards and expectations that registered nurses (RN) have to meet on a daily basis. Furthermore, it is necessary to show the steps which a person should take, if he/she wants to become an RN.

In order to write this essay, I have interviewed Kathie Shankley, a close friend of mine and a practicing nurse. She agreed to speak about her work in a community hospital. She believes that the most difficult thing for her is the wide scope nurse’s duties. My friend says, “It sometimes seems to me that I must do more than ten things at a time”.

Judging from this statement, one can assume that a registered nurse must be able to prioritize the tasks in terms of their importance and urgency. Moreover, a nurse must be able to keep ones composure in critical moments. In Kathie’s view, a person, who does not have these abilities, “should think twice or even thrice” whether he wants to pursue a career in medicine or not. The thing is that there are moments when you have to act on the spur of the moment, and not everyone can do it.

Another thing, which Kathie finds particularly challenging, is the necessity to find an approach to every patient. She points out that “language barrier can really be a great obstacle sometimes”. According to Kathie, if a person is bilingual, he/she will really have an advantage over others.

Thus, it is quite possible to argue that cross-cultural education is of great importance for all medical workers, not only nurses. This is one of the reasons why medical students should study a foreign language. This is particularly relevant for such country as the United States, where people can speak Spanish, Italian, Russian and so forth. The knowledge of foreign language can be of great avail for an RN, although this is not a must.

Moreover, a registered nurse must be well-aware of the most recent research findings as this knowledge can greatly improve the quality of patient care. The thing is that treatment methods constantly evolve, a healthcare professional must always read books and academic journal in order to “stay in the forefront and be in the know”, as Kathie noted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She also urged future nurses not to overlook their math classes because a RN has to know how to analyze statistical data. This is one of those skills, which one has to acquire, if he/she intends to take this career path. Kathie says that many nurses fail to achieve professional growth, because they do not take much interest in the on-going medical research.

Although, being a registered nurse is very prestigious, one must bear in mind that the responsibilities of these people are much heavier because they work in intensive care units and operation rooms and supervise the activities of other nurses. To become an RN, one should obtain Master’s or at least Bachelor’s degree.

Again, as it has been mentioned before, a nurse must be versed in many areas of study: medicine, psychology, chemistry, pharmacology statistics and so forth. Without appropriate academic background, one can hope of becoming an RN. Kathie believes that the would-be students should carefully evaluate the training programs, offered by various schools of nursing as this choice can greatly impact their professional growth as well as salary.

During our conversation, I have also asked Kathie about the rewards of this profession or those things which bring joy and satisfaction. I intentionally avoided asking questions about monetary compensation, as I was more interested in the reasons why people decide to pursue the career of a nurse.

I am not quite sure that Kathie’s answer was very elaborate; she said, “I just wanted to help people who are ill, and I’m really glad when they recover”. After a moment of hesitation she added “You know, it’s one of those things that are very difficult to explain”. Therefore, we can presume that an RN ought to feel compassion for the patient, and this is one of those in-born qualities which can be neither acquired nor elaborated.

In this paper I have tried to single out those skills, competencies and psychological traits that a student must have in order to become a registered nurse. There are as follows: 1) excellent knowledge of various interrelated disciplines; 2) ability to communicate with people of various cultural and ethnic origins; 3) cool-headedness; 4) willingness to improve one’s professional skills and 4) genuine desire to help other people. One can hardly imagine an RN or other healthcare giver without these properties.


Sustained organisational performance Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Talent development and sustained organisational performance



Introduction Talent management has been cited by a number of firms as the key reason behind their continual success even during tough business times. Prioritising this area cushions organisation against externalities and better prepares them to take on challenges that they will face in the future.

Talent development and sustained organisational performance CIPD (2009) claims that the relevance of training to organisational performance has taken on a totally different meaning; nowadays certain unconventional skills have found relevance in the work environment. For example, an engineer taking a coaching course may learn new skills concerning performance and productivity.

Although this may be difficult to understand at the onset, it does not imply that employees should be undermined in any way for making such choices. In the end, sustained business performance can be achieved if talent development takes on a different and unconventional meaning in a firm. Today’s business environment is rapidly changing. It has become less skill based and more service or knowledge based.

To this end, work has become dynamic and in order to keep up, companies must be ready to engage in continuous learning. In response to this dynamism, firms may ask their employees to think of certain creative courses that they may engage in order to promote creativity. Therefore, continual redefinitions of what learning involves in education will be crucial in ensuring sustainability in performance.

One critical issue that is emerging in the area of talent development is the problem of economic conditions. Given the tough business conditions, companies have started reducing budgets allocated to talent management while others have left out the strategy altogether. In fact it has been shown that the thirty eight point five billion pounds allocated to training in the United Kingdom will reduce in tough times.

However, these organisations need to realise that for economic recovery to occur then there must be a firm commitment to talent development. Furthermore, continual learning will place them at a good position when an upturn occurs. Training organisations are also better equipped in tough times because they have a chance to retain their talent and hence be sustainable in production.

Studies show that the ratio of firms that go bankrupt is 2.5 times more in firms that abandon training than those that do not so it should never be ignored. Companies cannot do without training because this essentially facilitates differentiation from other organisations and provides them with a source of competitive advantage. Some HR professionals are taking the tough times in their stride by now looking for ways of increasing value within the talent development area.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They are employing creative ways of doing so. First, some of them are substituting external coaching providers with internal ones and they are also looking for cost effectiveness in present talent development system. What this illustrates is that a high number of well performing firms are placing talent management at the top of their agenda and this translates to high return on investment thus high effectiveness (CIPD, 2008)

Learning and development is critical at the workplace because it allows the utilisation of skills. In essence, this means that a large number of employees will be more productive and this will translate to high performance.

For instance, during tough economic times when budgets are running low, skills utilisation is often done by offering people within the organisation opportunities to grow even though they may not necessarily be the ideal candidates for those positions. These persons may get an opportunity to transfer their skills so that they can do well in their new positions.

Talent management allows companies a chance of building the employees in their organisation. This means that firms need not invest too much time in focusing on recruiting talent from outside. Additionally, companies will get the opportunity to work with what they have but still focus on their business objectives if they prioritise learning and development (Pearson, 2010). It implies that efficiency in talent management translates to efficiency in business processes and hence high productivity.

For example, if a company has been endowed by well performing employees, then talent development will ensure that these individuals are retained and that they continue to contribute towards their organisation’s sustainability. On the other hand, some companies create high performers through talent management. By reviewing how individuals are performing, these organisations can ensure that they get a return on their investments and hence be profitable in tough times as well as simpler times.

Talent management often encourages employees to engage in the right behaviours. Organisations have various approaches to this. Some may carry it out by ensuring that they instate reward based pay such that pay is linked to outcome. Alternatively, some may look for better ways of doing so such as through the use of rewards provided to the stated individuals.

Conclusion Talent management is crucial for survival of companies. By taking training and development needs seriously, firms will build the structures needed in order to get past business obstacles and compete effectively.

We will write a custom Report on Sustained organisational performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References CIPD. (2009). The war on talent? Talent management under threat in uncertain times. Febrary issue, 4685

CIPD. (2008). Time to train: consulting on a new right to request time off to train employees in England. Response to Department for innovation, universities and skills

Pearson Compilation (2010). Perspectives on People at Work. Essex: Custom Publishing


The Form of a Poem Essay college admissions essay help

There is a reason why there are different types of poems, there is a song, sonnet, villanelle, hymn, ode, elegy, versanelle and many more. The reason for this is the need for different ways to express the longing of the heart and the soul. Sometimes it is better to sing; sometimes it is best to speak of what was hidden and has to be revealed to the light of day.

But even if there are different forms of poetry there are many writers and poets who are not contented with what is available to them and so they took the different forms and experiment on it, one of the best example is E.E. Cummings. Yet even without the experimentations of Cummings there are plenty of examples on how poets use form to convey what they want to say. This paper will take a closer look at how form can impact the message of the poem.

It has been said that Shakespeare, Edna St. Vincent Millay, and Gwendolyn Brooks are some of the writers who were not afraid to bend the rules of poetry. Based on their achievements and their skills one can argue that this has been on purpose. They did not do it just for the sake of experimentation or simply trying to create something new.

They did on purpose to achieve a certain effect (Hirsch, p.311). It can be said that words are not enough to express what they wanted the world to know and so they took what was available for them and then create a masterpiece by changing and even altering the universally accepted forms and rules of how to create poems.

One of the best examples of not only artistic freedom but also the confidence to go against the flow and create original works is E.E. Cummings.

One commentator was able to capture the impact of Cummings poetry and this is what he had to say regarding the author: “Although he says he is far from original, it is agreed by all that he was an innovative poet in many fields, especially form … he attempts to deal with his words visually and this way takes his poem closer to visual arts and painting rather than music” (Korhan, p.1). In other words Cummings wanted his readers not only to hear but to see.

A good way to illustrate this technique is by looking at one of Cummings bizarre output which is entitled “r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r” and it is difficult to say or read it and so it must be seen and this is how it looks:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r who a)s w(e loo)k upnowgath PPEGORHRASS eringint(o- aThe):l eA !p: S a (r rIvInG .gRrEaPsPhOs) to rea(be)rran(com)gi(e)ngly ,grasshopper; (Cummings, p.1).

This is more like code or a riddle rather than a poem. And the only reason why it made sense was the presence of the word “grasshopper” at the very end of the poem. It can be interpreted as a grasshopper that jumps from one place to the next at random without pattern and without explanation. For instance, it is easy to understand the movement of a dog. Its master throws a ball he catches it and brings it back. A dog will jump and bark to get the attention of its master and this is easy to understand but a grasshopper has no logic to its movement.

By writing the poem this way and using this form then the author was able to show the behavior of a grasshopper. Cummings could have said the same thing in a few words but instead of talking about it he simply showed it using poetry but this time not the words that is contained in it but the form.

The form is also part of the message. The form communicates something that cannot be said. In other times it is a way to communicate using a few words, the efficient use of space allows expert lyricists and poets to create something that can create lasting impact in the hearts and minds of their readers.

It can also be said that by bending the rules and experimenting on form the authors are attracting the readers to read their work. It also produces different layers of meaning instead of simply saying it with words there is another tool that can be used to send another message, one that can help the reader get deeper into the poetry. This is the reason why poets like Cummings would not hesitate to go against the conventions of writing poetry.

Aside from the visual aspect of form, there is another why form is used to show the theme of the poem. The form is not only the meter and the rhyme but also the choice of words and even the way it is arranged (Roza, p.7). For instance authors would use repetition and word play such as the use of terms that are related to each other and therefore by placing them in a certain position the author is saying to pay attention to these words. The best example is a poem by Dylan Thomas entitled Do not Gentle into that Good Night.

In Thomas’ masterpiece he used repetition to highlight the most important points. He wanted the readers to understand the desperate cry of a son for his father not to surrender to death that easily. The son knows that his father is about to die and he wanted to prevent it. In other words he wanted to lengthen his life by encouraging him not to give up and this was seen in how the author used repetition.

We will write a custom Essay on The Form of a Poem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By persuading him not to go and using the phrase Do not go four times he is making his desperation felt. And by repeating the word rage and to rage against the dying of light is his solution to the problem which is to say that the father should not only desire to live but to fight for that belief and that right to stay alive.

Aside from repetitions Thomas was also conscious about the way to play with words and he knew that there is going to affect his readers and make them understand what he was trying to say about the pain of death. He did this by using two opposite words and yet he positioned these words so that it will rhyme and therefore the readers will be forced to see the contrast between night and light. It was the son’s warning to his father that darkness awaits him if he will not rage against death.

Conclusion Form is not just there for the sake of order and logic. This is because authors can sometimes bend the rules not to create chaos but to clarify and to improve the communication between author and reader. There are times when words are not enough that a visual representation is needed. Sometimes words describing a feeling or a scene is not enough so that the author will rely on repetition and a careful use of word play to make the readers focus on what they are really trying to say.

The best examples of experimenting with form and the use of repetitions to create an effect are the works of Cummings and Thomas. Cummings did not hesitate to create something that can also be seen not just heard. Thomas on the other hand used repetitions to highlight what he wanted to say and to add urgency to his message which is in fact his theme, to show a son’s desperate attempt to save his father from sure death.

Works Cited Cummings, E.E. “r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r.” Web.

Hirsch, Edward. How to Read a Poem: And Fall in Love with Poetry. Florida: Harcourt, 1999.

Roza, Greg. Patterns in Poetry: Recognizing and Analyzing Poetic Form and Meter. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2005.


The Concept of Organizational Commitment in Human Resource Management Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of the background to the topic

Discuss Job Turnover

Recommendations and conclusion

Reference List

Introduction There are several factors which influence outcomes in the organization. They range from the financial status of the organization, the business strategies applied by management as well as the environment within which the organization is operating. However it is also true that the performance of the organization is largely attributed to the ability of the employees to effectively undertake their roles.

This brings up issues relating to organizational commitment. Organizational commitment can be defined as the bond which ties the employee to the organization. Ultimately, organizational commitment has a direct effect on organizational behavior (Porter, 1976, p90).

Summary of the background to the topic The most critical areas influenced by organizational commitment among employees include the behavior and performance of the employees; attitudes and other cognitive constructs affecting job satisfaction; responsibility and finally personal traits such as age.

The centrality of this issue in determining organizational outcomes has greatly boosted the concept of organizational commitment in human resource management. This is in line with the fact that human resources management policies must be designed with the aim of ensuring that there is maximum commitment of employees (Porter, 1974, p605).

This commitment is seen in terms of the royalty and attachment employees have towards the organization. It is what gives them the will to always go the extra mile in doing that which benefits organization. At the height of it, employees have been found to fully place the interest of the organization well ahead of their own (Niehoff, 1990, p340).

Discuss Job Turnover One important benefit of organizational commitment is reduction in job turnover. Whenever employees feel detached from the organization, issues of job dissatisfaction tend to increase meaning that more employees are willing to leave the organization. A high employee turnover in an organization can be disastrous. First it significantly pushes up the recruitment costs which have a direct impact financial impact on the organization.

Secondly, the high turnover implies that the more investments in training new recruits will be incurred. These new employees are not only likely to take time adjusting in the system but are more likely to make mistakes in executing their tasks. In this respect then, it is crucial that organizational commitment among employees is achieved as this minimizes the job turnover and consequently reduces these inefficiencies in the organization (O’Reilly, 1986, p495).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommendations and conclusion There are several policy issues for consideration towards inculcating organizational commitment among employees. First is the unrivalled fact that for employees to remain royal and committed in an organization, they must be made to feel valued and appropriately recognized.

This cuts across several issues but most important is the decision making process. When fully involved in the decision making process, they not only better understand what is expected but also tend to own these decisions giving them the zeal to ensure that they succeed. Again, when these decisions bear fruit a great sense of accomplishment is experienced among employees. Secondly, there should be good communication and feedback channels in the organization.

Employees should always have channels which they can use in communicating their concerns as well as views to the management. This gives them confidence that they will be heard. In addition, feedback is crucial because if communicated effectively, it encourages employees to strive to achieve even better results (Perry, 1997, p190).

In conclusion, the value of organizational commitment is the hallmark of efficient service delivery by employees. In today’s corporate world characterized by stiff competition, the organization with the most committed employees is likely to have better outcomes. However, it is a double win as employees who are better committed tend to be happier with their jobs resulting in a better society.

Reference List Niehoff, B.P., Enz, C.A.,


Liberia: A country struggling from the effects of civil war Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction – Facts on Liberia

History of the Liberian civil war

Literature review

Possible solutions



Introduction – Facts on Liberia Liberia is a country located on the shores North Atlantic Ocean in West Africa. Covering an area of 43,000 sq. miles and having a population of around 3.49 million people, its capital city is Monrovia, which has a population of 1.01 million. In addition, the country’s annual economic growth rate as at 2008 was 2.1%.

Unlike most African countries, Liberia was never officially colonized; it became a republic in 1847, having been established by slaves who had been sent to the country from the US after being set free. Liberia therefore regards the United States of America as its pseudo-colonialist. There are 16 indigenous tribes in Liberia with the most dominant group being the Kpelle accounting for about 20% of the population.

There are also “descendants of freed slaves that arrived in Liberia after 1820, who make up less than 5% of the population” (US Department of State, 2010). The population of Liberia is predominantly Christian (85%) with Muslims forming a sizeable percentage, 12% (US Department of State, 2010). Moreover, the official language of Liberia is English.

Liberia’s mainly depends on agriculture, with rubber being its cash crop. For many years, Liberia was among the stable countries in Africa until the onset of the civil war, which ravaged the country and brought it onto its knees. The country is now trying to recover from the devastating war, with political reforms being put in place. Liberia held its first democratic elections in November 2005, with Ellen Johnson Sirleaf emerging victorious to rule the nation and become the pioneer African woman to head country democratically elected.

History of the Liberian civil war Since the inception of Liberia as a republic, it has been ruled mainly by the Americo-liberians. This is despite the fact that they account for less than 5% of the population. This group created legislation, which ensured that they remain in power. They ensured that the members of indigenous communities could not be allowed to vote until 1946 when the law was repealed.

However, the domination of the americo-liberians continued until “1980 when a group from the indigenous Krahn tribe, led by Samuel Doe, staged a military coup against the government” that was led by William Tolbert, an Americo-liberians (Insight on Conflict, 2010).

In a surprise turn of events, Doe put to death William Tolbert and many other officials of his government who were mainly americo-liberians and aided in the formation of Peoples Redemption Council (PRC), a party of the indigenous Liberians. This party ousted the True Whig Party, which had been in leadership since the inception of the republic (US department of state).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, Doe’s subsequent rule was characterized by very cruel oppression of political opponents and general nepotism towards his ethnic tribe of Krahn. The favoritism of the Krahn tribe created ethnic tensions between them and other ethnic groups.

Doe continued to rule the country until its invasion from Ivory Coast by Charles Taylor, former minister in Doe’s government. By early 1990, Taylor controlled much of Liberia but Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) prevented him from seizing Monrovia. In fact, the power struggle between Taylor and Doe created a very bloody civil war (US department of state, 2010).

ECOWAS facilitated a peace agreement, which led to the formation of a five-man transition government, leading to disarmament and eventually elections on 19th July 1997 (US department of state, 2010). Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Party worn the elections by collecting 75%; however, democracy led to increased ethnic tensions in the groups, which were loyal to the opponents of Charles Taylor.

At the same time, Taylor’s support for a rebel faction involved in the Sierra Leone civil war, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), led to regional tensions. This later led to renewed violence in Liberia. The second civil war was ignited by conflict between the Liberians for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) group and the local community; however, the government could do little to quell the situation as a result of sanctions, a situation that accelerated the spread to the strife in the country killing dozens of citizens.

This culminated in the eventual resignation of Taylor in 2003 after he had lost control of about two thirds of Liberia leading to the arrival of peacekeepers to quell the heavy fighting in the capital Monrovia. Taylor was thereafter put to trial in Sierra Leone due to his support of the RUF, which was involved in the Sierra Leone civil war (Insight on conflict, 2010).

Among the root causes of the first civil war in Liberia was ethnicity between the tribes of Liberia. This problem was first cultivated by the americo-liberians who founded the state of Liberia. They denied the indigenous tribes the right to vote in elections and put in place other legislations, which generally oppressed the indigenous Liberians. This was despite the fact that they were not indigenously Liberians and accounted for a very small percentage of the total Liberian population

Literature review Many different scholars have studied the civil war in Liberia and proposed different causes of the conflict. One such explanation of the Liberian civil war is the ethnic theory. The country was divided into the americo-liberians and 16 indigenous groups. The people who controlled the country both politically and economically were the americo-liberians; and each of the groups had its own institutions, cultures, and values, as well as motives.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Liberia: A country struggling from the effects of civil war specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The americo-liberians wanted total political and economic control of the country despite the fact that they formed less than 5% of the total population of the country. In addition, the americo-liberians dominated the political and economic aspects of Liberia from 1847-1980. However, they were succeeded by another ethnic community, the Krahn, which dominated the country from 1980-1999. Moreover, each of the groups that was in power tried to benefit only people from the same ethnic group (Kieh, 2008, p18).

Another explanation of the causes of civil war in Liberia is known as the settler state theory. This theory classifies the Liberian community into two groups: the settlers and the indigenous group. The settlers, the americo-liberians, came from abroad and their main agenda was to establish domination in the country where they settled.

The settlers saw themselves as superior to the indigenous group. They tried to make the indigenous group conform to their cultures and termed the cultures of the indigenous group as backward. After the indigenous groups accepted the cultures of the settlers, they formulated laws to help them acquire land and have general domination over the indigenous group. The settlers also gradually become autonomous from the mother nation, and then established systems to advance their general agenda (Kieh, 2008 p25).

Both these theories have been used to explain the causes of Liberian civil war. However, these theories are not correct; one important point to note is that in both cases, the theories explain that the civil war is caused by general inequality in the Liberian society with some groups of people being superior to others.

The levels of inequalities between the americo-liberians and the indigenous communities are very high in Liberia. Indeed, the americo-liberians control a large part of the social, economic, and political spheres of the Liberian society.

Possible solutions Many countries in Africa have had civil wars including Angola, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, Sierra Leone, and Ivory Coast, with Angola having had the longest civil war in Africa (Handelman, 2010). However, depending on how a country tackles the challenges posed by civil war, it may be the springboard for a nation’s path to prosperity.

Many countries have emerged even stronger after being on the brink of total collapse due to civil war. For instance, the American civil war helped America to become even stronger politically and economically. Immediately after the war, measures were taken to ensure equality of blacks who were considered inferior to the whites. This was through the enactment of various legislations by the state, with the thirteenth amendment to the constitution (1865) abolishing slavery.

The congress then passed legislation to ensure that the blacks had more freedom (the civil Rights Act). This gave the blacks the freedom to enter into contracts, own property and bear witness in court, as well as giving the blacks more economic and political freedom. These and other legislations allowed the states that had left the Union to come back to the union, the result of which was consolidation of peace and prosperity of the United States of America.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Liberia: A country struggling from the effects of civil war by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To reduce the probabilities of occurrence of civil war the government must be able to fully tackle the underlying problems that led to the civil war so that there may be long-term prosperity. In Liberia, the greatest problem has mainly been lack of ethnic equality and fair distribution of resources.

These are the main factors that led to the first and second Liberian civil wars. However, the government must first tackle the immediate problems that the country faces due to the prolonged civil war. Disarmament of the youth should be among the priorities of the government.

The government must also devise means of integrating these youths into the community to avoid recurrent violence; for instance, the youth must be taught how to coexist peacefully with other members of the community (Youth in Humanitarian Crises, 2010).

The government must also create ways of rebuilding the infrastructure, which was destroyed by the war. These include transport and communication systems, electricity, and improvement in security.

However, the most important measure to guarantee prosperity would be the enactment of legislation, which gives economic and political freedom to the population. This would ensure peace and therefore help in attracting foreign investors into the country, thereby helping in job creation and reduction of other problems caused by the war (Radelet, 2007, p 8).

The government must also ensure that there is peace and security, in addition to revitalization of the economic activity. Primarily, the majority of Liberians are dependent on agriculture for their income, with rubber being the main cash crop. Therefore, the government should move in quickly to restore the agricultural production in the country through subsidies and other viable agricultural policies. This will not only enhance food supply in the country, but also create jobs for ex-fighters, refugees, and youth.

The opening up of the economy through the reduction of barriers to trade will lead attraction of investments in manufacturing and services industries. This will create jobs for both skilled and unskilled people while at the same time enhancing exports, thereby enabling the government get the much-needed foreign exchange.

Finally, the government should strengthen the governance and establish the rule of law in the country, strive to create an efficient civil service and eradicate corruption and impunity. The government should also strengthen the judiciary and parliament so that the two may act as foundation for the rule of law (Radelet, 2007, p 9).

Conclusion Most third world countries have at one time of their existence either had a civil conflict or are still in a state of civil war. Therefore, civil war presents a major setback for most third world countries in achieving economic and political prosperity. These countries must therefore be able to understand the reasons of civil war in order to avoid them at any cost.

Since most third world countries have had the experience of civil war at one time of their existence, how they tackle their post civil war problems determines so much about their future path to prosperity. This will also apply to Liberia, a country that is currently recovering from the pangs of civil war that had significant and adverse effect on its socio-economic and political environments.

References Handelman, H. (2009). The challenge of Third World development: NJ: Prentice Hall – Pearson.

Insight on conflict. (2010). Conflict Profile: Liberia. Web.

Kieh, G. K. (2008). The first Liberian civil war: the crises of underdevelopment. Lang publishing. Web.

Radelet, S. (2007). Reviving Economic Growth in Liberia Working Paper 133. Centre for Global Development. Web.

US Department of State. (2010). Background Note: Liberia. Web.

Youth in humanitarian crises. (2010). Liberian youth and post conflict transition. Web.