Leadership: Contemporary Theories And Approaches Reflective Essay Essay Help Online Free

Table of Contents Introduction

A Brief Overview of Leadership

My Leadership Approach

Cultural Considerations

Contexts for Application


Works Cited

Introduction All organizations and institutes constantly strive to raise their levels of performance and productivity. To reach the set goals of increased productivity in the organization, the contribution made by all members in the organization is crucial. Even so, these contributions can only achieve optimal impact if there is a strong leadership in place to guide both the individual and group efforts.

This being the case, the development of leadership traits and skills is indeed necessary for the survival and continued success of an organization. There are various factors which make leadership roles mandatory in the education industry. To begin with, the teachers act as role models to their students and as such, they must exhibit strong leadership.

Leadership by the school management is also necessary to ensure that the teachers are teaching in accordance to the set standards. There exist many leadership theories and their effectiveness is dependent on the particular environment. A leadership theory or approach that is both theoretical and practically adequate can be termed as the most efficient one for an individual to adopt.

With these considerations, this paper shall set out to develop systematically and defend with reasoned arguments my own approach concerning leadership. My approach will not only borrow from well established theories and leadership approaches but it shall also build on them so as to come up with an even more effective leadership approach.

A Brief Overview of Leadership While leadership has varied definition depending on the context, it can be generically defined as the process through which an individual makes use of the support and assistance of others so as to achieve predetermined goals and objectives (Burns 23). It is only though strong leadership that organizational goals are achieved and as such, leadership is essential for the success of an organization.

Invariably, leadership involves working hand in hand with other organizational members since the leader has to elicit the support of relevant personnel in order to achieve the set goals. Various people favor different leadership styles and approaches and the success or relevance of each approach is dependent on the setting, the individual, and the cultural reality in which the approach is implemented.

My Leadership Approach My leadership Approach would borrow from a number of contemporary theories and approaches that have proved to be successful in a wide range of settings. To begin with, my leadership would necessitate that the leader engagement his followers and this would result in satisfaction for both the leader and the followers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is in line with the influential leadership style in many Western nations, transformational leadership. Burns introduced transformational leadership in 1978 and according to him, a transformational leader is defined as a leader who “looks for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower” (Burns 173).

From this definition, it is evident that a transformational leader differs from other leaders as a result of the due consideration that he gives to his followers’ needs. As such, the leader is not only able to direct his followers to achieve organizational goals but he is also able to empathize with their needs and in actual sense demonstrate genuine concern over their affairs.

This brand of leader puts the needs of the followers over their own which results in increased admiration and respect by the followers’ of the leader (Alimo-Metcalfe and Alban-Metcalfe 3). This increases the leader’s influence over the followers hence leading to greater leadership efficiency.

In the educational setting, once the administration shows concern for the teachers, the teachers can be expected to be even more effective in their work. Another appealing attribute of transformational leadership is that some of its aspects are universally endorsed as effective leadership behavior and can therefore be used in a wide range of settings (Den Hartog 225).

As has been articulated in this paper, a leader accomplishes his goals though his followers. As such, a leader is deemed worthless if he lacks the backing and support of a team. It is therefore important that all leaders work towards cultivating and generating an intellectual capital for their organizations.

This duly gives them a competitive advantage over other competitors in the market. In most organization, only a fraction of the capability of the work force is utilized. Leaders cannot gain much by coercing the employees to work harder.

Instead, an increase in productivity can be achieved if the leaders invest in motivational tactics for his followers. Kondalkar defines motivation as a process of inciting individuals to act in such a manner that they accomplish desired goals. Considering the fact that leadership entails the leader using his followers to fulfill set organizational goals, it would be right to state that a significant part of the leadership role involves motivating staff to achieve set goals.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Leadership: Contemporary Theories and Approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my leadership approach, the Expectancy Theory of motivation would be utilized. According to the expectancy theory as advanced by Vroom, people tend to choose actions, efforts and occupation that increase their pleasures while at the same time decreasing discomfort and pain (Chapman and Hopwood 120). According to this theory, a person’s motivation force is directly proportional to their envisioned gains.

Put in another way, the probability that a person’s will bring about particular desirable outcomes will cause the person to be motivated into acting in a certain way so as to achieve the outcomes. A leader can make use of this knowledge on motivation to come up with the most effective motivation for the followers.

Having goals is important for the success of any group effort. These goals represent the vision that the leader hopes to achieve though his followers. One of the roles of the leader is to come up with a vision and let the followers know what this vision is so as to give them a sense of purpose and direction.

The typical leader is required to come up with a set of goals that the followers are expected to achieve. The typical leader may come up with goals that are not properly articulated, are unchallenging or even unattainable by the workforce. My approach emphasizes on the importance of a leader to come up with clear and achievable goals in line with the Goal-setting theory advanced by Locke.

Pynes asserts that according to the Goal Setting Theory, clear expectations result in high performance from the followers (155). With this in mind, a leader should be keen to give a coherent vision and set specific, challenging and attainable goals for the followers. Also, the leader must have in mind that he may be required to adjust goals as time progresses since goals that were achievable and challenging at the onset may become unchallenging and unachievable goals over time.

Creativity is cited as one of this traits that is desirable of a leader. As a matter of fact, creativity has become the defining attribute of successful business organizations over the last two decades. Huge and small organizations alike are constantly in search of new ideas to help them stay ahead of their competitors or provide even better services to their customers.

Shavinina asserts that creativity assists organizations to enhance their productivity therefore giving them a means to remain competitive in an increasingly aggressive market environment (607). While innovation may come from group efforts, in most occasions it is initiated by one individual who mostly happens to be the leader.

My approach would therefore require that the leader exhibit creativity and innovation which should be used to positively impact the organization. This creativity may be projected through acts such as the proposal of novel ideas or by coming up with even more efficient ways for the followers to run their operations in the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership: Contemporary Theories and Approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More My leadership approach would place emphasis on conflict resolution by the leader. Contentious issues arise in all aspects of life and the organizational context is not exempted from this. These issues normally involve people holding different views or opinions and the manner in which contention is dealt with bears directly on the future wellbeing of the organization.

The leader plays a big role in ensuring that contentious issues are dealt with in an amicable manner. This is normally through the use of diplomatic means. Diplomacy entails using power and authority to reach desirable outcomes that are accepted by all or coming to a consensus (London 259).

The leader should possess diplomatic skills which will enable him to handle disputes and arrive at solutions that are not only feasible but also acceptable by all parties involved in the dispute. In most situations, conflicts are most effectively resolved through negotiation which is defined as communication for the purpose of persuasion.

Negotiation is typically based on concession trading where the parties involved reduce their demands in order to accommodate the opposing party. My approach will require that leaders be equipped with negotiation skills which will be essential in conflict resolution.

An important leadership factor is the showing of genuine concern for followers. In a survey by Alimo-Metcalfe and Alban-Metcalfe in which over 4,000 managers were interviewed, it was discovered that the single most important leadership factor was showing genuine concern to staff (27).

The reason for this is because every employee incurs some stress and demotivation as they undertake their work duties if they have a negative relationship with their leader. Engaging in a leadership style that demonstrates genuine concern will lead to a increased productivity and performance in the organization.

My approach would require that the leader demonstrate concern for the followers at all times and be sympathetic to their needs. This may mean that the leader would at times have to defend his followers from attacks by superior members of the organization.

My leadership approach will also work with the understanding that some people possess inherent traits which make them better suited as leaders. This is in line with the Trait Approach which places emphasis on the inborn character traits of a leader. According to the trait theory, individuals are born with some innate qualities which set them apart as leaders.

This theory proposes that critical leadership traits can be identified in people and the people with these desirable traits could then be given leadership positions. The Trait theory has been utilized in military leadership for centuries. By using this theory, my approach would take care to identify certain desirable traits in the choosing of leaders.

Studies indicate that some of the most frequently occurring traits include technical skills, friendliness, assertiveness, emotional intelligence and charisma (Den Hartog 229). A leadership style that would be included in my approach is assertiveness. Assertiveness is defined as the degree to which a person is “assertive, tough, dominant, and aggressive” in their relationships with others (Dickson, Hartog and Mitchelson 746).

Application of assertiveness in leadership springs from the assumption that each person has a right to make known their needs. Assertiveness assists in this since it promotes interpersonal behavior which is desirable in the organization. By being assertive, a person can maximize their satisfaction while at the same time considering the needs of other people.

Assertion is characterized by being direct and honest while communicating with others. This attributes assist in promoting positive interpersonal relationship since they act as a platform for constructive dispute resolution. My approach would require that the leader have the ability to inspire the followers by giving them a sense of purpose and ensuring that they are working towards the achievement of set goals.

The leader should be able to generate and sustain trust and goodwill among all the parties in the organization. By doing this, the leader can promote confidence amongst the followers and hence heighten optimism within the organization. This will greatly boost employee morale therefore guaranteeing the future success of the organization since objectives will be met.

These qualities are of great significance at the present time when optimism is low due to the halted economic growth in most countries. A leader who is able to inspire and raise the confidence of the followers will make a positive difference to the organization.

In the educational industry, the preserving of the corporate culture of the organization can make the difference in the organization. This is because in most educational institutes, the culture responsible for the successful execution of tasks in the organization over a long period of time.

This being the case, it is obvious that the success of an organization can be jeopardized by any move that threatens to weaken the corporate culture of the organization. Morgan states that corporate cultures develop “as an ethos created and sustained by social processes so as to bury out differences” (128). This means that the culture is a means by which the various disparate members of the organization can forge some form of alliance and thus work towards.

Jenster and Hussey assert that a strong culture may be further reinforced in an organization by a strong charismatic figure (231). My leadership approach would therefore demand that the leader demonstrate some charismatic attributes. Sahskin suggests that actions that result in feelings of charisma towards a leader figure will increase the likelihood of the followers copying the leader’s actions (178). This is because charisma enables the leader to ensure that everyone involved buys into the ideas and concepts that they are trying to advance.

Cultural Considerations The concept of leadership is universal and leaders are deemed as necessary for effective running of all organizations. Even so, differing cultural groups may have varied perceptions of what leadership entails (Koopman 132). Culture is defined as “a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people and that, taken together, constitute a design for living” (Vance and Paik 39).

This definition underscores the fact that culture has a huge impact on the lives of both the individual and the community. This huge influence of culture means that it impacts directly on all human activities. Inter cultural interactions involves people from different cultural backgrounds converging.

These interactions have a significant implication on leadership. Therefore, an adequate approach on leadership must take cultural interactions into considerations. While intercultural interactions have been caused by a myriad of reasons, globalization is viewed as the single biggest contributing factor.

Globalization is a process characterized by large scale integration of both economies and cultures and this process is quickly becoming extensive and with it, there have been profound changes in the running of society and organizations.

With cultural considerations in mind, a concept that my leadership style would take into consideration is power distance as advanced by Hofstede. This concept provides some insight into the leadership behavior that would be most applicable in particular cultures. As is it, different cultures have different power distances and this influences the style that is most relevant.

Power distance is defined by Vance and Paik as “the extents that people have an equal distribution of power” (41). High power distance implies a concentration of power at the top while small power distance implies a wider distribution of power among a higher number of people. In high power distance societies, power is possessed by few individuals while in small power distance power is distributed among a wider ranger of people.

The Western society, which is characterized by high social mobility and low authoritarianism, favors low power distance. In high power distance cultures, an autocratic and controlling leadership style is most applicable and the followers will expect the leader to give specific instructions.

Followers are expected to respect authority and not engage their own creativity. Contrary to this, small power distance cultures require the leader to be more participative and the followers are encouraged to engage their creativity since a more democratic approach is used in leadership (Vance and Paik 41). Culture dictates the power distance that is acceptable in a particular social environment and therefore, a leadership approach that considers this is most effective.

Hofstede goes on to group cultural dimensions into two: masculinity vs. Femininity. The Masculine dimension places emphasis on achievements and rewards for exemplary performcace are the fundamental motivational means. Vance and Paik assert that in this culture the major driving force is outcomes of financial gain and recognition among peers for the individual (42).

The feminine culture in contrast has as its driving force concern for other members. In this culrure, financial gains and prestige are secondary to the welfare of each member in the organization. Hofstede goes on to state that “high masculinity may give rise to a fairly macro type of leadership, where high femininity may lead to a more empathetic consideration type of leadership” (34).

My approach will underscore the fact that dealing with people in the two different cultural backgrounds will be profoundly different. In the masculinity culture, my approach will recommend competition which is the best way to achieve maximum benefits. In the femininity culture, fostering of cooperation is paramount for the achievement of productivity in the.

Contexts for Application I would wish to apply my leadership approach in the education industry and in particular, in the administrative aspect of education. The Educational system of any society is fundamental to the development and as such the general well being of the entire community.

With this realization, educators throughout the world have acknowledged that the educational structures and practices that are adopted have a profound impact on the population’s education. This directly impacts on the economic and social outcomes of the members of the community. An educational system which yields high results is therefore seen as being essential for the well being of the entire community.

The leadership styles adopted by educational institutes have huge significances on the success of the educational institute. My approach purports to be all encompassing, since it recognizes that different people favor different leadership styles and that culture plays a huge role in determining the most effective leadership style.

My approach demonstrates that application of motivational theory can result in better leadership. This is because ignorance of motivational theories hampers leadership effectiveness since the leader is unable to incite the workers into producing the best performances.

Without a profound knowhow of motivational theories, the leader is bound to use the basic rewards and punishment mode in his bid to achieve desired goals. While this method may work in some instances, Frey and Jegen warn that “monetary incentives and punishment may have the undesirable effect of crowding-out intrinsic motivation under some conditions” (591).

A leader who has a proper understanding of motivation as has been articulated in this paper adopts a wider encompassing system of motivating his followers. My leadership approach also gives due consideration to cultural since culture shapes the world view of a person. Culture dictates the individual’s perception of what is good or bad leadership style.

Culture shapes individuals’ attitudes, and values and this profoundly influences a person’s actions and their relationship with others (Singelis and Brown 355). My approach which places emphasis on the culture specific view of leadership is therefore most applicable in a world that becoming increasingly globalized with intercultural interactions becoming more prevalent.

Conclusion In this paper, I set out to develop systematically and defend with reasoned arguments my own approach concerning leadership. The paper began by defining leadership and proceeded to highlight my approach. My approach has taken into considerations the qualities and characteristics of good leadership and subsequently articulated how the qualities of an effective leader impact on the organization.

The impacts of culture on leadership have also been taken into consideration since culture greatly affects leadership effectiveness. This paper had demonstrated that a lack of leadership qualities can result in lost focus and even the presence of unmotivated workers hence lowering productivity for the entire organization. By making use of the leadership approach articulated in this paper, one can become an effective leader therefore bringing about positive results to the organization.

Works Cited Alimo-Metcalfe, Beverly, and Alban-Metcalfe Robert. “The Development of a New Transformational Leadership Questionnaire”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 1-27, 2001

Burns, JM. Leadership. New York, NY: Harper


Identification, Placement, or Provision of Appropriate Instruction to Low Income Gifted Students Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction ­ Demographics of Florida have recorded overwhelming changes in the recent years due to the increased population as well as enrichment of human race diversity. The city is identified with a large population of students in the available schools, who are inclusive of all human races.

The students’ achievements of set goals are widely determined by the extent of recognition by the Bureau of education, the low income gifted students not being an exception. Gifted children entail those individuals that have high potentials of achievements, though disadvantaged by the fact that they come from low income earning families.

The 2000 demographics table of recognition has been constructed in a way that makes rampant challenges identifiable (Brody, 2004). The discussion in this paper is aimed at investigating challenges associated with the identification, placement, or provision of appropriate instruction to low income gifted students.

Challenges to low income gifted students A countless number of challenges are identified in regards to the identification, placement as well as provision of the essential instruction to those students that are gifted and coming from low income families in Florida. Inequality in representation is very evident from the recent 2000 demographics.

The fact that the city holds all types of races in the general population and the fact that the same rate should be viewed in school populations, there needs be equal treatment for all students. However, the largest numbers that are catered for in the placements to special programs are whites while very few numbers of other races are catered for.

The inequality challenge goes beyond the national level for it is rampantly extended to the district level (Brody, 2004). Additionally, there exists a disproportional representation of the students in regard to linguistic, cultural as well as the ethnic diversity.

The consideration is based on the racial lines and hence giving room to the aspect of tribalism to take preeminence in the operations of gifted students programs. In the process, the low-income gifted students who should be considered for special education are not catered for.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of ethnicity is identified with persistence over the years and also the failure for the educational curriculum to offer ample instructions to those students that are talented in one way or the other. The long standing challenge has been that of the high percentage of minority students with special needs as compared to their enrolment to the gifted and talented students programs.

The immigrant’s students into Florida have very small numbers of those considered as compared to those of the white’s students. This problem is identified with a disproportionate representation in the schools. In response to this, the current research reports indicate that the future of Florida is bound to encompass large numbers of diverse racial lines, thus becoming a multiracial area.

This also accounts for a rise of the numbers of students of immigrants to higher levels that those of whites, making it a problem if this tribalism challenge continues thriving (Karnes and Johnsen, 2005). Moreover, there is the prevalence of favoritism challenge, which entails offering special consideration to some individuals more than the others are considered.

The demographic representation of the year 2000 indicate some parts of those that are white gifted students being given a priority over the rest, though they are racially similar. The counties, though in the same city do not use an identical criteria for the consideration of gifted low income students, and those in some areas benefit.

The major long-standing problem is even that having ghost students being in the special school programs, who take up the positions of the genuinely needy. This form of favoritism diverts the funds that are to help the gifted low income students into no noble utilization.

The extension of this challenge is also extended along racial lines in regard to the identification and placement of the gifted low income students into the appropriate programs. Furthermore, the fact that the challenges are long standing is an implication that no policies have been put into place to safeguard the gifted low income students to help them achieve their dreams by the prevailing government (Karnes and Johnsen, 2005).

The usefulness of the information in identifying this subgroup in a school

The information herein provided is crucial in the identification of such a sub-group in my school. The fact that no school in the world will comprise of students of a similar race helps release the importance regarding every person as a human creature regardless of their origin.

We will write a custom Essay on Identification, Placement, or Provision of Appropriate Instruction to Low Income Gifted Students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More My school though does not emphasize on such programs will need to come up with the best strategies to identify such groups. The gifted students are quite innovative since are those people with an extra knowledge in regard to innovation but sometimes never get a chance to achieve their dreams.

The information is also valuable in the evaluation of how best a government, an institution or an education has been able to assist needy students. It is also important in addressing the issue of inequality in learning institutions as well as governmental realms. The change of placement and identification policies is only possible when appropriate environmental scanning has been performed to identify such challenges (Cline and Schwartz, 1999).

Conclusion The placement, identification and meeting of instructional needs of gifted low income students in Florida have been overwhelmed by some rampant challenges in the recent years. The rampancy of inequality, favoritism as well as tribalism is known to have been long-standing over the years.

However, the identification of these challenges has a rationale of identifying such groups in my school as well as addressing them. However, more research should be conducted to come up with the sources of these rampant challenges associated with the identification, placement, or provision of appropriate instruction to low income gifted students

References Brody, L. (2004). Grouping and acceleration practices in gifted education. NY: Corwin Press, 2004.

Cline, S. and Schwartz, D. (1999). Diverse populations of gifted children: meeting their needs in the regular classroom and beyond. NY: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Karnes, F. and Johnsen, S. (2005). Identifying gifted students: a step-by-step guide. Texas: Prufrock Press Inc.


Language and Time Analytical Essay college essay help

Language is a critical tool in the humanities and social sciences. It would be impossible to study communication arts, history, philosophy, religion and the classics if one will deprive himself of this tool. Language is the key that opens the door in the study of humanities. However, the same thing can be said when it comes to the social sciences.

It would be impossible to understand human society, how it was formed and how it is being sustained without the use of language. It is the code breaker that will allow a student of the social sciences to understand the complex communication systems used by human beings. Language is the backbone for both humanities and social sciences.

Benedict Anderson had a brilliant insight when it comes to the purpose of language and its link to the creation of social classes. He said that printed language is the reason why democratic nations were formed out of kingdoms ruled by tyrants. At the same time he also implied that prior to the rise of nationalism verbal language was used primarily to build communities.

With regards to the rise of nationalism he was convinced that it would have been impossible to achieve it without a way for the common people to connect beyond family or tribal loyalties.

Anderson argued that in the past there was no other means of establishing communities but through the rituals associated with kinship, clientship, and personal loyalties (Anderson, no date).

These rituals can only be accomplished by the use of verbal communication and therefore the expert use of language to bind people together in marriage, treaties, and other forms of personal transactions. It is language that facilitated the knitting together of families, friends and neighbors. Language is the primary tool that brings people together.

It is important to master the verbal language and even the written language as a means of communication. But language should not be limited to the building of communities and societies. Language must be fully maximized because it can provide more than a set of symbols and sounds for communication purposes. Language is the only thing that can express what is deep within the spirit of man.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Walter Benjamin said that storytelling is the best way to experience life to the full (Benjamin, 2003). Storytelling is different from the usual use of language such as a means to organize a community to compel them to action.

Storytelling compels the soul of the storyteller and the audience to soar in regions inaccessible by the physical body – a place beyond this present reality. It can only be accessed by the spirit of man. The means of transport is the use of language.

Time on the other hand does not contain symbols or even sounds. It does not have anything that can be perceived by the five senses – taste, smell, hearing, sight, and touch. It is some sort of an idea that can only be imagined but there is nothing tangible about it. This is perhaps the reason why some philosophers tried to argue that time does not exist.

However, the invisible does not mean that it is not real and it is not present in this world. It may be that the invisible cannot be captured by human hands and human strength but nevertheless it is as real as the invisible air and the invisible power that binds atomic particles together.

This is perhaps the reason why at the end, critics of time like Jose Luis Borges were forced to accept that time is real and that time is needed by all especially when it comes to the study of humanities and the social sciences.

It is impossible to begin to understand the complexity of the humanities without the element of time. It is difficult to fully understand what Borges tried to say when he quoted Shakespeare. If he meant to say that Shakespeare shared his enthusiasm to negate time then he is wrong. The works of Shakespeare is one of the proofs that time exists.

This is because there is no way to understand his sonnets and his plays without the element of time. This is obvious when one studies the eternal Romeo and Juliet it is impossible to miss the terms Act I, Act II, and Act III and so on and so forth because this is a way to delineate time. It is contrary to what Borges tried to prove that there is no linearity in life (Borges, 1947).

We will write a custom Essay on Language and Time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At leas it is linear in the plays of Shakespeare. It would have been impossible to enjoy or even to understand Romeo and Juliet without the use of time because events had to be in proper sequence. The scene where the Montagues and the Capulets tried to kill each other must come first before the scene wherein Romeo fell in love with Juliet.

The scene wherein the messenger took a long time to deliver the message to Romeo must come first before Juliet took her own life. The sequence of events must be in order to make sense of the love story. But without time these events floats into the air, without order and no one has the power to bring it to a discernible pattern.

It is also impossible to understand the social sciences without the element of time. History is possible through a chronology of events. In other words a linear succession of events explains the present because of the things that occurred in the past.

The United States of the 20th century is an impossible concept without the occurrence of the American Revolution that in the 18th century. The United Nations would never have been created without the horror of two World Wars. The social scientists could never create a solution to the problems that he encountered without using the tool we call time.

It is part of the measuring rod that determines success and failures. Time tracks movement, without it there will be no action that resulted in meaningful work and in turn those activities resulted in a body of work that benefited people. There is no way to understand the evolution of a society without time. It is much easier to refute Borges refutation of time rather than to find a way to support his claim.

It is easier to criticize his analysis on how to negate time than to seek a philosophically accepted framework to defend his ideas. Even Borges at the end has to concede that perhaps his desire to refute time is borne out of desperation. He is perhaps fearful of his impending demise and so he tried his best to make time go away but alas there is no escaping time.

Human beings are obligated to evolve into a higher state. It is their destiny to become better, stronger, faster, and wiser. There is no evidence to show that mankind is regressing. There are societies that demonstrate its capability to resist change but they only succeeded in resisting but not in the total apprehension of change.

There are only a few tribes and communities that can actually say that they prefer to stay the same and that they are doing their best to maintain what they currently have. The rest of mankind proves the opposite. It can even be said that there is an eagerness to change, to improve and to enhance what is at present.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Language and Time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The majority looks at the future because it is there where their hope lies and they know that a better version of themselves can only be achieved through movement. It is only possible through human progression.

Humanity must move forward, it cannot afford to look back. A society must learn to use everything that it possesses in order to reach the next level of progress. It is good to treasure memories of days gone by but an obsession with the past will only pull that particular community backwards instead of moving forward. Mankind’s destiny is to become a better species and by doing so he will be able to transform the planet.

Visit a classroom and listen to what children say. Go to a place where the children are not yet tainted with malice and sarcasm and they will tell you that they want to be an instrument of positive change.

This is the reason why they dream of becoming a doctor, an engineer, nurse, police officer, and fireman because deep within – without anyone telling them – they know that they have a mission to fulfill.

Unfortunately, when they are all grown up and exposed to the rough and tumble world they began to doubt if they are really destined for something bigger than trying to pay the bills or working hard for someone who does not appreciate their efforts.

Mankind must make commitment that there is no other way to go but to move forward. Progress is its savior. Technological breakthroughs had proven to be a major catalyst of change and indeed made life easier. It is now easier to grow food, store them, and transport them as compared to the hunter-gatherers of ancient times.

It is now easier to acquire clothes and build homes as compared to a tribe’s struggle to acquire materials and process them. However, technology has also proven to be the source of today’s problems such as pollution, deforestation, garbage, climate change, overcrowding etc.

Nevertheless, this does not mean that technology should be blamed and that it is time to take a step backwards and revert to the medieval mindset of yesteryears. This simply means that mankind must keep moving forward because as human beings continue to clamor for change and for self-improvement then they will be able to solve these problems. It is not technology per se that is the culprit but the lack of knowledge.

The knowledge that we have is enough. Scientists, explorers, and mavericks must rise up to take up the challenge of pushing the boundaries of progress and change.

Future progress assures mankind’s survival but also its improvement as human beings. This is made evident when it comes to the humanities and social sciences. In the study of the humanities a person who seeks improvement will have a better capacity to absorb, appreciate, and teach the profound lessons contained in the humanities as a subject matter.

This means that personal development will enable man and woman to unlock the secrets of philosophy, religion, history, and even the classics so that it can be used to improve the community in particular and the world in general.

Aside from using the humanities as a tool to build better and stronger communities there is another way to improve the lives of people and it is through the correct application of the wisdom and knowledge that can be gleaned from the study of social sciences. However, social scientists must also long for the same thing and it is the desire for growth and progression in their field.

It is not enough for them to know a certain amount of information and then proceed to change the world. Social scientist must discover new methods and new techniques of doing things and this can only be achieved if they learn how to increase their capacity. There is therefore a symbiotic relationship between the study of the humanities and social sciences and human progress. One needs the other.

Works Cited Anderson, Benedict. Old Languages, New Models. Borges, Jose Luis. A New Refutation of Time. Walter, Benjamin. The Storyteller.


How U.S Relations have Impacted and Affected Pakistani-Indian Relations Post Cold War Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction The cold war ended in 1989 and a mutual peaceful mood engulfed the universe as all parties ushered in a new era. The Berlin Wall was dismantled and a disintegration of the Soviet Union as well as new independence for the Eastern Europe countries was witnessed.

This was a brand new start after a volatile era that would have seen the use of weapons of mass destruction that made people live in fear. It was described as the ‘End of History’ based on the fact that the gross conflicts between nations had come to a halt. 1 This paper looks at how the United States relations have impacted and effected Pakistani – Indian relations in post cold war.

The cold war brought about distrust and suspicion between the United States, India, and Pakistan but the events of post cold war have changed this relationship. The United States and India have developed closer ties courtesy of factors that are directly influenced by individual leadership, domestic leadership and structural leadership.

These countries now cooperate at different levels that include diplomacy, economic development, as well as strategic development. The end of the cold war led these countries to rethink their stand against each other and they came to discover that they needed to cooperate in order to move forward. However, this has not been the case with Pakistan and India who still harbor grudges against each other to date.

The United States was in support for India during the cold war and this was the main reason why it provided it with military equipment for the war. However, the US failed to get the kind of support it expected from India, which was more bent towards forging ahead, and taking part in the war independently without relying on the super power.

India’s non-alignment was disputable since it was a weak country as compared to the American and Soviet Union countries. The 1970s saw India ditch the United States despite her efforts to support it and joined the Soviet Union side that seemed more successful.

The Soviet Union in turn supported India and protected it from its enemies. Pakistan at this time happened to be India’s archrival due to its support for the U.S. in its endeavors. Pakistan in return got favors from the United States that included military and economic assistance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The U.S. embarked on a non-proliferation process that was aimed at denying South Asia the use of nuclear weapons. India was deeply agitated by this move that was not only hypocritical but also discriminatory since the West had a right to the nuclear weapons. 2

The end of the cold war saw the collapse of the Soviet Union and the unresolved conflicts between India and Pakistan over Kashmir persisted. Around this time, India still harbored strong hatred for the United States that seemed to stand between them and their prosperity.

To bridge the gap left by the Soviet Union, India decided to get into a closer relationship with the United States that was mutually beneficial as it hoped to get an upper hand over china, which was becoming powerful.

To date, the U.S. has refused to accept India’s terms on the use of nuclear weapons and this is seen as a factor that would dent a progressive relationship between these two in future. India would want to test its nuclear weapons and use nuclear fuel, demands that the U.S is reluctant to meet.

On the other hand, the United States has taken to supporting Pakistan reclaim her lost glory to appear among the most prosperous and stable countries of the world. This is among the impacts and effects that the U.S relations have on the Pakistani – Indian relations in post cold war. The price that Pakistan has to pay is to support U.S. policies in the region and take part in the mitigation of nuclear proliferation.

The U.S also hopes to end the enmity that has existed between India and Pakistan since time immemorial. The U.S – Pakistan relationship is however strained in that Pakistan has lost its trust for the U.S. it blames the U.S. for the violence that has escalated in the country in the recent past. 3

Pakistan got its independence in 1947 and continued to enjoy good relationships with the West. It was aligned with the Unites States and Britain and this led to its joining the British Commonwealth of Nations. It did not loose the Britons who headed some of its vital government branches like the military and high administration.

We will write a custom Essay on How U.S Relations have Impacted and Affected Pakistani-Indian Relations Post Cold War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Britain thus continued to supply Pakistan with military weapons and offered training for its troops as well. Pakistan at a point felt that it was getting a raw deal from Britain in issues that involved their archrival, India. This saw its cessation of membership from the Commonwealth in 1972 though it later rejoined in 1989.

The United States regained its firm grip on Pakistan and made it a base for its military operations in South Asia. India and Pakistan went to war in 1965 and the U.S continued supporting it with military weapons.

This angered India and caused their relationship to strain further and in 1971, India managed to defeat Pakistan in the civil war. The then Pakistan president, Zulfiqar Bhutto started loosing faith in the U.S. citing that it was in a position to prevent the attack by India. He thus embarked on severing ties with the United States since he felt betrayed.

In 1981, President Ronald Reagan gave Pakistan US$3.2 billion that was to cover military and economic support after 9 years of their fall out. This donation was increased to US$4.0 in 1986 and the United States continued its military and economic support for Pakistani citing that its nuclear weapons were used for peaceful purposes only.

The year 1990 saw to the termination of this assistance by president George Bush as the nonproliferation agenda gained ground. Once again, Pakistan, just like India felt betrayed and discriminated upon by the U.S. and vowed to keep its nuclear weapons. 4

As the cold war came to a close, the United States lost interest in Pakistan and embarked on working out a relationship with India. This was followed by sanctions in 1990 against Pakistan to loose its nuclear weapons that ironically had been supplied by the same U.S. government. In addition, India, in the eyes of the U.S government had a greater potential for commercial, political, and strategic terms as compared to Pakistan.

The then U.S. president, Bill Clinton initiated negotiations with India and this further widened the gap between Pakistan and India as Pakistan felt sidelined. 5

Regardless of all this, India and Pakistan went ahead to test their nuclear weapons and the U.S did not have a choice but to lift the sanctions in 1998. In a twist of events, the U.S. renewed its interest in Pakistan as it yearned its help in combating the antiterrorist war against Afghanistan.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How U.S Relations have Impacted and Affected Pakistani-Indian Relations Post Cold War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bearing in mind the love-hate relationship that existed between the U.S and Pakistan, the move to renew the relationship was not taken kindly. The U.S. efforts to offer it military and economic assistance was rejected and termed as “peanuts” and in order to win it back, the aid had to be increased.

The U.S. did not have a choice and soon succumbed to Pakistan’s demands and increased the aid to $3.2 billions. By doing so, it could now count on Pakistan’s support in conquering Afghanistan in the nuclear weapon’s war. 6

In 1988, Moscow withdrew its troops from Afghanistan and Pakistan was thrown out in the cold by the U.S. since she was no longer important to their strategies. This situation did not last long since in 2001, the U.S embarked on a war against the Taliban and Al Qaeda and as usual charmed Pakistan into a relationship for convenience purposes. The U.S. needed the support of both India and Pakistan to meet its objectives.

It needed India to fight the “China Threat” and Pakistan for the fight against terrorism in Afghanistan. It therefore had to work out a harmonious relationship between these two rival countries if it was to succeed.

A conference to discuss nuclear weapons was suggested by Pakistan in 1991 but India declined to attend. Its main reasons were that Pakistan would renew its relationship with the U.S and India felt threatened. In addition, India felt that the nuclear weapons fight was not a South Asia thing but a global thing the U.S sought to distance itself from.

India felt that to beat china, which was coming up fast, it needed its nuclear weapons. More so, it felt that Pakistan would agree to give up its nuclear weapons in exchange for favors that included diplomatic victory and this would single India out as the only country that had illegal access to nuclear weapons. This would have put it at the center of military action in the war against possession of nuclear weapons. 7

The nuclear weapons war has brought about grievous disputes between India, Pakistan, and Kashmir even in post-cold war. There has also been a boundary dispute for about 50 years with Kashmir though a peaceful resolution is being sought. The presidents of Pakistan and India even met to resolve the issue though the progress has been minimal judging from the past bitter relationship the two countries have been through.

Kashmir, which is located in northwest India, has brought about a major conflict between India and Pakistan since the World War II ended. India and Pakistan were meant to be one country if Mahatma Gandhi’s wishes were followed though this was not to be.

Religious differences led to the split where India was predominantly Hindu and Pakistan Muslim. The Kashmir area issues that was predominantly Muslim were left unresolved though two months later; India was given control over it. Pakistan was not happy with the decision and this erupted into a war between the two countries.

Ceasefire was called in 1949 by the United Nations and the Kashmir territory was divided between India and Pakistan. This saw Pakistan take a third of it while the rest went to the Indian government. 8

Despite this division, India went ahead and took control over the whole of Kashmir in 1956 and this only resulted into another war with Pakistan. Most terrorist activities headed by Al Qaeda have been reported in Kashmir that is next to Afghanistan. Pakistan is in full support of these activities since it claims the Kashmir territory.

This has promoted the terrorist network that the U.S. has been fighting hard and this war is now termed as “Jihad” and this has pushed matters to their worst. The region is seen to promote terrorism since it hosts the Al Qaeda groups and acts as an escape for many of its leaders such as Osama Bin Laden. 9

The United States has been fighting a hard battle with Pakistan and India as it tries to come up with good relations that will brush all the differences these two countries have aside. President Obama’s recent visit to India is a clear indication that the United States has got over its ugly past with India and seeks to turn over a new page where the two countries will be able to cooperate.

This is a delicate issue though bearing in mind that Pakistan has been the U.S puppet during and after the cold war and thus India distrusts it. The border fight between the two countries over Kashmir notwithstanding.

The U.S relations with these two countries is focused on reconciliating them with the aim of fighting transnational terrorism that has taken root in Kashmir. This makes these relations even more sensitive and if the U.S is to continue enjoying the good relations it has embarked on, there is a great need to tackle the problems that come with their rivalry first.

Otherwise, if this does not happen, this will be a losing battle since peace will be elusive and instability will settle in. The U.S therefore has to be hands-on on the case of Kashmir and attempt to resolve the underlying differences between Pakistan and India. 10

Conclusion The U.S is at the center of the conflict between India and Pakistan as evidenced by this paper that focuses on how U.S relations have impacted and effected Pakistani – Indian relations in post cold war.

. It has repeatedly supported Pakistan against other countries in the Soviet Union for its personal interests. It has been picking and dropping it at will and it is a pity that this comes up as a major cause of the post cold war unrest witnessed in these two South Asian countries.

It is evident that U.S relations have impacted negatively on Pakistan and India. For the U.S to drop Pakistan in favor of India is seen as adoption of double standards where despite Pakistan remaining loyal, the U.S uses it for its convenience in anti-terrorism wars.

No wonder the two countries have remained at logger heads even in the Kashmir’s case and appear adamant to subscribe to the cessation call of nuclear weapons. The war against terrorism will therefore remain a dream if the U.S retains the same kind of relationship with Pakistan.

At the same time, the U.S may have succeeded in forming better ties with India but their varied stance on nuclear weapons could derail the progress since the goodwill generated could evaporate.

Bibliography Chou, David. “U.S Policy toward India and Pakistan in the post-cold war era.” Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 27 (2003):1-30.

Fair, Christine. “Time for sober realism: Renegotiating U.S. Relations with Pakistan.” The Washington Quarterly, 10 August 2009, A32.

Ganguly, Sumit. “The Kashmir Conundrum.” Foreign Affairs 80 (2005): 40-45.

Kapur, Paul and Ganguly, Sumit. “The transformation of U.S. – India Relations. An explanation for the rapprochement and prospects for the future.” Asian Survey 47(2007): 642-656.

Keen, Emily. “India, Pakistan and Kashmir. What have been the recent developments in the dispute between India and Pakistan regarding Kashmir?” Batch News, 5 Sept 2004, A10.

Kronstadt, Alan. “Pakistan – U.S. Relations.” CRS Report for Congress, 33 (2008): 4-9. Web.

Laquer, Walter. “After the cold war. The euphoria did not last.” America Government, 5(2006): 2-3.

Pant, Harsh. “Pakistan and Iran’s dysfunctional relationship.” Middle East Quarterly, 4 July 2009, A16.

Rizvi, Hasan-Askari. “Analysis: Critical issues in India – U.S. Relations,” Daily Times, A new voice for a new Pakistan, 7 Nov 07 2010, E2.

U.S Library of Congress. “The United States – Pakistan.” Country Studies 1(2006): 1-3.

Footnotes 1 Walter Laquer, “After the cold war. The euphoria did not last.” America Government 5 (2006): 2-3.

2 Paul Kapur and Sumit Ganguly, “The transformation of U.S. – India Relations. An explanation for the rapprochement and prospects for the future.” Asian Survey 47(2007):642-656.

3 Christine Fair, “Time for sober realism: Renegotiating U.S. Relations with Pakistan,” The Washington Quarterly, 10 August 2009, A32.

4 U.S Library of Congress, “The United States – Pakistan.” Country Studies 1(2006): 1-3.

5 Harsh Pant, “Pakistan and Iran’s dysfunctional relationship.” Middle East Quarterly, 4 July 2009, A16.

6 Alan Kronstadt, “Pakistan – U.S. Relations,” CRS Report for Congress 33 (2008), 4-9.

7 David Chou, “U.S Policy toward India and Pakistan in the post-cold war era.” Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 27 (2003):1-30.

8 Sumit Ganguly, “The Kashmir Conundrum.” Foreign Affairs 80 (2005): 40-45.

9 Emily Keen, “India, Pakistan and Kashmir. What have been the recent developments in the dispute between India and Pakistan regarding Kashmir?” Batch News, 5 Sept 2004, A10.

10 “Hasan-Askari Rizvi. Analysis: Critical issues in India – U.S. Relations,” Daily Times, A new voice for a new Pakistan, 7 Nov 07 2010, E2.


The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick Report essay help online

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 2008. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press is a book exploring the Russian Revolution: 1917 – 1932. I have chosen this book for analysis in order to improve my knowledge of that historic period and get better understanding of the essence, causes and aims of the Revolution.

The second reason for my choice was that I wanted to examine new approaches to the issue and develop my critical thinking as this book provides a new perspective and new aspects of the historical events.

It is a sort of reading for those who are critical about history and want to develop personal opinion independent from a generally accepted point of view. In addition, the book is not very long, but rich in content and provides not only general information, but details of that historical period. What is more, the book is easy to read.

The topic of the book is Russian Revolution, its aims, purposes, causes, consequences and flow. There are different approaches to the time period that can be considered revolutionary. The author of this book defines the following frames:

“The timespan of the Russian Revolution runs from February 1917 to the Great Purge of 1937-8. The different stages – the February and October Revolutions of 1917, the Civil War, the interlude of NEP, Stalin’s “revolution from above”, its aftermath and the Great Purges – are treated as district episodes in a twenty-year process of revolution” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 4).

The book consists of chapters which contain comprehensive and critical analysis of each period supported by various historiographical references. Three major themes of the Russian Revolution are discussed in each chapter. The first theme is the Bolsheviks’ vision of the revolution as a mean of modernization of the society.

Fitzpatrick defines the goal of Bolsheviks as “revolution as a means of escaping backwardness.” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 4). The second major theme is the class theme: revolution as the “mission of proletariat” to create a new working class. The third team discloses the problem of violence and terror that took place in the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author provides the information on how Revolution “dealt with its enemies” (that often were innocent people), what meaning it had for the government and why the government was so afraid of those “enemies”. The author presents the Revolution as a set of agitations and recurrences. She describes the results of the Revolution as positive to a certain extent.

The Stalin’s Revolution extended the direct state over the economy and greatly improved the economic state of the country. Fitzpatrick states that Russian peasants were more progressive than in the rest of the Western Europe, as a consequence, they formed a new class of workers. The Stalin’s Revolution provided new and productive ways of exploiting peasant agriculture.

The state was strong and “disciplined”. However, the author emphasizes the price of that power: “The persecution of “class enemies” in collectivization and the Cultural Revolution had left a complex legacy of bitterness, fear, and suspicion, as well as encouraging such practices as denunciation, purging, and “self-criticism” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 148).

We can consider this book a highly reliable source of information, as its author, Sheila Fitzpatrick, is a renowned specialist in the field of the Soviet History. She made a great contribution to the study of Soviet History, as well as modern Russian history.

Among her recent publications are Everyday Stalinism (2000), Tear of the Mask! Identity and Imposture in Twentieth-Century Russia (2005). Her works primarily focus on the social and cultural history of Russia of the Stalin period. Her biography is rich in awards, among which is a Mellon Foundation Distinguished Achievement Award. She is also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Her works are not a mere description of events and personalities. She provides her vision of the problem or historical event which is based on archive materials and researches by other Western authors.

The book is also very interesting to read as the author has a particular approach to the subject discussed. First of all, the author provides the idea that Russian society was not ready for revolution and that Russian Revolution of 1917 was a “contradiction” to the idea of Marx’s revolution. The citizens were the rural peasants who were industrial workers and they were more willing for a revolt than Marx expected them to be.

We will write a custom Report on The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another Fitzpatrick’s idea that generally contradicts a commonly accepted point of view that October Revolution contributed strength and discipline to the organization of the state. The author argues this point of view. She states that Provisional Government decided to “intransigent radicalism on the extreme left of the political spectrum” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 48) and could be seen by people as the only not corrupted part.

The capture of power by Bolsheviks was just the first step of the Revolution. The next step was a Civil War that had a great influence on the flow of it and on the establishment of the Soviet power.

However, the author does not try to persuade the reader in her point of view, she only presents facts and provides her assumptions. The task of the reader is to develop personal vision of the historical events and it not necessary should coincide with the author’s.

The author assumes that:

“For Russians and other former soviet citizens, the collapse of the Soviet Union meant a fundamental reappraisal of the meaning of the Revolution, previously hailed as the foundational event of the “world’s first social state” and now seen by many as a wrong turning that took Russia off course for seventy-four years” (Fitzpatrick 2008, 4).

The author generally accepts this vision and analyzes the most important changes from the historical perspective. As the author used new document that became available after 1991, her vision of the Revolution has changed in some aspects. Outlining some positive sides of it, the author emphasizes the mistakes that were done. She supports her point of view with convincing evidences and analysis of works by other authors.

Having read this book, I developed a bit different vision on the Russian Revolution. I can come to a conclusion that people were not ready for it and the actions that government undertook were contradictory to those suggested by Marx as people did not understand the essence of Revolution.

As a result, the idea of revolution “to put power into hand of the working class” failed and all people got was just another government which tried to build new society subordinate to new rules. However, in general the book does not present different information, it just adds new details and evidences to what have already been studied. It is a good book for those who want a critique vision of the history.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Fitzpatrick, Sheila. 2008. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.


Tangible Video Bubbles Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Tangible Video Bubble Paper Summary

State of Artificial, Augmented, and Virtual Realities

Similar Research

The impacts Artificial, Augmented, and Virtual Realities in HCI

Possible Research Directions Stimulated by the Paper

Research Methodologies



Introduction The field of human-computer interaction is an ever-expanding field occasioned by daily leaps and bounds in the information technology landscape. The information technology explosion of the twentieth century brought with it the perennial challenge of how to interact with computers.

With advances in computer processing speeds and with the desire to connect all people in the planet, human-computer interaction has developed to ensure that there is a way every person on earth can participate in the information technology revolution.

A standard PC provides the basic platform and continues to be the basis for most of the interaction with information technology for most people. Over the last decade, the mobile phone has become a very significant member of this club. Growth in mobile telephony has been phenomenal. This is especially true for the developing world.

Human-computer interaction presents the missing link between information technology equipment and potential users. It is no longer enough to wait for children to grow up and master using a keyboard and a mouse before integrating them to information technology. It is also insufficient to produce information technology-based toys for them.

Human-computer interaction is the bridge that links them to information technology. It should meet some practical needs in the process. Seba, Lew and Huang (2004) stated, “In many important HCI applications such as computer-aided tutoring and learning, it is highly desirable (even mandatory) that the response of the computer takes into account the emotional or cognitive state of the user” (p. 2).

The tangible bubble is one such attempt to provide a means that children whose dexterity is limited and who have not yet developed cognitive skills that they need to operate a PC with the opportunity to get involved in digital information processing in a manner consistent with their stage of development.

Tangible Video Bubble Paper Summary Tangible video bubbles are a video based drawing space which children use to create video art that has both input and output capabilities. Its operation involves pressing a record button for voice input and squeezing the bubble at various points to playback the recording at different speeds.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The system also includes an interactive canvas. The bubble targets children aged five to seven who portray a very easy and natural interaction with different media using multiple senses. They are able to move easily from one form of media to another, rather than follow a particular path of development in their media creations.

Technological tools that capture the imagination of children and inspire their creativity include webcams, microphones, and video cameras. They show a fascination with the use of these tools and they end up recording themselves and their surroundings for sheer pleasure.

These tools however do not provide the optimal opportunity for children to construct meaning out of what they are doing with them as they do when they are using tools such as a paintbrush and markers. This gap inspired the researchers to develop a new kinesthetic multimedia tool that will encourage and facilitate children’s meaning-making as they interact with technological devices.

The tangible video bubble is flexible physical vessel that has both input and output characteristics that children use to record videos and to play them back. It also allows them to manipulate and playback the recordings in real-time, and to ‘spill out’ the recordings out onto an interactive drawing canvas in order to incorporate them into drawings initially made on the canvas.

The play space for the system includes the tangible video bubble and an interactive drawing canvas. The tangible video bubble is, “a large, soft, and huggable ball equipped with a video camera and a screen for children to record and playback video messages” (Ryokai, Raffle, Horii and Mann, 2010. p. 3).

Pressing a button at the top of the bubble and speaking into an opening on the bubble surface enables recording. In the meantime, a video camera inside the bubble records the child’s actions. Through a reflective surface inside the bubble, the child sees his/her reflection inside the bubble while doing the recording. After capturing the message, the child plays back the message by squeezing the bubble.

Different squeezing positions result in different playback possibilities. The amount of pressure used in the squeezing controls the playback speed. The greater the pressure applied, the faster the playback speed achieved and the lesser the pressure applied, the slower the playback.

We will write a custom Essay on Tangible Video Bubbles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To Replay specific parts of the recording, the child squeezes specific parts of the bubble. In order to transfer the recording to the interactive canvas, the child squeezes the bubble out on a spill platform. There is the option of doing this at different speeds, together with the option of spelling out a particular section of the recording. The canvas can accommodate several bubbles. The set up enables the addition of as many bubbles as desired.

The canvas has touch properties that allow the child to replay the content from the canvas. It is not possible to manipulate further the bubble once transferred to the canvas. It is possible to operate both the bubble and the canvas simultaneously, enabling more than one child at a time to use the system.

The canvas has a color pallet that allows the child to draw on it as he would on paper. This makes it possible for the child to combine the recording with a drawing creating an art form that has a message that pops out when touched.

The technical implementation of the bubble includes a USB webcam fitted with a peephole lens to maximize field of view. There are green LEDs inside the sphere with red LEDs lining the aperture. The fitting ensures that the result is uniform without regard to the direction of squeezing.

During squeezing of the sphere, the green LEDs move closer to the camera, thereby increasing the video’s green saturation. With calibration, this saturation provides a reliable squeezing sensor. There is a special preview area in the bubble, allowing for previewing any recordings made. During playback, change of speed does not alter pitch. This makes it easier for the child to understand the recorded message.

During laboratory tests on the bubble, a researcher showed children how to operate the bubble for a period of five minutes, and then left them to interact with it for as long as they wished. They did not receive any explicit practice on how to master the different playback speeds. As it turned out, some children spent more time playing with the playback speed while others preferred to draw on the interactive canvas.

The result the researchers got include the fact that the children embraced the idea of the bubble quickly, and were soon recording and playing back the records. They transitioned easily between the canvas and the bubble. They played with different playback speeds before spilling the content to the drawing canvas.

The popular application the children made of the system was to do a video phrase and then making a drawing to match it. Some played with the sound effects produced by speed alteration. Older children showed the tendency to plan their recording and drawing before implementing the project on the bubble, and they had plots that are more complex.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tangible Video Bubbles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More State of Artificial, Augmented, and Virtual Realities There are many applications using artificial and augmented reality in the market. Novel ideas keep sprouting as companies seek to outdo competition. There is a push for more immersive technologies to enhance the digital experience. Virtual reality in digital environments provides a user with a real-life experience of an actual place from a digital platform.

Multimodal devices provide the link with these environments, making possible a sensible experience. It is possible to interact with a virtual artifact in these environments. Virtual reality is the basis for production of immersive tools such as computer-aided design software and graphics hardware acceleration.

Virtual reality forms the basis of many games, television programs, advertisements, movies, art, and marketing materials. Augmented reality refers to the digitization of one’s immediate environment to increase one’s perception of reality. Research in this field aims at interposing computer imagery to a real-life situation to enable a perceived digital manipulation of the resulting environment.

These Augmented reality environments have in them many sensors and actuators, which include cameras and projectors. This field makes possible the use of 3-D television and holograms, which improve the quality of digital experience. Studies in the field take advantage of advances in the study of human vision, neurology, and psychology.

While entertainment applications such as movie theatres, gaming, and television seem to get the first products from developments in this field, other areas such as medicine, engineering and education are catching up quickly with applications that improve problem-solving techniques.

Similar Research There are a number of interesting developments involving bubble multimodal input systems in human-computer interaction. The tangible video bubble is a special application developed to take advantage of the special stage of development in children.

In the MIT Technological Review Magazine, Grifantini, reported on the most interesting projects based on this concept presented in, The Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The first among these is a physically responsive map, which comprises a tabletop, which displays 3-D shapes “on a moving, flexible surface” (Grifantini, 2010).

The display provides a 3-D feel of the surface it is representing, and can represent multiple features. In another project, the development of an interactive art display robot, called cobot because it collaborates with the artist, is in progress. Of the two Cobots presented, one draws yellow circular patterns until it receives an audio command. It then draws straight lines.

A second Cobot changes its response depending on line and shadow. In another project, Spanish researchers presented a tangible digital jukebox, which has an infrared camera and a projector. Someone is able to use a piece of paper as a playlist. A project depicting an augmented reality pattern table was also on display. In this project, users have the opportunity to interact with patterns and shapes of both digital and physical nature.

By using a projector and an infrared camera, a user can pick a physical shape. Digitization of the shape for manipulation follows. The researchers said that the project presents the possibility of developing educational tools based on augmented reality for teaching children about mathematical shapes.

The final project featured was a soap bubble display. This project demonstrated the use of a camera to track soap bubbles spitted on a soapy surface, which when moved by a finger or by blowing, controlled lights or images that projected to them.

Ying et al. (2010) developed a prototype called bubble journey, which aims at providing children with an immersive gaming experience. The user controls an avatar developed in flash by blowing a real handle. This is to promote the use of the whole body during gamming to increase the physical activity of a child playing a digital game.

Theirs was a contribution towards the drive to develop games that avoid the traditional input devices such as keyboards, joysticks, and gamepads, which do not promote activity, for novel options such as web cameras, dance pads, and exercise bikes that tend to require the user apply physical exertion to play the game.

Another demonstration of the use of bubble is the tangible message bubble. Ryokai, Raffle and Brooks (2009) developed this concept where children can use a bubble to record and send messages to loved ones and to their friends.

Their goal was to, “invent new tangible communication tools for youngsters that combine state of the art communication technologies with the physicality, simplicity, and immediacy of children’s toys” (Ryokai et al., 2009, p.2). This bubble recorded a video stream whenever someone’s face was within range and allowed for manipulation of the recorded stream, before sending it to the intended recipient.

The impacts Artificial, Augmented, and Virtual Realities in HCI These projects demonstrate that this is an active area of research trying to take advantage of development in other fields such as learning methods, and digital possibilities arising out of information technology developments. Another common feature these projects have is the use of widely available technologies, which are becoming even more accessible because of rapidly falling costs.

They show that human-computer interaction has a lot of potential for growth, not necessarily because of new technological advancement but based on innovative application of commonplace ones.

Three fields that will benefit much from development of this area of Human-computer interaction include health, medicine, and education. Through the development of games that require a user to interact with the gaming environment with their whole body, the health of children stands to benefit.

Health complications related to a sedentary lifestyle such as obesity thrive in many western countries, which also have a very high incidence of gamming.

Currently, children spend very many hours playing video games. Since it is very difficult to stop them from playing the games to an appreciable extent, it makes sense to design games that will still provide them with the gamming pleasure, but that will simultaneously require a greater degree of physical exertion.

The field of medicine will benefit from these developments by the application of special input devices to allow persons who have artificial limbs to interact properly with technology. With an interactive device like the bubble, anyone with any condition leading to loss of dexterity of the fingers will still be able to communicate, using the squeeze as an input.

It promises new possibilities in physical therapy options for persons leaning to use and live with artificial limbs. In addition, there are discussions on how to use virtual reality to perform operations such as surgical operations and remote consultancy to increase the availability of doctors.

The third field that stands to benefit substantially from the technology is education. It is difficult to imagine all the potential applications of interactive multimodal applications in education. The projects reviewed above all require a high degree of engagement by the learners and therefore promises better understanding of concepts.

While most of them seem aimed at younger learners, mature students stand to benefit from learning in a 3-D learning environment. The application in modeling and simulation for technical subjects such as engineering and the teaching of concepts such as plate tectonics in geology, together with space exploration and medicine is promising.

Possible Research Directions Stimulated by the Paper There are a number of possible research directions inspired by the project presented above. These include using the bubble as a basic unit for a collaborative problem-solving lesson and secondly as a health monitor. It also inspires the creation of a bubble that can take punches and transfer that input in the area of gaming. Increasingly, the world requires collaborative approaches to solve many of the problems that we face.

Problem-solving is a team activity, which requires teamwork by interdisciplinary professionals. The bubble presents an opportunity to begin training children on collaborative approaches to problem-solving. This means that the basic design discussed above can form the basis of an integrated platform designed to allow multiple users to enter information into a common task.

For instance, instead of one child drawing and transferring the information to the drawing canvas, several children all tackling a similar problem, may upload their information to the active task in order to complete it. The task will have to be predesigned while the data input will require adjustments to meet the specific needs of the task.

Secondly, the bubble presents an opportunity to monitor the health and environment of the child. An application like this will be practical in a hospital setting or at home, where there is a convalescing child or one with an ongoing medical condition where it is important to track the health of the child continually. The bubble can be both a toy and learning aid as well as a monitor that alerts care provides of any unwanted symptoms.

A simple design based on the one presented above but including adding eye-scanning software and vibration sensors such that each time the child squeezes out information to the canvas, it automatically uploads readings such as eye color and heart rate.

With networking, the convalescing child may actually be able to participate in class activities remotely by doing the same exercises as the rest of the class. Networking also makes possible connection to a hospital or doctor who receives alerts whenever the child’s condition deviates from the norm.

As an exercising aid, a bubble provides the opportunity to increase physical activity during a gaming session. Many games require a player to go through various stages as the game progresses. If there is an interjection during the game based on the level of play or on a regular interval basis, the player can be required to perform a physical activity before proceeding with the next level of play.

Two options for this include punching or kicking the bubble a number of times and using a preset amount of force in order to continue with the game, or by making the bubble the input device for such a game.

For instance, if the game in question involves fighting an opponent such as kickboxing, it would require physically hitting a bubble, which would have appropriate sensors to detect and transmit the sensations. In the process of playing the game, the player gets the satisfaction derived from gamming while at the same time gets to exercise.

Research Methodologies In order to undertake a project in human-computer interaction, it important to use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods in order to achieve triangulation. Using both methods at different levels serves to increase the credibility of the results verified from two different approaches.

The generation of a great amount of information continues in the related areas, while a large number of software and hardware applications mediate the process. This makes it vital to understand the state of development of the technology in order to ensure research is current and adds useful information to the vast body of knowledge that already exists.

The key issues that require clarification include the nature of the problem, the benefits, and beneficiaries of a proposed solution, cost of implementation of the project, impacts of other fields on the project, impact of project to other fields and the available technologies and human resource.

Research methodologies fall in two major categories. These are quantitative methods and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods try to find out the degree accuracy of a stated hypothesis. It seeks to determine the numbers of people a particular issue affects and the extent of that effect.

It generally involves large-scale survey techniques, which are analyzed using statistical tools and it uses highly structured tools such as surveys, closed-ended questionnaires and structured observations as sources of data. Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2000) stated that, “typically quantitative methods require a degree of control and manipulation of phenomena” (p.119).

Qualitative research seeks out meanings. It is exploratory in nature. Qualitative research employs a number of different data collection methods. Its instruments are more flexible than those used in quantitative research are. Some of the methods used include observation, group discussions, narrations, and reflection.

It is important to include validation in qualitative research necessitated by the lack of hard figures to manipulate, as is the case with quantitative methods. Different tools are available for this task, including debriefing, negative case analysis and corroboration by an interviewer.

Conclusion The areas of artificial augmented and virtual realities present a lot of potential for research development. There need for collaborative research is high because a lot of work is ongoing, and it is therefore very easy to apply duplicate efforts.

As Chen (2001) attests, “Human computer interaction is a multidisciplinary subject that involves information technology, computer science, psychology, library science, education, business and management, human factors, industrial engineering and ergonomics”(p. i) There is a key research opportunity driven by innovation based on current tools to meet emerging needs of the twenty-first century.

References Chen, Q., (2001) Human computer interaction: issues and challenges. Pennsylvania: Idea Group Inc.

Cohen, L., Manion, L.,


Different Types of Diabetes Found in Different Countries Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Abstract

Background information





Reference List

Abstract This paper will discuss the different types of diabetes found in different countries, the rate of growth of diabetes and how the new product helped in achieving all the above objectives. This group work will develop a short term market objective for the company products using the simple, measurable, attainable, realistic and timing method. The short term objectives are to be achieved within one year.

Background information After inventing a new and effective instrument that could easily and quickly detect the quantity of insulin and glucose in the body, the group decided to choose a company that symbolizes the instrument.

The company chosen is known to be a leading one when it comes to matters related to diabetes for the past quarter of a century. It goes by the name Medtronic Inc, and the equipment they were to symbolize was Quik Fik. The company then set out to carry out their research and set the short term objectives as below.

Objectives To find out the general growth rate of diabetes in the selected countries.

To find out the different types of diabetes in the selected counties.

To find out the type of diabetes that is more common among men, women, and children.

To find out at what stage it is advisable to administer the use of the new equipment and how effective the result would be.

Introduction Medtro Inc. Company was built about sixty years ago for the purpose of supplying medical materials in America. This company is known to have set a worldwide pace in the health business and expertise. As said earlier the company was to symbolize the QuikFik equipment. This instrument is meant to manually monitor the amount of glucose in the body and mechanically dispense insulin depending on the outcome.

It is one of the many American companies that are known to use the collective insulin pump and glucose check up method. The company was meant to introduce the new Quik Fik facility in a distant environment. Medtro Inc is best acknowledged for its properly structured insulin pumps and their regular glucose examination process (Medtronic.com, 2010).

The new instrument allowed diabetic patients to check and be able to contain their daily glucose quantities so that they could be able to live a more proactive life.

It was believed to be the most appropriate company to represent this highly manufactured equipment that was hoped to save many lives since they operated simultaneously with physicians from various parts of the world who also worked hard to help diabetic people live full and active lives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among their recent technological developments are medical supply services to their patients, analytical equipment, and automatic machines (Medtronic.com, 2010).

Discussion The number of diabetic patients in the world is noted to be increasing at an alarming rate. This has made researchers to come up with products that can help in doing away with the mechanisms to contain the users. The rate of diabetes varies widely from children to adults. In 2006, mortality report ranked diabetes as the seventh cause of death. Diabetes is grouped into three types: type 1, type 2 and gestation diabetes.

Gestation diabetes affects only expectant women at the 28th week though its prescription does not signify that a woman had diabetes before conception or will have it after delivery. Type 1 diabetes is common in children and young adults. It is also called juvenile diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body fails to release enough insulin or when the cells disregard the released insulin (American Diabetes Association, 2010).

The Quik Fik instrument has been proven to be very effective in containing diabetes since it has an insulin pump with true glucose detection ability. It alerts the patient to check his or her glucose level by beeping.

The person monitors the glucose quantities by drawing small amounts of blood from their fingers and put it on the testing part of the device. It then tells the patient how much glucose the body requires. The device could be used at any stage and at any age.

The countries were chosen based on different issues such as diabetic pace in each country, purchasing ability, and the availability of machinery, if they could export and invest it (Sands


Explanation of Staff Behaviour Research Paper college application essay help

Abstract Many research studies have been done to investigate the underlying issues influencing staff behavior. Considering the dynamics of carrying out research studies on such an important management facet, this study evaluates specific research studies done to determine the best way managers can manage employee behavior.

Through an analysis of given research studies, we find out that observation, interviews and surveys were the most commonly used techniques in data collection while graphs and charts were the most commonly used tools in data presentation.

Comprehensively, this study concludes that the research studies sampled were fairly done and the use of graphs, pie charts, interviews and observational techniques were appropriate tools in representing behavioral variables, but the use of surveys casts a lot of doubt to the accuracy of its findings.

Introduction Analyzing staff behavior and its antecedents can be a daunting task for most researchers. This is because staff behavior is a relative issue and many factors affecting employee behavior vary form organization to organization or region to region (Currie 2006, p. 26).

In this regard, it is essential for organizations to adopt the best research techniques in data analysis and presentation to come up with the most accurate results. Staff behavior being a critical component in organizational performance, this study will seek to evaluate research styles adopted by specific researchers in analyzing staff behavior.

This will be done through the analysis of employed research techniques in the collection and presentation of data. However, focus is also put on the recommendations outlining the conclusions derived from the research.

Research Purpose To analyze the best techniques management can use in managing staff behavior.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Topic Review

The performance of employees is directly dependent on their attitudes and behaviors in the organization (Marchington, 2008, p. 2). This is true because one employee has an impact on the behavior of other employees and the manager’s. Researchers have, therefore found this phenomenon interesting and many have over the years developed tones of research articles on staff behavior in organizational contexts.

Since staff behavior is a pertinent management problem, researchers from various fields including marketing, strategic management, human resource management and enterprise and innovation have focused on this issue through enquiry based learning to provide managers with a comprehensive way in which they can manage staff behavior (Robinson 2006, p. 5).

Researchers have in the past dealt with a wide variety of issues regarding staff behavior; ranging from emotional problems, hygiene problems, insubordination in the workplace, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse and alcohol or substance abuse (Henry 1990, p. 23).

These factors have been identified by researchers as more problematic in the organizational context when compared to other organizational indicators such as attendance or performance problems (Fellner 1984, 32). In this context, researchers have in the past given different perceptions on staffing in organizations, through the advancement of various solutions to the problem.

One of the key solutions advanced by researchers such as Geller (2001) and Komaki (1981, p. 111) has been the setting of good examples by managers to avoid bad staff behavior. These researchers claim that the key to benchmarking good behavior rests on the managers and minimal input should be expected of employees because they reiterate the behaviors they see of their bosses.

In this regard, such researchers propose that managers ought to make rules and recommendations that govern staff behavior in addition to being at the forefront in conforming to them (Stoneman1989, p. 115).

Proponents of this view don’t side with the perception that managers should give a theoretical understanding or example of proper employee behavior because they agree that good employee behavior is a top-down approach, in that, the managers essentially determine the staff behavior to be characteristic of the organization.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Explanation of Staff Behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These researchers also note that such a goal can be achieved through shaping the staff’s attitudes and behaviors by having a positive attitude in the first place, to set the framework for good staff behavior (Komaki 1981, p. 112).

Other researchers such as Erin (2006, p. 220) and Balcazar (1986, p. 65), have had conflicting opinions on the matter and instead advance the fact that managers should not only set a good example and hope that the employees follow it, they should set clear expectations on the behaviors they expect their employees to show.

These researchers note that it is important for the management of any organization to set high standards of employee behavior so that if a small margin of error occurs towards the attainment of excellent employee behavior, it can be tolerated without having a significant impact on the performance of the organization.

Reference is given to managers who let their employees operate their departments the way they wish and work twice as hard to cover up for employee absenteeism (Balcazar 1986, p. 66). Such managers are branded as ineffective and tolerate the thriving of bad staff behavior within organizations.

The only way organizations can avoid situations where employees account for their actions and develop some sort of responsibility, is through the clear demarcation of what is tolerable or intolerable in the organization (Turner 2002, p. 34).

Even though setting high expectations for employee behavior may be beneficial in decreasing poor staff behavior, other researchers such as Watson (2005), Torrington (2005) and Henkel (2007, p. 310) have advanced the opinion that training, prompting and self-monitoring are the best strategies for reducing poor employee behavior.

These researchers observe that it is essential for organizations to carry out routine training programs where employees are taught how to act appropriately in the organizational context.

Special emphasis was made on service-oriented organizations because such organizations require optimum perfection in employee behaviors with respect to how they interact with their customers (Henkel 2007, p. 310). Proponents of this strategy also note that managers should be strategic recipients of training programs because they are entrusted with the duty of managing employee behavior in the workplace.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Explanation of Staff Behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Just like previous research studies which stress on the fact that the bulk of staff behavior responsibility rests on managers, these researchers also put a lot of responsibility on the role of managers in ensuring the best training practices are routinely carried out in the organization to change employee attitudes and habits.

These researchers also note that training should not only be done to new employees in the organization but also existing ones, and those who still promote dysfunctional behavior should be expelled from the organization (Watson 2005, p. 65). These harsh sentiments are upheld because the researchers realized the importance of having a positive culture which encourages proper staff behaviors in the organization.

The best way organizations can achieve this positive attitude in the organization, according to the researchers, start at the direct point of employee entry in the organization (when new employees are taught the best practices in the organizations and oriented on the expectation of management with regard to their performance in the organization) (Watson 2005, p. 29).

Lastly, researchers such as Allison (1992, p. 85) and Dickinson (1993, p. 20) have acknowledged the importance of rewarding and encouraging employees to adopt good organizational behavior. They note that most of employee poor behaviors are brought about by the lack of proper compensation or inspiration by management.

In this respect, employees who are poorly motivated often exhibit poor organizational behaviors; either out of boredom or because of poor remuneration (as a sign of protest) (Allison 1992, p. 85).

These researchers also note that management should reward employees for good performance and endeavor to compensate them for their actions in the organization, or for the extra commitment they show in the organization, which surpasses their work roles (Dickinson 1993, p. 20).

These factors are identified as overall and most important because out of the surveys done on organizations with the best staff performance, it was identified that the best organizations had good managers who educated their employees on the importance of adopting good staff behavior (Dickinson 1993, p. 20). Also, in these organizations it was seldom observed that management never took note of outstanding employee performance.

Data Collection Approaches

In coming up with the above recommendations to correct poor staff behavior, the above-mentioned researchers have used various data collection approaches in coming up with these conclusions. In determining the kind of data collection approaches to undertake, it was quite important for the researchers to understand the nature of the research and the objectives to be considered in the studies.

In addition, the researchers had to consider the resources available to achieve the goals of their research studies. However, in the selection of the best data collection technique, some researchers used more than one data collection technique to get the most accurate results for their studies. The following data collection techniques summarize the most commonly used techniques in the studies.


Interviews were majorly used to gain a deep insight into the dichotomy of employee behaviors in organizations studies because this technique can easily expose the underlying beliefs, attitudes and anecdotal data regarding people and the behaviors they manifest while in the organization.

Most researchers prefer this method because it results in the collection of rich data relating to staff behavior because of the personal contact between the researcher and the respondent (Berhman 2006, p. 1). In this manner, it is quite easy for researchers to probe the underlying reasons resulting to the manifestation of poor employee behaviors in the organization.

Considering the nature of the research was quantitative, interviews were mainly preferred by most researchers because through the technique, they were able to establish the underlying causes for specific organizational behaviors. In this context, if employees exhibited poor staff behavior, the researchers were able to determine the causes that led to the behavior in the first place.

For example, some respondents would explain that management neglect was the primary reason why the staff exhibited poor behavior in the organization and other employees would point out that the managers behaved badly in the first place and so they didn’t see the importance of behaving appropriately.

Researchers were also able to probe the best recommendations employees thought were most suitable to solve poor staff attitude in the organization. Even though the answers expected may have been diverse, the researchers were able to dig deep into the employees’ thoughts and extract the finer details of staff behavior in the organization.

In organizations where the staff was unable to read and write, interviews provided a good mechanism to obtain information from the respondents, regardless of their illiteracy (Berhman 2006, p. 1). Also, in instances where ambiguity could be detected, audio/visual backups provided a good mechanism to backup information and reanalyze data.

The use of interviews was therefore quite useful because it was applicable to a number of organizations but in order for it to be effective, enough time had to be allocated for the interview; meaning that the staff had to create time for the interview out of the usual organization time period (Berhman 2006, p. 1).

In addition, the use of interviews may have been challenging for the researchers because they had to find a quiet place to do the interview, since noisy surroundings affect the depth of an interview.

However, in instances where special equipment was used, challenges may have been experienced in transcribing the information or recording the interview altogether, because not all researchers are endowed with the skills of making this operation a success.

Lastly, in interviews, there was a high probability that the information obtained may not have been consistent with the employee behaviors because some employees may have given false information to look good in the eyes of the researcher or to boost the image of the organization (Berhman 2006, p. 1).


In instances where interviews were deemed ineffective, observations were used to best conceptualize the underlying factors affecting the behavior of employees. Observations were best utilized in this type of research because its usage has been approved in research studies analyzing the behavior of individuals in a group context (Berhman 2006, p. 2).

One main advantage why the researchers felt that observation was appropriate for their researches, is that, in observation, the staff are unaware that they are being analyzed and therefore chances of the researcher obtaining uncompromised information is extremely high. In fact, some analysts note that observation technique is more effective when compared with interviews (Berhman 2006, p. 2).

This is because this technique provides reliable information through reliable indicators of staff behavior, which is better than probing the behavior of employees orally.

Some researchers preferred this technique because it was quite useful in triangulating or corroborating information from previous research studies, especially for researchers who were using secondary data materials (Berhman 2006, p. 2). Such kind of research may have included the analysis of case studies or such like sample data.

Observation technique is therefore quite effective, especially in qualitative research, which clearly outlines the nature of this study but regardless of these advantages, some researchers may have faced a couple of challenges in applying this technique.

One of the significant challenges for the researchers is the need for total commitment in observing the behavior of employees in the organization and this involves the time to record relevant information as well (Berhman 2006, p. 2). Secondly, unlike the interviewing technique, in observational research, the researchers could not ask the participants questions whenever they needed clarification.

Because of this fact, the final conclusion may have suffered the setback of portrayal of wrong analysis to employee behavior. This means that under observational technique there is a potential risk of wrong data interpretation, meaning that, if another researcher were to analyze the same scenario as observed by another researcher, probabilities that the two would infer different conclusions are high.

This technique, therefore, requires that the researchers be very impartial in using it and they should also try to draw out the most accurate conclusions from the observation. Otherwise, it would be appropriate to use follow up interviews to verify the conclusions.


Analyzing the behavior of employees through the analysis of certain organizations was carried out using the survey technique. This means that Allison (1992) and Dickinson (1993) sampled a given group of organizations and analyzed the staff behavior in these organizations. These researchers may have been attracted to the technique because it was the most appropriate in gathering brief responses from a sample of organizations.

Also, the technique may have given the researchers the option to either ask open-ended or close-ended questions, in addition to giving the researchers the liberty to ask the questions in written copies or online. Lastly, the tabulation of employee responses was perceived to increase the efficiency of the research information.

Presentation of Findings

Different researchers used different types of presentations to show their findings. However, the most commonly used methods of data representation were graphs, to explain the relationship between various managerial practices and the resultant effect on employee behavior.

Variables such as employee motivation, remuneration and attitudes were directly depicted alongside management’s commitments to the parameters and the resultant effect on staff behavior. This technique was quite useful to most researchers because they could summarize what an entire essay would try to explain. In addition, under the technique, staff behavior could be quantified alongside the influencing variable.

Pie charts were also commonly used to expose the type of variables affecting staff behavior and the extent to which they affect staff behavior altogether.

In this regard, variables such as management’s commitment, performance benchmarking, training, remuneration and the likes were represented in a pie chart format with the percentage to which they affect employee behavior shown in the findings. This method was preferred because it could also summarize most of the significant variables affecting employee behavior and their relative strengths in doing so.

Conclusion Research studies to analyze employee behaviors are best represented by the employment of observational research technique and interviews. The findings depicted in this study represent a fair view of how the research should be done, but the inclusion of surveys in coming up with the final conclusions may cast of a lot of doubt to the accuracy of the research.

This is because surveys are only representative of the overall operations of the organization and therefore, it does not go deep, to analyze underlying factors affecting staff behavior, the way interviews and observational techniques do. Nonetheless, the best conclusion, factoring in the nature of the research, could be best derived through observational technique.

With regard to the data presentation techniques, graphs and charts were appropriate tools of data representation in this study because staff behavior is by far a dynamic issue and the factors affecting it are also quite dynamic.

To quantify the degree of the variables affecting the behavior of employees, it was necessary to come up with a visual depiction of the most significant variables and the percentages or degrees to which they affect staff behavior.

Graphs and pie charts were therefore quite useful in this study because they were able to summarize the most important elements to this research. Comprehensively, the above research methodologies were fairly carried out and their conclusions reflect a significant degree of reliability.

References Allison, D. (1992) Relative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cooperative, competitive, and independent monetary incentive systems. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 13, 85-112.

Balcazar, F. (1986). A critical objective review of performance feedback. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 7, 65‑75.

Berhman, S. (2006) Deciding Which Data Collection Method Is Best. Michigan, University of Michigan.

Currie, D. (2006) Introduction to Human Resource Management. London, CIPD.

Dickinson, A. (1993) A comparison of the effects of two individual monetary incentive systems on productivity: Piece rate pay versus base pay plus incentives. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 14, 3-82.

Erin, P. (2006) Effects of Training, Prompting, and Self-Monitoring on Staff Behavior in a Classroom for Students with Disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(2), 215-226.

Fellner, D. (1984) A behavioral analysis of goal setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 6, 32‑51.

Geller, E. (2001) Behavior-based safety in industry: Realizing the large-scale potential of psychology to promote human welfare. Applied


Major Impacts of Global Warming In Human Health Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Global warming is a rise in average temperatures on the earth surface due to human activities such as burning of coal and oil refining, eventually the activities cause emission of greenhouse gases in the air that increase solar radiation thus resulting in climate changes. When these gases are released in the atmosphere they destroy the ozone layer and this lead to continuous increase in temperatures around the globe.

Climate change has caused many environmental problems which consequently bring a negative effect on human health. Due to continued increase in average temperatures caused by rise in high degree of infrared solar radiations on the surface of the earth, the ecological system has been destructed.

This destruction causes a major stigma to human health. For the last couple of years some areas have experienced hurricanes rain, costal regions have been eroded and presence of heat waves that are very hot has been felt (Stern 2006).

Human skin is so delicate and due to continued increase in average solar radiation, skin cancer has been reported in various countries. This has claimed many lives of innocent people who have fallen victims of this catastrophe. The world health organization has issued rough estimates that show the loss of about 150000 lives yearly as a result of global warming and rain.

The scientist predicts that climate changes are due to cause long-term climatic conditions that will lead to rise in water temperatures in the ecosystem. They further caution the world to take this matter seriously as it threatens the life of human beings and also other animals (Patz, Lendrum, Holloway


Operant Conditioning in Dog Training Reflective Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Dogs have for a long time been referred to as mans best friend. This has been attributed to the fact that they remain loyal to their owners and obey commands given without hesitation. In addition, dogs are social creatures once you get to know them and they have a great level of humility and patience in comparison to other pets.

However, dogs have been noted to have unexplainable and unpredictable behaviors which if not addressed may be annoying and frustrating at times. As such, it is always wise to train your dog to behave in ways that do not affect your life or inconvenience you in any way.

Operant conditioning has been noted as the most successful way of enforcing behavioral change in dogs. Among the most common behaviors that can be taught to a dog are; sitting, laying down on all fours, shaking hands, potty training and training the dog how to obey directional commands (come, stop, fetch etcetera).

Despite all the progress that has been documented in regards to dog training, the fact still remains that you cannot teach old dogs new tricks. With this in mind, I shall explain how the theory of operant conditioning may be used to train a puppy to “roll over”.

To this end, I shall give a detailed analysis of the concepts surrounding this theory and how they apply in this task. The procedures that may be used to ensure a successful behavioral change (ability of the puppy to successfully “roll over”) shall also be outlined.

A brief overview of operant conditioning Operant conditioning refers to the process through which positive and negative enforcements are used to increase or decrease the likelihood of adopting a particular behavior (Chance, 2008). In essence, operant conditioning is a type of behavior modification process that uses consequences to influence behavioral change.

The theory was developed by theorist B. F. Skinner who contended that behavioral change can be attained by using rewards and punishments to increase or decrease the likelihood of a subject to behave in certain ways.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Training a puppy to “roll over” Training a dog to roll over is among the most complex tricks that a dog can pull of. This is attributed to the fact that it is a process that requires patience, discipline and utmost concentration from both the trainer and the subject.

According to Appelbaum (2003), training a dog to roll over is a session that incorporates three behaviors (tricks) if the end results are to be successful. In as much as the training may be frustrating, it should be noted that operant behavior is about changing behaviors and does not necessitate the use of force or pain infliction.

For a puppy to successfully obey the command to roll over, it must understand, learn and adhere to the cues used to command it to sit down, lay down on all fours and eventually, roll over. All this stages may need the application of physical help where the trainer physically applies force on some body parts to enable the puppy to understand the command.

Training process As I have mentioned, the process is divided into three parts. The first stage is training the puppy to sit down. In this process, the trainer must at first apply some force on the lower back of the puppy while using the command “sit”.

Each time the dog makes an attempt to obey the command, it should be rewarded by giving it a treat (tasty doggy treats). This will help the dog associate a particular behavior with that reward thereby increasing the chances of a repeat performance.

However, Appelbaum (2003) states that caution should be taken when rewarding a dog during the process of training. For example, in this case, the puppy should be rewarded upon sitting down and not after it comes back to the owner after sitting. This is because the reward will be for the dog coming to the owner and not for sitting down.

In regards to negative enforcements, the puppy should be fitted with a collar and upon the command “sit”, the collar should be pulled up a bit to force the dog to sit down. It should be noted that the word negative reinforcement does not mean inflicting pain. The collar should be pulled up gently otherwise, inflicting pain or scolding the puppy only makes it afraid thereby lessening the chances of success.

We will write a custom Essay on Operant Conditioning in Dog Training specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second process is training the puppy to lie down. The verbal cue in this case is “down”. Sitting down enables the dog to sit on its hind legs while lying down requires it to go down on all fours. Chance (2008) reiterates that the success of operant conditioning depends on the reinforcements used and the intervals at which these reinforcements are applied.

To this regard, the puppy should not be rewarded for sitting down but rather it should be punished. In so doing, the dog will follow the command “sit” hoping to get a reward. However, whenever it manages to lie down, it should be rewarded. In due time, the dog will be able to obey the “sit” and “down” commands with ease.

Throughout this process, the trainer should ensure that he/she sticks to well defined cues and hand gestures through each stage. This will ensure that the dog does not get confused due to different cues and gestures.

The third stage is now to train the dog how to roll over. This is the most difficult stage because it requires the trainer to physically roll over the puppy before it understands the concept. As earlier stated, the application of any form of reinforcement is only successful if it is used at the most opportune time. In this regard, positive reinforcement is therefore the most effective during this stage.

What this means is that the puppy should receive the most support and incentives in order for it to master the task at hand. Therefore, the use of the collar may not be effective while the use of tasty doggy treats and verbal praise may increase the chances of the puppy getting a grip of what is expected upon hearing the command.

Types of reinforcements According to Chance (2008), reinforcement refers to any tool used to strengthen the occurrence of a particular response. There are four documented types of reinforcements. Positive reinforcements are the incentives given to a subject to increase the likelihood of behaving in a particular way. In this case, giving the puppy a treat, rubbing and scratching it accompanied by verbal praises are positive reinforcements.

On the other hand, negative reinforcements refer to a situation where you take away something that is unpleasant to the subject in order to enhance a particular response. For example, loosening the buckles on the collar each time the puppy rolls over, desist using water sprays or even using a softer tone each time the puppy succeeds in doing the task.

Thirdly, punishments refer to the application of aversive tools to discourage a particular response. Examples include hitting the puppy with a newspaper or with a belt if it does something wrong. Finally, extinction refers to the total removal of something to decrease a behavior. In this case, extinction refers to the removal of treats after the dog understands the command.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Operant Conditioning in Dog Training by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most important factors to consider while choosing reinforcement are: the subject and the behavior being nurtured. For example, an older and aggressive dog may respond well to punishments and extinctions while a puppy may do well with positive and negative reinforcements.

In regards to the behavior, potty training a dog may be successful if punishments are used to decrease a behavior while positive reinforcements may be used to teach the dog new tricks.

Maintaining balance between reinforcement and extinction during dog training As mentioned earlier, it is always advisable to apply the reinforcements or the extinctions at the appropriate time otherwise; the puppy may confuse the cues and end up failing to perform the desired tasks. In this case, the best way to ensure that the puppy maintains the behavior even after training is by using a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement (Appelbaum, 2003).

This is because the schedule makes the learned behavior less susceptible to extinction. A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement refers to a situation whereby the reinforcers are given in accordance to the number of times a good behavior is done. For example, giving the puppy a treat after the third successful roll ensures that in future, it does not stop even after failing to perform the task.

On the other hand, if too much reinforcement is used, the puppy may loose the essence of such tools and may invariably refuse to behave accordingly unless an incentive is offered. Similarly, if too much extinction is used, the puppy may become rebellious and refuse to perform the tasks since they view them as negative aspects affecting their freedom and likings.

Relevance of operant conditioning to my career goals My personal career goal is to join a higher learning institution as an educator. this is perhaps the most challenging profession since you get to meet different people with different goals and perceptions about you, what you represent and what you do.

As such, operant conditioning will be very beneficial to me when it comes to tackling rebellious students or even to change the negative perceptions students often have towards particular subjects.

Through the use of verbal praises, extra credits for exemplary works and encouraging the weak students to participate in class discussions, I will be able to influence positive change in their attitudes towards school and education. In addition, I will be able to mitigate the negative behaviors by issuing punishments or rewarding good behavior. As such, operant conditioning may prove to be useful in my career.

Conclusion Operant conditioning has been applied in many fields and through its use, success has been attained. In this study, I have explained how this concept can be applied in training a puppy. In addition, the applicability of the concept to my career has also been highlighted.

The ability to modify behaviors may not only be useful in training pets but can also be applied in training people on how to behave responsibly thereby creating a better society.

References Appelbaum, S. (2003). ABC Practical Guide to Dog Training. California: John Wiley and Sons.

Chance, P. (2008). Learning and Behavior: Active Learning Edition. New York: Cengage Learning.


European Union Free Movement Directives and Regulations Coursework custom essay help

Abstract Freedom of movement among the citizens of the European Union has taken a progressive and historical process. This began with workers in the steel and coal industry and progressed to the freedom of movement of all persons including ordinary citizens. This study is mainly concerned with the anti-discriminatory clause of the freedom of movement legislation.

There were various forms of discrimination among the EU member states that rendered exercising of the legislation ineffective. The study explores the agenda behind the anti-discrimination directive, decision making process through to its implementation.

The study also examines some of the controversies surrounding the implementation of this directive by the member states. In order to succeed in exercising these rights the EU member countries ought to pursue convergent and well harmonized strategies that match with EU policies.

Introduction Free movement across the EU member states was founded upon the Maastricht accord, which like the Rome statute did not considers the legislative challenges of these EU affiliate countries in their social system. This brought a new political dimension to the already existing economic integration among the EU member states.

Each and every citizen of the EU affiliate states automatically gains EU citizenship but still retain their national citizenship. On the other hand, EU citizenship increases the economic benefits to the citizens of the EU member’s states as stipulated in the treaty1.

Maastricht treaty gives EU citizens right to enjoy within the scale of the treaty the same treatment in the law regardless of the nationality.

For that reason, EU citizenship has increased the rights of the persons within the EU member states considerably. EU court of justice ruled that citizens of the EU are eligible to live in any state as citizens, consequently the EU citizenship gives citizens of the EU member states right to move freely across the these countries2.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the EU, the policy for free movement of people is mainly associated with labor mobility. The EU’s Lisbon Strategy for growth and employment could not be achieved without guaranteeing the right of citizens to t lives and work anywhere in the Union. The mobility of workers is encouraged because it brings benefits to the individuals in terms of personal and career development3.

The paper analyses the EU s policy on free movement of people and more specifically the Directive in the rights of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 29 April 2004 (2004/38/EC)4.

In the first place, the paper identifies the nature of the policy process, its setting in the EU agenda, the actors who are responsible for its formulation then it evaluates the power and influence exercised in the policy making process, as well as its implementation.

The Nature of free movement of persons The European Union ability for legislative acts and other initiatives on free movement of people is based legally in the provisions in the Treaties of the European Union. In the treaty of Rome, the universal right of free movement was not enshrined.

It was only the Treaty of Maastricht which introduced the freedom of movement as a fundamental right that the EU citizens have irrespective of whether they have economic activities or not. Article 3 /2/ of the TFEU stipulates that the Union shall offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers, in which free movement of persons is ensured5.

Article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for the freedom of movement of workers who shall move freely within the territory of member States and shall stay in the Member States for the purposes of employment.

The rights of economically-active persons to free movement within the EU have been complemented by limited rights for non-economically-active citizens to move freely within the EU, under Article 20 (1) of the TFEURegulation 1612/1968 of the Council of 15 October 1968 on the freedom of movement of workers within the Community only provides for the free movement of employees6.

We will write a custom Coursework on European Union Free Movement Directives and Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Agenda setting Towards the end of 1970s European parliament on all the EU stakeholders to fight forms of discrimination the EU citizens were facing in relation to their freedom of movement within the EU’s jurisdiction7. In most occasions the EU council opposed this action arguing that EU had no legal base to deal with this issue.

One of the issues that attracted great concern especially in UK was the protection of the immigrants linked to immigration policies of the individual member states. Debates on appropriate policy to fight racism and xenophobia continued and deepened in 90’s.

The fight against racism also involved policy consultations among non-governmental organizations and action groups which resulted to the formation of European Network against Racism (ENAR). Simultaneously, a group of legal experts from these groups of activists formed Start Line Group (SLG).

This organization became a major tool for policy formulation and also helped in organizations of awareness campaigns to support and promote synchronization of the policies against discrimination of the EU member states8.

The above group of activists lobbied rigorously across Europe to acquire the legal basis for the anti-discrimination policy geared towards the preparation of the Amsterdam treaty. Starting Line Group later on supplied the EU commission with a particular draft proposal for the directive on combating religious and racial prejudice.

Their contributions were openly supported and authenticated by the European Parliament which issued a number of resolutions pushing for the EU commission to utilize the SLG proposals as foundation for main proposal, which was accepted by the commission9.

The following events were taking place in order to integrate all the debates which were also taking place in the EU member states. Therefore, pushing of this agenda at the European level was very attractive to rights group since they wanted to bypass some o the EU member countries that were reluctant to adopt this policy.

In spite of the obstacles experienced within the EU institution wise, attaining a unanimous decision for safeguarding protection against the above forms of discrimination was very vital in choosing EU as the policy platform10.

Not sure if you can write a paper on European Union Free Movement Directives and Regulations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the coalition between different set of players with the European parliament and commission with the well organized competence of the Starting Line Group in consolidating information and authenticating support to raise the subject on the agenda was very important.

Policy formulation Besides the intensive lobbying, the research carried out by the legal experts was also used for awareness and formulation of the legislative proposals. Those who took part in the debate utilized existing research, assigned new research or assumed this role on their own.

In fact, the migration policy group in collaboration with the European Centre on Racism and Xenophobia analysed and compared the proposed legislations from the EU commission and the SLG and the national versions11. This was done to come up with the common ground by accommodating all the proposals to convince the restrained governments. The main distinction between the SLG’s proposal and the Commission’s proposal was the insertion of religion as a basis or discrimination.

This was removed by the EU commission but later re-introduced by the European parliament. Framing the religious subject into the EU agenda as an obstacle to free movement of people was considered to be an effective strategic approach. Another positive aspect was the decision by the commission to handle the issue of racism separately from other forms of discrimination12.

Decision making At the proposal stage, the EU commission had most of the influence on the proposal in line with the EU comitolgy in decision making process. The commission voted for the proposal and submitted the draft for adoption in EP and the council who approved it.

The commission took over most of the implementation process. The decision making process was facilitated by a number of factors including domestic politics and tactics from the European parliament. Politics as a factor in the decision making process was very much unpredictable13.

Australian election in the year 2003 brought the extreme right Australian freedom party into the then coalition government resulting to solemn concerns and unilateral approval by the rest of the EU member states. This also underpinned the necessitated urgent response from the EU institutions which analysts believe was a crucial factor for quick adoption of the directive.

European parliament strategically narrowed the debate by persuading the EU commission and council to move the directive on racism swiftly. Henceforth, the decision making process took place in a consultative manner, isolating the process behind the close doors of the council thus keep away from the interference.

This was specifically frustrating for the European parliament which had been a more active proponent of the EU obligation against racism. However, the European parliament stepped up its opinion delivery after gaining more seats14.

With the decision making process clearly in their hands, EU member states managed to control the decision making process and resulted into a weaker directive than the earlier proposals.

Their main topic of debate was based on auxiliary principles, probable cost of implementation, non interference with the national policies on immigration, and a constricted treaty base. Even though, in principle, no EU member country was opposed to the new directive, a number of issues resulted to acrimonious debate for instance impact of the directive on the third country citizens15.

The great support Australian accorded the proposed directive minimised opposition from the other member states who feared being compared negatively for instance Germany. Earlier declarations and unanimous reaction after election in Australia made it very perilous for any government to exhibit inconsistency in the adoption of the anti-discriminatory legislation.

It should be noted that after the adoption of the directive article 13 and respect for the minority group were also included for new countries joining the European Union16.

Implementation The implementation process was both well strategized and followed effective division of work between the external and internal actors. External actors were mainly the NGO’s, who provided the design for the policy and technical know-how while the internal actors were mainly the EU parliament and the commission.EU member states were given 3 years to realign their legislations with the EU directive.

In mid 2004, the EU commission began proceedings for the member states who contravened the EU directive within the July 2003 directive. By the year 2007, complete implementation of the directive was still not yet achieved and additional set of formal appeals from the EU commission was sent to 14 members to fully implement the directive.

Realising the serious loop holes in the implementation process, the European parliament also added its support in calling for the full implementation of the legislation17.

Some of the agencies promoted by the commission in the anti discrimination campaign faced many challenges until they were restructured with a wider mandate into the EU agency for basic rights. 18United Kingdom “good fit” is regarded as the most effective piece of legislation on antidiscrimination.

Several countries have also followed the same direction and in some cases surpassing the EU directive for instance France. The political situation in Germany made the implementation process very difficult, similar to Poland and Denmark thus lack of comitology in the implementation process.

Controversy surrounding implementation of the directive In Germany the implementation of this directive led to higher immigration rate particularly during the electioneering period. The directive clashed with the other receptive issues such as citizenship law and gay marriages which delayed its adoption by the government in that time.

The directive also faced hostility in Poland and Denmark. UK was the strongest opponent of the EU directive on racism arguing that the impasse surrounding discrimination had to be tackled at the country level.

EU court of justice has offered clarification for the interpretation of the directive but the lack of proceedings relating to the racial discrimination has restricted its influence.

A court can only take action when permissible violations of rights are brought to its attention by authentic actors. However, the European court of justice has put a lot of pressure on a number of member states who failed to comply with its directives. But these cases take almost forever to be heard19.

Local changes among the EU member states that can be traced back the EU-level have somewhat limited. There have been a number of reforms and introduction of new laws in all EU member countries but the facts on the ground reveals that there is a broad difference with little convergence.

The impact of this directive is also very difficult to isolate from other legal and policies adopted by EU and the outsiders relating to anti-discrimination20.

Factors that have brought about convergence of these policies seem to be the compatibility of the directive with the social and political environment in many countries. Introduction of some legislations related to the directive have caused a lot of confusion and snarl up to the implementation process.

For instance one of the requirements of this directive is the setting up of an autonomous body to encourage and promote equality, assist victims and oversee development. However, several years after this clause was added in the gender equality directive it opened arguments in many countries whether to establish a joint or separate bodies encasing several discriminatory issues.

Division of the intricate issues facilitates adoption of the policy but complicates the implementation process21. Swift implementation of the EU directive left little time for the public to debate nor reflect on the consequences of the these laws at the country level.

Conclusion The quest for freedom of movement and legislations that are against all forms of discrimination that affects effective exercising of this freedom have taken an historic and strenuous journey. Following intensive lobbying by the European parliament and NGO’s plus the politics in Australia, the quest for freedom of movement and the legislation against all the discriminatory elements that acts as the obstacle for the same was realised.

The multi-level engagement between the NGO’s and the EU relevant divisions resulted led to daring and ground-breaking piece of legislations with high expectation and standards in the comparatively new policy areas. Despite of the limited role of the European parliament, the process was fairly democratic.

This is evident in the implementation process which was not smooth due to influence from the state quarters. The directive was a break through in the social policy issues but the implementation was relatively weak and deficient.

Bibliography Bell, M. ‘Beyond European labor Law? Reflection on the EU racial quality, Directive.” European law journal, vol.8, no. 8, 2002, pp. 384-399.

Golynker, O. “Jobseekers’ Rights in the European Union: Challenges of hanging the Paradigm of Social Solidarity”. European Law Review vol. 30 no.1, 2005, pp. 111–22.

Guild, E. The Legal Framework of EU Migration. Working Paper No. 2, Pemint, 2002

Guild E. European Community Law from a Migrant’s Perspective. Katholieke niversiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen, 2000

Hailbronner, K. “Union Citizenship and Access to Social Benefits.” Common Market Law Review vol.42, 2005, pp. 1245–67

Hix, S. “The political system of the European Union”. UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005

Nanda, VP, Folsom, RH,


Cisco Global Business Strategy Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Strategic challenges

PESTEL Analysis

Current strategy and positioning

Urgent issues

Conclusion and recommendation

Reference list

Introduction The current competitive business world has presented many opportunities and challenges to different companies. This is as far as globalization is concerned. Different companies have been enhancing their operations to reach a wide market through globalization. The main aim of this report is to asses Cisco Systems Inc in relation to its strategic positioning in the market.

In this case, the report will analyze and evaluate various strategic challenges that the company is facing. As a matter of fact, these strategic challenges will be looked at after a clear assessment of the company has been done. This is because every global or multinational company like Cisco Systems Inc is expected to encounter such challenges in the course of doing business.

The report will also carry out a PESTEL analysis. This will be done to evaluate the current external environmental conditions that the company is facing in its operations. It should be known that every company is exposed to different external environmental conditions that can end up affecting its operations and business.

In a broad perspective, the report will evaluate if Cisco Systems Inc is strategically positioned in the market to exploit its strengths and on the other hand defend itself against its own weaknesses. In this case, the report will evaluate if the company’s current strategy is in deed sustainable. This will be done using Michael Porters Five Forces and Three Generic Strategies.

As a matter of fact, the current competitive business world offers many opportunities to Cisco Systems Inc. In this case, there are some common urgent issues that the company needs to deal with as far as its global strategy is concerned.

Therefore, the report will recommend a good course of action that can be undertaken by the company to deal with such issues. Wholesomely, the report will give various recommendations that can be used by the company to enhance its global competitive as far as strategic positioning is concerned.

History Cisco Systems Inc is an American global company. The company develops and sells different consumer electronics in various countries. In addition, the company is a big player in communications technology and networking. As a matter of act, it offers different services as far as these aspects are concerned. The company’s headquarters are located at San Jose in California (Bunnell 2000, p. 14).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has more than 70, 714 employees. In 2010, it is estimated that the company will receive revenues of more than $40 billion (Cisco 2010, p. 16). As a matter of fact, it is rated as one of the world’s largest technological corporations. In addition, the company trades its stocks on the Dow Jones stock exchange market. It should be known that the company was founded in 1984.

As a matter of fact, the company’s name was derived from the name San Francisco (Cisco 2010, p. 6). In a broad perspective, Cisco Systems Inc was one of the first companies to sell good routers that had the capacity deal with a large number of network protocols.

Currently, its routers are widely used in different countries to enhance the delivery of IP packets. The company has been acquiring other companies to enhance its product base and bring in new talent that can help it to advance its operations.

An example of these companies is Stratacom that was acquired to bring in new products. In 2000, the Cisco Systems Inc was the most valuable company around the world (Cisco 2010, p. 12). This was as far as its market capitalization was concerned.

Strategic challenges Like every other technological company, Cisco Systems Inc is facing various challenges that need to be looked at. These challenges have been increasing as time goes by in relation to various and distinct prevailing market conditions (Paulson 2001, p. 17).

As much as the company has faced different strategic challenges, it is the market leader in switches and routers. This can be evaluated from an enterprise and service provider point of view.

One of the major strategic challenges that the company is facing is the fact that sales in the USA market are declining as time goes by. In this case, the company has a challenge to look for other markets to enhance its growth (Cisco 2010, p. 16).

We will write a custom Report on Cisco Global Business Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another strategic challenge that Cisco Systems Inc is facing can be seen in the erosion of margins in its existing markets. This has been brought about by increased competition in the global technological industry.

Such issues have ended up affecting the company’s sales and revenue projections in a broad way. The company has to face new- low cost competitors in the market and this is a very big strategic challenge (Cisco 2010, p. 19). Low cost competitors have emerged because of various advancements in technology. This ends up giving them an advantage in the market.

Cisco Systems Inc’s core technologies have been commoditized in the market and this is a strategic challenge that needs to be looked at. As much as USA accounts for 13% of Cisco Systems Inc’s market share, total sales have been declining because the market is saturated (Cisco 2010, p. 10).

As a matter of fact, demand is softening in this market and the company needs to be creative and innovative to increase its overall demand and sales.

PESTEL Analysis A PESTEL analysis is very important in assessing the current environmental conditions that Cisco Systems Inc is facing in the market. In this case, it is done to analyze various economic, social, political, environmental, legal and technological issues that affect the company and its operations (Traverso 2000, p. 21).

Cisco Systems Inc is a global company and is therefore exposed to various macro environmental issues that define the way it conducts its business and operations.

Cisco Systems Inc has to contend with various economic factors that it is facing in the market. Recently, there was the global financial crisis that had its effects on different businesses.

This means that various economies have not recovered as expected and the company needs to come up with good mitigation measures (Soederbaum 2008, p. 18). As a matter of fact, sales have been adversely affected in countries that were seriously hit by the global financial crisis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cisco Global Business Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Because the company is a global player, it has been affected by exchange rate variations. This is because it sells its products in different countries with diverse and distinct currencies. It should be known that exchange rate variations keep on changing as time goes by.

This is in relation to prevailing market conditions and scenarios (Moore 1995, p.9). Therefore, for the company to return to profitability, it has to trade carefully as far as the global financial crisis is concerned. This is because there has been a gradual return to normalcy in relation to the global financial crisis.

In this case, economic uncertainty has affected the company’s profits in different markets. This is because there is a slow growth in GDP in other developing countries. There are other political factors that have ended up affecting the company’s operations.

Different countries have had networking restrictions as far as the company’s business is concerned (Cisco 2010, p. 29). This has reduced its growth momentum in such countries. In most occasions, such countries have strict rules that are supposed to be adhered to.

Cisco Systems Inc has to deal with various legal issues when it is establishing its operations in different countries. Some of these legal issues can either favor the company or work against the company. In this case, the company has been at the mercy of different legislations from various countries. Such legislations have political inclinations and can therefore be done with vested interests.

In extreme cases, the company has been accused of being involved in China’s censorship issues. As a matter of fact, the company has been blamed for supplying China with the equipment that it used to block internet sites (Slater 2003, p. 17).

Such political issues have affected the company’s image in the global market. In this case, the company argued that it did not specifically supply China with the equipments that it used to block internet sites but it was doing business with no vested interests.

Different countries have their own tax systems that are supposed to be adhered to. Some of this tax systems and policies might have serious implications for the company in different markets (Wright 2004, p. 14). This is because some countries levy large tariffs and quotas with an aim of protecting their home industries. In 2007, the company was accused for tax fraud in Brazil.

Technology has been advancing as time goes by (Stauffer 2001, p. 23). As a matter of fact, Cisco Systems Inc is a technological firm with global operations. This means that it has to face various technological issues in enhancing its operations.

The growth rate of technological advancements has been very high in recent years. This means that other technologies have been wiped out and made obsolete. In this case, Cisco Systems Inc has been forced to invest in research and development to come up with new products as far as technological advancements are concerned.

It should be known that new technology has created new products in the global market. To remain competitive, the company has been coming up with new products in relation to existing market trends and dynamics. This therefore explains why the company has been acquiring other technological companies as time goes by (Waters 2002, p. 21).

As far as technological forces are concerned, companies can effectively enhance their technological processes to reduce operational costs. This helps to improve on the quality of products through vibrant innovation activities.

The company is currently exposed to a lot of social issues that need to be dealt with. Technology moves with existing market trends and dynamics (Wright 2004, p. 19).

This means that the current consumer is very demanding and needs new products every now and then. In a broad perspective, there are various social trends in the market. These forces have an impact on the overall demand that a given company will have in the market.

Markets like the UK have an ageing population that needs a lot of investment in pension payments. When announcing its Q4 results, the company implied that it has conservative customers (Cisco 2010, p. 29). This means that such customers are very cautious about the economy and will therefore limit their spending and investments.

The technological industry has one of the most unpredictable social trends. This implies that customers want new experiences every now and then. In this case, the company has been forced to source for new talent to enhance its operations and market presence.

The company has not been exposed to a lot of environmental issues. This is because most of its products do not need a lot of environmental assessment (Young 2001, p. 18). The only issue has been the company’s ability to comply with various environmental requirements and expectations.

In this case, the company has to look at all environmental issues when it is designing its products. This is because technology has an impact on the environment and should be evaluated for sustainability.

All this factors are very important in coming up with a strategic management plan. Because Cisco is a global player in the technological industry, it needs to assess such aspects for its own sustainability (Young 2001, p. 18). This is because such macro environmental issues influence a business and its operations. Economic indicators will continue to play an important role in a company’s growth plans and future prospects.

Current strategy and positioning Cisco Systems Inc is currently the world largest company in networking for the internet (Cisco 2010, p. 9). The company has been growing because of its ability to handle various external and internal business factors.

All along, the company has focused on its core business by engaging in effective strategic partnering. To remain competitive, the company has maintained a positive cash flow as time goes by. This has enabled it to compete well with other competitors in the market.

In a broad perspective, the company has built its core strategy by being customer centered. This means that its current business strategy is very competitive and sustainable (Cisco 2010, p. 15). In this case, all technological companies should continue being customer centered to enhance their market share.

This is because customers can shift their attention and loyalty depending on their tastes and preferences. In this case, a company should occasionally consult customers to understand their needs.

Porters’ five forces help to analyze an industry and enhance the development of a given company’s strategy. The bargaining power of customers has been increasing as time goes by (Porter 2008, p. 17). This is because the current consumer is more informed and demanding.

As a matter of fact, e-business has been affected by distinct customer preferences. This is because customers want more personalized products. In extreme cases, they want such products to be delivered at their own convenience.

To remain competitive, the company has come up with customer centered products to satisfy their individual needs and preferences. As a matter of fact, the company offers highly responsive services to its customers. Since its creation, the company has been moving products to customers (Cisco 2010, p. 16). As a matter of fact, the company has a lot of business processes to the internet as time goes by.

The global technological industry has a lot of competitive rivalry. This has enhanced the emergence of various low cost companies. Such companies are threatening the existence of established companies like Cisco Systems Inc. In extreme cases, technological advancements have brought in new companies in the market.

Therefore, the company has been forced to come up with new ways of doing business to remain competitive. In this case, the company has occasionally developed new products to keep off competition.

Government policies have been encouraging technological advancements and that is why many companies have taken advantage of such provisions to establish their presence in the market (Slater 2003, p. 14).

Competitive rivalry has also been intensified through various innovations that have taken place in the industry. The company’s strategy is very sustainable because it has been attracting new talent to enhance product development.

There is a high threat of substitute products and services in the global technology industry. The existence of substitute products has increased buyers’ ability to switch products according to their needs. As a matter of fact, there are a lot of substitute products in the market (Waters 2002, p. 16).

To remain sustainable, the company has built a good relationship with customers. This has been done by occasionally coming up with new products in relation to their needs at a particular time.

The company relies on proper utilization of the internet to enhance its operations. Such aspects have seen it become one of the most successful technological companies in the world. As a matter of fact, the company has driven e-business to customers to enhance its performance.

The bargaining power of suppliers for technological companies has been increasing in recent years. This is because technological companies have come up with better ways of doing business.

In this case, suppliers can switch to different companies in relation to the prevailing market switching costs (Soederbaum 2008, p. 14). All this withstanding, the company has an effective distribution channel that it has used to enhance its operations and activities in the market.

This has been done through good strategic partnerships and relationships with different suppliers in the market. Although this has been improving as time goes by, the company has projected that it will experience different supply chain constraints that are expected to affect its 2010 financial performance (Cisco 2010, p. 18).

The number of new competitors in the industry has also been increasing in relation to market needs and trends. This has always threatened the company’s core business. For sustainability, the company has come up with better ways of doing business. This revolves around new approaches to strategic management. In extreme case, the company has occasionally developed new products to remain competitive.

Cisco Systems Inc’s success and continued profitability can be attributed to proper enforcement of porters’ three generic strategies. The company’s segmentation strategy has been very effective in penetrating new markets (Cisco 2010, p. 12).

In this case, it has identified different market segments that need to be attended to. As a matter of fact, the company has differentiated its products to compete well with other market players and companies. This is because customers want new and effective products in the market.

The company’s cost leadership strategy has enabled it to appeal to different price sensitive consumers. As a matter of fact, the company has always come up with good prices to suit its target market. This is because its serves different clients with distinct needs.

In a broad perspective, the company was able to save $ 1.5 billion dollars in 2009. This was done through effective cost avoidance and increased operational efficiency in its operations around the world.

Cisco Systems Inc has a good strategic scope that has focused on effective customers’ needs delivery. In this case, the company competes in all market segments. Globalization has come up as a new way and approach of doing business (Cisco 2010, p. 14).

To show how strategic the company is, it provides internet protocol to all businesses around the world. This means that the company has strategically positioned itself in the market to serve various market needs and interests.

Urgent issues Cisco Systems Inc has to deal with various issues as far as its global strategy is concerned. The company has been receiving criticisms in relation to its global activities. Such criticisms include the China censorship issue that gave the company a bad image.

To solve such issues, the company should be open about its business activities and operations (Cisco 2010, p. 26). This is because customers might not want to associate themselves with a company that colludes with other governments to infringe on the rights of internet consumers.

The company has also been facing legal lawsuits in different countries. These lawsuits have been advanced by various organizations and companies in relation to its activities and operations. An example of such a lawsuit is the shareholder class issue where the company ended up paying $ 91.75 million (Cisco 2010, p. 11). In this case, the company should review it’s cooperate practices to avoid any controversies.

It should be known that the company is experiencing supply chain constraints that need to be attended to for sustainability. This is because the global market is vey competitive and such incompetency’s can end up being costly to the company.

Such an aspect can be looked at by evaluating the company’s component lead time that is supposed to be improved as time goes by (Cisco 2010, p. 13). The company should ensure that it reduces its supply chain constraints to remain competitive.

The company needs to review its strategy to reflect the current global financial crisis’s real market situation. This is because there is a market uncertainty that has seen many countries experience slow GDP growth rates (Cisco 2010, p. 9). Such an aspect is expected to affect the company’s revenue projections. In this case, the company should come up with better ways of enhancing its sales and revenues.

Another urgent issue is the slow recovery from the global financial crisis than it had been projected. As a matter of fact, the company’s customers have ended up being cautious in their spending. Because these customers are re-evaluating their spending, the company should come up with a new approach to marketing to enhance its sales and operations.

The company should also deal with an unfavorable product mix. This is because it has been introducing new products in the market every now and then. As a matter of fact, sales of its core products; switches and routers have dropped by 1.4% in the third quarter of 2010 (Cisco 2010, p. 23).

There is also an impact of different government regulations. This has affected its sales margins in different ways. In this case, it should clearly evaluate markets before launching its operations.

Conclusion and recommendation Like every other technological company, Cisco Systems Inc is facing various challenges that need to be looked at. These challenges have been increasing as time goes by in relation to the prevailing market conditions.

One of the major strategic challenges that the company is facing is the fact that sales in the USA market are declining as time goes by. In this case, the company has a challenge to look for other markets to enhance its growth.

Therefore, it is recommendable for the company to enhance product development to remain competitive. The company should also exploit other emerging markets for sustainability.

It will also be advisable for the company to engage in strategic alliances to increase its market share. In a broad perspective, Cisco Systems Inc should enhance its relationship with customers to know what they want in the market. This will enhance the company’s competitive advantage as time goes by.

Reference list Bunnell, D., 2000. Making the Cisco Connection: The Story Behind the Real Internet Superpower. New York: Wiley.

Cisco., 2010. Products and Services. Web.

Moore, M, H., 1995. Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Paulson, E., 2001. Inside Cisco: The Real Story of Sustained M


India Tobacco Company (ITC) Ltd Evaluation Essay writing essay help

Introduction of value proposition This paper aims to analyze the value proposition of India Tobacco Company (ITC) Ltd and compare it with the value of proposition of its competitor, Azadbidi. Overall, such term as value proposition includes such components as quantitative and qualitative benefits that the organization offers to the buyers and the advantages that the company’s products have over others (Andersen, Narus


Ducati Marketing Department Coursework essay help free

The article affirms that, Ducati an Italian based firm focusing on motorcycle manufacturing announced the elimination of its marketing department. In its place, it came up with a community driven system. Hence, the company makes decisions on important issues concerning their products basing on the reactions from the community.

In addition, it has developed ducati.com, a website that connects its customers by offering them an assortment of products. These include game downloads, brochures, bike sounds and many more. The general manager of ducati.com is said to have consulted a lot with his colleagues before coming up with this product.

The outcome of this strategy revealed that this company did not kill its marketing approach but enhanced it more. It thus meant that marketers no longer have to place media adverts so as to push customers to buy their products. Thus, they only have to develop a network that links their customers.

The article reveals that most marketers implementing this strategy have experienced a major cut in their budgetary funds in the past years. Basing on other research conducted it is obvious that most consumers purchase online. As a result, online selling and marketing are indispensable tools.

This information has made other prominent companies adapt this marketing strategy. Hence, word of mouth (WOM) is the focal marketing instrument for most companies. This strategy has also given opportunities to consumers as they have been constituted to the company’s payroll through their direct contribution in the company proceedings.

These included event organization and redesigning of products through presenting their opinions via the company websites to the relevant governmental departments. As evident, this mode of marketing strengthens the bond connecting consumers and the company.

Walking a day in subscribers’ shoes The article reveals that the contemporary generation seems to be living in a digital age; thus, they communicate more using dissimilar channels. In 2008 exact target invented the concept of subscribers’ rule, which meant that the marketers should offer services according to the consumer requirements.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An investigation was conducted to help comprehend the diverse characteristics of consumers. In the results, one of the personas identified was wired consumers who are males aged 18 and 34 with yearly proceeds of about $ 35000. They prefer the Internet, as a result, use emails, phones, instant messengers (IM), SMS and social networks for personal communication. In marketing, they prefer the use of SMS.

The other persons are home makers aged between 18 and 34 years and have annual proceeds of $35000. They spend more time online and occasionally read newspapers and magazines. As a matter of fact, they prefer direct mail and email for marketing purposes.

Additionally, the retired group spends a lot of time reading newspapers and books; besides, they use texts for communication. The article highlights that this group prefer the conventional mode of marketing which are telemarketing and direct mail.

College students and teens spend significant proportions of time on the Internet and books. As expected, they are profound consumers of social networks particularly Facebook, although email and IM are occasionally used. College students are online buyers, unlike teens.

The established persons who are 35years earn an average yearly pay of $ 75000. They listen more to radio and use telephone and email for individual communication; furthermore, they shop online.

This information is essential to the marketers as they have to identify the means preferred by the different personas for their marketing needs. Thus, they are entitled to meet the marketing desires of diverse personas by considering the best avenues reach them. Indeed, the marketers’ feedback is expected to be aligned with these findings.

Marketing Measurements It is a fact that, marketers have always failed to account for the impact of marketing, and this has caused unrest in this department. It is imperative to assert that several means have been devised to counter the problem, and market mix model has been branded as a way to rationalize this issue.

We will write a custom Coursework on Ducati Marketing Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though, this technique has shown how various parameters affect sales, it has fallen short of unearthing the Gordian knot, which is a promotional dimension. The study undertaken by Forrester, together, with other advertisers reveals that traders waste large sums doing sales and trademark construction, but they can not account for the results.

Several reasons have been cited to be creating complexities in measurement of the outcomes of promotion. Marketers usually find it inflexible to employ modifications depending on ROI examination. Another problem arises because marketers measure many parameters since they have varied objectives to meet.

It is noted that measurement complexities diverge from one business to the other. Estimating sales impact, as well as, determining it across the media is the chief obstacle. Therefore, modeling has been identified as the prospect of marketing estimation.

The article asserts that evolution of marketing behavior is marred with challenges, and it is advisable to counter such huddles. Some of the identified challenges include the fight with the value of sales figures.

It is crucial to know that modelers are only making matters simple, other than not solving the measurement troubles. Another problem is the over reliance on the reaction investigation by branders. The article proposes the marketplace mix models, which is gaining momentum. A lot should be done to explicate the modeling scheme, methods, and execution.


Automobile Trade, Tariffs or Quotas Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Tariffs and quotas can be described as various and different trade restrictions. These restrictions are mostly imposed on exports and imports. Different countries have come up with tariffs and quotas to protect their domestic industries and ensure that they earn revenues (Sheffrin 9). A tariff is a tax that is revised every now and then on exports and imports.

Therefore, tariffs will automatically affect international trade in Big Drive Auto. This is as far as the company’s automobile goods and services are concerned.

As far as international trade is concerned, these tariffs and quotas will affect the price of automobile products. Since Big Drive Auto is located in Canada, it will want to enhance its operations in the global market. Therefore, it will be exposed to different quotas and tariffs (Salvatore 14).

Since a tariff is a tax, it will raise the price of different products that the company will distribute to the market (Steedman 32). In this case, consumers will find the company’s products to be a little bit expensive. This will ultimately affect sales.

Because every country has its own quota system, there will be limits on the amount of goods and services that the company has to export (Sheffrin 16). As a matter of fact, Big Drives automobile products prices will be raised beyond the market equilibrium price.

It should therefore be known that these tariffs and quotas will lead to a decrease in demand for the company’s products (Steedman 17). This will ultimately limit the supply of Big Drive Auto’s automobile products.

These tariffs come in different forms with various intentions depending on the country of origin (Salvatore 18). For example, the tariff may be levied in order to align the price of imported products with that of the locally produced products. This means that such tariffs are levied to level the playing field.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As time goes by, Big Drive Auto might want to distribute its automobile products to various customers in different countries around the world. This means that various trade policies and exchange rates will end up facilitating or reducing the company’s exports.

Exchange rates will ultimately affect the company’s exports in a broad way (Sheffrin 26). The USD is recognized as the world’s official trading currency. Since Big Drive Auto is located in Canada, its exports to other countries will be determined by the exchange rates at that particular time.

For instance, if the company is exporting its goods to other countries and Canada’s local currency becomes strong, its products will end up being expensive. This will affect the final demand and supply.

On the other hand, if the company is importing goods in different countries and its home currency becomes weak; its products will end up being expensive. It should be known that exchange rates keep on fluctuating as time goes by and can never be constant (Salvatore 27).

Different developing countries have come up with various policies and quotas to encourage and enhance foreign investments. World trade organization has been on the forefront to enhance trade between different countries (Salvatore 31).

As a matter of fact, the international trade policy has provided various production subsidies that will end up facilitating Big Drive Auto’s exports. Countries like Hungary have reduced quotas and tariffs on different automobile imports. In this case, the company will be able to increase its exports in such markets.

Big Drive Auto should know that exchange rates bring productivity differences that end up affecting the company’s terms of trade.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Automobile Trade, Tariffs or Quotas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These terms of trade affect the company’s exports to other countries and should be clearly understood as time goes by. For instance, preferential tariffs have reduced import duties on automobile products that Big Drive Auto exports (Salvatore 44). This will increase the company’s sales in new international markets.

Works cited Salvatore, Dominick. Introduction to International Economics. New Jersey: Wiley, 2005. Print.

Sheffrin, M, Steven. Economics: Principles in action. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2003. Print.

Steedman, Ian. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. London: MacMillan, 1979. Print.


Human Resource Management Processes Report essay help site:edu

Introduction In the late 19th and early 20th centuries some of the larger employers with a paternalist outlook began to appoint welfare officers to manage a series of new initiatives designed to make life less harsh for their employees. Prominent examples were the progressive schemes of unemployment benefit, sick pay and subsidized housing provided by the Quaker family firms of Cadbury and Rowntree.

While the motives were ….charitable, there was and remains a business as well as an ethical case for paying ….attention to the welfare of employees.” According to Bratton and Gold (2001, p.7), some of the major shifts which were experienced in employment relate to increased concern to the welfare of the workers.

Traditional view of personnel management First World War and the Second World War

By 1918, there was another shift with regard to regulation of working conditions. The resultant effect was establishment of a strong relationship between employee welfare and efficiency. During the 1900s, the labor market was very tight.

Therefore integration of employee welfare was aimed at retaining the employees. During the world war, employees used to perform more intensive work. However, the shift towards employee welfare resulted into better working environment, working equipments, workshop organization and effective management.

In addition, personnel management also focused on remuneration as one of the ways through which employees can be motivated. This is evident in the emergence of Premium Bonus Systems (PBS) which culminated into development of systematic management. Introduction of the PBS method of remuneration led to expansion of the personnel management role.

The events of the First World War resulted into incorporation of industrial relations within the organization. In the early 1920s and 1930s there was a significant change with regard to organization’s internal practices in addition to employer’s perception of their human resource. This is evident in integration of concepts such as rationalization, human relation movement and Taylorism (Armstrong 2003).

The core objective of rationalization of human resource processes was to minimize cost of operation and to improve efficiency and effectiveness. In addition, rationalization was aimed at ensuring that the firm emphasized on tasks with added value. Integration of rationalization in management practices led to emergence of scientific management.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The findings of the Hawthorne experiment were the driving force towards the need for improved human relations. With regard to Taylorism, firms were advised to incorporate employees in their various organizational processes (Cheminais, Waldt


Adult Learning Assumptions Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Six Key Assumptions Provided by Knowles Knowles’s work is narrowed to the analysis of theories of adult learning. His concept of andragogy is the most well-known theory of adult development. Hence, the scope of Knowles (2005) model is based on the six basic assumptions concerning adults and their attitude to learning:

Adults are more self-directed rather than dependent;

The main resource for learning is constant accumulation of experience;

Their desire to acquire knowledge and to learn is predetermined by their social roles;

Adult are considered to be more subject-oriented rather problem-oriented in the course of learning;

They believe that internal motivations are less powerful as compared with the external ones;

Finally, it is important for adult learners to know why it is crucial to learn something (Knowles et al., 2005).

All these assumptions are considered to be critical for designing effective educational models for adult learners.

Analysis of the Assumptions with Regard to Other Critical Evaluations The above-presented assumptions have been reviewed and evaluated by other scholars engaged into the study of adult learning, including various theories and models. Merriam et al. (2007) agree with some assumptions provided by Knowles. In particular, the researchers single out three main methods for transformational learning: development, experience and critical reflection.

They also consider experience as an important factor for creating a great opportunity for adult learners. MacKeracher (2004) also assumers that “Knowles clearly succeeded in encouraging adult educators to be more critically reflective about their assumptions about adult learners and adult learning” (p. 24).

Despite the fact that some assumptions are quite logical and consistent, Merriam et al. (2007) contend that Knowles succeeded only in introducing a teaching theory rather than the model for adult learning.

In particular, they state that there is an ambiguity in Knowles’s assumptions concerning the theory orientation. In particular, they believe that it is hard to define whether this theory is designed for teaching or learning, for adults or for children.

Knowles’s Two Assumptions That Almost Wrong Much critics and discontent is connected with his assumptions about adults orientation on subjects and their readiness to move from dependence to self-directed approaches to learning. Therefore, the first and the fourth assumptions are considered to be wrong and this can also be proven by other scholarly researches in this field.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, as it has been mentioned before, MacKeracher (2004) presupposes that these assumptions are quite controversial. In particular he believes that “[t]he change from ‘self-directed’ to ‘increasing self-directness’ and from ‘problem centered’ to ‘performance-centered’ did not satisfy those who saw the Knowles’ distinction between child and adult learning as being based on assumptions that would not hold up under close scrutiny’” (pp. 23-24).

Second, the falsity of assumption also lies in some psychological characteristic of a person. Hence, some adults are not self-directed because they need some support and guidance in learning, whereas there are children who are internally directed and independent in learning (Comings, Garner, and Smith, p. 203).

Knowles’ Two Assumptions That are Almost Right With regard to the studies and theories examined by scholars (Merriam et al. 2007, MacKeracher, 2004, Comings et al. 2004), the second and the third assumptions are considered to be quite consistent and appropriate for andragogical learning conceptions. All of them agree with the assumption that experience is reservoir of knowledge and the main underpinning of a learning process.

Merriam et al. (2007) believe that a person’s accumulated experience provide relevant and effective opportunities and is closely connected with the learning process. The researchers also believe that experience is a significant aspect affecting adult learners’ ability to obtain, accumulate, and transfer knowledge.

According to MacKeracher (2004), “Adults accumulate experience and prior learning over their lifetime, the older they grow, the more past experience and prior learning they bring to bear on current learning” (p. 33).

Interpreting this, the researcher completely agrees with the fact that experience is the main underpinning for learners’ development. More importantly, experience is the source for creating and developing strategies and skills for reflecting and organizing reaction and interaction in the present.

Coming et al. (2004) support Knowles’s third assumption about the influence of social context on the learning process. The scholars insist on the fact that contextual environment play a decisive role in adults development and knowledge accumulation (Coming et al, 2004, 209).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Adult Learning Assumptions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, context based learning can tale place in the working environment where adults are interacting, becoming the parts of community. Therefore, the result of adults’ learning development largely depends on the social environment they are surrounded by as well as social roles adults perform.

Conclusion Knowles’s (2005) assumptions about adult learning have created a plethora of contradictions that have been critically accepted by other scholars. Hence, his assumptions about adults’ self-directed orientation and problem-centered method of learning have not been supported by the other researcher.

This is explained by arguments correlated with psychological development of individuals. However, his arguments about experience and social role have been widely accepted by the scholars. In particular, they believe that social environment and experience accumulation are the main pillars for adult learners’ development and knowledge acquisition.

Reference List Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., and Swanson, R. (2005). The Adult Learner: the definite classic in adult education and human resource development. US: Butterworth-Heinemann.

MacKeracher, D. (2004). Making sense of adult learning. US: University of Toronto Press.

Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S.,


Employees Job Motivation Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Factors Causing the Employee Dissatisfaction

Employees are the backbone of organizations; without them, organizations could never stabilize or grow. Nevertheless, the availability of employees alone does not guarantee that that organization could grow; they must be able to feel satisfied and motivated in order for them to render their very best.

Employee satisfaction refers employees’ affective responses to a job based on the likening of the actual outcomes and the desired outcomes (Morden, 2004).

The factors causing dissatisfaction as per the case study include inadequate career development opportunities, lack of organizational commitment to professional development, poor communication, poor recognition mechanisms and lack of employee participation in decision-making.

Factors that could be addressed to Improve the way organization handles Development of Employees

Most employees in the case feel dissatisfied because there is no opportunity for career development. When the organization they are working for does not institute measures aimed at promoting their future career aspirations, employees have nothing to look forward to.

Some of ways that could be explored towards career development include opportunities for learning and professional growth, job-specific-training, opportunities to network with others in order to advance their career opportunities to use their skills and abilities in work, and paid training.

In the case study, employees complain about lack of organizational commitment to professional development of employees. Professional development is advanced through opportunities such as attending conferences, attending trainings, as well as obtaining certificates.

These opportunities are thus expected to enable employees enhance their skills, and knowledge, in order to build their career profiles and enable them meet their professional goals. From the case study, this is a critical issue because as one employee indicated, she is ready to resign due to lack of commitment towards employee’s professional development in the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For organizations to succeed, commitment to employees’ career development is crucial (Morden, 2004). Managers have to come up with programs that offer opportunities for learning and professional growth such as mentorship, cross training, job specific training, as well as the opportunity to network with other people elsewhere.

If such opportunities are not provided, employees might feel overworked and bored with their work, as is the story in the Case Study. Employees in the case study feel that whatever they are doing is too much and there is no opportunity for personal care i.e. they do not have the freedom in which they can take care of themselves.

Communication between management and employees is a critical factor for consideration. Communication problems are featured in the case study; though not mentioned directly. One of the complaining employees must have been experiencing dissatisfaction for quite some time, but due to inadequate communication, was unable to share them with the seniors.

The coming of the new manager, Malik, seems to have paved way for the employee to come forward and declare the desire to resign. Such a situation of poor communication framework between members of staff tremendously affects employee satisfaction and performance.

Employee participation in decision-making is critical in modern organizations (Morden, 2004). Whenever employees lack enough freedom to make their own decisions, there is bound to be an element of dissatisfaction and poor performance. Furthermore, this is likely to cause boredom because, then, employees will keep on doing only what they have been told to do and nothing further.

Finally, as evidenced in the case study, deficiency in management recognition of employee job performance is a great reason for lack of motivation. Recognition plays a very special role in employee job satisfaction and performance.

This is because once recognition is instituted employees are most likely feel valued and appreciated (Sofo, 2000). Performance appraisal is critical and employees have to receive clear feedback about their performance. In the case study, recognition appears lacking thus workers do not feel valued enough.

We will write a custom Assessment on Employees Job Motivation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is critical to deal with the question of training in the organization (Sofo, 2000). Training not only equips employees with more skills, knowledge and change in attitudes, it also ensures that the organization responds to changing environment. Whenever training and other mentioned factors are put in place, the organization is deemed to benefit from improved skills and performance.

Malik’s immediate response to the issue of dissatisfaction

The first thing Malik should deal with is find a way of getting employees and managers to talk and air out their issues. He has to, immediately, come up with a favorable framework to encourage all round communication among employees and the seniors without fear. This framework should sustainably encourage immediate airing of current problems but encourage proactive engagement between employees and management in the future.

Secondly, Malik should attempt to institute job-rotation so that employees get a chance of experiencing different tasks and then identifying the most appropriate tasks they would love to do. This way, employees participate in deciding what is good for them in the organization.

Finally, Malik has to, immediately; engage the employees in job evaluation against compensation and benefits. This is an important preliminary move given motivation is highly pegged on recognition and reward. Through the job evaluation, employees will begin to realize a sense of their work being appreciated.

Malik should evaluate the employee’s basic pay, variable pay, bonuses, and commissions and engage employees in dialogue to gauge their feel about the same. By doing so, Malik will be able to realize why the employees might be feeling undervalued and thus institute immediate remedial action.

Long-term changes that the manager should suggest for the organization

Based on foregoing discussions, for long term stability and motivation of employees, Malik should consider suggesting both job related and social changes that will motivate employees.

For instance, Malik should design and suggest training programs that will ensure that employees are kept at par with whatever that is going on in the industry. The training programs should contain both on job and off job elements. Off-the-job training can consist in the sponsoring of employees to study in their areas of choice whenever they find it necessary.

Secondly, Malik should consider proposing the organization of some social events such as tours, and sports in order to ensure that employees get to free their minds off the strenuous tasks in the office and bond among themselves.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Employees Job Motivation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thirdly, Malik could propose continuous review of the compensation structure thus ensuring that employees are rewarded for their performance at work and related loyalty. The amount of disposable income determines the kind of efforts employees can put in on their own for personal development

Human Resource Policies that would support Development programs within the organization

The kind of policies that Malik suggests should be in line with aligning employee skills and talents with organizational needs. Secondly, the policies should encourage career development, employee recognition and adequate compensation or remuneration.

One important policy would be in line with ensuring that employees are assigned tasks or responsibilities for which they are talented to do and for which they have higher affinity. This will lead to employee being able to what they like and thus improving their productivity.

The organization needs a clear policy on promotion and advancement. By having a work performance pegged promotion policy, the organization will encourage better performance and consequently increase productivity. For instance, if an employee has successfully executed his/her mandate for quite some time, she/he should be given an opportunity for higher job responsibilities.

Reference List Morden, T. (2004). Principles of Management. 2nd Ed., London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Sofo, F. (2000). Human Resource Development: Perspectives, Roles and Practice Choices. London: Allen


Gadget Toy Company’s Network Definition Essay essay help online

Drawing Network Gadget Toy Company’s Network

Purpose of Critical Path A critical path helps the management to identify the most crucial activity in every project. A critical path is the longest time that a project can take to be completed. At the same time, it is the shortest time that a project can take because it has no float time.

Identification of the critical path helps the management in allocating resources and directing the activities in order to accomplish the project within the stipulated time schedule (Webb, 2002). The critical path shows activities whose duration can be reduced to reduce the overall production duration.

Otherwise, reducing activities, which do not form part of the critical path, increases cost without reducing the overall project duration. The critical path outlines the most important sets of activities which when implemented the project goals will be realized (Webb, 2002).

Tracking the project using the Critical path Critical path analysis allows management to monitor the development of the project while tracing its achievement (Webb, 2002). Through the critical path, the management can tell whether they will be able to meet their targeted goals or not. Any deviation arising are easily detected and remedial action are employed promptly to address any shortcomings.

Moreover, the critical path helps the management to identify activities, which can be delayed in order to allocate limited resources to other activities without affecting the project duration. On the same note, the critical path helps the management make good judgments pertaining future changes in costs and other eventualities.

To hasten project analysis, Critical path is used to develop Gantt Charts, which illustrates the sequence in which activities are implemented (Webb, 2002). Gantt charts also shows which activities should be completed first before initiating others, without the critical path the management may find it difficult to understand which activities to implement first.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ways Preventing Project delays To keep the project on track the management may decide to switch some resource from an activity with float time to a critical activity. This process helps to ensure that all the critical activities are ran smoothly while delaying other activities, which are not critical (Webb, 2002).

Delaying such projects does not affect the overall project duration. From the network drawn above, the management of Gadget Company may opt to delay activity D (Deliver material) to allocate more time for installing tools (activity E).

Secondly, the management may opt to hire additional labor, or provide for overtime (work on weekends) in order to reinstate the project back on track. However such as measure means requires additional allocation of money to hire more labor.

The other way that a project can be kept on track is by working at night so as to make up for the lost time. The other alternative would involve increasing supply so as to hasten the rate project completion time. However, any decision to increase labor and supply means incurring extra cost, which may not be readily available.

Finally, Gadget Toy may opt to crash one of the critical activities to reduce the operation time. Crashing an activity involves reducing the duration taken by an activity at a higher cost. Crashing cost depends on the time reduced on top of the original cost budgeted for that activity.

Ways of linking interrelated projects There are several ways of linking multiple projects with interdependencies using the critical path method namely:

Performance Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT),

Earned Value Management (EVM)

Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)

Program Evaluation and Review technique

According to Webb (2002) PERT forms the foundation of planning and forecasting thereby enabling the management to prepare in advance. Apart from this, PERT provide management with ample time when it comes to decisions making especially in interrelated projects and portfolio projects.

We will write a custom Essay on Gadget Toy Company’s Network specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This management tool not only helps in effective utilization of resources of resource but it also ensures that all projects are completed within the stipulated time. This is made possible by visibility provided by the project as single process is used for various projects. Finally, PERT is a reliable tool for handling uncertainties because all projects are laid in a horizontal manner that makes it easier for management to detect any delay or slack.

Earned Value Management (EVM)

EVM is another popular method of linking project that is being used in the modern management practices. It involves analyzing various projects, portfolios and businesses, it provide management with information tools to handle several projects at ago.

In addition, EVM provides insight for future changes in project implementation. In order for management to adequately prepare for the impending uncertainties, EVM provides room for prioritizing some projects while delaying others in order to facility a mutual relationship between them.

Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)

GERT operates in a similar way as the Pert but have some differences because it allow looping, project branching and multiple projects handling. GERT is an improvement on PERT because it elaborates the status of a project whether it is successful or not. Incase a project branch fails to deliver the expected results the management switches attention to other branch.

Benefits of Linking Projects Linking project has become a popular method of handling various projects that are interrelated, through linking such project the management derives many benefits.

Firstly, the management improves planning as linkages facilitate projecting the future trends of the projects in terms of time and money requirement. With such a foresight the management plans in advance on how to overcome such challenges by delaying some projects or by increasing labor to meet the stipulated deadline.

Pennypacker and Dye (1999) asserts that connecting several interrelated projects provides room for identifying repetitive activities. This helps in streamlining operation since the criteria for handling this project remains similar from one set of activities to the other. Repeated action promotes managers dexterity and confidence in handling similar projects in future thereby improving their efficiency.

Integrating projects helps the managers to reschedule activities to display project interdependencies and how such relationships stretch the available resources. However, with this challenge in the mind the manager ensures proper prioritization of activities for efficiency utilization of limited resources.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gadget Toy Company’s Network by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the modern state-of-the- art, linking projects has also provided room for development of software to handles multi-projects in one go. Such development has acted to the best interest of managers whose role has been reduced to monitoring the progress and checking for compliance with the set time limits.

Additionally, the management has the challenge of dealing with conflicts between projects and ensuring optimal allocation of resource between such projects. Moreover, the managers have the obligation of allocating resources according to the priorities set for the conflicting projects.

Nevertheless, setting priority for activities forming part of the critical path has proved to be cumbersome and as a result, the management should always remain vigilant at such critical moments (Pennypacker and Dye, 1999).

Reference List Pennypacker, S.J.


Scottish and Southern Energy Evaluation Report (Assessment) essay help free: essay help free

Executive Summary Scottish and Southern Energy serves the energy needs of household clients in the United Kingdom. The SWOT Analysis shows the many strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the company.

Likewise, the PESTEL analysis delves in the political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal aspects of the energy-providing company. The Porter’s five forces analysis explains the inputs from the current competitors, consumer, substitute, supplier, and new entrants on Southern and Scottish Energy’s marketing strategies.

The financial statements indicate that Scottish and Southern Energy profitably resolved each significant hurdle or opportunity along its path to achieve organisational goals and objectives. The company’s profitable stature points to strong recommendations to continue its currently successful innovative company policies.

The balance scorecard shows that the company overcomes each obstacle with flying colours. Indeed, SSE maximises the factors within the SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s 5 forces, and other frameworks to profitably surpass benchmarks in the United Kingdom energy market segment.

Introduction The company, Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE), maximises the SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s 5 forces, and other significant variables to profitably succeed in the United Kingdom energy market segment. SSE is an organization engaged in the energy market segment. The company’s head office is strategically located in Pert, Scotland. It is the second largest supplier of energy needs in the United Kingdom.

The research focuses on the company’s financial statement analysis, SWOT analysis, and balanced scorecard with the United Kingdom. This paper evaluates the company’s success in terms of its competitive environment by implementing effective corporate strategies.

Discussion and Analysis The Competitive Scottish and Southern Energy – Industry Analysis

P E S T L E Analysis

Political Environment Scottish and Southern Energy complies with all political requirements of the nation. Government legislation encourages organisational, including Scottish and Southern Energy, to provide a variety of jobs to reduce the increasing unemployment rate (Balchin,1994).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scottish and Southern Energy hires employees from communities where each power plant is strategically located; consequently, the company aids to government in reducing unemployment rate (Taylor, 2007).

Economic situation In terms of company’s significant macroeconomic situation, the current financial crisis during the past few years precipitated from the current economic recession enveloping the United Kingdom and other parts of the world.

The global online population will grow to about more than 2 billion by 2014 , or more than 40% from 1.6 billion in 2009. Due to the global financial crisis of 2008, Scottish and Southern Energy reduces avoidable expenses to a bare minimum to retain a profitable financial picture (Taylor, 2007).

Social Environment Czinkota (2006) theorised due to a variety of social changes, the Scottish and Southern Energy expands to increase its revenues. The increasing influx of immigrants from European countries under the European Union charter increases the demand for electricity, gas, and other energy-related needs.

The increase in the number immigrants living within the territorial boundaries of the United Kingdom creates an increase in the demand for Scottish and Southern Energy’s products and services. Dubrin (2008) opined because of the increase in the prices of basic commodities, British consumers are forced to reduce the use of electricity, gas, and other energy needs.

Technological According to Adrian Davies (2006), Scottish and Southern Energy incorporates green technology as on of its popular energy product alternatives. Starting in 2004, Scottish and Southern Energy implements its green energy policy using wind energy to generate electricity. Wind (patterned after Holland’s windmill technology), water, and future nuclear energy sources are patterned fill the residents’ increasing preferred energy needs.

Steven Fuller (2005) observes the company has entered into a technology agreement with other power conversion organisations to research and develop an innovative direct current process with the use of windmill-based power technology

We will write a custom Assessment on Scottish and Southern Energy Evaluation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legal Baumueller (2007) opined the company complies with all the laws of the United Kingdom. The Scottish and Southern Energy company pays each subordinate the minimum daily allowable by United Kingdom and other related laws. The company complies with all tax, cultural, employment, and other statues implemented in communities where each Scottish and Southern Energy site is located within the United Kingdom.

Environmental According to Piranhar (2006), the company does not throw its waste products into the crystal clear waters located near any of its energy-generating sites. With the current climate change issues, Scottish and Southern Energy offers wind, water, and future nuclear energy-based energy sources as environment-friendly alternatives to using pollution-triggering fossil oil.

Porter’s Five Forces

Using the five forces model by Porter (1980) the following are the derived results:

Threat of New Entrants There are a few competitors eager to unceremoniously snatch each household client of Southern and Scottish Energy. The Saturated Electricty and energy price issue confronts competitors including British Gas, Scottish Power, EDF Energy, and Powergen (Davies, 2006).

The continuing increases in electricity costs forces Southern and Scottish Energy to increase its prices; this triggers the public’s demand for cheaper alternative sources of energy.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers According to Yilmaz (2009), the major suppliers of Southern and Scottish Energy can significantly bargain to ensure a constant purchase of their supplies. Supplier preference is price-based. Energy suppliers include the fossil oil producing companies and water energy suppliers.

Bargaining Power of Consumers Porter emphasized that companies avoiding to innovate may suffer in terms of revenues. The government statutes affect client’s bargaining power. The consumers have few alternative energy choices. Consequently, many clients may shift to the competitors’ energy products and services (Porter, 1980).

The Energy Competitors may produce similar or even better substitutes Ritz theorised (2005) the price-based U.K. energy industry offers few alternative substitutes; candles and firewood cannot offer similar benefits as Scottish and Southern Energy sources in the electricity, gas, and other energy sources. In the Energy industry, there are two substitution forms; product for product and substitute for need.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Scottish and Southern Energy Evaluation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Competitors may have the Power to Bargain According to Janet Wood (2007) the saturated electricity, gas, and other energy-generating market segments in the United Kingdom continue to trigger the capital-intensive competitors in the local energy industry to creatively innovate to keep abreast of the competition. Currently, Scottish and Southern Energy uses renewal energy to reduce pollution.

SWOT Analysis

This part summarizes the discussions made in the Scottish and Southern Energy external environment using the five-force model (Porter, 1980) and those made from internal analysis using unique company characteristics and financial analysis.

Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths According to Davies (2006), the company, Southern and Scottish Energy , has many sources to fuel the electricity and other needs of its household 3,600,000 clients within the United Kingdom.

The client-centred company’s alternative sources of energy include water (hydroelectric power), wind (windmill technology), and fossil fuel. The company focuses on continued research and development activities. The company is a synergetic combination Scottish Hydro, Southern Electricity , SWALEC, and other companies.

Weaknesses According to Webb (2010) the Southern and Scottish Energy often increases the prices of its energy supplies to its 3,600,000 United Kingdom clients. Specifically, the company increased its December 2010 household electricity charges by £ 67 to recoup its increasing expenses within Southern England, Wales, and Scotland communities. The clients may seek other sources of energy to alleviate the increase in electricity costs.

Opportunities The company, Scottish and Southern Energy focuses on a new source, nuclear energy, to fill the communities’ energy needs. The use of nuclear energy eliminates the use of fossil oil, a big contributor to smoke pollution. Smoke pollution; smoke pollution causes damage to the environmental.

Threats According to Webb (2010), the increase in the electricity prices prompts many Scottish and Southern Energy clients to seek alternative sources of energy. The competitors, British Gas, Scottish Power, EDF Energy, and Powergen, are eagerly awaiting every chance to steal the company’s clients.

Market Structure

Davies (2006) emphasised the United Kingdom energy market structure is saturated. Scottish and Southern Energy supplies the electricity, gas, and other energy needs of residents within the United Kingdom.

The company is currently complying with the government’s emphasis on the use of environment-friendly energy sources. The company’s focus includes the use of renewable energy. Renewable energy includes the use of water wave (hydroelectricity) and wind (green technology) to fill the electricity, gas, and other energy needs of people living within the United Kingdom territory.

Southern and Scottish Energy’s Financial Performance Analysis Through Ratios

According to Maguire (2007), Scottish and Southern Energy continues to maintain a profitable image by implementing a customer –based strategic energy sources. The economic depression cropped up and affected worldwide industries from 2008 to the present; the depression reduced the company’s ROCE and other ratios from 2008 until the present.

According to Helfert (2001) the Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) formula calculated in Table 1 (appendix) shows the Scottish and Southern Energy ROCE has drastically decreased from 14 percent in 2007 to only 12 percent in 2008. Similarly, the 2008 figure had decreased further to only 1 percent in 2009. The same 2009 figure rose to 11 percent in 2010.

The computation shows Scottish and Southern Energy was less profitable in 2009 as compared to the 2010 Scottish and Southern Energy ROCE computation. The economic depression started to lessen in 2010. Analysing the 2008 to 2010 period indicates an overall profitable business.

Thomas Russo (2008) mentioned the 2008 economic depression triggered the reduction in SSE’s 2007 financial statement ratios. Based on the gross profit ratio shown in Table 2 (appendix), the 2007 gross profit ratio of the company declined due to the economic depression starting in 2008. 14 percent declined to only ten percent in 2008.

The 2008 economic depression reduced the gross profit ratio from 10 percent to only 2 percent in 2009. Lastly the 2009 gross profit ratio declined increased to 11 percent. Overall, the ratios indicate the company’s gross profit ratio is favourable.

Based on the net profit ratio shown in Table 3 (appendix), the economic depression starting in 2008 reduced the 2007 net profit ratio to only 6 percent in 2008. Likewise, the 2008 economic depression reduced the 2008 net income from 6 percent to only 0 percent in 2009. Lastly the improving 2010 economic depression propelled the 2009 profit ratio from the 0 amount in 2009 based figure to a 6 percent financial statement ratio.

The improving 2010 economic condition increase the 2009 profit ratio from a lower percentage n declined position to the higher 6 percent. The quick ratio shown in Table 4 (appendix) indicates of the 2007 to 2010 quick ratio figures remained fixed at one percent. The improving 2010 economic condition encourages more people to buy and sell SSE and other products and services.

The Corporate Strategies Currently Being Pursued by the Company

Palmer (2004) proposed the corporate strategies pursued by SSE include its marketing strategies that are focused on diversification of its product, price, place, and promotion strategies. The company sells high quality electricity, gas, and other energy products at reasonable prices.

The company advertises its products in and sets up its power generating plants to strategically reach current and future clients. Kotler (2008) proposed In addition, the company’s corporate strategy focuses on dividend distribution.

Balanced Scorecard


Mayo (2007) theorised SSE’s financial scorecard shows a passing grade. The company was able to show that it was able to generate profits for the shareholders. The company’s objective of generating profits has been reached. The company’s net income data indicates a passing grade in the measurement, target, and initiative areas (Yilmaz, 2009).

Internal Business Processes

As evidenced by the income statement, SSE is able to maximize its scarce internal resources to increase revenues and by maximizing its opportunities and strengths (Feldman, 2007). The company was able to attain its objective to improve its internal business processes by surpassing its measurement standard of increasing revenues and profits (Stickney, 2009).

Learning and Growth

DuBrin (2008) observed the SSE’s financial statements indicate that it was able to achieve its vision to sustain its current top spot in terms of the United Kingdom electricity, gas, and other energy-based market share.

This has been backed by the company’s ability to change and improve its marketing and production strategies to innovatively retain its hold on a majority of the market segment. The company has been able to attain its objective, target, and initiative by to changing its strategies to retain its share of the measurement gauge known as market segment.


According to McDonald (2007), the SSE’s income statement indicates that it has been able to achieve its vision of offering its current and prospective clients high quality electricity, gas, and other energy-based products at reasonable prices.

The company has attained its objective of generating profits by satisfying the clients’ needs (Mun, 2006). In terms of measurement, target, and initiative, the company’s positive financial ratios indicates clients are happy with the company’s services (Weygandt, 2009).

Competitive Advantage

According to Rix (2007), Scottish and Southern Energy is one of the top suppliers of household electricity, gas, and other energy-based products and service quality. At this level, product differentiation (wind, water, and fossil oil based energy) is an effective marketing strategy.

Strategic Map Stakeholder Perspective

According to Chapman (2007), the company, SSE, provides its stakeholders with opportunities to expand their benefits and leverage through collective knowledge and experiences from regular business reports. Next, the company will provide the basics for facility management professionals within the organisation to be promoted to higher responsibilities and position.

Internal Perspective

According to Weihrich (2009), SSE ensures the efficient and effective production processes to maximize scarce labour, material, and time resources. The company continues to deliver high value electricity, gas, and other energy-based products and services to its members, clients, and partners.

Learning and Growth Perspective

Weihrich (2009) opines SSE continues to creatively enhance its popular SSE culture by maximizing scarce energy-generating plants to fulfil the company’s goals, vision, mission, and objectives. The company incorporates innovation, challenge, and passion in its electricity, gas, and other energy-based marketing activities. The employees attend regular trainings to improve their work outputs.

Financial Perspective

Weihrich (2009) proposes the company’s financial statement ratios. The company continues to successfully generate revenues. The revenues translate to net profits. Consequently, the company has more than enough funds to focus on increasing its market presence; the nuclear power plant research is one of the company’s recent goals.

Conclusion Based on the above discussion, the success of the Scottish and Southern Energy business organisation is firmly grounded on many significant factors. The financial statement ratios show Scottish and Southern Energy gets a high passing grade for maximizing its assets to generate profits.

The company focuses on offering high quality energy produces and products. Lastly, the company ensures there is an uninterrupted supply to of electricity, gas, and other energy needs reaching each household.

This paper focuses on the profit maximization strategies employed by SSE for the years 2007 and 2010. The financial statement ratios show that the company did financially well before 2008 debacles. The SSE Company maximises the SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s 5 forces, and other significant inputs to profitably succeed in the United Kingdom energy market segment.

Recommendations (Future Strategic Direction Based on Balanced Scorecard) In terms of balanced scorecards’ financial perspective (Yilmaz, 2009), SSE must continue its current strategic direction of generating net profits by filling the clients’ electricity, gas, and other energy needs at affordable prices over the next ten years.

Based on the company’s balanced scorecard indicating the company continues to generate net profits for 2007 to 2010 from satisfied household clients, the current favourable financial success must be continued by offering high quality products at reasonable SSE prices.

In terms of the balanced scorecard’s customer aspect, the company continues its current strategic direction of advertising the company’s image over the next ten years. The income statement’s net income data shows the company generated profits.

In terms of the SSE’s balanced scorecard’s internal business process aspect, SSE management must continue its current strategic direction of improving the company’s current high quality supply chain strategy over the next ten years. The company’s internal business process balanced scorecard status indicates the company successfully profits from its huge chunk of the United Kingdom electricity, gas, and other energy market segments.

In terms of the company’s balanced scorecard’s learning and growth aspect, SSE, must conduct random community surveys as a new basis for instituting client-based strategies over the next ten years. The company’s balanced scorecard grade under the learning and growth aspect indicates the company is able to achieve its vision and mission to sustain its energy market leadership.

Appendices Scottish and Southern Energy. Financial Statement Analysis. Table 1

ROCE 2010 2009 2008 2007 = Net income = 1,236,000 112,000 873,000 831,000 Total Assets – Current Liabilities 10,916,000 9,625,000 7,067,000 6,097,000 0.11 0.01 0.12 0.14 Table 2

2010 2009 2008 2007 Gross Profit Ratio = Gross Profit = 2,478,000 = 580,000 = 1,559,000 = 1,695,000 Net Revenues 21,550,000 25,424,000 15,256,000 11,867,000 = 0.11 = 0.02 = 0.10 = 0.14 Table 3

Net Profit Ratio 2010 2009 2008 2007 = Net Profit = 1,236,000 = 112,000 = 873,000 = 831,000 Net Revenues 21,550,000 25,424,000 15,256,000 11,867,000 = 0.06 = 0.00 = 0.06 = 0.07 Table 4

Quick Ratio 2010 2009 2008 2007 = Current Assets = 7,235,000 8,074,000 5,152,000 3,168,000 Current Liabilities 7,212,000 8,144,000 6,707,000 3,374,000 = 1 = 1 = 1 = 1 The above table shows that the quick ratio does not change from 2007 to 2010.

Table 5

Debt to Equity Ratio 2010 2009 2008 2007 = Total Debt = 15,003,000 = 14,792,000 = 10,794,000 = 6,875,000 Total Equity 3,125,000 2,977,000 2,980,000 2,596,000 = 4.80096 = 4.9687605 = 3.62214765 = 2.6483051 The above table shows that the company the 2007 percentage has the best debt to equity ratio. The 2007 ratio is the lowest at 2.65 percent. The best debt to equity ratio is 100 percent.

Table 6. Scottish and Southern Energy. Income Statement

Southern and Scottish Energy Income Statement IN THOUSAND POUNDS Period Ending 31-Mar-10 31-Mar-09 31-Mar-08 31-Mar-07 Total Revenue 21,550,000 25,424,000 15,256,000 11,867,000 Cost of Revenue 19,073,000 24,844,000 13,698,000 10,173,000 Gross Profit 2,478,000 580,000 1,559,000 1,695,000 Operating Expenses 19,783,000 25,416,000 14,279,000 10,674,000 Operating Income 1,767,000 9,000 977,000 1,193,000 – – – – 1,767,000 9,000 977,000 1,193,000 -305,000 -237,000 -119,000 -124,000 – – – – 403,000 -59,000 211,000 302,000 – – – – 1,236,000 112,000 873,000 831,000 Net Income 1,236,000 112,000 873,000 831,000 Table 7 Balance sheet. Scottish and Southern Energy

Thousand pounds Period Ending 31-Mar-10 31-Mar-09 31-Mar-08 31-Mar-07 Assets Current Assets Cash And Cash Equivalents 262,000 296,000 255,000 56,000 Short Term Investments – – – – Net Receivables 3,364,000 3,922,000 2,432,000 1,592,000 Inventory 273,000 367,000 251,000 214,000 Other Current Assets 285,000 301,000 1,251,000 631,000 Total Current Assets 7,235,000 8,074,000 5,152,000 3,168,000 Long Term Investments 1,047,000 937,000 924,000 706,000 Property Plant and Equipment – – – – Goodwill 726,000 724,000 659,000 293,000 Deferred Long Term Asset Charges 157,000 100,000 43,000 66,000 Total Assets 18,128,000 17,769,000 13,774,000 9,471,000 Liabilities Current Liabilities Accounts Payable 2,162,000 2,604,000 1,849,000 1,412,000 Short/Current Long Term Debt 6,047,000 5,396,000 3,921,000 2,279,000 Other Current Liabilities 3,472,000 3,758,000 2,183,000 1,100,000 Total Current Liabilities 7,212,000 8,144,000 6,707,000 3,374,000 Long Term Debt 4,771,000 4,336,000 2,073,000 1,803,000 Other Liabilities – – – – Deferred Long Term Liability Charges 257,000 216,000 221,000 1,000 Total Liabilities 15,003,000 14,792,000 10,794,000 6,875,000 Common Stock 1,319,000 1,296,000 751,000 530,000 Retained Earnings 1,687,000 1,493,000 2,176,000 2,048,000 Treasury Stock 119,000 189,000 54,000 18,000 Capital Surplus 372,000 – 1,000 1,000 Other Stockholder Equity – – – – Total Stockholder Equity 3,125,000 2,977,000 2,980,000 2,596,000 Table 8 Return on Assets

2010 2009 Return on Assets = Net Income = 1,236,000 = 112,000 Average Total Assets 17948500 15771500 = 0.07 = 0.01 The above table shows that the 2010 return on assets result has a better results (7 percent) when compared to the 2009 return on assets amount (one percent).

Table 9 Scottish and Southern Energy Marketshare and Figure of marketshare

Million Pounds U.K. Plc ( Energy Sector) 2009 Revenues Links Essar Plc 8,453.00 https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/ESSR.L?p=ESSR.L Scottish


Complexity Theory Models of Leadership with Other Models of Leadership Compare and Contrast Essay best college essay help

Introduction Leadership is a contemporary issue that has been viewed differently among many people. This is because leadership has different aspects, styles and models and there are also different contexts of leadership.

Generally leadership can be defined to be the process of mobilizing a group of people with common interests to achieve a common goal. In a more complex view, leadership is the process where on person influences another person or a group of people by seeking their support and helping them accomplish a common task.

Good leaders are said to be born and not made. This view can be justified because anyone with a will and desire to lead can become a leader. Inborn leaders improve their leadership qualities by a process of training and study of leadership. Influential Leaders practice their career by applying their dexterities.

The act of practicing dexterities is known as procedural leadership. Some leaders allow their traits to influence how they lead and this is referred to as trait leadership. While leadership is learnt, the person’s traits and values largely for example their beliefs influence and how they lead.

Thesis This paper is generally about leadership and the various concepts and aspects of leadership. It provides detailed information about the different models of leadership and their various differences and similarities. It however majors on the complexity model of leadership and how it is similar and different from the other models of leadership.

Models of leadership are generally the different ways of executing leadership and are clearly stated in this paper. The models of leadership are different in nature and their styles because leaders employ different ways and methods in leading other people.

Overview of leadership A leader as earlier defined is the process of influencing a group of people or certain people to achieve a common goal. Leaders are different in their leadership styles and methods. Some leaders use excessive power and control on their followers while others only take responsibility of the task and the act of accomplishing it but are not so controlling.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some leaders involve their followers in decision making while others make decisions on their own and their followers only compliment them. Leadership has various factors that make it. The first factor of leadership is a leader.

Finchman and Rhodes state that a leadership must have an effective leader who is honest and believes in his or her abilities and in him or herself. A leader should also be able to have a full understanding of him so that other people can understand him too (Finchman


Product Launch at Credit Master Essay essay help

Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to give an analysis of the internal situation at Credit Master that makes it possible to launch the new product called fast credit. This is a service offered by the company that enables customers and lenders to view credit information over the internet. It protects customers against fraudsters who have increased in the UK.

Credit Master have been using this product for quite some time but it had not followed the marketing procedures involved in launching new products into the market. This paper gives the procedure to be followed when launching new products so that it gets to the targeted customers. This is done by designing a launching plan which has to be included in the budget because it consumes a significant amount of money.

After fast credit has been launched, the company has to modify its marketing strategies or adopt new ones in order to monitor and control the new product. This ensures that its new product (fast credit) get to the right customers and guarantees the company success in the rapidly changing global market. These strategies are effective promotion and marketing mix.

Introduction Starting up a new product is taking a risk; however if the decision is well thought there are numerous benefits that come with investing in business venture. Before one is set to start a new venture there are short and long terms parameters that he should consider to ensure that there will be continuity in the product. The future is unpredictable and so even the smallest details about something should be interpolated before starting up.

It will be appreciated that a company with properly shaped psychological contracts embraces a system that allows employees to air their views to the higher leadership. Conducting an internal analysis helps a company to understand its marketing position and the opportunities than can be utilized to enhance its performance.

This paper gives a brief background of Credit Master Company, looks at the procedure followed in designing a launch plan and gives the SWOT analysis as well as some of the marketing strategies that should be adopted to ensure continuity of the new product.

Background Credit Master is a global agency company that provides financial, marketing, and statistical information to customers and businesses. Its core business operation is to partner with other companies such as banks and credit card companies in the provision of financial information.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As we all know, lending money is a risky business but the information provided by Credit Master helps financial institution in making informed decisions. The work of this firm is to enable lending institutions such as banks to share information related to their customer’s credit accounts. The lender uses this information in making decision on whether or not a customer is eligible for a loan.

This is done by looking at the amount of credit held by a customer and how it is being managed. Credit Master charges a fee to the lenders every time its record is searched.

However, the customer has to give his consent before his credit report information is searched and for such information to be stored by Credit Master. Customers too have a right to view their credit information but they can only do so after paying a legal charge of £2.

Credit Master Market covers student loans, personal loans, hire purchase agreements, mortgages, credit cards, among others. For a long time, the firm’s customers have being relying on the post in applying and receiving their credit information. However, recently, the company has been using a new product called credit fast which has enabled it to target new markets.

Customers can now apply and receive their statutory report online after passing the authentication process. With credit fast, customers are able to understand the perception held by prospective lenders regarding their credit information and are therefore in a position to determine whether their request will be granted. This new products also protects members against identity fraud which has become a problem in UK.

Literature Review Product launch plan

After product development and having done a thorough scrutiny of the target market, the next step is to develop a product launch plan. This plan will concentrate on the necessary phases that will help boost production, build up marketing strategies, come up programs for sales people training, and grounding of how to set up or sustain the product.

A well prepared product launch plan results in faster and more effective marketing and coordination of activities (Lodato, 2008: 10). Having a product launch plan is very crucial for the success of every business. The following procedure has to be followed in launching new products.

We will write a custom Essay on Product Launch at Credit Master specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Understanding the Target Market and market segmentation

Under review of the product launch process; there are certain things that should be put into consideration such as identification of needed activities, system requirement, and organizational responsibilities.

A clear understanding of the target market is necessary in any product launch plan. This is because products launched on markets where most of the audience are not interested results in terrible failures. One has to have a thorough understanding of his audience.

Understanding of the target market is known as market segmentation. The target market should be broken down into small segments to make advertising easy. One of the benefits of market segmentation is that. Companies are able to target specific populations that would have not been reached if mass marketing was adopted.

With this kind of marketing, companies are able to have a closer contact with their potential customers and they are able to understand their tastes, interests, and their economic positions which helps them in determining patterns of consumption and the marketing strategies to be adopted.

With market segmentation, the process of marketing becomes simple because marketers are able to concentrate their marketing strategies on specific groups of people with similar characteristics. They are also able to monitor the process of products in the specific markets with the expectation of better results.

Process Improvement

After reviewing the product launch process, the next step is to develop a process improvement. This involves making improvement on the marketing strategies, organization responsibilities, and design of the product.

In order to achieve an effective improvement process, the best way to go about this is to market and pre-sell the product (as Credit Masters has already done) in the targeted markets before the actual date of launching. Different methods of advertising may be used to drive the message home.

The aim of this pre-selling is to help the product developers get some feedback from the audience of which they can be able to make the necessary adjustments before launching the product (Lodato, 2008: 15).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Product Launch at Credit Master by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Integrate Organization

Once the process has been reviewed and necessary improvements done, the next step is to redesign the organization integration. This integration is done among the product launch team members who are responsible for its development.

Responsibilities are distributed among the team members and necessary changes made which then helps to facilitate the launch activities. Trainings are offered to the team members in order to equip them with the necessary skills required in this job.

After carrying out the necessary analysis for the product launch, the product launch team is left with the responsibility of designing the plan. The plan should include method of advertisement to be adopted, projected budget among others.

The plan should be cost effective and cost should be kept as low as possible. After successfully launching the product, the team should monitor closely its progress, get feedback from the users and decide when to raise or lower the charges (Ebbena


Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan Evaluation Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Background and Goals Medtronic Inc is the leading medical technology company in the world, controlling more than half of the world’s annual revenue on the heart-pacing market (Anonymous, 2010). Its headquarters are in Minneapolis, Minnesota and it operates in over 120 countries.

In addition, around sixty-six percent of its revenue is generated locally, twenty percent in Europe, ten percent in the pacific Asia and the remaining percentage in the rest of the world. As it expanded, the firm employed Picker International Corporation of White Plains, New York to assist in running the business internationally.

The founder of Medtronic Inc was an electrical engineer a profession that boosted his knowledge on specializing in medical devices. He established the company by specializing in pace making which has taken Medtronic to very high heights (Anonymous, 2010).

Medtronic is a manufacturer of diversified and exclusive medical equipment, which are capable of handling any medical complication. It continues to develop better and advanced equipment in order to maintain its top position.

Moreover, the firm has recently developed Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor for Diabetes, which is the best device for managing diabetes in the world. Since Medtronic is a world-class company, it aims at coming up with a marketing plan that will enable it do extensive sales in the whole world. The first step is to identify a country whereby its sales can pick significantly.

Medtronic objective To ensure that every person on this earth has an opportunity to live as healthy, innovative, creative, and successful lives as they can.

Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor for Diabetes

For a long time, patients with diabetes have been facing acute challenges in treating and managing their insulin levels due to lack of proper devices. The devices Medtronic made would help the patients but were not as effective.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diabetic patients would have their live revolve around treating the disease which involved boiling of the syringes, sharpening needles, injecting animal-based insulin formulations, checking on the diet and doing exercise.

Maintaining unpredictable glucose levels has been challenging and no single and portable device was available in the market. Patients had to carry a combination of devices for checking glucose levels and injecting insulin (Fowler, 2009).

Minneapolis-based medical technology company Medtronic, Inc. has however developed an Insulin Pump and Continuous Glucose Monitoring System which, integrates a glucose meter and an insulin pump with a dose calculator into one device.

The device combines an insulin pump with a glucose monitor, facilitates data interchange between the two and FDA has cleared and approved the product. The device operates day and night and in case glucose levels gets dangerously low or high, it sounds or vibrates an alarm thus giving the patients confidence of leading a healthy life (Dave, 2010).

The device is meant to enable people to manage their diabetes more conveniently and give them confidence of day to day healthy living. This is because the patient is aware of what is exactly happening in his body instead of doing guesswork with only a couple of finger sticks.

The new device is around as three times as effective as standard therapy (David, 2010). The integrated device can be used in hospitals, clinical and medical research laboratories, blood and plasma collection centers, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, doctors’ offices and by patients at home under physician supervision.

Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan

Having come up with a diabetic device that will ease the daily lives of the patients, Medtronic, Inc has a full opportunity in the USA and outside the country. Apart from the local market, which assures Medtronic more than sixty percent of its annual revenue, the best foreign country for Medtronic to establish extensive market for its new device would be the United Kingdom.

We will write a custom Essay on Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More United Kingdom is located in Europe and Statistics show that the second best market for Medtronic, Inc devices lies in Europe. This is because sixty-six percent of Medtronic’s annual revenue is generated locally and the next twenty percent is generated from Europe.

Coupled with the fact that UK is ranked position three in the list of obese population, then it will be a potential market for Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor (Anonymous, 2010).

Let us compare the UK and the US market with some potential markets in the world.




The level of poverty in Mexico does not allow it to make a good market for Medtronic diabetic devices. The US-Mexico borders mark the highest population with diabetes in Mexico. By 1997, diabetes was the leading cause of death among the Mexican community at the border whereby the mortality rate was 50% higher than the rest of the country.

However, the living environment in Mexico makes it hard for the population to obtain medical attention. This is characterized by rapidly growing population, poor infrastructure, high uninformed and armed patrols instilling fear to the people, over concentration by the government on control of drug cartels, which sums up to poverty (Zazworsky


Parenting Variables in Antenatal Education Quantitative Research Essay essay help

Theoretical and operational definitions This section of the paper includes the definitions and measurements of those variables that are going to be investigated. The key objective of this study is to determine how antenatal education impacts the perceptions about breastfeeding and breastfeeding practices.

In part, the operational definitions, provided in this paper, will rely on the research article, written by a group of authors under direction of Citra Mattar who investigated the affects of antenatal education on breastfeeding practices (2006).

The first set of dependent variables includes breastfeeding initiation and breast feeding. In this context, initiation can be interpreted as the period of time after which mother begins to breastfeed the child. Citra Mattar et al define breastfeeding initiation as any breastfeeding that occurs within the first two weeks after delivery (2006, p 76).

In turn, the duration of breastfeeding is the timeframe within which the mother breastfeeds the child. This definition may appear to be self-evident; yet, it has been provided in this paper because the duration of breastfeeding can also be understood as the length of a breastfeeding session. Largely, my research will be analogous to that one conducted by Citra Mattar et al (2006).

The second variable is parental feelings and perceptions of breastfeeding. This variable consists of such elements as maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, paternal self-efficacy and parental confidence. These are the main psychological parameters that need to be measured.

Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be defined as mother’s belief or conviction that she is capable of breastfeeding the baby (Wells


Heriot-Watt University Future Strategy Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Heriot-Watt University

Based in Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt University is the leading university in Scotland. The university has a special place both within the country as well as on the global map because of offering practical solutions the current global challenges without neglecting its basic mission of providing appropriate education to local and international students.

The institution is highly committed understanding the challenges facing the modern society, evaluating them and structuring their specialized programmes to address them.

The available programmes in the university are specifically suited to address current global challenges. The interest of the community plays a significant role in designing of the academic courses. The collaboration among professionals and staff from the various fields helps in finding long-term approach that is used in finding solutions to the prevailing challenges. For Herriot-Watt to stay on track as the leading university there is need for the management to have a guiding document outlining the activities that would lead to the realization of this end. Hence, focus on the Future strategy

Focus On the Future Strategy

This is an ambitious strategy whose aim is to act as a guiding document that stipulates that activities to be undertaken in order to achieve the university’s overall agenda. As described in the strategy, the university plans to achieve a 50% growth in the academic base by the year 2015. To realize such ambitious expectations, the university is required to put in place the necessary mechanisms and work plan that must be followed.

As an international institution, the university is committed to demonstrate its leadership in science, technology, and business. Herriot-Watt University intends to concentrate its investments in three focus areas. These subjects, it is believed will address the challenges that globalizations presents to different set up of businesses and internationals organizations across the world.

The institution enjoys a Multi-cultural diversity in terms of the courses offered. This in effect enables the university to address a range of global challenges as experts from different professional fields present different approaches to handling societal challenges. The strategy aims to raise the university’s standing from a national leading university to a recognized international institution that will attract foreign students.

This is to be reflected in the university’s commitment to produce professionals in all specialization. The institution is highly determined to continue growth and investment this in effect is expected to have the institution as a leading international university in key world issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Need

The Need constitutes the initial stage in formulating a programme mandate. This entails a comprehensive assessment of the present organization’s state and the potential capacity for improvement. SWOT is one of the approaches that can be used identifying the need, opportunities, and threats of the institution. The technique helps in estimating the intended activities against the organization’s resources.

Strengths and future opportunities

As the leading university in Scotland, the institution is in better position to advance its objectives of providing solution to the challenges facing the community. The university enjoys the international community’ support as a result of its current track record in producing highest number of graduates in various practical disciplines such as engineering, Built Environment, mathematics and sciences.

The commitment of the university in providing practical solutions to the daily challenges facing the society and her determination to remain on top of other institutions makes it possible to attract support for its activities.

This is further boosted will by the continuous quality assurance checks and by emulation of other world-class institutions. The institution’s sensitivity towards the needs of the community and the readiness to fulfill these needs and those of the students makes the university to remain in the limelight. As a first step towards actualizing the set objectives, the institution has already set the benchmark of the community’s expectations.

The university’s strength also lies in the availability of human capital and financial resources. The institution’s achievements in producing respectable researchers play a significant role in attracting more professionals as well as students from across the planet. This therefore offers more opportunity to the university’s quest to realize the activities and objectives envisaged in the strategic plan.

The successful interdisciplinary relationship presents the university with the opportunity to apply a wide perspective in resolving the global challenges.

This is further strengthened by the wide the concentration of a range of proogrammes, which are in line with the priority themes as contained in the strategic plan. In addition, the concentration of resources on key areas that have a high magnitude impact on the community enhances the support from financial organizations as well as the organization.

We will write a custom Report on Heriot-Watt University Future Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The strength of the university is demonstrated in its existing collaborative programmes, which include ScotCHEM in chemistry and chemical engineering; The ScotgriD advanced IT network; The Scottish institute for Research in Economics; and Edinburgh Research Partnership in Engineering and mathematics (ERPem).

This acts to consolidate expertise in various disciplines where they bring on board their wide experiences in formulating solutions to the modern world challenges.

Scottish University Physics Alliance (SUPA)

This is an alliance, which brings together eight Scottish universities Physics. The major objectives is put physics in the forefront in the national strategy, also encourage collaboration among institutions, and promote efficiency and excellence within the discipline (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001, p.9).

In adopting a common approach in terms of staffing, training of the staff as well as issues of research and funding opportunities, the alliance brings together experienced experts as well as encourages training of upcoming scientists. The initiative has enabled Scotland to create the larges group of physics researchers in the UK (Griebenow 2006, p.13).

This has also attracted funding from donors, sponsors, and stakeholders in the industrial market (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007, p. 9). The alliance promotes the major themes, which are of great importance to the Scotland economy as well providing solutions to the global challenges.

Such areas that provide solutions to global interests comprises of “energy, physics and life sciences, astronomy, condensed matter and materials physics, nuclear and plasma physics, photonics and particle physics” (Kishore 2007,p. 7 ).

Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance (SICSA)

This alliance aims to expand Scotland’s research excellence in Informatics and Computer Science. The Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance (SICSA) bring together researchers within computer science and informatics.

The purpose of the partnership of these different fields is to merge and make stronger “Scotland’s ranking as the global researcher informatics and computer sciences key player” (Buchmann


Review of Research Studies on Cultural Bias in Psychology Synthesis Essay essay help online: essay help online

The population of minority cultural and ethnic groups in United States has increasing in the last few decades. It is therefore common for a psychological therapist to encounter a client from a different cultural and ethnic background. In such encounters, there is possibility for cultural bias that can affect effectiveness of the psychological intervention.

Many researchers in the recent past have been concerned about cultural bias in the field of psychology and psychological therapies. The paper reviews a few of research studies on cultural bias in psychology, counseling, and marriage and family therapy.

Counseling is considered the best intervention to psychological and emotional problems. However, considering cultural and ethnic diversity, counseling may not be effective if a counselor exhibits cultural bias. In the article, “Cultural Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology” (Pedersen, 2003), Pedersen addresses cultural biases assumptions that may affect the effectiveness of counseling interventions.

Pedersen identifies and discusses culturally biases assumptions from an earlier article by Ponterotto and Leong (2003). The author argues that cultural bias has impact on the work of counseling psychologists. Pedersen warns that cultural bias should not be underestimated given that it can have great effect on counseling psychology.

To “internationalize counseling psychological” (Pedersen, 2003), Pedersen proposes that counseling psychologists adopt scientist-practitioner model. In harmony with Pedersen, Snowden (2003) found cultural bias as a major factor contributing to disparity in mental health care provision.

Snowden concludes that although other factors such as economical factors led to a gap in mental health care, cultural bias was the major barrier. He advocates for more research on particular forms of bias that could contribute to the disparities.

Cultural bias is a major barrier to effective psychological therapy. In family therapy, cultural bias can make it impossible for a family therapist to fully understand her clients’ problems and provide an effective therapy. In the article titled “Experiential Tasks and Therapist Bias Awareness”, Bermudez (1997) notes that therapeutic process can be affected considerably by cultural bias against minority cultural and ethnic groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Bermudez, all psychological therapists have assumptions about minority cultural groups. Some of the assumptions and beliefs could be biased and therefore affect effectiveness of a therapy.

Bermudez suggests that cultural bias awareness of a therapist can help her to overcome the bias and be effective across cultures. Bermudez proposes experiential tasks to overcome cultural bias, including role playing, visualization, written assignment, family sculpturing and role reversal.

Effectiveness of a psychological therapist in multicultural and multiethnic settings is depended on her cultural competence. In an article titled “Cultural Competency: From philosophy to research and practice”, Sue (2006) explores the meaning and value of cultural competency in psychological therapies.

Sue argues that cultural competency is trainable and proposes that therapist adopt cultural competency strategies in order to improve outcome. Addressing cultural competency in family therapy, Hardy and Laszloffy (2003) found cultural awareness and sensitivity to be important for cultural competency.

Hardy and Laszloffy argue that ability of therapist to explore her personal cultural issues puts her in a better position to understand other cultures. In addition, the authors summarize how cultural genogram can be a successful training tool for cultural competence (Hardy


Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 Term Paper college essay help

Literature Review The Connection between Vegetation Recovery and Burning Severity of Fires

Before analyzing the images produced by means of remote sensing, it is necessary to analyze the aspects and criteria according to which the images can detect various patterns of vegetation recovery after the fire. Specifically, much research has been done on the analysis of connection between biodiversity and remote sensing techniques as well as other methods for types of recovery vegetation.

According to Kennedy, remote sensing contributes greatly to the analysis of vegetation cover and provides sufficient information about atmospheric chemistry (133). In particular, satellite remote sensing techniques can provide exhaustive data on the patterns and criteria necessary for analyzing sophisticated interactions and mechanisms connecting fire density, vegetation cover, atmospheric chemistry, and climate.

The researcher has found that gas emitted into atmosphere as well as shifts occurred to the atmospheric ratio is possible to effectively detect with the help of remote sensing. However, the examination of such dependencies does not provide viable solutions to the analysis of vegetation recovery in relation to temporal scales. Still, there is a possibility to identify the nature of gasses emitted.

More detailed information on this issue is provided by Turner et al. who have managed to provide sufficient justification to remote sensing images and how they can be used to identify various types of forests and vegetation (306). According to the researcher, “…recording numerous densities at different heights throughout the canopy and enables three-dimensional profiles of vegetation structure to be made” (Turner et al. 307).

With the help of this data, it is possible to detect the potential for such techniques as mapping of sub-canopy layers and emergent tree species.

A great contribution to the analysis of distribution patterns and habitat categorizations carried with the help of remote sensing techniques. This examination has been provided by Debinsky, Kindsher, and Jakubauskas (3281). The researchers have also applied to Landsat TM data analysis in order to evaluate various forest and meadow types in Yellowstone Park.

Importantly, the studies also seek to define the relation between vegetations areas and animal species distribution which is quite essential because the foci of birds and animals can be the indicators of dense vegetation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Particular species can be affiliated to a particular vegetation pattern. Interestingly, the research conducted by Debinski et al, reveals “large differences in species distribution patterns among remotely sensed meadow types” in different temporal dimensions (3283). The same concerns are considered by Gould (1861).

White et al have also been more consistent and pertinent to our research considerations (125). In their studies, they emphasize that aside from vegetations patterns, there are also burning severity patterns resulted in different topographic vegetation. The patterns are received with the help of satellite data that show significant changes in physical characteristics of burnt areas.

The researchers have discovered that it is necessary to be knowledgeable about electromagnetic energy. In this respect, they have also defined that “…more severely burned areas have less vegetation cover and different radiation budgets in post-fire years” (White et al.124).

Such important deductions will be of great relevance to our research because different patterns of burning severity will assist in analyzing the patterns presented in Yellowstone National Park.

With regard to the consideration presented above, it should be emphasized that the vegetation recovery change patterns largely depend on the burning severity of fire. This linkage is revealed through carbon dioxide density, biophysical characteristics of burnt areas, radiation and spectral analysis, and electromagnetic energy.

Spectral Analysis with Regard to Vegetation Recovery Patterns

A possibility to distinguish the changing patterns of vegetation recovery and burning severity cannot be solely relied because such factors as the process of spectral analysis and carbon dioxide density are crucial in providing an accurate and consistent examination of temporal characteristics of vegetation recovery.

In this respect, it is necessary to analyze the connection between carbon dioxide emission, and how they relate to fires and vegetation patterns. It is also imperative to prove why remote sensing, spectral analysis and Landsat TM techniques are crucial in identifying the influences of fire on vegetation recovery.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The research provided by Jakubauskas and Price offer a clear picture of the relations between biotic factors and spectral analysis of forests in the Park (1375). With the help of multiple regression models, the researchers have provided the correlation of digital spectral analysis and biotical factors.

The results have revealed that “tree height and diameter combined to form an index of crown volume, which in turn combined with density for an index of canopy volume” (Jakubauskas and Price 1379). The scholars have also detected other crucial, though less significant, factors and dimensions of spectral analysis such as leaf area index and vegetation index.

Although the research provided by Jakubauskas and Price is of great value for further examination, it can be supported by the studies analyzing vegetation dynamics with regard to temporal scales (1378). In particular, Shannon and Lawrence are more close to the analysis of vegetation recovery patterns in relation to temporal scale (551).

The value of their research consists in presenting change vector analysis with help of 1985 and 1999 images. This analysis is “a rule-based change detection method that examines the angle and magnitude of change between dates in spectra space” (Shannon and Lawrence 551).

The process of change detection has succeed in presenting the changes within herbaceous and shrub land vegetation. The spectral and change vector analyses have detected that “there was a decrease in grass lands and a relative increase in srublands” (Shannon and Lawrence 554). The presented research can greatly assist in the exploration of vegetation recovery patters of change in Yellowstone National Park.

The above-presented research provides consistent information about pattern distributions, but it lacks information about fire factor and its impact on vegetation recovery and accuracy of the research. This gap can be complemented with the explorations provided by Turner, Hargrove, Gardiner, and Romme (731).

In general, spectral analysis plays an important role in identifying the changing patterns of vegetation recovery. It is also significant in defining various species of vegetation and describing pattern distributions on a particular geographic area.

Technical possibilities and Limitations of Remote Sensing Techniques

Remote sensing approaches can differ with regard to various resolutions of remotely sensed images. In order to succeed in researching our objectives, the analysis of advantages and limitations of these techniques is crucial. The studies presented by Wright and Gallant (582), Asner (2), Cohen and Goward (535), and Murtaugh and Philips (99). All scholars provide a comprehensive evaluation of all limitations to using remote sensing tools.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to critically assess the technical possibility of remote sensing techniques, Wright and Gallant have provided a historical background of previous researches dedicated to the efficiency assessment (582).

The results show that “remote sensing is the moderate spatial and spectral resolution of multispectral instruments like TM sensor” (Wright and Gallant 584) Therefore, it will be difficult to distinguish forested upland and forested wetland in spectral terms. The application of remote sensing techniques cannot be solely applied, but in combination with ancillary data.

Due to the fact that carbon dioxide is considered to be the indicator of vegetation recovery and burning severity of fire, ancillary technique should also involve carbon mapping as well which will back up the date collected form remotely sensed images (Asner 2).

Such devices are quite relevant and applicable to the temporal analysis of vegetation because carbon spectral patterns of change can also be the signifiers of vegetation recovery stage. In particular, carbon densities can be easily correlated with burning severities, and vegetation recovery, and species analysis. More importantly, the carbon analysis includes the acquisition of maps depicting types of forest, disturbance, and deforestation.

Remote sensing techniques are also applicable to temporal analysis of vegetation patterns. In this regard, Murtaugh and Philips provide a bivariate binary model for evaluating the shifts in land cover with the help of satellite images received at different times (99).

Such classification is aimed at correlating random variables that are dependent on the pixel resolution. Importantly, the researchers have applied to Landsat imaging for pixel classification and its correlation with land cover changes.

Cohen and Goward also emphasize the importance of using remote sensing to assess temporal and spatial characteristics of ecological environment (535). In the particular, they used date obtained from Landsat sensors for constructing biogeochemical cycles and for characterizing vegetation biophysical attributes with regard to biodiversity.

The research find remote sensing valid and reliable for analyzing vegetation and land cover change. In contrast, Ravan and Roy consider it necessary to introduce Geographic information systems for the analysis of various vegetation patterns and obtaining relevant information (129). The combined approach is much more efficient in detecting such characteristics as vegetation shape, size, patch density and porosity.

The research results has revealed significant different between different zones of Madhav National Part of India (Ravan and Roy 130). The structural analysis has provided vegetation recovery also largely dependent of biomass distribution and species diversity. Arising from this research, remote sensing and GIS can be successfully applicable to the temporal analysis of vegetation providing more accurate information.

Innes and Koch state that remote sensing is considered the most efficient tool in assessing vegetation, and other biophysical characteristics such as structural criteria of forest stands, the canopy type and the present of coarse woody debris (397). The researchers emphasize that it is possibly to rely solely on remote sensing when investigating the spatial and temporal characteristics of vegetations.

Interesting discoveries are offered by Turner, Ollinger, and Kimball who also approve remote sensing techniques for evaluating spatial characteristics of vegetation (574). In particular, the researchers resort to remote sensing tools and ecosystem modeling to study the terrestrial carbon cycling.

Pursuant to remote sensing limitation, explain that this device is constantly upgrading and it is possible to select the appropriate resolution of images to analyze the reflectance properties of vegetation and assess biogeochemical processes controlling carbon transformation.

In general, the majority of the above-described researchers prove that remote sensing is one of the most efficient instruments in conducting the assessment of vegetation recovery with regard to its temporal and spatial characteristics. Nevertheless, the analysis will be much more successful if to apply this technique together with GIS approach.

Overall Recommendations and Conclusion The analysis of image obtained by remote sensing allows to detect various patterns of vegetation recovery with regard to temporal characteristics. The Yellowstone National Park has been analyzed in three various time – 1989, 1999, and 2010. The image obtained from Landsat TM, ISODATA being an ancillary mechanism revealed that there significant changes in vegetation recovery patterns in relation to temporal characteristics.

In addition, classification scheme of vegetation used to shrub land, herbaceous vegetation, sparse vegetation, and bare land has turned out to be flexible and relevant for the research. The presented research proves conducted by Jakubauska and Price (1375)

The results have also show that vegetation recovery patterns are closely connected with burning severity of fire. Importantly, the spectral analysis and Landsat TM show biophysical characteristics of burnt areas. The evaluation has also succeeded in defining the changes of species allocation on the territory of Yellowstone National Park. The technical approach used for the data analysis still had some limitations.

In particular, it was difficult information without geographic information system because some characteristics were impossible to detect, such carbon dioxide cycle. Nevertheless, the classification of species was successfully identified and carefully analyzed with regard to temporal characteristics.

In future, we plan to investigate this area and other territories, but with another combination of techniques either to justify or disapprove the effectiveness of those as compared with the above presented ones. This area is quite wide and, therefore, there is much store for investigation.

Works Cited Asner, Gregory P. Tropical Forest Carbon Assessment: Integrating Satellite and Airborne Mapping Approaches. Environmental Research Letters 4 (2009):1-11

Cohen, Warren D., and Samuel N. Goward. Landsat’s Role in Ecological Applications of Remote Sensing. BioScience. 54.6 (2004): 535-545.

Debinski, D. M. and Kindscher, K., and Mark Jakubauskas. A Remote Sensing and GIS-based model of habitats and biodiversity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosysyem. Journal of Remote Sensing. 20.17 (1999): 3281-3291.

Gould, William. Remote Sensing of Vegetation, Plant Species Richness, and Regional Biodiversity Hotspots. Ecological Applications. 10.6 (2000): 1861-1870.

Innes John L., and Barbara Koch. Forest Biodiversity and Its Assessment by Remote Sensing. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters. 7.6 (1998): 397-419.

Jakubauskas, Mark, and Kevin P. Price. Empirical Relationships between Structural and Spectral Factors of Yellowstone Lodgepole Pine Forests. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 63.12 (1997, December): 1375-1381

Kennedy, Pam. Biomass Burning Studies: The Use of Remote Sensing. Ecological Bulletins. 15 (1992): 133-148.

Murtaugh, Paul A. and Donald L. Philips. Temporal Correlation of Classification in Remote Sensing. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics. 3.1. (1999, March): 99-110

Ravan, Shirish, A., and P. S. Roy. Satellite Remote Sensing for Ecological Analysis of Forested Landscape. Plant Ecology. 131.2 (1997): 129-141;

Savage, Shannon L., and Rick L. Lawrence. Vegetation Dynamics in Yellostone’s Northern Range: 1985 to 1999. Photogrammetric Engineering


Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Discussion The bank of England acts as UK’s Central Bank (Singleton, 2011, p. 229). The bank plays a number of roles in the UK financial system, and these roles include: one, issuing notes and coins. These notes and coins are then sold to banking systems which in turn distribute them to clients as they make withdrawals in their accounts; two, supervises the financial system.

The Bank of England often works in conjunction with other institutions set up specifically to regulate distinct parts of the financial system; three, manages UK’s gold and currency reserves (Great Britain Committees on Currency and Foreign Exchange, 1978, p. 159). This role enables the Bank of England to influence the level of exchange rate; four, acts as banker to government.

It does this by managing UK’s national debt and arranges for the issue of new loans to cover government’s current borrowing; and last but not least, the bank plays the role of acting as a banker to the banking system.

Normally the Bank of England comes to rescue banks that get into short term problems, unable to raise enough funds to meet customer demands. In this case, the Bank of England will supply cash to the banking system to relieve the liquidity shortage (Gomez, 2008, p. 349).

The roles of the Bank of England compares to the Federal Reserve System in varying aspects.

This paper examines the roles of the Bank of England compared to the roles of the Federal Reserve Bank of the US in terms of; regulation of the financial system, comparison of the roles in terms of facilitation of the financial system, comparison in terms of ensuring financial stability in the market, and lastly comparing their roles in Financial Stability and Depositor Protection.

Comparing Regulative Aspects of the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System In the UK, domestic banking regulation has been far less formal compared to the United States of America. This may be so entirely because London city is the preeminent centre of the European market. Differing from the United States regulators, the Bank of England operates on the assumption that bankers are prudent, honest individuals who know as much if not more about banking than regulators do (Singleton, 2011, p. 20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, the approach of the Bank of England for years was not to impose regulations and ratios on banks; instead it requested for periodic reports from banks.

On this basis, the Bank of England discussed informally with the top management of each bank on the quality of the bank’s loan, its liquidity, any features of the bank’s condition that the Bank of England portrays as unusual or out of line, and any suggestions that the Bank of England might make with respect to the banks’ operations (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 87).

The current monetary responsibilities for the Bank of England were established through the Bank of England’s Act of 1998. The banking supervisory functions under this Act had previously been under the mandate of the bank of England was transferred to the Financial Services Authority (FSA).

In essence, overall financial stability issues responsibility was spread among three legal separate entities; the Bank of England, Financial Services Authority, and HM Treasury (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 87).

A memorandum of understanding was established among the three as there was no legislation that formally sets out their responsibilities. This kind of arrangement blended smoothly with the Bank of England’s long time tradition by facilitating the maximum amount of flexibility in the banking system and avoiding the red tape and restrictions of various sorts found in other countries (Bernan, 2008, p. 99).

The Bank of England treats foreign financial firms operating in the UK much the same manner as domestic UK banks. The Bank of England allows a bank to establish a branch in London with minimal red tape as long as it recognizes the bank is reputable in its home country.

Foreign investing banks did not have to put in any capital to open an office in the UK. All they had to do was to accept to comply with certain regulations, and it was accorded similar rights to engage in banking that any other bank in Britain had (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30). The Bank of England rather presents a casual regulation of foreign banks.

We will write a custom Essay on Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It operates and continues to operate on the logical assumption that foreign banking branches are inextricable part of the parent. This portrays that it is not easy if not impossible to regulate these branches as independent entities.

It also implies that the bank’s natural assumption that these branches are being regulated by banking authorities in their parent countries, which regulates the activities of the parent bank as a whole (Bernan, 2008, p. 99).

In the United States, evolution of banking took a different route compared to UK banking system. Financial institutions were chartered either nationally or at state level in the US. A restriction on branch banking at branch and federal level implied that thousands of banks at state level continued to be established.

In addition to the monetary responsibility, the board had regulatory authority over Federal Reserve Banks and banks which, by owning stock in Federal Reserve Banks, became members of Federal Reserve System (Bernan, 2008, p. 100).

Banking in the US is in a form of dual regulatory structure in which federal and state agencies carry out a mixture of unique and joint functions. The US Federal Reserve differs with the system presided over by the Bank of England (Hufner, 2004, p. 95).

As a regulator, the Bank of England consists of a highly concentrated market structure as one powerful regulator. It operates in a close-knit, exclusive community that relies upon understandings, convention, trust and tradition in performing its functions. The US Federal Reserve System on the other hand, consists of a highly decentralized market structure.

Regulation was more dependent on formal and bureaucratic rules in the Federal Reserve System compared to UK banking system. The two systems are however similar in terms of their commitment to relative independence of central banks from government (Hafer, 2005, p. 53).

Comparisons of The Roles of the Bank of England and Federal Reserve in terms of Facilitation Facilitative or catalytic roles are very necessary for central banks to operate effectively. The Bank of England has established close relationship with private sector participants for the purpose of maintaining active communication over payment system development and to promote specific initiatives. In the United Kingdom, these relationships are formal as it is represented on the board of the country’s banking association.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the US, the relationships may be less formal but no less influential, for instance, the Feds role in promoting check 21, the law that facilitates check truncation (Hafer, 2005, p. 53). Both the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System promote and initiate important changes in retail payment systems and also serve as catalysts as they undertake important research programmes (Hufner, 2004, p. 96).

Comparisons of the Roles in terms of Ensuring Financial Stability The Bank of England cooperates with the Financial Services Authority and the Treasury assist in the filed of financial stability. The cooperation pact between thee three agencies sets out the role of each authority and details how they work together towards the common objective of UK’s financial stability.

The divisions of responsibilities between the three agencies depend on accountability, transparency, a voidance of duplication, and exchanging information on regular basis (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 88).

The bank of England contributes to the maintenance of UK’s stability of financial system. This responsilities involves: acting in markets to solve liquidity challenges in order to ensure stability of monetary system as part of its monetary policy functions; supervising infrastructure in financial system systematically important to Britain. This particularly involves payment systems based either in the UK or overseas.

The Bank of England remains at the heart of the payment system as bankers’ bank. It advises the Chancellor, and responds for its advice on any critical challenges that emerge in these systems (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 89).

The Bank of England is also closely involved in infrastructural development and improvement, and strengthening of the financial system to assist reduce systemic risks; maintaining a broad supervision of the whole financial system. The Bank of England is strategically placed to perform this.

This is because the bank is responsible for the financial system stability and has high profile representation on the Financial Services Authority Board. Normally the bank is represented in the FSA by the Deputy Governor (Singleton, 2011, p. 229). It is because of this involvements’ in markets and payment systems that the bank is able to identify potential pitfalls first.

As a consequence, it is able to advice on the implications for the Britain’s financial stability of developments in domestic and foreign markets and payment systems.

It also provides assessments of the impact on monetary conditions of events in the financial industry; and last but not least, the Bank of England undertakes official financial operations in exceptional circumstances in their established memorandum with the FSA and the Treasury.

This is for purpose of limiting the risk of problems facing particular organizations spreading to other parts of the UK financial system (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, 89).

Similarly, the Federal Reserve System plays a critical role in overseeing the retail payment systems in the US. Both the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve do not have their oversight responsibilities explicitly set out. The payment oversight responsibilities of the Bank of England for instance, is non statutory. In the US, the Federal Reserve’s authority depends on assortment of statutes and agreements (Hafer, 2005, 52).

The Federal Reserve just like the Bank of England and other central banks plays a key role in retail payment system. The Federal Reserve’s legal foundation of involvement in retail payments is entrenched in a number of statutes.

These statutes include; the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the 1978 electronic Funds Transfer, and the Check Clearing Act of 2003. The Federal Reserve stresses overriding objectives for payment policies such as; safety, efficiency, and accessibility (Hafer, 2005, p. 54).

The Role of the Bank of England in Financial Stability and Depositor Protection The UK government gives the Bank of England authority to play an important role in special bank administration procedure for the purpose of facilitating successful resolution of a bridge bank. This is designed to maximize the chances for successful disposal of the bridge bank to private sector within the statutory time period and at the best price possible.

The UK authorities through the Bank of England ensures that appropriate funding mechanisms are introduced to ensure that special bank administrator is able to maintain the residual company functioning to achieve the purposes of the procedure (Bernan, 2008, p. 2008).

Practically, the bridge bank would always be expected to pay for the services provided by the residual company on normal commercial terms, but provisions are made to allow access to additional funding if needed to ensure viability of residual company for the purposes of these procedure. The Bank of England also fulfils the role of a creditors committee in a special bank administration procedure.

The Bank of England ensures the special bank administrator provides information in relation to exercise of his functions and generally help the special bank administrator in discharging in his functions (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30).

In addition, the UK government considers that the Bank of England has additional functions in special bank administration procedure due its unique nature (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30).

These additional roles include: considering and approving special bank administrator’s proposals for attaining the objectives of the procedure with or without modification; plays an important role in providing information to the special bank administrator in relation to the financial position of the residual company and the bridge bank; approves those assets, or types of assets that may be realized for the benefit of creditors;

Effecting subsequent transfers of assets and liabilities between the bridge bank and the residual company; establishing with the special bank administrator what essential services, assets and contracts the residual company would be obliged to continue to provide in support of a bridge bank; determining whether to approve to the taking of certain actions in the procedure where those may prejudice the successful resolution of the bridge bank; and accepting that the procedure may be terminated (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 35).

Comparison with the Federal Reserve System Comparatively, the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System differ markedly on the nature of deposit protection arrangements and the appropriate role for the central bank in the payment system.

The Federal Bank maintains that it is important for a central bank to have a role in banking supervision, even though its own role has covered only a part of the banking system. The Federal Reserve shares the responsibility for regulating and supervising in the US financial system with a number of federal and state government agencies (Hufner, 2004, p. 95).

All chattered banks in US states are under the Federal Reserve System. Besides overseeing activities of banks in Federal Banks, the Federal Reserve also oversees US operations in oversees banks. The Federal Reserves also have supervisory obligations holding companies, though bank subsidiaries of those holding companies are often supervised by other agencies (Hufner, 2004).

For instance, the banking of commercial activities of holding company subsidiaries with national bank charters is supervised by the Office of Controller of the Currency. The Federal Reserve finds it essential for a monetary authority to have some direct links with the banking system, not only for financial stability but also to help with the conduct of monetary policy (Hafer, 2005, p. 31).

Conclusion In sum, the banking systems in the UK and US compare in a number of ways, for instance: branch banking is prevalent in the UK where banks have branches which control total deposits of the country. The US embraces unit banking as a system of banking with no branches or with very few branches.

The banking system in the United Kingdom is centralized. All banking institutions in the UK are under control of the Bank of England. The authority to issue notes and control credit solely rests on the Bank of England. The US on the other hand, has a decentralized central banking system.

The banking system is distributed among the US federal states under one Federal Reserve Bank (Hafer, 2005, p. 52). Control by the Bank of England is very effective as the number of banks are minimal compared to control by the Federal Reserve System which is not as effective as it is in England because of the existence of large number of unit banks.

In terms of establishment, the Bank of England was formed as a private joint stock bank and gradually it assumed all the powers of a Central Bank. The Bank was then nationalized in 1946.

The Federal Reserve System on the other hand, began as a central banking system which came into existence by passing the Federal Act of 1913. The Federal Reserve was empowered by the Act to perform all the central banking functions (Hafer, 2005, p. 55).

The Bank of England is currently nationalized, where as the Federal Reserve banks are owned by member banks of each district as entire share capital is contributed by them. In England, commercial banks seldom approach the Bank of England for rediscounting of their bills, instead they recall funds lent to the Discount Houses who go to the Bank of England for rediscounting of bills.

Thus, commercial banks obtain accommodation from the Bank of England only indirectly. In most cases, they are reluctant to approach the Bank of England for accommodation as it appears as a sign of weakness.

In the US, member banks approach the Federal Reserve banks for getting their bills of exchange and other papers rediscounted. Unlike in England, commercial banks in the US are not reluctant to approach the Federal Bank as they feel they have a stake of ownership of the Federal Reserve Banks (Singleton, 2011, p. 229).

The Bank of England adopts fixed fiduciary systems for regulating issuance of notes. The Federal Reserve System on the other hand, adopts proportional reserve system for regulating note issue. Another good comparison is in terms of commercial banks maintaining reserves with the Bank of England by convention. In the US, member banks maintain reserves with the Federal Reserve Banks by legal compulsion.

The Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System also compare in terms of effectiveness of bank rates. In England, the bank rate is very effective. Bank rates in the US are not as effective as it is in England.

The member banks sometimes do not increase their lending rates in accordance with increase in bank rates. This is due to the fact that some member banks may have surplus reserves and therefore, do not need any accommodation from the Federal Reserve Banks (Hafer, 2005, p. 54).

Reference List Bernan, L


“Interaction” in Human Computer Interaction: iPad’s Design Framework Essay argumentative essay help

iPad’s Design Framework The iPad’s entry into the market signaled a new era in Human-Computer interaction. It came with enhancements that have revolutionized how man interacts with computers. The concept of Multi-touch moved touch screen technology many steps forward.

Some of the novel interaction features of the iPad, which were not previously in the iphone, include the spread-or-pinch feature, bundle creation, and page navigation. The iPad’s iPhoto application allows for expansion or closure of a pile of photos as part of its new multi-touch interactions through a spreading or pinching motion applied by two fingers. It is also possible to make piles out of multiple slides in order to move or delete them.

This involves selecting the first slide, then holding it, and then tapping on the rest of the slides. The slides form a bundle, which is now ready for movement to a desired location.

This applies to mail where the user can form bundles of mail for mass deletion. In addition, a page navigation function included in the iPad allows a user to preview the contents of a page before opening it by pressing and holding the scroll bar area. It brings up a viewer through which the destination page is previewed.

Two functions, currently enhanced in the iPad, that were already in use in the iPhone are the scrolling tabs and the contextual keyboards. The scrolling tabs feature allows for shifting from one tab to another while the contextual keyboards displays a keyboard relevant for the application in use.

For instance, it brings up a numeric keyboard for input of numeral based functions such as time input and mathematical calculations, while a text-based keyboard appears for input of text based applications such as messaging.

Music is one of the popular iPad uses, supported by numerous iTunes applications. Several apps meet the various needs users have ranging from the creation of music to playing it. One of the applications used to create music that is benefiting from the bigger multi-touch screen is the Groovemaker app. There was a previous release for use with the iPhone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it had a practical limit as to how effectively one could use it because of the iPhone’s smaller screen. The purpose of the Groovemaker is “beat-making”. It works by sequencing loops from a huge library and forming layers to make a track. The main control is by drag-and-drop, which allows a user to easily pick desired tracks and remove undesired ones.

The bigger screen now allows users to control up to eight tracks simultaneously, a feat not possible previously. After creating the music, it allows for exportation to a computer. There are three options for the application, house, hip-hop, and Drum ‘n bass, depending on a user’s preference. It is available in the different packs in the iTunes store, with a free release pack and other enhanced packs, costing at least four dollars.

The iPad fits the description of a bigger iPhone because it came with many of the apps that were present in the iPhone, while providing enhancements to take advantage of the new capabilities of the iPad. Edge and Faas (2010) confirmed this when they said, “Most applications that run on the iPod Touch and the iPhone can run on an iPad”. An iPhone user would easily recognize the apps used by the iPad.

When compared to the MacBook, the two devices’ designs are for different uses, which complement each other. The iPad has its own unique strengths such as better surfing experience and better photo display, as compared to the Macbook, which is essentially a computing device that allows for storage of larger files and supports document processing better than the iPad.

Reference list Edge, C.