Language Investigation Of The Effect Of Texts On Social Values Essay Best Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction


Data and Analysis





Introduction This language investigation examines the effect of texts on social values, and how they may contribute to maintaining or changing values. The texts under study are evolving over time, as seen in a football sport blog, on the European champions’ league.

This language investigation looks at various functional features of language, including semantics, lexis, grammar and discourse structure, of a blog written as the football club of Manchester united progresses from the quarter final of the champions’ league, to the semi final, and eventually reaching the final against Barcelona.

This investigation attempts to identify patterns in the texts for each context, and how they are likely to be received by the audience, in terms of creating a visual picture of the action, whether from memory or imagination.[1]

Sport blogs have various characteristics that pull people to read them, and it is the duty of the blogger to make it memorable for people who may have missed the action, and at times, make them want to watch the match, even if it is a second time.[2]

Methodology The investigation material was obtained directly from internet sources; the BBC sports page. Since the web pages were accessible to the public without the need for a subscription or login details, the investigation could continue unhindered. The material available from the three web pages is sufficient to obtain a good comparison of the events, as the matches progressed to higher levels, and as the pressure mounted on the players.

The process of investigation included examining the following: the number of words on each match on the blog; the commonly used words and phrases in commentary; the number of instances of play-by-play commentary; the number of instances of colour adding in the commentary; the words used to describe the most mentioned players in the games; the number of words related to the game of football; and the number of instances when the team managers were identified to contribute significantly to the outcome of the matches.

Data and Analysis The first task was to find out the number of words for each match, using Microsoft Word. In the quarter final game between Manchester United and Chelsea, McNulty used 744 words in his game review. He used 786 words in the semi final game between Manchester United and Schalke, and 985 words in the final game between Barcelona and Manchester United.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The results indicated an increasing number of words as the matches progressed towards the finals. This could be attributed to the increasing intensity of the game. In the quarter finals and semi finals, there were more shots towards the goal, and more fouls, which indicated accessibility of the ball to both teams.

The final game can be said to have been more intense, since there were fewer fouls and shots towards the goal, indicating the dominance of a particular team. This is reflected on the uneven distribution of the ball, indicated by the high ball possession by the victor, Barcelona. Barcelona had a ball possession of 68% against Manchester United’s 32%.[3]

McNulty made frequent use of the words”time and space” to signify a perfect chance for an inevitable goal.[4] He used this phrase once in the finals, when referring to the strong defence put up by Manchester United, which tells the reader that the goals by Barcelona were not by fluke, but well earned.[5]

He also used the phrase in the semi final game, when Schalke found an opportunity to score a consolation goal. The use of the phrase “time and space” in the quarter finals indicated the error in the Chelsea defence, that allowed Man Utd to score against them.[6]

In the football blogs, McNulty made use of play-by-play narration of the match, as well as colour adding commentary. The play-by-play method describes the events that happen in sequence, in an actual game, while colour-adding refers to the “pre-event background, post-event evaluation, and within-event interpretation”.[7]

McNulty used play-by-play narration to describe the movement of the ball as it is passed from one player to the next, until the back of the net in two instances in the quarterfinal match. He combined this with colour adding, when he referred to the goal scorer as “predatory Hernandez”, to show the determination of the strikers, and the accurate play.[8]

In the semi-final game, McNulty used mostly colour-adding when interpreting the goals by the strikers, as the ball got past the goal keeper. Such an instance is when Anderson was said to “roll the ball into an empty net” after a pass from Berbatov.[9] It is likely that McNulty used this style to express the occurrences, since the goals appeared to enter with ease, indicating a match that was not much of a challenge to the winners.

We will write a custom Essay on Language Investigation of the Effect of Texts on Social Values specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The final game is beautifully narrated, to show the exemplary performance by Barcelona, as they took the Champions cup. McNulty uses colour adding when describing every moment that Barcelona took possession of the ball, as in the instance when Xavi facilitated a goal for Barcelona, “Xavi had been immaculate on the ball, dictating terms at every opportunity, and another masterly piece of creation played in Pedro, who had time to wrong-foot Van der Sar with a simple finish”.[10]

McNulty used metaphors in various instances to describe the performance of players. It is evident that the final game was the most interesting one, judging from the numerous flirtatious words used by McNulty to describe the performance of the players.

In the quarter final game, metaphors such as “tie moments before the break” “cut a predictably disconsolate figure” and “made light of his 40 years with a sprightly dash from goal”, among many others were used to make the game more dramatic, and enhance the moment when the events occurred.

Similar enhancements to the narrations of the games were made using metaphors such as: “cut a predictably disconsolate figure”; and “cross that was bundled into the roof”.[11]

The use of metaphors in the semi final game mainly shows the ease with which the players handled themselves, and the serene mood despite the match being a semi final. These indicate an easy match for the winners, as they progress to the final game.

The metaphors found in the finals were used to depict talent, and style; the magnificence of the players who met in the final game. Some of the metaphors used by McNulty include: “Game bore an uncanny resemblance”; “Lifted the gloom during a torrid spell”; “Constant wave of beautifully crafted moves”.[12]

The semantic field of football contains many words. Some of the words found in the sports reviews by McNulty include: net, referee, line-up, back pass, foul, and free-kick, among others.[13] These words are related to football, though some are not exclusively used in football.

However, for this investigation, the words will not be grouped into their various categories. An example of a word that is not usual to football is wall. A wall implies a block of stone, but when applied in a football match, it refers to the group of people of the opposing team, who line up in front of the ball when a free-kick is awarded.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Language Investigation of the Effect of Texts on Social Values by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The word free-kick has been used in the quarter final game, between Manchester united and Chelsea. This is an example of a collocation that is worth noting in this investigation. Collocations refer to the combination of two common words to come up with a technical term.[14]

Another collocation that has been used in the quarter final game as well as the final game is penalty-area. The separation of these words results in different meanings, but when put together in the context of football, they result in a lexical item that has a significant meaning in the game of football.[15]

Conclusion The findings indicate that the blogger can use distinct styles or forms of language to show the excitement in a game. The incorporation of ideas behind the choice of players by the team managers seems to be a strategy used by McNulty to explain the results of each game. In the quarter final game between Man Utd and Chelsea, he explained the latter’s team manager decision on his choice of strikers, and its likely influence on the outcome of the game.

McNulty made good use of formulaic language that is based on particular lexicon, and colour-adding to express the events in a match. The most dominant style identified in the investigation was the use of metaphors, which are not used sparingly. They help to create imagery of the actual events that took place during the game. There was a notable increase in the metaphors used, as the games got more exciting, towards the finals. This can be seen in the increasing number of words in the game analysis towards the final game.[16]

Evaluation The literature elements that were investigated in the various sports analysis were helpful in drawing good conclusions on the hypothesis. We were able to identify the increased excitement using metaphors to show the action figuratively, when describing both the players when playing, and the team managers when choosing the starting team, and making the substitutions. The phrases used help us to identify the results of the matches based on the decisions made by the team managers and the players, as well as their reactions to the events.

Bibliography Crystal, D. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Freeborn, D. Varieties of English. London: Macmillan, 1986.

McNulty, P. Sport Football. 2011. Web.

Russell, S. Grammar, Structure and Style. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1997.

Weber, J. J. The Stylistics Reader. London: Edwin Arnold, 1996.

Footnotes Dennis Freeborn. Varieties of English. London: Macmillan, 1986

J. J. Weber. The Stylistics Reader. London: Edwin Arnold, 1996.

Phil McNulty: statistics of the games (final game)

Phil McNulty. Sport Football. 2011.

Phil McNulty.

Phil McNulty.

David Crystal. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999

Phil McNulty.

Phil McNulty

Phil McNulty.

Phil McNulty.

Phil McNulty: metaphors from the final game

Phil McNulty: football related words

Dennis Freeborn, 1986

Dennis Freeborn, 1986

Shirley Russell. Grammar, Structure and Style. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1997


Social Studies Instruction and Diverse Students Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Education is a critical requirement for any society seeking prosperity within the global circles. Globalization is a new hurdle that educators now need to deal with as various cultures meet and interact within the school set up and if unregulated, this situation usually erupts in chaos and disruption of learning.

However, a greater loss is the stunted development of the minority cultures, which occurs because of the structures of the prevailing educational systems put in place with the majority cultures in mind. Consequently, there is need for a paradigm shift if the educational system is to provide equitable service to the entire population.

Multicultural social studies teaching is a merger between social studies as a discipline and multicultural education as a concept. The goal of social studies is to promote civil competence while that of multicultural education is to provide equal education opportunities to the entire population with the intent of producing “first class” citizens who are sensitive to “democratic ideals such as human dignity, equality, and freedom.” (Banks, 1999, p. 65)

Due to their complimentary nature, it is prudent to integrate these two concepts to achieve the intended purpose of each. This kind of teaching involves a shift from the conventional teacher-oriented classroom sessions to student-oriented discussions. It is flexible and allows students to select their own referencing material. It gives parents and the rest of the community a chance to participate in the students’ learning and encourages cooperation between students from diverse backgrounds.

It highlights the advantages of this diversity and reveals the possibility of better learning if the students take advantage of their differences to gain better understanding of various concepts. Finally, it discourages single-minded formulation of stereotypes by teachers, parents, the community and students while inhibiting self-destructive behavior in students from minority cultures acting out the frustration with a mono-cultural system of education. This type of teaching satisfies everybody’s needs.

The advantages of this type of teaching include harmony in the classroom as teachers strive to encourage cooperative learning. As they encourage their students to share cultural experiences, question, and challenge their dogmatic beliefs, students set aside their superficial differences and share in an enriching earning experiences where they use their different cultures as sources of information.

The different perspectives brought in by different students offer a variety of learning options that apply to each student in a classroom set up. The involvement of parents in their children’s learning also greases the educational processes as they know how best their children learn and they can divulge this information to teachers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Multicultural social study teaching uses culture as the foundation upon which school-based knowledge builds. Consequently, students have a better grasp of a lesson’s content because they can relate to it on a cultural level. This way, learning becomes a natural activity and is not as taxing as the current system portrays it. This teaching involves every student in the classroom because each student has something he / she can allude to (Sleeter,


Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running Term Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction In the 21st century, the hospitality industry has thrived. Traditionally, there has been saturation of big monopolies of hotel brands, with their primary objective being provision of lodging accommodation for travelers.

A boutique hotel is a luxurious, personalized version of the traditional hotels whose focus is on the provision of a comfortable, intimate, and welcoming setting. According to Dubois (2010), the personalized service and design reflects the characteristics of the target market and is the distinguishing feature that categorizes a hotel as a boutique hotel.

Boutique hotels were started in the early eighties, with two of the world’s first boutique hotels opening in 1981 – these two hotels are The Blakes Hotel in South Keningston, London designed by Anouska Hempel, and The Bedford in Union Square San Fransisco, now a series of 35 such hotels of the Kimpton Group (Dubois, 2010).

Starting Up Location and Destination The most significant factor to consider when starting a hotel is the destination and location, although product quality, market demand, a well-defined marketing approach, and effective reservation coverage play a major role that contributes to the success of the business (Yanos, 2008). For a city destination, the location should be in a trendy neighborhood, central to other things that are going to complement the business. Indeed, good locations lead to guests’ loyalty and interest (Nickisch, 2011).

A city destination attracts a diverse market from leisure, business, events, and conventions all week long. Ideal city locations are fashion centers, media capitals, cities with vibrant economies, and trendy residential areas. For a resort destination, the more the indigenous a location, the better, as this gives guests a chance to explore the local feel without sacrificing luxury.

The hotel should be tucked well behind mountains, in valleys, deep in the jungle, near a lake or watering points in wildlife reserves or in deserted corners of islands. Indeed, the more difficult it is to reach the destination by conventional means, the more fashionable the location is considered (Yanos, 2008).

The location is dictated by the destination; this defines the style, décor, and architectural design of the hotel and hotel rooms. It is generally a good idea to avoid areas that are too saturated with boutique hotels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Financing Boutique hotels are a big investment, as their start up costs are quite high and the marketing is costly, as it needs to be continuous (Enz, 2009). The cost varies depending on the location, number of rooms, and the additional amenities in the premises.

Buying an already existing property and renovating it to fit the desired design and needs is generally more cost effective than developing a new project from scratch. With limited finances, one should consider remote, scenic locations, suburban locations, or renovating an old city hotel in a transitional neighborhood, where property values are rising; this is not only cheaper, but it also has favorable future prospects (Yanos, 2008).

It is not easy to find funding for boutique hotels, as non-branded lifestyle hotels are seen as a risky investment (Dubois, 2010). One can also consider partnership with an investment group that will help with the financing of the project be it building, or acquiring reposition, to the desired standard under agreed terms.

This is particularly important because with the financial pressure reduced, one can concentrate on the quality of the project. Commercial loans, which are tailor-made to suit boutique hotel financing, are also a viable option although at a higher cost. Partnerships also play an important role in the financing of the business and the partners can vary from affluent hoteliers interested in new ventures to other businessmen.

Architecture and Design The focus should be in style, distinction, warmth, and intimacy. There are no standards, but each design should fulfill individual needs. The right design, destination, and location determine the success of the hotel (Yanos, 2008). The location determines style and materials used, be it stone, timber or even logs.

The hotel should be designed to reflect or blend with the area, taking advantage of what the area has to offer. For instance, beach resorts may take advantage of the oceanfronts and water for swimming or creating swimming pools using salty water, or log cabin rooms in the wild to blend in with nature. Successful resort boutique hotels unite traditional architecture with the comfort of luxury and modernization without losing the personality of the local community.

The design should have a theme, and the selected theme should attract all senses (Dubois, 2010). Different themes can be incorporated in different rooms to create a personal touch that appeals to individuals.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The target market, which is usually between early 20’s to mid 50’s mid- to upper-income groups, should be represented and the style and design should describe their characteristics. Skilled operators in the boutique segment increasingly use psychographics to understand and define their customers.

Psychographic is a marketing classification used to define customers by attributes such as lifestyle, aspirations, interests, attitudes, and beliefs. For example, Joie de Vivre hotels- create each of its hotels around a reader-base of a popular but specialist magazine such as Rolling Stone. This is the theme behind their first hotel, The Phoenix, which opened in San Fransisco in 1987 (Dubois, 2010).

Themes could be romance, music, wildlife, historic details, or fashion. The lighting, colors, music, or art can be used selectively to appeal to all senses and create a feeling of intimacy (Yanos, 2008). The idea of a boutique hotel is entertainment in its own nature; hence, the exceptional themes and visually spectacular decorations are a necessity.

Amenities In the hospitality industry, the primary goal should be getting people to become regulars, hence the emphasis should be more on service than on the amenities; however, luxury is necessary (Stellin, 2007). Plan the amenities to meet the needs of the target clientele while at the same time defining the hotels’ niche. In addition, it is important to invest in fine furnishings, comfortable beds, quality artworks, fine linens, good quality toiletries, extra pillows, and comfortable chairs (Atkinson, 2007).

Small things matter to clients and hence there is need to pay attention to the fine details that make the whole difference in a room. Regardless of the comfort, luxury, and style, one should compete at a practical level, hence the need to have current trend amenities such as

Wi-Fi internet

Flat screen plasma televisions

Cable television networks

Air conditioning, traditional spa services

Rose petal baths

Fitness facilities

Bar and grill

Excellent food

These should be available to provide a competitive edge (Stellin, 2007). Moreover, the investor should always aim and be willing to go an extra mile in order to attract and retain clients with complementary packages such as honeymoon packages, wine and champagne art and painting sessions, guests’ favorite CD collection, and buffet breakfast.

Service The common feature that all boutique hotels have is the emphasis on quality service that is personalized in a professional manner. The approach and attitude, but not the size, defines a boutique hotel (Dubois, 2010). The stay-to-guest ratio should be high in order to cater for every possible need that a client may be having.

This may means a high payroll, but it pays off in customer loyalty and the clients do not mind paying extra for the comfort. Lastly, it is important to allow the staff to memorize guest names and encourage friendly interaction to make the guests’ stay memorable. The staff of a boutique hotel should predict or know in advance, the needs and requirements of the guests and deliver to their guests’ expectation (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marketing Develop a high-quality product to appeal to an understanding clientele (Tisch, 2007). Simply, it is the experience and image that are sold, rather than the product itself. Marketing an independent boutique hotel has financial and other resources restrictions because marketing needs to be continuous (Dunne, Lusch,


Information Systems Role in Contemporary Businesses Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Benefits of information Systems to a business



Introduction An information system comprises of all constituents that collect, proliferate and disseminate data. In most cases, these comprise the hardware, people, software, communication systems and the information itself. Information systems conduct various activities that include processing data in to information, input of data, data storage and the production of outputs (Moin, 2006). For these reasons, most contemporary businesses have integrated systems of information technology in their management.

Benefits of information Systems to a business Correct utilization of information systems by the management of a business can offer a great deal of operational effectiveness and accurateness. In contemporary business world, this is similar to the competitive advantage of the business (Sharrieff, 2011). Moin (2006) affirms that in most cases, information systems sustain and sometimes comprise the competitive advantage of a business. In this case, information systems sustain all the sustainable competitive advantages of a business.

Incorporation of information systems helps employees to give greater level of services to their consumers, especially the employees who are in contact with customers. This means that information systems are at most times fundamental in running business activities in the modern world since the employees offer better services to the consumers.

Businesses achieve more productive business decisions that have positive influence on the company’s bottom line due to suitable utilization of the information systems offered by the company (Sharrieff, 2011).

Information systems can decrease the number of administrative employees as well as the number of hours an employee will work in comparison with the manual performance of a similar process. This occurs since the duty that an employee was supposed to perform happen to be performed by the machine.

This effectiveness permits the organization to gather benefits in other areas. For instance, a company can offer a lower bid for a certain contract than its rival company due to the reduced costs linked with the execution of effective information systems (Webster, 2011).

In the modern world, computer networks permits the multinational companies to offer real time services at all times all over the world. Improved technology of the computers and the information systems helps in meeting consumers’ requests and their relocation across the nations and time zones even without the customers’ consent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the Sealand Services Inc. which is a global based shipping company in the United States executed a new proprietary shipping management system that mechanized customer transactions worldwide. These customer transactions included order taking and document management (Stephens, 2011).

Information systems play a major role in supporting business processes and operations. They achieve this through recording and storing sales information, acquisition data, savings data, payroll data, and other accounting information. Information systems also aid in storing and recording inventory data, equipment repair and maintenance data, work in process data, supply chain data and other production records.

The human brain is not capable of storing all the necessary data that a company requires and thus the use of information systems is relevant. Information systems are also helpful in recording and storing customer purchase histories, market data, customer profiles, marketing research data, advertising data and other marketing records (Moin, 2006).

In most companies, execution of information systems occurs in order to offer self-services to employees and the consumers. If companies and businesses grant permission to customers and employees to gain access and make changes to their own account data rather than presenting a paper request, the response time will radically decrease. Electronic communications such as email reach the receiver faster than communication sent through traditional paper modes (Webster, 2011).

For a company to ensure that their management information system is pertinent and offers the greatest level of profit, they must plan purposely for their business entity. Even though most software packages offer a level of usefulness to a business venture, it is essential that the system that a business executes addresses the informational necessities and utilization behavior of every person who will take part in the operational effort (Sharrieff, 2011).

Information technology mechanizes some of the information systems. For instance, Dell Computers has a system where there is no human interference in their various operations including taking orders from customers, delivery of constituents to the Dell factory for assemblage as well as shipment to the consumers. Through the company’s website, the company can acquire an order for a personal computer directly from a customer (Moin, 2006).

Information systems aid in reducing errors that are common when performing processes manually. The access to error-free reports guarantees that the organizational leaders have access to the required information needed to make well-informed decisions. Reduction of response time enables leaders to make better verdicts than they might have otherwise done. With the aid of effective information systems, leaders can make efficient decisions in an appropriate manner (Webster, 2011).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Information Systems Role in Contemporary Businesses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion It is evident that information systems are vital components of a business. They increase the competitive advantage of a business in various ways. In addition, information systems accelerate the globalization of business and trade. This offers multinational companies a suitable ground to reach many customers. In contemporary business world, most businesses have integrated information systems in their business management to accelerate their business performance and eventually increase sales.

References Moin, U. (2006). Information Systems and Technology. Web.

Sharrieff, M. (2011). The Impact of a Management Information System. Web.

Stephens, D.O. (2011). The Globalization of Information Technology in Multinational Corporations. Web.

Webster, A. (2011). Tangible Benefits of Information Systems. Web.


Rise of England as a European Power Research Paper college admissions essay help

Table of Contents The War of the Roses (1455-1487)

Background information: War of the Roses

The Rebirth of Tudor and the Tudor Dynasty

Reference List

The rise of England as a European power involved various strategies including use of religion, marriages, and weapons in war. In other cases, kings emphasized on trade, learning, and explorations. This document details the emergence of several kings of England and the strategies they used to conquer other empires. Kings also had various means of retaining power to protect their territories. This in turn facilitated the rise of England as a European power as discussed below.

The War of the Roses (1455-1487) The War of the Roses as discussed in history books compounded continuous battles that supporters of the House of Lancaster (Lancastrians) and the House of York (Yorkists) engaged in (Markham, 1983). The representation of the Yorkists by a white rose and the Lancastrians by a red rose led to the emergence of the name “War of the Roses” (Markham, 1983).

The dominant noble families inclined to any of the houses and fought in various Civil Wars, which culminated to the victory of Lancastrians and crowning of Henry Tudor as King (Markham, 1983).

Background information: War of the Roses The reign of Edward III and power struggles between his sons after his death is considered the primary cause of Wars of the Roses (Markham, 1983). The four eldest sons of King Edward included the Black Prince (heir apparent), Lionel of Antwerp (Duke of Clarence), John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster) and Edmund of Langley (Duke of York) (Starkey, 2003).

After King Edward III’s death in 1377, his grandson Richard II became king arising from the fact that his eldest son had died from plague in1376. Richard II was hardly ten years old and therefore his uncle John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster) took over to rule the country (Markham, 1983). Richard grew older and became rebellious to his uncle’s rule.

The death of John of Gaunt in 1399 brought forth a new dimension into the country’s rule. This is because after his uncle’s death, Richard II forcefully took the land owned by his uncle. However, John of Gaunt’s son Henry prepared an army, which saw the surrender of Richard. Consequently, Henry crowned himself Henry IV and took over the throne.

This saw the establishment of the reign of the Lancastrian as Kings. Soon after, Richard was imprisoned in Pontefract castle where he met his mysterious death in February 1400 (Starkey, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since Henry IV was not the rightful heir to the throne after the death of Richard II, he faced numerous setbacks. Arguably, Edmund Earl of March the great grandson of Lionel Duke of Clarence was the rightful heir to the throne (Starkey, 2003). Fortunately, Henry was able to consolidate his position on the throne. As such, when he died in 1413, his son Henry V succeeded him without setbacks (Starkey, 2003).

Henry V was a strong leader. He won the Battle of Agincourt in1415 among the numerous battles that he won (John, 2007). He also conquered Normandy and Rouen for England. He married the daughter of the King of France. Because of his premature death in 1422, his son Henry VI was crowned the king of England and France (John, 2007).

At his father’s death, Henry VI was hardly four months and therefore his uncle ruled the two countries on his behalf (John, 2007). The French monarchy was restored after Joan of Arc raised military in opposition to the English. Henry married Margaret of Anjou and as he became older, it was evident that he was going to be a weak (Markham, 1983).

Consequently, the Yorkists planned to take over the thrown from him. He condoned corruption and the country went broke despite of the high level of taxation. In his reign, trade declined while great Lords interfered with the judicial system and Parliamentary elections (Markham, 1983). Unrests were common and in 1450, there was a revolt in London headed by Jack Cade. Citizens laid their hopes on the duke of York to instigate change (Markham, 1983).

On 22 May 1455, the first battle of the Wars of the Roses occurred at St Albans (Markham, 1983). Richard, the Duke of York led the Yorkists to defeat the king’s army with ease. Subsequently, Henry VI was captured and imprisoned.

Richard of York was made protector of England after Henry suffered a bout of insanity from 1455 to February 1456 (Hawes, 2009). After his recovery, his wife Margret advised him to reverse many of the decisions made by the Yorkists. The decisions included the appointment of Warwick’s as the captain of Calais that was reverted back to Henry Beaufort the new III Duke of Somerset (Markham, 1983).

Lancastrians were ordered by Margaret to attack Salisbury at Blore Heath on September 1459. They lost to the Yorkists. Henry and Margaret later confronted York, Warwick and Salisbury with a force of 30,000 in the battle of Ludford Bridge on October 1459 (Markham, 1983). Calais men defected to the Henry’s side. The Yorkists dissolved and fled.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Rise of England as a European Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Warwick fled to the South East and ended up in Sandwich. Here, he raised an army of 25000 people (Markham, 1983). With this, he confronted Henry’s army at the battle of Northampton on July 1460. Yorkists won because the commander in charge of Henry’s front line betrayed him and joined the Yorkists.

In addition, Buckingham, John Talbot V Earl of Shrewsbury, Beaumont, and Egremont were killed (Horrox, 1989). However, York on return from Ireland claimed the throne. In1460, the parliament passed an Act of Accord that left Henry as King, but York’s heirs would be Henry’s successor (Horrox, 1989).

Margaret was infuriated by the decision to deny her son (Edward) the right to the throne. On this account, she decided to form another Lancastrian army. Jasper Tudor organized an army in Wales, Holland, and Somerset in the West Country while Percy, III Earl of Northumberland with John Clifford rose in the north (Markham, 1983).

The combined total of forces was 15000 men (Horrox, 1989). York heard about Margaret’s location in Pontefract and decided to go to his castle at Sandal south of Wakefield. York infuriated by breaking of Christmas peace, marched out of his castle but he was ambushed in the Battle of Wakefield. York and Salisbury’s son Thomas Neville were murdered (Horrox, 1989).

On the other hand, York’s son was in Pembroke and Wiltshire where he had been sent. He won the battle of Mortimer’s Cross on 2 February 1461. Margaret’s forces at the second battle of St. Albans intercepted Warwick on 17 February 1461, as he left London to meet with March (Horrox, 1989). The Lancastrians won prompting Warwick to flee with the remainder of his soldiers.

Norfolk Warwick and his uncle Lord Fauconberg formed forces in the south East, Midlands, and West Country. They combined forces with the rest of the Yorkists army led by Richard’s son Edward, the Earl of March. In the Battle of Ferrybridge, on 28 March 1461, Lord Fauconberg was killed (Horrox, 1989). The two armies met again in the battle of Towton the following day. Lancastrians lost and most of their noble men were killed (Markham, 1983).

Edward was crowned the king on 28 June1461 and Warwick was reinstated as the Captain of England (Hawes, 2009). Edward and Warwick fell out over issues relating to foreign policies. Edward lost in the battle of Edgecote Moor on 26 July 1469 and was imprisoned at Warwick castle. Later, Edward fled to the protection of his friend Duke of Burgundy. He later won in the Battle of ‘Lose-Coat’ Field on 12 March 1470 after gathering support from Charolais, Duke of Burgundy (Markham, 1983).

Warwick and Clarence sought refuge in France where they met Henry’s wife, Margaret. King Louis provided them with funds, forces and sixty ships for battle (Hawes, 2009). In exchange, Henry VI was reinstated as king. Henry VI regained the throne in 1470 and was crowned king on 13 October 1470 (Hawes, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rise of England as a European Power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under Warwick’s rule, an alliance between England and France proposed an invasion of Burgundy. Charolais, Duke of Burgundy facilitated Edward with provision like ships, manpower, and funds to invade England. The sail was on 11 March 1471 (Hawes, 2009). Edward used his wit to gain public confidence and raised his forces even more.

Edward went to London where his supporters accepted him back. He defeated Henry in the Battle of Tewkesbury and was crowned king as Edward IV (Hawes, 2009). He set out for Warwick. In the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471, the Lancastrians were defeated and Warwick was killed (Hawes, 2009).

Through Edward’s order, Henry was killed in May 1471 (Hawes, 2009). Edward IV remained in power until 1483 when he died suddenly from chill and soon the country went back to mayhem again (Hawes, 2009). Queen Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI sought refuge to Wales with her son. Jaspar Tudor who was Henry’s half brother accepted them (Hawes, 2009).

After the death of Edward IV, his two sons Edward and Richard were too young to rule (Hawes, 2009). Thus, their uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester took over the leadership of England. The two princes mysteriously disappeared in 1483 from the Tower of London where they had been taken (Horrox, 1989).

It is alleged that their uncle killed them. Richard was subsequently crowned Richard III on 6 July 1483 (Horrox, 1989). Richard III’s position in the throne faced numerous hitches especially from Henry Tudor. This was the grandson of Owen Tudor the second husband to Henry V’s wife Katherine of Valois (Williams, 1996).

Henry Tudor prepared an invasion with the support of Charles III the King of France. On 7 August 1485, a 3000 force landed in Wales and kept adding more on their walk (Hawes, 2009). A Lancastrian army that was raised by Henry Tudor in the battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485 defeated the Yorkists (Hawes, 2009). Despite the fact that Henry had a less force of about 6000 men, he defeated Richard who had 10000 men and was a more experienced commander in the field (Gravett, 1999).

Richard III was killed in the battle and Henry found his crown on the battlefield (Gravett, 1999). Henry placed the crown on his head and he was crowned king on 30 October 1485 (Gravett, 1999). The following year, he married Elizabeth of York (the daughter of Edward IV) uniting the two houses of Lancaster and York (Gravett, 1999). This union put to an end to the War of Roses.

In summary, the War of Roses started with irreversible disagreements between the ruling Houses of Lancaster (Lancastrian) and York (Yorkists). It was referred to as the War of Roses because a red rose represented the Lancastrians while a white rose represented the Yorkists (Gravett, 1999).

Yorkists (Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III) reigned. However, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth field and crowned himself Henry VII (Gravett, 1999). This marked the beginning of new royal dynasty. His marriage to a York’s daughter brought to an end the Wars of the Roses (Chrimes, 1972). He later gained the trust of his subjects when he overcame a claimant at the Battle of Stoke Field on 16 June 1487.

The Rebirth of Tudor and the Tudor Dynasty During this era, King Henry VII overcame adversaries to his new dynasty and promoted noble writs and commissions. The era was characterized by political and social strengthening. In this era, there was increase in births and businesses thrived (Gravett, 1999). Tudor cared for the people and their welfare was his main interest. He endeavored to stop wars and foreign conflicts (Chrimes, 1972). This marked the beginning of social change.

The royal couple had eight children though only four survived. They were two boys (Arthur and Henry) and two girls (Margaret and Mary) (Kilkenny, 2007). Margaret wedded King James IV of Scotland fostering a peaceful coalition (Gravett, 1999).

During the reign of Henry VII, John Cabot made a major discovery. He discovered the New World in 1494 (Busch, 1895). However, John Cabot discovered that he was likely to lose his right to the great discovery since Spanish examination tried to supersede him with Christopher Columbus. Thus, he sought to obtain Royal Charter for his discovery, which was granted by the king in 1496 (Kilkenny, 2007).

In order to promote the union between Spain and England, the oldest son of King Henry and Catherine of Aragon were affianced (Kilkenny, 2007). Catherine and Prince Arthur were married in November 1501 (Kilkenny, 2007). Prince Arthur died five months later of a mysterious disease while his mother Elizabeth died 10 months later in childbirth at 37 years of age (Kilkenny, 2007). Catherine should have returned to Spain but she did not. She was ordered to stay to be engaged to Henry, a younger brother of Arthur (John, 2007).

The marriage of Catherine to the king of England would promote obedience to the Papal Bull of Borgia that had been proclaimed in England in 1494 (John, 2007). She would also see to it that England would not conflict with Spain over the ownership of the New World (Mattingly, 1941).

King Henry and his son Henry were opposed to a re-marriage of Henry to Catherine. This is because the death of Arthur was seen as a bad omen (Mattingly, 1941). In addition, Isabella of Castile died in 1504 worsening the matters (Mattingly, 1941). Catherine started planning to go back to Spain.

However, the arrival of a Franciscan called Fry Diego Fernandez altered everything. He is believed to have poisoned the king in order to maintain the alliance of Spain and England through the marriage of Catherine to Henry (Mattingly, 1941). The king died at an early age of 52 in 1509 (Kilkenny, 2007). Soon after his death, Henry became king and revoked all the policies of his father. Indeed, he executed his father’s advisers at the Tower. He was crowned king on 24 June 1509 (Kilkenny, 2007).

During the reign of Henry VIII, Martin Luther posted 95 Theses meant to start blessed Reformation to the church door in 1517 (Kilkenny, 2007). Henry immediately opposed the Reformation. Unlike his father, Henry VIII cared little about the people who liked partying. He admired beautiful girls (Kilkenny, 2007).

Consequently, he had met Anne Boleyn and because Catherine could not produce a male heir, he wanted to divorce her and marry Anne. The divorce would break the alliance between England and Spain and had therefore to be stopped. The Pope postponed until the king became impatient with Rome and declared himself Supreme Head of the church (Kilkenny, 2007). Later, he proclaimed himself pope of England. Subsequently, Henry married Anne on 25 January 1533 (Starkey, 2003).

The break between England and Rome made reformation in England a reality. Queen Anne reigned for 1000 days between 1533 and 1536 (Starkey, 2003). She made strong enemies among the Roman Catholics since she favored reformation (Kilkenny, 2007). She had many miscarriages but nonetheless, she had one surviving daughter later to become Queen Elizabeth I. she ended up becoming England’s greatest queen.

Bloody Mary reigned only for 5 years (1553-1558) and these were the bloodiest years in the history of England (Kilkenny, 2007). Due to refusal to convert to catholic, over 500 people were burned and they included Archbishop Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, Bishop Rochester among others (Warnicke, 1989). Bloody Mary married Philip II of Spain but died childless after failing to produce an heir (John, 2007).

Gloriana the virgin Queen Elizabeth became queen on 17 November 1558 and reigned for 45 years (Kilkenny, 2007). During this period, both Spain and England were engaged in great efforts for world domination. It is during her reign that pope Pius excommunicated her in 1570. During this period also, Sir France Drake discovered California and the Spanish Amanda was defeated (Kilkenny, 2007). Queen Elizabeth paid for the creation of the Gaelic tongue, in Ireland (Olden, 1892).

In conclusion, the Tudor dynasty ended with the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603 and James IV of Scotland became James I of England (Kilkenny, 2007). He witnessed completion of the translation of the bible in 1611and was referred to as the Authorized or the King James Version (Kilkenny, 2007).

The Pilgrim father formed the first colony in the new world in 1620 that later grew to be the United States of Cabotia (Kilkenny, 2007). The Stuart Dynasty ended in 1688 and thereafter in 1694, the Bank of England was fully fledged and this gave English government authority over bankers and moneychangers (Kilkenny, 2007).

Reference List Chrimes, S. B. (1972). Henry VII. California: University of California Press.

Gravett, C. (1999). Bosworth 1485: last Charge of the Plantagenets. Oxford: Osprey.

Hawes, P. (2009). Wars of the Roses: Lancaster Vs York. Rule book. New York: Z-Man Games, Inc.

Horrox, R. (1989). Richard III. A study of Service. Cambridge.: Cambridge University Press.

John, C. (2007). The Tudor Monarchy. Web.

Kilkenny, N. (2007). Life and Times of King Henry VII and VIII. Retrieved from

Markham, R. (1983). Henry V: Four Battles from the Hundred Years War. Cambria, CA: 3W. Game.

Mattingly, G. (1941). Catherine of Aragon. New York: Vintage books.

Olden, T. (1892). History of the Church of Ireland. London: Welles, Gardener, Darton and Co.

Starkey, D. (2003). Six Wives: the Queens of Henry VIII. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Williams, D.T. (1996). The Battle of Bosworth field: 22nd August 1485. Leicester, UK: Bosworth Publications-Leicestershire County Council.


California State Assembly district Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help

Introduction Elections in the California State Assembly district are guided by the California law. According to this law, any candidate aspiring for any office in the California State Assembly district must gather a certain amount of signatures from the registered voters in the district in the case of a recall.

In most cases, the number of signatures required from the aspirant by the California law must equal 12 percent of the total number of votes cast during the previous election for the seat. It is worth noting that the signatures must be certified by the election panel before a person is declared a candidate for a particular seat (Baldassare, 2002).

After certification of the signatures, the candidates are free to launch their campaign for the specific office. The schedule for the election under the Californian law is supposed to be determined by the governor. However, there exist regular schedules for elections in the California State Assembly.

If a recall to the assembly falls in less than 180 days prior to the regular election schedules, the California law requires such a recall to be part of the regular election schedule. In case of a recall against a governor occurs, the responsibility of determining the special election is given to the lieutenant governor (Mona, 2011).

Research indicates that the California state assembly has had the highest number of recalls compared to other states in America. According to Field (201, p.20), a recall gives citizens an opportunity to replace a public official before the end of their term in office. This happens in the event that the citizens loose confidence in the leadership of a given leader. Traditionally, recalls have been common to leaders holding junior offices. The most recalled seats in the California State Assembly district according to Baldassare (2002) are include that of the city council and members to the boards of schools.

The passing of the Open Primary System on the 14th of June 2010 and the New Legislation Boundaries on 20th of November 2010 changed California’s Congressional and State Legislative delegations. These changes, which are to be effected during the 2012 general election, will make California the state the largest number of delegates and legislators in America.

For instance, these legislations will increase California’s congressional delegates to 53 and the state legislators to 120. The interpretation of these according to Mona (2011) is that new faces will see their way into the California’s congressional and legislative assembly. In addition, this is expected to bring significant changes to the public policy priorities in the state of California (Field 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proposition 14 in the California state election legislations require only the top two vote-getters to proceed to the general election, irrespective of their political parties. The aim of this legislation according to Baldassare (2002) is to eliminate the traditional party nominations forces.

It also allows the congress and state legislature to contact comprehensive campaigns that would attract support from the whole district. Aspirants in thee California state assembly district should therefore be more ambitious in their campaigns by committing both their resources and time to the campaigns.

The results of this type of campaigns in California are that only the candidate who has a district appeal has the highest chance of being elected. It makes elections in the California state assembly district individual based by divorcing it from party politics. With these changes in place, the 2012 general election is expected to be characterized by more fiercely campaigns than ever before in the history of California state assembly district politics.

The state of California deserves a change in terms of the representatives. This is based on the fact that the above mentioned changes aim at bringing new faces in the state’s leadership. In this case, the newly elected members and the incumbents, in case of any former representatives will be elected, may be presenting totally different constituents.

The newly elected officeholders are expected to bring significant changes in the running of the political politics of California State. In addition to the above mentioned changes, the California for a fresh Start (CFS) initiative is expected to bring into the election laws further changes concerning elections in the state. For instance, this initiative aims at reducing the term of holding a public office from 14 years to 12 years (Baldassare 2002)

Conclusion Despite the argument by political analysts that the service of officeholders improves with their increasing time in office, I am of the opinion that the current State Assemblyman in California should be voted out. For me, new leaders should be elected into office because they bring with them new opinions and ideas.

Research has indicated that the more a leader remains in office, the more he or she becomes reluctant in his or her work. The much the current State Assemblyman in California would have done has already done and according to me, voting him back will deny the state new changes in terms of development and leadership strategies.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on California State Assembly district specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Baldassare, M. (2002). A Californian state of mind: The Conflicted Voter in a Changing World. New York: Oxford University press.

Field, G. P. (2011). Struggle for Democracy with California Government and Politics today. London: Pearson Education.

Mona, F. (2011). California Government and Politics Today: London: Longman Publishers.


A Doll’s House by Norway’s Henrik Ibsen Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction: Summary The main theme in a Doll’s House play is feminist of the time. Nora and Helmer is a model husband and wife, living in peace and harmony in their family until Mrs. Linde, an older friend to Nora made a visit in their home in search of a job. Nora manages to secure a job for Mrs. Linde, but unfortunately pushes Mr. Krogstad an accused forger out of his job. Generally, in this play Henrik Ibsen pointedly captures the inferior role of women in Victorian society through his doll motif.

The play ‘A Doll’s House’ is one of the controversial plays, where Nora’s decision actions to dump her kids is contradictory to her thoughts as she thinks that her kids need her more than she needs her own freedom. The author of the play believed that women were made to be mothers and wives.

Moreover, he brings some idea of having an eye for the injustice on the female characters. Although, feminists would later hold him, Ibsen was not an activist of women’s rights; he only handled the problem of women’s right as an aspect of realism within the play.

The key theme of this play is Nora’s insurgence against society and everything that was really expected of her (Ibsen 140). During her era, women were not expected to be self-reliant but were to remain supportive to their husbands, take care of the kids, cook, clean, and make everything perfect around the house.

When Nora took a loan to pay for her husband’s medical bill, this raised a lot of questions and problems in the minds of many individuals from the community, as it was taken as act against the community norms for women to take up a loan without their husbands’ knowledge.

She proved that she was not submissive and helpless as her husband Torvalds thought she was. Thus the author referred her as “poor helpless little creature.” A good example of Torvald thought control and Nora’s submissiveness was when she got him to remind her tarantella, she knew the dance style but she acted as if she needed him to re-teach her everything.

When he said to her “watching you swing and dance the tarantella makes my blood rush” (Ibsen 125), this clearly shows that he is more interested in her physically than emotionally. Then when asked him to stop he said to her, “am I not your husband?” once more this is another example of Torvald’s control over Nora, and how he thinks that Nora is there to fulfill his every desire on command.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marriage

Marriage is another aspect that the play addresses; the main message seems to be that, a true working marriage is a joining of equals. In the beginning, Helmers looks happy but as the play progress, the imbalance between them becomes apparent. At the end, their marriage breaks because of lack of misunderstanding among them. They fail to realize themselves and to act as equals. (Johnston 671)

Women and Feminist

Throughout the play, Nora breaks away from the control of her arrogant husband, Torvald. The playwright, Ibsen denies that he wrote a feminist play. Still, throughout the play there is steady talk of women, their traditional roles, and price for them of defying with the traditions. (Johnston 570)

Men and masculinity

Men in this play are trapped by general traditional gender responsibilities. They are seen as the chief providers of the family and they should be in charge of supporting the entire household. Men must be the perfect kings of their respective palace. We see these traditional ideas put across at the end of the play.

Respect and Reputation

The men in this play are occupied with their reputation. Some men have the integrity in their society and do anything to protect it. Even if the play setup is in a living room, the public eye is portrayed through the curtains.


In within the play, ‘A Doll’s House’, the characters spend a lot of time discussing their wealth. Some characters are financially stable and promise for a free flowing money in the future while others struggle to make the end meet. (Ibsen 132)


Love has been given a priority in the play where good time has been used on the topic but in the end, Helmers realize that there was their no true love between them. Romantic love is seen for two of the other characters, but for the main character, true love is pathetic (Ibsen 200).

Dramatic irony

There are some examples in the play where this aspect is used, in Act 1 where Torvald condemns Krogstad for forgery and not coming forward. He also mentions that this action corrupts children’s mind. As a reader, you should know that this is very important to Nora because we know that she had committed forgery in the play and kept it a secret from Torvald. (Johnston 603)

We will write a custom Essay on A Doll’s House by Norway’s Henrik Ibsen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It’s ironic when Torvald says that he pretends Nora is in some kind of trouble, and he waits the time he can rescue her. When the truth is known and Torvald has been given a chance to save Nora, he is all concerned with his reputation (Ibsen 128).

He abused her by calling her names such as featherbrain; he is not interested with rescuing Nora is interested on how he escapes out of this mess without affecting his reputation negatively. Then, when krogstad brings back the IOU document, Torvald shouts that he is rescued and he has forgiven Nora. Ironically, he did not even consider that she had borrowed the money earlier to save him.

Christmas and New Year

The play is set during the holiday period. Its Christmas period for the Helmers and New Year celebration is approaching. Both Christmas and New Year are associated with rebirth and renewal (Johnston 589).

Several characters in the play go through a rebirth process both Nora and Torvald go through a spiritual awakening, which can be taken as a rebirth. When things fail to happen, she realizes that it will not be possible for her to be a fully realized person until she divorces her husband. Finally, at the end of the play Helmer and Nora have been reborn.

Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Methuen Drama, 2000. Print.

Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Faber and Faber, 1997. Print.

Johnston, Brian. Ibsen has Selected Plays: A Norton Critical Edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004. Print.


Garbage Pollution Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Land Pollution

Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Solutions and Recommendations


Introduction Human activities are largely attributed to the loss of the planet’s biodiversity. The impact of man on the environment is so enormous since he has facilitated the rate of species extinction a thousand to ten thousand times the normal rate (Derraik, 2002). The extinction of marine life for instance, has been accelerated by waste debris and the global climatic variations.

The twenty first century has been marked by a dramatic technological advancement that has uplifted the standard of living. However, this has also come with a great cost since the materials produced are difficult to dispose without affecting the environment. Plastic bags, household garbage and electronic waste are such products, which have posed a great risk to the environment since the means of disposing them is difficult (Derraik, 2002).

Thesis: Garbage remains are a burning problem that we have to face today. It is close to everyone who lives in the world because we product trash every day. In most of the world, we do one of two things with our ordinary garbage: burn it or bury it. Neither one is good for us or for the environment. Burning garbage in incinerators releases dangerous gases and dust which contribute to global warming and pollute lakes, forests. How to reduce the garbage remains become a big issue for everyone.

Land Pollution Typical house hold waste contains papers, cardboards, chlorine-bleached plastics, foils, food scraps and batteries (EPA, 2011). Averagely, in the U.S, a single person can produce 3.72 pounds garbage daily, where 40% of 50 million people living in the non-metropolitan region of the nation are estimated to burn their waste (backyard burning), while 63% of the total daily garbage is incinerated in burn barrels. As a result, more than 1.8 billion pounds of garbage from household is incinerated in burn barrels annually (MDEQ, 2005).

According to Hill (2010 p.345), more than ‘500 billion one-time-use plastic bags’ are used annually in the world and end up being littered ubiquitously to comprise waste/misuse. At the same time, plastics are non-biodegradable and burying them only destroys the ecosystem, posing a hazard to marine ecosystems. Plastics are polymeric, highly non-biodegradable and persist for a long time in the natural environments (Hill, 2010).

Electronic wastes/e-waste comprises of discarded electronic appliances such as computers, phones, TV, and fringes. These are hazardous when improperly disposed in landfills or when incinerated. For instance, the Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) present in televisions contains phosphors and lead that contaminates the land and water if improperly disposed, or when there is transfer of the ash from the incinerators. Such landfills contaminate the surrounding soil which in turn contaminates the underground water (MDEQ, 2005).

Air Pollution Plastics are derivatives of fossils fuels with varied chemical properties hence, complicating the recycling process. Therefore, burning garbage particularly the ones containing plastics, pollute the atmosphere through emission of toxic gases. Many have volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) such as chlorine/bromine that are released on burning and destroy the ozone layer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Carbon dioxide and monoxide released from burning organic matter also accumulates in the atmosphere. Ultimately, they deplete the ozone layer resulting to global warming, which is the chief facilitator of climate change (MDEQ, 2005).

PVC in particular, releases dioxin upon burning. Dioxin is an organic chemical, which has detrimental health effects when inhaled since they are carcinogenic and bio-accumulative. Incineration emits flue gas that contains hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) such as carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, benzene, styrene, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), furans as well as heavy metals like lead, arsenic and mercury, which significantly pollute the environment (MDEQ, 2005).

Burn barrels release smoke containing hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde, which irritates the respiratory system and eyes. Formaldehyde is present in pressed wood and paints. On the other hand, bleached papers and plastics contain chlorine, which releases dioxins when combusted with other garbage at minimal temperatures.

Dioxins cause cancer, immune system dysfunction and birth defects (EPA, 2011). On the same note, statistics from 2002 to 2004 indicates that backyard and barrel burning comprised 57% of the source of furans and dioxins (U.S. Department of Health, 2011; EPA, 2011).

More so, combusting garbage with synthetic materials emits heavy metals that are carcinogenic and implicated with some birth defects. Combusting polystyrene polymers present in foam cups and plastic packaging produce styrene gas that can pass through skin as well as lungs and mucous membranes to cause damage to the central nervous system (U.S. Department of Health, 2011).

Water Pollution Some plastics and electronic wastes go ahead to breakdown into simpler toxic products that pollute the underground as well as the running water when buried or left to litter in dumpsites. After incineration of electronic wastes and plastics, the ashes finally find their way in rivers and lakes thus posing a hazard to marine life.

Mercury, dioxins, Furans and PCBs bioaccumulate in the ecosystem and therefore, they are transferred through the food chain. When plastics pile together due to poor disposal, they clog drainages and sewers leading to floods, where mosquitoes and other pathogens breed causing poor sanitation with serious health implications (Derraik, 2002).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Garbage Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ash from incinerators may contain hazardous products, which when buried or placed in the landfills, contaminate the soil. Mostly, they contain heavy metals most of which are carcinogenic e.g. cadmium, lead mercury from batteries as well as chromium and arsenic from treated wood. These accumulate in plants or contaminate ground and running water.

Garbage debris moves to the oceans, killing the marine life such as zooplankton and marine turtles. Garbage discarded in beaches and from ships into the waterways or through fishing nets could ultimately be eaten by marine life, obscuring their digestive systems. Some are strangled, entangled or trapped by the debris causing the organisms to drown/starve, become exposed to predators or unable to hunt their prey.

These are some of deleterious impacts of marine debris facilitated by garbage littering, which jeopardize the existence of these organisms (Derraik, 2002). The ingested plastics also contain polychlorinated biphenyls that are hazardous to invader species. Moreover, the marine ecosystems also face the danger of hypoxia/anoxia, due to garbage debris that imbalance its usual functioning (Derraik, 2002).

Solutions and Recommendations The economic implications of garbage cannot be ignored since enormous amount of money is spent in clearing and treating the litter, addressing public health concerns and recycling. International legislations and cooperation should be oriented towards conserving the environment through proper disposal of garbage, recycling of plastic and use of alternative packaging that are biodegradable or long lasting bags that can be reused severally.

Moreover, public awareness should be enhanced through education of the wider community through the school curriculum. International relations facilitated by the concept of ‘Thinking globally and acting locally’ significantly address the environmental threat posed by garbage disposal (Derraik, 2002).

Garbage pollution can be managed through recycling measures or banning of plastic bags used in packaging. Alternative ecofriendly means of packaging should be drafted while high taxes should be imposed on the manufacturer and consumers of these plastics. Electronic waste can also be recycled and refurbished. ‘Reduce’, ‘Reuse’ and ‘Recycle’ are the 3Rs that go a long way in handling the issue of garbage.

Pre-cycle entails selecting items that are less packaged or those that can be reused. Reuse of old papers, plastic bags and cans, offering old clothes for charity as well as using a coffee mug rather than disposable cups is crucial. Reduce, refers to minimizing the household garbage through purchasing economy packs and avoiding wastage of papers. Recycling of plastics and papers, cardboards and even e-waste should be upheld (U. S. Department of Health, 2011).

Biodegradable garbage should be left to decompose in a composite pit while the rest should be placed in licensed landfills. To sum it all, backyard burning should be regulated in all countries particularly in the rural regions since it does not only pollute the air but also comprises a significant emission of toxic residue that poses a high risk to the public health and more so, decrease the quality of life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Garbage Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Burn barrels that facilitate incomplete combustion to emit very toxic compounds should be regulated. Therefore, licensed incinerators with filters and temperatures exceeding 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit to facilitate complete combustion, should be embraced to minimize hazardous emissions.

References Derraik, J. G. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), 842-852.

Hill, M. K. (2010). Understanding Environmental Pollution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). (2005). Backyard Burn Barrels Vs. Municipal Waste Combustors. Retrieved from

U. S. Department of Health. (2011). Does Burning Trash Make it Disappear: Stop Backyard Burning. Retrieved from

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2011). Outdoor Air – Industry, Business, and Home: Backyard Trash Burning – Additional Information. Retrieved from


Musical Usage of Ethos, Pathos and Logos Essay college essay help: college essay help

Aristotelian appeals: Ethos, Pathos and Logos Musicians use persuasions from ethos in order to confirm the truth of something or their characters. In contemporary society, people have moved out their families, and some parents have joined retirement homes.

Consequently, the idea of ethos has shifted from family to individuals’ material possessions, academic achievements among others. However, Aristotle shows that ethos does not emanate from personal appeal, but rather from the use of language. For instance, Thievery Corporation establishes ethos through their song, The Richest Man in Babylon by use of artistic language.

Thievery Corporation show a character of an upright fellow who stands to condemn the indifference of the richest man in Babylon. The song by the Clash, Know your rights, tries to confirm to people about their rights. The musician assertively says that the song is a public announcement. John Lennon condemns the suffering people go through right from birth to adult working life. Every new stage evolves into a new form of suffering.

There is a problem in expression of modern ethos. The outward appearance has virtually consumed the intellect and moral of individuals. The Richest Man in Babylon demonstrates the modern notion of ethos whereby people put much emphasis on their personal wealth and self than character. The material possessions consume the moral and character of an individual.

Aristotle’s tells people elements, which speakers use to inspire confidence in a character. A person of ethos must observe good sense, moral character, and goodwill. People who utter misleading information and advices do not have elements of a good character. The Clash gives people good advice about their rights because he has the three elements of a character. By telling people to know their rights, he is exhibiting goodwill to every person who has experienced discrimination in any form. Further, use of “I” establishes The Clash credibility.

Pathos captures the emotions of the listeners. Musicians establish reception for their ideas into listeners’ minds through the use of artistic language. John Lennon creates a sense of pity for the Working Class Hero. At the same time, he also condemns wrongs the Working Class Hero undergoes.

Aristotle shows how to establish various emotional appeals among the audience. The musician can fluctuate from anger, pain, pleasure to sense of calm. This is what John Lennon does through asserting that “Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all” and “Till you’re so fucking crazy you can’t follow their rules”. The Richest Man in Babylon appeals to listeners’ emotions through sense of virtue and vice, rich and poor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The song goes as “The wicked stench of exploitation” and “Beneath the praise and admiration” to highlight sense of vice behind wealth. He further appeals to listeners’ deepest emotions by the line “Your beggars sleep outside your doorway” and “Your servants have burned all their songs. Nobody here remembers freedom”. John Lennon balances between emotions as follows “But first you must learn how to smile as you kill”.

However, Aristotle warns musicians against playing with listeners’ emotions. This can ultimately corrupt the judgment of their listeners (Fabiola 20). Fabiola E. Saul is a Spanish writer who has authored books on pedagogical theory of education. This book provides a critical reflection of Aristotelian appeals of pathos, ethos and logos in studying human emotions, truth and credibility. This book is also available in Spanish language.

Musicians appeal to listeners through sense of logos. There is inductive logic, which involves a couple of examples and then generalization. Conversely, deductive logic is whereby the musicians give audience couple of general illustrations and then draw a specific conclusion. This is how musicians establish the new truth. The Clash urges people to know their rights by drawing a couple of example such as “You have the right not to be killed. You have the right to food money” and “You have the right to freeee speech”.

He then concludes that “Know your rights. These are your rights, all 3 of ’em”. Likewise, John Lennon gives a couple of frustrations the Working Class Hero undergoes, and he concludes that “Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all”. Thievery Corporations uses logos appeal to the Richest Man in Babylon through several examples then advices him as follows “Babylon this is your final day. Babylon this is your final call. Read the writing that’s on the wall”.

Musical composition: Lyrics, Tone, Rhythm, and Melody Musicians base songs on four most vital elements. These elements are crucial in establishing the essence of a musical composition. These four elements appeal to listeners in various ways and collectively make up a song.

In melody, musicians use successive lines of one tone to create unity in length and intensity. Melody contains a unit of meaning. For instance, John Lennon’s unit of meaning exists in “When they’ve tortured and scared you for twenty odd years”.

Melody also exists in the final part of the song e.g. “If you want to be a hero well just follow me”. We can also find melody at the climax of the song. For instance, in Thievery Corporation we have melody at “Babylon this is your final day. Babylon this is your final call. Read the writing that’s on the wall”.

We will write a custom Essay on Musical Usage of Ethos, Pathos and Logos specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rhythm is the flow in music. Rhythm entails timely flow in a song. For instance, in The Richest Man in Babylon we have rhythm at “There is no guidance in your kingdom” and “There is no wisdom to your freedom”. The Clash utilizes rhythm at “Investigation, humiliation, And if you cross your fingers rehabilitation”.

John Lennon uses it at “There’s room at the top they are telling you still. But first you must learn how to smile as you kill”. Lyrics go with the tone of the music. We know that not every song is slow nor is every song fast. The tones and lyrics of these songs are fast and cheerful to the listeners.

Works Cited Fabiola, Gavito. Pathos, Ethos and Logos: An Aristotelian Theory On Education. New York: John Wiley


California State Senate Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The California state senate is the higher house of the California State Legislature and it consists of 40 state senators who are restricted to serving two four- year terms. The state Legislature meeting takes place at the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The Lieutenant Governor, who was the President of the Senate is currently authorized to influence on the tied vote. The Presidents, Secretary of the Senate, and Senate Sergeant-at Arms manage the Senate and are elected at the start of each legislative session.

My State senator in is District 8 Leland Yee. He is an official representative of the western part of San Francisco and the biggest part of San Mateo County. Before he has become a state senator, he was a California State Assemblyman and Supervisor of San Francisco’s Sunset district. He has also been a member and President of San Francisco School Board. Yee was elected to be the first Temporal Speaker for African Americans and this is why he is considered to be the second most active Democrat in the California State Assembly.

Leland Yee has done a lot for the people of California and as a result, has been named Legislator of the Year by numerous organizations. Yee should be elected back to the senate. Some of his most recognizable contributions to the State include tireless fights for children, women and the elderly, improvement of education and health services, advocacy for an open government, consumer protection, and environmental protection (Cantrell, 2011). He has repeatedly voted against budget cuts to education, social services, and health care.

On matters relating to public safety, Yee has committed himself to not only protecting California’s most vulnerable, such as victims of human trafficking and domestic violence from oppression and discrimination, but also in enhancing public safety locally in the entire San Francisco. He passed a bill, SB 1356 that has been chaptered into the law which protects domestic violence survivors from the threat of confinement, when they refuse to testify against their abuser in court.

This fight has led him into receiving the Modern Day Abolition Award by the San Francisco Collaborative Against Human Trafficking, the Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Neighborhoods by the Coalition for San Francisco Neighborhoods and has been recognized as the Legislator of the Year by the California Partnership to End Domestic Violence. He is currently working on other bills that will be of help to the State, if he is re-elected, he will continue fighting for public safety and protection of the citizens.

Leland Yee has fought to reform public schools and public institutions of higher learning (Aoki


Nanotechnology Risk in NanoBatteries Report (Assessment) college essay help online

Table of Contents Hazard and Exposure Identification

Consumer Risks

Environmental Hazards

Occupational Risks

Risk Management

Works Cited

Nanotechnology involves the manufacture and the use of biological, chemical and physical systems at scales ranging from individual molecules or atoms which are about a hundred nanometers (Bowman


Ethical Problems for New Graduates Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

New graduates face different ethical dilemmas every time they join a new organization. Markkula Center of Applied Ethics offers dynamic insights regarding how new graduates should tackle different ethical dilemmas. Most of the advice given in the short videos recommends a scientific approach to handling ethical dilemmas.

For instance, the videos recommend that new graduates should always understand the background of the ethical dilemma in the organization and review if appropriate actions are normally taken in such situations or not. This is a scientific approach to handling ethical dilemmas. For instance, regarding the accounting dilemma, Markkula Center of Applied Ethics recommends that new graduates should investigate if errors of omission are normally committed in the organization.

Moreover, the interviewee (Hanson) explains that, employees should investigate if action is ordinarily taken in such situations. If it is established that there is a serious ethical problem, Hanson recommends that the problem should be escalated to superior authorities.

Based on a friend’s experience, it is normally difficult to escalate an ethical dilemma to a superior authority if an employee is still new to an organization. Often, new graduates have just secured new positions in organizations and ordinarily, their first preoccupation would not be to ask many questions regarding the ethical or unethical conduct of the organization but to get everyone to like them.

In extreme situations, most new employees would focus on securing their jobs and refrain from drawing too much attention to themselves by blowing the whistle on a colleague. Such scenarios are common for new graduates and Hanson’s advice of escalating ethical dilemmas to higher authorities fail to represent the real situation facing most new graduates in the organization.

The above approach of handling the accounting dilemma is also stressed in the ethical dilemma of gender discrimination. Hanson’s advice to women who think they are being discriminated against is defined by a background analysis of the ethical dilemma. He proposes that this background study is crucial to establish if there is substantial ground to assume an employee is being discriminated against (or not).

He points out that there are unique situations where an organization may treat an employee differently (such as when an employee is being prepared for an international assignment) and it is therefore important to refrain from unleashing the “gender” or “race” card (if a background study of the problem is not done). Hanson’s assessment is an intelligent but cautionary approach to handling gender-based ethical dilemmas because a colleague’s real-life experience shows that this approach is always the best.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, there was a case where a female employee confronted her supervisor for giving her fewer duties at work because she believed she was given fewer tasks because she was a woman. It turned out that it was the company’s procedure to give fewer duties to new staff until they got acquainted with the organization’s tasks. The female employee had to withdraw her complaint because she did not give herself enough time to learn how the organization operates.

Based on the above example, Hanson’s advice to new graduates is well informed Comprehensively, Markkula Center of Applied Ethics provides the right framework for handling ethical dilemmas but Hanson’s advice regarding first time ethical dilemmas is a little shallow. More sensitivity should therefore be given towards the “real” organizational environment facing new graduates (or employees who have just secured employment).

For instance, more focus should be made on how new graduates can solve ethical dilemmas without running the risk of losing their jobs or getting their employers in trouble. Such is the recommendation that applies to the accounting dilemma.


The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints Research Paper argumentative essay help

Introduction: The Deadly Breath of the War Among all controversial issues that the humankind conceal sin the folds of time, the history of was must be the most biased one. Caused by certain political issues and demanding enormous blood-shedding to satisfy its thirst for cruelty, war is the most despicable and disgusting invention of the humankind.

Nevertheless, a part and parcel of evolution, wars do occur even in the most advanced countries on a variety of premises, not to mention the clash of cultures and the resulting conflict that occurs as two countries of different stages of development are at war.

Because of the complexity of the political, economical and personal issues that mixed in the course of the notorious Vietnam War, the latter can be posed not only as a conflict between the two states, but as a conflict between the two cultures, political forces and the visions of the reality, both political and civil one, which requires thorough considerations.

Providing sufficient food for thoughts, the events of the Vietnam War are quite hard to analyze from the bird’s-eye view of the present days, yet offer an enticing material for exploration that allows to learn more about the political affairs of the USA, the motivations of the 1967-68 Congress and the President and make certain conclusions about the policy of the United States.

Analyzing the viewpoints of an ordinary soldier and a civil citizen who witnessed the Vietnam War, one can demonstrate the differences in the visions of the two and offer reasonable explanations for the phenomenon.

The Matter of Honor and Courage: In the Eye of a Soldier There can be no possible doubt that, to realize what the war is, one has to see the horrors and the destruction of the armed conflict with his/her own eyes, which the author of the book, Frederick Downs[1], demonstrates quite well. With the help of the most realistic descriptions and the vivid pictures of woes that soldiers had to take in the course of the battles, the author makes the people sink into the mind of the man with the gun.

It is quite important that the author portrays both the elements of the relatively calm and peaceful environment – if anything in the front line can be calm and peaceful – and invites the reader into the mind of his own – the place where ideas and morals are set loose, and the only wish that is left is taking the revenge on those who destroyed his life – not the vengeance inspired by raging fury, but the revenge of a cool-blooded mind, the man who knows what he is doing and why.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Showing the readers that war literally kills the remnants of humanity left within, Frederick portrays himself as a man motivated by the wish to kill: “The American strategy was to draw them into a fight so we could use our superior firepower to destroy them. To win a battle, we had to kill them. For them to win, all they had to do was survive.[2]”

On the battlefield Whenever Downs refers to the descriptions of the battles, he emphasizes that the fights that take place here are far from what the civils imagine as they hear the word “battle.” Making it clear that there is no room for compassion when the war is going on, Downs draws the line between a soldier and the people left in the rear. Whenever the author mentions civils, there is a slight tint of scorn in his words:

‘Not everyone doing the fighting is in the newspapers. You’ll never ever see a reporter up there. It’s too rough for them.’ He looked at my youth. ‘You’ll get a belly full of fighting up there, son, if that’s what you want.[3]’

Thus, the author clearly showed that the Vietnamese war, like any other one in the history of the universe did, split the nation into two parts, the still living one and the ones who have their life on credit. In the vision of a soldier who is partaking in the Vietnamese War, there is no yesterday or tomorrow, there is only the current moment, the blissful “now,” which means that the death is not here yet: “Chu Lai was a free-fire zone.

I was instructed to shoot at everything not American, ROK, or ARVN. The brutal war of the highlands had come to the flat farm ground of the South China Sea coast.[4]” When the war has broken out, there can be no compassion, otherwise, the soldier will go mad.

The political controversy Of all the issues concerning the Vietnamese War and the decisions undertaken by the government, the issue concerning the way the war went and the way the government wanted to portray it to an average citizen were strikingly different, which Downs does not hesitate to expose. At this point, the interception of the soldier’s life and the life of a civil citizen can be traced to point at the obvious diversities in the perception of the two and point at the main difference between a soldier and a civil.

It was obvious that the Congress was trying to lift the spirits of the country and not let people become depressed about the tragic event once again, which resulted the striking contrast of the attitudes towards the war in the front and in the rear. While the latter were perfectly sure that the situation is fully under control and that the victory is just around the corner, the soldiers were supposed not merely to observe the opposite, but to fight it with their efforts doubled.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perhaps, it is even not the cruelty of the tragedies that occurred in the course of the war, but the cool, emotionless reports of Downs that sends shivers down the reader’s spine: “Two women survived long enough to cross the bridge and enter one of the hootches. Three of my men crossed over the bridge and threw grenades in the hootches.[5]” It is worth mentioning, though, that the lead character is not portrayed as a machine for murdering enemies either.

Though the battles and the numerous deaths that he has seen made him coarse and emotionless, there is still the remaining of his old self, and he still feels pity when mentioning that the war is spreading like cancer all over the place: “Chu Lai was a free-fire zone. I was instructed to shoot at everything not American, ROK, or ARVN. The brutal war of the highlands had come to the flat farm ground of the South China Sea coast.[6]”

Serving on the home front: An average citizen’s position In contrast to the soldiers in the front, the people in the rear were under the delusion that the Vietnamese with their attempts at defeating the American troops are doomed to a failure. Considering the letters to the New York Times Editor, one can see the way the enemies were portrayed: “the intense and futile commitment in Vietnam is deepening the sense of resentment…[7]”

However, it must be taken into account that the New York Times editors were aiming rather at keeping people optimistic, forgetting what kind of road good intentions pave, depicting the Vietnamese patriotism as “not quite bright” instead of “rather dangerous.[8]”

Playing a game of chess However, it is essential to add that the vision of war that an average citizen had in the USA in 1967-68 was half-optimistic, half-frightened. Some journalists conveyed in their articles the ideas that there were instances of corruption and treachery in the USA Army[9], which dropped the rates of optimism among the citizen.

Still, compared to the miseries and injustice depicted by Downs, these were the minor issues that called to people’s patriotic feelings and the willingness to protect the country, while the soldiers were already deprived of any hope. Portraying Presidents “rejection of dissent on war,[10]” journalists made attempts to stir the public, yet they did not reveal what happened in the front.

Here is the newsflash Offering the citizens snatches of essential information, journalists contributed to the shaping of people’s idea of war. For most of the citizens, war was the gas used on crowd[11] and the short notes on the success of military actions. On the one hand, such inspiring ideas did contribute to the shaping of patriotic feeling.

On the other hand, people were unable to see that was going on in the front, which made people think of the war as of some faraway monster that will obviously be defeated. With his incredibly gloomy and truthful story, Downs bursts the bubbles of the public, yet he is unfortunately late.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion: Counting the Losses Hence, it can be concluded that Vietnam War was rather versatile issue in the distant 1967-68 for a civilian and a soldier, which can be explained by a number of reasons.

Due to the different settings and environment, the two could not envision the war any different way; serving on the home front and learning about the events on the battlefield from the newspaper articles and short reports that could not deliver the grief and pain, though journalists did attempt to[12], citizens could not conceive the terror and pain of being in the heat of the battle and, thus, considered the war as the event that will help to restore justice in the USA if only the army pulls itself together[13].

Meanwhile, soldiers were facing the terror and agony of pain, coming one step closer to peril every single say and narrowing the article of death with every step that they made.

Therefore, it can be claimed that Downs’s book served as an eye-opener for millions of people. Obviously, the two viewpoints considered above are diametrically opposite to each other, the vision of a civil citizen being mist optimistic, and the world of a soldier collapsing in front of him. However, comprising the two, one will be able to obtain the ultimate truth – the real story of what happened in the course of the Vietnam War, the painful experience that was inevitable yet almost unbearable for the two nations.

Reference List Carr, A. Z. (1967). Our Vietnam policy. New York Times, p. 46.

Downs, F. (2007). The killing zone: My life in Vietnam War. New York, NY: W. W. Norton