Table of Contents Abstract
List of Reference
Abstract Language is one of the defining factors that differentiate human beings from animals. The ability of human being to use clear structured words instead of random sound used by animals makes human being unique. However, it is interesting to know how the language came into existence. It is interesting to know how the language evolved.
While others believed that language is something that comes naturally with the words encoded in one’s genes, others have believed that language is an evolutionary process that has been in constant change over the years as new objects and new actions are being invented.
Professor Simon Kirby is one of the scientists who have had great interest in knowing the evolution of the language and understanding how it is influenced by people over the century. This professor used volunteers in a laboratory and created words for alien fruits. The first participant would be given the names of all the fruits, and after mastering the names, the participants would read out the name of the fruits once its picture is shown.
The next participant would be given the same fruits, but with the names given by the previous participant. This went one to the ninth person.
Professor Kirby notes that the language slowly changed from unstructured language that it was initially, to a clearly structured language with regularly parts to reflect the fruits’ colour and design. This demonstrated how this language evolved from a complex unstructured language, to a simple structured and easy to remember words.
Introduction Human being is considered superior amongst all other creatures on earth. This may be because of the mystery that man has created with the help of technology, or other achievements that man has made over animals.
However, Kirby (1999, p. 19) says that one of the leading factors that makes human beings unique is his ability to communicate using a clearly structured language. This scholar says that although animals have the capacity to make sounds, they lack the capacity to use language as human being does. Theirs is limited to sounds unique to the information they want to pass across.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is interesting to know how the language came into existence, and how it has evolved over the years. According to Huff (2009, p. 117), it is fascinating trying to understand how the language came into existence.
Some questions such as who were first people to use the language, what were the very first words, how did they come up with the words, how has this language evolved over generations, and much more are some of the questions that researchers have been trying to answer. Another fascinating fact about the language is the existence of numerous languages within a very small locality (Kirby
Frito-Lay Company: Cracker Jack Evaluation Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Problem Statement and Statement of Alternatives
Analysis of Alternatives
Executive Summary The Cracker Jack has been experiencing low customer identification and satisfaction. The product has been facing competition from other fast food products like baked Tostitos, Pringles potato chips, and Fritos corn chips. Even though Frito-Lay frequently ranks among the leading national advertisers of products in the US, Cracker Jack has not received wide market attention as compared to some of the above products.
A study on the consumption rate and popularity among the US citizens revealed that the product was widely unavailable in the stores. Notably, over 15% of Cracker Jack purchasers said that the product was unavailable in their local shops; as a result, they easily purchased other products instead (Kerin and Peterson 244).
Among the non-purchasers, over 30% of the population has never seen the advertisement of the product on the local media. Cracker Jack consumption rate was at 7.1% among the US households. Interestingly, the 7.1% households who use the snack locally consume less than one pound of the product per annum.
Customers had withdrawn from purchasing the product citing several reasons including the high price of the product. The price was too expensive to some households who also viewed the product as a not at all “better for you” snack. Clearly, the product had a negative reception among a certain group of consumers.
The company can invest in production of several Cracker Jack with different flavors and low market prices. In this dimension, Frito-Lay will employ product differentiation strategy that will make the product unique in the market. This strategy coupled with cost cutting mechanisms will see the customers identify with the product.
An analysis of the Direct Product Contribution Income Statement of 1993-1996 reveals that the company spent low on technical research. For instance, between 1993 and 1996, the company channeled only $1.3 million towards technical research (Kerin and Peterson 241). The dynamic market requires a dynamic marketing approach that will be able to understand the customers’ tastes and preferences.
Evidently, the weak environmental scanning techniques led to the low customers’ satisfaction. Currently, customers tend to develop different tastes for a product in order to be loyal to their producers. If Frito-Lay can produce Cracker Jack of different tastes at affordable prices and distribute them to the local shops in the US, customers will develop loyalty to the snacks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This occurs after the firm will have identified the nature of customers it is targeting with the products. Customer identification will assist the company to tailor the products towards satisfying the customers’ needs (“The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps” par. 4).
Problem Statement and Statement of Alternatives The Frito-Lay Company should be strategizing on how to use its limited resources on increasing Cracker Jack’s brand image in the present dynamic market in order to regain its lost share of the market. Markedly, in 1980, the company spent $6 million on advertisement; this initiative made the product enjoy huge market presence. However, after 1992, Frito-Lay has never conducted a national advertisement of the product.
The move led to decline in Cracker Jack dollar sales to 9% and unit volume decline to 11.2 million pounds in 1996. Therefore, the Cracker Jack brand needs a new sales and delivery strategy in order to grow in sales and profitability of the products.
In 1997, Cracker Jack Fat Free, Nutty Deluxe, and Butter Toffee exhibited below 50% level of customer awareness even though the Cracker Jack name enjoyed universal awareness (Kerin and Peterson 249). This discloses the problem Borden Foods was experiencing albeit trade promotions in the US.
Frito-Lay can counter this challenge using a robust inclusive strategy that competitors like International Home Foods, Inc. that produces the Crunch and Munch brand uses. Customers opted for other snacks like the Crunch and Munch and other seasonal brands, which were in almost all shopping outlets.
The Frito-Lay Company should apply some of the following alternatives to get hold of the market. First, the company should produce a good variety of flavors. Customers will have a variety of options to choose from in the event that their tastes and preferences for a given product go down.
Moreover, the company ought to design the product in a manner that it becomes a snack that people can share and eat at all time, but not at specific times like mornings and evenings.
We will write a custom Essay on Frito-Lay Company: Cracker Jack specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other alternative is to use cost leadership approach that the PepsiCo Beverage Company applies; it involves lowering the prices of various quantities of Cracker Jack in order to gain competitive advantage over its competitors (“How do you think about your marketing strategy and strategic pricing?” par. 5). According to brand-tracking studies, Cracker Jack tends to elicit memories of childhood hence not contemporary.
This feature has made it experience low consumption among the grown-ups. The company can adopt the Crunch and Munch style of associating itself with all age groups, especially matching the products’ qualities to the needs of the contemporary society.
In addition to ensuring the product’s availability in major local shopping outlets, the company should conduct a health campaign to convince consumers who view the product as unhealthy to change their perceptions. These approaches will make the product appeal to customers.
Analysis of Alternatives If the company can identify the needs of its customers and meet them successfully, it will be assured of uninterrupted high sales and profitability. For example, the production of different flavors will increase the number of consumers since people have different preferences. The Coca Cola Company is one of the companies that practice this approach in satisfying the needs of its customers.
For example, it has produced several brands of the coca cola drink, coke zero, and coke diet. Moreover, the company can adopt recent technological developments in ensuring that the brands have different flavors. Another innovative idea by Coca Cola is the introduction of the Coca Cola Free Style machine that assists consumers to mix and produce their own beverage of different flavors.
Therefore, Frito-Lay can borrow such ideas so that it positions itself appropriately in the market. In the technological aspect, the company can adopt the act of online shopping where customers can view the brands of the company, make an order for their desired products, and pay for them instantly on the internet (“How do you think about your marketing strategy and strategic pricing?” par. 7).
This will partially solve the issue of product availability in local shopping outlets.
Price reduction mechanisms require large-scale productions and supplies of Cracker Jack so that the company still makes profit. This idea involves selling of a packaged product at a low price to a similar quantity of the competitors’ product. PepsiCo practices this strategy in order to compete with Coca Cola. For instance, its 350ml Mirinda has the same market price as the 300ml Fanta of the Coca-Cola Company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Frito-Lay Company: Cracker Jack by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This strategy has assisted PepsiCo to remain relevant in the market that has a stiff competition from Coca-Cola. At the same time, Frito-Lay should not compromise on quality at the expense of price reduction as this may reduce its creativity in the market. Further, Frito-Lay can adopt product differentiation strategy.
Since there are several competitors that sell the ready-to-eat caramel popcorn category, this alternative will assist the firm to create differences on their products. This alternative involves producing unique products that are distinct from the competitors’ products. Customers will easily identify and differentiate the Frito-Lay brands of Cracker Jack from those of competitors.
The market performance of Cracker Jack has been wanting; therefore, Frito-Lay must change the perceptions of the customers towards the product. Frito-Lay’s great focus should be on the production techniques that Borden Foods has been using, as it has been the main producer of Cracker Jack brand.
Frito-Lay investment in advertisement can also enable it reclaim the dwindling market that Borden Foods was experiencing. From the case study, Crunch and Munch brand has been leading the category of ready-to-eat caramel popcorn snacks since 1993. Attempts by Frito-Lay Company to engage in mass advertisement of the product will cause positive impacts on its sales and profitability.
Products that enjoy wide market presence through advertisements tend to record high market share in terms of sales. For instance, in 1996, advertisement spending on Crunch and Munch was $4.44 billion while that of Cracker Jack was $188 million (Kerin and Peterson 232).
The recorded dollar sales during the same year were 32% and 19% for Crunch and Munch and Cracker Jack respectively. This shows that continuous advertisement of the brand will improve the sales.
Plan Development This plan is going to specify the marketing mix that Frito-Lay Company ought to use in order to regain the dwindled market confidence on Cracker Jack. Since marketing involves selling the right product, at the right price, to the right people or place and at the right time, Frito-Lay must adjust these parameters to record growth.
According to the simulation test of the market, there were dissatisfactions among purchasers and non-purchasers on the unavailability of Cracker Jack in their shopping outlets. In addition, some customers held that the product was not appealing while the other group said that the pricing was expensive.
A cost effective alternative that the company can use is the distribution of the product to shopping centers that are accessible to all customers. This alternative increases the market coverage. The company must identify the places where the potential customers do their shopping.
Even if this remains the main alternative, the other alternatives must also adhere to the market conditions. For instance, it will be wrong to stock extremely expensive Cracker Jack in all shopping centers that customers can access, yet they cannot afford them. The high price will be a distracter for marketing. Cracker Jack will experience high sales if it is included among other fast food products.
Since Borden Foods, which is the main competitor, uses supermarkets as delivery points, Frito-Lay should strive to differentiate the outlets by concentrating in areas like business parks, restaurants and big hotels. This is similar to product differentiation that involves doing things differently from the competitors’ way.
The physical outlets require a reliable and convenient distribution channels that will ensure continuity in supply thereby minimizing situations of product unavailability in the stores (“The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps” par. 2). Moreover, the company can adopt virtual locations like e-mails and e-market.
The uniqueness in the delivery system will attract and retain customers due to curiosity of testing the new channels. Frito-Lay ought to make a quick decision on marketing of the product before launching it in the market hence successfully positioning itself for the market offers.
Works Cited How do you think about your marketing strategy and strategic pricing?. Strategic Marketing Decisions. Strategic Marketing Decisions, n.d. Web.
Kerin, Roger A., and Robert A. Peterson. Strategic marketing problems: cases and comments. 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps. Mind Tools – Management Training, Leadership Training and Career Training. Mind Tools Ltd, n.d. Web.
BHP Waste Managements. Environmental Justice Case Study best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
PNG Government Action
The World Bank’s Intervention
Intervention from Local Organizations
Introduction The case study on Ok Tedi Mining Limited (OTML) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) presents an investment that has caused both positive and negative impacts on the society in which it operates. When such industries set up in a place, there are always obvious effects that occur to the natural environment, the local members of the society, the government and the sponsors.
For example, members of the surrounding community will be displaced to create room for the construction of the plant. On the other hand, the same plant can offer jobs to the locals thus acting as a source of income.
Evidently, any establishment that has benefits to a given group of people must also experience some shortcomings from other sectors. In PNG, OTML has directly employed over 1500 citizens of PNG and remains the only cost competitive producer of copper in PNG (Perspective and Links: Ok Tedi Mining Limited 2008).
However, the plant has caused adverse effects on the environment such that there have been proposals to close the plant by mid-2013. This idea has elicited debates between two groups of people – the proponents and opponents.
Others believe that the plant has caused major positive changes on the lives of PNG citizens and the PNG government in general. Different organizations have come up with different effects that the company has caused on the local village, the natural environment, and the entire management of OTML.
This essay analyzes the responses that the government of PNG, OTML, and other interested bodies has taken towards the on going debate of whether to close the plant or not. In connection to the responses, the essay will vividly discuss the effects of the plant on the environment, indigenous people of the village, the government, and many others.
PNG Government Action OTML believes that the construction and operations of the firm has affected close to 155 communities in the western province of PNG. Therefore, it has rolled out a compensation and development package plan for the affected communities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has been striving to balance between continuous operation to offer broad economic and social benefits to all stakeholders, and the continuous impact of the mine’s on the system of Fly River. These benefits have put many organizations and the OTML management at crossroads on the effect of closure to the local communities who were employed in the company.
The government of PNG, for instance, had to submit a World Bank Report on the effects of OTML on the environment, local communities, and the economy in a broad-spectrum (Perspective and Links: Ok Tedi Mining Limited 2008). In the meantime, the government vowed to take charge of the firm to terminate the idea of managing OTML funds in Singapore.
The fund management in Singapore occurred since the company has its legal registration in Singapore. The government has taken numerous steps towards protecting the environment of the western part of the country.
For example, in 2002, the government and BHP facilitated the formation of the PNG Sustainable Development Project (PNGSDP) to control the future destructions to the environment in order to make the environment sustainable to the present and future generations.
On the other aspect, OTML has been earning the country a significant amount of revenue as it represents 32% of the total exports. The company has also been using over 50% of its profits to invest on the people of Ok Tedi, PNG and western province in particular.
The closure of this company will directly affect the country’s returns. PNG will have to look for alternative means of recovering the funds from the mining industry and even finding the alternative means of absorbing the 2000 people who the firm directly employed (Perspective and Links: Ok Tedi Mining Limited 2008).
The government of PNG should take drastic steps to restore the state of Ok Tedi River and the Birim River that have been affected heavily by the effluents from the industry. The wastes from the mines have formed thick grey sludge on the Fly River System.
We will write a custom Case Study on BHP Waste Managements. Environmental Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Water contaminations have seen a massive decrease in the number of fish in the area. The navigation systems of the rivers have also been compromised; the mines that found their way into the river have raised the riverbed. Of major concern is the massive flooding that has washed away the forest covers, bananas, and taro plantations in the area.
The food crops are the main diet for the locals. It is on record that the government had earlier rejected the idea to complete building the dam that was to act as a reservoir for settling heavy metals. This negligence saw the rise in copper concentration in water above the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. The government has to launch an initiative that will involve the locals in planting trees in their residential places (Burton 2011).
This rehabilitation program should commence after the closure of the mining company. Even though it will take several years to clean the toxics in the environment, the government must ensure that the sustainability program continues under a stringent policy.
The case of OTML represents an example of environmental injustice on the locals. When the company was being built, the locals had to give up their lands to pave the way for the investment. This move led to the displacement of the local communities.
Notably, in PNG, all lands remain under the control of the central government; therefore, the ruling elites can displace the occupants at will. Later, the negative effects of the OTML had a direct impact on the same locals who had been displaced to other unproductive lands, yet the ruling elites became the major beneficiaries of the project (Burton 2011).
The government of PNG should also address the situation of inequality in sharing of resources. In this program, the local community should be given preference over other stakeholders. In addition, the government should devise an effective resettlement program; for instance, buying lands to resettle the displaced persons and even taking care of the changing market and replacement value.
Compensations should not be in terms of cash since low-income earners are unaccustomed to large influxes of cash. The government should also note that compensation only cannot re-establish the livelihoods of displaces as this have been witnessed in other resettlement programs like in Kiambere in Kenya, the Sardar Sarovar dam in India and Akosombo dam in Ghana (Wilmsen, Webber
Twelfth Century Renaissance: How Francis and his Franciscan Brothers both Reacted and Benefited from its Development Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Many areas of Western Europe, particularly Italy, Germany and England had greatly advanced in various areas by the beginning of 12th century AD. For instance, there were advances in social organization, technology, education and economic systems (Haskins 73). The need to acquire new knowledge and develop institutions of leaning was rapidly increasing, especially in religion, theology and nature.
Most people were eager to learn religion, natural science and law in a different way. In general, people were tired of traditions and wanted a change in social and cultural aspects. In addition, people were easily accepting and embracing new ideologies. For instance, Italian cities and city-states such as Florence and Rome were changing due to the presence of scholars in philosophy, law and religion (Haskins 88).
Any person who was willing to instil some change in the social system was in a position to influence large numbers of people. In fact, great leaders during the 12 century were supported by a public opinion. The desire for change motivated leaders to inspire their societies in a significant way (Benson, Constable and Lanham 53).
All these aspects and changes in leadership contributed to the 12th Century Renaissance. The emergence of great religious leaders at the time is perhaps one of the most important aspects of the renaissance (Moorman 28). However, the emergence of St Francis of Assisi was one of the main forces that opposed change in various regions.
Francis and his followers (Franciscan Brothers) created a religious movement that greatly supported the way in which the church handled social, religious and cultural issues. They were advocating for spiritual life. In addition, they advocated for the ‘role and duty of poverty’.
In turn, this stand appeared to support the doctrines of the Church. Arguably, Franciscans reacted negatively to the people’s quest for change in Catholic leadership. However, they later benefitted from the 12th century changes as they sought to free their movement from the church’s political and social influence.
Economic and Social Features of the “Twelfth-Century Renaissance” Changes in various aspects of Christianity had the greatest impact in the contribution towards social, cultural political forms. Barbara Tuchman, a historian argues that Christianity was a key pivot in medieval life “…because it governed all aspects of life such as birth, marriage, sex and death…” (Moorman 31).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The historian says that Christianity controlled the law, medicine, science, and politics (Benson, Constable and Lanham 64). In addition, Tuchman argues that being a member of the church was a compulsory for every person (Moorman 51).
Although the church was the dominant force that supported political and religious leaders, there were several efforts to change this system in the 12th century. For instance, the people were eager to see a church that was meant to care for them.
Thus, church leaders such as St. Bernard of Clairvaux became important figures of change during the 12th century because they were entirely dependent on public desire to change (Moorman 114). One of the areas that people wanted change was personal devotion to a common person, which had been a common aspect of the Catholic Church.
Apart from forced membership, the church also required the followers to regard the popes, monks and clerics as religious and righteous figures (Benson, Constable and Lanham 171). In fact, it appeared that these church leaders were “gods” in some way, which gave them political, social and cultural powers to control the society.
Similarly, political aspects of life were under the control of the church. Any person with ideas on how to liberate the society from the church’s monopolistic control received an overwhelming support from the public. For instance, King Henry II of England obtained massive support and political strength because he was willing to do what the people wanted (Haskins 133).
Apart from the religion, the concept of justice was in dire need for change. According Haskins (143), the Church controlled the concept of justice system because every aspect of the law was based on divine law. The world politics revolved around the church, which in turn controlled justice system.
The public was willing to change these aspects. It was during the 12th century Renaissance that the people of Western Europe, especially Italy, made great efforts in an attempt to free the judicial system from the divine law. For instance, Roman law was increasingly studied and revived. Gratian, a monk, became an important figure of change after he gave a summary of the laws of the church in his “Decretium Graiani”.
We will write a custom Essay on Twelfth Century Renaissance: How Francis and his Franciscan Brothers both Reacted and Benefited from its Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, the desire for knowledge was on the increase during the 12th century. Thousands of people from across the social classes sought to know more in science, religion and law. They wanted to learn these aspects free from the influence and control of the church. For instance, 12th century scholars joined Latin classes, attempted to analyze the Roman law and the Catholic doctrine.
In addition, scholars attempted to learn and analyze Muslim faith and laws, Greek laws and other texts in order to compare them with Catholic laws. For example, Peter Abelard made significant influence in education and law because he developed ideologies that attracted people.
How did the Franciscans react and benefit from the changes in the 12th century? Although the Franciscan brothers and their movement did not support the changes in the 12th century, they later benefitted from it in a manner that allowed them to spread their new ideologies, interact with the people and obtain support from both the public and the clerics (Senocak 192).
At first, Francis of Assisi himself reacted negatively to the changes the people wanted to see in the church, its leadership and control of social and political aspects (Sharp 126). For instance, with his group of about 11 followers, Francis travelled widely in Western Europe, where he preached the need to maintain the church traditions against the people’s desire for change.
For example, Francis preached in support of poverty among the Christians because he believed that Christians should devote their life (Senocak 136). He had a collection of scriptural passages from the bible and the church emphasizing on the duty of poverty. However, the Franciscan brothers did not provide a solution to problem created by superiority of clerics at the expense of the poor (Sharp 102).
Due to the ideologies that supported the church, the clerics, the pope and the monks to an extent that they were given food, housing facilities and other things (Sharp 96) supported the Franciscan brothers. For instance, Pope Innocent III considered the “Three Orders” developed by the Franciscans as a good tool for spreading his influence in order to deal with the 12th century religious renaissance (Senocak 224).
The pope thought that by supporting the Franciscans, he would persuade the people to maintain a status quo rather than calling for changes. In fact, the church considered the 12th century changes as a form of heresy.
Despite their support of the church and the status quo, the Franciscans later benefitted from the changes brought by the 12th century renaissance. For instance, the control of “the Order” became a problem to the Franciscans. At first, the Franciscans had received support from the church, which gave them certain political and religious powers in certain areas such as France and Germany (Senocak 216).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Twelfth Century Renaissance: How Francis and his Franciscan Brothers both Reacted and Benefited from its Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, several followers disagreed on the role and duty of poverty. There were disagreements on how Franciscans should live and lead the church. In addition, Elias, one of the most powerful Franciscan leaders, assumed the powers to govern a centralised government in Assisi. He sought to re-interpret the role of poverty (Sharp 56). He built several houses for the members.
He was in constant disagreement with the Pope and Italian President Gregory IX. Eias was deposed and replaced by Alberta of Pisa (Sharp 29). Due to the influence of the Pope and the government in Franciscan leadership, it was clear that the Franciscans needed to advocate for change in church leadership in order to maintain their influence (Sharp 34).
Members increasingly saw the need to change the church and reduce its control on the politics and their movement. Since the 12th century Renaissance had succeeded in reducing the influence of the church on social, political and economic aspects of the society, the Franciscans benefitted from these changes in their efforts to reduce the influence of the Pope and the church in their movement.
Works Cited Benson, Robert, Giles Constable, and Carol Lanham. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006. Print
Haskins, Charles. The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007. Print.
Moorman, Humpidge. A History of the Franciscan Order: From Its Origins to the Year 1517. London: Franciscan Institute Publications, 2008. Print
Senocak, Neslihan. The Poor and the Perfect: The Rise of Learning in the Franciscan Order, 1209–1310. Cornell: Cornell University Press, 2012. Print
Sharp, David. Franciscan Philosophy at Oxford in the Thirteenth Century. London: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print
Critically assess the extent to which HPWP relies on the intensification of work Essay writing essay help
Introduction The high performance work practices abbreviated as HPWP denotes an all-purpose managerial representation encompassing several aspects. However, the description of High Performance Work Practices meadow proves to engage some involvedness. HPWP has conquered the modernization of human resource management.
In fact, studies conducted in the past fifteen years relating to the nature of high performance work practices and their implications on organizational performance have investigated various aspects of human resource (Bacon
Questions For Secondary Source Analysis #1 (Please Choose Only One Article from those listed below, all are in the course Essay essay help
Questions For Secondary Source Analysis #1 (Please Choose Only One Article from those listed below, all are in the course pack) Kathleen Brown’s The Anxious World of the Slaveowning Patriarch (Section 1, p.37) Philip Morgan’s The Effects of Paternalism Among Whites and Blacks (Section 2, p. 73) Sylvia Frey’s The Impact of African American Resistance During the War (Section 3, p. 91) Edmund Morgan’s Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox (Section 4, p. 116) Based on your reading of one of the four above articles (all are in the course pack), answer the following questions in detail, save as a .doc or .pdf, and place submit by the due date. ANALYZING A SECONDARY SOURCE 1. Who is this author and what are his/her credentials? (you may have to do a little research here) 2. Who are the key people in this article? 3. What are the key events? 4. What are the key subjects? 5. Is this article based on primary sources or other secondary sources? 6. Name one primary source the historian uses. 7. What is the main argument or thesis? 8. How does the writer build her/his argument? 9. How would you critique or question this argument?
Game Theory Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Cooperative game theory
Non -cooperative game theory
Normal Form Game
Extensive Form Game
Introduction Game theory incorporates a recognized study of disagreements and partnerships. Game theory has diverse concepts that are applicable to the activities of numerous means, which are interdependent. The negotiators might encompass of individuals, groups, governments, or an amalgamation of these. The game theory procedure offers a language to develop, assemble, analyze, and comprehend strategic situations (Myerson 5).
Game theory takes place from the daily activities that people undertake such as problem mapping. The activity of matching problems such as whether a student should sublet his or her room on campus for other benefits connotes generates a conflict. The theory emanates from the notion that decision-making entails conflicts and cooperation (Myerson 5). The game forms the subject of study in the theory.
Cooperative game theory Cooperative game theory incorporates a high-level reference that identifies only the gains each group or alliance obtains when its adherents work in solidarity. However, the game does not describe the procedure employed to create the alliance. For example, the voting systems in politics sometimes require coalition development (Myerson 217).
The voting takes place without an explanation on the negotiations conducted behind the scenes. Cooperative game theory explores the coalition creation deals based on the level of power held by different partners. Furthermore, cooperative theory elucidates sharing of gains generated from such deals.
Nash suggested a method to share gains realized from coalition making processes (Myerson 96). He suggested a bargaining strategy founded on the strengths of the individual parties making the coalition.
Non -cooperative game theory Non – cooperative game theory deals with the categorization of strategic choices. The theory operates on the precincts that details of the arrangements and the timing of the release of choices plays a role in determining the ending. Nash suggested that an ideal bargaining strategy would indicate a particular procedure that predetermines how and when the actors in the game can make their offers (Myerson 92).
Normal Form Game The normal form signifies a simple type of game that employs a strategic method. The approach requires actors to provide their tactics and the possible effects that can emerge singly or through incorporation of diverse sets. The distinct payoff every actor gets connotes the results (Myerson 189). The payoff signifies a number. The term utility connotes the number. Utility helps in defining how much the participant prefers the result.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Extensive Form Game The extensive form has more details than the normal form does. The extensive form is a comprehensive explanation of how actors can play the game in an extended period (Tadelis 129). The game has guidelines that entail the criteria players follow as they engage in the process. The rule also characterizes the extent of information actors can hold as they participate in the process.
Furthermore, the rule stipulates the times when uncertainties associated with the game are determined (Tadelis 129). Applicable direct approaches help in the scrutiny of competitions in extensive forms. Transformation of negotiations in extensive forms into corresponding premeditated forms also facilitates the scrutiny.
Nash Equilibrium The concept has a more general approach. The equilibrium makes recommendations on appropriate strategies to different players. The payers do not have the powers to change the strategies on their own (Tadelis 145). It is notable that antagonist adheres with the provided recommendations.
The rationality approach applies in this theory. The equilibrium also emerges through the expectations that all players are rational (Tadelis 145). Therefore, Nash equilibrium suggests that every player can expect their competitors to adhere to the recommendations.
Works Cited Myerson, Roger B. Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2013. Print.
Tadelis, Steven. Game Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2013. Print.
Athens Put Socrates and Philosophy on Trial Essay best college essay help
Introduction Philosophy is an ancient field of study that entails systematic study of knowledge, nature, existence, reality, mind, and reason through logical and rational arguments. Philosophers use logical and rational arguments when explaining their perception of life and their existence. For centuries, humans have been accumulating knowledge about their existence in a bid to understand the nature of life.
In Athens, Socrates was the most prominent philosopher who examined the lives of Athenians and found that they were groping in the darkness of ignorance since they did not understand their existence. Thus, Socrates argued that ‘unexamined life is not worth living’ after observing the how the Athenians lived.
As he tried to enlighten the people, Athenians leaders observed that Socrates was spoiling the minds of the youths, and thus guilty of using his philosophies inappropriately. Hence, this essay argues that Athenian leaders put Socrates and his philosophy on trial, for they did not like to examine and assess their lives using philosophy.
Unexamined Life Socrates was an Athenian philosopher who made a significant contribution to the development of the Western philosophy. Although Socrates was one of the wisest men in Athens, he considered himself as ignorant. He argued that gaining wisdom only begins when one understands own ignorance as it forms the basis of knowledge.
During his life, Socrates observed that Athenians lived miserable lives since they could not understand the essence of life. Thus, Socrates decided to examine the lives of the Athenians and teach the youths on how to attain better lives as he envisioned.
According to Socrates, ‘unexamined life is not worth living’ because people are groping in the dark, and thus unable to attain real meaning of life or live worthy lives. Therefore, Socrates talked to Athenians while examining their lives and teaching youths on how to gain wisdom and live worthy lives.
Socrates used the Allegory of the Cave to describe how Athenians are groping in the darkness without hope of attaining real meaning of life. In the allegory, Socrates argues that Athenians are seeing illusions in life and taking them as reality, just as prisoners in the cave assumed that shadows are real people walking across the wall.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The prisoners in the cave have accustomed to the shadows until they could not differentiate reality and illusions. In this view, Socrates asserts that philosophers like him are among people who have come out of the cave and are able to differentiate reality and illusions. Hence, the work of Socrates was to enlighten the Athenians so that they can transform their understanding of life from cave illusions to the reality in the world.
Although Socrates tried to enlighten the youths, Athenian leaders had a different perception. The Athenian leaders perceived that Socrates was spoiling the minds of the youths with philosophical doctrines that are against laws and regulations of the Athenian empire. In essence, what Socrates did was to examine the lives of the Athenians in a bid to enhance their understanding of life and resolution of issues affecting their lives.
Despite Socrates’ important role in enlightening the youth, the Athenian leaders charged Socrates and dismissed his philosophy as destructive. In response, Socrates protested that the jury did set the penalty very high that he could not afford to pay, and thus putting him and his philosophy on trial. Despite his plea and protest, the jury still sentenced Socrates to death.
In the course of examining the lives of the Athenians, Socrates also questioned the existence of the piety. Socrates analyzed Euthyphro concept and asserted that the gods love pious things and hate impious things. In his argument about piety, Socrates came up with the Euthyphro dilemma since he wondered whether the gods loves pious things or the gods make things pious by loving them.
Socrates believed that things are pious on their own and independent of the gods. Hence, piety is an inherent attribute of things and not gods. The Euthyphro dilemma attracted massive criticisms from Athenians because it touched on a sensitive matter about the Athenian gods and their deity roles.
If god cannot make anything pious, it means they have no ability to transform the lives of people from impiety to piety. Such dilemma made the Athenians charge Socrates for introducing new doctrines that are against their gods. Hence, Athenians accused Socrates of introducing foreign gods while relegating Athenian gods.
Conclusion Socrates was a noble philosopher who examined the lives of the Athenians and realized that they were ignorant about life. According his assessment, Socrates argued that ‘unexamined life is not worth living’ because people grope while searching for the real meaning of life.
We will write a custom Essay on Athens Put Socrates and Philosophy on Trial specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the fact that Socrates examined the lives of youths and taught them, Athenian leaders accused him of corrupting their minds while introducing foreign gods. Eventually, the jury sentenced Socrates to death for alleged destructive teachings and impious philosophy. Thus, the Athenians put Socrates and his philosophy on trial when they sentenced him to death and rejected his philosophy as destructive.
European Airline Analysis Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Airline industry in Europe has been in operation for a long period, and its market has continued to increase over time due to air traffic demand. The industry expanded to include destinations in most parts of Europe. The industry has various airline subsidiaries, and operates with other subsidiaries not from the airline business.
It has operations in the insurance business, airline catering business, and maintenance of aircrafts among other business operations. The industry is owned by the government and private investors, which is inclusive of Deutsche Bank and Deutsche Post bank. It also partners with other airlines in other countries such as JetBlue in the U.S., Air India, Air Malta and Luxair among other partners in this business. It also operates a range of aircrafts including Boeing 707, 720 and Airbus A300 among others.
This industry provides airline services within Europe to all class members, which are first class, business class and economy class with proper airbuses used for all these groups of people (Lufthansa, 2013). The trend has changed in the recent past due to insecurity which is caused by terrorist attacks in most cases.
Market structure The airline industry has ultimate control over air transportation hindering other players to join the industry. It comprises of all passengers who use air transportation either scheduled or chartered, but does not include air freight transport. The International flights have the largest market share in the industry that accounts for 68.9% of the total volume.
Germany accounts for 14% while UK has 12%. People from Canada and the United States are considered as trans-border passengers, and they are treated as international passengers. The revenue derived from European airline is classified either from the Western Europe or the Eastern Europe.
The industry stabilizes its market share on the medium and short hauls routes, which coupled with their excellent products, have made it possible to meet their customers’ demands. Included in the vision is also group and leading edge technology, which enables the companies in the industry to improve their opportunities in the competitive market.
The firms in the industry are able to communicate their intentions to stakeholders and the customers. All the policies and procedures that govern air transportation are formulated and implemented by bodies set by the industry hence they have oligopoly influence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Supply and demand condition There has been a decline in the airline market. The cost of airline continues to increase following insecurity thus the demand for the services goes on the decline due to the impact of price on demand. The issue of insecurity following frequent attacks from the terrorists has also been in the front line in reducing airline services demand.
Different European regions deal with air security in different ways. For example, in the U.S., the homeland security continues to request high budget for the purpose of dealing with aviation security issues. France, Italy, Germany, Spain, and the UK are among the busiest states in Europe, but they are also faced by the challenge of insecurity, thus reduction in demand.
Technology The continent has put a great effort in increasing technology, which is not only involved in flight operation, but also checking explosive machines that can be dangerous to airports and the passengers. The planes are advanced, having sensors and alarming signs that can be interpreted by security personnel in case of any explosives detected. There are plans to institute highly advanced technology.
For example, in 2011, body scanning machines were installed in many aviation checkpoints. The first is the use of hardened cockpit while the other is the use of federal air Marshall. Others include intelligence, task force against terrorism, crew vetting, travel document checker, customs protection, border protection, checked baggage and canines, bomb appraisal officers, random employee screening among others.
There are three main advanced methods of improving security. These are federal air Marshall, hardened doors at the cockpit and passenger resistance. Federal air Marshal is not very important in the first section because this outweighs the benefits. However, hardened doors have more benefits over the costs while other measures like vigilant intelligence, passport control and airport screening are likely to increase security.
Government regulation The government incurs some fees on behalf of individuals. In addition, the homeland security department still investigates how airlines are in compliance with efficiency and fiscal discipline. However, this does not mean that they are exemplified from paying security fees. A look at how security fees might be expensive in America is explained by the constant activities that take place for security purposes.
For example, when an aircraft loses its radio control while on air, security jets must be flown to escort the airline to its destination. This is very costly since jet fuel is expensive for the period the airbus remains in the air. In addition, incidences of unruly passengers also add to the coat of aviation security.
We will write a custom Essay on European Airline Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aviation officers have agreed that customers are the ones that pay for these extra security requirements to ensure that they act responsibly while in the airport and avoid issues that can cause alarm being mistaken for a terrorist attack. It is the duty of the governing body or the government to distribute the funds rose for risk reduction purposes in an equitable and consistent manner with the main goal of achieving the best outcome.
There is no common law that has been founded to deal with costs related to the security breach. In some European regions, there are new laws on aviation security that are in the process of development. This implies that it is very likely that the costs of security in aviation and hence the costs of air fare might increase with time. This means that travel will be more expensive for the consumers.
For example, reports on air tickets from Brussels International Airport and other airports in the Belgium and outside the country show that air tickets have risen because of the doubling of security charges since 2001. Studies show that the air charges have risen about 7 times in the past five years in this airport. A proposal had been raised by the European commission in September 2005 that was meant to regulate aviation security.
However, the debate is under the European parliament’s Transport Committee. The main aim of this proposal is to clarify and simplify European rules on air security (Lufthansa, 2010). However, there is no current solution to the current problem facing the funding of air security.
Future condition The management has been developing some plans that would result in improvement of the industry in the future. There are plans to improve airport security, which is the greatest threat to the industry. This team is working together with the government to ensure that right measures are put in place to reduce terrorism and other threats that are posing a danger to the passengers and airline employees.
They have a budget for advanced technology that is essential in running and carrying out security operations. This management team is planning to work together with the government to ensure that the interests of the industry are catered for without exploiting the passengers.
It is expected that the industry profitability is going to be restored due to the following improvements in technological, managerial, government policies that can encourage more customers to use airlines without feeling that they are being exploited or are spending extra money when they use airlines.
Macroeconomic factors European airline industry contributes to several macroeconomic factors, which include employment, gross domestic product, producer price index, and interest rates. The high and escalating prices on fuel, the shortage that was caused by Hurricane Katrina, and terrorist bombing had a great impact on macro and micro economics resulting in a ripple effect that was felt for quite some time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on European Airline Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Increase in the airline services reduces the disposable income for the passengers using these services thus having an impact on Gross Domestic Product. The increased prices result in reduced demand because of the law of demand and supply. This affects producer price index. Low demand can cause some employing to be redundant hence unemployment is created.
Organizing and investing resources Cost leader
Global competition results from the availability of similar companies in the market that offers similar products. Companies try to market their products and services to secure a better market share to increase profitability. The management has to ensure that they formulate the best policies that will facilitate production of quality products that are competitive in the market at reasonable production cost.
This is achieved by managing all the resources, acquiring raw materials from reliable supplies, ensuring employees’ satisfaction, and setting rules and regulations that can help the company to achieve the set goals. The management’s decision plays a key role in ensuring that the running of the company maintains the set standards and the available resources are maximally utilized.
The company has set rules and regulations that govern it. These regulations ensure that the relationship between the employees and customers are observed and maintained. Severe disciplinary action is taken to any employee who breaks these rules. When these rules are implemented, an organization gains competitive advantage.
A cost leadership strategy is essential in investing and utilizing resources. Cost management plan is based on advertising where price acts as the main marketing instrument. The cost leader must ensure that the company offers its services at the lowest cost than any other player in the industry. Cost manager must ensure costs are reduced in marketing and non-marketing functions.
Cost management is applied where a business has a wide market share enabling it to reduce costs due to employment of economies of scale. Cost leader must be aggressive in constructing efficient scale facilities, tight cost and overhead control, apply cost reduction techniques acquired through experience and minimize general cost incurred in marketing.
Differential strategies are measures taken to ensure that the products and services are unique and can be easily differentiated from those of competitors. Differential strategy involves having products in a peculiar form, brand name, technology, and other details that help customers to identify the product. The aim of differential strategy is to create customer franchise as a result of brand royalty.
The differentiator can increase margin and avoid competing at low cost section of the market (Flamholtz
Greening of Hotels. Concept Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Greening is a calculated effort by hoteliers to engage in environmentally friendly and energy saving actions. Going green is a global phenomenon. Many organizations are making sustained efforts towards this. In the hotel industry, stakeholders are engaged in a mental and attitude paradigm shift to engage the goodwill of its customers in helping it go green.
Some of the efforts include reusing some of the hotel products such as linens, minimal lighting in hotel rooms, minimal usage of water, reduction of food wastages through ordering ‘just enough’, among others.
All these have a cost reducing effect and enable the hoteliers to participate in the noble practice to save the planet. This paper will discuss the concept of Greening Hotels, its effect on the various stakeholders including the customers, the significance of this concept, what the future holds for the development and growth of this noble concept in other industries and within this industry (Buildings, 2012).
Origin of Greening of Hotels Environmentalists coined the term Global Warming over two decades ago. In that time and beyond, there has been in-depth research dedicated towards establishing the effect of global warming on the planet. Global warming according to experts will continuously and gradually erode the ‘naturalness’ in the world and bring with it catastrophic consequences (Top Canadian, 2012).
About two decades ago, a nonprofit organization was established in the United States to foster a self-regulation in terms of consumption of resources in the hotel industry particularly (Top Canadian, 2012). These resources did not necessarily have the direct effect of reducing costs.
However, the self-regulation by all stakeholders involved would go a long way in reducing wastages and hence curtailing a growing trend in the depletion of the scarce naturally found resources (Buildings, 2012).
Green Hotels Association’s aim was to bring together major hoteliers in the world in a common agenda. The association established some of the most contentious facets of day-today hotel operations that touched on resource probity. Green Hotels Association came up with a Catalog of Environmental Products for the Lodging Industry that enumerated some of the best ways to have a sustainable way of using resources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This association was the pioneer institution to instill environmental sense in the hotel industry (Top Canadian, 2012). Others that came later formed their basis of operation on the foundation of Green Hotels Association. They include the Four Seasons’ 10 Million Trees Initiative, Hotel Carbon Measurement Initiative among others (Top Canadian, 2012).
Most of these initiatives are organized and managed by members. The members environmental good will ambassadors who also find it important to jump into the bandwagon of environmental conservation (Singer, 2012).
Examples of Practices of Greening Greening of Hotels is an all round initiative whose noble aim is to ensure that the naturally found resources are preserved and conserved for future usage. Although greening may appear as a fashion charade by hoteliers and others, it is an effort towards saving the planet and the players need to take it seriously. The following are some of the ways in which greening is been applied to the hotel industry (Singer, 2012).
The hotels have made a sustained effort to urge its guests to embrace the concept of reusing some of the materials in the hotel. These include linens, towels, and sheets. This way the cost involved in replacing these materials is reduced radically. Although this is not forced, the hoteliers have developed a way in which they let the customers inform them if they are okay non-replacements on particular days.
The performance of the hotel industry is very difficult to measure and define because it is a fragmented and dynamic economic sector in the world. Travel, change of place, and voyages help to instill vigor to people’s minds and thus enable them to be more effective, reliable, healthy, and economically productive. Besides bringing delight to people, tourism activities generate revenue to major stakeholders in the industry.
Most of the exotic tourist centers charge fees for visits, accommodation, food, refreshments, and recreational activities undertaken by tourists. As a noble occupation and an industry of private and public interests, revenue generated from tourism continues to be a key contributor to economic development of most global economies.
Domestic and international tourism boost economic efficiency, socio-cultural equity, environmental conservation, and development. In addition, it leads to creation of national and international reputation, environmental conservation, safety, and equity in society, and encourage economic development of complementary industries such as recreation and hospitality (Buildings, 2012).
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In this area, unnecessary costs may also be meted. In an effort to ensure that they have value for money, customers engage in frantic spending. This spills down the path of misuse and may be deemed unnecessary at times. Hoteliers having realized this and in an effort to salvage the environment and cut costs have continuously instilled upon the clients to practice probity.
This includes using the necessary amounts of water and ensuring all water taps are closed. The other area is ensuring that customers do not waste food by ordering the correct amounts (Top Canadian, 2012). Saving also extends to electricity usage.
In this area, hoteliers have made efforts to install energy saving bulbs. In the same breadth, hoteliers have instructed their visitors to turn off unnecessary lighting while visiting their premises. This culture has gone a long way to ensure that energy is saved (Top Canadian, 2012).
Shift towards Green Products
The hotel industry is quickly shifting towards perceivably or factually green products. For instance, hotels are shifting towards using cleaning detergents with non-toxic ingredients and thus environmentally friendly. The water and laundry machines are been replaced with models that save detergents and water at the same time.
Third, the hoteliers are affecting the psychology of visitors by providing them with walking maps and bicycle riding route maps. This way, visitors feel the urge to walk and do not consume fuel and the potential of releasing hazardous fumes to the environment is hugely curtailed (Pittaway, Carmouche
The biggest estate on earth: How aborigines made Australia Report college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The book, The biggest estate on earth: How aborigines made Australia, discuses the effects of white settlement in the Australian continent. It discusses the history of the Aboriginal Australians and the way they lived before colonization. The Aboriginal Australians of the late 1700s were hunters who relied on hunting and gathering for sustain their living.
They also practiced farming and used fire, while hunting for wild animals. Fire attracted the animals making it easy for people to hunt the prey down. Gammage (2012) argues that the first Australians to practice farming did so by developing a system which ensured there was adequate water and food throughout the year.
In his article “The First Farmers” published in Brisbane Times, Tony Stephens agrees with Gammage’s view on the history of the Indigenous Australians. In his review, Stephens illustrates what Gammage wrote about the European invasion and how it changed Australia. The Europeans came and took over the land of the Aboriginal people and even adopted their methods of farming.
Review According to Tony Stephens who reviewed the book by Gammage, the author’s aim was to inform the readers about the lifestyles of the Aboriginal Australians before the white settlers arrived. He focused on showing how wise and organised they were. They were even able to use fire to hunt animals, and this proves that they were able people (Gammage, 2012).
The activities practiced in the pre-colonial Australia show the vast knowledge that the Aboriginal Australians had. They designed and created land systems which ensured that there was enough supply of food and water. Gammage recognised the scale of the work they had done for land management as well as their skills and knowledge which they has applied to achieve their goals.
Aboriginal Australians’ land management practice enabled the European settlers to start farming in the continent. This shows that the Indigenous Australians were skilful and powerful enough to be able to influence the Europeans who considered the local population to be uncivilised.
Stephens acknowledges Gammage’s aims and his achievements. The Aborigines were knowledgeable enough to use fire for their benefit and prevent the happenings of fire which may kill a lot of animals and destroy everything on its way. They also grew foods, such as yams, millet and different fruits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gammage tried to bring up the fact that the colonialists structures tampered with land management of the Aboriginal Australians who were more knowledgeable than they were perceived to be. They valued their environment and took care of everything that was in it. Stephens (2011, p.3) particularly cites Gammage saying, ”The more carefully they (Aboriginal people) made the land, the more likely settlers were to take it”.
The Europeans justified their right to colonise the Indigenous Australians because they thought European civilisation was more progressive and developed than the Aboriginal Australians were, and thus Europeans felt their superiority.
The aborigines even knew the kind of environment needed for every animal. For instance, they knew that bees lived in dessert black wood and kangaroos preferred short grass (Stephens, 2011, p.2). This knowledge helped them in hunting animals which they used as food and for other purposes. They also knew the areas where plants thrive well. This knowledge enabled them to have sufficient food throughout the year.
The book provides valuable pieces of information about the Aborigines and their way of life. According to Blanley, “aborigines made Australia what it is by their extensive knowledge of fire and ecology” (2011, p.11). The Aborigines knew their environment quite well and knew how important it was to take care of.
Fire was used to hunt animals. They created patterns that attracted animals such as gazelles, making it easy for them to catch the prey. It was also used as a hiding place for hunters. The Aborigines ensured supply of food through their farming systems (Whitehouse, 2012, p.213).
Gammage considered various works from different perspectives for his book. He used writings of historians such as James Cook and Abel Tasman. These historians had widely written on the history of the Aborigines and therefore provided a rich source of information. He also examined works of art and drawings such as those by Lycett that show what Australia was before being invaded by the Europeans.
In his book, Gammege extensively considered ecological information which was left by the aborigines which was also important in his work (Blanley, 2011, p.15). Gammage was a renowned historian who had credible knowledge and information about the Aborigines and their ways of pre-colonial live.
We will write a custom Report on The biggest estate on earth: How aborigines made Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gammage’s book gives the reader a different opinion on the relationship between Aborigines and land. He makes it clear that the Aborigines were knowledgeable people. The book indicates that their knowledge was more developed, but unfortunately, it was not recognised by the Europeans. The Europeans viewed the Aborigines as people who were only meant to hunt and gather.
Gammage shows how Europeans affected the Australian’s development and how their activities affected land and animals. It is important to note that the Aborigines practiced kinds of farming which enabled them to have food and water throughout the year (Whitehouse, 2012).
Conclusion The Australian Aborigines were very intelligent and knowledgeable about their environment. Before the invasions of the European settlers, they hunted wild animals using fire. They also had their farms, grew crops such as yams and millet and reared animals. The Europeans claimed that the Aborigines were disorganised and did not know land management.
Gammage, after an intensive research, presents to the reader that the Aborigines were very knowledgeable. He even intrigues that the direction the smoke followed in Lycett’s painting indicated that the Aborigines were careful to make sure that fire did not follow the direction of the forest.
It is important to note therefore that the coming of the Europeans did not contribute much to the Aborigines kind of lives as they had already adapted to theirs.
Europeans thought that Aborigines did not know anything and defined civilization as living the way they lived. The Aborigines strived to make their country better than it was. They did not need the Europeans to improve their country because they were able to do it with their knowledge and expertise.
References Blanley, G 2011, Masters of the Blaze. Web.
Gammage, B 2012, The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines Made Australia. Allen
Policy Analysis Report on Improvement in the coordination of services in the health sector Analytical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Healthcare services are essential services that require proper coordination and improved systems of operation that are set under innovative ideals. This is because the services are instrumental in enhancing individuals’ wellness and physical stability that promotes their productivity levels.
The services also ensure the development of healthy societies through effective mitigation of severe diseases that majorly affect individuals’ health status. Indeed, there is increased need to improve the quality of healthcare services in most settings by adopting innovative and proper coordination of activities.
This is essential in curbing the spread of various diseases such as malaria, cancer, tuberculosis and asthma. This can be achieved through effective administration of preventive and curative interventions to patients that have not been undertaken effectively due to poor coordination of activities.
Therefore, this report is relevant since it adopts improvement in the coordination of healthcare services in Australia as a conventional and innovative technique of advancing quality of Medicare to patients. The innovation is regarded as the lifeblood of economic and social integration in most nations, including Australia. This is evident since it defines the level of productivity that a nation can record over certain time.
Relevance and what instigates the development of the innovation
Clearly, inferior healthcare programs and poor coordination of activities have been impeding service delivery in the health sector. This has led to high rate of death due to ineffective response to patient issues and poor coordination of their treatment.
This is evident since most hospitals operate under inferior operating plans, deployment of resources and coordination of various activities that include drug procurement and systematic provision of therapeutic assistance to patients. The noted gaps that threaten to compromise the quality of medical services in health institutions have prompted the need for the adoption of an innovative system of operation.
Notably, the innovative technology that proves promising in steering service delivery in the health sector as identified by professionals’ remains the improvement in the coordination of activities (Allison 1997: 133).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, authorities and health officials are under obligation to improve coordination of activities in hospitals as an innovative technique to provide quality medical solutions to counter health issues in various nations. Due to this, this report’s main aim is to equip key stakeholders in the health sector with pertinent information pertaining to the significance of effective coordination of activities in hospitals (Allison 1997: 134).
Recent innovation in the health sector
Effective coordination of activities and support systems is central in any institution that aspires to record good performance. Coordination is a performance tool that ensures proper alignment of activities with the aim of meeting clients’ expectations. In hospitals, coordination is regarded as the lifeblood that sustains operations and delivery of quality medical assistance to patients’ in real-time (Paul and Robert 2007: 2).
Without coordination that entails sharing of information, formulation of policies and deployment of medical staff, patients cannot receive the best assistance. Therefore, the recent innovation that aims at improving coordination of activities in the health sector is essentially pertinent. It is bound to facilitate proper eradication or mitigation of various complications that have been ailing service delivery in the health sector.
The innovative concept focuses on laying down proper mechanisms of service delivery that are unique and conventional in nature. In particular, it seeks to enhance communication between departments, staff members and patients by creating an effective organizational structure. The structure will help in ensuring that there is a proper understanding between stakeholders.
It will create an effective channel through which information is to flow (Paul and Robert 2007: 5). This is vital since quality healthcare is dependent on the information that is conveyed by patients and medical officials pertaining to what one is ailing from and treatment procedures, respectively. Effective coordination of activities will also facilitate proper allocation of resources and management of cash flows.
It will also facilitate the development of proper procurement procedures of medical equipment. This is vital since procuring various medical equipments requires stakeholder input to aid acquisition of right equipments (Karima 2013: 168). Indeed, improving coordination of services in the health sector is a viable innovation that holds the capacity to enhance quality inpatient management.
This is evident since it provides a flexible framework of operation that relies on methodological approaches in delivering outstanding medical interventions. It is also meant to improve health outcomes apart from promoting the execution of effective intervention measures (Edward 2006: 95).
We will write a custom Essay on Policy Analysis Report on Improvement in the coordination of services in the health sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Innovative healthcare initiatives undertaken in Australia and the role of authorities
As noted, authorities in Australia have laid down viable strategies for enhancing quality service delivery in the health sector. The modalities that are being adopted, such as the improvement of coordination of services are set with a mission to build a healthy nation to steer development goals.
This is significant since no nation can achieve its objectives, including the millennium goals if its citizens are ailing (Edward 2006: 95). For that reason, authorities and health officials in Australia noted with great concern that the first step in achieving both economic and social goals is to improve healthcare systems.
They emphasize the need to adopt new systems of operations, purchasing of modern medical equipment and hiring of qualified medical personnel. They also cited the need for the improvement of coordination between stakeholders in the health sector as an innovative strategy. Despite the relevance of these initiatives, they cannot be achieved without proper coordination and understanding between key stakeholders.
This has prompted the need for health centers to improve coordination of services between departments. This entails sharing of patient data between critical departments that are involved in patient treatment such as registry, diagnostic and drug distribution departments (Karima 2013: 168).
It is an innovative approach that holds the capacity of facilitating timely response to patients. It will also ensure that patients are well taken care of since coordination guarantees effective patient administration.
Coordination of healthcare services, its characteristics, the logic for its introduction, its contribution to policy development and links between the service development, social and political change
Imperatively, the introduction of effective coordination of services is an innovative approach that remains critical in most settings. The initiative is considered as a viable and innovative approach since it seeks to revolutionize how activities are executed in the health sector, especially in Australia.
This is evident since it seeks to provide necessary incentives that will facilitate quality service delivery in the medical sector (Joyce and Wallace 2006: 59). Firstly, it is bound to enhance information flow between health stakeholders.
It is also set to improve the management of health institutions in Australia that has been facing immense coordination challenges. This will promote effective establishment of the available competence and limitations that can impede service delivery thereby, prompting the development of credible solutions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Policy Analysis Report on Improvement in the coordination of services in the health sector by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thirdly, the approach will steer the introduction and use of modern communication equipment that are efficient in coordinating activities. This will ensure that healthcare services are properly managed and that modern best practices are upheld. Rationally, effective coordination of healthcare services requires holistic and inter-sectoral collaborative approach.
It requires participation of key stakeholders who understand the challenges that affect the provision of quality Medicare services (Joyce and Wallace 2006: 68). This is vital in developing patient-oriented coordinating mechanisms that are economically viable and socially acceptable. The mechanisms must be financially sustainable and socially pertinent to cater for the interest of every stakeholder.
The approach is essential in the realization of this initiative since it holds the capacity of promoting the advancement of common health activities that are based on shared values or interests (Karima 2013: 168). It is also bound to promote collective policy formulation on issues that appertains to healthcare services in Australia.
This is a major step towards revolutionizing healthcare service delivery in Australia, where policy formulation on key issues has been facing various impediments due to poor coordination (Paul and Robert 2007: 2). Further, the concept is set with aim of promoting joint planning and collective delivery of services to patients in hospitals.
Conclusion Indeed, effective coordination of healthcare services is essential in ensuring the provision of quality, affordable and timely nursing care to patients. It holds the capacity of enhancing individual’s performance levels since it promotes the development of viable mitigating measures to various detrimental diseases that affect individuals.
The initiative also helps in building proper collaborative healthcare coordinating mechanisms. The mechanisms aid policy formulation, planning and exchange of doctors between nations.
Reference List Allison, B. (1997), Sustainable Health Care Financing in Southern Africa: Papers from an Edi Health Policy Seminar Held in Johannesburg, South Africa, June 1996, Washington, D.C: World Bank.
Edward, P. (2006), Organisational Development in Healthcare: Approaches, Innovations, Achievements, Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical.
Joyce, F. and Wallace, M. (2006), Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. New York: Springer Pub.
Karima, S. (2013), The Health Sector in Ghana: A Comprehensive Assessment.,Washington, D.C: World Bank.
Paul, B. and Robert. G. (2007), Bringing User Experience to Healthcare Improvement: The Concepts, Methods and Practices of Experience-Based Design, Oxford: Radcliffe Pub.
Parlement of Paris under Louis XV Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
The period of the reign of Louis XV is characterised by the significant public, judges, and parlements’ opposition to the monarch’s government and to the proposed policies and laws. The opposition can be explained from several perspectives. Thus, the judges did not consider the regent and Louis XV as powerful leaders because their economic and political reforms ended as the great losses for the country.
Furthermore, the role of the judges in the state was restored during the reign of the regent, but the fact only complicated the situation, making the opposition more obvious.
From this point, the opposition against the reign of Louis XV and the associated policies was based on discussing the monarch’s reign as weak with references to the unsuccessful financial policies and to many ineffective diplomatic decisions with references to the results of the European wars.
The government of Louis XV implemented two ineffective financial policies which made the country’s economics stagnate, and they even led to the decline of definite industries. Moreover, during a long period of time, the French economy depended on inadequate taxation policy.
The first attempt to improve the financial situation within the country was associated with the implementation of John Law’s experiment which ended with the significant inflation.
The next attempt to change the approaches to the country’s finances was the focus on the fiscal policies. The policy was implemented after the Seven Years War and provoked worsening of the economic situation with references to the newly increased taxation (Swann 1995). The opposition was inevitable.
One more reason for developing the opposition is the inability of the government to propose the effective strategy and policy to contribute to the country’s reputation and progress. The participation of France in the Seven Years War did not add to the country’s reputation or status, but it weakened the potential and all the country’s resources, leading to the economic and social instability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the situation was not improved because the judges, as the main opposition force, questioned the authority of the monarch and his decision (Swann 1995). Thus, they did not support any reforms proposed to gain the economic and political balance within the country.
However, it is also possible to assume that the opposition was significantly based on the ideological wars which were typical for France during the whole period of the monarch’s reign. The status of Unigenitus was one of the most controversial questions associated with the ideological and religious lives of the country.
Thus, the role of opposition against the government of Louis XV can be discussed with references to the activities of the Jansenist representatives and to the fact of the Jesuits expulsion in 1764 (Linton 1995; Swann 1995). Nevertheless, the ideological wars had less significant effects on the further development of the country in comparison with the financial and diplomatic failures.
Thus, much opposition to the government of Louis XV depends on the general weakness of strategies and policies used by the regent and monarch in order to rule the country. In spite of several years of stability achieved by the monarch’s ministers, the reign of Louis XV is characterised by the loss of the country’s international reputation and internal power.
The end of the monarch’s reign is also associated with the opposition movement which became the real challenge for authority and led to the dramatic changes in the country’s politics.
References Linton, M 1995, ‘The rhetoric of virtue and the parlements, 1770-1775’, French History, vol. 9 no. 1, pp. 180-201.
Swann, J 1995, Politics and the Parlement of Paris under Louis XV, 1754-1774, Cambridge University Press, USA.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Parlement of Paris under Louis XV specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Globalisation and the Future of Islam-West Relations Term Paper cheap essay help
The relationship between the Western world and the Islamic world is a complicated matter which has raised many questions allover the world. These bloody relations have been characterised by consistent confrontations that have existed between the two sides for many centuries.
Muslims, who appears to be on the receiving end of these confrontations, have always viewed this as a one-sided onslaught by the Western world, probably owing to their culture and religion.
The other possible reason which has contributed toward these Islam-Western confrontations is the Muslim perception that the main reason as to why Western countries would invade their territories was to plunder their rich resources and take full control of their markets. However, the issue of this tense Islam-West relationship being an insoluble problem is a far-fetched issue.
This is because there is a big contrast in the way the two repelling sides treat each other. For instance, while the attitude of the Westerners toward the Muslim societies appears to be more positive, Muslims have viewed Westerners as their biggest antagonists in life, and have always defined them with negative characteristics.
In other terms, Muslim societies have always felt more embittered toward the Western world than vice versa, where the Islamic followers seem to blame the West for the bloody relations between them. This is owing to the US foreign policy which appears to punish Islam, and also for their decision to consistently support the UK and other allied dictators from the Western region against the Muslims.
Despite the constant wars against Muslims, which seems to take many forms, there have also been plans and negotiations all over the world to establish a permanent solution to this progressive issue.
Moreover, the rapid wave of globalisation taking place in the current world has promised to change many things including the bad relations that have existed between some countries and communities. In this regard, Islam-west relations are likely to improve in the near future as a result of globalisation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Globalisation, as we all know, involves bringing nations and communities together using processes which are likely to promote global exchanges of important aspects of life. Globalisation involves removing existing barriers to pave way for harmonisation among people of different ethnic groups, religions and culture.
As a matter of fact, protests against Islam are taking place in various forms in the West. An example is the insulting form of resistance which the people of Islamic culture have to put up with in some Western countries, due to hatred and discrimination.
Most of these discrimination cases are said to be common in work places, learning institutions and shopping zones, among other places of common interest where people are likely to meet (Blankenhorn 59). Even though there have never been serious cases of Muslim discrimination from Western governments, Islam followers have always associated Westerners with all sorts of negativity.
One of the major concerns that have been expressed by the Muslims against the Western world is that, the latter has been hostile towards them. This, however, has been one of the many issues that have necessitated repression of the Arabs by the Western world.
Apart from the several reasons that have been expressed earlier on, these anti-Muslim attacks have also been necessitated by the Western belief that some Muslims societies have been supporting terrorism and other acts of violence happening the world today.
These sentiments of enmity against the Muslims have occurred following the belief that Muslim followers have constantly being involved in major terrorist attacks around the world.
This antagonistic way of life between the Muslims and the West has led to devastating issues and events that would necessitate bloody relations between the two sides. In fact, the world has not forgotten the implications of the recent US disarmament war on Iraq – a devastating exercise which has left the Muslim world almost torn apart into pieces.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Globalisation and the Future of Islam-West Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After many years marked by wars and riots over speculated weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East, most people in the world are still convinced that the relationship between Muslims and the West is generally worse these days than before. Even though past attempts to unite the two sides have proved futile, there is optimism that the future holds much hope for the Islam-Western relations.
This is possible, considering the current aspects of globalisation which have continued to play a significant role in bringing further interdependence of cultural and economic activities in the world (Center 87).
As it would be observed, globalisation offers a promising basis upon which the current Western-Islam state of affairs can be addressed and resolved collectively. For instance, the current aspects of globalisation have made it easier for peaceful negotiations aimed at uniting the two sides to be conducted.
As mentioned earlier, globalisation involves the destruction of old habits and adoption of new styles in aspects of social life, politics and the economy, among other things. These changes are likely to occur as a result of current advancements in technology, which appears to be taking place so fast across the world.
As it would be observed, the rampant technological wave allover the world is characterised by significant developments and advances in transport and telecommunications infrastructure. As Lyons observe, the use of engaging aspects of interaction such as the internet have played a key role in enhancing communication by increasing the flow of information among people allover the world (102).
What is interesting about these improvements however is that, they have opened up important avenues through which the international communities can take part in healing the wounds, simply by posting ideas that could help improve the Muslims’ relationship with the Western world.
It should be observed here that, these improvements have made human improved human interactions in the world, compared to the past where effective interaction and communication would be a serious challenge.
One important aspect of these interactions is that they have helped in establishing and strengthening cross-cultural contacts among people allover the world. More importantly, these developments have widely been used to spread democratic ideas which are aimed at resolving the progressive conflicts existing between the Muslims and the Westerners, thus enhancing social benefits between the two sides.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalisation and the Future of Islam-West Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though both the Western and the Muslim worlds appears to have a common agreement in the perception that the Muslim societies should be more economically stable than they are today, there are also varied reactions from the two sides against each.
According to Hunter, while the Westerners have expressed concerns that Muslims have consistently resisted their policies and plans to help them get rid of the harsh economic challenges facing them, Muslim publics have dismissed these claims, blaming the West for their lack of prosperity with their so-called policies (24).
In other terms, majority of the Muslim societies have remained adamant in the perception that Western policies are the major cause of the vast economic challenges observed in their region nowadays.
On the contrary, majorities of the Western nations such as the U.S., France and the UK have constantly argued that Muslims are in fact the ones to blame here, presumably owing to the corrupt nature of their governments and the inadequate levels of education observed in many Muslim nations. In real sense, this is arguably the highest level of misunderstanding which can occur between any two countries or communities.
This actually is where the idea of globalisation comes in. It is time for the two repelling sides to have more in common than they do differ, and there is no way this can be achieved, except by adopting and embracing the aspects of globalisation which are likely to speed up global interconnection.
One effective approach here is for both Muslims and the West to make good use of the interactive platforms offered by globalisation to convince one another of their best plans and opinions towards each other. This will not only enhance understanding between the two regions, but it will also give way for improved relations between them.
As a matter of fact, globalisation also involves the process of increasing interdependence of production, commodity marketing, financial markets and national economies among other keys aspects of development. Naturally, the concept of globalisation plays a key role in drawing attention to technological and economical aspects of life (Mayall 244).
In this regard, globalisation remains a key factor when it comes to building and strengthening international relations between communities and people of different cultural identities. The idea of globalisation has proved to be effective in facilitating the ability of Muslim societies and the Western world to converge into economical and political grounds.
This continued integration and active participation through social matters in the light of globalisation are likely to generate new thoughts, especially positive ones, thus helping in eradicating the negative perceptions that have existed between the West and the Muslims.
More importantly, these varied interactions on economical grounds have also added up to establish a new order of relations by which the two regions are likely to become united through the activities of transnational business.
As it is observed in this paper, the idea of globalisation and its positive aspects in life are likely to play a significant role in determining Western-Muslim relations in the near future.
Tension between the two powers, which appears to have heightened in the last one decade or so are likely to lessen in today’s turbulent world, where matters of international affairs and relationships have been prioritised as key issues that must be given much concern and attention.
As the West and the Muslim societies adapt to the changing demands and interests of the international community, they are able to discover new lessons through different levels of interactions. These interactions, as observed in this paper, are some of the vast ways through which the concept of globalisation applies in linking cultures and international relations.
No matter all the formidable obstacles and challenges, the relationship between the Muslim world and the Western world is likely to take a different course in the near future, owing to the current aspects of globalisation.
Works Cited Blankenhorn, David. The Islam/West Debate: Documents from a Global Debate on Terrorism, US Policy, and the Middle East, Lanham: Rowman
Amusing Ourselves to Death Thesis Synthesis Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The author talks about the effects of the media on the population, particularly political and economic life. People are fed with varying information regarding what happens in government. Before the advent of the television, people relied on the newspapers and articles for information, but this changed with time when people were forced to depend on the television for critical information.
With time, the mass media has taken over because it relays information faster and more accurate as compared to the television. The author observes that the electronic media, such as the internet, cell phones, and DVDs, determine the type of information that people listen to in the modern society.
The book is a prophetic in nature since it predicts that human life, particularly in terms of politics, would be reduced to the level of entertainment. The author is saddened by the fact that religion is losing meaning in the modern society since the mass media controls it. According to his view, the mass media should be manipulated to serve the interests of the majority in society.
The mass media should not be allowed to control human life since it has negative influence, particularly on children and the youth. Many people consume according to the media adverts meaning that the new trend affects even the health of individuals.
Human beings have the highest goals that can only be attained when the media is channeled to serve their interests. The main point of the author is that the media affects human life negatively hence it should be redesigned to serve human needs.
The book is divided into two major parts with part one having five sections while the second part has six sections. The most important section in the first part is the section talking about the media as an epistemology. This means that political information in the modern society relies on the social media.
Any political debate or discourse with an aim of attaining its aims must focus on capturing the attention of the electorate in the social media. In the third section, the author underscores the fact that the American society is just one of the modern societies that the social media has taken over its communication activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fourth section of part observes further that the mind is programmed in a way that would just respond to information in the social media. People trust information in the social media as compared to any other source. The second part of the book examines number of instances that the social media has influenced politics in the United States.
From Postman’s analysis, it can be concluded that the social media is the new way of reaching out to the electorate since most of them are available there. This shows that politics have developed over several years to be what it is today. Before the social media, the author noted that the mass media was the commonly used technique in reaching out to the electorate.
Postman’s dream suggesting that the media should be used to serve human interests is being fulfilled since it is creating mass awareness. Politics is regarding its position in society since the media serves its interests, but not the other way round. It should also be noted that the social media has had tremendous effects on social life as compared to the television.
Role of the Press in Civil Rights Synthesis Essay a level english language essay help
Two veteran journalists come together to investigate the role played by the media during the Civil Rights era. Hank Klibanoff and Gene Roberts are both seasoned award winning journalists whose familiarity with south side journalism proves valuable in “The Race Beat”. The two journalists have done a tremendous job in arranging the history of the press activities over the Civil Rights era.
“The Race Beat” covers several aspects concerning the history of the black press. This history dates as far back as the nineteenth century. This paper proves that although the black press started the push for Civil Rights in the south, the integration of the nation’s press turned the tables on segregation.
“The Race Beat” outlines the progress of media coverage in the South. At the beginning of the book, the authors paint a picture of a zealous black press agitating for equality. During these early times, it was customary to expect a story about racial inequality to be emphasized only by the black media. Any Civil Rights stories by the rest of the media came as a surprise to the general population.
After this initial push by dedicated African American newsmen, the southern editors entered the arena. Most of these southerners were composed of liberal newspaper and magazine editors. The bravery and energy exhibited by some of these editors served as motivation for most southern reporters. According to the authors, the south was soon flocked by national news reporters and photographers.
The book’s climax has the nation’s attention tuned to events surrounding the Civil Rights. For instance, the book details an event in which Robert Schakne a CBS reporter forced the crowd to give a synthetic reaction just so he could film it. This event shows that the demand for Civil Rights stories was at an all time high.
The interest in Civil Rights coverage was mostly fueled by increased national demand for segregation related stories. An example of such a story includes the trial for the murder of Emmett Till. This trial was covered extensively by the national media.
The turning point in the press coverage of the Civil Rights is most likely the division among southern editors. At the beginning, most southern editors were contented with observing events from far away. However, at one point in the book the southern editors started taking Civil Rights issues more personally. For instance, some editors from the south started calling for mass resistance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the editors from the south were forming partnerships with segregationists. These behaviors were countered by the fearless acts of other southern editors who were sympathetic of the Civil Rights Movement. The push and pull between southern editors acted as the invitation to the national media.
Eventually, the voice of the segregationists was becoming overwhelmed by the presence of national media. The presence of the national media proved to be a major advantage for the Civil Rights Movement.
The competition factor between national media acted as the final push against Civil Rights. At one point, reporters from all parts of the country were fighting for opportunities to portray injustices.
The authors give an overview of the situation in Little Rock School where reporters from all parts of the country had gathered. This fanaticism eventually turned into real compassion. The book indicates that without realizing it the reporters’ hearts were already won over by the Civil Rights Movement.
Social Media Marketing Plan Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Monitoring
Key Performance Indicators (KIPs)
Return on Investment
Monitoring In social media, monitoring refers to the method of tracking, measuring and evaluating the marketing activities of a company’s on the social platform. From the definition, monitoring has various components as discussed under tracking, measuring, evaluating and tools used for monitoring on the social media (Barker, Barker, Bormann,
Relationship between Capitalism and a Logically Formal Rational Legal System Analytical Essay essay help online: essay help online
The seminal work of Max Weber has largely been used to provide and elaborate the law and its role in the development of capitalism. All rational forms of law are considered with special consideration of Weber’s input towards the understanding of the rationality of law. Weber contended that the dynamics of markets that are largely regulated by capitalism need to apply the rule of law.
The degree of calculability and legal rationality has been a pivot point in the growth of a formal and effective administration of justice. The relationship between growth of capitalism and the rule of law has been known to exist for many decades now (Hennis, 1983). The rule of law in such instances assumes a different character that is dependent on the stage of capitalism.
The form of capitalism structures established cannot work without relying on an established rule of law. The emergence of capitalism owes a great deal to law. The structure of capitalism depends on many other aspects of law. According to Weber, the said structures are put together by established legal institutions that have regulatory authority.
Weber designed his propositions by showing that legal institutions form and help in explaining the different phases of capitalism. In the wording of Weber, the relationship between capitalism and law has been used to emphasize the legal rationality (Hennis, 1983). This essay will explain and critically analyse the relation that Weber sought to draw between capitalism and a logically formal, rational legal system.
To be able to comprehend Weber’s philosophy, it is crucial to look into the economic activities that were taking place in Europe among other regions of the world. Most societies have taken law as the main governing tool. The discussion of law by Weber has taken many forms, but it is clear that his works have a lawyer, as well as a historian perspective (Milovanovic, 1989).
With capitalism being greatly associated with Europe, it consequently emerges that many legal systems in Europe are part and parcel of capitalism. It should be noted that even though the law has helped in the development of capitalism, the development has made several influences. The uniqueness of the capitalistic legal system squarely lies on the internal needs of the legal profession.
There has been massive speculation on the place of law in development of capitalism. Weber and other 19th century scholars observed that law had a major role to play in industrial civilization. They made strides in identifying the social role of the law. Since law existed before industrialization, the connection between law and modernization has been continuously probed (Levine, 1981)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weber’s interests in the law and legal life have offered fundamental information to modern theorists. However, his work has been said, by some, to be full of suggestive conclusions and not easy to follow at all. In other words, his work has been considered hard to base thoughts on, either on social or legal perspective.
The defence against the foregoing statement is that Weber’s work has obviously been misused and misinterpreted in many occasions. Theories have been developed based on Weber’s insight in law, society and economy (Löwith, 1982).
To explain further, Weber provided a full explanation on industrial capitalism and why it arose in the West. His theories went beyond the personal understanding of the law. He introduced the foundations of how the bourgeoisie capitalism started. His works were a complete sociological and historical research that had various dimensions of societies and the respective structures.
Weber attempted to explain the role of religion, economy and law in understanding structures of given societies. His theory was mainly centred on showing how the said structures do not exist alone, but in full coordination with others (Bendix, 1977).
Weber sought to offer a comprehensive explanation on why some of the events preceding capitalism were happening in Europe and not in other parts of the world. The role of the law in the growth of capitalism could go unnoticed. Weber made many theories out of it, with full explanation of the European law.
It was Weber’s contention that the European law had several favourable features that offered a favourable ground for capitalism to thrive (Kalberg, 1980). The European law played a crucial role above the other legal systems in other jurisdiction.
This has been a guiding explanation on why capitalism originated from Europe. Weber clearly illustrated the importance of the European law features towards economic development using the general sociological theory.
We will write a custom Essay on Relationship between Capitalism and a Logically Formal Rational Legal System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Weber was quick to point out that it was not the western world alone that had legal systems. The broad understanding of the systems of different countries helped him in placing them in their distinct ways in which they shaped the society. Worth noting is the fact that he found those legal systems distinct and endeavoured to make the distinctions very clear.
His development of typologies that showed how the European law was distinct from other legal systems was highly allowed. His historical analysis of the European law aided in showing that the differences had a specific origin.
In addition, Weber used the parallel theoretical analysis that European law fitted the needs of capitalism more than other systems. His conclusions on the legal systems are drawn basing on the fact that all civilizations had a specific feature in their legal system that made capitalism possible (Feldman, 1991).
Weber’s belief in the European society dynamics and its legal society were not as a result of an economic situation. He consistently rejected the thought that capitalism interfered with the European law. He was quick to point out that the law existed before capitalism, thus it was only law that could influence capitalism and not the other way round.
Weber observed that the growth of the European legal systems has been through non economic factors. He cited the internal needs of the legal profession to be main factor that led to the advanced legal system in Europe. The economic factors in the bourgeois class seemed important, but they had no role in providing a determinative role in the particular legal systems in different parts of Europe (Lash
Employee Compensation. Human Resource Management Report writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Types of compensation
Determinants of pay rates
Benefits of comprehensive benefit plans
Introduction Employee compensation is a sub-division of human resource that encompasses automatic or guaranteed pay, variable pay, equity-based compensation, and benefits. Compensation involves tangible and intangible products that employers award their workers (Reh par. 1). Employers pay employees for their contributions within the business enterprise to enticing them to continue working for the firm.
Types of compensation Under guaranteed pay, there is the basic salary that is a fixed reward, which employers give their employees. This monetary reward can be on a daily, weekly, monthly, or hourly basis. On the other hand, variable pay is the rewards that employees receive due to their performance within the firm. Notably, it is not obligatory that an employee will get this pay like the guaranteed pay.
For example, an employer can set goals for all employees and whoever surpasses the target receives a bonus for the hard work. Employers usually use variable pay plans such as bonuses to motivate the employees towards attaining the strategic objectives and goals of the company. Benefits in employee compensation are always set up to address specific needs, which are not in monetary form (Reh par. 3).
Vacations and insurance are some of the essential plans that handle employee benefits, as they do are not tangible like wages and salary. Lastly, equity-based compensation involves compensating employees using their shares in the firm; they have to commit part of their earnings on shares of the firm.
Here, employers use different channels like stock options, restricted stock, and employee stock purchase plans to obtain funds for the company, which the employees will earn inform of dividends. In this plan, employees partially gain the stake in the organization thus enabling employees to increase their total level of compensation through cashing out of the stock options.
Determinants of pay rates There are factors that determine the compensation pay rates among different countries. The first parameter is individual skills and level of experience that workers command towards their jobs. Some jobs require skilled personnel; for instance, only a computer programmer will perform the computer programming activities and not any other employee who has done other course like business administration.
Again, some jobs like packaging of products in a company do not require specialized skills. These groups of people will receive different compensations in appreciation of skills and experience. In addition, demand and supply of labour affects determines the salary rates. If the supply of certain skills is higher than the market demand, the earning for these skills will go down.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, if the market demands a scarce skill, it will force organizations to adjust their compensation plans upwards to get and maintain the few skilled personnel in their departments. Clearly, the market forces of demand and supply affect the prevailing pay that jobs will attract. The profitability or the pay-ability of an organization also determines the wage and salary levels (“Factors Involved in Determining Salary” par. 6).
Organizations that run at a loss or obtain low profits will design low pay for their employees across their departments. This is practically evident during the economic recession of 2008 to 2009 where most firms had to use wage cuts as a means of survival during the economic crisis. Again, non-profit making organizations such as educational institutions tend to offer low salaries due to their non-profit making nature.
Moreover, the cost of living can be a determinant of salary and wage rates in companies worldwide. Countries that experience high cost of living will have to pay higher wages to their employees than those that experience low cost of living (“Factors Involved in Determining Salary” par. 3).
For example, an employee who expects to relocate from Texarkana to Honolulu will have to receive $87,880- if he/she is earning $40,000 in Texarkana in order to remain at the initial standard of living. This shows over 100% difference in earnings. Obviously, business organizations in Honolulu will have to pay high wages due to the high living standard in the region.
Some firms do commit to pay their workers above the expected standards so that they can attract and maintain the skilled personnel. This is evident in organizations that desire to control the entire market and influence them to consume their products.
Additionally, labour unions can influence the rate of pay for employees; they can engage the management of their organizations through collective bargaining to ensure that employees receive favourable earnings.
Benefits of comprehensive benefit plans When engaging in job designs, employers always try to provide the various job categories with a comprehensive benefit plans. The current global and competitive market has made it necessary for the HRM to be more creative and innovative in their management than before.
We will write a custom Report on Employee Compensation. Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further, the present diverse working generations such as baby boomers, generation X and Y have posed immense challenges to managers in designing an inclusive benefit plans. Organizations that have a comprehensive benefit plan will be able to recruit and retain qualified personnel across all generations.
This increases productivity of the firm as the job assures employees of their security at the workplace (“Compensation
Apple Incorporated Analysis Essay (Article) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Currently, Apple Incorporated is one of the most reputable companies in the world. The company was formerly known as Apple Computer Incorporated. Apple is a multi-national corporation with its headquarters in the United States. The company’s centre of operation is in Cupertino, California. Apple Incorporated dropped the word computer from its title in 2007.
This was after the company decided to shift from extensive computer-manufacture to the manufacture of other consumer-oriented electronics. Apple is only second to Samsung when it comes to manufacturers of information-technology gadgets.
Apple is third after Samsung and Nokia among global mobile phone manufacturers. At the beginning of 2013, Apple was worth over $400 billion. In addition, the company has over seventy-two thousand permanent employees around the world. Apple’s annual revenue for the year 2012 was one hundred and fifty six billion dollars (Apple’s Annual Report, 2012).
Apple is an information-technology based company that undertakes the manufacture of both software and hardware products. However, the company is synonymous with hardware products such as the Mac computers, iPhones tablets, and the iPods (Linzmayer, 2009).
The company also manufactures software products such as operating systems and browsers. Apple’s most popular software innovations include the iTunes, the OS X, iLife, and iWork.
Apple Incorporated is the brainchild of three information technology experts namely Steve Jobs, Ronald Wayne, and Steve Wozniak. The three men formed Apple in 1976 with the aim of selling personal computers that were then known as Apple 1 (Helander, Landauer
Imagine that you have been charged with transforming the performance of a team at your workplace. Specifically, it is under-performing, and your supervisor wants the team to be high-performing within six months. Based on the information in Chapter 18 of Organizational Behavior in Health Care and your own research develop a presentation for your supervisor that addresses the following: Discuss reasons that healthcare teams under-perform. Outline best practices for team performance. Discuss the various organizational barriers that exist in your organization that affect team effectiveness. Describe motivational strategies that address team level performance. Present your team performance improvement plan making sure to include specific time-bound goals. Provide examples from the organization and from current research to support your comments and ideas. argumentative essay help
Your presentation should meet the following structural requirements: Organized, using professional themes and transitions. It should consist of nine slides, not including the title and reference slides. Each slide must provide detailed speaker’s notes, with a minimum of 100 words per slide. Notes must draw from and cite relevant reference materials. Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of six scholarly articles. Two of these sources may be from the class readings, textbook, or lectures, but the other four must be external. The Saudi Digital Library is a good place to find these references. Follow APA 7th edition and Saudi Electronic University writing standards.
Overview of the Operations of Save the Children Report college admissions essay help
Save the Children was born out of the need to address the plight of Children in Europe after the First World War in 1919. The founders were two sisters, Eglantyne Jebb and Dorothy Buxton.
The two sisters felt that action was needed to deal with the dire health and nutrition problems that children in Berlin and Vienna, among other European cities, were facing. Their initial activities led to the arrest of Jebb. Nonetheless, they went on to establish the human rights organization currently known as Save the Children.
The Role that Save the Children Plays Save the Children focuses on the plight of children in various countries and seeks to address their concerns. The range of issues that the organization deals with varies from country to country.
The main areas the organization deals with include the following. Save the Children advocates for children’s rights, the education of children, and the protection of children. The organization also addresses the impact of climate change on children, poverty, and hunger. The organization also runs programs dealing with child health, and HIV.
The role that Save the Children plays in children’s rights is three fold. First, the organization empowers children to participate in demanding for their rights by providing avenues for communication with policy makers.
Secondly, the organization supports other organizations that work towards the achievement of children’s rights. Thirdly, Save the Children runs programs that target policy makers directly by advocating for the inclusion of children’s issues at the policy level.
Many children in the world need protection. In places where children have no protection, they fall into the hands of people who abuse them. Unprotected children may end up as child soldiers, sex workers, or domestic workers. Save the Children run programs in several countries that aim at protecting children from abuse.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the area of education, Save the Children is working with other organizations in programs that support the UN millennium development goals that state that all children should be in school by 2015.
Secondly, the organization is running the FAST program in Britain to give support to children from poor families to enable them to compete better with children from rich families. Save the Children is also behind the efforts to make education a part of the emergency response to natural disasters and conflict, alongside the provision of food, shelter, and clothing.
Save the Children recognizes that climate change is one of the most significant challenges of the twenty first century. More importantly, children will endure the most of the impacts of climate change. For instance, climate change will affect food security and nutrition in many parts of the world.
Children usually suffer the most from nutritional deficiency because they need proper nutrition to mature. For this reason, Save the Children runs programs that prioritize climate change interventions because it is a threat the future of children.
Save the Children also tries to address poverty. A child born into a poor family has reduced chances of success in life compared to a child born into a wealthy family. Save the Children believes that there is need to address this disparity to ensure that all children have a fair chance to succeed in life. The organization runs programs that seek to level the playing field for all children.
The organization also runs programs that address hunger. Save the Children believes that malnutrition is the root cause of one third of all deaths of children aged five and below. Malnutrition leads to weakened bodies that cannot fight off illnesses.
In addition, children suffering from malnutrition have stunted growth, which affects their earning potential later in life. This is the basis of the involvement of Save the Children in poverty eradication.
We will write a custom Report on Overview of the Operations of Save the Children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Save the Children is involved in the provision of healthcare as a response to the challenge of child mortality associated with poor healthcare. Health problems cause the death of children because of malnutrition, lack of medicine, or lack of medical facilities. One of the ways that Save the Children intervenes in healthcare is by supporting clinics that provide health services to needy children.
Methodology Save the Children uses multiple methods to address issues. The main methods the organization uses are advocacy, provision of practical support, and networking with like-minded organizations. Advocacy refers to the ability to lobby for the development of policies and laws that protect the rights of children. Often, lack of legal protection aggravates child abuse in any jurisdiction.
For instance, passing laws that criminalize child marriage and underage sex leads to reduced prevalence of these forms of child abuse. The abolishment of slave trade commenced with the passing of relevant laws in the British parliament. This demonstrates the power of advocacy in delivering change especially in the long term.
The second method the organization employs to meet its goals is the provision of practical support. Save the Children supports clinics in order to provide healthcare for needy children. It also gives mothers vouchers to get food to meet their nutritional needs. In this sense, the organization intervenes directly in the issues it seeks to address.
The third method it uses in its operations is that it supports organizations that deal with the specific interests of Save the Children. This support includes sponsoring programs in organizations involved in the protection of children’s rights. The human rights movement in the entire world understands the power of speaking with a common voice where there is a common interest.
The Place of Save the Children Save the Children occupies a unique place in the human rights movement across the world. While human rights movements tended to deal with the issues of marginalized communities such as the blacks in South Africa and America, Children did not always stand out as a human rights constituency.
The uniqueness of Save the Children in the global human rights movement is that it has no clear geographical or political markers. Every country in the world has children whose rights needs protection.
The second unique element about Save the Children is that its constituency outgrows its efforts. After eighteen years, children seize to be children. The transition to adulthood removes them from the jurisdiction of Save the Children.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Overview of the Operations of Save the Children by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In many human rights situations, the primary beneficiaries of an organization tend to remain static. For instance, the beneficiaries of the civil rights movement in South Africa still posses their defining characteristics. Their needs evolved after the collapse of apartheid but they remain a clear constituency. This is not the same situation when it comes to Save the Children.
The third unique feature that marks the place of Save the Children in the global human rights movement is that the organization uses a holistic approach in its activities. It deals with advocacy, practical support, and cooperation with like-minded organizations. Human rights organizations tend to specialize in one area rather than pursue several approaches simultaneously.
Warfare and Violence in Ancient Times Exploratory Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Political economy is vital to existence and expansion of any country. This is evident in ancient empires, which used political economy to strengthen their grip on colonies. For instance, Imperialism, which is currently utilized in United States, was developed by Assyrians. Moreover, use of electric batteries, flush toilets, paved roads and locks were used in Assyria before modernization.
Furthermore, their farming techniques were advanced with irrigation forming a major part of cultivation. These were great advancements at the time. No wonder they are considered among the greatest civilizations of ancient times. Their ability to unify cities in times when war was the order of things was exemplary.
This brings to focus the importance of good administration and political economy. This paper will discuss civilization as conveyed by ancient empires such as Egyptians, Assyrians, Macedonians, Aztecs, Incas and the Maya (Gascoigne 1).
Among the ideologies brought forth in ancient times, none has matched Assyrians. Their excellent and evolutionary political skills as well as administration were very important in world revolution. Other empires also helped shape the world. These included Egyptians, Incas, Aztecs, Macedonians and the Maya. For instance, Egyptians contributed to writings as well as Assyrians.
Incas on the other hand, were well organized with division of labor and specialization being the major benefits from their culture. Maya on the other hand were very good at influencing their neighbors without use of violence. Moreover, they contributed greatly to philosophy, astronomy and literature among others. This is same with Aztecs, who were very crucial in alliances and political studies.
Macedonians were so powerful that enemies trembled at their feet. Moreover, they had well trained soldiers with witty leaders such a Philips II, among others. It is also important to note the artifacts and architecture seen in Aztecs and Mayan times. These were very influential to modern world (Ancient Military 1).
The Egyptians Egyptian empire was great in the ancient times. It conquered several other empires and was victorious in many occasions. However, its popularity was mainly on its contribution to civilization inn agriculture, medicine, literature and mathematics, among others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Egyptian people settled in Northern part of Africa around the banks of River Nile. They cultivated land near river Nile and used very sophisticated canals in irrigation systems. River Nile provided water for the rich valley in which they cultivated their crops. Egyptians were ruled by hereditary kings known as the Pharaoh.
The peak of their civilization coalesced in 3,150 BC, during time of first Pharaoh. Its contributions to civilization during these periods included storage pyramids for grain, techniques for medicine and algebraic mathematical systems, which are still utilized to day. Other contributions to civilization included writing, architecture and embalming, among others.
However, the Roman Empire conquered and reduced it to a province by 31 BC. Their political ideology was on absolute power by the King who dictated moral values. Pharaoh had his general, ministers and wise men as advisors (Tyldesley 1).
The Assyrians Assyria extends from west of Euphrates to North of Haran, and Lake Urmi in Iran. This civilization covered four current nations in Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. It had two great rivers that passed between it namely Euphrates and Tigris. The rivers supplied water for irrigation and other uses. The Language spoken in Assyria was Akkadian, which was written in cuneiform.
They were Semitic people who were indigenous to Mesopotamia. Their writings wee at first based on tablets and clay, however, by 750 B.C.; they had started writing on papyrus. Assyrian Empire was at its greatest between 900 and 600 B.C. They developed several ideologies such as universal empire and deity, among others. These were adopted by Arameans, among others neighbors they influenced.
They adopted Aramaic due to their interaction with them although it was infused with Akkadian language. Their most influential period began in 2371 B.C., when Akkad established his Assyrian Kingdom.
In 1813 B.C. The kingdom was firmly established by Shamshi-Ada, who united Nineveh, Arbel, Ashur and Arrapkha. Of great importance during this period to modern civilization was his political skills and administrative efficiency that enabled him to unite the cities (BetBasoo 1).
We will write a custom Essay on Warfare and Violence in Ancient Times specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the 900 A.D., Assyria rose again and experienced great administrative efficiency and economic boost through Ashur-dan II. During tis period, they recorded huge harvests of grain in Mesopotamia. They defeated Arameans and controlled them during this time. Assyrian control expanded to southern Lebanon as well as Zagross mountain, among others.
They had well-organized military that ensure success in conquering and securing new footholds. Through their advanced political skills, they managed to rule over Egypt, Cyprus, Caspian and Anatolia, among other. They brought together both barbaric and nomadic people in these regions and civilized them. Things like locks and keys were invented in Assyria.
These fundamentals occur in our daily lives. Moreover, it is in Assyria that keeping time was developed. It is also quite important to note that paved roads, which are used today, were first developed in Assyria. Others include use of iron, magnifying glasses, libraries, plumbing, guitars, flush toilets, electric batteries, arches and aqueducts, among others.
Various ideologies also came from Assyria these included imperial administrations, breakdown of ethnic barriers, cultural unification, spread of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, among others. It is therefore quite clear that Assyria contributed greatly to modern civilization (BetBasoo 1).
The Greece-Macedonia Macedonians lived in Northern Greece and enjoyed a stable dynasty around 700 A.D. The word Macedonia is believed to have originated from Makednos, which means tall. Macedonians had a powerful army that conquered those around them. They engaged potential captives in war and secured all their regions.
Through this, they conquered those regions. They had a stable dynasty in the 7th century B.C. However, after there centuries, they became so powerful that they had ability to dominate Greek. Their society was feudal where the King and his nobles would do as they chose.
Their accession and civilization began in 356BC when Philip II took power. He used bribes and military genius as well as skillful diplomacy to conquer his neighbors. He defeated several powers in Greece like Athens and Thebes, among others. He went on to convince Greece into a treaty to conquer Persia although this failed when he was murdered in His daughter’s wedding.
His son Alexander the great took over and kept with fight to conger his neighbors. He managed this successfully until his death in 323. His death brought a sharp division in Macedonia as his family members fought for power.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Warfare and Violence in Ancient Times by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Olimpias her mother went on a coup but failed. This signified the end of Macedonian conquer as Rome took over and reduced it to a province. Warfare was an integral part of their part in conquering neighbors. However, they only managed this for a short while (Gascoigne 1).
The Maya The Maya, like Aztecs are Mesoamerican civilization. They developed language spoken in pre Columbian America. They are also known for mathematical systems, architecture and art as well as astronomical systems. They are known to have established their empire between 2000BC to 250 A.D. This period was known as classic period and it witnessed they best state of development.
Like the Aztecs and Incas, Maya were destroyed by Spanish. They had numerous contact and cultural diffusion with Mesoamerican civilization. For instance, they developed their own calendar through civilization. Their influence was vast in Northern El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras as well as central Mexico.
They had highly skilled artists who made sculptures and ceramics. Most of their images were decorated in wood and stones. They also had geometric figures as well as hieroglyphs. In addition, they offered ceramics to the dead. The Maya people never disappeared even after Spanish Conquest.
Currently they form sizable populations across Maya area. They have unique sets of beliefs and traditions that resulted from both post and pre Columbian cultures and ideas. In fact, some of their languages are still spoken such as Rabinal Achi, among others. In 2005, this language was recognized by UNESCO in a play as the Intangible and oral Heritage of humanity.
The Maya had hereditary rulers as their heads, they were known as ajaw. The ajaws ruled over cities. In general, Maya people civilized people through their influence unlike other civilizations. Like Aztecs and Incas, the Maya believed in many gods. They also offered human sacrifices like the Aztecs (Coe 31).
The Aztecs Aztecs dominated many parts of Mesoamerica between 1400 and 1600 A.D. Their civilization period lasted about two centuries. They came from large groups that spoke Nahuatl as their language. Due to diversity, Aztecs did not have a particular culture although their civilization was based on Mesoamerican culture.
Their population was over 20 million. Tenochtitlan was their capital and it was build at the centered in an island of Lake Texcoco. Aztecs were very powerful as they ruled through alliances. However, they also ruled through fear as was witnessed in their downfall at the hands of Spanish emperor Cortes. Aztecs are known for irrigation systems and mass maize production as well as use cacao bean in food.
Some of their inventions are still utilize by modern world. They also had well structured educational systems that emphasized on literature, philosophy, astronomy and history, among others. Their numeric system was based on the number twenty with calendars based on their leaders and gods. It is also quite important to note that Aztec sacrificed human captives in order to continue their civilization.
This was grave in that they took out captives hearts when still alive. It has been shown that tens of thousands of people hade been sacrificed at the great pyramid of Tenochtitlan.
Just like the Incans, land was controlled and given to commoners for cultivation at a fee. In most cases, people would be enslaved to cultivate land, which was owned, by kings and nobles. At the peak of their rule, Spanish army led by Cortes conquered them (Clendinnen 20).
The Incas The Incas ruled its South America Empire for about three centuries. They were a small tribe but conquered a great part of South America during their time. The areas included in their rule were parts of Bolivia, Chile, north Argentina as well as Ecuador. Their mode of rule was by conquering and assimilating. Whenever they conjured an area, they would teach inhabitants their way of life and expect them to follow.
For instance, they used to take sons of their leader’s sons and made them rulers over them. However, they had to rule the Inca way. Their government system was in form of a pyramid with Sapa Inca at the top. Sapa Inca, which meant unique Inca, was believed to have come from the sun god.
He therefore commanded respect from the Inca people. This pyramid started with Sapa, through to Nobles, then curacas, after which craftsmen and farmers. The Empire was well organized with tasks divided to each group of people. Andres mountain inhabited most of the Incas with their cities well fortified. Every person in Inca was organized with a role to play in life. Sapa Inca owned all the land.
He would give some to farmers for cultivation in return for work. Although they did not invent writing, the Incas used a device known as quipu to keep records. Their civilization began by the capture of Moche culture in central Peru. This went on for more centuries although they were later destroyed by Spanish conquests (Lambert 1).
Conclusion There are various similarities between ancient and modern civilization. Some of which include study of philosophy, astronomy, literature and history, among others as seen in the Aztecs.
Food production and irrigation can also be traced back to these ancient societies with utilized crude but capable systems to irrigate their farms. It is also quite important to note that both Aztecs and Maya shared various practices like study of astronomy and history, among others. While Aztec land was owned by nobles and kings that of Incas was owned by their leader known as Incas.
The Incas conquered people and assimilate them into their way of life. On the other hand, Aztecs conquered and sacrificed as well as enslaved their captives. It can also be noted that the Incas were more organized and structured than Aztecs. The Maya, like Aztecs sacrificed people to their gods. The Incas, Maya and Aztecs both had religious calendars that were inspired by religious cynics.
While Maya used their influence to conquer neighbors, Macedonia on the other hand used warfare with skillful tactics, bribery and well trained military. This was witnessed in Philips’ tactics during the invasion of Greece. Assyria can be considered as the most influential empire in ancient world. This is mainly because of the contributions it brought to its colonies as well as to modern civilization.
While other empires like Aztecs exploited their captives, Assyrians taught them how to live a civilized life with modernized lifestyles. Like Egypt, they focused on political economy, which produced large grains. Besides, United States is ruled through imperial system of government where various governors report to the federal government, this was adopted from Assyrians.
To crown it all, use of electric batteries, flush toilets, paved roads, among other were very significant in those periods. Besides, even the modern world took time to understand these concepts (Ancient Military 1).
Works Cited Ancient Military. “Ancient Military History”. ancientmilitary.com. AM. Web.
BetBasoo, Peter. (2007). “Brief History of Assyrians”. aina.org. Aina. Web.
Clendinnen, Inga. Aztecs: An Interpretation. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Print.
Coe, Michael. The Maya (6th ed.). New York: Dante Reed, 1999, p. 31.
Gascoigne, Bamber. “History of Macedonia”. historyworld.net. History World. Web.
Lambert, Tim. “The Incas”. localhistories.org. Local Histories, 2008. Web.
Tyldesley, Joyce. “History: Ancient Egypt and the Modern World”. www.bbc.co.uk. BBC. Web.
Law as the Study of Prediction Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help
In his essay The Paths of Law Oliver Holmes tries to explain his understanding of jurisprudence and its main principles. In particular, he argues that the main purpose of this discipline is to predict legal outcomes or results of a person’s action.
In his opinion, the study of law is not always related to the assessment of people’s moral behavior; more likely, its task is to foresee the forces of law and their effects on an individual and society. This argument gives rise to the question whether the study of law can be viewed as a science. This paper will determine if such interpretation is justifiable and applicable to modern standards of legal profession.
First, Oliver Holmes points out lawyers often adopt the methods of reasoning which are typical of sciences, for example, deduction, analogy, and discrimination. To some extent, they are more related to mathematics rather than philosophy or ethics. Therefore, it is possible to say that the study of law bears close resemblance to a science.
In his discussion, Oliver Holmes primarily focuses on public forces or the actions of the court rather than the ethical truths which underlie these public forces. Admittedly, while providing legal advice to a client, lawyers often pay more attention to the material interests of this person rather than ethical concerns.
This evidence also suggests that jurisprudence is oriented toward material or practical purposes instead of deeper understanding of moral truths. This feature makes the study of law similar to a science.
There is another important element of Holmes’s discussion. He believes that legal professionals, especially judges or legislators should focus more on social advantage.
Therefore, one of their tasks is to maximize the benefits of the community and individual. Judging from this claim, one can compare jurisprudence to such economics. Thus, if we adopt utilitarian perspective of Oliver Holmes, we can say that law can be considered as a science.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, Oliver Holmes admits that laws reflect moral development of a community or country. Therefore, it is quite possible that the study of law can evolve with time passing. It should be noted that this essay was written at the end of the nineteenth century, and since that time, jurisprudence has changed significantly.
Modern law students have to study various ethical theories which can explain the principles to which a lawyer should adhere to. Thus, the study of law has both scientific and ethical or philosophical components. This is the reason why the arguments expressed by Oliver Holmes cannot be fully accepted.
Purely scientific interpretation of the law can overlook the fact that legal acts are based on ethical principles and standards. Without understanding of these principles, lawyers as well as legislators will be unable to uphold the values of a society.
This discussion indicates that the study of law definitely relies on the methods and principles adopted by scientists. Their decision making and analysis of information can rely on deductive reasoning or analogy.
Moreover, they often try to maximize the social benefits that the community or individual will derive from public forces. Hence, it definitely has scientific component. Yet, jurisprudence is also of a study of moral truths and values that regulate the professional behavior of a lawyer and the actions of an individual. Thus, it can be regarded as a combination of ethics and science.
Performance Appraisal in Organizations Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Performance appraisal has a very short history. It only began taking root in the early periods of 20th century. Performance appraisal is a common concept in the field of contemporary personnel management. It began as a simple way of justifying employees’ income. Since its inception, the concept has become universal and seems inevitable for every human resource department (Grote, 2002).
Three points of concern with the given company’s current evaluation form
The current company’s evaluation form has quite a number of points of concern. One of the points is that the current evaluation is not properly structured and is single sided. Besides, the evaluation form is not effective and seems to be done by only one person, the plant manager. Moreover, the plant manager only makes tentative decisions of the evaluation criteria. This is not effective.
The second point of concern is that the current evaluation form seems to emphasize on personal character and the relationship with other workmates. In this case, the form does not take into effective consideration of the fact that the engineer has made tremendous contributions to the company’s profitability.
The third point of concern is that the current form of evaluation does not allow for participatory evaluation. The plant manager does the evaluation by himself and does not involve others in the whole process.
The commonly-used sets of criteria which should be evaluated in a performance evaluation
The commonly used sets of criteria which should be evaluated in a performance evaluation include contribution, skill set, work ethics and professional development. In relation to contribution, the focus is placed on contributions made by an individual toward the achievement of organizational goals and objectives (Robbins, 2009).
For instance, the focus may be placed on quantity sales, negotiated contracts and the value of financial benefits an employee may contribute to the company. Another set of evaluation may entail assessing an employee’s skills. For instance, in the process of evaluating skills set, the main concern may be technical skills and ability to troubleshoot problems and offer solutions to the problems (Robbins, 2009).
Evaluation based on work ethics may include assessment of an employee’s punctuality, motivation, absenteeism and interpersonal skills. Professional development may include assessing the commitment of an employee to further skills development. Specific deliverables may entail whether or not an employee attends workshops and training events (Robbins, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relative value of the commonly-used sets of criteria
Every set of evaluation criteria has its own value. However, it is important to note that the set of criteria are all inclusively valuable in the process of performance evaluation.
The criteria assess various aspects of an employee’s personality which is crucial for the success of a corporate organization. Evaluation based on an employee’s contribution assists in determining how much the employee is bringing in for the company. This can be evaluated based on quantitative achievements of an employee (Robbins, 2009).
A skill set also has its own value. Besides evaluating the contribution of an employee to the company, assessing the skills of an employee is also valuable. This kind of assessment is important in determining the skills base of a corporate organization as a whole; it enables the organization to know the capability of every employee (Robbins, 2009).
Work ethics is important in terms of effectiveness at work. Performing evaluation based on this criterion assist in determining whether an employee follows the laid down regulations and norms; it may involve evaluating the commitment of an employee to an organizational culture.
Evaluation based on professional development is also valuable in terms of knowing an employee’s commitment to personal development and development of others within the organization; the process helps in gauging whether an employee is committed to achieving greater excellence (Robbins, 2009).
Advantages and disadvantages of including supervisors, peers, and subordinates in the evaluation process
The involvement of supervisors, peers and subordinates in the process of evaluation is advantageous. This makes everyone working for the corporation to feel part of the entire process and hence lend his or her full support to the criteria that may be set for the process.
Again, this kind of involvement enables the supervisors, peers and subordinates to consider the system of evaluation as fair because they are able to contribute their views in the process. This also gives them a platform to have a say on the evaluation process (Kleynhans, 2006).
We will write a custom Essay on Performance Appraisal in Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, involving them may also have some disadvantage. One of the disadvantages of this kind of involvement is that it is difficult to interpret the findings in case they may vary from one individual to the other.
Again, there may be biases in the evaluation process since an individual may give a low rating to the person he or she is not in good terms with. Besides, subordinates may not be comfortable to rate their supervisor (Kleynhans, 2006).
Three common performance evaluation methods used to analyze performance data after it has been gathered
Performance data analysis can be done using various methods. Three of these methods include use of graphic scales, checklists and critical incident method. All these methods are reliable. However, they differ in certain aspects (Schermerhorn, 2011). Checklist method involves a set of questions to which responses are either yes or no; this is quantitative in nature. However, it is not as effective as the graphic scale method.
Graphic scale method can be defined as any form of rating scale that consists of points calibrated within a continuum. In this method, managers are provided with a means of making judgement on the level of effectiveness for each employee along the provided continuum; the continuum has anchor points that clearly distinguish levels of effectiveness within the drawn continuum.
Besides, graphic scale allows a manager to grade performance in various tasks on one scale. A manager can compare the performance of more than one employee on a graphic scale at once (Schermerhorn, 2011). Graphic scale method is mainly preferred because it can be adapted to different specific formats.
Moreover, it is preferred for the reasons that it is easy to construct, it has a high level of acceptability for users and have a significant face value. Therefore, the manager of the corporation may consider using graphic scale method in performing employees’ evaluation.
Critical incident is a method that has been used for long. However, it has the potential of biases and errors since it involves recording of bad and good things done an employee. Some good and bad things may be missed in the recording process. Besides, it is unreliable due to possible biases of a manager with regard to a particular employee (Schermerhorn, 2011).
Biases and errors that frequently impact the accuracy of performance evaluations
There are many biases and errors that may impact the accuracy of performance evaluation. First, there is a possibility of personal bias by a supervisor; this is based on the perception that a supervisor may have on each employee working under his or her supervision.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Performance Appraisal in Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For this reason, there is a purpose to fear that an employee whose performances require fair ratings, but is not in good terms with his or her supervisor, may receive a low rating instead and vice versa. Second, there is also a possibility of spillover effect. In this case, evaluation may be based on the past performance; this may override the current performances and hence demoralize employees instead of motivating them.
Third, there is horn effect. This is where an individual’s performance is evaluated based on negative features or quality. This implies that a supervisor may only concentrate on what an employee does wrong at the expense of what the employee does right.
The effect of this is that brilliant employees may not be taking new initiatives that they perceive to have the possibility of leading them into making mistakes; in this case, the employees may just stick to the traditional ways that are not prone to mistakes while performing their duties.
Lastly, halo effect is also a possible bias; this can be defined as the tendency to rate an employee low or high in his or her entire performance just because he got either low or high rating in just one or few areas in the process of work. This has the potential of creating dissatisfied and discouraged work force within a corporation.
Appropriate tools and techniques that can be used to improve performance evaluations in the given situation
Currently, the company uses one-sided technique. This is the reason the evaluation process is not effective. In order to improve performance evaluations, interactive and developmental techniques should be adopted.
Interactive technique will allow all stakeholders to participate in the evaluation process while a developmental technique is where the development progress of an employee over time. Each part of an employee’s work is evaluated differently. Both of these techniques will greatly enhance evaluation performances in the company.
Conclusion Employees’ performance evaluation is important for every corporate organization (Grote, 2002). The problem with the evaluation form of the company is that it is one-sided process in which the plant manager is the one doing the evaluation.
It is therefore important for the company to adopt a participatory approach to ensure effectiveness of the entire evaluation process. It is important to note that the performance evaluation process is bound to have biases and errors some of which may be personal. The three common evaluation methods include checklist, graphic scales and critical event method.
References Grote, R. (2002). The Performance Appraisal Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Managers. Hampshire: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
Kleynhans, R. (2006). Human Resource Management. South Africa: Pearson South Africa.
Robbins, S. (2009). Organizational Behaviour: Global and Southern African Perspectives. Cape Town: Pearson South Africa.
Schermerhorn, J. (2011). Exploring Management. Hampshire: John Wiley and Sons.
Library Management System Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The library management system is a type of enterprise resource planning system that is primarily used in libraries. Enterprise resource planning systems provide a technological platform where an organization can integrate and coordinate its internal processes (K. Laudon, J. Laudon and Brabston 13).
The library management system allows a library to keep track of all its books, and also manage its members. Some of the services offered by a library management system include book requests by the members of the library, and denial or issuance of the requests by the librarian.
The system has several modules that serve various functions. The acquisition module manages the ordering, purchase and receipt of books for use in the library, thereby keeping records of all incoming books. The cataloging module classifies and indexes books received in the library. This helps the library record all its books, while making also making it easier to access a new book.
New books are indexed by a unique code or book ID that will simplify the identification process. The circulation module helps the library better manage the distribution process. The library, through the circulation module, can track all books loaned out to library users, and books returned.
Tables As a result of the modules, the library management system has four sets of tables. Under the first table, designated for library users, entry fields include the user ID tag, user name, date of admission, and the number of books issued. The book detail table includes fields such as the library book code, library book title, the book category, book author, and the book status.
The book status could imply whether or not the book is available for borrowing. An important limited edition copy could be slated as not available, implying that it is for library use only. Issue details table includes the book issue ID and issue details such as expiry date on a borrowed book. Book category table fields help in classifying book titles within the library. The fields include category name and the category ID.
A library management system has several groups of users who serve different functions. Members of the library management system can log into the system using their username and a password. Members can use the system to search all titles stored within the library, and view the availability of each.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Members will also be required to pay fines for lost or late books. Members, who mostly comprise of students, have a limited number of books that they can borrow from the library at any given time. Lecturers are also users of the library management system. Like members, they can search titles inside the library but have more privileges than students since they can borrow more books simultaneously.
Librarians act as the administrator of the system. They can view and manage member and lecturer accounts and get their information by using a name or an ID. As administrators, librarians can view and create new accounts into the system, and also have the task of issuing books from the library. Librarians can add library cards and assign them to members, while managing the information in the database.
The administrative account allows the librarian to add or remove items in the database. Moreover, the librarian can receive payments from members, and subsequently update the related account. Inputs into the transaction processing system (TPS) are derived from members of the database, while the output is used by the librarian in making routine decisions.
Entity Relationship Diagram
Entity relationship diagrams are tools used to illustrate the relationship between different entities or objects within a system. Members request books into the system, while librarians issue the books to members, depending on the outcome of the approval or denial process. The librarian has access to various functions within the library management system.
We will write a custom Essay on Library Management System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The user interface is the same for all users when logging into the system, but functions depend on the user, as determined by the username and the password. The librarian will access a different interface once he has logged in, and can access different functionalities and view different icons from those accessed by normal members.
The librarian can issue or return books into the library management system, and can conduct searches on members and books in the system. The librarian also has add or delete function, which allows the librarian to add or delete member and staff accounts, and manage books in the library management system.
The librarian’s interface, which is also his menu, lists all the functions that the librarian can access including; adding or deleting a member, adding or deleting a book, searching and viewing member accounts, searching and viewing book details, and issuing or returning a book.
Works Cited Laudon, Kenneth, Jane Laudon,
Management of Small Business Evaluation Essay essay help site:edu
Competitive Advantage Strategies The business environment is very competitive especially in the modern world where technology has advanced and increased dynamism in the environment. Due to these changes, many organizations operating in different industries are seeking to establish themselves through use of various strategies. One of the common strategies is establishment of a competitive advantage.
A competitive advantage is qualities that characterize a given organization that makes it outstanding from the rest of the competitors in the industry.
Total Quality management is one of the strategies used by firms to create a competitive advantage through development of quality products that fit directly into consumer needs. Despite its common use by many organizations, other strategies could be used by organizations to establish a competitive advantage.
Companies that have ability and capacity to produce goods use this generic strategy and services at costs that are lower than those of their competitors are and therefore earn more profit in selling high product quantities. As mentioned by Campbell et al (2002, p. 178), for a company to gain cost leadership, there has to be costs control and efficiencies. The company should seek to gain a unique access to lower cost materials.
Low cost in production could be achieved through vertical integration decisions and optimal outsourcing. As long as cost of production is low, a company can offer products at lower prices and maximize sales. Companies that use cost leadership strategy take advantage of the economies of scale whereby the company produces large amount to enhance its competition in the market.
A good example of a company that has applied this strategy includes Wal-Mart. This is one of the largest retailers across the world. Wratshko (2009, p. 53) argued that low cost strategy is central to the production and delivery of quality and competitive products at Wal-Mart Company.
The company has for years translated its low cost advantage into a price advantage, its customers enjoy low costs, and this has largely improved the company’s market share. The enlarged market share in turn increases the company’s opportunity to enjoy economies of scale with ruthless cost reductions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Wal-Mart is known as a low price supplier of variety of goods. Wal-Mart compares its every activity with those of its competitors along the value chain and is committed to surpass the competitors through price reduction.
The company has remained innovative; this helps in improving processes and developing new products at low costs. One of the main drivers of low cost strategy at Wal-Mart is its supplier relationships; the company maintains in-bound logistics and supplies.
According to Campbell et al (2002, p. 180), a focus strategy focuses on a given market segment in which it applies cost leadership or differentiation strategy. Use of focus strategy helps in gaining customers’ satisfaction and loyalty. Coca Cola Company is well known of using focus strategy to enter new markets as the strategy was successfully used in China.
After establishing the market, the company uses differentiation strategy to provide unique products in the market. Most companies that use differentiation-focused strategy are able to provide a broad range of commodities in a given market. Focus strategy may however suffer changes in targeted segments and imitation.
According to Campbell et al (2002, p. 178), differentiation strategy involves creation of unique products and services in a given industry. The unique products and services have to be valued by customers as unique and the uniqueness is reflected in features, product design, brand image, network, and technology and customer service.
Companies that desire to use differentiation strategies have to develop commodities that offer unique attributes, which customers have and will value and perceive different and better than other competitors products.
The uniqueness of the commodity adds value to it and this may require a company to charge a certain premium price, following the product’s uniqueness, the company can pass the increased cost to its customers who may not find substitutes easily.
We will write a custom Essay on Management of Small Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To succeed in the differentiation strategy, a firm has to invest in research to build innovative ideas; this requires the product development team to be creative and highly skilled. Due to the premium price that may be passed to customers, the sales team has to be strong and aggressive, with ability to communicate the product’s strengths to customers. The strategy also requires corporate reputation for innovation and quality.
Out of the above three competitive strategies, there is no superior strategy as all provide an organization with a competitive advantage over its competitors. It is difficult to combine the generic strategies, mixing the strategies yields either heavy costs or confusion in terms of targeted customers.
A company may use one strategy and after establishing itself in a given market aspect, it can then adopt a different strategy to improve on the existing strategy. For instance, a firm can use focus strategy and after segmenting the market, it can use differentiation or cost leadership strategy. Differentiation and cost leadership strategy cannot be combined since it is hard to differentiate products and at the same time minimize costs.
Company Markets Various markets in which an organization could sell its products exist. Geographic Segment: This segmentation divides the market into different geographical units such as neighbourhood, city, country, world regions and climate. Due to the diversity of the target markets, employee branding demands according to the geographical area to reach the entire target customer.
Behavioural Segment: This segmentation divides the market groups according to the knowledge, attitudes, uses, and responses of customers to the product (Xbox, 2011). For example, customer make purchases based on the benefits they get from the product, level of usage of the product, level of loyalty, user status, and level of their readiness to purchase.
Employees train to distinguish consumers; identify consumer needs, design products that meet consumer needs to maximize their satisfaction, pre and post purchase behaviour, choose relevant marketing strategies, and be able to influence consumers’ perception and decisions.
Psychographic Segment: This segmentation divides the target market according to the social status and lifestyle. The employee is able to know when to trigger the need of consumers, emphasize the dissatisfaction in the consumer, concentrate its efforts to its target market, and understand the changes in the consumer demands
Marketing Plan for a Kinetic Xbox 360
This section examines a marketing plan for a fictitious product Kinetic Xbox 360 an electronic device used in the gaming world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Management of Small Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Product Description
Xbox is one of the two largest gaming devices used in the world. Microsoft has always been on the frontier of computer innovation since its foundation and has innovated Xbox as one of its best products. Xbox Kinetic is the first step in the next big product in gaming. Xbox has come up with a new technology that detects movements of the body and applies them as instructions when playing a game.
That is why the Kinetic Xbox has the motto, “You are the controller. No gadgets, no gizmos, just you!” It works by setting up a centrepiece that has a camera that perceives the body movements and the voice. This movements and use of the voice act as the controllers of the game. Xbox Kinect has started a mini-revolution in gaming due to aerobic portion that people have started to play video games for exercise (Xbox, 2011).
This product offers unique qualities since the controls are the body movements. Games offered by Xbox kinetic range from normal sports video games to shooter games all the way to exercise or workout routines. The sleek design of the product gives the consumer a product that does not look out of place in front of the TV.
The technology innovation was by outside companies Rare and PrimeSense who combined efforts to come up with a system that uses infrared translators of 3D body motion as controls of a game. This product obviously has a brand name associated with it, which is why its success was almost instantaneous. Xbox and Microsoft’s loyal customers trusted that the product would be just as great as their other products.
Target Market and Market Size
Market size is the number of buyers and sellers in a particular market. It measures the total value and volume of sales made to the target customers. It helps emerging enterprises and existing companies to identify the number of their potential customers in their new product or service. According to research done on June 2011, Kinetic Xbox 360 has the largest market size among other consumer software products.
It recorded a total annual sale of 5 million of motion sensing Kinetic from 3 million sales last year. This shows an increase in the annual sales. The company also produces kinetic systems whose sales increase from 2.5 million to 4.1 million sales within a period of 25 days of the marketing campaign (Warren, 2011).
This shows that the company has a greater chance of attracting and maintaining more customers to its new product. The company sold 297,000 units of Xbox 360 in April making it the most preferred and demanded software product in U.S. The products market size increases by 60% each year.
Market segmentation is a collection of prospective buyers into groups or segments with common needs and responses to a particular product or service. Given that a consumer is a unique being and tends to control all that goes on his or her mind and life in reference to a given product, the marketer has to understand the consumer and his way of thinking when identifying his target customers (West, 2010).
Market segmentation enables focus on subsets of potential customers. Proper market segmentation enables the business to achieve maximum returns from sales and marketing expenditure regardless of the nature of customers and competitors.
Behavioural Market Segment
This segmentation divides the market groups according to the knowledge, attitudes, uses, and responses of customers to the product. For example, the customer makes purchases based on the benefits they get from the product, level of usage of the product, level of loyalty, user status, and level of their readiness to purchase. For this market segment, the company intends to market Kinetic Xbox through:
Use of waves of body parts and the voice: The customer benefits from doing exercises on all the body parts and at the same time relaxing his or her mind during the entertainment. This interests the consumers to increase their purchase and usage of the product.
Ability to play games on the screen: Games are the most preferred form of entertainment. The product enables the user to play the games he or she likes since the product provides a variety of them. This helps to maintain and attract new customers due to the influence of the benefits of personal experience (Warren, 201).
Extending the product operations in the mobile phones: Most people carry their mobile phones everywhere hence introducing the product in the mobile phones means that customers can use it anywhere they need it (Warren, 2011).
Partnership with Face book: This product helps its customers to socialize with their partners and friends. It encourages customers to use the product to satisfy their needs and wants for instant communication and competition.
This analysis enables the establishment of a market that survives in the competitive market. The TV commercials advertise the product constantly to remind and inform the customers about the product. Face book enhances social networking of friends and partners.
The product targets family and friends of all gender and age and eliminates the use of education by replacing controlling devices with wave of body parts and use of the voice to control the game.
Consumers have different tastes and preferences hence understanding their needs and want more than they do created market for the product. The marketer wants to examine the effectiveness of these strategies in attracting and maintaining more customers.
The company produces unique and quality products that differentiate the company products and services from its competitors. Its efforts to understand consumer needs and wants of change in the routine of playing games has generated a bigger market share and advanced the profits of the company (Taylor, 2011).
Parents have the chance of protecting their children from influence of the product through interacting during playing the game for example, crime, drugs, and sexually implicit images influence children under 18 years since they experiment that which they see.
This also reduces the chances of penalties for under age negative influence by the Supreme Court when reported by the parents since parents have the responsibility of controlling their children since they understand the games as well.
The parents’ preference for this product for their children will increase the market share of the product. This makes them apart of the company (Taylor, 2011). The retailers and promotional partners for example, the studios, distribute the products (Xbox, 2011).
Macro Environment Factors
These factors are beyond the company’s control hence must be considered in the decision making process since it affects the overall performance and strategies of the company (Taylor, 2011).
Include the pressure groups, government agencies, and the legislation limiting the activities of the company. For instance, the Supreme Court charges high penalties to the company for releasing illegal images, that is, crime and sexually implicit images to children less than 18 years.
The company introduces a product that includes the parents’ participation to ensure that they have control over their children influence. Pressure groups, for example, the ESRB control the software producers from release of images that have negative impacts on the society. The company should consider the rules and regulation set by these organizations to avoid extra expenditure on penalties.
These forces affect the behaviour, attitude, and preference of consumers. The company has introduced a unique product that interests many consumers. The product also includes the parents in the use of the product increasing socialization in the society. The company should consider enhancing these factors to attract and maintain more customers (Taylor, 2011).
These involve factors that affect the purchasing power of customers. The price of the product is high hence reducing the willingness of the consumer to spend on the product. The company should consider lowering the prices to increase the market size to maximize its profits.
They include the raw materials and the energy sources. The company has introduced batteries and 2GB broadband to enable efficient use of the product. The company should introduce more improved and durable facilities to cater for long period needs of the consumers (Xbox, 2011).
These forces affect introduction of new products and creation of markets and opportunities for the product. The company produces the best technology compared to the other software companies. It is the high time the company hires qualified employees to enhance technology to compete effectively in the future with its competitors and to maintain its position in the technology sector.
These factors involve the size of population, location, race, and occupation. There is a lot of racism in U.S. hence; the company should put efforts to reduce it in order to enhance its product penetration in the market. The company should promote their products severely in dense populated areas to enlarge its market size quickly with less expense (Taylor, 2011).
Despite the high prices, the product remains the most demanded in U.S. compared to the other software products. The has a chance of making very high profits now and in the future due to its high acceptability and adaptation by the consumers.
The high prices discourage customers from purchasing the product since games are associated with gabbling.
The product has unique characteristics that create addiction of the product enabling the company to make more profits. The product use is by anyone despite the age and gender creating greater chances for high usage of the product thus yielding more profits.
The high prices make the consumers shift from the product to that of the competitors leading to a decrease in its market share.
According to Kitchen
Coca Cola Company’s Communication Message Critical Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
List of References
Introduction The Coca Cola Company is one of the multinational firms that have learnt the art of passing communications to their clients in the form of advertisement (Gerber 2008, p. 78). One of the most interesting advertisements that this firm has used is the one targeting the African market. In this advert, this firm has developed a short play involving African youths. The youths are in a party, but they realize that they do not have the refreshment that always characterizes such parties.
While these individuals are looking for a way out, a Coca Cola van comes to the vicinity and they all start singing and running towards the can. As they unpack the drinks, it is apparent that they are happy that their problem has been solved. This short play is accompanied by a beautiful song which says, ‘I love you Africa.’ The last message in the advertisement says, ‘Live on the Coke side o life.’
Discussion The Coca Cola television commercial was developed in a way that brings out the message intended by the company to the audience. The beginning of the advertisement does not betray the possibility that this is an advertisement. It starts out as an interesting story of youths out to look for pleasure is a beautiful sandy beach. However, their joy is negatively affected by the absence of refreshment.
They look worried as it has come to their realization that happiness they were looking for cannot be achieved without the refreshments. They look confused because their location might not allow them to find an instant solution. Just as they were almost despairing, a solution comes knocking. The Coca Cola drinks therefore, are seen as a source of happiness.
This advertisement has succeeded in passing a number of communications to its consumers in the target market. The first message is that Coke is a source of happiness. Another message is that Coke will always be available when you need it the most. The advertisement also says that Coke will always penetrate to those areas you least expect it would (Handlechner 2008, p. 112).
The advert was developed in a near perfect manner. In this advert, the company makes the target market believe that Coke is a local drink that has been available to the locals for years. The advertisement also targets its largest market segment which is the youth (Gountas
Design: Effects on Themes in Theater Analytical Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Theater is an intricate form of artistic expression. Some of its main applications include the creation of an avenue for the transfusion of culture from one generation to another and maintenance of the uniqueness of various aspects of specific societies. Plays form part of the many ways through which theater passes on culture through several generations in a society.
Although educative in nature, plays also serve as means of entertainment for most people. Themes represent the important elements that comprise a play or story. Unlike storytelling, plays bring imagery in stories to life. They enable audience to connect better with the story while obtaining entertainment as a bonus.
However, the successful execution of these functions depends on the observance of certain aspects of the play by the various involved parties. For instance, the utilization of objects such as lighting, props, and costumes has the ability to affect the audience’s perception of the play and understanding of the story.
To aid in a better elaboration of this concept, this paper explores a case study of the play Romeo and Juliet presented at the California Shakespeare Center on 25 July 2013. The essence is to analyze lighting, props, and costumes in terms of their effect on the themes in the story and a general understanding of the entire play by the audience.
Lighting One of the most important aspects in designing a set for a play is choosing the appropriate lighting for each scene. The lighting helps in the creation of the mood for the play and enhances the theme so that the audience connects with the director’s vision for the play.
For instance, dim lighting creates a romantic or sad feel to a scene in a play, thus enabling the audience to understand the story through emotional connection through enhancement via light. Therefore, it is utterly critical to make the right choice of lighting depending on various factors such as the location of the stage and the time of day the play shows.
For the play, Romeo and Juliet, a California Shakespeare Theater production hosted on the theater grounds on 25 July 2013, the directors, in conjunction with the set designers, chose to hold the play at an outdoor setting. This aspect means that factors such as natural light from the sun or moon or foggy weather came into consideration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The crew thus had to ensure that the lighting sets the mood for each scene without interference by these circumstances. One of the main advantages for the location is that the natural surrounding creates a more realistic feeling to the play as it is easier to incorporate scenes that require nature’s raw beauty outdoors than it is to create such on an indoor setting.
The crew did a brilliant job in choosing the location as well as the time of day to show the play. The Shakespeare Center is located on a hilly serene area with lush green trees and a cool breeze. In consideration of the fact that most people refer to the play as a romantic story, albeit with a tragic ending, the scenery matches the general theme of the entire play.
The only disadvantage for the setting is the chilly weather that results from the cold evening breeze, which is typical of mountainous regions. The choice of location provided for perfect lighting for the entire play. The lighting enhanced the themes of contract between light and darkness, irony, and romance without the application of excessive effort on the part of the set designer.
For instance, in the balcony scene where Romeo meditates on Juliet’s beauty, it is easy for the audience to create the contrast between the sun and the moon as they experience both during the performance of the play by watching the sunset and the moon rise.
The time set for the play allowed the audience to ease into the play using natural evening light and gradual transition into artificial lighting, thus creating an overall natural mood to the occurrence of the play. This way, the play felt more ‘real’ as opposed to an act, hence enabling better emotional and psychological connection with the audience.
Additionally, it is much easier to introduce light in right amounts to a dark area than it is to make a bright area appropriately dark when need be, a concept that the set designers took full advantage. For instance, the use of lighting during the scene where the two lovers spend a night together, the use of appropriately dim lighting enabled the designers create a romantic feel to the episode, and matching the director’s vision for the part in the play.
The use of floodlights to create the illusion of daytime also worked perfectly in creating irony in the contrast between light and darkness. For instance, the audience experienced the difference between the romantic and seemingly rightful acts done in the scene where the lovers lay together at night and the scene immediately after, where Romeo has to leave in the morning to commence his exile, which is a seemingly shameful duty.
We will write a custom Essay on Design: Effects on Themes in Theater specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Costumes It is easy for the audience to connect with the storyline of a play just by looking at the costumes that the actors wear. The choice of costumes indicates the culture and societal norms to which the audience should relate the play. For instance, the play Romeo and Juliet is reminiscent of the Edwardian era during which the playwright, Shakespeare, lived.
Attire in the Edwardian era was indicative of society’s insistence on chastity as one of its most important moral values, especially for women, and class for men. Most plays’ directors and designers who organize plays based on Shakespeare’s script comply with this mode of dress as a communication tool with the audience and project themes in the story in general.
However, the director, Shana Cooper, with assistance from the costume designer, Christine Crook, decided to take a different direction by using modern designs for the play apparel as opposed to costumes that indicate the story’s expected cultural background. The main advantage for use of such costumes concerning the audiences is that it enables them to apply a more modern perspective to the story as opposed to the application of imagination as is usually the case in most Shakespeare plays.
By choosing outfits such as jeans, sneakers, and dresses with modern designs, the costume designer appeals to the audiences’ experiences as a basis for their understanding of the story as is the director’s plan, which is easier for most people in the current era. In the play, the costume designer applied the use of fabrics such as satin and lace with a modern cut to reflect Juliet’s class as opposed to depending on the overall medieval designs.
In addition, the length of dresses for female actors in the play remains below knee length to embody the theme of chastity present in plays with older settings. Also notable in Juliet’s costume is the designer’s use of sheer fabric that creates a sense of rebellion and indicates the character’s age without compromising on the elegance representative of the character’s social class in the play.
Although the use of modern outfits such as costumes adds a new twist to the story, it also alters the mindset of the audience regarding the concept of the story. The original story reflects on the culture of the Edwardian era and the consequences that came with the practice of society’s norms at the time. However, in Shana Coopers’ twist, that concept is lost through the application of modern apparel to a classic story.
Another disadvantage of using a different range of costumes is that some of the themes lose their meaning in the story. For instance, chastity decreases in importance in relation to the story when the audience can see through the main character’s dress, thus presenting a very different ideology from what Shakespeare had in mind.
The inclusion of nudity, albeit of a mild nature, when Romeo and Juliet spend the night together also creates a different perspective of norms that were morally acceptable in the story. Although the scene is more believable to the audience, it alters their perception on discretion concerning sexual behavior.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Design: Effects on Themes in Theater by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Overall, although the costumes add a modern twist to the story, they also take away some aspects that are unique to the play, such as the cultural nature of the society that the story represents.
Props Props are objects that actors use on stage to aid in their performance, especially in the expression of various concepts in a play. They are essential in creating a better understanding of the story for the audience through reflecting the director’s vision for the play. Most enactments of Romeo and Juliet create scenes that represent the setting of the Edwardian era, which mainly consisted of buildings that reflected social stratification on the society.
For instance, the Capulet and the Montague families in the play represent two feuding families from the same social class. Therefore, in most cases, plays include props that indicate their wealthy status, such as antique furniture and elegant buildings with balconies with the most common being castle designed props. Although seemingly irrelevant with regard to the storyline, they are crucial in creating the appropriate mental picture for the audience.
The overall application of the props on set enhanced themes such as danger and violence, although the designer failed to exploit the full potential of the props in the creation of a realistic experience throughout the story. Although the application of an outdoor setting is creative in making the mood for the play, the set designer, Daniel Ostling, fails to utilize the appropriate application of props in the play.
Such oversight diminishes the importance and portrayal of themes, such as wealth, which are important in the understanding of the reason behind the constant violence between the two families. Instead of props that indicate majestic buildings, the set designer uses a makeshift balcony and a ladder that in no way portrays elegance.
It is difficult for an audience to imagine Romeo as a man from a rich family when the actor portraying the character stands on a plain platform in place of a balcony. Additionally, in doing so, the designer exhibits his or her assumption that the audience is conversant with the story, thus denying the portion of the audience who are experiencing the play for the first time some important details to the story.
Another disadvantage of using inadequate props for the play is that they change the audience’s perception of the performance. Most actors endear to make their performances feel as real as possible by telling the story behind the play as best they can. However, by using substandard props, the set designer reduces the performances of the actors to mere illustrations.
The downside to such action is that such an audience may only appreciate the experience enough to watch the performance once and may not recommend the same to others, hence reducing revenue generation for the theater and esteem for the actors. Not all props in the play were substandard.
However, some props were impressive, hence creating a feeling of exhilaration for the audience. For instance, the use of a real fire pit added the realness of the story, and thus making the performance more realistic. The utilization of an outdoor setup added to the possibility of creativity for the set designer in enhancing themes such as violence and danger.
Conclusion Although the play provided much entertainment and observed a majority of the essential components of the story, the use of lighting, choice of costumes, and props largely affected the audience’s perception of the story in the play. Some of the effects were positive while others were negative in the sense that they altered the overall story and the subsequent lessons the author sought to impart. In essence, the play was a nice performance, with a modern twist to a classic tale.
Civil Movements: Discrimination and Its Consequences Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Synopsis of the Problem
Achievements of Civil Movements
Introduction Since time in memorial, different groups of people in human history have received varied treatment based on their gender, race and ethnicity. This means that some injustices and inequalities exist in various parts of the world. In this regard, human rights groups and civil movements have emerged to challenge the existing social structure and social arrangements that segregate some members of society.
By definition, civil liberties are those rights that a person should be allowed to exercise without restriction. In other words, they are natural and granted naturally. The UN charter states that individuals must exercise their rights without state intervention.
Conversely, state sovereignty is incompatible with individual freedoms and rights. In the United States, the constitution allows people to participate in public activities without discrimination based on either race or gender.
The constitution was amended to suit the desires and wishes of the majority. After the American Civil War, the US government came up with laws that would bar some states from exercising political injustices as regards to voting and electioneering process in general. Various groups have stood up firmly to demand for their rights, including the 1960s civil groups.
Even though the US constitution and various acts of congress condemn discrimination and injustice, various groups are still faced with a problem of domination and sub-ordination in key sectors of the economy. Few people control the means of production while men own the majority of societal wealth. Some groups such as women and the youths are not incorporated in political processes as equal partners.
Their roles are not clearly defined, which leaves something to be desired. This article addresses the problem of discrimination and its consequences. This would be an attempt to explain the existing injustices in various sectors of the economy and in the society generally.
Synopsis of the Problem The main problems that breed injustices in the American society are male patriarchy, unequal economic relations (capitalism), political participation and racial discrimination. The three problems are closely related in that one affects the other. The black race and women are more affected because their culture is never respected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, they are the proletariat meaning that the bourgeoisie uses them in acquiring power and material possessions. Women are always relegated to the private domain of the home while the black race is forced to work for the white race in order to make a living (Azevedo 54). The unequal relation between men and women and between the blacks and whites is a major problem that concerns the civil movements.
In fact, the majority of civil groups are formed to address the problem of unequal distribution of wealth and the position of women and the blacks in society. It is noted that the blacks were shipped from Africa in the 16th to 19th centuries to work for the white race. This implies that they were treated in the same way as stocks.
Human beings were elements that could be used in trade, just as gold, silver and coffee. Slaves went through unpalatable conditions while in the hands of white masters. They could be beaten, overworked, harassed sexually and in extreme cases, exterminated.
Africans could not tolerate these conditions, which forced them to engage whites and the government in conflicts in order to free themselves. They formed various civil groups that would liberate them from the house of bondage. The civil movements were formed in various places within the country but the major ones were created in 1960s. The civil groups gave Africans and other neglected groups a chance to articulate their issues.
Through the groups, various reforms were made, including constitutional amendments. The civil organizations were first controlled by the government but were later on allowed to operate as private entities. Most groups were controlled by religious organizations and faiths.
Maulana Karenga observes that the major aim of civil groups was to break down impediments that affected socio-political and economic participation within the US society (185). The organizations intended to remove penalties and societal barriers that segregated people based on race and gender. Africans in America had tried to gain political and economic freedom for over a century, being traced back to the Civil War.
This means that in American history, blacks have never enjoyed their freedoms as regards to political participation such as voting for preferred candidates, being voted for, being appointed to key government positions and being involved in governmental decision-making. In the economic front, they were included in the financial system as underdogs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Civil Movements: Discrimination and Its Consequences specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though Africans were making some progress pertaining to their rights and freedoms, the southerners had formulated stricter rules and regulations that could not allow blacks to interact freely in society. The southerners perpetually subjugated and oppressed the civil society. This means that people were not allowed to assemble or move freely.
In the south, Africans could not access equal opportunities in terms of education and social interaction. Public services such as schools, hospitals and other recreational facilities were not available to Africans. Racial discrimination was practiced in all parts of the country. For instance, those individuals who escaped from the south encountered similar problems elsewhere.
The society had an issue with the black race because no one appreciated the fact that each person has an equal opportunity in life. The south implemented unpopular laws, which were oppressive in nature. They were referred to as Crow’s laws. It is evident that the society disliked the black race. The police implemented the law separately. Strict measures were applied to Africans while the whites were favored in many occasions.
In the labor market, blacks never feared any better. They were allocated inferior jobs and were subjected to poor working conditions, without proper housing policies. White citizens harassed blacks but the law enforcement agencies never acted to avert the situation. Blacks were subjected to public beating or were arrested without proper reason in case found intermingling with the whites.
Achievements of Civil Movements Africans in America managed to change some policies that infringed on their rights and freedoms. Unity is one of the factors that helped Africans since they would act as an entity but not as individuals. This ensured that they were not victimized and harassed. The first break through was witnessed in 1909 when the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was formed.
The organization was formed in response to the 1908 riots that occurred in Illinois State. The organization aimed at improving the lifestyles of Africans by condemning racial segregation. However, as Maulana Karenga puts it, the movement was ineffective because it was controlled by the white race. This means that it could not apply techniques such as violent rioting meaning that it was not militant.
To some extent, the movement managed to put off repressive Crow’s laws that permitted the lynching of Africans in public places. The activities of blacks were boosted in 1950s when the high court decided that laws discriminating blacks be put off.
In the education front, the court rejected the south’s move to have a separate educational curriculum for white and black students. It can be concluded that NAACP managed to convince the government to allow Africans to vote. This played a key role in abolishing segregation and racial violence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Civil Movements: Discrimination and Its Consequences by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another important achievement was witnessed in 1956 when rioters stormed the streets demanding for equal representation and freedom of movement. The protests took place at Montgomery Bus station where the blacks decided to change the seating arrangements, which was also racially segregated. For a long time, the rights of blacks had been infringed because they were not allowed to decide where to seat when travelling.
Africans decided not to use bus services and opted for other means of transportation for over a year. This was a blow to the whites. Whites had no option but to grant independence to black passengers. The achievements at Montgomery encouraged other blacks to take part in the same inconsistencies hence granting Africans more powers all over the country.
Civil movements were transformed with the emergency of leaders such as Martin Luther king Jr. The leader was very dynamic as regards to political activities in the entire US. Luther King ensured that blacks made a progress in the political field. The activist was involved in the Montgomery bus strike and other important activities that followed. In particular, he contributed in the establishment of the southern Christian Leadership.
In 1963, he participated in a peaceful demonstration that serves as an icon to the activities of the civil groups. It was at the same time that he gave a famous speech titled ‘I have a dream’. The contents of the speech inspired so many people in the entire US. Luther King was one of the best orators since he commanded a high respect among both whites and blacks.
During the Washington demonstration, he led a group that consisted of over 250, 0000 people. The 1963 demonstration wanted the government to check on police brutality, segregation in public schools and provision of an effective job program.
Africans had no jobs, apart from being harassed by the police. It is unfair to mention civil movements in the US without describing the efforts of Martin Luther King Jr. He was rewarded with a noble peace prize due to his incomparable contributions to the activities of civil organizations. Martin Luther King ensured that each person was allowed to exercise his or her right without state intervention.
Problems Encountered One of the major problems was resistance from whites and government. The activities of blacks were interpreted as a direct violation of law. The police could frequently corner African leaders and harass them thoroughly. Whites ridiculed Africans, terming them as failures. It was very difficult for Africans to convince other races that each person had a right and a role to play in society.
During the development of the movement, Africans were perpetually denied services such as shopping. This implies that whites could not sell anything to Africans. In other words, the civil movements had no government support. They had to fight it alone, which proved to be tricky.
Furthermore, Africans had no resources to be utilized in coordinating their activities. Calling for mass action demands capital. However, Africans soldiered on with their efforts despite lacking enough capital (Jacob 90).
For feminist civil movements, the major problem was unity. Women were not united because their objectives were not uniform. Black women were much concerned about living standards and improvement of social services such as healthcare, medication, childcare services and food security. On the other hand, academic feminists wanted the state to recognize academic literature formulated by women.
They proposed that feminist courses should be incorporated in the national curricula. In this field, feminine courses are currently offered in various institutions of higher learning. White feminism wanted the government to institute laws that could provide them with equal opportunities.
They were also concerned about domestic violence where women were forced to have sex with their male counterparts. Conflict of interests could be singled out as the major problem encountered by women in their quest to freedom (McPherson 89).
Conclusion Overall, the civil rights movements have helped black people and other minorities achieve their dreams and goals. The civil groups insist that an individual has the right to do as he or she wishes as long as he or she does not violate the law. In this regard, each person has the potential to fulfill his or her wishes. The state should only act as a means to individual fulfillment. This has seen many blacks participate in elections actively.
It is not surprising that the current US president is a black. This is highly attributable to the activities of civil movements since independence. However, racial and gender discrimination is still eminent in society. However, more needs to be done to eliminate the problem.
Works Cited Azevedo, Joaquim. Africana studies: a survey of Africa and the African Diaspora. 3rd ed. Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 2005. Web.
Jacob, Harriet. Incidents in the life of a slave girl. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2007. Print.
Karenga, Maulana. Introduction to Black studies. 2nd ed. Michigan: University of Sankore Press, 2010. Web.
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford: Pulitzer Prize, 2003. Print.
Electronic Cigarettes: Could they Help University Students Give Smoking Up? Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help
The Habit of Smoking Reasons why University Students Smoke
University students use smoking to alleviate stress from constant studying and the constant pressures in their social lives. Others start smoking due to the peer pressure from their friends. Students, especially those who suffer from low self esteem, are the most likely to start smoking in an effort to blend in with “the crowd”, who in this case are their peers (Zachary
1.Compare and contrast those ways of knowing with the methodology of early pioneers of psychology as a science: Wundt and Essay college essay help near me
1.Compare and contrast those ways of knowing with the methodology of early pioneers of psychology as a science: Wundt and James. How are they similar and how are they different? 2.What are at least two concepts from this week’s lecture that were new to you and changed the way you thought about academic and scientific research? 3.What are some early ideas that you have for your research paper topics and how do you imagine that this week’s lecture might help you to study those topics? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7DExxLBelk this is the lecture video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-3vY9xjElM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g66pX_-Q9kU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0B3Gjlu-1o research paper video topics
Language Intervention – Accents and Dialects Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Dialects and accents
Factors that influence the emergence of new dialects
Importance of dialects and accents in society
Introduction Language of any culture has over the year’s undergone changes in varying degrees. This is due to the change in lifestyles that has seen new vocabularies introduced into the existing language. Such alterations have contributed to the rise of dialects in the respective languages used across the world. While most people believe that an accent is something that other people have, the reality is that everyone has an accent.
Accents allow us to make a distinction between people from different regions. A dialect and an accent can be differentiated by listening to the changes in vocabulary and the changes in the sound of a speaker. This paper will look at the role of regional accents and dialects in the modern society, highlighting their contribution in our lives.
Dialects and accents An accent is socially distinct. It affects the way we interact with other people. According to Wells, people rely on a speaker’s speech to try and identify where the person grew up and the region you come from1. This is because a persons accent is a powerful indicator of his/her geographical identity.
An accent according to most people is a pronunciation that is different from their own. The accent may be considered as inferior or superior by other people, but it may be socially distinct.
An accent is also geographically distinct; this could be endorsed by the use of words such as “a Scottish accent” or a “British accent” while referring to other peoples accents. These tags have various meanings and vary depending on where we live.
Most linguists share the point of view that every speaker of a language speaks it with an accent. The accent acquired is highly influenced by the persons geographical location. After studying the geographical patterns of different countries in Europe, Wells, notes that it is possible to plot a map showing the geographical patters of people, using their geographical distribution.2
Over the years though, it has become increasingly difficult to link the various accents used with certain geographical locations. This is due to the geographical mobility of the population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The result is that we can no longer use the geographical distribution model to pin point the language distribution across the different regions. Wells notes that people are moving from place to place diluting the geographical distribution that existed. We are more likely to make generalization about which regions an accent belongs.3 The model tends to fail due to the lack of local geographical variation within each country.
Countries around the world have quite a high degree of social variation in accent attributed among other factors, the increased mobility. Among the countries with such social variation include: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. It is important to note that the characteristics thought to be ethnic are in fact geographical.
Factors that influence the emergence of new dialects Community practice has contributed to the emergence of new dialects. Denham
Causes of Civil War in America Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
The source of Civil War in America could have resulted from various reasons. For instance, slavery in the U.S greatly triggered the eruption of Civil War in America. It started in Virginia as early as 1619. Before the Civil War, the conflict between the northern and southern American States revolved around the issue of slavery.
The southern politicians managed to maintain the control of the federal government throughout the first half of the 19th century by assuring the southerners to defend the abolition of the slavery in those states that supported the use of slave labor in the American cotton plantations.
Despite the fact that most presidents from the United States of America came from the south, the southern politicians were generally concerned about maintaining a balance of power within the senate. The balance was important to them to maintain the use of slave labor.
However, the challenge to maintain a balance between those states that supported the liberty of slaves as well as those that supported slavery heightened as more states were included into the union. In 1820, Maine joined the union as a free state, while Missouri joined the union as a slave trade.
The balance between those states that supported the use of slave labor in American plantations and those that opposed it was compromised in 1850 when the union allowed California to join it as a free state in exchange of laws that were meant to enforce slavery. The balance was further worsened when Minnesota and Oregon states that supported liberty of slaves joined the union later on (Hickman 4).
The diverse views that existed between the northern and southern states about slavery symbolized the philosophical as well as economical differences that existed between the northern and southern states.
Whereas the northern states believed in industrialization, infrastructural growth, influx of Europeans immigrations, high birth rates as well as urbanization, the southern states embraced agrarian plantations economy that was sparsely populated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The high boost in northern population together with the incorporation of more free states in the union increased the chances of an election of a northern president who was anti-slavery (Hickman 4).
There was a lot of anxiety in the elections held on1860 which resulted from the division of the democrats. The absence of a candidate with a national appeal signaled an impending change. Abraham Lincoln was the candidate who was vying for the presidency as a republican, while Stephen Douglas was for the northern Democrats.
The southerners nominated John C.Breckinridge and the Border States formed a new party referred to as the Constitutional party and nominated John C. Bell as their own candidate. After the elections Abraham Lincoln was declared the winner of the north, while Breckinridge won in the south, Bell the winner of the Border States, while Douglas won the Missouri and New Jersey states.
Because of the high population that existed in the northern states as a result of their well formulated policies that encouraged urbanization, high birth rate as well as high influx of European immigrations, Abraham Lincoln managed to lead all the candidates in votes. The victory of Lincoln brought a lot of apprehension in the union since he was anti-slavery.
The southerners had always feared any probability of the union government being under the control of anti-slavery. The victory of Abraham Lincoln resulted to secession of those states that supported slavery from the union. Those states that declared a downturn from the union included states such as Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Louisiana as well as Georgia (Kidport.com par.3).
The splitting of the union resulted to an eruption of a Civil War in America. It is believed to be the bitterest conflict that has ever occurred in the United States of America. The cause of the Civil War in the United States of America was highly attributed to the election of Abraham Lincoln and in particular as a result of the significant lifestyle difference that existed between the northern and the southern states.
The northern states of America were heavily industrialized with factories and manufacturing was their main occupation. Conversely, the southern states relied heavily on agriculture. They had established big cotton plantations that demanded large number of workers to provide labor when planting as well as while harvesting the cotton (Hickman 5).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Causes of Civil War in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While slave trade was declared illegal as early as 1800, the slaves that were working on American cotton plantations were not freed. The Northern states pushed for complete abolishment of slavery since they did not require slaves to work in their industries.
The northern states were accommodative and had assimilated the concept of industrialization from the European nations as well as from those Europeans who had migrated in the states. On the other hand, the southerners were conservative and greatly opposed the influx immigration of the Europeans in their states.
Their rigidity and inability to accommodate new people and new ideas developed the southerners into conservative people who lacked a vision of the impending change that was sure to come in the near future. Therefore, the southerners can be highly blamed to be the cause of Civil War in America (Enotes.com par.5).
The southern states continued to use slaves to provide free and compulsory labor in their plantations despite the abolition of slavery as early as 1800. They feared that the ban of slave labor will result to severe economic impacts on them, since they greatly relied on slaves to provide labor in their plantations. On the other hand, the southerners should have accepted the abolition of slave trade early enough to avoid such incidents.
They should have been aware that the use of free and compulsory labor could not last forever. In addition, they had enough time to strategize on how to adapt alternative methods to provide labor in their plantations.
Sixty years after the abolition of slavery was enough time for the southerners to transform their farming methodologies. For instance, they could have negotiated with the slaves on how to compensate them after working in their farms, instead of pressurizing them to work in their plantations for free. The election of Abraham Lincoln meant doom to the southerners. This was because he was opposed to the concept of slavery.
Thus, that is the reason that prompted those states that supported slave trade to opt to break away from supporting him. After receding, they formed the Confederate States of America. Subsequently, this resulted to the eruption of the civil war that lasted for approximately 4 years. The War consisted of more than 50 main battles and over 5000 minor combats. The battles resulted to over 600,000 deaths.
Nevertheless, the union soldiers were more powerful and possessed more resources. For this reason, they eventually defeated the Confederate soldiers. On April 9, 1865 General Lee who was the commander leading the Confederate troops surrendered and thus the war came to an end. Five days after the end of the War, a treaty was signed and President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by southerner sympathizers (Hoemann par. 5).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Causes of Civil War in America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Enotes.com. “U.S. Civil War.” 2011. Web.
Hickman, Kennedy. “American Civil War: Causes.” 2011.Web.
Hoemann, George. “American Civil War.” 2011. Web.
Kidport.com. “The American Civil War.” 2011. Web.
Ethical Relativism in Human Rights Analytical Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Nature of the Human Society
Human Rights Progress
Contemporary ethical relativism can be traced to Edward Westermarck’s work in the book, “Ethical relativity and the development of Ethical ideas” (MacKinnon 230). Relativism defines the variations in levels of truth or principles.
This is a philosophical concept that acknowledges varied levels of human rights, depending on the situation or circumstance. Proponents of subjectivism have voiced several arguments against ethical relativism because relativism is associated with the denial of objectivity (Frederick 187).
Human right arguments against relativism are supported by the fact that human rights are normally perceived to be universal. From this understanding, people who voice the opinion that different degrees of human rights should be acknowledged often support the ethical relativism concept.
The ethical relativism debate is revolutionary because most of our global principles and ideas about human rights keep changing by the day. For instance, modern-day human rights principles are more sophisticated than conventional human rights principles.
For instance, sexuality has consistently changed across human generations. Currently, there are gay rights, homosexual rights and such like issues, which were never present before. Our ideas and values as a society have therefore changed over the years.
The fragmentation of the society is also another important issue to be understood in the study of ethical relativism. In fact, the fragmentation of the society is at the center of this debate because our beliefs, values and ideals are different. For instance, what may be perceived to be normal in Asia may not be normal in America. Similarly, what may be perceived to be normal in Africa may not be normal in Europe.
For example, certain cultural practices in Africa and Asia (such as female genital mutilation) is perceived to be a normal cultural practice in some parts of Africa and Asia but the same practice may be termed a violation of human rights in Europe or America. The ethical relativism debate is therefore a dicey issue in today’s society and the entire controversy is getting more complicated with the evolution of human ideals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on this understanding, this paper argues against the fact that contemporary ethical relativism should be included in modern-day human right movements. To support this point of view, the nature of human society, the standardization of human rights and the progress of human rights will be analyzed.
Nature of the Human Society Proponents of contemporary ethical relativism argue that the human society is inherently divided and independent. In this regard, they propose that human rights should acknowledge these distinctions and apply a fragmented application of human rights principles.
This argument is flawed because when studying the human society, the society is not perceived to be dotted with racial, gender, cultural and such like distinctions (Raven 3). Therefore, the society is not defined by these elements.
In the evolution of the human right movement, the society is not perceived from its “fragmented” point of view. Essentially, human rights tend to refer to all human beings because there is no person who is better or less human than the other is. People live in one society and encounter almost the same experiences in life.
For instance, the same reasons that a society may perceive a cultural practice to be unethical is the same reason another society may see the same practice to be unethical. For instance, some societies are known to preserve life more than others do.
However, other societies may perceive death to be a normal occurrence and therefore, there is a possibility that human rights implementation may not be as effective as societies that have a high regard for human life. Nonetheless, though there may be variations in perception, the same principle of life remains the same.
Life is precious for every human being. It would be a misconceived idea to believe that life is important for one group in the society, while it is not important for another group. The idea of ethical relativism therefore stands to be reviewed because human rights are not relative; they are the same across all divisions of the society (Raven 3).
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Relativism in Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Standardization Ethical relativism is normally considered a philosophy that emanates from the concept of circumstance. For instance, ethical thoughts are borne from a predetermined way of doing things (which may vary across circumstances and societies). As a result, ethical relativism is a concept that depends on the actions of others.
Considering people have different perceptions and actions, there is no standard way of perceiving ethical actions. In other words, there is no single measure of comparison to understand one ethical practice viz-a-viz another (Globe Ethics 1). For instance, on the political front, China and the US have adopted different perspectives of democracy and its gains.
With the growing emergence of China as a world super power, there have been growing ideas that democracy does not entirely amount to economic prosperity. A comparison is hereby made between China and the US because China does not practice democracy in the same way the US does. Conversely, there is no standardized measure of determining success.
Human rights tend to instill a sense of standardization across societies because it is universal (Donnelly 1). The concept of ethical relativism fails the standardization benchmark because we cannot determine what a human right is and what is not.
In fact, if the same concept of ethical relativism were left to infiltrate the human rights movement, the entire concept of human rights would fade. Instead, there would be a fragmented application of human rights, where societies violate the rights of individuals and hide behind the fact that human rights are relative.
There have been many occasions where several governments have committed human right violations in the world. Such crimes have been witnessed in Yugoslavia, Darfur (Sudan), Liberia among other places. A lack of standardization (like the ethical relativism concept suggests) would mean that such human rights violations will be unpunished.
For instance, the establishment of the international criminal court is the embodiment of universal human rights, which offers a benchmark for standardization. Therefore, regardless of their locality, people can still be held accountable for human right violations.
For instance, in the recent past, the world has been treated to episodes of former presidents (such as Charles Taylor) being taken to the international criminal court to answer against charges of human rights. Even though the ICC court is based in Hague, leaders all over the world have to answer to it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Relativism in Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The universality of the human right applications has therefore brought accountability in the world. If ethical relativism were left to infiltrate the human rights movement, human right violators would not be held accountable for their actions.
Human Rights Progress The concept of ethical relativism not only stipulates that we cannot make comparisons regarding different ethical principles; it also stipulates that we cannot make comparisons regarding human right progress across time (Donnelly 1). In this situation, it is difficult to establish if the world is making progress regarding human rights or not.
In a world of relativism, it would almost be impossible to establish if there is societal development, or not. In fact, the entire concept of civilization would disappear because civilization is the growth in societal ideals and values across time (Donnelly 15). Moreover, civilization is a common benchmark of the society where different societies evaluate their progress across time.
The same principle is applicable in human rights because the concept of human right is progressive. In fact, the essence of this paper is to evaluate the influence of ethical relativism on the human rights movement.
In a world of ethical relativism, there would be no human right movement because the concept of time would be eliminated. Comprehensively, it would be correct to note that ethical relativism does not make sense of human rights progress.
Conclusion Weighing the arguments on ethical relativism, this paper notes that the concept of ethical relativism should have no place in human rights movements. Ethical relativism misrepresents the very nature of the human society because it introduces a fragmented nature in our human form, which does not exist.
In addition, contemporary ethical relativism introduces the element of variation in the application of human rights, thereby alienating the concept of accountability in the human society. In such a situation, it would be difficult to hold people accountable for their actions.
Lastly, this paper explains that, contemporary ethical relativism is insensitive to the philosophy of human rights progress. A sense of stagnancy is therefore likely to be experienced in such a case. Comprehensively, factoring the above arguments, contemporary ethical relativism should have no place in modern-day human rights movement.
Works Cited Donnelly, Jack. Universal Human Rights In Theory And Practice. Cornell: Cornell University Press, 2003. Print.
Frederick, Robert. A Companion To Business Ethics. London: John Wiley
Economy of United Arab Emirates Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Oil and Gas in the UAE
Current and future of UAE
Introduction United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federal state located in the Middle East region. It is precisely found in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf and it borders Oman and Saudi Arabia (USA International Publications, 2007).
Moreover, the federal neighbors Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran. UAE became a federal in 1971, and the states that make up UAE federal state include Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Furairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain (USA International Publications, 2007). Today, UAE has its capital in Abu Dhabi, which also acts as the political, economic, and social administrative center of the federal state.
The official language of the federal is Arabic, while Islam is the official religion. The form of government is a constitutional monarchy, where the current president is Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahayan, while the prime minister is known as Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (USA International Publications, 2007).
UAE’s per capita GDP is estimated to be at par with those of leading West European nations, while the growth of economy has largely been associated with oil revenue and increasing service sector economy.
Socio-Economic Background Before the formation of the federal states and the discovery of oil within the UAE federal, the country’s economy depended largely on subsistence agriculture, nomadic animal husbandry, extraction of pearls and the trade in pearls, fishing, and seafaring (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
During this period, the country was ‘unaware’ of oil resources and therefore, what was witnessed was limited exploitation of natural resources in the country, which later resulted into emergence and continued exercise of simple subsistence economy (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Economic development for the country is traced to the formulation of The UAE First Development Decade, which was formulated in 1970, prior to the formation of the federal states on 2 December 1971 (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was the moment the federal established roadmap for the development of its formal economic, social, and political institutions and coincided with massive increase in extraction and production of oil resources. The economic growth of the country was to be boosted in 1973 when the world witnessed massive increase in oil prices, a situation that led to increased oil export by the federal state (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Since its formation, UAE has enjoyed relative political stability, where political structures in the country appear to resonate well among the different ethnic groups in the country.
Moreover, the country’s political class has constantly tried to enhance equitable distribution of oil resources and this has led to development and high performance of social and economic infrastructure, high salaries for workers, and high standard of social services such as health and education (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
This has raised living standards in the country and effectively reducing the likelihood of internal political and social unrest. Moreover, the government of the federal since its formation has continuously promoted aspects of human rights, and this, in essence, has led to promotion and maintenance of political and social stability (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Since its formation, UAE Federal State has been trying to promote and develop key economic sectors in the country. However, the dominant economic sector, from which the federal continues to generate high revenues, is oil, gas and mineral economy (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). The country is perceived to contain vast reserves of oil, both offshore and onshore.
At the moment, UAE is believed to be drilling and producing about 2 million barrels of oil daily, although with enhanced technology, the country can produced up to 3 million barrels of oil a day (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
According to 2000 estimates, it was established that UAE has in possession around 98.8 billion barrels of oil which makes the country as the third largest oil reserves in the world after Saudi Arabia and Iraq (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Economy of United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, UAE’s oil reserves are estimated to constitute 10% of overall global oil reserves as per 2000 estimates (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Given its daily production of oil, UAE’s oil reserves have been estimated to have a lifespan of around 123 years before they can be depleted.
Natural gases constitute another resource that UAE economy depends on. For example, in 2000, it was estimated that UAE has an approximately 6 trillion cubic meters of proven gas (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). At the same time, it was established that the country possess about 4% of total gas reserves. As a result, UAE is ranked at position four in the entire world as far as gas production and reserves are concerned.
Daily production of gas in the country is estimated to be about 2940 million cubic feet, where if the current daily gas production is maintained, the reserves of gas the country holds will last for around 60 years (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Other natural minerals that are vital to the economy of the country can be subdivided into three categories: rocks, sand and soils, and metals. Rocks and sand have been exploited where they are widely used in the construction industry.
Although still poorly performing, agriculture constitutes another sector to the economy, which contributes about 4% to the GDO (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Agriculture development in the country has largely been limited with scarcity of land, harsh environmental conditions, and limited water resources (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). However, the government for the last 30 years has been increasing efforts to develop agriculture sector through numerous incentives and support programmes.
Service sector is also growing as one avenue contributing to the growth of UAE economy.
Today, the country GDP has been boosted by service sector economy elements like: commerce; hospitality industry, comprising restaurants and hotels; transport sector; storage sector; communications; finance and insurance; real estates and related government services (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). At the moment, it is estimated that the service sector contribute about 40% to the GDP of the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economy of United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Oil and Gas in the UAE In 1981, there was the establishment of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which brought together six countries of Middle East involved in the production of hydrocarbons resources (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003). The six countries that make up the GCC block include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
The countries came together with the aim of helping each other grow and progress economically. In order to achieve these economic goals, the GCC Block aimed at coordinating country members’ financial, monetary, and banking policies that was aimed at establishing a common monetary union (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
The countries came together largely given their commonality in aspects of politics, cultural, language, economic background, and religious aspects. Involved countries entered into agreement that aimed at cooperating in matters of economy.
One of the major achievements of the GCC Block has been realized through introduction of single currency in the GCC member states based on the commonality aspects member countries share.
The major objective for this initiative is to see member countries build on a considerable degree of monetary convergence in about ten years to come that is characterized by high degree of exchange rate stability, general low inflation rates, and co-moving interest rates (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
At the same time, GCC Countries as part of their cooperation set plans to integrate their stock markets, where already some attempts have been made towards this goal.
Initially, two plans were available for implementation and they included merging all the stock markets into a regional bourse and also connecting them and establishing common unified rules and regulations.
Member countries were to operate within the regulations in their individual stock exchange and this in turn was to make it possible for the citizens of the member countries to trade in stocks under similar rules (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
The role of this regional block to member countries can be perceived within the purviews the countries have made as far as economic integration is concerned. The preoccupations among member countries have been premised on the need to achieve economic and financial integration.
Numerous efforts have been made by member countries and such efforts include lifting formal impediments that earlier restricted free movement of national goods, labor, and capital across the countries. Subsequently, the countries have been able to develop similar policy preferences in key areas of concern.
For example, the countries have been successful in maintaining price and nominal exchange rate stability, together with an open trade regime and liberal capital flows. Moreover, the countries of GCC have been able to initiate in place an open-border foreign labor policy that aims to ensure there is sufficient supply of labor across the countries.
It should be remembered that, activities carried out by GCC countries has not just concentrated at seeing growth in hydrocarbons sector but has also accelerated efforts at initiating structural and institutional reforms aimed at encouraging diversification, enhancing non-oil growth, and also developing human capital (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
As a result of these efforts to promote common economic goals among the GCC Countries, the member countries have been able to increase their GDP per capita by about 32% especially from 2002-2007 (Saif, 2009).
Oil producing countries across the world have for a long time operated under the umbrella of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which in its entity is a permanent, intergovernmental organization (OPEC, N.d).
It was established in 1960 at conference held in Baghdad where the pioneer countries of the organization included: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela (OPEC, N.d).
Later on, these countries were joined by other oil producing countries such as Libya, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola, and Gabon (OPEC, N.d). Each of these countries joined at its own specific year with the earliest being Libya in 1962 while the latest to join being Angola in 2007 (OPEC, N.d).
Furthermore, countries like Indonesia and Gabon have since suspended their membership in the organization. OPEC mission is integrated in its broad objective, which is aimed at; co-coordinating and unifying petroleum policies among the member countries with sole goal of enabling the members secure fair and stable prices for their petroleum products (OPEC, N.d).
Moreover, the organization works to enhance members achieve an efficient, economic, and regular supply of petroleum to the consuming nations through the established policies to enhance efficient oil production. The policies adopted are largely aimed at ensuring the countries receive fair return on capital they have invested in the industry (OPEC, N.d).
OPEC operations and mandate in the wider environment of ‘petro-politics’ and ‘petro-economies’ has been to see oil producing countries receive benefit is for their hydrocarbons resources. In this way, OPEC has been at the forefront in advocating and leading the pace in setting oil prices at international level aimed at benefiting member countries.
Moreover, the organization is actively involved in regulating oil production among member countries through quotas and this is precisely aimed at ensuring members reap maximum benefits from their oil resources.
OPEC activities in the wider perspective have been viewed to constitute those of cartel tendencies, where the organization has actively participated in activities such as initiating pricing system for crude oil in the global market, introducing group production ceiling, initiating reference basket pricing, enhancing dialogue and cooperation between OPEC and non-OPEC countries, and ensuring oil market stability is realized (OPEC, N.d).
UAE being one of the members of OPEC has operated under the regulation of OPEC whereby the organization sets quotas for the member countries as far as oil production is concerned. Oil quotas operate as limits within which member states have to produce oil and not exceed the level or amount accepted.
Every year, OPEC reviews the oil quotas for each member state and as a regulation, each member is supposed to adhere to the set regulations.
The OPEC quotas aim at regulating oil production among member states with strength of ensuring fair competition prevail and that, members are able to receive benefits for the oil they produce. Nevertheless, in recent times, there have been concerns especially in UAE with regard to OPEC quotas where UAE believe that OPEC quota for the country has failed to reflect the size of its resources (Ayalon, 1992).
Moreover, the country believes that, concessions to other producers within the cartel were being made at its expense.
Advantages of OPEC quotas have been largely reflected in the manner member countries like UAE have been able to realize genuine revenue generated through oil production and international price stabilization but disadvantages on the other hand have effectively been manifested through limit countries have been made to operate within (Ayalon, 1992).
Non-Oil Sectors Economic diversification in the UAE started in 1970s, specifically after the discovery that Dubai had no enough oil resources. The government therefore set in motion to diversify the economy of the federation from over-dependence on oil.
Today, UAE diversified economy is booming to an extent that average annual non-oil growth rates in the country witnessed progress from initial 3.6% between 1981 and 1990 to 7.3% between 1991 to 2000 (USA International Publications, 2007).
Much of this growth has been stimulated by a surge in trade and manufacturing as well as the evolution of the UAE finance and insurance sectors (USA International Publications, 2007).
For instance, UAE government continue to promote liberalized trade regime which is further coupled by the country’s favorable geographical location and the country has in turn evolved into a powerful financial center among the GCC Countries (USA International Publications, 2007). At the same time, the backbone of the financial system is the banking sector, which is the second largest in the GCC in terms of total assets.
Apart from the financial sector, the tourism sector in the country is booming and it plays a significant economic role in the country, especially in Dubai. Investment from the government in the last number of years has seen growth and progress of tourism sector in the country and specifically in Dubai.
Investment in the sector has been directed at developing infrastructure and enhancing advertisement and marketing of the sector, and today Dubai is one of growing centers in the world visited by large number of visitors every year.
The developments in this sector and the related sectors have continued to play positive role to the country’s GDP whereby, the overall share of non-oil GDP rose from 35% in 1980 to over 70% in 2002 (USA International Publications, 2007).
Manufacturing industries have also emerged largely sprouting from the hydrocarbon sector. For example, in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, there has been massive establishment of manufacturing industries, which specialize in the production of fertilizers and cement. Furthermore, gas products have been promoted through establishment of various industries.
Market for these products has been both at local and international market where demand has forced the concerned industries to increase and enhance their production capacity. Other areas of specialization with regard to manufacturing industry has been in the limestone and marble mining and processing which again plays critical role to the country’s economy.
Agriculture has also become another area UAE has constantly injected resources and these efforts have bore fruits. For instance, the agricultural although affected largely by poor climatic conditions in the country continue to experience remarkable results where production has continued to increase.
Furthermore, immediately the country gained independence and the first ten years saw an increase of about 200% in food production in the country where also land under cultivation increased by about 500% ().
The federal government commitment to the promotion of the national agriculture of the country can be evident through increased annual budget allotment, which is estimated to be about $ 100 million every year (Peck, 1986). Further, every Emirate has been increasing its budgetary allocation to the agriculture sector a situation that has seen greater expansion and growth of agriculture.
Transport has become the key area the federal state of UAE has tried to open up its economy to local and outsider players. The country’s conviction is that presence of vibrant trade and commerce activities are the key to economic development and growth of the country.
In order to maintain contact and continued interaction with outside and local markets, the country continues to invest heavily in transport sector, which in turn has accelerated the country’s economic base.
For example, UAE has been involved in developing key transportation infrastructure projects that include Port Khalifa and industrial zone at Taweelah. In addition, there has been initiation of a mega-project (Union Railway project) which has an estimate cost of $ 8 billion (Anonymous, 2011).
The Abu Dhabi International Airport is another key project the country has heavily invested in where the cost of this project amounts to about $ 6.7 billion. More transport infrastructure that the country has heavily invested includes the expansion of the Dubai metro and construction of the Abu Dhabi metro and light rail (Anonymous, 2011).
The essence of all these transport projects is to see development of UAE economy especially through increased bilateral and multilateral trade relations. The country envision growth of economy specifically through presence of new systems construction that are largely related to multi-modal freight and intelligent supply chain management which in totality possess the ability to increase trade opportunities.
Current and future of UAE UAE economy as it appears for now seems to be largely diversified and oil economy no longer remains the sole backbone of the country’s economy. Nevertheless, the oil revenues remain the key resources to stimulate economies of other sectors. Together with the oil economy, service economy in UAE has been thriving at a promising rate a situation that has led to growth of UAE economy (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
As more effort remains centered on improving and accelerating the non-oil sector, it can be seen that economic development of the federal is likely to continue on an upward trend. For example, in 2003 and the subsequent four year-periods, the economy of the country oscillated around 10% and Abu Dhabi was the key contributing emirate (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
Oil remains the single-most contributor to the GDP of the country, accounting for about 35% of the GDP (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Following the oil sector is the manufacturing sector, which account for about 13% to the GDP of the country.
Trade and repair is at position three where it is perceived to account for about 11% of the GDP to the economy and thereafter, real estate sector contribute about 8% to the country’s GDP (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Predicted economic growth and progress for the country remain live despite impacts of financial crises that took place recently.
The advantage the country has can be exhibited in its strong economic fundamentals, which appear to be solid and steadfast despite the financial challenges. Because of these, in 2008, it was predicted that UAE real GDP growth would accelerate by about 6.5% with potentials of reaching 7% over the next five years despite the impacts of global economic slowdown (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
Inflation remains worry- factor in the federation and in the larger GCC Countries block. This aspect has become serious to extend that there was delayed GCC monetary union. The inflation in the region can be explained by the windfall gains from high oil prices, which gave GCC Countries more cash than many of their domestic markets could handle.
As a result, inflation has gradually become the bugbear that follows the successes of every economy in the region. In 2007, UAE surpassed the psychological inflation barrier of 10%, which further translated to an increase of 11.1% rise in the price of goods and services (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
Furthermore, in 2008, report by Samba Financial Group indicated that, inflation in the UAE went into double figures that reached 11.1% while it was 11.3% in Dubai and 11.7% in Abu Dhabi, which meant that consumer price index growth could be to something closer to 20% (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
Predicted economic growth
Source: Oxford Business Group, 2008
Conclusion UAE since it got its independence has become an economic hub and its influence within the GCC region countries continue to increase. Today, UAE is one of the leading countries in the world as far as matters of GDP and per capita growth are concerned. Moreover, the country has one of the satisfied citizenry populations in the world and this can be associated to increased equitable distribution of resources in the country.
Oil and gas resources are the key aspects upon which the economy of the country is founded and for a long time, revenues from the hydrocarbons remain the backbone of GDP for the country. Nevertheless, some emirates like Dubai have been found to be less blessed with these vast natural resources and the country has in return increased efforts to diversify its economy.
As a result, today the country has diversified its economy to numerous sectors such as construction and real estate, transport, financing, agriculture, tourism, and the entire service sector. The fruits from these diversifications are numerous, with results being reflected in the continued growth of the country’s GDP.
Furthermore, it has to be noted that, growth and economic progress in the country has come about due to political stability and transparency in the distribution of resources, which in turn has enabled the government to initiate more economic strategic plans and policies.
Therefore, as much as oil and gas resources remain key to economy of UAE, it should be remembered that non-oil sector at the same time is promising and remain quite viable hence numerous investments should be directed at these sectors.
References Al-Abed, I.,
A Brief History of the Conflict between India and Pakistan Essay college admissions essay help
India and Pakistan are listed among countries that have had complicated relationships for a very long time in history. The two countries gained their sovereignty from Britain simultaneously in 1947. This independence marked a separation of the former British India into two major countries, India and Pakistan.
According to the separation agreement, Pakistan was to cover an area occupied by approximately 75% of Muslims while the rest of the population was to occupy the remaining area, currently known as India (Indurthy 2). Nevertheless, the separation was not to be a source of peace as the two countries fought over Kashmir, with history recording three major battles in 1947, 1965 and 1999.
Despite numerous efforts that have been engaged to settle the matter, tension has remained high between the two countries. This fight for territorial occupation can be compared to that between Israel and Palestine, which have continuously fought over Gaza.
This essay gives a brief history of the conflict between India and Pakistan, with special coverage on the genesis of the conflict, historical wars and efforts, which have been witnessed in finding a lasting solution in the region.
The genesis of the India-Pakistan conflict dates back in 1947 when Hari Singh, resisted the decision to have Kashmir join either India or Pakistan with the hope of gaining state independence or recognition from the two nations. In his attempts to waste time, Singh signed two standstill agreements with both sides although they never materialized (Indurthy 2).
There was violence that erupted after India and Pakistan declared their independence. This violence involved Muslims, Sikhs and the Hindus and in September the same year, riots extended to Kashmir as the war was considered to be a resistance against Muslims. As a result, West Kashmir Muslims fell out with Maharaja and formed an independent government of Kashmir.
On October 22, 1979, Kashmir was invaded by Pathan-armed tribes who were mainly from the Northwest Frontier Province, extending beyond fifteen kilometers from the country’s headquarters (Malik et al. 28).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sigh sought the intervention of India, which refused until Maharaja ratified the instrument of occasion which had been signed by other princely states. After a deal was reached, Indian troops responded in Kashmir on 27th October to repel the intruders (Indurthy 3).
The Indian intervention angered General Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who ordered Pakistani regular troops to be dispatched in Kashmir, a command that was resisted by Field Marshall Auchinleck, who persuaded the governor to withdraw the decree (Malik et al. 28).
However, in November, Jinnah agreed to supply the invaders with military equipment before sending ‘volunteer’ troops to Kashmir in 1948. Despite Pakistan’s involvement, Jinnah denied his country’s direct participation in the conflict in Kashmir until mid 1948 (Indurthy 3). Due to this involvement, India considered lodging a complaint with the UN Security Council.
The aim of this complaint was to invoke articles 34 and 35 of the charter which recommended peaceful settlement of the conflict between India and Pakistan.
The UN Security Council responded on January 20, 1948 by establishing a commission that was mandated to investigate the events and situation in Kashmir. This commission was later expanded to have five members in April that year and was given the responsibility of organizing for a plebiscite after the departure of all the tribal troops in the region.
A ceasefire was later agreed upon in July 1948 after which tribal troops left Kashmir. This agreement was effected early January 1949, a time when one-third of the state was still under the control of Pakistan. The Line of Ceasefire was monitored by both India and Pakistan under UN directives.
After the appointment of Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz to act as the administrator of the plebiscite, the two sides objected the implementation of the Karachi agreement, based on their different interpretations of the UNCIP on demilitarization. General A. G. L. McNaughton led the demilitarization agreement starting December 1949 even though India objected it after citing legal and moral concerns (Indurthy 4).
We will write a custom Essay on A Brief History of the Conflict between India and Pakistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Between 1951 and 1953, efforts to have the two countries reduce their military presence in Kashmir fell on deaf ears. The two countries withdrew the conflict from UN’s hands and decided to handle it following a meeting between Nehru and Ali Bogra during a Commonwealth conference in June 1953. Nehru’s efforts to conduct plebiscites in Kashmir were thwarted by political interests of General Ayub Khan, who wanted to oust him.
The U.S.-led Baghdad Pact of April 1954 and the SEATO of September 1956 forced Nehru to change his mind arguing that Pakistan’s alliance with the U.S. had nullified the plebiscite agreement (Indurthy 6).
The 1954 States Constituent Assembly’s resolution to recognize the accession of Kashmir to India was final, a stance that was rejected by Pakistan and the UN Security Council, reaffirming its position on a plebiscite in 1957. When a proposal to refer the issue to arbitration was put forward in April 1957, only Pakistan accepted.
After mediation and arbitration efforts by the United Nations had failed, the two countries fought over Kashmir in 1965. It is believed that the war begun after Pakistan became frustrated following continuous integration of Kashmir by India. Having had victory over India before, it planned to launch “Operation Gibraltar”, whose aim was to repossess Kashmir.
The war ended after the intervention of the United Nations, which pushed for peaceful negotiations and ceasefire. The two sides further fought in 1971, an encounter whose main outcome was the birth of Bangladesh, a region that was located to the East of Pakistan (Indurthy 6).
In 1974, India ignited its nuclear device in preparation for fierce protection of its territory. With tension still high in the two regions, separatists begun in Indian Kashmir with Pakistan carrying the blame of providing arms to Islamist militants (Haider 1).
The two countries engaged in a brief battle in 1999 at the Line of Control, before a summit that brought together Vajpayee of India and General Pervez Musharraf in July 2001 failed. In December 2001, Indian parliament was attacked by militants resulting into a harsh blame by India on Pakistan.
Moreover, the two sides started mobilizing more than a million troops, a plan that was drooped in 2002. In an attempt to find a solution to their conflict, India and Pakistan agreed to end fighting on the Line of Control in 2003 before establishing a formal peace finding process in 2004 (Haider 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Brief History of the Conflict between India and Pakistan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After an attack by Pakistan’s militants on Mumbai in November 2008 that killed 166 people, India resolved to break the peace talks. Pakistan admitted its involvement in 2009 after an investigation had been carried out (Haider 1).
Consequently, India insisted on removal of militant groups in Pakistan before resuming peace talks. After talks and consultations, Prime Minister Sigh considered the resumption of the “composite dialogue” that had been pushed for by Islamabad.
In January 2010, there were series of fire exchange on the border, raising tension and alarm before India invited Pakistan for fresh peace talks in February, as the duo agreed to conduct them at the high diplomatic level (Haider 1).
From the above summary of historic events between India and Pakistan, clearly the possibility of finding a lifetime solution lies squarely in the hands of Indian and Pakistani leaders. However, the international community through the UN Security Council has a role to play in promoting peace efforts. Nevertheless, nuclear war between the two states cannot be ignored as both sides have tested their devices before.
Works Cited Haider, Zeeshan. “Timeline-Flashpoints and flare-ups in India-Pakistan ties.” Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, 2010. Web.
Indurthy, Rathnam. “Kashmir between India and Pakistan: An Intractable Conflict, 1947 to Present.” Appalachian State University, 2011. Web.
Malik et al. Government and politics in South Asia. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2008. Print.