A civilized society is often divided into classes where each has its specific and unique characteristics. As a result, there are layers of civil masses, and the conditions for existence are not always equal.
One of the most important aspects of any society is the working class, and the way labor is viewed and qualified by a part of the population. A concept of labor aristocracy has been in existence for some time and has led to much speculation about unions, social equality, and labor laws.
Labor aristocracy has several connections to people’s lives and their opinions. One perspective comes from a Marxist point of view and links to communism. The core of the concept is based on opportunism and how people can prosper in the labor movement to the maximum.
Since the 19th century, society has been very demanding of people in their workplace (Smith, 1999). Of course, political and economic forces are greatly involved in the labor monopoly. “Aristocracy” in not an accidental word used in the concept, as only the select few who have resources and opportunities can succeed in proportions unreachable by the majority of a population (Compa, 2003).
It is a fact that the society and the general population of a country are the moving force in the workplace. Even though the wages stay the same, so there is no clear incentive to stay at work longer, individuals still contribute extra hours to their jobs. This can be attributed to the society and the demanding way of life by people who take up higher positions.
Labor is characterized by a very fast paced environment where industrialization has created many opportunities and avenues for people to work (Docherty, 2012).
There are a large number of professions that exist, and so, people can choose any type of activity they like. This, in turn, leads to the replacement of leisure time by working hours. But an interesting fact emerges, as the greater population spends all the time working, while those in charge use the workforce and their positions to own advantage, creating a class of “aristocracy” and workplace owners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The personal goals of a person play another significant role. Psychologically, a person can be greatly focused on their job. It is a place where they can practice and display their skills, gaining respect for themselves and from others. The industrialization has been instrumental in the labor movement and opportunities that were gained by individuals.
The separation between classes became even more obvious, and there have been numerous personal and social factors that are involved. A privileged position is the society enables a person to make connections with influential businessmen and get to know the industry, limiting others (Kautsky, 2001).
Australia and the rise of the labor aristocracy in the 19th century is not an exception. The development has led to the rise of those who had the most influence and were able to control large portions of the market, industry, economy, and the general society. Those who had more skill and better education were able to dominate among social masses and secure a place in the “aristocracy” division (Budd, 2009).
In reality, the separation comes from the specific qualities of each kind of working force. At the beginning of the 19th century, Australian labor was characterized by unions and people who had taken a privileged position. Unions were a significant part of the “aristocracy,” as people with greater skill were unified, as compared to those people who were not considered as “valuable” in their talents (Silver, 2003).
The division between working people lies in the fact that unskilled workers are dependent on their numbers and the industry that supports their existence. In comparison to skilled workers, organization and strength of a union are lesser, whereas the “labor aristocracy” possesses conservative views, making it stronger, more direct, and radical.
Historically, the Australian workforce was not part of the social movement, as those with enormous profits and networks were the dominating factor. The trade unions that were emerging were based on the aristocracy and positions of those who controlled the industry, as well as smaller businesses (Macintyre, 2009).
This sort of environment has led to conditions that were being observed in other parts of the world. Even though Australia was one of England’s colonies, the living conditions for the majority of people were not characterized by many advantages (Rau, 2002).
We will write a custom Essay on Labor Aristocracy in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The select few were in power, and only those with higher wages and resources could own a house and lead a decent living. It has been noted that the difference in salaries varied so greatly that there was no middle class, only those who spent almost all their time working and people, who have been living off the work of others (Ashenfelter, 2010).
In Australia, trade unions were developing at an increasing rate, which based itself on the cooperation within the “labor aristocracy.” Mass movements of socialism were greatly connected with an almost military behavior of the major population, which was the working class.
This means that people had little opportunity to break away from the established order and take place amongst those with all the privileges. The people wanted to base society and labor on socialism, which was gaining little support of the elite. The strikes of people outraged with conditions were a clear indication that something had to be done. As these conditions are relatively recent, Australia and other countries are still in the process of bettering the working conditions and division between classes (Dyrenfurth, 2011).
It is a fact that labor aristocracy and the conditions that were created as a result, had a great influence on society. It is obvious that people must use their skills to advance the world around them and help those with fewer opportunities and the ability to have a better life. History has shown that division between classes cannot progress the conditions of the population, so a balance must be found, which will enable everyone to cooperate and mutually benefit.
Reference List Ashenfelter, O 2010, Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, San Diego, CA.
Budd, J 2009, Labor Relations: Striking a Balance 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY.
Compa, L 2003, Human Rights, Labor Rights, and International Trade, University of Pennsylvania Press, Phillapelphia, PA.
Docherty, J 2012, Historical Dictionary of Organized Labor, Scarecrow Press. Lanham, MA.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Labor Aristocracy in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dyrenfurth, N 2011, A Little History of the Australian Labor Party, UNSW Press, Sydney, NSW.
Kautsky, J 2001, Social Democracy and the Aristocracy, Transaction Publishers, Piscataway, NJ.
Macintyre, S 2009, A Concise History of Australia, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
Rau, D 2002, Australia. Black Rabbit Books, London, UK.
Silver, B 2003, Forces of Labor: Workers’ Movements and Globalization Since 1870, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
Smith, A 1999, Nationalism, Labour and Ethnicity 1870-1939, Manchester University Press, New York, NY.
Effective Leadership: Coaching and Conflict Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Coaching plays an important role in the workplace. Effective leaders should employ coaching to handle a variety of conflicts that may appear in the workplace. There are numerous strategies which can be used. Some of these strategies are expecting the best, taking into account gender differences, using a holistic approach, and making use of proper feedback.
One of the most effective strategies to address a conflict in the workplace is expecting the best (Kouzes
Asian Studies: Vietnam – Two Paths to Nation-Building Essay online essay help
The Two Paths The history of Vietnam can be regarded as an example of the struggle of nationalists that had different approaches in mind. The two groups wanted to make Vietnam an independent state where people could enjoy liberty. However, the two groups had different approaches, and they also used different tools to achieve their aims.
It is also necessary to add that the two groups resorted to the help of other states (the so-called third force). This shaped the struggle and created two different camps. One camp was represented by communist nationalists (led by Ho Chi Minh), and the other was represented by anti-communist nationalists (Dinh Diem was one of the most significant leaders within the camp).
As has been mentioned above, the two camps fought for the independence of the Vietnamese but used different tools. Firstly, communist nationalists tried to adopt the ways used in the USSR. They wanted to eliminate private ownership and make the Vietnamese create collective enterprises. They also focused on the development of industries.
However, Diem and his supporters did not want to accept the communist approach as they were “wary of the communists for reasons of experience” (Miller 435). Diem wanted to follow the example of European countries and the USA. Notably, Diem also wanted to start a “social revolution” (quoted in Miller 440).
Thus, he did not want to adopt radical ways of the communists of the USSR. However, he believed he could help workers and peasants live better. Diem thought he could build a just society where people would share socialistic values. Remarkably, Diem did not provide a specific political program or particular strategies to achieve his aims (Miller 440). Diem also wanted to focus on the development of technology rather than industries (Miller 445).
Secondly, the point that made the two camps differently was the attitude towards religion. Ho Chi Minh was born into a family that practiced Confucianism. However, the communist ideology had a very specific attitude towards religions. The communist ideology was turned into a religion.
However, Diem was a devout Catholic, and he promoted Christian values. He also attended the Vatican and communicated with various Catholic leaders. Thus, Diem thought Catholic values could help the Vietnamese develop a just and strong society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the two camps also addressed different ‘third forces.’ Thus, Ho Chi Minh addressed the USSR and China for help, while Diem addressed such countries as Japan, France, and the USA. It is necessary to note that this collaboration affected the development of the country and the escalation of the conflict. Moreover, Vietnam became a “key Cold War battleground” (Miller, 445).
Thus, the USA and the USSR tried to prove that their ways (communist or capitalist) was the most effective. These two countries wanted to make Vietnam follow their ways. It is necessary to note that Vietnamese people found themselves in a very difficult position as their national interests were not taken into account by the countries that were involved in the conflict.
In conclusion, it is possible to note that Ho Chi Minh and Dinh Diem tried to create an independent Vietnamese state. However, they had different approaches and addressed different countries to help them. This led to the horrible war and the deaths of millions.
People Caught in the Middle Hang and Phuong are two women who are caught in the middle of the conflict within Vietnam. The two women can be regarded as symbolic representations of the country. They are unable to influence the events, but they are only observers. However, the two women find their paths in the end.
Hang is a young woman who had quite a lot of hardships in her childhood. Notably, she is not a policy maker or an active struggle. She only observes. Thus, she recalls that the end of the war was associated with certain hopes and aspirations (Duong 21). However, she also remembers that people were still divided by their views.
Moreover, her family was also torn into two camps. She had to work hard as the conflict deteriorated the economy of the region. Hang often had to starve when she was a girl or a teenager. She also could not enjoy the happiness of having a strong family as she barely knew her father, her uncle was an outcast, and she had to be ashamed of her aunt’s presence.
However, at the end of the book, the young woman accepts her past, and it is clear that she is going to leave her past behind. Hang’s commitment to start a new life and start walking along her path can be regarded as a symbolic representation of the path of the entire country, i.e., a newly independent country.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian Studies: Vietnam – Two Paths to Nation-Building specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phuong is another female who had to survive in a country where people killed each other for ideological reasons. Phuong is trying to find her path. She needs a man who can marry and support her. It is necessary to note that Phuong is more like a symbol. Phuong stands for the entire country. The woman has two different ways.
Pyle is an American, who fights against communist nationalists, promises to marry Phuong (The Quiet American). This can symbolize US support and the Americans’ desire to make Vietnam adopt American ways. Fowler promises the woman to marry her, but he is unlikely to do it as he is married. The relationship between Phuong and Fowler can symbolize the Vietnamese people’s future in case the country will follow its national path. At the end of the film, it is clear that Fowler will marry Phuong and will be able to make her happy.
On balance, it is possible to state that the two characters are rather different, but they serve as symbols to show the future of the country, or rather the way this future is seen by the Vietnamese.
Works Cited Duong, Phan Huy. Paradise of the Blind. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2002. Print.
Miller, Edward. “Vision, Power and Agency: The Ascent of Ngo Dinh Diem, 1945-54.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 35.3 (2004): 433-458. Print.
The Quiet American. Dir. Phillip Noyce. New York, NY: Miramax Films. 2002. DVD.
The Song “One Love” by Nas Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
The ghetto consists of segregated housing units which lack strong institutions (Black 206). Formal organizations like churches, businesses, and schools make it more difficult for antisocial activities to thrive. Once such entities are uprooted, the sense of connectedness that makes other American neighborhoods effective is eliminated.
Poor social networks in these communities place responsibility for the care of children on lone parents, who are too preoccupied to carry out this role effectively. Unlike other effective communities, where responsibility for the care of children is shared in the network, this pattern is missing in black ghettos.
Nas represents one of the lone voices in such a community. He tries to school this boy on the realities of life. He advises him to ‘rise above the madness,’ among other things. In a society that lacks external controls, even a marijuana-smoking mentor like Nas is a welcome intervention.
In the song “One Love” as well as the movie “Belly,” twelve-year-old Shorty complements Nas on his style. Nas responds by giving him some gold chains that he could sell if he wanted. When one analyses how these two individuals are dressed, one notes the distinctive style of the black urban poor. Even how the two speakers is synonymous to this culture, they are both slow and deliberate in their speech. The two greet each other in an unusual manner and have a cool demeanor about them.
Majors and Billson (6) explain that the cool pose is a coping mechanism for several poor African Americans. They tend to appear fearless, emotionless, and in control. This is an attempt to mask the insecurities of their life. Many of them have to contend with the realities of marginalization.
Not only is their self-worth damaged, but they are also engaged by their hopeless circumstances. Maintaining a cool façade allows them to cover these inner struggles and thus cope with their environment. Shorty found inspiration from Nas and other rappers like him whose sense of style is cool. In this regard, he becomes a positive influence on the boy’s life by providing him with a coping strategy for his wretched reality.
Shorty is twelve, but he already smokes marijuana, sells crack cocaine, and carries a gun with him. These deviant circumstances are appalling but quite usual in black neighborhoods. Merton’s theory on Anomie best explains why Shorty was predisposed to so much negativity. When people share society’s goals of wealth acquisition but lack the means to achieve them, then they are predisposed to deviant means to meet those goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Black males want to enjoy material wealth, but economic, social and political barriers prevent them from doing so; they are left with violence as their only means of reaching these goals (Majors and Billson 21). One must not blame black men like Nas for initiating young ones like Shorty into the culture of violence. It is structural factors around him that pushed the boy into such a pathway. Nas was getting him to see the bigger picture by asking him not to get sucked into it.
Perhaps one of the most profound elements of the “One Love” song and the corresponding scene in Belly is its articulation of Black people’s problems. Forman and Neal (55), through their guest artist bam, explain that hip-hop makes people around the world learn about the negative and positive aspects of their lives. Nas is thus a black people’s ambassador.
Through such conscious music, he can reach out to other young black men like Shorty or to people in authority who can do something about their situation. Hip hop is about the regular lives of black folks (Toop 14), (Strode and Wood 110)
Socialization and Career Development Essay college admission essay help
Definition of socialization, its benefits to new employees and organizations Socialization is a critical aspect that defines performance in various organizations. This is apparent since it is a credible process by which employees acquires essential skills, norms, values and learn new behaviors including cultural practices that enable them to operate as team players (Wanberg, 2012).
Effective socialization structures have been benefiting employees immensely in most institutions, including Bandersman’s corporation. In particular, it enables employees to relate well with others, build strong team players, and change their attitude towards embracing other people’s ideals.
Similarly, it enables employees to get used to the norms, shared values that the organization operates under and embrace cultural practices that are set by the management. For instance, effective socialization structures have enabled employees of institutions that operate in the tourism sector in the US to understand the needs of customers and what is expected of them (Wanberg, 2012). Variably, effective socialization has been of great benefit to most organizations such as Bandersman’s corporation.
Firstly, it increases performance levels in institutions since it enables employees to be more productive. It fosters expansion and growth in terms of productivity, product portfolio, and infrastructural capacity. It also fosters innovation, creativity, and teamwork that is imperative for development. For instance, socialization processes have enabled most companies in the US to deliver customized services to their customers.
Definition of career, the contrast between employee development with career development and their similarities As defined, a career is an element that describes an individual’s journey in life in various aspects that include education, training, and work experience. The aspect that is developed and nurtured through learning and training is essential since it enables employees to perform better (Sims, 2007). Thus, the reason why institutions are keen on subjecting employees to career development programs and learning processes.
Notably, career and employee development contrast each other to some extent. Their contrasting nature is evident since career development is geared more towards improving employee’s performance through training and systematic education. It focuses on enhancing individual’s knowledge power to enable one to become more innovative and creative.
On the other hand, employee development is a process that ensures the holistic advancement of an employee. The process focuses on enhancing individual’s knowledge power, the transformation of attitude, character, and adherence to best practices (Sims, 2007). The aspect’s main aim is to develop a holistic person with quality values and incentives that can promote service delivery. Despite their contrasting nature, the two aspects hold some ideal similarities since they aim at enhancing the productivity of individuals in institutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overview and explanation of the step (selecting) and training of employees According to Kroth
Hip-Hop Music and Role of Women in It Essay best college essay help
People use music to deal with different issues in the society. In this regard, hip hop music has been used to address various questions, especially those which refer to women. The role of women in hip hop and rap has been changing over the years. Initially, women used hip hop to fight for women rights in society (Morgan, 435). They also used the music to make people aware of sexual harassment against females as well as exploitation. Moreover, the music was to depict what it meant to grow up as a black woman in society.
Additionally, the role of women included addressing the issues of gender, race, and class discrimination. Nevertheless, in recent years, women have been depicted as weak persons dominated by men. However, women are sometimes not aware of the role they have gained in the music industry, especially in recent times (Morgan 441).
It is important to note that the notion of the female complaint is heavily depicted in today’s hip hop. Various women who sing hip hop and rap usually represent themselves as independent persons who do not fall for cheap tricks used by men. In this regard, women are shown as the ones being able to take care of their affairs, including going to night clubs without having to depend on men (Rose 173).
On the same note, the lyrics in hip hop and rap, as well as the videos, are aimed at telling men that they should not think that dressing has anything to do with behavior. In today’s hip hop and rap, women represent themselves as people of integrity who can easily survive with or without men. Similarly, the lyrics are directed at reprimanding various negative behaviors of men towards women. On the same note, women used hip hop and rap nowadays to warn the rest to be aware of the canning behaviors of men (Rose 157).
While looking at the various roles of women in hip hop and rap, it is also important to note that the way women are presented has various effects on society. To begin with, the way women in wrap dress while shooting their videos is explicit. These dressing styles have been taken up by women and ladies in society (Hill and Ramsaran 92). Moreover, women are also depicted as sex objects. Thus such an image negatively affects the morals of the society.
Consequently, there has been a lot of concern from various people who argue that this representation of women has immense effects on culture. Nonetheless, there is a lot of subjectivity in this criticism because men are also represented as violent and rough people who spend all their money on women. Regrettably, there are very few people who complain about men and the way they are depicted in hip hop and rap.
Notably, women have changed their role to the extent that they practically fight against men in the hip hop industry. Arguably, this has been prompted by the fact that men in hip hop and rap want to depict themselves as the rulers in society. Consequently, they imply that women are there to be used by men and should, therefore, be at their disposal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such an attitude has various impacts on society, especially on young people. It is important to note that human beings learn well by seeing and copying what others do. In this regard, women representing themselves as rebellious send a wrong message to the youth, especially teenage girls who think that they should be totally against men (Hill and Ramsaran 98).
Moreover, the message sent through music has turned to have too much emphasis on the conflict between men and women. As a result, young boys and girls get the wrong idea about how to treat people of the opposite sex; thus, hip hop and rap music negatively affects the relationship between the youth. Also, the explicit language used in the lyrics of hip hop and rap has entered the day to day communication of young boys and girls.
Works Cited Hill, Simona J. and Dave Ramsaran. Hip Hop and Inequality: Searching for the “Real” Slim Shardy. New York: Cambria Press, 2009. Print.
Morgan, Marcyliena, “Hip-Hop Women Shredding the Veil: Race and Class in Popular Feminist Identity.” South Atlantic Quarterly 104.3 (2005): 425-444.
Rose, Tricia. “Bad Sistas: Black Women Rappers and Sexual Politics in Rap Music.” Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1994. 146-182. Print.
“A Passage to India” by Edward Forster Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help
Introduction A Passage to India is a must-read chef-d’oeuvre written by E. M Forster to shed light on his first-hand experience in India. The following essay provides a detailed critique of the same book. Some of the topics to be discussed include the setting of the book, plots, characters, point of view, and the literary styles used. A critical analysis of a book allows the acquisition of the necessary skills in literature.
Setting The book is written in an Indian setting. The town of Chandrapore is the place that the two sections are based on, with the other location being the Marabar Caves near Chandrapone. Having an Indian setting, the book bears various inclusions of several British people. The town is also characterized by different populations with different privileges. The British people are superior to the local Indians since they live in luxurious houses and drink at prominent clubs where the Indians are not allowed.
The Indians are also allowed to live only in certain areas of the town, which are less appealing, thus displaying their lower social status. The other place that the book is set on is a place called Mau in the same country. Symbolically, the section headings, “Caves,” “Mosque,” and “Temple” represent the different areas in which the book is set. Thus, the book covers the wider India and uses it to bring out the various themes.
The author presents the setting of the book in an easy-to-understand and photographic manner. He can create a picture in the minds of readers concerning the setting of the book. This allows him to communicate effectively to the audience and make the story thrilling and informative at the same time. An example is in the first chapter when he describes the town in which the book is set.
He states, “Edged rather than washed by the river Ganges; it trails for a couple of miles along the bank, scarcely distinguishable from the rubbish it deposits so freely” (Forster 16). He also describes the existing architecture allowing readers to place the book in the relevant period. To illustrate this point, when describing the town, the author states, “The zest for decoration stopped in the eighteenth century, nor was it ever democratic…There is no painting and scarcely any carving in the bazaars” (Forster 16).
The other characteristic about the presentation of the setting is that the author uses symbols to direct the leader to the theme of the story and the meanings. Also noticeable is how the author uses India, a former British colony, to bring out the various meanings of the book. He chose the country and the specific towns and locations to portray the British citizens as ruthless and detached people only looking to benefit from the colony without the interest of the locals at heart.
This gives the story its meaning, thus allowing readers to comprehend the shortcomings of foreign occupation and colonialism. The initial indication of the separation of the different classes as set by the colonizers is indicated by the different levels of housing. As the author states, “Houses belonging to Eurasians stand on the high ground by the railway station. Beyond the railway—which runs parallel to the river— the land sinks, then rises again rather steeply” (Forster 16). This means that the colonizers were mean to the locals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Plot The book has three parts with different headings relating to the event in the same section. In the first of these parts with the heading ‘Mosque,’ an Indian Doctor, Dr. Aziz, makes friends with two English ladies who were new to the country and oblivious of the existing social separation. The friendship extends with the doctor meeting with one of the women who are kind to him. The woman’s son is not happy with the turn of events.
She does not want his fiancée to know about the kindness of his mother to the natives. Dr. Aziz invites the English woman and some others to the nearby Marabar Caves where the next part of the book is set. This second part is where most of the actions and plot of the book become evident. Strange things happen in caves that they visit. Dr. Aziz is also arrested upon arrival from the caves due to the incidents that happen in that place.
The court’s proceedings are also marked by discrepancies in evidence. The accuser decides to alter the evidence with Dr. Aziz being released. This part is also marked by deceit and betrayal after the death of one of the English woman while on the journey back to England.
The third section features the meeting of the friends-turned-foes about two years after the release of Dr. Aziz. This happens far from the original setting of the first and the second part. An accident in the water causes the reunion of the Indian doctor and his former friend. The book ends with the two parties discussing politics to highlight how the revolution of India from English is possible.
The action in the book covers two years, with the author creating some time gaps in between the periods of transition from one event and part of the story to the other. He bridges the gaps by the use of information about the country that does not necessarily contribute to the plot.
He also creates a picture of change in time for the viewers when he uses descriptive wordings to describe the changes in time. He writes, “Some hundreds of miles westward of the Marabax Hills, and two years later in time…Narayan Godbole stands in the presence of God. God is not born yet—that will occur at” (Forster 21).
The author has also defined beginnings and ends of parts of the story vividly, with the use of time as the most common one. In defining these endings and starts of sections, there is continuity with each section being related to the previous one. The only major change that is very distinct is between the second and the third parts.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “A Passage to India” by Edward Forster specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These are set in different places and at different times, with the characters having different feelings about each other. The middle sections of the book are also well defined. They are the main parts where the theme of the story and ideas are presented.
The author presents several conflicts in the book. These can be looked at as being social, religious, and racial. There are also political conflicts portrayed in the story, with one of the social groupings dominating over the other. The story also has several dilemmas, with some of the parts being ironic.
An example is in the third part where Dr. Aziz meets his former friend Fielding and his brother−in−law with a bee sting. He helps them despite their history. It is, however, ironically unfriendly again when Fielding tries to mend ways with him.
The most interesting scenes in the story are in the third part where Dr. Aziz meets Fielding after two years trying to escape from the control of the English. He had previously wished that they (English) could not make it to the place where he was residing then. The meeting was rather awkward, with the scene being full of emotions.
They only exchange pleasantries on the meeting where Dr. Aziz is not kind to Fielding. “He waved his arm more dimly and disappeared…Aziz knew who “he” was— Fielding—but he refused to think about him because it disturbed his life, and he still trusted the floods to prevent him from arriving” (Forster 121). The events of the courtroom are repeated in the third part of the book as Dr. Aziz refers to them on meeting Fielding upon remembering how unkind he had been to him.
Characters The characters in the story have different roles in the presentation of the theme in the book. Mahmoud Ali is a Muslim lawyer and Dr. Aziz’s friend and confident. He is also cynical and one who does not believe in the coexistence of the Indians and the English. Mr. Amritrao is hired in the trial of Dr. Aziz to defend him. This case caused controversy in the courtroom since he is known to be against the British.
His debating skills are also felt in the courtroom. Dr. Aziz is the main character in the story representing the Indian people. He practices at a local hospital and has a love for poetry. His friendship with some of the British people makes him one of the Indians who are moderate about the colonialists. This situation is however changed after the incident, which brought him to court and made him move away from the town.
Another character is Nawab Bahadur who is a distinguished Muslim leader in the town and a supporter of the British rule. He is also a friend to Dr. Aziz who supports him through the trial. Major Callendar is the surgeon at the hospital where Dr. Aziz worked. He is superior to Aziz. Mr. Das is another character in the story.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “A Passage to India” by Edward Forster by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He is the assistant magistrate in the court where Dr. Aziz is to be tried. He is described as being an able magistrate who presides over the trial of Dr. Aziz with due fairness. He also becomes a friend to Dr. Aziz. He visits him severally, thus breaking the barrier between the Muslim and the Hindu.
Miss Nancy Derek is a visiting British woman whom the other British people in Chandrapore do not trust. She is rumored to have an affair with the police superintendent. Mr. Cyril Fielding is also a British in India who is the principal at a local British-run school. He is also a close friend of Dr. Aziz who defends his innocence in the accusation lodged against him. He is also determined to make sure that Dr. Aziz gets a fair trial.
He even insults some of his British colleagues after they portray favoritism. Professor Godbole is an Indian Hindu teaching in the same college where Fielding is stationed. He is also a close friend of Dr. Aziz. He also becomes a prominent politician in the country in one of the governments serving as the education secretary. Hamidullah is another friend of Dr. Aziz and an Indian Moslem. He is also helpful in the trial against Dr. Aziz.
Ronny Heslop is the city magistrate who is of the view that India has to be ruled by the British if it intends to be successful. He is also disappointed in the way the trial against Aziz was handled together with the withdrawal of the allegations. Dr. Panna Lal is a colleague of Aziz at the local hospital and a devoted Hindu.
He is also a collaborator who does not take an interest in the rebellion. Mohammed Latif is described as being a dishonest, happy, and gentleman who is also a distant relative of Hamidullah. He is also an obedient servant working for Dr. Aziz. He only speaks mostly when other parties speak to him. Mr. McBryde is another police superintendent in Chandrapore who is responsible for the arrest of Dr. Aziz.
He is described as a British born in India who is more educated compared to his colleagues. Mrs. More dies on her way back to England. She is also a close friend to Dr. Aziz, with the friendship beginning on her visit to India. She is described as cynical and one of the British with a different heart. Her son Ralph Moore and the daughter Stella Moore are also mentioned in the book, with Ralph being mentioned towards the end of the book.
Miss Adela Quested is a friend of Mrs. Moore. She comes to visit India together with her with the hope of marrying Mrs. Moore’s son Ronny Heaslop. She accuses Dr. Aziz of attempted rape after the incident in the caves and only withdraws the allegations later. She is also a symbol of the difficult relations between the British and the Indians.
Mr. Turton is another British who has resided in India for a long time but displays little knowledge of the Indian people. He states, “India does wonders for the judgment, especially in hot weather” (Forster 23). His wife Mrs. Turton is also a British who despises the Indians in their land and does not interact with them. She is also a snob who does not like Adela Quested.
The change in character is evident mainly in the Indian characters, with Dr. Aziz being the best example. Originally being moderate about the British and having some of them for friends, he later comes to hate and disapprove their occupation. The characters are a mixture of static and dynamic individuals who seem to have set goals and desires.
The Indian characters want to see their mainland free of the oppressive British while the British think they are superior. The author describes the characters in a clear way by presenting their character to match with the intended theme. The character with the author’s sympathy is Dr. Aziz, as portrayed in the challenges that he goes through under the British people, which later come to haunt him. He is however presented as one who can forgive and help them in times of crisis.
Point of View The use of dialogue is prominent in the book. It is appropriate for speakers. The action is rendered by both descriptions by the author and the use of dialogue. The author tells the story from an omnipresent point of view. This approach is consistent throughout the book. He describes the characters and events as if he was overseeing them and had been in every corner that the dialogues were taking place.
Some of the striking sentences that can be considered full of meaning or particularly remarkable for their freshness of statement can be found in the book. One is, “All unfortunate natives are criminals at heart, for the simple reason that they live south of latitude 30…They are not to blame; they have not a dog’s chance–we should be like them if we settled here” (166-7). This depicts the view that the British had of the Indians and their culture.
Symbols The book employs a lot of symbolism to deliver its intended message. Some of these include the symbolic titles given to the three parts of the book. The Mosque, for example, signifies peace especially for Aziz and Mrs. Moore. It also symbolizes the sanctuary where the two parties meet as they seek peace with themselves.
The other symbols used in the book include the caves and the Wasp. The caves are dark to represent a contrast from the mosque where peace can be found. The wasp is also symbolic. It is mentioned several times in the book. It could symbolize natural Indian life and uncertainty. In one of the parts where the wasp is mentioned, Godbole remembers, “an old woman he had met in Chandrapore days…a wasp saw he forgot where…. He loved the wasp equally” (Forster 137).
The images used above are used to symbolize the nature of India as a country and the struggle for freedom from the British. The Mosque represents the religious nature of the country and its diversity.
It also represents a country at peace with itself. The wasp, on the other hand, could represent the natural environment in India or the invading British. The meanings of the symbols can be found in the history of the country. One has to know this history to interpret the symbols. The symbols also aid the author in passing the intended message to readers to thrilling them at the same time.
Style The author’s style is rather simple and clear-cut. He uses simple events, people, and settings to produce a dramatic story. He, however, intertwines the simplicity with complex ideas, which bring out the main conflicts within the story.
The author also deviates from the omniscient nature when he narrates the story and makes some ambiguous events such as the death of Mrs. Moore. He also uses some abrupt events to bring contrast such as between the second and third part, which are separated by two years. It is also a richly suggestive.
Motif/Ideas The characters are preoccupied with certain thoughts, which vary throughout the book. The main characters, both from the British and the Indian side, are used to portray these thoughts. Dr. Aziz is occupied by the thoughts of independence from the British towards the end of the book.
He is constantly creating the likely nature of the nation if the colonizers depart. Event after meeting with his old British friend, he insists that freedom from them is the only thing he looks forward to getting. “We may hate one another, but we hate you most. If I don’t make you go, Ahmed will, Karim will, if it’s fifty-five hundred years we shall get rid of you, yes, we shall drive every blasted Englishman into the sea, and then” (Forster 234).
Most of the British people are however occupied with the thoughts of suppressing the Indians to reveal how they are superior over them. An example is Ronny Heaslop who believes that the Indians are native people who are incapable of governing themselves and that, “No one can even begin to know [India] until he has been in it twenty years” (Forster 172). These sentiments are held by most, if not all, of the British people in high ranks in the town, with the Indians having contrasting ideas.
The work as a whole suggests some ideas, which are highlighted in the various parts of the book. Throughout the book, the various characters experience delays to travel to their destination.
This case could indicate a motif of the interrupted or delayed journey. Dr. Aziz is the first of the characters used to communicate this motif when his bicycle gets a flat tire on his way to Callendar’s house. The book, however, ends with one complete journey, which is signified by the sailing of Fielding, Ralph, and Stella after their boats had collided. Aziz had helped them with the incident signifying a rebirth.
Theme The primary theme in the book is a culture clash between the West and the East with their different cultures. The British people and their families living in Chandrapore represent the Western culture in the story. These families live as a close-knit social unit that tries to recreate its life in the families’ motherland especially at the Chandrapore Club where they entertain themselves.
They also think of themselves as superior to the Indians. Ronny Heaslop remarks, “No one can even begin to think of knowing this country until he has been in it twenty years” (Forster 172). Several characters and the locals in Chandrapore, on the other hand, represent the Indians. They display the thinking of the locals representing the Eastern culture.
The other culture clash is between the Moslem and the Hindus who are native to the Indian country. In the book, the author brings out the cultural differences between the two cultural and religious groups. The book initially brings out the differences between the two religions together with the hidden enmity between them because of their conflicting beliefs. They are however united by the trial of Dr. Aziz by the British. Besides, celebrate together upon their victory — most of the elements in the work support this main theme.
Despite the main theme, other minor themes are prominent in the book. These contribute to the main theme. The author also includes them due to their significance especially in the real setting of India. The theme of friendship emerges throughout the book with most of the characters being friendly to some of the other characters.
Dr. Aziz, for example, has several friends in the book who are close to him. However, he falls out with others such as his British friends. Other themes in the book include God and religion public vs. private life and ambiguity. These contribute towards making the book thrilling and full of meaning.
Works Cited Forster, Edward. A Passage to India. San Diego: Harcourt, 1984. Print.
Mythological Story of Gilgamesh Essay essay help online free
Introduction: Tying in the Loose Ends of the Legend The story of Gilgamesh is one of the best examples of glorifying the memory of a real person to the point where it has nothing to do with real life. However, despite its unrealistic details and it’s being an obvious attempt at re-writing the history, The Epic of Gilgamesh is worth taking a look at, mostly due to the striking resemblance that it bears to another significant contribution to deciphering the portrayal of the ancient world, the Bible and the Ancient Greek mythology.
Connecting the Story to the Bible: Where the Narrations Cross
Being listed among the earliest specimen of the ancient literature, The epic of Gilgamesh bears a certain resemblance to another ancient book, which is the Hebrew Bible. While the two books were written in completely different epochs by completely different nations and for completely different reasons, they still share a considerable range of details.
The afterlife: welcome to Tilmun
The concept of the hereafter is developed in a very detailed manner in the epic due to the specifics of the plot. While the author of the narration uses completely different names to denote the idea of good and evil, the concepts remain the same as the Bible explains them. What is called Eden in the Old Testament becomes Tilmun, or Mount Mashu, in Gilgamesh, yet the concept of the mysterious hereafter remains similar to the Biblical one (The epic of Gilgamesh, n. d.).
The Flood and the purification of the Earth
Though mentioned comparatively briefly, the disaster is still described in the epic, which can be easily related to the famous Biblical catastrophe: “The hearts of the Great Gods moved them to inflict the flood” (The epic of Gilgamesh, n. d.). While in the narration, it is made very clear that there were several deities, and the reasons for slaughtering the humankind are not mentioned, the situation bears a considerable resemblance to the traditional Biblical story: “And the rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights.” (Genesis 7, n. d.).
Gilgamesh and Greek Mythology: Looking for Similarities
Much like the Bible, the Ancient Greek mythology also shares several elements with The epic of Gilgamesh.
An interpretation of a hero: welcome another not Hercules
While the elements that appeared to be relatively close to the Biblical mythology appear mostly in the setting and the plot, the Greek mythology is revived in the leading character himself, i.e., in Gilgamesh. It is made very clear from the start that the latter is a very outstanding person, who challenges gods, goes on dangerous adventures and challenges his fate in every way possible.
Also, Gilgamesh is a half man and half god, seeing how his father is Lugalbanda, a hero, and his mother, Ninsun, is a goddess (The epic of Gilgamesh, n. d.). Therefore, it can be assumed that Gilgamesh is the exact representation of the Ancient Greek concept of a hero, i.e., a semi-god.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When people think of the Ancient Greek heroes, they recall Hercules immediately. However, Gilgamesh is a different type of hero. While Hercules, much like Achill, or any other character of the kind, was famous for his strength and recklessness, Gilgamesh is a more stealthy character that makes use of his brains rather than of his muscles when he tries to get rid of his fellow’s guidance: “He will give you the harlot Shamhat, take her with you,/The woman will overcome the fellow (?) as if she were strong” (The epic of Gilgamesh, n. d.). This detail brings up another famous Ancient Greek hero, Odysseus (George, 2003).
Against the wrath of gods: Gilgamesh, the predecessor of Prometheus
While it is clear that the narrator tries to convince the reader in Gilgamesh’s being a true hero, considering Gilgamesh the early version of Hercules would still be a big stretch.
Instead of describing Gilgamesh’s strength and power, the narrator often emphasizes his cunningness and boldness in that Gilgamesh goes against the will of gods: “gods are filled with rage against us” (The epic of Gilgamesh, n. d.).
Also, Gilgamesh’s goals and actions do not quite match the ones of a typical Greek hero. In that sense, the character is much closer to the Greek Prometheus, who dared to fight against the odds of the Olympus: “This that I have brought you is called ‘fire’” (Evslin, n. d.).
While Prometheus succeeded in granting people with the gift of fire and was later on doomed to incredible physical torture, Gilgamesh’s gift to the humankind turned out a bit depressing yet nonetheless valuable. On the surface, one might argue that Gilgamesh failed at making people immortal and, thus, is the exact opposite of Prometheus.
However, considering the problem a bit deeper, one will have to admit that Gilgamesh brought a gift much more valuable than immortality. By proving that the latter is pointless, Gilgamesh granted people with the will to live and appreciate the gift of life: “I have not secured any good deed for myself,/But done a good deed for the ‘lion on the ground’!” (The epic of Gilgamesh, n. d.). Therefore, in a way, Gilgamesh is a Prometheus, who, ironically enough, succeeded by failing.
Conclusion: The Mythological Character That People Needed
With that being said, one must admit that The epic of Gilgamesh bears a distinct resemblance to the Biblical stories and the Ancient Greek mythology. Therefore, one can assume that The epic of Gilgamesh is proof of the intercultural continuity. No matter what differences lay between the cultures in question, they still shared a range of similar concepts and similar concepts of the afterlife, which brings these cultures closer.
We will write a custom Essay on Mythological Story of Gilgamesh specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Evslin, B. (n. d.). Prometheus. Retrieved from http://msdarlingsenglish.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/8/8/14880058/prometheus_orpheusandeurydice.pdf
Genesis 7 (n. d.). Retrieved from http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis 7
Law Issues: Ethical Scrapbook Report college essay help: college essay help
Bernard Madoff was one of the most respected investors in America. However, Madoff used a Ponzi scheme to increase his wealth. The Ponzi scheme made thousands of people lose billions of dollars of their hard earned money.
If I were in the same position, I would not have engaged in this unethical conduct. Corporations also engage in unethical conduct regularly. I would ensure that I use legal means to acquire wealth. This would prevent future litigation.
In a litigious society, people may be reluctant to help other people when they face emergencies. Fear of liability may make people desist from helping other people. Most jurisdictions have laws that protect the public from liability as they attempt to rescue people who face various emergencies.
However, Good Samaritan laws protect people who attempt to rescue other people out of kindness. An individual who attempts another individual while expecting a reward is not a Good Samaritan. All jurisdictions should have a Good Samaritan law that would prevent Good Samaritans from litigation. This would encourage people to assist people who face emergencies. This would help in saving the lives of many people. However, Good Samaritan laws should exclude people who assist due to rewards.
It is wrong to permit vigilantism when the justice system fails. Vigilantes punish people who violate various laws. In so doing they ignore the social concept of law. Also, vigilantes decide what the law is. Vigilantes usually lack the necessary training that would enable them to tackle criminals. Therefore, they may engage in unlawful activities while tackling criminals. In most instances, vigilantes act in self-preservation.
Therefore, if they become powerful, they may pose a serious threat to the justice system and the peaceful co-existence of people in a certain society. Powerful vigilante groups may become criminal groups. However, several instances may force an individual to violate the law to enforce another law. I would violate the law if doing so would enable me to protect my family or me without inflicting harm to many people. I would fight off people who try to harm people who are close to me.
Civil disobedience is one of the most powerful tools that may help in changing unfair laws. However, civil disobedience cannot challenge all unjust laws. Historically, civil disobedience has helped in changing unjust laws. Rosa Parks is one of the people who highlight how civil disobedience may help in challenging unjust laws.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Parks refused to give her seat to white people. In so doing, she violated the law that required black people to offer their seats to white people. Her civil disobedience helped in changing the unjust law. I disagree with laws that infringe on the privacy of people. Therefore, I would consider violating these laws. People have a right to engage in various activities without the supervision of the government.
People who engage in professional or commercial activities may violate various laws. Various parties may violate a law if doing so would enable them to earn financial benefits. In a highly competitive environment, various parties may infringe various laws to maintain their competitive edge. Pharmaceutical companies may engage in unlawful practices while undertaking studies to make new drugs.
In some instances, pharmaceutical may fail to obtain informed consent from people who are participating in the testing of various drugs. Creating these drugs would improve the competitiveness and income of an individual. This makes factor drives these companies to engage in unethical activities. Testing of Depo-Provera in Zimbabwe is one of the cases that highlight the unethical conduct of pharmaceutical companies. The company coerced women to take in the clinical study.
American society is predisposed towards unethical behavior. Corporations have a culture of corruption. Executives of most companies offer themselves huge salaries. Sometimes these executives may offer themselves huge annual bonuses when the company has made losses in the financial year. Also, corporations may falsify their financial records to show that they are very profitable. This enables companies to attract investors.
The culture of cheating usually begins in school. People use dishonest means to succeed in school. Students believe that if they use honest means, they may be at a disadvantage. Corporations also have a cheating culture.
They believe that if they use honest means to gain competitiveness in the market, they may be at a disadvantage. Companies usually use loopholes in tax laws to reduce their operational cost. It is very hard for normal citizens to engage in ethical activities if the government and large corporations engage in unethical activities.
Ethical considerations have a significant effect on criminal justice. The government and law enforcement personnel should ensure that they adhere to the standard code of ethics. Brutality, corruption, and off-duty behavior are the major ethical issues that affect criminal justice. Subjecting law enforcement personnel to rigorous examinations would help in determining their mental capacity.
We will write a custom Report on Law Issues: Ethical Scrapbook specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This would help in reducing the occurrence of unethical behaviors among law enforcement personnel when they are off-duty. Formulation of cross-examination strategies that do not rely on torture would help in reducing police brutality. Also, the enactment of tougher laws on corruption would help in reducing corruption among law enforcement personnel.
Business Creativity and Innovation Essay essay help online: essay help online
A business setting or functions of an organization involve an intricate relationship between innovation and progress. Many aspects depend on how the market views the organization and how it is being treated in the business setting. One of the key aspects of any business is to be able to interest the public or society in the products or services that are being offered to people and other organizations.
As Sue Barkley, it would be wise to follow a path of both having an in-house system and getting the EMS Time Critical Manufacturing package. To start, a business needs a quick and efficient change that is dictated by the market. Innovation is rather important to a company because it makes sure that the business stays current and can deal with the competition.
In a case where something new cannot be invented, or there is not enough time to follow the requirements and demands of the market, a purchase must be made. This would ensure a starting stage for the business while their software is being developed. Even though it might be costly, to begin with, it would be a starting point that will allow competing with other businesses.
Just because there was a bad experience with the two previous vendors, it would not be wise to put everyone under one cap and get discouraged to continue trying. With the purchased system, the company will be able to gain some momentum and make the necessary resources to develop its software. Usually, there is some passage of time that allows for experimentation and the study of the market. Developing their software is critical, as new ideas can come to life and become the leading quality of the company (Pride, 2010).
The fact that the company is using outdated technology has severe consequences about other organizations and the market. People always want the best that companies have to offer, and since there are many businesses that strive to become the leader, it would be appropriate to follow the changing world. The more useful, functioning and appealing the system is, the more demand it will have in the population, thus increasing profits.
Lucas Moore has seen the system and its capabilities, supporting the purchase. It is much better to become active in six months than two years, and while the new system is already being used for acquiring profits, own software will be developed with proper attention and care. The creation and advancement of the in-house system are crucial, as it would be unproductive to rely on the purchased product alone. The market is constantly evolving, and so, the company that has offered the new system will be developing as well.
The owners and employees of the company must have faith in their workers, as all people are different and unique, so they can input their creativity and add to the changes that will take place (Mann, 2011). At a time when the company realizes and accepts that has little experience in a certain field, outside help must be accepted, as holding itself back and being proud will not be the best choice for a business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the end, own innovation and doing what is necessary are key steps to an organization. One cannot exist without the other and own ideas and ability to survive in the market must be present in a company that plans to move forward and involve itself with society.
References Mann, L. (2011). Creativity and Innovation in Business and Beyond. New York, NY: Taylor
The American Dream’s Concept Essay essay help free
The American dream 2013 focuses on making life better for its citizens and immigrants. It entails the aggressiveness instilled in the residents of America once they find themselves in various quagmires of life. The dream aims at improving the living standards of the Americans by ensuring they seize any opportunity that comes their way.
Money should not be the major point of focus when seizing the opportunities but rather hard work. According to the dream, opportunities should not be let go just because of the little returns associated with them. These opportunities should be exploited as it may result in rising up the ranks to their desired levels of success.
In the article “homeless on campus,” Aesha does not let her current situation define her character. She remains focused on her education even after being thrown out by her boyfriend rendering her homeless, yet she has a son to take care of and her dream of pursuing an education yet to be achieved. “It was horrible,” Aesha says. “We slept on benches, and it was very crowded.
I was so scared I sat on my bag and held onto the stroller day and night, from Friday to Monday.” (Bader par. 2), she could have given up on her education dream as well, but her determination forces her to find solutions to all her problems.
“I spend almost eight hours a day on the trains,” she says. “I have to leave the shelter at 5:00 a.m. for the Bronx where my girlfriend watches my son for me. I get to her house around 7:00. Then I have to travel to school in Brooklyn–the last stop on the train followed by a bus ride–another two hours away.” (Bader par. 3).
Aesha finds a place to reside after spending several hours in the cold. She also finds a friend to take care of her son as she pursues her education. This is exactly what the American dream entails.
Yes, every American resident should be entitled to the American dream 2013. The dream aims at instilling the spirit of hard work among the residents, and it will make life better for the citizens. The crime rate will reduce as the number of idle people will decrease as a result of achieving the American dream in 2013.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The number of homeless people will also reduce since everyone will work hard to ensure they afford such basic needs. The American economy is also likely to improve as a result of realizing the American dream 2013 since most of the residents are likely to indulge in productive activities as stipulated in the American dream of 2013.
Some of the ways through which the American dream 2013 can be availed to the citizens include; increasing opportunities, motivational talks, equipping people with the relevant skills and cheap loans offered by the government. The government can also create opportunities for the jobless by increasing the number of industries in America. Thus, most of the residents will find job opportunities and hence reducing the rate of unemployment. Motivational talks and journals should be availed to the residents regularly.
These talks and articles are meant to improve the ability of the residents to notice opportunities, come up with their opportunities and at the same time enhance open-mindedness among the residents. The education system should also be altered in such a way that it will include some units or subjects that are supposed to help the students make use of opportunities when they identify them.
With the current education system, people tend to wait for jobs that are only related to their fields of training. This is against the American dream in 2013. Those trained in particular fields should be willing and ready to take up any job that comes their way and make a living out of it.
However, the American dream is not perfect, and it has its flaws. I find it rather strange when it encourages people to grab any opportunity that comes in their way. It encourages people to work in fields that they are not trained in and this will lower the quality of services offered in those fields.
It is only appropriate to allow people to work in their trained field as it will lead to the provision of quality services. It also urges that more units be included in the current education system to enable people to realize opportunities and grab them. This will make the education system bulky which may in return discourage so many people. Hence, it is advisable to maintain the current, concise education system.
The dream urges the government to introduce draconian rules about evictions. This move is likely to make tenants rude and uncooperative.
We will write a custom Essay on The American Dream’s Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also encourages residents to take the law into their hands. In the article “eviction: The day they came for Miss Polk,” she commits suicide as narrated, “Dillon found Addie in bed, reclined on her side, apparently asleep. A gun lay beside her, and he recalls wondering, Huh? Why is Miss Polk sleeping with a gun in her bed?” (Boyer par. 6).
Thus, in this case, the pains of not achieving the American dream are so traumatizing that one can commit suicide which is wrong and may lead to criminal offenses. Thus, although the dream is good for the citizens, it comes with some flaws.
Works Cited Bader, Eleanor 2013. Homeless on Campus. Web. 23 July. 2013. .
Boyer, Peter 2013. Eviction: The Day They Came for Addie Polk’s House. Web. 23 July. 2013. .
Systematic Desensitization – Psychology Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Aim of the article
Relevance to clinical practice
Introduction This study was conducted to establish the effect of psychotherapy in phobic patients. Additionally, the study was conducted to follow up on phobic patients after psychotherapy. The study focused on exploring systematic desensitization on a variety of phobic patients.
Moreover, the study focused on exploring the effect of group therapy on phobic patients. Studies on phobic patients included those suffering from astraphobia, hydrophobia as well as nyctophobia. Others included patients suffering from zoophobia. This paper will conduct an appraisal of the article by Sharma, Vandana, and Awadhesh.
Core content This study was conducted by three researchers namely Sharma, Vandana, and Awadhesh. These researchers wanted to explore the effect of group therapy as well as systematic desensitization among patients with different phobic issues. To achieve this, they conducted a study among patients with nyctophobia, hydrophobia, and astraphobia. Additionally, they explored patients with zoophobia.
The survey began with screening for phobic patients aged between 19 and 12 years. This was done to achieve matching socio-economic status. Specific personality characteristics were also targeted using Beck’s method. The researchers utilized chi-square to analyze results, which were taken from varying variables.
Moreover, evaluation of the patients was done at SIMPHs, which is a qualified mental institution in India. However, results which were got differed about the number of responses. Additionally, it was found that symptoms disappeared after seven months of psychotherapy. In essence, the researchers concluded that psychotherapy was effective in treating phobic patients.
According to the researchers, this study was aimed at exploring the effect of group therapy and systematic desensitization on phobic patients. However, resulted from group therapy was found to differ significantly from results from systematic desensitization. Nonetheless, after seven months of psychotherapy, the symptoms, which were once dominant in the patients, were found to have disappeared.
Rorschach Inkblot test was administered to 110 patients suffering from varying phobic issues. It is important to note that the researchers concluded that group therapy and systematic desensitization were helpful in treating phobic patients. However, this was arrived at after a follow up was done on 44 out of the initial 110 patients involved.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, out of the 44 patients who underwent follow up, a massive number of 43 were treated successfully. In essence, this brought about the conclusion that psychotherapy could be utilized in the treatment of patients with phobia (M. Sharma,
Management Issues: Business Innovation Decisions Essay college essay help online
A business and its specifics are decided by individual situations, and every time; one must find the most suitable avenues for its conduction. The system of trade and relations between businesses are guided by responsibility, ethics, and code of respect. The market is also different. There are certain things that people need, so the demand of the market is special for the location.
The approach of Vernon and Bud is rather critical and would not guarantee a lot of choice and possibilities for the business. Since the pressures for local responsiveness are low, this will have limits for stable income and product or service flow for the community. The approach that has been known to the workers is a reliable experience. The reputation and ways of trade have been tested and confirmed through time.
The name of the company grew because of its quality and reliability, and the company maintained its loyal customers. But the new procedure must be implemented for future success. The usual routine becomes a concern, as partnerships and morality are on the line (Rouse and Boff, 2011).
Mental models or mindsets are a way of deciding and choosing on certain matters. Vernon and Bud have been with the company for a long time, so they know how people behave towards its policies and choice of products. In the matter of business, there are four steps to change the mental models or mindsets. One is recognizing the power of their possibilities and businesses, as well as the limits of mental modeling.
The second one is keeping the mental models relevant and applicable to the situation. Third, is overcoming the obstacles to change and deciding on what is best. Fourth, is the transformation of the environment or business. One of the most important decisions that must be made is how the changes in actions will lead to the best outcome and the specific choice that must be made about trade (Pride, 2010).
Examples in case of Vernon and Bud and the instances that affect their decisions are the following: they are in doubt that the business will be able to survive and produce a reliable output, but also they are questioning the existing partnership with other companies. Also, they are not sure if the decision will benefit the company because there will be more reliability and interference with an already existing business.
The company’s focus is the transport of refrigerated products, and it would be unwise to spend more resources on cooling products that do not require such conditions. Even if they have been employees for a long time, there must be a sort of progress in matters of business. Another thought they might have is that it is a risky decision to compete with other companies in the delivery of non-perishable products, but change is inevitable and must be made.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Innovation is necessary for the industry, and although keeping up with the changing times and competing with others is the goal of any company, the details must be adjusted to the market. Since Vernon supervises the drivers, he must realize that there is no point for them to haul empty trucks, and in addition to the load will not change their schedule or working hours.
It is even possible that because of an increase in the number of products they are transposing, the salary will increase, which will lead to a greater incentive, thus increasing the success of the company. Bud could help out by calculating the results of the extra shipping and figuring out the best amount and type of goods that must be supplied.
The fact that there was a previous agreement with other non-perishable items’ suppliers can be decided by agreements and joint ventures. In business, both members have a common interest and invest some form of capital or assets into the venture. There are sometimes situations when the mental processes are very much affected by the outcome of the business about finances. The demand for quality products always continues to grow, especially in the modern times of crisis.
A transaction of such scale requires careful and appropriate accounting treatment, to deal with all the aspects of price fluctuation, as well as market demand for the product. There are prospects of market exploration and a focus on the investments in the local companies. Even though there is much organization that is needed, the company will be greatly rewarded in the process.
There are many partnering companies, which are scattered all over the country, and the connection can help them unite with each other. A potential market that is developing can aid in sharing the business and activities with fewer restrictions (Jennings, 2005).
My mental models or mindsets when getting involved in making a decision are: factors that influence the market, the scale, on which the importance of those factors can be measured, comparison and the measurement of the way marketing techniques are performing, as related to the business and its success. Also, it must be decided what is best for the business, as well as the direction and distribution of resources.
The cooperation involved is another beneficial factor if there are several corporations, and this greatly adds to the decision and mental process. Employees must be thinking that cooperative work will provide a level of support and contributions so it would be wise for employees to find a compromise.
We will write a custom Essay on Management Issues: Business Innovation Decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A person wants to follow the policies and regulations of the employer and provide the best output possible. Everyone is interested in applying their skills to the best of their ability so that the company benefits. As a result, people are motivated and want to accomplish as much as is required. Often, individuals will be completely focused on their job and apply even greater effort in carrying out their duties.
There are five forces that influence mental model or mindsets of coworkers. The first one is the environment of the business. The conditions present for the successful decision making and the way people in the company interact is the aspect by which any further progress can be made. The second is hereditary, which is the knowledge that the person has acquired from relatives. This is information that the employees have been taught by parents or another family.
The third is the education that each employee has received. It is rather important, as they could have taken special courses in business that have given them a deeper understanding of the market processes and economics. The forth is genetics, and this mostly relates to the characters and behavior that a person has. There might be a certain style that each employee is characterized by and how they do things is unique and specific to that person.
Past experiences are the fifth force that rules a person’s mindset, as they base their actions on the events that took place in their life. This is very important because people are taught by experiences and mistakes play a key role in how an individual will behave in the future (Schroyens, 2013).
The next step would be to set up a time frame. In choosing a specific time frame, the requirements for each side of the company should be considered, as cooperation is key to the success of both businesses. Also, it depends on their want to contribute and plans other business partners might have.
The market has to be chosen as soon as possible. There is an option of offering the products and services domestically or internationally. The next step is to analyze the finances that will be required for such actions and where to find suppliers who will be interested in the project and its production.
The terms of the new contract establish another part of a business that is extremely important. The bargaining of each side will be seen since the individual term of each member is outlined. There has to be a level of bargaining flexibility, as there will be undetermined variables that will play a role in the process of the transaction. The extent, to which each party will be able to meet the requests of others, is set out and determined.
The willingness of each party will depend on their financial input and future expectations of the gain. As there are always risks involved in such transactions, the partners will require a clear cut determination of roles and duties. Managing such a decision must greatly cooperate between all people involved so that the successful future of the company is guaranteed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Issues: Business Innovation Decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Jennings, M. (2005). Business: Its Legal, Ethical and Global Environment. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Pride, W. (2010). Business. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Subject-Specific and Developmentally Appropriate Pedagogy Essay college essay help near me
Instructional Strategies The instructional strategies to be adopted in the third grade must identify with learners to enhance their learning, as evidenced in the instructional plan that has been adopted for this lesson. One of the instructional strategies to be adopted for this class is the use of lecture methods. The teacher will deliver the content of the lesson through lecturing. This strategy will involve teachers’ speaking skills and learners’ listening skills. The teacher will prepare the lesson plans before the time of delivery.
In this strategy, the teacher will use his or her summary notes as a guide while speaking about a certain topic. Lecture method will involve the use of language level that the learners can identify within their grade. Choice of the word will be done about the language level of third graders. Third graders have a certain level of lexical comprehension that needs to be exploited at this level. Lecture strategy will enhance the understanding capacity of the learners since the teacher can repeat similar words for as many times as he or she wishes.
The topic to be delivered will also be relative to the day-to-day activities of the learners. During the delivery of the lesson, the teacher will highlight the keywords and new words on the chalkboard. The teacher observes directly the responses of the learners as he or she delivers the lesson. Both verbal and nonverbal cues will enable the teacher to know when to repeat, to pause, to expound on a point, and even to continue with the lecture.
The teacher will do a continuous evaluation during the lesson by asking oral questions. Summative evaluation will also be done at the end of the lesson where the teacher will ask oral questions from across the topic covered. The teacher will pick learners who will answer the questions randomly. The answers will also be delivered to the teacher orally.
The other instructional strategy that will be adopted for this lesson is the use of visual aids. Learners in the third grade have well-developed visual skills. They are also very interested in what they see about what they hear. In this case, the teacher will prepare visual aids such as word card, diagrams, charts, and actual items that are referenced in the content of the lesson. The instructor will read the content during the preparation of the lesson plan and involve the learners in preparing the visual aids.
For example, if the content of the lesson refers to parts of the body, the teacher will draw a human body diagram and label it in large words. The diagram will be made in a way that learners will be able to read it from far. The teacher may also involve students in drawing the diagrams on manila papers as he or she guides them.
Also, the teacher will collect other visual aids that make the learner understand the lesson more easily. For example, if the content of the lesson is about kitchen utensils, the teacher will collect real items such as cups, plates, spoons, sufurias, sieves, and cutlery. Learners will be interested in seeing the actual items.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Visual aids create a vivid mental picture of the item in the mind of the learner. It is also easier for learners in the third grade to identify with the item after they have already seen it. Visual aids will also involve the use of charts. Such charts will have diagrams that are related to the expository text of the day. For example, in the lesson about the human body, charts with diagrams of the human body shall be used for demonstration. The teacher will demonstrate the diagrams on the walls of the classroom. Learners will be instructed to observe the charts critically and even to draw what they see on the charts.
The other instructional strategy that the teacher will adopt is the discussion. When using this method, the teacher will prepare the topic of discussion before the lesson. The teacher will also develop questions of the discussion by the learners. Learning activities will also be developed. The teacher will then assemble the learners into a cluster of five or six pupils. The groups will be developed by the learner’s abilities going by their previous performance.
After the teacher has assigned the learners to different groups, he or she will then give out the assignment. The teacher will also direct the learners to nominate a group leader who will coordinate the sessions. The teacher will direct the group on how to go about its activities. The group leader will be directed on how to make sure that every member of the group is equally involved in the discussion.
The teacher will also play a supervisory role to ensure that the groups are active. The teacher will assist learners or groups that will have difficulties in solving questions or in handling the topics. He or she will also guide learners on a step-to-step method of handling the topics.
Learners will also be trained on turn-taking to ensure that they accord each other time to air their opinions. The teacher will also develop a mechanism to evaluate the performance of the group. For example, groups can compete in answering questions on the chalkboard. The answers that members of the group will give will be used to rate them. When a group member gives a correct answer to a particular question, the group will earn a certain amount of points.
The teacher will also ensure that learners have been exposed to a similar topic or passage for an equal amount of time. Hence, they will have a similar ability to answer questions from it. The teacher will record scores to be summarized at the end of the lesson. He or she will also correct whenever a learner goes wrong when answering questions. At the end of the lesson, the teacher will also give the right answers to questions that learners do not get right.
Explanations of the topics and questions that learners do not understand will also be done at the end of the lesson. The teacher will also give a reward for the winning group to motivate it to uphold group work. He or she will also explain the reason for awarding the group to encourage other learners to be the winners in the following lesson. Learners will, therefore, feel buoyant by the action that the teacher takes, thus ensuring that their group becomes the winner in the next lesson.
We will write a custom Essay on Subject-Specific and Developmentally Appropriate Pedagogy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Students’ Activities Learning is said to have taken place only if there is a change in the behavior of the learners. In the lesson described above, learners will also have their roles to play. Learners are required to be actively involved in the lesson since they are the end users of the learning process. In the lecture strategy, they will be expected to show their commitment to the lesson in several ways. As the teacher lectures, the students will be involved in the lesson by listening carefully.
Students will actively pay attention to the lectures. Good listening skills will involve concentration and ensuring that there are no disruptions during the lesson. Learners will also be required to take short notes as the teacher lectures on a particular topic. For example, if the teacher will be lecturing about how body parts function, learners will be required to draw the body parts and make short notes.
They will also take part in asking oral questions. At some point, the teacher may call on the pupils to demonstrate some actions that are depicted in the text. For example, if the teacher is teaching about active verbs, learners will participate in illustrating the actions that the verbs depict.
When teachers adopt the use of visual aids as a non-verbal method, learners will also be actively involved. Learners will be involved in observing the visual aids that the teacher uses. Development of visual skills is important to learners. Learners need to have sharp observation skills as they grow in the social ladder. The teacher will call on individual learners to read aloud the items or words that are written on visual aids.
Learners will, therefore, be involved in standing up and reading the visual aids. The teacher may also ask questions from the charts, graphs, and real items. For example, the teacher will ask learners questions such as, “What is the name of part A?”, “What is the function of part C in the diagram above?” Learners will be expected to stand up to answer the questions.
It will also be the role of the students to be involved actively in creating similar visual aids as directed by the teacher. For example, if the teacher teaches about kitchen utensils where he or she displays some of the items in diagrams, learners will be required to draw the items on their books. Drawing also develops creativity in them.
The teacher may also place the real item at a particular place and request a student to draw it. Learners will, therefore, observe the visual aid closely and sketch it on their books or the chalkboard as the teacher may instruct. The learners will also take part in taking other pupils through the diagrams on the visual aids. For example, one of the pupils may stand up, open the flip charts, and guide other learners through the diagrams.
It will also be the responsibility of the students to correct each other when they realize that they are making mistakes in pronunciation or labeling of items. They will also actively ask questions from the teacher as he or she lectures. Students will also have the duty to request the teacher to clarify on points that they feel they do not understand. Such an action will also assist them in understanding the content better.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Subject-Specific and Developmentally Appropriate Pedagogy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, it will also enable their classmates to understand the content of the lesson. Learners will also seek clarification of instructions that the teacher will issue. Other activities in this strategy will include writing, drawing, and observing. In some instances, learners will assist the teacher in displaying the items and holding the charts and diagrams to a position that everybody in the class can see.
One of the pupils or two may be requested to take one of the flip charts around the class for his or her classmates to have a closer look at the drawings. Such pupils will be required to hold the chart properly and at a certain angle to ensure that learners in every corner of the class can have had a chance of looking at the diagram, understanding it, and interpreting it.
In case the teacher adopts the discussion strategy in teaching, learners will be required to be the most involved participants in the lesson. Discussion method involves students themselves in deliberating about certain topics or questions. The learners will be expected to be organized while working in groups. It will also be important for the learners to abide by the rules that are set by the teacher and by the group members concerning group participation.
Members of the group will also be required to obey the directions of the group leader. Activities of the group will involve turn-taking in the discussion and assisting each other in the interpretation of diagrams and questions. Learners will also be involved in researching certain ideas in other reference books. They will work in collaboration with each other. Patience is required in this method. Pupils will also participate in explaining concepts to other learners in case of group competition.
They will be involved in competing with members of other groups. It will also be required that learners will draw, write, and demonstrate various concepts. As they discuss, they will write, listen, and discuss various things. They will also debate with other members on various issues. The active debate will even make the concept of discussion clearer in their mind. It will also be the role of the students to correct their colleagues whenever they err in their presentation during the discussion.
They will also demonstrate to others in case the topic of discussion involves demonstration. For example, if the teacher directs them to discuss kitchen utensils and their functions, students will demonstrate how various items are used. For instance, a learner may draw a spoon and demonstrate how it is used for eating. Other learners may demonstrate how other items such as cups, plates, and knives are used in the kitchen.
They will also demonstrate their understanding of various issues. As a case in point, if the lesson is about school games, they will demonstrate how they kick balls and play chess, hockey, and other games. Such a demonstration makes it easy for other students to understand the concept. Teaching aids and resources to be used in this lesson will include charts, graphs, drawings, real items such as footballs, jumping ropes, cups, spoons, plates, books, and others as the lesson content may demand.
Why the instructional strategies, students’ activities, and resources listed above are appropriate For this class
The instructional strategies discussed above are very crucial for this lesson. The use of the lecture strategy of pedagogy is important for third graders. In third grade, most of the learners have developed listening and speaking skills. Most of the pupils at this level enjoy being taught. It is out of this trust that they have in listening that they enjoy storytelling. Learners at this stage form imaginations based on what they hear.
It is also easier for learners in the third grade to believe what they hear by word of mouth. Lecture method is set to exploit these skills. It is, therefore, appropriate to use the lecture method in teaching third graders since it is more passive relative to other strategies of pedagogy. Learners in third grade highly depend on what they are told. They are more reliant on instructions provided rather than on what they think.
The teacher will, therefore, have a good time lecturing to learners as they listen. In the lecture method, there are fewer disruptions of the lesson. Students can concentrate on the words of the teacher. The teacher is also put at the point of an advantage since he or she can monitor every step of the students. As the teacher delivers the lesson, it becomes easy to spot pupils with little concentration or strayed minds to call their names to bring them back to class.
The teacher is also able to monitor the response of the pupils throughout the lesson. For example, if the teacher is teaching about certain virtues such as kindness, he or she may narrate a short story of a certain character that was very kind. In the middle of the story, he or she will engage a song or some words that are overly repeated by the character. In every point that the character sings the song or repeats the words, pupils will be expected to sing along or respond along with the speaker.
It will, therefore, be easy for the teacher to monitor the non-verbal cues of the learners. Non-verbal cues will enable him or her to know when the pupils find it difficult to understand a concept. For example, they may frown, look anxious, and even make faces. With such indicators, the teacher will understand their position. He or she will, therefore, be able to adjust quickly over time to make up for the lost content.
He or she may repeat the content, explain further and in details, or give elaborate examples. The lecture method also provokes easy reactions from learners. Pupils find it easy to ask questions and even make comments since the lesson is also delivered orally with little or no writing.
It becomes easier for them to answer the questions without writing, which also makes it convenient for the teacher to keep up to speed with his or her continuous evaluation. Learners also find it easy to understand concepts that are delivered through the word of mouth since they use these skills every day.
Use of visual aids in the delivery of the lesson is also an appropriate pedagogy for learners in the third grade. At this age, pupils are more attracted to visual items relative to what they hear. It is, therefore, right to use visual materials such as flip charts, graphs, drawings, and photographs in teaching.
Learners’ attention will be attracted by visual aids hence making the lesson livelier for them. The visual aids adopted for this lesson are filtered to fit the developmental needs of the learners, their language level, and ability. It is easier for learners in this grade to identify an item that they see that an item that they have heard about in the past. It is also worth noting that visual aids will involve the use of the actual items that are depicted in the content.
Using real items makes the learner precise in understanding. For example, when he or she sees a serving spoon when learning about kitchen utensils, he or she is not likely to forget about it. The use of visual aids enables the pupil to form a vivid mental picture of the concept that the teacher is delivering in class. For example, in the case of kitchen utensils, the learner will always see the image of a spoon whenever it is mentioned since he or she saw it.
Use of visual aids also makes the lesson more involving to learners since they engage both listening and observation skills. Visual aids enable the development of observation skills, which form a very crucial booster in the learning process. In most of the examinations that the learner is likely to sit for in the future, there will be questions and concept to test his or her observation skills. The learner will, therefore, learn how to label, identify, and even draw various items that any student in his or her grade is required to know.
Some of the concepts that pupils in the third grade should be taught are complex. However, with the use of visual aids, they can easily understand the intended concept. The teacher will also find it easier to explain the concept since he or she can point at the diagram to make learners understand.
For example, when explaining the items used in the kitchen, it may be very hard to create the concept of a serving spoon or to distinguish between various types of spoons and their functions. However, with visual aids, it becomes easier to demonstrate to the learner the diagrams or photographs of each type of spoon and perhaps a photograph of it in use. In the process of drawing, writing skills and creativity are nurtured.
Discussion method is also appropriate for third graders. In this age and developmental stage, learners have developed a sense of relationship and belonging. Pupils at this age prefer identifying with others in various activities. It is, therefore, important to merge what they repeatedly do outside the classroom into class activities. Discussion method creates associations and social skills in learners. Students learn to work as social beings and to live in peace with others.
A sense of interdependence is created in the lives of learners. When pupils are put in groups, they can realize the need for living and work with others. In discussions, learners speak turns. Every member speaks after the other, thus ensuring the participation of all. Such a move ensures that students develop social interaction skills.
They also learn to respect each other’s opinion in their day-to-day life. Such learners learn that every human being is important and entitled to his or her own opinion. In a discussion process, the teacher may appoint leaders. Besides, he or she may delegate the role of nominating leaders to the group members.
Sometimes the teacher may discuss with group members on their opinions on who they believe is their best leader. Such activities ensure that they develop leadership skills at that age. Learners who are identified as leaders of the group can develop leadership skills, which may end up developing into high leadership skills in the future.
The discussion also creates a sense of democracy in the world of third graders. Moderated discussions promote the development of a sense of peace, order, and equality. Learners develop the ability to accept the divergent views of others. Moreover, they will learn that there is a need to have a leader in every activity in which they will involve themselves. The functions of the leader will also be learned at this level.
As the groups discuss and compete for top positions, learners will learn to appreciate that there are a winner and a loser in every competition. They will also learn that those who lose in competitions should accept their positions and work hard to ensure that they become winners in the future.
In a discussion scenario, pupils will gain a lot of information from their classmates and their teacher. At the end of the lesson, the teacher will ensure that he or she discusses the difficult areas in a bid to correct the mistakes that the pupils might have made.
Students’ activities are also appropriate for third graders. At this level of learning, it is very important to integrate learning and day-to-day activities of the learner. In these lessons, pupils will be involved actively in listening, hence developing and exercising their listening and writing tactics as a way of heightening their creativity and demonstration capacity, which further boosts their courage and confidence.
These are the most appropriate skills for third graders. While they are discussing, learners will enhance their public speaking skills and hence develop as confident, eloquent, and leadership-driven children.
For Developmental needs of students
Learners in the third grade are supposed to develop skills such as oral, writing, listening, comprehension, and social expertise. The strategies of teaching that are discussed above are tailored to enhance and to develop these skills. For example, the use of the lecture method in teaching is tailored to develop the listening skills of learners. The teacher plays the role of a speaker while pupils listen to his or her words.
The teacher controls his or her speed in talking depending on the complexity of the subject matter. For example, students in this class come from middle-income families. Therefore, they may have difficulties in understanding sophisticated kitchen utensils that are used by very rich people. In the same way, learners in this class may not comprehend some subjects driven from very poor and traditional settings. The teacher is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that learners understand.
In the same way, the teacher has to offer an excellent atmosphere for students to exercise their learning skills. They learn that listening is optimized through concentration and the absence of noise. Oratory skills are also developed in the lecture strategy since teachers sometimes ask learners to read or repeat the words as he or she pronounces them.
Whenever the teacher adopts the use of discussion strategy, learners can develop their oratory skills, leadership skills, social interaction skills, and respect for other people’s opinion. In the discussion method, the teacher and pupils are involved in deliberations about a topic or a question. In this case, students are actively involved in the lesson.
Their opinion counts. The teacher may also come up with groups, which he or she assigns leaders or requests the group members to elect a leader. In such cases, pupils in the third grade will develop their leadership, responsibility, and social skills. The group leader will begin identifying himself or herself with leaders. He will also learn that leadership comes with responsibilities.
Social skills are developed when learners take turns in discussions where they differ and agree on the answer to a certain problem. Unity and teamwork are also nurtured since they end up realizing that it is only after working with others that they achieve a certain goal.
For example, if the group assignment was to cut and make a cube from a manila paper, they will have to work together. One pupil may cut as the other one measures while the other one folds the paper to make the cube. Finally, they can glue the pieces to achieve a cube.
Teamwork and social skills are therefore fostered. In the use of visual aids, the teacher aims at developing observation skills, which are crucial for this stage and later stages. Learners should be able to accurately identify certain items, figures, and label them. The ability to distinguish one item from the other on the diagram is also nurtured.
Observation skills will be useful in various subjects in the third grade and the future. For example, in science studies, students will be requested to observe the behavior of small animals and insect, for instance. Observation skills will, therefore, be very important.
How the strategies discussed above help students to make progress towards achieving the state-adopted academic content standards
In this content area, the state curriculum requires students to develop various skills. Such skills should enable learners to connect classroom teaching and real-life situation. For example, learners should be able to take care of and respect the environment after they read a text on animals and insects. The larger goal of the state is to make learners appreciate the environment. It is also required that learners develop thinking and problem-solving skills.
Teachers present students with topics for discussion and questions to solve. While discussing and developing answers, they develop problem-solving skills. For example, they learn that it is easier to work with others in finding solutions. Social interaction skills are also supposed to be developed at this stage. The methodology trains leaders to handle peer pressure and appreciate individuality. For instance, while working in groups during a discussion, they will realize that not every idea that comes from friends is truthful.
In the lecture method, students will also witness some of the answers that their peers give being rejected by the teacher. Such episodes make them selective in choosing friends and in accepting the influence of peers. Therefore, based on these advantages that the aforementioned strategies have on the individual student, it suffices for teachers to develop mechanisms of teaching them effectively in a bid to boost the academic progress of the student in this and other grades.
Alexander the Great – the King of Macedonia Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Alexander, the king of Macedonia or more commonly, Alexander the Great is thought to be the most significant military leader of the ancient world. His empire was vast and could not be compared to any other by size. Even though more than two thousand years have passed, his skills in battle are still discussed today.
The future great and powerful king was born in 356 B. C. Alexander was being influenced by his parents very differently, as his father, King Phillip II, was teaching him about the military strategies and his mother, Olympias, was trying to set him against his father. But from a very early age, Alexander showed to have a lot of potentials and was taught by the best teachers.
Some of the key subjects were diplomacy, politics, and war. When Alexander was thirteen years old, Aristotle was made his tutor at the request of Phillip II. The subjects that were taught to Alexander by the famous thinker were medicine, literature, philosophy but most importantly, ethics and politics. It was also clear that Alexander was an intellectual person, as he showed particular interest in sciences and literature.
When he was sixteen, Phillip II left him in charge of the Macedonian military while he went to conquer Byzantium. During this time, Thracian Maedi tribe went against Macedonia, but Alexander was able to draw them out of the home territory and after taking over, named a city of Alexandroupolis.
In 336 B. C., Phillip II was assassinated during marriage ceremonies by one his bodyguards. There is some speculation as to the true reasons and people who organized the assassination, but there were several enemies who were set against Phillip and his diplomacy (Burgan, 2006).
When Alexander became the lawful king, he took care of everyone who he thought could be a threat to his ruling. Because news of Phillip’s death has been circulating, some tribes decided to take power into their own hands. Alexander acted quickly and took matters into their own hands by making them surrender.
He then organized a congress and made sure that Greeks were on his side. Thus, in year 335 B. C., he went North and defeated Triballi and Amphipolis. Because his reputation was yet to be made, the King of Illyria, Cleitus and King Glaukias did not think of him as a threat and went to battle but were defeated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His conquest of the North was referred to as Balkan conquest, and when it successfully finished, Alexander set out to conquer the Persian Empire. When he marched out, his army consisted of approximately 50,000 soldiers, and his fame was already known in the region.
After the Battle of Granicus, several Persian cities surrendered without a battle and Alexander proceeded further. King Darius has met with Alexander in a battle that was one of the major ones for the Persian Empire. But even though Darius had a larger army, he was defeated and forced to escape even before the battle was over. After the battle, Alexander continued to pursue Darius and eventually was proclaimed the king of Asia with ownership of Syria and almost all of Levant.
In 332 B. C., he went with an attack on Tyre and the battle turned out to be a hard one. This did not stop him, and after defeating and killing all men capable of military service, he went towards Egypt. Because he was already well known in the region, many cities surrendered, and upon his arrival in Egypt, he was seen as a liberator.
Gaza was one of the cities that did not capitulate, and Alexander was forced to fight. The defenses of the city were well equipped, and the Macedonian King had to resort to siege. After three attempts to take the city and a wound to a shoulder that was rather serious, Alexander took Gaza (Abbott, 2009).
Alexander then went on to Mesopotamia, leaving Egypt. Again, he met with Darius and defeated him. After capturing Babylon, he took Susa, Persepolis and went through the Persian Gates. This was the time when Alexander became the Great King, but he wants to conquer more lands did not die down. As he was an intellectual and well-educated person, he would always have philosophers, engineers, and historians present.
This ensured for proper recoding of the events and any possible advice. It is important to note that there were two plots against his life. The first involved one of his officers not being able to notify Alexander and so, Macedonian King killed the officer and his son to prevent any vengeance. Another plot happened during his Central Asian campaign and involved people out of his royal surroundings. In years 327 and 326, B. C., Alexander went to conquer the Indian subcontinent.
There was much fighting, and Alexander was seriously wounded several times. When the King and his army reached Hyphasis River, the army refused to go any further, as they were exhausted by the wars and wanted to return home. Even though Alexander wanted to go further, he had no choice but to turn back.
We will write a custom Essay on Alexander the Great – the King of Macedonia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While going back, Alexander the Great has realized that many of his military leaders who were left to their own devices, misbehaved, so several executions followed. He then held a big feast between Macedonians and Persians, which was meant to unite the two nations (Freeman, 2011).
There were many more plans that Alexander the Great wanted to accomplish but his death in 323 B. C., prevented him from any more conquering. Historically, there is some controversy as to the true causes of his death, and there are descriptions of both natural causes and assassination.
By some versions he has died of either meningitis, bacterial virus or natural causes that were accelerated by his lifestyle of drinking and battles. Some historians propose that he was poisoned by the wine that he drank or the water from the river Styx. After his death, the empire that he created fell apart. In the modern days, there are differential opinions as to how to classify Alexander the Great.
There is no doubt that he was a great military leader and could organize and control his soldiers well, but the reasons for his hunger for territory and power are questioned by philosophers.
One of the most important consequences of his actions was the spread of Greek culture and contact between East and West (Heckel, 2011). Trading became much more orderly, and many cities and territories became world centers. Another important legacy is that people of different cultures and traditions had a chance to get to know each other, intermixing until the present times.
References Abbott, J. (2009). Alexander the Great. New York, NY: Mundus Publishing.
Burgan, M. (2006). Alexander the Great: World Conqueror. Minneapolis, MN: Capstone.
Freeman, P. (2011). Alexander the Great. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Alexander the Great – the King of Macedonia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Heckel, W. (2011). Alexander the Great: A New History. Malden, MA: John Wiley
Illegal Immigration in the United States Essay college admission essay help
Introduction Immigration refers to the movement of people from their country into another to stay in that country permanently. Such immigration is said to be illegal if they contravene the established laws of that country. This paper seeks to argue for strict deportation of illegal immigrants. The paper will look into factors surrounding illegal immigration and the impacts of such immigration in the United States.
Arguments for strict measures against illegal immigrants America has been a recipient to a wide variety of immigrants from different parts of the world. As a result, the number of immigrants has been increasing year by year. One of the major causes of immigration into the United States is the fact that its economy is recognized worldwide to be stable with relatively well-paying jobs as compared to those that are offered in other countries.
People thus look for avenues that can land them into the United States with an ultimate goal gaining permanent residence. Though better wages are available for the immigrants, their influx into the country is accompanied by significant negative impacts in the economy of the United States.
The first victims of illegal immigration are Americans in job markets whose employment opportunities are threatened by the immigrants in a variety of ways. The main reason for the immigrants flowing into the United States being the search for better economic grounds makes the American job market to be their first target once they move in.
The fact that they must support themselves economically also establishes the grounds for their existence in the job market. This in the first place infiltrates the marked thus posing an effect on the amount in wages that employers are willing to offer. The fact that the supply of labor is increased also implies an effect of a reduced price for labor.
Natives are as a result forced to suffer from the unfair competition that will have been posted by individuals who are not supposed to be in the United States in the first place. Apart from suffering in terms of the amount that employers are willing to offer, the natives also face the threat of job insecurity due to the arrival of illegal immigrants.
Since the immigrants arrive while desperate for job opportunities, they pose the tendency to accept lower wages than those that the natives would demand. The fact that their countries of origin could not offer satisfactory wages as compared to even the low ones that discriminative employers would be ready to give them also contributes to their acceptance of relatively low wages as compared to the natives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, employers who are at the same time centered on minimizing their cost would prefer the use of illegal immigrants as employees instead of expensive natives. There are thus risks of natives losing their jobs to immigrants. The impact that is caused in the job market due to immigration is thus one of the bases for which it should be controlled to protect the interest of American citizens (Sari and Ker 4).
The trickling effects of immigrants will also have an implied effect on the government in general terms. Following provisions that have been made giving allowance for illegal immigration, there is an established additional strain that is laid on the federal government based on the provision of services to the general public that includes the immigrants. This can be viewed from two perspectives.
The first aspect is that these immigrants will utilize the services that are offered by the federal government and consequently cost the federal budget. This is reflected on the federal expenditure that is occasionally more than the revenues thus portraying a deficit in federal’s annual budgets. The inflow of immigrants is thus identified as one of the causes of deficits that are usually realized in federal budgets.
The fact that the deficit has never been recently corrected also enlists the need for finding its solution. Elimination of illegal immigrants from the United States and further control of further inflow of illegal immigrants can thus be seen as an avenue for trimming the federal expenditure to reduce the deficit that is traditionally realized in federal budgets.
The fact that illegal immigrants are not accurately accounted for also introduces a threat to the planning for and provision of services to people. The significant number of immigrants that are realized yearly, for instance, creates a relative shortage in the general provision of commodities and services that depends on planning.
Provisions that are made following data of populations are caused to be insufficient since the inflow of immigrants is significant and can thus destabilize budgeted provisions. Americans are thus normally at risks of shortages of provisions due to consumptions by illegal immigrants, and one of the ways by which this can be corrected is by ensuring that such inflow of illegal immigrants who are undocumented and thus unplanned for is controlled.
Control of government expenditure caused by the already existing illegal immigrants should also be reduced by reducing this number through the deportation of such individuals (Porter 1). Another factor that calls for strict application of the law for the deportation of illegal immigrants in the United States is the fact that the legislation that has been in existence has provided avenues for such immigrants to in the past gain legality as citizens of the United States.
We will write a custom Essay on Illegal Immigration in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legislations such as “immigration and naturalization” provisions of the year 2000 that granted amnesty to illegal immigrants who had been in the united states since the year 1986 and further made ways for foreigners to be allowed into the united states provided that they had relatives who are citizens have also played a role in increasing the number of illegal immigrants (Porter 1).
The legalization also directly saw the individuals who were granted citizenship have their relatives come into the United States to stay with them. “Immigration reform and control act” is also said to have been a factor towards the inflow of illegal immigrants based on having relatives who are citizens in the United States (Porter 1).
Amendment of section two hundred and forty-five of the constitution in the year 1994 that allowed for the adoption of some groups of immigrants is also a factor that is seen to have promoted illegal immigration in the past. Under this provision, individuals who had entered the borders of the United States illegally were granted the legality to be citizens as well as those who were in the United States on visas but whose visas had been canceled (Porter 1).
On this basis, the amendment is seen to have formed a basis of a possibility of being legalized once an individual has immigrated illegally. NACARA, another provision that was made under lawmaking processes also granted amnesty and allowed given categories of people to move into the states and be considered as residents permanently.
Legislations that have been made over the provision of services also reveal aspects that have been attracting immigrants. The allowance that is granted to illegal immigrants to access even higher education through government funding is for example identified as a tool that promotes illegal immigration.
People who are interested in studying in the American facilities would for these provisions move to access free basic education and even hope to benefit from the federal services that are offered in higher education institutions. The tolerant legislative provisions are thus the worst enemy of the United States concerning controlling illegal immigrants as it forms an attraction to the individuals.
Since the law itself motivates potential immigrants, only strict measures to those who have been found guilty of the act can serve as an example to others to discourage further immigration into the United States. The strict application of law such deportation of immigrants inspire of any advantages that the immigrants could have taken such as having their relatives in the united states will.
For example, discourage immigrations that are based on the hope of using citizen relatives to acquire legality of permanent residence in the united states (Porter 1). The impacts of immigration into the United States have at the same time enlisted arguments as to whether immigrants should be granted equivalent status as natives. This is because of the strains that the immigrant population has been exerting on the government.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Illegal Immigration in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The complexity over this matter is the fact that the American constitution has been interpreted by the supreme courts to make the government liable for every single person that dwells in the lands of the United States. This implies that every single individual that has managed to have his or her ways into the United States must be provided for by the federal government.
Thus, so long as the immigrants are within the borders, they have a right over the expenditures that are incurred by the government for provisions to the legal citizens of the United States. Strict deportation thus remains the only sure alternative of saving the government from the extra expenditures caused by illegal immigration (Carabelli 1).
The revelation of the census that was conducted in the year 1980 also revealed an alarming number of illegal immigrants that calls for measures of control. In the state of Columbia alone, for example, more than two million people were realized as foreigners who were never on any records. Such high numbers also call for strict control measures over illegal immigrants (Passel and Woodrow 1).
Arguments against strict measures of illegal immigrants Human rights activists and socialists, however, argue on the contrary that immigrants should be provided for by the government on the basis that like American citizens, the illegal immigrants should be accorded humane treatment such as all benefits that American citizens are entitled to (Dwyer 1).
Conclusion Though the immigrants are human beings like Americans, the fact that they are aware that such immigration is against laws and the implications that are associated with such immigration, especially in the United States calls for a more strict approach of controlling immigration so as to protect the people of America as well as the federal government that might be overwhelmed by responsibility over immigrants.
The benefits which will be accrued from the deportation of illegal immigrants will go a long way to benefit the American citizens at large. This paper thus argues for strict deportation of illegal immigrants from the United States.
Works Cited Carabelli, Maria. “Whose children are these? A rational approach to educating illegal-alien schoolchildren”. International social review, 2011. Web.
Dwyer, James. Illegal immigrants, health care and social responsibility. Justor, 2004. Web.
Passel, Jeffrey and Woodrow, Karen. Geographic distribution of undocumented immigrants: estimated aliens counted in the 1980 census by states. Justor, 2010. Web.
Porter, Lakeisha. Illegal immigrants should not receive social services. Find Article, 2010. Web.
Sari, Ker and Ker, William. Economic impact of immigration. HBS, 2011. Web.
Outsourcing in US Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Outsourcing U.S. workers means that full-time workers are obtained from less developed countries where the wages are lower, and labor laws are tighter. It is facilitated by the availability of the internet that makes it easy to assemble and manage remote teams of workers.
The increasing economic pressure in the globe facilitated by the developing world as a competitor has forced all firms to rely on contracts. Many small and midsized businesses need to develop technology in the new global market to be effective in outsourcing.
Findings Detriments of outsourcing to the U.S. workers
Having people from foreign countries, work for U.S firms affects the economy of the U.S. negatively by leaving a large number of Americans jobless. The availability of cheap labor in other countries is permanent, and the American workers could lose jobs forever since outsourcing does not leave enough jobs for the Americans.
Outsourcing reduces spending and tax revenues since Americans in poverty find it difficult to get a job although they are willing to do the jobs. Outsourcing relies much on service jobs, which do not disburse as much as manufacturing jobs thus reducing the national wealth.
Benefits of outsourcing to the U.S. workers
Outsourcing maintains the country’s economic status: America exports products to the rest of the world more than any other nation by taking advantage of the emerging markets of India and China. The country takes advantage of the global world we currently live in to become rich. It is crucial to selling products to new world markets due to the product brand.
If the country fails to involve itself in outsourcing, it may end up losing both the foreign and domestic market. Irrespective of the country’s decision to stop outsourcing, other first world nations such as EU members and Japan will continue networking.
Outsourcing reduces American companies’ efficiency and competitiveness due to a shortage of supply of skilled workers. The cheap labor got from outsourced workers reduces the costs of production, which consequently reduces the costs of US consumers. Outsourcing in the U.S. benefits HP and IBM.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also helps improve and maintain the global economic status of the country. In case it stops to outsource, other countries will. The countries economy relies on outsourcing and the more it gets involved globally, the more successful it becomes. Hence, the U.S. should not discourage the practice of outsourcing.
Outsourcing creates jobs: The cost savings and use of offshore resources reduce inflation and interest rates while increasing productivity. It helps to get high-quality services at a cost-effective price. It causes an increase in business profits, productivity, level of quality, and business value and performance.
It helps American firms obtain skilled and qualified workers that help them increase the concentration of the employees and the organization on the core business by outsourcing all the non- core functions. Outsourcing helps firms increase delivery of services and products to customers hence improving the relationship of the business and the customers.
Outsourcing makes use of time zones advantages reducing time wastage. It helps businesses to achieve overall efficiency by assigning some functions to the partner. By availing a competitive edge to firms, it helps countries increase their economic growths, jobs, and wages.
Outsourcing benefits workers from health insurance: Outsourcing involves a variety of medical insurance plans, retirement/pre-tax plans, flexible spending accounts, employee assistance programs, credit unions, and financial services.
This helps to create a flexible work environment by improving employee satisfaction and reducing attrition and unscheduled absences. Due to the availability of these benefits, outsourced employees are motivated to provide quality products and services to the firm.
Discussion Outsourcing remunerates the U.S. shareholders by reducing the costs of production and American consumers by reducing the costs of their needs, wants, and affects American workers by leaving them jobless. It positively affects the economies of developing countries and increases trade for U.S. products.
We will write a custom Essay on Outsourcing in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It gives the ability to the less developed countries to pay back their debts to the U.S. It is difficult to eliminate outsourcing given the current trend in globalization. The rate of employment is decreasing although the number of unemployed is not decreasing. Skilled workers find themselves seeking self-employment.
Conclusion Corporations employ outsourcing largely used as a means of cutting costs by replacing highly paid workers in one country with lower- paid workers who perform equivalent jobs from other countries. The availability of low-wage, educated, and skilled workers in countries such as India, China, and Russia provides a key motivation for U.S. corporations to outsource jobs.
It leads to the replacement of large numbers of blue-collar manufacturing jobs, white collar and IT technology jobs with outsourced workers hence increased unemployment. Outsourcing leads to loss of worker control since it is difficult to manage outside service providers. Also, it is a threat to security and confidentiality, quality problems, and bad publicity of company and consumer information.
Recommendation U.S. workers’ unions should oppose the outsourcing of workers in the US. Shifting of production and jobs to foreign location causes problems to many workers due to the conflicting needs of companies, national economies, and individuals. U.S. corporations should try their best to balance outsourcing workers to prevent future economic problems to workers in their own country and ensure good public relations.
Segmentation, Target Marketing and Positioning Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Segmentation variables will mainly focus on different characteristics of target customers. A multi-variable segmentation strategy will be used to market the product to different customer segments. The criteria to be used for the segmenting strategy will focus on how different aspects of the marketing mix can be achieved from heterogeneous customer segments that have different expectations and interests.
Demographic and lifestyles segmentation will be used by the firm to come up with an effective marketing strategy for the product. Since the product targets students and other general customer groups outside the university, demographic segmentation will be used to segment the market using income, occupation, age and gender as the main criteria.
Additionally, lifestyle segmentation will allow the firm to focus on consumers’ interests and other activities they engage in to determine how they influence their consumption patterns and purchasing decisions.
Differentiated target marketing strategies will be used to sell the product to targeted consumers. More importantly, the firm will focus on specific product attributes during the development phase to understand how they affect customers’ perceptions and attitudes. This strategy will be closely linked to the pricing strategy where the general market price will be 100 dollars while for university students the price will be about 60 dollars.
Since, the product will be sold mainly in Sydney, Nova Scotia; it needs to appeal to local conditions to ensure more customers appreciate its ability to serve their needs. Ease of use, high quality design, colour and other features of the product will be used to differentiate it in the market.
The product will be closely aligned with psychological factors to make it more appealing to customers. As a result, it offers unique value to customers which they cannot obtain from existing substitutes. It will be designed to appeal to young customers that are bold and willing to try out new concepts that change their lives. These consumers will be made aware of the convenience the product offers.
Other benefits of the product focus on its new technology which offers value that cannot be obtained from its substitutes currently being sold in the market. The positioning statement will be: ‘A revolutionary charger that caters to the needs and lifestyles of young mobile users offering an exclusive service.’ The overall positioning strategy will make customers feel they are paying a premium price for a valuable product because of its superior qualities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Developing and Managing Products and Services The product can be classified as a consumer product that serves special needs. Its unique selling proposition in the market is the convenience it offers because it uses new technology to convert sound into electric power. It also serves as an additional battery to smartphones and allows users to perform a variety functions on their mobile devices while on the move.
The product’s aesthetics appeal to people from different demographic backgrounds because it is sold in a wide array of colours such as blue, lilac, green, maroon and black. Additionally, its innovative qualities will make the product stand out in the market because it caters to diverse usage patterns. Therefore, the product allows customers to be in touch with other people at all times even when they move to areas without adequate electricity supply.
The product will be known as the ‘Refine Charger’; a name that communicates its original qualities accurately. This brand name was chosen because it speaks about innovative technologies that are used to develop the product to enhance its reputation in the industry. More importantly, this brand name has focused on gaining instant attention from customers to make them understand the high value they are likely to obtain by using it.
The firm will use biodegradable packaging materials for the product as part of its corporate responsibility to reduce environmental degradation. The package will contain instructions to make customers aware on how to use the product properly for them to get the value it offers.
This will help the firm to elicit positive perceptions about the product in the market. At different points of sale, consumer support staff will demonstrate to customers how the product is used and the benefits it brings to them.
New Product Development The product idea originated from both internal and external sources, after a careful analysis of market needs and opportunities was conducted. Team members brainstormed and generated ideas about how the product was going to be developed to make it suitable for different usage patterns in the market. The product development process was taken through several stages as outlined below:
Idea Generation: Different business proposals by all team members were discussed and afterwards, constructive assessments were used to determine the viability of each individual proposal.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Segmentation, Target Marketing and Positioning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Idea Screening: All members were involved in vetting the ideas that had been discussed earlier to find out how they were going to be converted to long term product concepts that respond to dynamic market trends.
Concept Development and Testing: All members took time to understand the legal environment in which the concept is to be implemented. They also looked at challenges, risks and opportunities which the product was likely to experience in the industry.
The Marketing Strategy: This focuses on the competitive threat posed by existing products and other barriers a new product is likely to face in the industry. In addition, the marketing strategy will influence the pricing model used to market the product in the market.
Product Development: Information gathered from the market research will be used in research and development to find out additional features that need to be added to the product to make it more appropriate for the market.
Test Marketing: A small sample of potential customers drawn from the main target segments will be requested to use the firm’s prototypes for a specific period of time to measure the product’s performance.
Commercialization: The launch of the product will be done after a careful analysis of its viability has been done. Issues that relate to advertising, promotion and distribution formats to be used will also be catered for.
Product and Service Decisions Product quality will be determined through internal and external checks to establish its suitability. The firm will be making constant improvements on product design and packaging to ensure it satisfies consumers’ expectations. Internal and external inspectors will also conduct constant checks to assess whether different operational systems conform to standards set by government agencies.
Brand Strategy and Management The product will be known as ‘Refine Charger’ because of its innate qualities that make it stand out in the industry. This name is appropriate for the product because it communicates various aspects of brand value to customers in different market segments where the product is sold.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Segmentation, Target Marketing and Positioning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More importantly, the product name offers a unique value proposition to customers making them aware about the firm’s willingness to build a mutually beneficial relationship with them in the long run.
The logo of the brand will consist of a strong, blue coloured R symbol which will be used as part of the overall positioning strategy by the firm. The tagline will be used to elicit positive perceptions from customers towards the product. It will be: ‘embrace new possibilities.’ Likewise, the slogan chosen for the product will be instantaneous and direct. It will be; ‘exposing you to a new world’.
Pricing Pricing Considerations
Internal factors such as costs incurred in the development of the product, marketing goals, innovative technologies used and its attributes will be used to estimate the value of the product in the market. These qualities will determine the pricing strategy the firm chooses for the product. Other considerations such as the distribution channels to be used to sell the product in the market will also influence pricing strategies.
External factors such as existing demand, power of substitutes, competition and the value of product technologies used will guide the firm’s pricing strategy for the new product. The firm will assess the market share it seeks to gain within a specific period of time by analysing behavioural as well as situational factors that influence consumers ‘ purchasing habits and choices.
The external legislative environment will also influence the firm’s pricing considerations because issues such as licensing, taxation and other regulations have a direct impact on the firm’s operations in the industry.
Price adjustment strategies will include
Discount and Allowance Pricing: The firm will reward customers and distributors who show interest in the product soon after its inception to encourage them to be more loyal. This strategy will be used to lock in customers from specific consumer segments it seeks to attract.
Segmented pricing: The price charged on university students will be different from the price charged on the product in the outside market. This is because test marketing results have shown there are different levels of demand for the product in the two markets. Therefore, within the university, the firm will be able to sell larger volumes of the product while in the outside market it will take time before high sales figures are attained.
Psychological pricing: The firm will use a pricing strategy that appeals to consumers ‘expenditure patterns, lifestyles and social conditions. Therefore, this will enable the firm to improve general perceptions about the product before consumers purchase it.
Promotional pricing: this pricing strategy will be adopted by the firm to stimulate consumers’ interest towards the product to encourage them to purchase them. The firm will rely on positive relationships it has with its distributors and retailers to engage more effectively with different consumers in the market.
Retailing and Wholesaling The firm will develop partnerships with major retail stores to sell its products directly to customers in respective target markets. This approach will allow the firm to use its own sales staff who will interact directly with customers to make them aware about the product’s quality, features and other additional benefits.
Furthermore, other additional services that improve the manner in which customers use the product will be included in the retail strategy. This approach will allow sales staff to demonstrate technical functions of the product to consumers and how they enhance its quality. As a result, the firm will be in a position to combine both sales and customer service functions in one location.
This will enable sales employees to understand effective methods they can use to satisfy the needs and expectations of customers. The firm will also liaise with other online ecommerce websites to market its products outside the Nova Scotia region.
However, this is part of the mid-term expansion plan that will only be initiated if the firm attains its profit targets. As part of the future plan, the firm intends to offer consumers more convenience and value for money whenever they purchase its products.
The wholesaling strategy will allow the firm to come up with innovative ways of increasing its market share. The firm will encourage its distributors to partner with shops that deal in electrical and technological appliances in different parts of Nova Scotia by offering them different incentives.
Consequently, the firm will be able to establish new relationships with ambitious entrepreneurs who are willing to make sacrifices to ensure the product performs positively in the market. As a result, this will be one of the steps used to help the product to penetrate the market easily to increase its visibility in different market segments. This will boost the firm’s earnings in the long run.
In a nutshell, retail and wholesale strategies implemented by the firm will help to increase its brand value in the industry.
Advertising and Public Relations The objective of the advertising strategy chosen by the firm will be to increase the product’s visibility in the industry. Therefore, the firm will use various commercials and adverts to appeal to consumers’ psyche by making them aware about various benefits they are going to get after using the product. In effect, catchy adverts will enable the firm to create a positive impression to different consumers in the industry to make them have positive attitudes. This will ensure different consumer segments understand unique qualities of the product in a simple manner.
The product’s advertising strategy, message and execution focuses mostly on remarkable results users of the product experience. Since TV serves as the main advertising medium, the message features catchy tunes in an environment where people are using their phones to perform different activities.
The advert features bright light displays which project a message of boldness, excitement and adventure. Therefore, it encourages users to have a more positive outlook because the product opens their mind to make them aware about new opportunities they have not yet exploited.
The television commercial will be done in two minutes. It will feature about five participants, who will communicate to different audiences about original qualities of the product. The message will use simple and descriptive language to encourage customers to change their inner thoughts and perceptions regarding the product.
As a result, this approach will help to strengthen the value of the brand in the market to help it compete effectively against other substitutes sold by the firm’s competitors. Therefore, the message will encourage customers to memorise important concepts that are related to the product and how they conform to their lifestyles and expectations.
Public relations will play a major role in shaping people’s attitudes and perceptions regarding the product. The firm will use PR strategies to engage with its publics to constantly make them aware about what it is doing and what it has set out to achieve in the long term. Therefore, this will stimulate interest from different people to find out more about the firm and the product it offers.
In addition, a comprehensive public relations strategy will allow the firm to plan different communication functions that are suitable for its activities in the industry. This will ensure that the firm alerts consumers and other stakeholders about different events it undertakes and how they help it achieve all goals outlined in its mission.
Personal Selling and Sales Promotion Personal selling will help the firm to understand different purchasing habits customers have to ensure the firm understands how to engage different target markets more effectively. In the long run, the firm will be in a position to adjust its sales and marketing approaches to ensure that the product being marketed conforms to people’s expectations and lifestyle choices.
More importantly, the mobile charger needs to have unique qualities that allow it to satisfy target consumers choices and lifestyles. Personal selling will allow the firm to anticipate the needs and expectations of customers more effectively because its employees will be able to monitor different issues affecting them.
Therefore, the firm will also understand how to come up with an effective customer relations strategy that addresses all areas of its operations more effectively, to give it the competitive edge it desires in the industry.
Sales promotion will allow the firm to come up with more effective selling methods by offering them different types of incentives. This approach will allow the firm to use trade shows to sell its products by offering discounts and other rewards to a select group of customers with the objective of making them more loyal in the future.
This strategy will also allow the firm to motivate its own sales staff to encourage them to improve their performance through commissions and other rewards.
All these benefits will help the firm to increase its standing in the industry because it will be in a position to streamline its internal processes to attain good results in the long run. Sales promotion will be conducted in retail outlets, on streets and other public places where many people congregate. Sales staff will carry out demonstrations that show how the product is used to make more customers understand how it serves their needs.
Both sales promotion and personal selling strategies will be used by the firm to strengthen its performance in the industry. More importantly, the firm will be able to interact freely with customers from different segments to understand how it can serve their needs better. This will help the firm to publicise different qualities that are related to its products more effectively in the market.
Direct and Online Marketing Direct marketing will be used to engage consumers through different communication channels to encourage them to purchase the firm’s products. It will allow the firm to compile a database of potential consumers’ names, addresses and their lifestyles.
The firm will use catchy phrases to sustain the customers’ interests to encourage them to have more favourable attitudes towards the products. In effect, the firm will be in a position to understand what customers need and their expectations to ensure it sells them products that are high quality to satisfy their needs in the long run.
Telemarketing will be the most used form of direct marketing used by the firm to improve the perceptions of all customers towards its products. Sales staff will also call customers on their fixed telephone lines to engage with them on the product’s features and its long term benefits.
In addition, modern telemarketing procedures consisting of multi-media messaging services (MMS) will be used to encourage consumers to have favourable attitudes toward its products. A picture of the charger outlining its features will be sent to a select number of consumers with information that details where it is sold in the market.
The firm’s website will serve as its main online selling portal where customers will be offered a chance to use their credit cards to purchase the product. This will be integrated with the firm’s Twitter and Facebook accounts to ensure all customer queries are responded to promptly.
The website will serve as a central ecommerce portal and will integrate payment and delivery services for consumers within Nova Scotia who are interested in purchasing the product.
Social networks will be used to monitor consumer feedback regarding the product and will allow the firm to chat with customers online to find out various issues they may be facing. Since there will be no intermediaries, the firm will be in a position to improve the nature of its services to ensure it strengthens its brand in the market in the long run.
Death Penalty – Criminal Law Essay college essay help online
This essay opposes the use of the death penalty as deterrence against homicides. Abrahams argues that the death penalty is an ineffective deterrence from homicides because it has failed to bring down the number of homicides, but has proved to be very expensive compared with long term imprisonment (1).
A report by Radelet and Lacock shows that the death penalty is prone to the identity problem, which is why the justice system has in many occasions wrongly convicted and executed a significant number of people (6).
That has not only failed to bring down the number of homicides committed in many states but has increased the cost incurred by the criminal justice system to administer justice, prompting a lot of people to campaign for a paradigm shift for long term imprisonment (Nagourney 1).
The death penalty was widely accepted as an effective form of capital punishment for many years to deter criminals from homicides.
A survey conducted in 1996 to determine people’s attitudes towards the death penalty showed that 62% of the respondents regarded the death penalty as effective deterrence from homicides. However, later studies conducted in 2000 showed a significant decline in the number of people in favor of the death penalty.
Deterrence Statistical evidence shows that 88% of the top criminologists of the United States do not regard the death penalty as the best deterrent against homicide (Abrahams 1). Different studies on the subject of executions and murders conducted by leading criminologists to determine the effectiveness of the death penalty against murders have proved the adherents of the death penalty wrong.
In an article which was published in the Washington Post in 2002 titled ‘Murderous Pardons?’ It was shown that for every execution done in the United States between 1977 and 1997, there was an increase in the number of homicides by five.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the same report, it was shown that for each person removed from the list of the death penalty row, there was only a single act of murder. Other studies on the subject showed that when the death penalty was applied, no corresponding deterrence or homicide was reported, but for each execution, there was an increase in the number of murders.
Recent studies support the findings that the death penalty does not lead to a decrease, but leads to an increase in homicides. Researchers have stated that “there is a wide consensus among America’s top criminologists that scholarly research has demonstrated that the death penalty does, and can do, little to reduce rates of criminal violence” (Nagourney 1).
Research results by top scholars and criminologists show that the death penalty is not a deterrent against homicides, but very expensive for the criminal justice system.
Expensive from an economic perspective Costs of the death penalty show that instead of the death penalty leading to a decrease in the cost of administering justice, it has led to an increase in the cost incurred when compared with the use of life imprisonment (Death Penalty Information Center 1). Similar findings by Abrahams show that the cost of keeping a prisoner is much lower than the cost of executing a prisoner (1).
Abrahams reported that the state of New Jersey incurred a total of U.S $ 255 million to execute prisoners from 1983 until today (1). When the figures were compared with the figures of keeping prisoners for life, the costs of the death penalty was much higher than the costs of life imprisonment (1).
A typical example is a case for the Court of Colorado. A study of the cost of the death penalty in that court shows that it takes more time and money to preside over a death case than a normal case. According to Abrahams, it takes the court approximately 147 days to preside over a death case (1).
A study conducted in the same setting established that once the death penalty legislation has been passed, more days are required for a person to appeal the judgment. In another study, the cost of a case involving the death penalty in California was 137 million dollars per annum.
We will write a custom Essay on Death Penalty – Criminal Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In another study to determine the cost of the death penalty in Maryland, it was shown that it costs 3 million dollars, 1.9 million dollars more than the cost of a non-death penalty. Other states have reported similar trends in the cost of the death penalty.
The above figures show that the cost of executing a prisoner is far much higher than the cost of life imprisonment (Nagourney 2). Similar results were published by other researchers on the cost of the death penalty compared with the cost of life imprisonment (Nagourney 2).
The above study shows that prominent criminologists do not support the death penalty and regard it as a costly method of administering justice, which has placed an unnecessary burden on taxpayers. That supports the argument by prominent people, including politicians and criminologists who oppose the public against the death penalty, but support life imprisonment.
The state of California is an example of one of the states considering repealing the death penalty, which is estimated to save the state $1 billion in the next five years. In California, it has been estimated that the cost of the death penalty is six times higher than the cost of other types of trials.
Dieter conducted a study to determine the effect of the current death penalty on the economy of different States (1). The report by Dieter shows that the current financial crisis has made the cost of the death penalty to worsen the financial situation of the States, driving some to the state of bankruptcy (1).
Coupled with the States’ financial obligations and the weighing costs of the death penalties, different States and local governments are feeling the big burden of the financial costs of death penalties. The burden is expressed in the argument that “virtually every major program designed to address the underlying causes of violence and to support the poor, vulnerable, powerless victims of crime is being cut even further to the bone” (Dieter 2).
In another statement, it has been argued that “the cost of our system of capital punishment is so enormous that any benefit that could be obtained from it” (Dieter 2). It has been shown that executions hold no value, and there is no direct relationship between the death penalty and a decrease in the number of homicides.
Errors In another study by Dieter, it was shown that some prisoners were sentenced to death as a result of mistaken identity (1). The worst thing is to execute a prisoner and to discover immediately that it was a case of mistaken identity (Nagourney 2).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Death Penalty – Criminal Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There exist examples of cases where people were executed because of mistaken identity. One such example is the case of Cameron Todd Willingham who was executed in California for a crime he never committed, only to discover through a forensic investigation conducted by the Texas Forensic Science Commission that the results that implicated him for causing the fire that killed children were wrong.
Statistical evidence shows that over 138 people who were wrongly convicted for murders they did not commit have been exonerated because of the removal of the death penalty as a form of capital punishment. Research shows that homicide cases lack evidence of the DNA data and in some cases are irrelevant, making legal authorities to execute the wrong person (Nagourney 2).
Campaign to stop executions According to Nagourney, the inability to reduce the number of homicides by executions, the high costs of executing the prisoners and the persistent problem of mistaken identities which lead to wrong executions have prompted strong campaigns against the use of the death penalty (1).
In California, the campaign to ban the death penalty was initiated by Ron Briggs and Mr. Heller, two of the most ardent advocates against the death penalty. Adherents against the death penalty have both political arguments and moral lessons on the demerits of the death penalty and argue that the death penalty is a moral failure (Nagourney 1).
Conclusion The conclusion from the above study is that the death penalty does not deter homicides, but it is costly, and sometimes the wrong person is executed, prompting a change of mind to abolish it.
Works Cited Abrahams, Tamar. Experts Agree: Death Penalty Not a Deterrent. 2009. Web.
Death Penalty Information Center: Costs of the Death Penalty 2013. Web.
Dieter, Richard C. What Politicians Don’t Say About the High Costs of the Death Penalty. n.d. Web.
Nagourney, Adam. The New York Times, Seeking an End to an Execution Law They Once Championed. 2012 Web.
Radelet, Michael, Land Traci L. Lacock. “Recent Developments Do Executions Lower Homicide Rates? The Views of Leading Criminologists.” The Journal of Criminal Law
Utilitarianism’ Critique by B. Williams and P. Pettit Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Williams’ objection of utilitarianism
A critique of Williams’ objection of utilitarian
Introduction Utilitarianism is one of the most debated concepts in normative ethics. The theory revolves around the argument that any action is considered desirable or ethical when it brings about maximum happiness or good. According to the developers of utilitarianism, actions are best justified by looking at the potential of those actions to reduce suffering and maximize happiness.
However, utilitarianism has been subjected to criticisms from several moral philosophers who capitalize on the weakness of the theory as far as the establishment of moral grounds in the society is concerned. Moral philosophers who have subjected utilitarianism to criticism include Bernard Williams and Philip Pettit (Danaher para. 1).
The argument by Williams is that utilitarianism cannot pass the integrity test that should be the foundation of any moral philosophy. This paper presents the criticisms of utilitarianism as opined by Williams and the counter criticism of Williams’ criticism by Pettit.
Williams’ objection of utilitarianism Williams indicates that any moral theory has to stand and pass the integrity theory. The moral obligations of the doors of any actions are to ensure that the action is acceptable and not just because the action maximizes happiness. Williams opines that utilitarianism compromises morality in society. Williams argues against the concept of maximum utility as opined by developers of the utilitarian theory by arguing that it can be used to justify immoral acts in society.
According to Williams, utilitarianism encourages negative responsibility by focusing on certain actions and ignoring other probable actions that can be taken by the doer of an action (Danaher para. 2). Williams opines that responsibility entails what one allows to happen, as well as what one fails to prevent from happening.
Williams observed that utilitarian rejects the universal principle that a person is responsible for what he or she does rather than the course that is pursued by other people. According to the concept of morality, as opined by Williams, failure of an individual to take action is an action itself. As far as the action satisfies that individual, its moral basis is assessed not basing only on what the person does and what he does not do (Ashford 423).
Williams noted that the effects of an action that result from the failure of a person to take action could also lay on the person who fails to take action. An action of a person can prevent another immoral action from taking effect in the society, indicating the broadness of the concept of moral responsibility that is overlooked by the proponents of utilitarianism. In an utmost sense, utilitarianism cannot escape from failing to address the issue of moral responsibility in totality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Utilitarianism does not account for practical questions in moral philosophy. Williams opines that the concept of morality has a grounded basis on inadequate account of agency. The proponents of utilitarianism argue that a significant moral relationship does not prevail between the doer of an action and the action itself; that is, utilitarian calculus (Ashford 424) what they give attention to our actions and omitted actions about production or hindrance of utility.
This is an undesirable measure of morality in the sense that it does not pay attention to the actions of agents, but it dwells mostly on the impacts of the actions where utility is derived. The separation of people from actions makes it difficult to attain the desirable standards on which the moral grounds on which actions are taken by agents can be established. The linkage of actions to doers is the sure way of looking at both sides of the action and the level of moral rationale in action.
A critique of Williams’ objection of utilitarian One of the moral philosophers who have offered a candid counter criticism of utilitarianism is Philip Pettit. Pettit counters the critique of utilitarianism by presenting the concept of utilitarianism that backs the moral theses in utilitarianism. Consequentialism is a concept in normative ethics that opines that the goodness or badness of an action is determined by the impacts of the action and not the motive of the doer.
Pettit argued that ethical theories have to dwell on two main things. These are: specifying the good where the good means what is worthwhile and leaning towards the right action where the right action is determined by the effects of the action. This contradicts with the views of Williams, who seems to excavate morality by looking beyond the question of goodness and rightness of an action.
Pettit gives examples of what can be considered to be good. He backs the thesis in classical utilitarianism, which opines that the pleasure experienced by sentient beings constitutes good. He further argues that this is founded on Aristotelian ethics, as well as religious ethics. In religious ethics, doing religious work is considered to be valuable and a source of goodness (Danaher para. 1-3).
Pettit tries to explain the modalities on which the right action is determined by arguing that the right action is justified by the conduct of the doer and the process of deliberation that is undergone in deriving goodness from an action. Based on this observation, it can be argued that consequentialism tries to delineate itself from utilitarianism by focusing on the action and the process. In trying to do so, Pettit unconsciously supports the observation by Williams, who noted the importance of relating doers to actions.
Williams indicates that the moral basis of an action cannot be established without digging deep into the actions and the stimuli in which the moral obligations of the doer are embedded. In as far as Pettit argues that consequentialism is not a theory of good but a theory of right, the relatedness of the actions to the doers comes out in his theory.
We will write a custom Essay on Utilitarianism’ Critique by B. Williams and P. Pettit specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is important in bringing out the distinction between utilitarianism and other theories in normative ethics. Rightness and goodness are interlinked in the sense that exploring one’s terms automatically pulls in the other terms. Therefore, Pettit’s attempt to make a distinction between consequentialism from utilitarianism by basing on rightness and goodness exemplifies the objection of utilitarianism by Williams (Singleton 1-2).
Several observations have been made about the consequentialist concept by Pettit and its implications on the thesis that was advanced by Williams as an objection to the concept of utilitarianism. Pettit argues that consequentialism can be enriched through combining it with other ethical concepts that aid in the provision of answers that are not explored in consequentialism. This is to say that consequentialism is in itself not a complete concept of normative ethics, just as utilitarianism is.
One of the suggestions that are given by Pettit is the combination of consequentialism with virtue ethics. This means that a desirable agent should be in a position to produce the best outcomes. The question that ought to be asked is how best outcomes can be attained when consequentialism in itself focuses on the outcomes of actions.
An agent can hardly possess a virtuous character as opined by Pettit. The rationale behind this observation is that the character of an agent can only be established when a comparison is done between the agent and another agent who is acting in like situations. Furthermore, it should be noted that there lies a lot of differences, even in situations that seem to be similar (Danaher para. 1-3).
The first difference is the agent, followed by a ray of other stimuli within the environment in which an action takes place. However, the outcomes of action can be used to make a justification of the options that are embraced by an actor or actors who respond to a similar situation in a manner that seems to be the same.
Here, it can be argued that Pettit tries to back the issue of moral responsibility; how the moral stance of action can be established by looking at the action itself and the actor. Williams noted that the actor needs to be related to the act to establish the moral grounds on which an action takes place. Most proponents of consequentialism overlook the issue of the agent by focusing more on the outcomes of an action rather than the motivation of the agent (Singleton 2).
Conclusion Pettit’s counter-criticism of the objection of utilitarianism is based on the definition of consequentialism that was developed by classical consequentialists. Therefore, he fails to separate consequentialism from utilitarianism. This justifies most of the criticisms that were advanced by Williams.
Works Cited Ashford, Elizabeth. “Utilitarianism, Integrity, and Partiality.” The Journal of Philosophy 97.8(2000): 421-439. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarianism’ Critique by B. Williams and P. Pettit by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Danaher, John. Philosophical Disquisitions, 2009. Web. 16 July 2013, http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2009/12/consequentialism-by-philip-pettit.html
Singleton, Jane. Virtue Ethics, Kantian Ethics and Consequentialism, 1999. Web. 16 July 2013, http://uhra.herts.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2299/1152/103504.pdf?sequence=1
Design Principles in Oldest Art Essay writing essay help
Principles of Design Principles of design are instinctive elements that guide artists in making decisions on the look and nature of any piece of art. The first part of the essay summarizes unity and variety, balance and rhythm as key principles of design. Unity makes a work of art have a sense of oneness. This principle of design attempts to bring different things to belong together.
Variety, on the other hand, is the distinction that exists in an artistic work, and it helps to generate interest. For instance, when one uses different colors and shapes to paint a wall, he/she will be trying to attract the interest of many people since tastes are different. When different elements of shape, color, and line are unified conceptually, the final piece of work illustrates a visual unity. Unity and variety go hand in hand in making a piece of work.
Balance is the leveled-distribution of visual weight on a sculpture, picture, photograph, or any piece of art. The apparent weight describes how different elements of art are applied to an object. For example, there should be a uniform distribution of colors, writings, and curves on a sculpture such that no one point seems more attractive to the eye than the rest. In designs, the balance should be perfectly symmetrical to enable a sculpture balance along its implied center of gravity.
Balance prevents instances of overlap. Rhythm involves repetition of instances or objects using artistic elements like color and shape. In music, artists structure their experiences using rhythm to produce songs. When one takes a photo of the shape of his/her mouth when singing, there will be different shapes with instances of repetition forming a rhythm. The different shapes of mouths connect to form a repetitive structure, thus creating a rhythm.
Ancient Mediterranean Worlds The second part of the essay summarizes The Oldest Art, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Classical world. The art of the past was in fragments and isolated. However, they remained to the present due to the organized culture of preservation of the ancient society. Also, the artists used durable materials and even caught their artworks in places of limited accessibility, such as underground caves. Areas like Egypt and Mesopotamia had hot and dry climatic conditions that were favorable for preservations of artistic works.
Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq, had rulers who furthered the cultural achievements of their predecessors. Around 3400 B.C.E., Sumerians left both artifacts and words. They built ziggurat from sun-dried bricks. Markedly, this temple was the largest structure in the city. The Sumerians also used gold, silver, and lapis lazuli to curve objects like goats, warriors, and heads of their gods. According to Plato, Egyptians belief on the principle of continuity made their art not to change for ten thousand years.
The Egyptians had the Sphinx, the Palette of Narmer. Markedly, Narmer, which is the largest figure near the palette, had images that are balanced. There is also the pyramid, which had had three broad terraces and hollowed inner sanctuary. In Thebes, an Egyptian painting resembles Narmer hence showing cultural preservation. Egyptian art applied the principles of design. The Egyptians went on to bury their lavish arts in royal tombs to enhance preservation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Classical world refers to the cultures of the Greeks and Romans. Notably, art and architecture were public policies in the two cultures. The Greek architecture, sculpture, and paintings hugely affected the civilization of Rome. The Greek decorated human figures in funerals using the krater. As opposed to Egyptian sculptors, which are embedded in the granite block, the Greek sculptors are alienated from the stone. The Greeks even imagined their gods in human nature and continued to place a statue of the god and goddess in every sanctuary.
Resistance of Change in Kuwait’s Petroleum Industries Company Research Paper online essay help
Executive Summary This project seeks to examine the resistance of change in organizations based on the actual evaluation of a recent case in Kuwait’s Petroleum Industries Company (PIC) where employees resisted a proposed change to adopt paperless technology. The company also wishes to adopt a new hierarchy and promotional system that has received profound resistance from the employees.
This report bases its arguments on a theoretical model to derive the reasons for the resistance of change and resolutions to such challenges in future change processes. The focus of the research is on the resistance to the implementation of change at PIC. Also, the research attempts to find causative agents and solutions for three hypotheses that our team has developed to facilitate the objective of the project.
Mainly, the method of research involves the use of unstructured interviews and focus groups on soliciting information from the study groups. Next, the paper provides a discussion of the research findings based on the theoretical model. The project also provides several recommendations that PIC should embrace to alleviate resistance to organizational change in the future.
Lastly, the project concludes that organizations should seek better ways of managing resistance to change in the future using tactics that are more apt to change the behavior of employees towards change resistance.
Introduction Today’s information age, advancement of technology, and nature of the global ecthe onomy have necessitated the need for change in businesses and institutions. As a result, change has become an inevitable practice in almost all types of organizations. However, the conformity to new knowledge, ideas, and techniques does not always feature an easy undertaking for virtually all organizations.
The objective of change is to transform or modify the existing structurthe es of an organization in an attempt to improve the overall performance. Consequently, the processes of change have crucial implications on the role, position, and general functionalities of the various kinds of workers who are deployed to serve the organization.
Normally, change in organizations is met with substantial resistance from stakeholders such as the workforce, business executives, and even directors due to a vast range of whys and wherefores that each of them wants to be addressed. The management of resistance to change is crucial for the accomplishment of organizational goals in any business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, the success of change is largely attributed to the managers’ readiness to examine the probable issues that may trigger resistance of change from various stakeholder groups. This project explores the resistance of change in organizations by examining the causes of resistance and the possible solutions to such challenges in the Petroleum Industries Company (KPC) in Kuwait.
Problem Statement The purpose of this research is to examine the resistance of change amongst employees of PIC organization in Kuwait and the feasible measures that can address the issue. The company executives and directors have decided to implement a new strategy that is designed to automate the production process.
The main purpose of automating the production process in PIC organization is to minimize cases of bureaucracy by adopting a paperless manufacturing technology. This strategy will not only reduce paper writing but also improve the overall operational efficiency whilst offering superior products with heightened sensitivity and minimization of waste.
Just like most companies, PIC is aware that there is a need to match its organization with the widespread paperless evolution to be effective and systematic.
In addition, PIC wishes to establish a new promotional system in an attempt to boost the overall productivity at both individual and organizational levels. Finally, the organization desires to downsize its structure by putting in place a new system of hierarchy alongside the development of new job descriptions for workers.
The major challenge that PIC has encountered is that employees have become adamant to the implementation of change owing to numerous claims that suit individual interests in the organization. At the outset, employees have claimed that the implementation of an automatic paperless system will result in change of roles and elimination of some jobs from the company.
Secondly, the establishment of a different system of hierarchy has encountered great resistance since the company’s old-fashioned managers and employees have blatantly refused to embrace the proposed organizational structure. There are claims that the newly developed structure will lead to reshuffling of responsibilities and/or elimination of some jobs from the company.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Resistance of Change in Kuwait’s Petroleum Industries Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, these employees feel that the structure will compel the top management team to carry out regular performance appraisals. Altogether, several managers and a number of employees have also failed to embrace the paperless technology and the anticipated promotional system.
This project seeks to establish the crucial factors that have engineered the resistance of change in PIC and the necessary preparations that the company should have made to prevent change resistance before the presentation of the change strategy.
The process of change is complex and takes the efforts of the organization leaders to acquaint employees and managers with adequate information about the nature, importance, and implications of the change before the implementation of the change. The author posits that many change processes are unfavorable to the target groups. Therefore, change resistance is predictable feedback from employees, managers, and even business executives.
These groups vary differently in terms of thinking and conceptualization of the significance of change in an organization. As a result, the stakeholder groups may engage in faultfinding activities to pin down the proposed change plan.
In the context of PIC, factors such as short-term focused employees, cognitive rigidity, inadequate training, and lack of information regarding the change of action courses are the most likely causes of change resistance.
Hypotheses The research topic for this project is based on the resistance of change in organizations, which is an unavoidable phenomenon in the contemporary business world. The study focuses on the resistance of change in PIC, a subsidiary company of Kuwait Petroleum Company (KPC). From the study topic, we derived the following hypotheses.
H1: Following the proposed implementation of paperless technology coupled with inadequate training and technology awareness, the old-fashioned managers and employees resist the execution of the automated system in PIC.
H2: Fear of job elimination, reshuffling, and the reassignment of duties have resulted in resistance to the new organizational hierarchy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Resistance of Change in Kuwait’s Petroleum Industries Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More H3: Several employees have resisted the new promotional system that seeks to boost productivity because it does not meet their interests.
Methodology of Research We used several research methodologies to gain access to the organization. At the outset, personal interviews served as dominant tools for collecting information about the resistance of change from PIC. We used unstructured interviews to solicit general information about the perception of change in the organization. The methodology that was deployed involved an informal plan that generated ideas randomly.
These ideas were sorted out later to fit the exact purpose of this project. The group suggested the use of unstructured questionnaires since the employees resisted the implementation of change in PIC. As a result, we gathered adequate information regarding the challenge that the organization was facing since employees tend to offer sufficient and voluntary information in relaxed environments.
Secondly, our team used focus groups to obtain appropriate information on why PIC employees resisted the proposed change. The distinctiveness of the focus groups enabled our team to explore the crucial issues that affect PIC at the time of change execution.
The purpose of the team was to conduct specific information concerning the cause of change resistance. Our team chose focus groups to conduct effective research and facilitate the sharing of information with the company. The group retrieved the rest of the information from recent surveys and direct observations.
Findings Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) is a leading chemical fertilizer producer in Kuwait. The company operates as a subsidiary of the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation since the 1980s (Al Ateeqi 2009). Its top management comprises the strategy manager and the human resource manager who has recently conceded to take the company through a technological change to adopt paperless technology.
Their major role is to bridge the organization with the external business environment at both local and international arenas. Alongside the paperless technology, the company wishes to implement a new hierarchy and promotional system to enable the organization to achieve its strategic goals.
In an attempt to ensure the success of the implementation process, the strategy manager and the human resource manager have brought on board representatives from all departments of the organization. However, the team that was selected for the implementation of the change has inadequate knowledge about the suitable processes that lead to a successful organizational change.
This report reveals that the senior leaders have generally overestimated the implication that the planned change can have on the organizational structure and working relationships.
The effectiveness of the change process will entirely depend on change preparedness and the expression of the significance of change while weighing the costs and benefits to balance between employee interests and the achievement of strategic plans in the company. This situation led to different reactions by junior managers and employees of PIC.
This report reveals a variety of reasons that have led to resistance to change in the petrochemical company. These reasons have emerged from the step taken by the company to embrace paperless technology, execute a new hierarchy system, and establish an improved promotional strategy for PIC employees. In the beginning, some PIC employees have resisted the adoption of paperless expertise.
Regardless of the benefits that come with such technology such as increased efficiency and sustainable production processes, 14-percent of the respondents felt that the paperless system would be an expensive undertaking that would inflate the overall operational cost for the company while 58-percent feared to lose their jobs to the automated systems.
The integration of software solution in the organization might lead to the replacement of some staff members with computers. Some of the managers still hold that the usage of paper has many irreplaceable benefits that the automated paperless technology cannot substitute easily.
However, about 59-percent of the employees suggested that automated technology could not significantly reduce paper usage unless the company offered them adequate training to foster their knowledge about information systems. The remaining percentage resisted the technology in claims that the paperless technology would not eliminate the usage of paper because of the rapidly changing accounting technology and inadequacy of knowledge.
The employees dreaded the loss of status and general job insecurity. Battilana and Casciaro (2012) affirm that individuals fail to embrace change that poses harmful implications to their status quo. In this context, employees, peers, managers, and other stakeholders can offer significant resistance to both executive and technological developments that endanger their jobs.
The anticipated change at PIC will lead to the demotion of employees or elimination of others in the various subsections of the company. Technology has the capability to replace human efforts whilst ensuring high efficiency and time-effectiveness.
As for the company, there is a need to change from paperwork to automated accounting and other data recording systems to avoid piling huge chunks of paper material in offices. The human resource manager attests that the execution of the paperless technology will ultimately lead to retrenchment of employees and change of roles.
The study has also responded to the second hypothesis of this project. Indeed, PIC employees have resisted the change of the organizational hierarchy due to the fear of job elimination, reshuffling, and the reassignment of duties. Perhaps, the workers lack the knowledge about the professionalism that is required in different organizational levels.
The research reveals that most workers in the organization are experts in distinctive departments of the petrochemical company. Therefore, the introduction of new technology and reorganization of the operational structure might imply the termination of some activities, an event that will cost the jobs of several employees. As a result, most managers and employees have resisted the move to change the hierarchy.
Furthermore, PIC employees have refused to surrender to the company’s demands, concerning the anticipated promotional strategy owing to hierarchy-based dissimilarities amongst different levels of the organizational chain of command. The managers and employees fear reassignment and reorganization of duties within the organization as a way of promotion.
The company has structured its present hierarchy to have multiple professional groups and work units. During the research, we examined the perceptions of different groups of employees to establish how they conceptualized the change at both personal and organizational levels.
The results revealed that many employees did not only resist change due to interpersonal worry and hesitation, but also intergroup forces and influence at different hierarchy levels.
The study has also unveiled that most managers and employees have a short-term focus for the organization. Hence, according to them, there is no need to adopt new changes that will result in organizational disarray.
This situation is attributed to employee turnover rate in the organization. Owing to the prevailing employee turnover rate in the organization, workers tend to focus more on short-term objectives more than the long-term agenda of the organization. The organizational structure of PIC exhibits a poor representation of employee needs, a situation that has led to the declination of workforce confidence in the organization.
According to some of the repelling groups, the design and the planned execution of the organizational change have not accounted for the views of employees before the final implementation decision. They have also claimed that the design team should have sought opinions from all stakeholders before presentation of the action plan to preserve stakeholder interest.
According to Bovey and Hede (2001), ignorance of the views of stakeholder groups is an instance of poor leadership. In the context of PIC, the top management has failed to follow a practical strategy to convince employees that there is a dire need for organizational change in an attempt to improve the achievability of both personal and organizational goals.
Furthermore, the research has proved that some PIC employees are just too conservative, inflexible, and hesitant to relinquish the old job tricks. They have developed a general difficulty to adopt new production systems and organizational structures.
In an interview with the employees who have spent over 10 to 15 years in the organization, about 65-percent revealed that they would prefer the current managerial structure as well as the existing paper-based bookkeeping methods. This finding is an indication of disengagement from the historically valued operational structures, production techniques, and organizational principles.
However, the consideration of the preservation of obsolete organizational structure and policies will imply the insignificance of executing a change process in a conservative organization. Such inferences to change processes have no significance in the contemporary world where organizations have to maintain efficient and cost-effective production standards to satisfy the changing consumer patterns and unpredictable market trends.
Discussion The nature of a major change such as that of PIC has a profound impact on the structural and social facets of an organization. Organizational change influences a variety of organizational aspects such as working relationships, reporting lines, personal and intergroup boundaries, employee status, and social distinctiveness with reference to different levels of workers in the organizational hierarchy (Meier, Ben,
The ICN Code and ANA Code of Nursing Ethics Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
In the field of medicine, nursing is exceptionally essential. This is attributed to the fact that nurses are regarded as primary caregivers when it comes to the treatment and care of patients. In addition to that, nurses play an important role when it comes to their role as cultural brokers.
According to American Nurses Association (2013), nurses should be guided by the nursing code of ethics, which stipulates the importance of nurses taking into account the patient’s cultural beliefs among other factors while caring for them. There are several nursing interventions that can be applicable in many situations.
In Razor’s case, the most important nursing intervention that can be applied in this situation is a support-based intervention. This intervention should be aimed at enhancing the emotional stability of the patient and enabling them to cope with all the psychological issues that they may be facing.
The ICN Code and ANA Code of ethics are very important aspects when it comes to the field of nursing. These codes have been around for quite some time now, and their most important function is to provide clear guidelines to nurses concerning their conduct while carrying out various aspects of their duties.
This includes their interaction with the patient. The code applies to all nurses worldwide, and its contents have been revised several times to reflect the current trends concerning the field of nursing. According to the International Council for Nurses (2013), the most important principle of the code is respect for human rights. Such respect encompasses the right to life, right to dignity, and right to proper treatment that factors in respect for the patient.
Over the years, this repeated application of these codes in the day to day conduct of nurses has impacted on the values of nurses. In line with these codes, nurses are expected to treat the patient with respect and dignity (International Council for Nurses, 2013). This, therefore, requires nurses to abide by all the provisions of the code and other requirements that are directly aimed at enhancing the treatment of the patient.
In addition to that, nurses are required to factor in the input of the patient while caring and treating the patient. Specifically, a nurse may be required to obtain patient consent before performing any procedure that may require them to consent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to that, nurses are expected to furnish the patient with all the relevant information regarding their condition and ensure that the patient clearly understands this information so that they may consider them in any decision that they take. Finally, nurses are also expected to respect the patients and abide by their decisions provided that the patients have the mental and physical capacity to make such decisions.
All in all, the ICN and ANA codes of ethics are an important set of provisions that have helped enhance the overall practice of nursing. This benefits both the patients and nurses. The patients are in a position to receive much better care from the nurses as a result of these codes while on the other hand, the nurse is in a position to improve their practice through standardization of the quality of care to improve the care and treatment of patients across the board.
References American Nurses Association. (2013). Nursing World. Retrieved From http://www.nursingworld.org/
International Council For Nurses. (2013). Code of Ethics for nurses. Retrieved From http://www.icn.ch/about-icn/code-of-ethics-for-nurses/
Aviation: The Black Hornet Nano Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Essay scholarship essay help
In recent years, especially since the US officially declared war on terror, drones have become an increasingly valuable military asset. They have been used for both surveillance and combat. Scanning a warzone from a distance to gain prior knowledge about a warzone is indeed a significant tactical advantage (Brooke-Holland, 2013).
Over the years, since the first drones were used, there have been efforts to not only create better samples (in terms of picture quality, sound-picking abilities, as well as the ability to evade capture by enemy forces), but also the ones that could be used for various purposes. The Black Hornet Nano UAV is the result of such an effort. It was developed by Prox Dynamics AS, a Norway based company. It is an improvement of the company’s PD-100 Personal Reconnaissance System, which was meant for search and rescue (Fincher, 2013).
The Black Hornet Nano is a small, palm-sized UAV. It measures four by 1 inch (an equivalent of 10 by 2.5 centimeters) (Fincher, 2013). It is light, weighing just 0.6 ounces (equivalent to 16 grams) (Fincher, 2013). It is controlled by a handheld unit, which it can sense for up to a range of 800 meters (that is half a mile) (Fincher, 2013). It is controlled (piloted) manually. But the operator can also simply “input a set of GPS coordinates for it to follow on its own” (Fincher, 2013, par. 3).
It has an in-built camera that can capture and transmit still images and live video to the handheld unit of control. The Black Hornet Nano is a miniature helicopter and flies like the one. Despite its small size, the Black Hornet Nano is stable and can withstand heavy wind, among other harsh conditions. When charged fully, the Black Hornet Nano can fly at a maximum speed of 35 km/h (or 22 mph) for up to 30 minutes (Fincher, 2013). This combination of features gives those on the ground enough time to quickly survey the target area.
Generally, like other drones, the Black Hornet Nano UAV has several advantages. For example, it helps minimize risks to human soldiers in hostile territory. It is also a cost-effective tool for conducting significant reconnaissance and surveillance and collecting intelligence. As such, it minimizes or inhibits the ability of the enemy to move secretary, and helps mitigate cases of unexpected cases on the war field.
But above these, due to its small size, the Black Hornet Nanos UAV can get into small spaces, “scout around corners and obstacles for hidden dangers” (Fincher, 2013, par. 1). It can get close enough to spot explosive traps in the battlefield and enemy shooters. As Mark Nikol (2013) puts it, the drone “can follow enemy targets all the way home” (par. 1).
Equally, soldiers can easily carry such drones with the rest of their gears without much extra weight and only deploy it when needed. But it also has its limitations. For example, unlike some of the drones already developed, the Black Hornet Nano UAV is not armed. The best it can do is conduct surveillance and gather intelligence, which may not be very helpful in certain urgent cases on the battlefield.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The drone has since been used in battle. The British military was the first to use the drone in Afghanistan. But it is likely to be even a major war gadget for the future, especially if the war on terror intensifies.
References Brooke-Holland, L. (2013). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drones): An Introduction. (International Affairs and Defence, SN06493).
Fincher, J. (2013, February 6). Handheld Black Hornet Nano Drones Issued to U.K. Soldiers. Gizmag. Retrieved from http://www.gizmag.com/black-hornet-nano-uav/26118/
Nikol, M. (2013, February 2). The Black Hornet- Tiny Spy Drone the Can Follow Enemy Targets All the Way Home, Mail Online. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2272590/The-Black-Hornet–tiny-spy-drone-follow-enemy-targets-way-home.html
Forecasting and Preparing Financial Statements Essay essay help online: essay help online
Financial statements are fundamental to the success of any business since they enable the owner to track the cash flow, revenue, and expenditure hence avoiding wastage. A new boutique is not exceptional since it is a profit-making entity, and the financial activities have to be tracked effectively for the business to grow and make a profit. In the case of a fashion boutique, the first step in preparing a forecast is studying the market to estimate the customer base.
Next is getting space in a place where the business will manage to cover for the fixed and variable expenses and still afford the owner a profit. Another important element in the start-up of a business is a forecast of the whole year’s budget. Garrison, Davidson, and Garrison (1998) stipulated that the forecasted budget is important in guarding against expenses not budgeted for and ensuring the money used to cover for the expenses can be accounted for (p. 24).
The first and most important statement in this business is a personal financial statement. This is a document that shows the financial position of an entrepreneur besides their business position. It includes a record of personal assets and expenditure heads. The main purpose of this document is to assess whether one is in a position to sustain the business in the initial stages, in which case most businesses make little or no profits.
A person for example with many liabilities and financial responsibilities might not be in a position to handle a certain type of business venture and therefore required to start small according to their capacity as presented by the personal financial statement (Bomhoff, 1994). This will also be helpful in case a person wants to take credit since lending institutions use this information to determine their creditworthiness.
The second statement to be prepared is a balance sheet, which represents the position of a business entity in terms of the value of assets and liabilities. At the start of a business, there’s very little that can be included in this document since it is supposed to reflect the value of fixed and movable assets against the liabilities for a fixed period where liabilities include the money owed to creditors and the investments made within the period.
It reflects the position of the business as at a particular time, unlike the other statements which reflect financial information over some time (Batchelor
Criminology: Prisoners with Special Needs Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Any person at the mercy of others is quite defenseless, and people in prison are as vulnerable as any person can be. Prisons are closed to public scrutiny, and prisoners have to spend their sentence usually enduring the abuse, and harsh treatment meted out by their captors.
Even if they are not abused or subjected to harsh treatment, prison conditions are not conducive to the mental or physical health of prisoners because of prisons being overcrowded, the occurrence of violence, drug usage, and prisons’, poor living and health conditions (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013).
However, there are prisoners with special needs and problems who are more vulnerable than other normal prisoners. These are individuals with mental or physical deficiencies and disabilities.
Such prisoners are badly treated by the prison staff and other prisoners mainly because of the discriminatory attitudes that are deeply rooted in society and are more evident in the restricted environment of prisons. Those on the death row are in an altogether separate category because of the stress they undergo for their sentences, and they also need special attention (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013).
Special needs and mentally ill prisoners cost the state and federation more money to incarcerate than those who are not mentally ill. The major cost in this pertains to staffing requirements because mentally ill patients require more attention as they are slow to communicate their needs, which are not easily understood.
This requires extra staff or overtime from the regular staff. The example is given of Broward County, Florida where the cost of regular housing prisoners is around $80 per day, but for the special prisoners this cost escalates to $130 per day because of the need for psychiatric medications and examinations which increases costs significantly (Torrey
The Discussion of WikiLeaks as a Social Issue Essay custom essay help
Today, information is discussed as one of the most important values. The development of the Internet and media support the idea that people need more information every day, and they are inclined to use any resources to receive the necessary facts or data. The circulation of information on the Internet with the help of the media is the characteristic feature of the developing globalization. Several decades ago, people had no access to a lot of information resources because of the time and space limits.
Nowadays, the situation changes and the Internet provides people with a lot of information on any topic. Thus, modern society is dependable on the successful circulation of information. From this point, the development of such resources as WikiLeaks is the logical consequences of the public’s searching for more information and facts.
Although there are both critics and supporters of the idea of WikiLeaks, it is important to note that WikiLeaks contributes to developing transparency, supports the people’s right for free speech, and satisfies the society’s needs in receiving factual and unedited information; thus, WikiLeaks can be discussed as the new variant of the information source which is more fair and open for the society in comparison with the traditional media.
Thus, researchers discuss WikiLeaks as the contemporary social issue which is associated with the main features of the modern world development such as globalization, global community, search for information, transparency, openness, fairness, freedom of speech and press, and democracy. Like any other social issue, the phenomenon of WikiLeaks can be examined from many perspectives about its positive and negative effects on society (Pulda 473).
That is why it is important to focus on the purpose of WikiLeaks as it is stated on the website of this organization. According to the WikiLeaks website, “Our goal is to bring important news and information to the public” (“What is Wikileaks?” par. 1). Moreover, it is pointed out that “one of our most important activities is to publish source material alongside our news stories so readers and historians alike can see evidence of the truth” (“What is Wikileaks?” par. 1).
In this case, WikiLeaks can be considered as the archive of documents and sources which are not paraphrased or interpreted by journalists as in the traditional press. The main difference between the sources presented on the WikiLeaks website from the other media is their secret character.
Many materials released by WikiLeaks are secret and provided by anonymous ‘whistleblowers.’ This fact is the main reason to discuss WikiLeaks as a social challenge and as the resource which is threatening for the public. Thus, it is one of the perspectives to discuss the role of WikiLeaks in society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the other point of view, WikiLeaks is the modern way to state the freedom of speech and press and to provide the possibilities for the public to learn facts and controversial materials without any censorship. Thomass states that “it is a long-standing tradition in democratic states that the public’s right to know is a fundamental element in the political structure of a state or nation” (Thomass 20).
From this point, WikiLeaks responds to the people’s right to receive access to important information and the ideals of the democratic society. The society is in constant progress, and WikiLeaks is the symbol of the contemporary society oriented to transparency and openness as the support for democratic principles. The controversy of the materials provided by WikiLeaks is questionable, along with the illegal character of the information presented on the website.
Critics are inclined to accuse WikiLeaks in the provision of the secret materials and classified information which can be discussed as the illegal actions and violation of privacy laws. However, the presentation of the provocative materials on the WikiLeaks website has a lot of similarities with providing the problematic journalists’ investigations during which journalists can find a lot of secret information and use it in their investigations.
WikiLeaks does not violate the laws on free speech and privacy when the prohibition of the WikiLeaks’ activities can be considered as illegal. According to the claims of “a high-tech terrorist” Julian Assange, who is the founder of WikiLeaks, the mission of the website is to support the war on secrecy (Thomass 18; Roberts 16). This formulation of the mission is correlated with the ideas of many people who want to receive the truthful information on the situation in the world.
Nevertheless, it is almost impossible to deny the fact that WikiLeaks has significant consequences on the development of modern society and people’s attitudes to information and its sources. Thus, ‘whistleblowing’ can be discussed today as the relevant source for receiving the necessary information as well as attempts to rely on the other anonymous sources.
Focusing on the provision of sources and documents, WikiLeaks contributes to the development of democratic discourse, and the principle of transparency becomes closer to the public. It is stated on the website of the organization, “the broader principles on which our work is based are the defence of freedom of speech and media publishing, the improvement of our common historical record and the support of the rights of all people to create new history” (“What is Wikileaks?” par. 2).
That is why the reaction of society to the work of WikiLeaks is mainly positive because the organization’s activities meet the interests of the global community. For instance, there is a tendency to support the activities of WikiLeaks with organizing other websites with a similar mission and contents. Thomass states that “WikiLeaks is just the beginning or the symbol for the emergence of other revealers of sources which will become ubiquitous” (Thomass 18).
We will write a custom Essay on The Discussion of WikiLeaks as a Social Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The emergence of these websites can be explained with references to the people’s internal desire to know the truth in its original form, without editing. The critics of WikiLeaks pay attention to the concept of responsibility while discussing the negative consequences of developing the website. The provision of the classified information for open access can be risky for the persons mentioned in the sources. Nevertheless, WikiLeaks uses a definite policy to protect the public from the negative effects of the website’s activities.
Thus, WikiLeaks is the product and reflection of the modern society which strives for the open information and freedom of speech. However, WikiLeaks as a social issue cannot be discussed as a completely positive or negative phenomenon because of its controversial nature. More policies and laws should be developed to respond to the new approach to the availability of secret materials and classified information.
The principle of transparency is based on the idea that society has the right to receive access to information associated with different organizations, activities, and events without limitations. The principle of responsibility depends on the vision that not all the materials can be discussed as available for the public because of their nature (Ruppin 8). To find the fringe between the materials, the provision of which can or cannot result in a resonance and negative consequences is a rather difficult task.
That is why it is possible to state that today it is the responsibility of WikiLeaks to guarantee the protection for those persons who such a kind of transparency can influence negatively. This statement is appropriate to discuss the issues of indirect victims of releasing the secret information. Nevertheless, the materials can be denunciatory and help in discussing other problematic cases.
WikiLeaks is a controversial phenomenon, but it is the product of modern society. The great public support directed toward the protection of WikiLeaks and its activities accentuates the idea that modern people need more transparency and more freedom in interpreting different types of information.
In contrast to journalists’ investigations and information provided in the media, WikiLeaks presents the original materials, and the public can conclude about their relevance independently.
Much open and truthful information along with unprejudiced attitudes and independent visions are highly estimated in contemporary society, and the activities of WikiLeaks support these ideals, which are correlated with the principles of modern democracy. As a result, the social phenomenon of WikiLeaks is characterized by a lot of followers who share the ideals of the organization’s policy.
Works Cited Pulda, Molly. “Unknown Knows: State Secrets and Family Secrets”. Biography 35.3 (2012): 472-491, 584-585.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Discussion of WikiLeaks as a Social Issue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Roberts, Alasdair. “The WikiLeaks Illusion”. The Wilson Quarterly 35.3 (2011): 16-21.
Ruppin, Adi. “Data Security in the Age of WikiLeaks”. Risk Management 58.5 (2011): 8-10.
Thomass, Barbara. “WikiLeaks and the Question of Responsibility within a Global Democracy”. European View 10.1 (2011): 17-23.
What is Wikileaks? 2011. Web. 13 Jul. 2013. .
Literature Studies: “The Chimney Sweeper” by W. Blake Essay college essay help: college essay help
The provocative situation of using children’s innocence as the tool of social injustice and pressure is discussed in the poem “The Chimney Sweeper” (1789) by William Blake. During the 18th-19th centuries, chimney sweepers in England were usually young boys whose families suffered from poverty, and those boys were sent to live and work in terrible conditions to help their families.
In his poem, William Blake discusses the particular features of the social development in England, while focusing on such issues as social injustice, pressure, and challenges experienced by young, innocent chimney sweepers and using the hopeful tone and symbolic language.
The life story of a young chimney sweeper is presented in the first stanza of the poem in the form of an emotional monologue. The boy states that his mother died when he was young, and he was sold when he “Could scarcely cry “’ weep! ‘weep! ‘weep! ‘weep!” (Blake 3).
The author pays attention to the awful living conditions of chimney sweepers using only one phrase, “So your chimneys I sweep
Realms of Restorative Justice and Wrongful Conviction Essay essay help online
Introduction There have been lots of examples of punishment of innocent people, which is regarded as unacceptable in contemporary society. Thus, realms of restorative justice and wrongful conviction come into play. Latimer et al. (2005, p. 127) claim that restorative justice “is emerging as an increasingly important element in mainstream criminological practice” as people try to achieve the satisfaction of all stakeholders.
It is important to make the offender admit guilt and try to change for the better. At the same time, the victim has a chance to face the offender and discuss the wrongful act, which can help the victim recover from the crime (Boyd, 2010). The realm of wrongful conviction is also aimed at ensuring real justice.
No person can be convicted with the help of wrongful actions as this undermines the very idea of legal society. The two realms can improve the legal system, which has a lot of flaws. However, the restorative justice and the realm of wrongful conviction also have several downsides which need careful consideration.
Definitions of Restorative Justice and Wrongful Conviction Definition of Restorative Justice
It is necessary to analyze the strengths of the two realms to fully understand the downsides of these principles. In the first place, it is important to understand what restorative justice and wrongful conviction are. Latimer et al. (2005, p. 128) claim that the major purpose of justice is not just to punish a guilty person, but “to repair the harm caused” by the offense. The stakeholders should learn the lesson.
Thus, the offender should never commit a new crime, the victim should recover from the wrongful act completely, and people should create a community where committing a crime is simply impossible. Having this in mind, it is possible to define restorative justice as “a process whereby all the parties…
Come together to resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offense and its implications for the future” (as cited in Latimer et al., 2005, p. 128). Restorative justice is aimed at diminishing the aftermaths of the wrongful act and preventing the guilty person from committing crimes in the future. This can eventually lead to a better society.
Definition of Wrongful Conviction
As far as the wrongful conviction is concerned, this realm ensures the right of a person to have a transparent legal procedure. Many people claim that procedural errors undermine the major principles of justice and overshadow the major question, i.e., if the person is guilty or not. It is believed that procedural errors often distort the case. It can be difficult to define the concept as it is rather broad.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Roberts and Weathered (2009, p. 49) note that a person is wrongfully convicted “if there were procedural or legal errors upon which he or she can found a successful appeal.” In other words, no trial is potentially free from procedural errors. It is necessary to remember that people can come to wrong conclusions as even such evidence as DNA tests can be interpreted differently. Therefore, no one can be sure that the wrongfully convicted person is guilty or not guilty.
Strengths of Restorative Justice and Wrongful Conviction
Admittedly, the two realms are based on principles which can make a difference. As far as the restorative justice is concerned, it is important to improve the relationship among the members of the community as it ensures its proper development. Latimer et al. (2005) stress that this is crucial for the community as people can recover from aftermaths of wrongful acts.
The researchers argue that those who participate in the programs related to restorative justice reveal greater satisfaction. More so, Latimer et al. (2005) state that the offenders who have participated in the programs are eager to start a new life. Admittedly, this is one of the most important advantages of restorative justice.
When it comes to the realm of wrongful conviction, the benefits of the incentives are two-sided. On the one hand, numerous incentives which are being launched help people to prove their innocence. Roberts and Weathered (2009) mentioned several cases when innocent people were released.
The researchers also note that there are cases when it is obvious as the tiniest mistake can affect the decision of the jury of the judge. Numerous cases of wrongful conviction also reveal flaws in the system, which is important since people can improve it. The realm of wrongful conviction can diminish the flaws of the legal system and make it fair, transparent, and accessible.
Potential Weaknesses of Restorative Justice and Wrongful Conviction
Nonetheless, the two realms have certain weaknesses that must be addressed. In the first place, it is necessary to research the effectiveness of restorative justice. Latimer et al. (2005) admit that there are several limitations to their research. Thus, recidivism cannot be properly estimated as the research involves quite recent cases.
Admittedly, years are necessary to prove that there is no recidivism. Apart from this, the samples of the research mentioned above are rather homogenous, i.e., convicts were mainly young males (Latimer et al., 2005). It is important to research the effects of the program on other groups of convicts.
We will write a custom Essay on Realms of Restorative Justice and Wrongful Conviction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, participation in the program is voluntary. Therefore, the convicts participating in the program are well-motivated. Their commitment to change and make it up for the society cannot be explained by the participation in the program. It is the convict’s desire, not the program, which makes him/her change.
Besides, the programs often require the participation of victims (Latimer et al., 2005). The realm of restorative justice presupposes the participation of all stakeholders, which is crucial. However, a lot of victims can find it emotionally difficult to face the offender and start a discussion, which is a considerable weakness of the realm.
The realm of wrongful conviction also needs thorough consideration. One of the major weaknesses of this realm is that it is difficult to make sure that guilt is determined properly. The realm tends to focus on the procedure, while the fact of guilt is overshadowed. Admittedly, this realm can be used by guilty people who could try to get away with their wrongful acts (Roberts
Intellectual Property and E-Business Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Strengths of the Article
Introduction The article in questions dwells upon intellectual property protection. The author provides a brief analysis of major ways to protect intellectual property. The author claims that different countries have a variety of laws aimed at the protection of intellectual property.
Kotabe (2010) also argues that the contemporary business world requires global laws that could protect the intellectual property of companies operating in different countries. The author also highlights several global regulations which are being introduced. The author focuses on e-commerce and claims that it is very difficult to ensure the protection of intellectual property due to advances in information technologies. Kotabe (2010) notes that any electronic data are potentially vulnerable.
Strengths of the Article It is necessary to state that the issues concerning intellectual property in e-business have been discussed for decades. Melvin (2011) also highlights existing ways to protect intellectual property and stresses the need to introduce global laws which could be applicable in all cases.
Kotabe (2010) provides meaningful arguments to support his statement. First, the author analyses such types of intellectual property protection as patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets. The author also mentions several treaties and conventions concerning international treaties for intellectual property protection. Remarkably, the author includes a variety of specific examples from real life. He mentions particular cases concerning intellectual property protection.
This makes the article more specific and reliable. The author does not simply reveal his viewpoint on the matter but provides specific pieces of evidence. This is one of the strengths of the article. It is also important to note that the author uses simple language along with the necessary terms.
The outline of the article is also very clear. Subtitles help the reader to easily follow the author. This makes the article suitable for a very wide audience. The article is recent, and it is located in a scholarly journal, which makes it a valuable source of information.
Limitations Nonetheless, the article also has certain limitations. Even though Kotabe (2010) mentions some treaties and conventions which can help multinationals operate globally, it seems insufficient. The author claims that the article touches upon certain limitations in the field. However, these limitations are too general. It is obvious that intellectual property protection laws are different in different countries, and this is one of the limitations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author also mentions that in the process of creation, countries try to ensure more possibilities for companies located within their boundaries. Again, this is too general. The author does not provide sufficient examples to prove his point. This part of the article needs specific examples to form real life, which could speak louder than words.
Conclusion On balance, it is possible to note that the article in question is a valuable source of information for research concerning intellectual property protection. The author provides a brief analysis of existing types of protection of intellectual law in some countries as well as globally.
The author claims that the contemporary globalized world needs new regulations as companies are vulnerable due to the potential accessibility of data. However, there are certain limitations to this article. For instance, it is necessary to provide examples of flaws of existing international laws for intellectual property protection. It is also possible to provide a certain methodology which could help develop effective regulations and laws.
Reference List Kotabe, M. (2010). Evolving intellectual property protection in the world: Promises and limitations. UPR Business Journal, 1(1), 1-16.
Melvin, S. P. (2011). The legal environment of business: A managerial approach: Theory to practice. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Physiological and Psychological Needs Differences Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Motivation is what pushes an individual to fulfill certain needs. The needs vary from physiological, esteem, psychological, safety, and even love, among others. Abraham Maslow is responsible for classifying needs into the various categories mentioned above (Maslow, 2000).
He created a theory in which he placed all these needs in a pyramid depending on the urgency of the need. One is only motivated to pursue the fulfillment of a certain need if the one below it has been satisfied. This essay will analyze the differences between physiological and psychological needs.
Physiological needs are the most basic needs that every human being cannot survive without. They are vital for the survival of every human being. They include; water, food/ ability to satisfy hunger, sleep, shelter, sex (for reproduction), air, sleep and the ability to relieve waste products from the body (Maslow, 2000; Maslow 1999).
Maslow stated that human beings could not exist without the ability to satisfy these needs. Currently, it is argued that education should be added to that list. This is because it is almost impossible to achieve any of the subsequent needs without education.
Psychological needs are also known as secondary needs. Even though they are not vital for the survival of every human being, they are needed for empowerment and individual growth (Maslow, 1999). These needs are infinite; each is specific as to their secondary needs.
These needs can be classified into; ambitious, emotional, materialistic needs, and affection needs. Ambition can be looked at in terms of success, overcoming obstacles, and certain forms of achievement among others. Affection simply refers to the ability to receive love and a sense of belonging. Materialistic needs vary from one individual to another.
It is quite obvious that physiological needs deal with basic external needs. Human beings require all physiological requirements so that they can satisfy their external needs (Maslow, 1999). A typical example, in this case, is clothing that keeps one warm. Human beings require physiological needs to maintain their bodies. However, psychological needs are internal, and they only make one feel fabulous from the inside. They take care of a person’s internal needs, and they also enable them to maintain a healthy mental state.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Physiological needs are also universal as every human being has similar physiological requirements (Maslow; 1999: Maslow, 2000). For example, every human being is expected to sleep. If this does not happen, then the individual is likely to have some health problems. On the other hand, psychological needs are personal. Just as every individual is unique, so are their needs.
For example, while a young person may be inclined towards success, a middle-aged man may be searching for love. These needs also keep changing over the years. Psychological needs are largely dependent on the environment surrounding an individual during their development.
Both physiological and psychological needs are necessary for the proper development of an individual. However, it is impossible for an individual to survive without satisfying their physiological needs. This is because they enable an individual to perform all biological and physical functions necessary for survival.
Psychological needs play a significant role in the proper development of an individual. Without their satisfaction, it is impossible for one to reach the point of self-actualization. However, Abraham Maslow also pointed out that it is possible for an individual to survive without satisfying a certain percentage of these needs.
References Maslow, A. (1999). Towards a psychology of being. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Maslow, A. (2000). Motivation and personality (4th Ed). New York: Harper and Row.
Electroconvulsive Therapy Procedure in Nursing Essay writing essay help
Identification Of The Mental Health Patient As A Culturally Unique Population in The Post-Anaesthesia Care Unit by Tomes, Montei, and Woten (2013) deals with issues that affect mental health patients and how such issues can be addressed for the benefits of the patient. The background of the research details the unique nature of mental patients in that such patients have different psychological, physiological, and educational needs.
The background also describes Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) as one of the effective treatment approaches when it comes to the treatment of patients suffering from depression and other psychiatric disorders (Tomes, Montei
“Taking Carbon Down” by Caroline Goldman Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
A process analysis essay refers to an essay that gives instructions on how to undertake a certain activity. To maintain clarity, it is vital for process analysis essays to follow certain steps. Informational and directional process analysis writings are the two main classifications of process analysis essays. An informational process essay provides information on a topic that may interest certain parties.
On the other hand, a directional process essay gives instructions on how to undertake a certain activity (Reinking and Osten 483). ‘Taking down carbon’ by Caroline Goldman is a good example of an informational process essay. It provides information on how krill help in carbon sequestration (Leide et al. 1228). The title of the essay, ‘taking down carbon,’ elicits interest from the reader (Goldman 487). Also, the essay presents various ideas in a systematic manner (Hall 25). Therefore, Goldman’s article is a well-written process analysis essay.
It is vital for a process analysis essay to choose the appropriate subject. The essay should be either informational or directional (Reinking and Osten 483). Goldman’s essay is an informational process essay. It details how Antarctic krill help in carbon sequestration. Also, it details how various factors limit the ability of krill to sequestrate carbon.
The topic of an essay should provide an idea of the content of the essay. The topic should attract the attention of the reader. The topic of the essay is ‘taking down carbon.’ This shows that the essay is about carbon. The phrase ‘taking down carbon’ elicits interest from the reader.
It is vital for a process analysis essay to have a clear thesis statement. The thesis statement provides the focus of the essay. The essay ‘taking carbon down’ does not have a clear thesis. This makes it difficult for the reader to determine the focus of the essay. The thesis is usually the last sentence of the first paragraph (Reinking and Osten 483).
The last sentence of the first paragraph of Goldman’s essay mentions the focus of scientists who conducted the study. It states that the scientists focused on “krill’s effects on carbon sequestrations” (Goldman 486). It is not clear whether it is a thesis statement or not.
A process essay should organize various steps in a logical manner. This helps in capturing the attention of the reader. Also, it helps in building the content of the essay in a systematic manner. The essay commences by providing information on the habitat of krill. It then provides information on how krill sequestrate carbon from the atmosphere. The essay then states certain factors that limit the ability of krill to sequestrate carbon in the atmosphere.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the author, the destruction of krill’s habitat poses a serious threat to the existence of krill. The author states that “as the earth’s climate rises, sea ice melts away, destroying these krill nurseries – and thus much of the krill population” (Goldman 487). The initial paragraphs had provided information on the habitat of krill. This enables the reader to comprehend how the rise in temperature poses a threat to the existence of the krill.
Process essays should provide concrete explanations (Reinking and Osten, 483). The essay provides a concrete explanation of how krill sequestrate carbon by ingesting phytoplankton. Also, the essay provides information on how various factors may limit the ability of the skill to sequestrate carbon. The essay explains how various animals pose a serious threat to the existence of krill (Goldman 487).
Therefore, it would be right to claim that Goldman’s essay is a well-written process analysis essay. It has a clear subject matter. The author also organizes the essay in a series of steps that make it easy for the reader to understand. However, the essay does not have a clear thesis statement.
Works Cited Goldman, Caroline. “Taking carbon down.” Strategies for successful writing. Ed. James A. Reinking and Robert Von Der Osten. New York: Longman, 2010. 486-487. Print.
Hall, Peter A. “Systematic process analysis: when and how to use it.” European Management Review, 3.1(2006): 24-31. Web. 5 July 2013. http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~phall/EMR.pdf
Leide, John E., Charles Cole, Jamshid Beheshti, Andrew Large and Yang Lin. “Task-based information retrieval: Structuring undergraduate history essays for better course evaluation using essay-type visualizations.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58.9(2007): 1227-1241. Print.
Reinking, James A. and Robert Von Der Osten. Strategies for successful writing, New York: Longman, 2010. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on “Taking Carbon Down” by Caroline Goldman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Supply Chain Concept in PBS Series America Revealed Essay essay help free: essay help free
In the last twenty years, the manufacturing business in America has transformed enormously. However, the country has encountered several obstacles during this revolution. Despite this fact, America has successfully managed to stay on the frontline of the manufacturing sector in the world. This paper will discuss one of the episodes of “PBS America Revealed” which portrays three concepts of a supply chain. It shall further illustrate supply chain management concerning this episode.
As the name of this episode of PBS’ documentary that is ‘America Revealed’ portrays some of the serious hidden patterns and supply chain systems in the country explaining how they work.
This amazing series has used advanced and hi-tech data-viz techniques to understand and explain the supply chain system of ‘Dominos’ – a pizza franchise operating across the US on nationwide, regional, and citywide scales. This episode portrays some interesting data visualizations and information with the help of aerial and satellite images, GPS trackers, and computers.
In this episode of the British series of PBS documentary – America Revealed advanced technology and tools are used making it possible to elaborate supply chain in a single and easy to understand the image that made it easier to cover such wide topic effectively. The supply chain system of Dominos has been discussed and defined with the help of the GPS trackers and monitors fixed on the supply trucks of the company moving across America and also on the delivery bikes in Manhattan district of New York.
The supply chain system of any good organization has majorly three concepts;
The collection of raw material
The strategy/design to produce a product or service
The delivery of that product or service to the final consumer.
These three concepts have also been discussed in the episode of PBS America Revealed to elaborate on the functioning of the company and how it feeds 300 million American every day.
The supply chain system of Domino starts from the collection of raw materials from the central farmlands of California. This area itself produces 50% of fruits and nuts consumed by Americans. The raw materials consumed by Dominos for manufacturing of their pizzas and other items include vegetables like capsicum, tomatoes, mushrooms, and peppers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other ingredients come from other parts of America that are transported in satellite detectable refrigerated trucks. PBS used the tracker system to understand the food supply chain system of the company. Interesting web like satellite images was shown in the documentary to understand the supply system of Dominos.
Figure 1: Image showing supply chain of Dominos across America (54 sec).
The second concept of the supply chain as presented by host Yul Kwon in America Revealed covers the manufacturing and production of pizzas and other eatables offered by Dominos. The episode highlights the revolution in the history of manufacturing. The machine used for the purpose is the biggest and most productive in the world. Using it, Dominos has made it possible to feed 300 million Americans every day.
After the collection of raw materials from across America, different franchises of Dominos produce and feed millions of Americans every day. This is again made possible with the help of technological advancements adopted by Dominos, which is well in line with its successful supply chain strategy.
Furthermore, the third main supply chain concept discussed in America Revealed covers the delivery of the product (Pizza) in the Manhattan district of New York City. The data was collected by placing a tracking monitor on the motorbike of a delivery guy, just like it was done for the collection and supply of raw materials across America.
Different interesting aerial and satellite images show the travel route of the pizza guy with the help of GPS tracking monitors placed on motorbikes. According to the statistical results discussed in the episode, it has been suggested that every day Dominos’s delivery guys deliver pizzas to millions of people. Another issue, which was also focused in the documentary, was the eco-friendly nature of the supply chain whether it had a positive impact on the environment or not.
Figure 2: Blue lines showing the travel routes of the delivery guy of Dominos in Manhattan.
We will write a custom Essay on Supply Chain Concept in PBS Series America Revealed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to statistics and discussion made in the episode of PBS series – America Revealed, the supply chain management of Dominos is considered to be strong and successful. The basic aim of this episode is to reveal the hidden patterns and concepts of the company’s supply chain in America.
The three concepts of the supply chain system of Dominos are elaborated in it, including obtaining raw materials from across America, producing final products, and then finally, delivering them to consumers.
However, techniques and technologies used in the episode are worth watching as they have allowed showing the system through aerial and satellite view images which make the documentary very interesting and have made it easy for viewers to understand the data and statistics related to Dominos’s supply chain.
Moreover, the episode discusses the negative effects of the supply chain of Dominos resulting from its delivery methods (motorbikes) and refrigerated transportation vans, which are not eco-friendly.
Proper Governance Essay best college essay help
Proper governance is an important aspect as far as the development initiatives of any country are concerned. Governance is a collective term that refers to any activities that are related to the formulation, decision making, and generally overseeing the operations of a country or organization. There are various bodies and authorities that are usually tasked with the responsibility of governing and in most modern societies; governance is usually the preserve of the government.
The government can be defined as a body or collection of bodies which are tasked with various governance issues such as decision making, policy formulation, and implementation of formulated policies for the greater good of the society in general. Proper governance usually results in better economic performance and a general improvement in the social-economic statuses of the country’s citizens.
In his seminal work, Leviathan Thomas Hobbes explains the notion of government form his point of view. He explains the need for a commonwealth based upon inherent qualities of man whereby he asserts that due to man’s inherent attributes, the world would be such a chaotic place if proper governance measures are not put in place.
Hobbes notes that without proper governance structures, human beings’ actions will mostly be guided by the laws of nature which will imply that human beings will be reduced to engaging in only those activities that will them advance their courses while overlooking all other aspects of humanity. Hobbes, therefore, prescribes the need for a commonwealth to fill the governance gap and provide the much-needed governance structures.
In his work, Memoirs of the Emperor of Jahangueir, Price just like Hobbes addresses the issue of governance from a rather different but somewhat similar perspective as Hobbes. Just like Hobbes, Price also notes that diversity in humankind and the need for self-preservation as some of the major attributes of a man that necessitate a governance structure.
However, Price notes that any governance structure that aims at succeeding in providing proper governance, the people ought to take into account this diversity in all its governance initiatives. It is, therefore, important that diversity is incorporated in all governance and policy-making initiatives undertaken by the government.
The governance solutions and assertions made by these two authors are distinctly different in terms of their composition and general approach to governance. On the one hand, Hobbes prescribes a commonwealth system with the monarch as the absolute governing authority. On the other hand, Price whose work illustrates the views and assertions of Jahangueir, emphasizes on a governance authority that recognizes and respects diversity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reason behind the variation in the assertion made by Hobbes and Price is the variation in the nature and composition of the societies that these two theorists lived. Hobbes made these assertions while being a member of the aristocratic British Monarch system.
As much as this system recognized the need for proper governance norms of government, it did not take into great consideration the issue of diversity. On the other hand, the work of Price depicts the assertions and the ideas of Jahangueir who lived in a culturally tolerant Indian society that placed a lot of emphasis on diversity.
Psychology: “What Makes You the Way You Are” by D. Nettle Essay essay help online: essay help online
Summary of the book Written by Daniel Nettle (2007), the book What Makes You the Way You Are is a captivating masterpiece that reveals how people have different traits, which determine their personalities. For instance, some individuals are nomads, while others are fighters. Why does the world comprise people who constantly look for wars while some are so easy going? Daniel Nettle (2007) argues that this situation can be explained by different personalities that different people possess.
He explains his point of view by taking his readers through a tour of various theoretical approaches to human personality as postulated by science. He reveals that people’s personalities incept from their biological makeup. Also, the author explores different findings in genetic influences on personality, together with the findings realized in the field of brain science. He also discusses evolutionary approaches to human personality together with the repercussions of approaching human personality from this dimension.
The core of the book is structured to address five main issues that Nettle (2007) believes have an impact on the personalities of people. These are sincerity, extraversion, reliability, amicability, and neuroticism. Nettle (2007) agrees that personality may be influenced by genetic makeup. However, persons from the same family possess different personalities. Besides, the author poses the question on the best personality that people should enjoy.
How can one change his or her personality? To him, this query involves “choosing the right pond, and being mindful of the dangers” (Nettle, 2007, p.275). His book leaves more questions than answers on what influences people’s personalities in their lives. Nettle (2007) accepts this position by concluding that life involves different niches, which are in pursuit of the personality that works best for an individual.
Personal Book Opinion Upon reading Nettles’ (2007) book, one gets the impression that it is possible to determine how personalities are developed within an individual. This assertion is evidenced by the immense discussion offered by the author on how personality characteristics and behavioral traits evolve. If indeed evolutionary theory could help to explain why some people possess certain personality traits.
It means that it could be possible to find persons who have similar personality traits in that they could have undergone similar processes of evolution through environmental training. Faced with this dilemma, I believe that Nettle (2007) does not answer satisfactorily the question of why different people possess different traits that define who they are.
If genetics could explain the prevalence of given personality traits among a certain group of people, why is it then possible to encounter a family with some honest members while others are dishonest, yet they share a similar genetic makeup?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Perhaps the closest that Nettle (2007) goes in responding to the above query is explaining how the environment influences people’s behaviors and how, in turn, the behavior influences people’s personality. He explains that the environment creates demands and changes that people must adopt through one generation to another. Surprisingly, the environment referred by Nettle (2007) encompasses people together with their personality traits.
Therefore, the personality traits of people can also shape up the personality traits portrayed by others. The suggestion here is that the personality of an individual is not in-built, but can indeed be acquired phenotypically.
Then, why should people, going through the same socialization process, display different personalities to the extent that two people growing together in the same environment own different traits such as sincerity versus deceitfulness? In spite of the arguments put forward by Nettle (2007) on how the environment influences the personality of an individual, the aforementioned interrogation makes it evident that it is not the only influencing factor.
Nettle (2007) describes a case in which he argues that cautious behavior developed in guppies is dependent on the existence or non-existence of predators within the environment. In support of this argument, he evidences that naturally cautious guppies can reduce their levels of caution over generations when exposed in an environment, which does not have predators. Therefore, “a survival value is evident in being wary and relaxed, depending on the environment” (Nettle, 2007, p.89).
This assertion means that a continuum of wariness exists within members of the same species depending on the environment to which a given member is exposed. However, it is not clear how the population within a single species mixes. Nettle (2007) does not explain how the guppies, which have developed high levels of caution due to the existence of predators within their environment, respond when they are mixed with guppies, which have low caution levels since they are not exposed to an environment, which has predators.
The relevance of the above discussion rests on the theoretical assertion that the environment, including different individuals with different personality traits, influences the personalities of a given individual. Nettle (2007) also sounds aware of the incompleteness of his study based on how well interaction with the environment can help in shaping the personality of an individual.
For this reason, he sums up his results presentation by arguing, “No specific level of wariness is globally favored by selection, though, for every individual guppy, there is a level of wariness that it would be best to have” (Nettle, 2007, p.113). This conclusion hints to me the need to consider issues of individuality together with diversity in matters of the description of different personalities portrayed by different people.
We will write a custom Essay on Psychology: “What Makes You the Way You Are” by D. Nettle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the context of the big five aspects of personality, every chapter digs deep into what people know about the traits possessed by people based on behaviors associated with either genetic or even neural characteristics. While it is possible to raise counterarguments about the evidence provided by the author, he is smart enough to provide scholarly references on successful research that has been completed in the recent past in support of his line of argument.
However, for some neural characteristics, one may develop an adequate understanding of some compared to others. Additionally, it is somewhat impossible to develop a list of all links of personality traits with various neural characteristics.
I anticipated encountering an explanation of how temporal lobes are linked to personality traits such as openness. Nevertheless, based on the approach of arguing out his case from the paradigm of linking personality theory with research findings in the field of genetics and brain structures, research on this particular area has not yet been completed.
For every aspect of the big five, based on Nettle’s (2007) discussion, it is possible that optimum levels are not reached within individuals so that they can singly describe the personality portrayed by persons. For instance, different people show different magnitudes of extraversion or openness. I get the impression that optimum levels are dependent on the environment to which an individual is exposed.
This case also changes with time. Indeed, the description of the various advantages and disadvantages of each of the big five aspects qualifies to be one of the most important aspects of the book. This strategy ensures the neutrality of the author in terms of openness to different aspects, which may help to explain the personality of different people.
While it may be desirable to possess some forms of personalities, especially the positive ones, my opinion is that some forms of negative personalities are also desirable. For instance, high levels of conscientiousness are desirable. However, possession of elevated levels of this trait may cause people to have rigidity, which translates into missing some opportunities in life. Low levels of this trait are crucial in situations in which an individual is required to portray personality traits such as fluidity tied with responsiveness.
Additionally, possession of personality traits of agreeableness is vital. Unfortunately, too much of agreeableness is not appropriate either since it minimizes one’s bargaining power. In all the big five aspects, neuroticism sounds like the most appropriate personality aspect to possess. However, my opinion is that dissatisfaction and the capacity to take caution and reflect on the past are important in helping to avoid repetition of past mistakes together with aiding an individual to achieve higher in life.
I suggest that the best approach of choosing the aspects to base an individual’s personality is dependent on establishing a balance of strengths and weaknesses for each aspect of the big five. This assertion suggests that one can choose how to shape his or her personality.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychology: “What Makes You the Way You Are” by D. Nettle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unfortunately, theories for a personality such as the one advanced by Sigmund Freud suggest that personality is displayed in an unconscious manner. This case eliminates the opportunity for individuals to determine the kind of personalities they desire to have an exhibit in their social interaction processes.
Reference Nettle, D. (2007). Personality: What Makes You the Way You Are. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
The Concept of Celebrating Christmas in Kalahari Essay essay help site:edu
The concept of celebrating Christmas is a foreign cultural aspect which has been modified to suit the lifestyles of Kalahari Bushmen. The narrator explains the significance of this celebration to the Bushmen, who have high expectations on how the feast needs to be prepared. This paper will look at the cultural relevance of Christmas to communities living in the Kalahari and how different theories of socialization relate to their ways of life.
The narrator reveals how Bushmen integrated Christmas celebrations with other rituals that are familiar with their concepts of celebration. The custom of slaughtering an ox, dancing, feasting, and celebration indicates that community members in the Kalahari recognized the value of Christmas in their unique ways.
The narrator’s interactions with Bushmen made him understand their communal habits and other cultural practices better. This way of living was different from what the narrator was accustomed to because he rarely shared his food supplies with members of the community. There was a cultural conflict between the narrator and locals because he had a different opinion regarding sharing and coexistence.
The narrator offered an ox for Christmas to members of the community as a symbol of gratitude for cooperating with him while he was doing his anthropological research. The environment in which the Bushmen lived was a harsh desert, and the narrator observed how they survived in these difficult conditions. They engaged in various community activities that bound them together as people that shared common cultural beliefs and practices.
The influence of Christianity had helped them develop different value systems which had altered the way they perceived different practices that were important to them. They had shown relative acceptance of western ideals even though Christmas celebrations did not have the same meaning to them as it did to the narrator. The narrator’s decision to offer them an ox can be described as a form of organic solidarity because he had been integrated into the community even though he was a foreigner.
Bushmen community members have various beliefs and practices which define them as a distinct cultural unit. The narrator observed that locals were hesitant to accept his gift because they felt its quality was inferior. The concept of cultural relativism became clear because the narrator found it difficult to convince them that his gift was going to satisfy their expectations.
They reacted differently to his gift, claiming that the ox was old and did not have enough meat and fat to satisfy all members of the community. The narrator highlights a unique communal attribute of these people; they still expected him to offer a meatier ox to them for Christmas. The narrator’s cultural background did not make him anticipate that Kalahari locals have a different view on how Christmas is supposed to be celebrated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The narrator felt they were disappointed with the quality of the ox he had offered because they had grumbled that the meat was not adequate for their needs. The narrator observed that in this community, Christmas was more of a cultural celebration than a religious one. The narrator later discovered that natives of the Kalahari had a strong attachment to tender meat and fat from cattle.
He found out their concept of a successful festival involved eating and making merry endlessly. Therefore, the concept of mechanical social solidarity was relevant in this community because they were bound together by strong norms and cultural practices. They enjoyed performing various activities together, which encouraged bonding and social cohesion.
The narrator’s interactions with the Bushmen and other communities in the Kalahari give him a deeper understanding of their cultural ideals. He found out that locals have a strong attachment to meat and any feast needed to have an abundant supply of the commodity for it to be considered worthwhile. This shows that social interactions which members of this community had with each other were characterized by sharing and celebrations.
The narrator was expected to perform his responsibilities as a positive gesture to appreciate how he had been welcomed into the community. He was required to fulfill specific roles given to him by the community, after living with them and taking time to understand their cultural practices. Therefore, he was expected to show his loyalty to members of the community by offering material and moral support to ensure everyone celebrated Christmas in a special way.
The narrator got a clear perspective of the way of life of people living in the Kalahari. He finds out that they understand Christmas celebrations differently because of the way they have been socialized. However, he later found out that locals had been teasing him about the bull because the meat obtained was enough for everyone.
Christmas celebrations were good, and the mood became cheerful, which was contrary to what the narrator had anticipated earlier. He later discovered that Bushmen liked to make sarcastic remarks about anything they come across, which he felt was a form of unique cultural behavior. The concept of cultural relativism was relevant in this situation because the narrator expected locals to show him gratitude for his gift, yet they reacted indifferently.
Business Cycle in Economy Essay essay help site:edu
Appearing in last Sunday’s edition of New York Times, the article “Living on Minimum Wage” illustrates a picture of an American economy which is in the recovery phase in the business cycle. This paper illuminates some of the main ideas contained in the article.
Business cycle, also referred to as economic cycle, is a term mainly used by economics scholars and business practitioners to demonstrate the fluctuating movements (increasing or decreasing) of levels of the gross domestic product (GDP) in an economy over a particular period of time that may vary from several months to a number of years (Ball, 2009).
The recurring and fluctuating levels of the GDP an economy experiences over a certain time frame are grouped into five phases for ease of analysis – growth (economic expansion), peak, recession (economic contraction), trough and recovery (McConnell, 2009; Romer, 1999).
From the article, it is clear that the United States economy suffered under the 2008 financial crisis and many economic pundits viewed the crisis as a major triggering force for the economic contraction that was witnessed in many economies of the developed world.
The author of the article acknowledges that “the recession took middle-class jobs, and the recovery has replaced them with low-income ones, a trend that has exacerbated income inequality” (Lowrey, 2013 para. 2). The shift from middle-class jobs to low-income jobs, according to Romer (1999) is a viable indicator of the economic fluctuations in the business cycle over time.
Another major theme in the article is President Obama’s concept of stimulating the federal minimum wage in his economic proposal by increasing the minimum wage from $7.25 an hour (current) to at least $9 to lift numerous American families above the poverty line (Lowrey, 2013).
As demonstrated in the relevant economics literature, the recovery phase in the business cycle is typified by improvement in customer’s optimism of the market, low bank lending rates, growth of companies due to capacity to finance projects, enhanced productivity due to better aggregate demand of the economy, increased production that allows organizations to start recruiting new workers, and increased income of consumers who can now manage to buy capital goods (Ball, 2009; McConnell, 2009; Romer, 1999).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the other variables have not been addressed in the article, the proposed increase in the minimum wage by President Obama demonstrates an economy that is in its recovery phase after the financial crisis.
As illustrated in the article, there has been opposing views about President Obama’s proposal to raise minimum wages, with some conformists and economics experts saying that raising the costs of recruiting new workers results in few workers whereas other pundits suggest that minimum wage increment does not necessarily result in companies shedding workers because it helps minimize turnover (Lowrey, 2013).
These are valid arguments that business people need to be aware of as they make critical organizational decisions since they reflect the uncertainties of the recovery phase. However, according to available literature, the profit margins of American companies will begin to rise, and the GDP will also start to expand during the recovery phase (McConnell, 2009), hence the need to reciprocate by raising the minimum wages of workers in the lowest echelons of the economy.
Ultimately, therefore, President Obama’s proposal to raise the minimum wages as demonstrated in the article may be somewhat rushed because the American economy was in bad shape and the uncertainties of the future are still hanging on the minds of business practitioners as they re-engineer their companies to start making profits. However, it is the right thing to do because the United States economy is slowly recovering from the effects of the recent global recession.
References Ball, L. M. (2009). Money, Banking, and Financial Markets. New York: Worth Publishers.
Lowrey, A. (2013, June 15). Living on minimum wage. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/06/15/business/living-on-minimum-wage.html?ref=recessionanddepression
Environmental Stewardship of Deforestation Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Environmental stewardship refers to the act of protecting and conserving the environment. According to Aldo Leopold, environmental stewardship is promoted through the improvement of the relationship between humans and the environment (Sauve, 2010). It includes activities that improve and conserve the environment.
On the other hand, environmental sustainability involves making decisions that ensure long-term conservation and protection of the environment. Also, it involves taking part in activities that improve the capability of the environment to support life (Sauve, 2010). Both aspects are aimed at reducing the negative impacts that degrade the environment. Environmental stewardship and sustainability are important because conserve vacation and sustenance of the environment is important to support the rapidly growing global population.
Deforestation refers to the act of cutting trees for industrial and domestic use (Sauve, 2010). Destruction of the Amazon forest is one of the problems environmental conservationists are experiencing today. Deforestation is the main cause of Amazon Rainforest’s destruction.
It is caused by rising demand for agricultural land, need for firewood, need for land to build factories and businesses, and need for timber. Since it is difficult to control the rate of population growth, it is important to conserve the environment. Negative effects of deforestation include soil erosion, destruction of habitats, and global warming.
Deforestation causes soil erosion because it exposes soil to wind and water. Soil erosion has negative effects such as low productivity and destruction of plants and soil microorganisms (Sauve, 2010). Also, trees act as windbreakers. Therefore, they prevent soil erosion by lowering the speed of the wind. Deforestation exposes soil to the strong wind that carries soil away. When soil is carried away, nutrients that nourish plants and trees in the forest become unavailable.
Deforestation is a major cause of global warming. Trees play a vital role in maintaining balance by regulating energy and nutrient cycles. Deforestation leads to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. As a result, the gas absorbs radiation waves from the sun, which are not released into the atmosphere after bouncing off the earth surface.
This phenomenon is referred to as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect causes global warming because trapped radiation is converted to heat energy, which increases global temperatures (Sauve, 2010). High temperatures cause global warming.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deforestation also destroys habitats. The Amazon Rainforest is home to many animals. Also, it is a source of food for animals. Deforestation kills animals because it destroys their food and shelter. Animals such as lions, elephants, and buffaloes live in the Amazon forest. Deforestation leads to immigration or the death of these animals due to the unavailability of food and shelter. Other animals migrate to favorable habitats.
The Amazon Rainforest can be conserved through wise use of available resources. For example, tree planting should be encouraged. Softwood trees that have short maturity periods should be planted to ensure that tree population is maintained despite the use of trees for economic gains (Sauve, 2010). Also, access to the Amazon forest should be restricted. Activities such as research should be allowed on a small scale.
For example, medicinal trees could be used for research purposes. Laws should be enacted to eradicate deforestation. These laws should include rules and regulations to guide the use of the forest for purposes that pose a threat to environmental sustainability and conservation. It is possible to use the Amazon Rainforest and at the same time, ensure its sustainability and conservation.
Reference Sauve, D. (2010). Effects of Deforestation. New York: Clinton Gilkie.
Islamic and Arab Culture Loss in UAE’s Foreign Schools Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Education, whether formal or informal, is an important aspect of every society. Each society has its cherished cultural norms, which pass from one generation to another through education of young members of the society by older members of this society.
As such, education should not destroy positive cultural practices. Instead, it should enhance positive aspects of culture. Unfortunately, education differs from one society to the other with some considering their education systems as superior to other’s and propagating foreign cultures to recipients of such imported education.
The United Arab Emirates region boasts of several foreign schools, that teach the foreign curriculum. However, such schools do not enhance the local Islamic and Arabic culture leading to concerns of Islamic scholars and authorities as well. This essay seeks to reflect on the effect of foreign schools on Islamic and Arabic culture in the United Arab Emirates.
Foreign Schools Foreign schools in the United Arab Emirates admit students but completely exclude Islamic and Arabic cultural aspects from their curriculum. To make such education more relevant in the United Arab Emirates, designers of foreign education systems should take into consideration the prevailing culture and its importance in the lives of certain region inhabitants.
So, a foreign education system should integrate cultural studies so that students identify with such a system more and more (Ahmed, 2013). Failure to incorporate Islamic and Arabic culture in foreign-based school programs leads to a loss of national identity, which refers to a sense of belonging to a certain political jurisdiction. The lack of national identity leads to a decrease in patriotism and can even hamper economic growth and development (Ahmed, 2013).
Every culture instills values in members, and thus, foreign education in the United Arab Emirates should seek to enhance such cultural values in students who hail from the area instead of trying to instill foreign cultural values. If schools engage in intellectual imperialism, they become breeding grounds for rebels in society (Ahmed, 2013).
Young people educated in such systems may look down upon their elders and despise them, which can be called a recipe for chaos in society. Coherence arising from members of all ages in a society guards against a situation where societies break down and lag in all aspects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Islamic and Arabic cultures have produced various individuals who students can emulate in terms of behavior and approach to life. Such individuals become vivid examples to Muslim students studying in foreign schools in the United Arab Emirates. For instance, Sheikh Zayed is a critical example of an Islamic leader who exhibited leadership skills and sobriety to issues of life (Ahmed, 2013). Therefore, students need to imitate such an individual in their future endeavors.
Islamic law is all rounded, and as such, students should be well versed in Sharia as well as integrate its precepts into such areas as management and leadership. Otherwise, a failure to teach such an important aspect of Islamic culture, which contains history and religion, is detrimental to future policymakers in the United Arab Emirates (Ahmed, 2013).
Sharia assists policymakers to adopt localized strategies instead of relying on foreign concepts of strategy. Also, the knowledge of Sharia leads to eradication of corrupt practices in workplaces.
Young People Language is an important aspect of any cultural heritage. It is through language that teachers of cultural values propagate beliefs and customs. Also, language contributes to a feeling of belonging and solidarity (Racism no way, 2013). There are issues that a foreign language cannot effectively deliver.
In this regard, young people in the United Arab Emirates should be encouraged to learn and uphold Arabic as a cultural language to enable them to preserve Islamic culture and traditions. Young people present the future of any society and bringing them with a deep understanding of cultural values ensures the survival of society in all aspects and most importantly, the aspect of history and religion (Racism no way, 2013).
Islamic Scholars Islamic and Arabic culture propagates working ethics and various leadership strategies, including conflict resolution. The latter is very significant in every society and workplace. For instance, Bedouin traditions explicitly show how leadership values assist a society. However, students should not study Islamic culture and traditions exclusively. Such studies should integrate with other foreign studies to instill a better foundation for such students. Integration assists a student to espouse different viewpoints in life (Ahmed, 2013).
With this in mind, indigenous scholars in the United Arab Emirates should come up with proper strategies for propagating Islamic culture and traditions. A suitable starting point would involve deep research on Islam and Arabic culture with the aim of enlightening young people who in turn will perpetuate it to future generations (Ahmed, 2013).
We will write a custom Essay on Islamic and Arab Culture Loss in UAE’s Foreign Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, such scholars should avail any necessary work on Islamic and Arabic culture for reference purposes in foreign schools located in the United Arab Emirates. This ensures that students access information on culture during their leisure time as well. Also, such materials would enlighten students on the fact that most Western traditions have roots in Arabic culture (Ahmed, 2013).
References Ahmed, A. (2013). Islamic and Arab culture lost in UAE’s foreign schools. Retrieved from http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/education/islamic-and-arab-culture-lost-in-uaes-foreign-schools
Racism no way. (2013). The importance of culture, language and identity. Retrieved from http://www.racismnoway.com.au/about-racism/understanding/culture-language-identity.htm
A Trip to the Center of the Earth Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The earth is one of the main eight planets that revolve around the sun on their orbits. The earth not only spins around the sun, but it also rotates on its axis, which results in days and nights. One of the most interesting features of the earth is its center. The center of the earth is known to be a solid sphere that is hot and dense, and which mainly comprises iron deposits and traces of nickel.
The center of the earth is large, and it measures approximately 2400 kilometers in diameter. This is about 20% of the diameter of the earth (Cain 1). This paper describes a trip to the center of the earth as well as the features that can be observed during the trip, such as minerals, temperature, and caves.
The Trip One is likely to experience a lot of things on this particular trip to the center of the earth. Firstly, one will get to know how the earth, which is one of the main planets, was formed. The earth was formed through the convergence and melting of large pieces of rocks that broke from the newly forming sun. During the formation of the earth, heavy metals such as iron and nickel sunk the earth to form its center, which is always hot and dense (Cain 1).
The center of the earth is very hot as a result of the materials that are found in it. The further a person goes toward the center of the earth, the hotter it becomes. It has been proven that the temperature within the first few feet, which is about 100 feet below the earth’s surface, is uniformly cool and tolerable.
However, past the 100 feet, the temperature begins getting hotter since the rocks and other materials found at this point are warmer than those found on the surface. The center of the earth is estimated to be at a temperature of 40000C (Cain 1). In this trip, it is important to carry a thermometer or any other device for measuring the temperature of the earth at different points.
Apart from the uniquely high temperature, another interesting thing regarding the center of the earth is the seismic waves, which travel across the interior part. It is the data contained in these seismic waves that are analyzed by scientists to predict when an earthquake is going to occur.
The analysis of the information extracted from these waves can also be used to make assumptions regarding the materials found deep in the center of the earth; these waves are believed to pass through these materials, which are found at the center of the earth (“Deepest Caves” 1). In this trip, seismographs are some of the important equipment that will be carried to detect seismic waves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other interesting features in the center of the earth are the caves in it. Good examples of these caves are Krubera-Voronja Cave and Illuzia-Snezhnaja-Mezhonnogo. Voronja is currently considered the deepest cave in the center of the earth. Voronja measures approximately 2129 meters. Voronja is in the Arabika Massif of the Gagra Range, which is found in Georgia. Illuzia-Snezhnaja measures about 1753 meters, and it is found in Abkhazia, Georgia (“Deepest Caves” 1).
Conclusion This paper describes a trip to the center of the earth. There are several things that one can observe during this trip. The temperature at the center of the earth is said to be as high as 40000c. The main minerals found on the center of the earth are iron and nickel deposits. The center of the earth also contains caves, such as Voronja, which goes as deep as 2129 meters.
Works Cited Cain, Fraser. “What is the Center of the Earth Made Of?” Universe Today, 2010. Web.
“Deepest Caves of the World.” The Travel Guide, 2010. Web.
Status of English as the Global Language Essay essay help: essay help
Some people believe that English as a language faces a bleak future since there are numerous local languages that seem to dominate the cultures of some countries. Also, they contend that some nations are quick to file laws that prevent the use of English in public as a way of conserving their cultures since they fear its erosion.
However, I tend to differ with that school of thought and cite the following reasons as to why the future of English remains assured globally: the large numbers of English speakers and learners, the simplicity and flexibility nature of English, intrusion a in local cultures, and the business necessity (Nancy, 2011).
Over 380 million people currently speak English as a first language, over 550 million use it as their second language, and approximately a billion people are learning it worldwide. From this analysis, the total population that can use English is over 1.5 billion as compared to 1.2 billion in China. Since the majority group uses English, a high number of populace tends to use it as a way of obtaining benefits from 1.5 billion (Nancy, 2011).
In non-English speaking nations, several legislators have made laws that protest against the continuous invasion of English in their countries, but their actions have not resulted to the control in the use of English since the pace at which people speak the language has intensified. The high numbers of learners and speakers prove the continuous dominance of English at present and in the future. Consequently, this continuous action will strengthen the use of English as a key language in the entire globe.
Additionally, English status in the world tends to be brighter, given that it is simple and flexible in its rules. The language has clear grammatical rules and is extremely simple to use. The simplicity is evident in the rules that govern the use of nouns, verbs, pronouns, prepositions, adverbs amongst others.
For example, it has borrowed words from different cultures and languages hence giving it an edge over other languages in adaptability in the global aspect (Zhunio, 2010). As a result, when one learns English, he/she becomes diverse in many cultures, thus keeping himself/herself updated with global events and developments (Oshima
Social Issues: Demographic Transition Definition Essay cheap essay help
Introduction This paper is not only going to define demographic transition, but also describe its four phases. Additionally, it is also going to show some of the factors which can lead to a reduction in the crude birth rate (CBR) and crude death rate (CDR). Living conditions in developed countries in phase IV and Programs, which can assist the developing countries in achieving their goal of reaching demographic transition phase IV will also be discussed.
Definition of demographic transition Demographic transition is a theory used to illustrate the alterations in population over a given period. Additionally, it is used to determine various causes of death, which occurs within a certain population. In history, the number of deaths recorded over a given period has been steadily decreasing. The records have also shown an increase in life expectancy. Therefore, this is a clear indication that the entire world population is undergoing a transition where birth and death rates change from high to low, respectively (Teller
Global Food Trade’s Benefits Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
How does this vast movement of food from one nation to another benefit developing nations? Are there benefits to developed or wealthy nations?
– When foodstuffs are moved from one geographical region to another, several benefits are enjoyed by both the developing and wealthy nations. For instance, the developing nations are in a position to supplement their food products and the much needed nutritional value (Krissoff, Bohman
Nomadic Pastrolism History Essay a level english language essay help
Nomadic pastoralism is usually practiced in developing countries. Most of the nomads are found in West Africa and Central Asia. Increased grazing leads to desertification of lands. The Mongols lived in the arid lands of Eastern Asia. They were loyal to the group organized into clans, families, and tribes.
During the thirteenth century, Chinggis Khan forged the tribes of the Mongol into an alliance that builds the largest empire in the world. The Mongols were termed as mere cultivators. The Chinese were forbidden from learning the Mongol language. They also worked hard to secure their trade routes and ensured the safety of their merchants.
The rise of the Ottoman relates to the Byzantine Empire declined. It brought about the shift in power from a single European society to influence the Islamic. This period was characterized by Byzantine wars, which took a century and a half. During the period, the Ottoman Empire gained control.
The people and patriarchs responded with one heart to the prophets. They usually heed to their teachings and followed their savings wisely. Christianity flourished in a long way from the Roman Empire in the Dark Ages. Christians came to Europe from Ireland. They had to spread the good news about Jesus. The church in Europe developed its way of doing things.
The Lion Prince of Mali was Sundiata. Mali was formed in West Africa in the thirteen century. Tradition has it that the father of Sundiata ruled in the West African a small kingdom in the North Eastern part which is now referred to as Guinea. The Mali Empire is the wealthiest empire in the sub-Saharan.
After the death of Sundiata, the Prince’s Legacy shaped peoples lives in West Africa. It also helped to link them with people in the Mediterranean basin and North Africa. After the classical era forward there was the establishment of an extensive network of the people of the Mediterranean basin and East Asia.
After the Roman Empire disappeared, it inspired the European philosophers and rulers who dreamt of having a political structure that is centralized, embracing all Christians in Europe. In the Mediterranean region, the Byzantine Empire existed since it had the dominant power. The Holy Roman Empire was formed by the German princes in the late tenth century. This was a revival to the Christianity of the Roman Empire.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Monarchs which are independent emerged in England and France. There were other authorities that ruled in the regions of Spain and Italy. This then brings to the conclusion that Medieval Europe can be described as a political mosaic that is independent and competes with other regional states.
Europe rose from the long period of economic and political instability and intellectual stagnation. There were expansion and consolidation of the states in regions and the persistence of the Roman Catholic Christianity. In the high ages, Europe started interacting frequently with other regions in the east.
There was no stability of the European, and they were not financially stable to support the advanced education institutions. The schools that provided rudimentary education were preserved by monasteries. Scholars were occasionally supported by political leaders. Little or no schools offered formal education beyond the elementary level. The inspiration by the scholars was mainly from the Bible.
Mesoamerica came in an era of conquest and war during the eighth century. There were huge amounts of wealth in its largest city. When the city declined, it became a target of the less advantaged but well-organized forces from the north of Mexico. Attacks opened an era of civilization and lasted until the forces of Spanish conquered the region. The emergence of Mexica and Collects, the center of Mexico came under unified rule.
Asian Studies: The Hazara People Persecution in Afghanistan Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents History of the Hazaras
Differences between Hazara and other Communities
Social Structure in Afghanistan
Persecution of the Hazara People
The plight of the Hazaras
Victimization in Pakistan
Appeal to the United Nations
History of the Hazaras The CIA World Factbook reveals that there are an approximated 2.7 million Hazaras currently living in Afghanistan. Even though the community was considered one of the largest in the country, the 1893 massacre greatly reduced its population. This means that Hazara is an endangered community that must be taken care of for its existence. Anthropology scholars differ over the exact history of the Hazaras. However, Hazara means a thousand in the language of the Persians.
Current studies suggest that the community originated from the Mongol empire. It is believed to be a descendant of the Mongol soldiers that were left behind by Genghis Khan in the thirteenth century. The Hazaras occupy various parts of Afghanistan, but they are mainly found in Hazarajat, which is their land historically. The community is found in the central mountains of Afghanistan and is believed to occupy an area of fifty thousand square kilometers, even though some are found in the Badakhshan Mountains.
In the late 19th century, there was a campaign against the community, which forced them to settle in the western parts of Turkestan province. Within this group of people, a small group is distinguished by their faith referred to as Ismaili Hazaras, which subsists in the Hindu Kush Mountains.
Due to constant frustrations from state organs and frequent attacks on its people, the community has been forced to settle on the fringes of the state near Iran and Pakistan. This has led to cross-border migration meaning that a good number of Hazaras are currently found in Pakistan (Mousavi 89).
Regarding the language, the Hazaras are known to speak the Dari dialect, which is related to the Persian Dialect referred to as Hazaragi. A majority of the community as members of the Shi’a religious sect, even though some belong to the Ismaili sect while a minority belongs to Sunni Islamic sect.
The community is mainly distinguished because of its strong culture that adores music and poetry. Their language has several proverbs that have been utilized effectively to compose popular songs and poems in the country. The culture has been maintained through language, which is passed from one generation to the other. Only two classes existed, which included the rulers and the ruled. The class structure is based on the possession of the means of manufacturing, whereby the rich could own several flora and fauna.
With time, the economic, social, political power of the community has declined since they currently supply cheap unskilled labor, which has led to stigmatization. Few communities in the country would be willing to intermarry with the Hazaras since it is considered a poor community.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has led to isolation, given the fact that its culture has remained static for several decades. The husband is always considered the head of the family among the Hazaras, with most of the families practicing polygamy. The mother would only take up the responsibilities of the husband in cases of death. The older wife is accorded respect. Therefore, she would take up the role of the husband in case the head of the family is absent.
The community respects the rights of women and has always advocated for the enlightenment of the girl child. This has seen many women in the community participating in civic affairs, particularly those who returned from the land of exile in Iran. Since the defeat of the Taliban in 2001, many Hazara women have played a critical role in furthering education in the community since they serve as teachers.
History shows that Hazaras settled in Afghanistan as early as the 13th century. Throughout history, Hazaras allied to the Shi’a religious values have been persecuted and have been pushed to the periphery meaning that they have suffered than any other group. Even though changes were introduced in the country after the defeat of the Taliban, the state of affairs has not changed since many Hazaras are still killed.
This is because the community is still underrepresented in policymaking and formulation. President Karzai tried to uplift the living standards of the community by appointing six cabinet ministers from the community, but this has not stopped discrimination against the community. In the mid 2oth century, the community was forced to migrate to Kabul owing to the rampant persecution meted out by senior government officials and other communities perceived to be the majority.
The community is the lowest in terms of social rankings, which is the main source of hostility. In the early 1960s to late 1970s, the community was forced to combine forces with other minorities to demand their rightful position in society. This led to the civil war that lasted for several years, claiming many lives and causing economic and political instabilities. The community was capable of resisting the pressures from other communities until the mid-1980s, with the help of their fellow tribesmen from Iran (Ratchnevsky 45).
It is factual that the community has never enjoyed its economic rights in the country since it is perceived as an outcast, which should be eliminated. Even before the Taliban government, the Hazaras have never enjoyed peace since they were often attacked and their land was taken away forcefully. They would be captured and would be sold as slaves meaning that they were never valued in society.
Critical services, such as healthcare and security, have never been availed to the Hazaras. Some historians claim that the main reason for the persecution of the Hazaras is their religious principle, which is based on the Shi’a values. The community had a stable economic and political system that gave then fame all over the continent. This never augured down well with some communities in Afghanistan.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian Studies: The Hazara People Persecution in Afghanistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Differences between Hazara and other Communities The major difference between Hazaras and other communities in Afghanistan, such as Pashtuns and Tajiks, is religion. While Hazaras belong to the Shiite religious group, the Pashtuns belong to the Sunni religion. The Hazara uses religion differently as compared to other communities. In one of the novels authored by Khaled Hosseini title The Kite Runner, Pashtuns are portrayed as rich individuals who control the means of production.
They are members of the ruling class while the Hazaras belong to the underprivileged group, which relies on religion for survival. In the novel, the main character, Amir, is a Pashtun who drinks a lot and seems not interested in religious matters. The character is portrayed as a rich individual with a lot of money to waste. The novel captures the exact state of affairs in the country since Sunnis have always had a chance to fulfill their economic and political dreams as opposed to the Hazaras who have always gone through torture and persecution.
Hazaras follow their religious beliefs since they are the only things that they have control over, given the fact that they cannot access wealth easily. In terms of physical appearance, the Hazaras resemble the Chinese or the Mongol meaning that they are Asiatic since they descended from Mongolia.
The hostilities between Pashtuns and the Hazaras started in the thirteenth century when the Mongol Empire conquered the Pashtuns and enslaved them. Afghanistan is one of the states that constituted the Mongol Empire, but the Hazaras are related to the Shiite of Iran, which is an enemy of the Pashtun since time immemorial. Historical conflicts between the Pashtun and the Hazaras have always presented serious challenges to governments and global bodies.
Culturally, the Hazaras differ greatly with other communities in the country. The Pashtun community occupies many parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan, meaning that they are the majority in the country. The majority of Pashtuns are nomads meaning that they do not lead a good life as compared to Hazaras who are mainly artisans.
Sunni religious beliefs prohibit its members from consuming alcohol and pork. Hazaras are different since they are liberal to the extent that they allow women to participate in politics and economics. In terms of social organization, the Hazaras differ with other groups in the sense that they allow women to take care of the home once the husband is away. This is different in for Pashtuns who are very strict on matters touching on family life.
Economically, the Pashtuns are a single unit meaning that they encourage the sharing of resources among family members. Hazaras encourage hard work among its members since resource distribution is not based on socialism, but instead, private ownership of property is encouraged (Rubin 10).
Among the Pashtuns, the entire family is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that children are brought up in the best way possible while Hazaras encourage freedom among individuals meaning that each person would determine his or her destiny.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian Studies: The Hazara People Persecution in Afghanistan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Socially, the Hazaras have a developed social organization whereby education is encouraged among all members of society. Schools are constructed with the help of community members, but they are separate from worshiping places. For Pashtuns and other communities exercising Sunni values, schools are constructed near the worshiping places, and religious leaders are expected to monitor education programs.
Pashtuns do not encourage the mingling of girls and boys. In this regard, separate schools for boys and girls exist. On their part, Hazaras are not strict on this policy since children of the same age can attend similar classes. Unlike the Hazaras, Pashtuns have an established culture with a living code, which is highly valued referred to as the Pashtunwali.
The code suggests that people should help each other in life, and they should respect religious principles. Based on this, the communal members ought to respect family ties and welcome each other. The Hazaras are different since the value individualism. Some analysts believe that this is one of the causes of their persecution since they are never united when compared to the Pashtuns.
Social Structure in Afghanistan Just like any other society in the world, Afghan society is structured according to classes and the caste system. The majority of social groups are egalitarian, even though some are hierarchically structured. This means that people differ in terms of wealth, which ascribes social status to individuals. Apart from stratification based on wealth, society is also arranged based on religious and ethnic lines.
Only members from the royal family would serve as state senior state officials, such as ministers and ambassadors while the rest were expected to obey the authority since the political leaders were both temporal and civic leaders. In the mid 20th century, those who occupied the higher classes were the Persian speaking Afghans who were mostly found in the urban areas. Those who practiced Shiite and Ismaeli religious principles were considered to be from the lowest class.
The Hazaras were included in this social class since their religion was perceived to be of low quality. The Pashtuns held many positions of influence at the provincial level, meaning that they controlled all sorts of political and social life. Unfortunately, the local leaders never served the locals since they were indifferent to the sufferings of the majority (Monty 78). Their major aim was to fulfill their selfish interests through the persecution of the minorities and mass grabbing of communal resources.
The richest property owners controlled local communities while the village headmen were in charge of conflict resolution. The Sayyeds were thought to be descendants of Prophet Mohammad since they belonged to the prophet’s daughter. This category of individuals was respected so much, and they played a critical role as far as conflict resolution is concerned.
In Afghan society, it is expected that members from the lower class would give their daughters to the richer classes because only the rich could afford a lavish wedding ceremony. The community discourages the wearing of western clothes, which distinguished the urban people from the locals.
Persecution of the Hazara People Communities allied to the Sunni religious principles are to blame for the persecution of the Hazaras in Afghanistan. Communities belonging to Sunni are the majority while the Shi’a, which is predominantly Hazaras, is the minority. In the late 19th century, under the leadership of Amir Abdul Rahman, a holy war referred to as Jihad, was declared to all communities that never subscribed to the Sunni religious principles.
Such communities were to be denied their social, economic, and political rights, which would lead to untold suffering and anguish. This would force such communities to conform to the perceived major Islamic values. This persecution never distracted the attention of the Hazaras towards their religion. The community resisted an attempt by the Afghanistan leader to force all communities to convert to Sunni religion. The government sent the Pashtun tribes, which were mainly Sunni, to fight the Hazaras in the central highlands.
Consequently, the majority of Hazaras were slaughtered, particularly men, leaving the community with unable population to spur economic and social development. The Hazara women and children were enslaved since they did not have anyone to protect them from the Pashtun brutality.
The land that was previously occupied by the Hazaras was taken away, including everything in the farms, such as animals and produce. The government engaged in a campaign to attract other Sunni communities, such as Uzbeks and Tajiks, to rebel against the Hazaras. Some Hazaras managed to escape to the northern parts, but a majority of them was killed brutally — some preferred seeking refuge in the British controlled areas of India. Uzbeks participated in the elimination of the Hazaras in Bamian.
President Rahman accomplished his mission of destroying the religious establishments of the Hazaras, but their faith was intact, meaning they were unwilling to surrender their religious values in favor of the Sunni religious values. His persecution process was systematic since it aimed at weakening the community economically, politically, culturally, and socially. He ordered his militias to conduct raids on women and issue unwarranted taxes to the innocent Hazaras.
In this regard, massacres, looting of property, pillaging of homes, and turning Hazara children into slaves were the order of the day. The Shi’a Mullahs, which were the worshiping place, were destroyed and were replaced with the Sunni shrines. With the help of the government under the leadership of Rahman, at least six percent of the Hazaras was wiped out while other communities occupied the Hazarajat, as the Shi’a sought refuge in another part, including the neighboring countries of Pakistan and Iran.
Even after the leadership of the Rahman, the persecution of the Hazaras went on through the century (Merry 16). In 1929, the state officials came up with an ethnic cleansing program whereby all Sunnis were supposed to obtain identification to pave the way for the elimination of the remaining Shi’a.
A number of the Hazara had no option, but to conceal identify to obtain identification. The pasteurization program would ensure that all Hazaras were eliminated. Some of the Sunni preachers would encourage believers to eliminate Sh’as since it would be a gate pass to paradise.
The plight of the Hazaras Hazaras have never lost hope in fighting for their survival politically since they established a political party in 1988 referred to as Hizb-e Wahdat, meaning the Party of Unity. Their regions had not roads, clinics, or even schools, implying that the government never considered them as legitimate members of the state. With Mujahedeen quitting power as president in 1992, the community was in conflicts with the government since the new head of state, Burhanuddin Rabbani ordered for their persecution.
The attack in innocent civilians led to several deaths, which attracted the attention of the international humanitarian bodies, such as Amnesty International and the United Nations. Amnesty International reported that the government-led militias killed innocent, unarmed individuals, as well as rapping Hazara women. Through his chief commander, the president ordered for the murder of Hazaras in western parts of Kabul.
The plight of the Hazaras changed in 1993 onwards when Abdul Ali Mazari represented the community at the international level to speak out about their situation. The international community noted the situation and promised to take action against any group that would participate in the persecution of the Hazara people (Mousavi 23). The leader brought all Hazaras together by encouraging them to work as a group towards the realization of their political and economic ambitions.
In the same year, the leader participated in the signing of the treaty with the Taliban government; things turned sour in 1995 when he was brutally eliminated. The Party of Unity joined hands with other forces fighting the Taliban government in 1995 to force the government to listen to their pleas. The coalition party was able to force the government to open up schools and other institutions of higher learning, including the Bamian University.
The peace enjoyed by the Hazara Shi’a was short lived since the Taliban declared Jihad on all non-Sunni religious groups upon seizure of power in 1995. It is claimed that the Shi’a faced severe persecution in the years that followed since there were mass killings in some parts of the north.
This forced the Shi’a to re-strategize on how to capture power since they could no longer tolerate the living conditions that existed (Weiers 110). In 2001, they captured power, with the assistance of foreign powers. The community still faces several challenges, even after capturing power in 2001. The condition of the Hazaras has always been improving since they captured power in 2001.
The constitution was ratified to ensure that their status is recognized. The leader of their party was given the position of the vice-president in Karzai’s government. In the recently concluded elections, the Hazaras gained twenty-five seats, which is a good number given the fact that they simply constitute nine percent of the population. Even though Hazaras are performing superbly politically, their social and economic performance in the country is dismal since they are still perceived as the lowly ranked community.
Recently, the community has been complaining of the rising number of militias and warlords since such illegal groups pose a serious threat to its existence, given the fact that illegitimate groups are made up of Sunnis. The community has clashed with nomadic Kuchis mainly because of the land issue, which has raised ethnic tension meaning that the community is sitting on the time bomb.
Victimization in Pakistan In Pakistan, the condition of the Hazaras is critical since they are attacked each day since the collapse of the Taliban government in 2001. They are the victims of persecution following the ousting of the illegitimate government. They are believed to be the western accomplices, which has continuously exposed them to maltreatment from their Sunni counterparts in Pakistan. Since then, at least two-thousand Hazara men, women, and even children have perished and over one-thousand have been injured in Quetta region.
In Pakistan, the Sunni led militia group referred to as the Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is accused of the killings. As already mentioned in the history section, Hazaras found themselves in Pakistan in the 19th century following the aggressive policy of Rahman Khan who aimed at eliminating the community systemically. Some of the Hazaras ran to India, which was under the British and ended up in Pakistan owing to the unfavorable environment in India.
The Pakistani Sunnis attack the Shiites, who are mostly the Hazaras because of their Mongoloid features. The killing of the Hazaras started in the 1980s when the president of Pakistan supported an attempt by the Afghan government to wipe out the Shi’a. Zia ul-Haq was trying to legitimize his dictatorial rule by showing his supporters that he was willing to do everything to strengthen their life chances.
Moreover, the country had sufficient weapons delivered by the Soviet Union following the Afghanistan invasion. Recently, the Sunnis are encouraged by the Al-Qaeda ideology to fight the Shiites since they consider them enemies given the fact that they supported the American government in flushing out the members of the terrorist group (Rosenberg 2382).
Attacks on Shiite are mainly witnessed in Quetta, which is the capital city of Pakistan. The city is found in the province of Balochistan. The province borders Afghanistan, which is the center of tribal strife between the Pashtuns and the Hazaras. Since the 2001 attack on the Taliban, the extremist militant group in Pakistan referred to as Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, (LeJ) has always issued open threats to the Hazaras through new paper adverts and other forms of advertisements.
The Taliban related militia group perceives the Hazaras as the worst enemies; hence, they deserve death. On their part, the Hazaras are of the view that the militia group does not operate in isolation, but instead has the support of the government forces, which is always against the presence of the western troops in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Many human rights organizations are concerned with the continued persecution of the Hazaras in the province, but the government of Pakistan is reluctant to intervene, which suggests that it might be helping terrorists in conducting their heinous acts.
In 2001, at least six people succumbed to injuries while five were seriously wounded when the Sunni related terrorists attacked a bus ferrying Hazaras from Hazara town to Alamdar road. LeJ terrorist group claimed responsibility, but the Pakistani government did nothing to prevent the occurrence of a similar incident in the future.
In 3003, the Sunni-led militia group attacked worshipers on Friday in Quetta, killing at least fifty-five while injuring one-fifty. The government never took any action. These attacks have been ongoing until the recent one on 16 February 2013, which killed seventy-three people and injured an approximated one-hundred and eighty when a bomb was hauled on innocent people in a busy market. Even though the LeJ claimed responsibility, the government of Pakistan is yet to arrest the perpetrators.
Appeal to the United Nations The Hazaras have suffered so much in the Middle East due to their continued conflicts with the Sunni affiliated Muslims. The United Nations has always tried to protect the minorities in Afghanistan, but the efforts put in place are not enough since the killings have been ongoing, even after the ratification of the UN Security Council regulations. The Security Council started protecting the rights of the minorities in this country by admitting it to the United Nations in 1946.
In 1988, the Security Council authorized the deployment of forces to save lives in the country, but the troops were insufficient. In 1996, the Security Council banned the supply of weapons to the country and forced the government to grant women their rights. In 2001, the council authorized the deployment of forces to protect lives and restore democracy, but the lives of Hazaras are still in danger. In this regard, the United Nations should take an affirming action to ensure that Hazaras are safe in the region.
For instance, those leaders found guilty of perpetuating violence against the Hazaras should face charges at the International Criminal Court (ICC). The United Nations should champion for the establishment of the stable constitution in the country to look into the welfare of the Hazaras, who have suffered so much.
Moreover, the commission of inquiry should be set up, chaired by a well-known judge establish the real causes of hostilities between the two religious groups. It is true that the two conflicting communities belong to a similar religious group, which is Islam, but they keep on killing each other.
Works Cited Merry, Sally. Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. Print.
Monsutti, Alessandro. War and migration: Social networks and economic strategies of the Hazaras of Afghanistan. New York: Routledge, 2005. Print.
Mousavi, Sayed Askar. The Hazaras of Afghanistan: An Historical, Cultural, Economic and Political Study. Richmond, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Print.
Mousavi, Syed. The Hazaras of Afghanistan. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. Print.
Ratchnevsky, Paul. Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991. Print.
Rosenberg, Noah.”Genetic Structure of Human Populations”. Science New Series, 298.5602(2002): 2381–2385.
Rubin, Barnett. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the international system. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. Print.
Weiers, Michael. The Mongolic Languages. London: Routledge.
IBM Company Changing and Adjustment Report college application essay help: college application essay help
The fluctuating market is never the same, making a business environment hard to predict and often, demanding changes in a company so that it stays successful. Ethics, socio-cultural adjustments, and modernization of the world have to be adhered to. Global companies have to make changes, and IBM is one such organization.
The general adjustments that took place were a more environment oriented approach that led to lowering costs, increasing the role of stakeholders, and a more customer-oriented work technique. The CEOs have also changed some of the management that would provide a shift from hardware to a software focus — an in-depth knowledge of the culture and social specificities of other countries allowed for better conduction of business.
IBM is a worldwide company, and so, it has to deal with many location-specific features. One of the strategic advances that were made is related to changing the consulting practice and connection between locations. The major focus has turned to people and interaction with the public. As customers will often return to the same organization if the products and services are reliable and of high quality, it was wise for IBM to pay special attention to how the business is conducted.
The international success has proven that people are expecting great service, and IBM recognized this by increasing the number of employees responsible for customer relations. As there is a lot of competition in the modern world, the changes that IBM made had to be quick. While the adjustment of production has lowered costs and heightened quality, as well as making it more environment-friendly, the changes to the services and workforce greatly added to the company’s success (Gibbs, 2006).
Sometimes the company that adjusts to the economy or fluctuating market must let some of its employees go, but IBM chose a strategy that increased the number of workers worldwide, and it positively reflected on the organization. It is a wise strategy to improve both products and services because this means that with a higher quality of merchandise, people will also receive great services.
Comparing to other companies, IBM has rooted out all competitors because the size of the organization, the amount of locations and people involved in customer-oriented focus have majorly outnumbered all others. Another improvement that was made is the involvement of IBM in several industries at the same time. This enlarges the scope of the company and makes it more knowledgeable in other spheres of everyday life.
It is clear that the management understands what people want and need, and the ability to get everything in one place, with addition to outstanding service, makes it one of the best companies. Even though these changes were made through the demands of the company and the public, there are many other ways that IBM can better its products and services (Gibbs, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An equally important aspect was met within overseas positions and dealings. The cultural differences create the assimilation process somewhat lengthy and the expectations of the management personnel, as well as employees, are in high regard, according to the increase in the company’s production or output. The problem of the cultural difference is one of the major ones, as the business must familiarize itself with the traditions and intricate beliefs of society.
The process of increasing the company’s productivity and the development of the personal skills of employees is the goal of every superior, and so, a close understanding of the organizational level is needed for success. The opportunity to increase personal knowledge of the culture and understanding of company politics creates an advantage for international business. The set up of new and more advanced techniques and processes will ensure the prosperity and positive direction of the business (Bradburn, 2001).
Ethics and morality are becoming extremely important in the modern world. The technological advancements have changed the industry and business world in such a way that it has become easy to “cut corners” and lead people astray. The intricate relationship with the environment and people sets demands of proper care and kindness. Even though there are laws and regulations that outline the functioning of businesses and corporations, pollution and over usage of resources are still commonplace.
The laws are just a part of human society and regulation of business, as it is up to the people running these companies to be responsible and prevent further damage to the planet and people’s health. Anything that businesses get involved in is consistent with ethics and how matters are conducted.
IBM has stayed on the top of things by limiting its environmental imprint. The treatment of employees, respect for their differences, people’s cultural backgrounds and gender are all part of moral standards that are necessary for the provision of the best work environment (Roa, 2007).
It is clear that a business such as IBM has many angles to deal with and a lot of things to consider. Technological advancements, social adjustment, and ethical specifics are all a part of the global network of people working together and targeting success and prosperity. IBM has justly taken a position among the leading international companies.
References Bradburn, R. (2001). Understanding Business Ethics, London, England: Thomson Learning.
We will write a custom Report on IBM Company Changing and Adjustment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gibbs, D. (2006). Project Management with the IBM Rational Unified Process. Upper Saddle River, United States: Prentice Hall Professional.
Roa, F. (2007). Business Ethics and Social Responsibility, Rockwell, Philippines: Rex Bookstore Inc.
Political Issues: Welfare Programs for Illegal Immigrants Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Significance of Immigration
Introduction There are various reasons that make a person to traverse a border illegally into the foreign territory or overstay their visa. Such a person goes by various titles like an illegal immigrant or illegal alien, undocumented immigrant, unauthorized migrant, and so on (US Immigration Support, 2012). Commonly, the reasons given for such illegalities include the need to reuniting with their families, running away from war or prospects of war, job seeking, seeking political asylum, and seeking for medical attention (Phil for Humanity, 2013). This essay seeks to prove that it is proper for such people to enjoy welfare programs in the United States of America.
Significance of Immigration Each human being has something to offer to society. Illegal immigration has its demerits and merits. America should closely monitor all immigrants and utilize the potential that these people have. Such people are usually qualified for various fields in the labor market and given a chance; they can contribute to the economic growth of a country like the United States of America. However, measures must be in place to deter criminal elements among the immigrants so that security remains uncompromised. It is common knowledge that terrorists may take advantage of immigration to perpetuate their fight against the United States of America.
The state should draft legislation that enables immigrants to acquire a legal status so that these people contribute to the government’s revenue through paying of taxes. Illegal immigrants cannot pay taxes since they fear that doing so would expose them, and this would probably lead to prosecutions and deportations. Such legislation would assist in vetting so that people who are an asset to the United States of America get absorbed into various areas for nation-building.
Recently, the government in the United States of America drafted an Immigration bill that would see many illegal immigrants acquire citizenship status. Such a bill is very significant and debating it within the shortest time possible would ensure that immigrants start paying for privileges that they currently enjoy without contributing to government revenue through evasion of taxes — those opposed to the billing demand that the government deports all illegal immigrants to their home countries. Deporting illegal immigrants would be too costly for the government. The number of illegal immigrants stands at eleven million people.
Politically, immigrants are a great force. It is in the public domain that people of Hispanic origins significantly contributed to Presidents Obama’s election and consequent re-election. As such, immigrants deserve better treatment. For the illegal immigrants, the government should act decisively and reap from the potential contributions within the immigrants.
In the health sector, foreign nurses account for more than twenty percent, and this is very significant because they bring with them the skills needed for the aging populations in America. Such nurses are relatively younger, and this means that they can serve the nation for a longer period (Kenny, 2013). Nurses trained in the Philippines, for instance, are famed for giving the best care to patients. As such, foreign nurses become instrumental in sustaining the life of so many Americans (Kenny, 2013).
The technological field is set to benefit from immigration. In 2006, foreigners in the United States of America got recognition as inventors and co-inventors. Twenty-five percent of all patents in America belonged to them. Also, twenty-five percent of companies formed between 1995 and 2005 hired foreign professionals to the positions of either economist or chief technologists (Kenny, 2013).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Concerning aging populations in America, immigrants may help in bridging the number of the young population needed in American for future endeavors in the country. When such a population is recognized as American, it will greatly assist the country in providing future labor needed in the country (Kenny, 2013).
Immigrants have had a positive bearing on the economy of the United States of America. In other words, immigration is closely intertwined with an increase in wealth. This arises from the fact that the US has an economy that generates more than enough job opportunities for the Native Americans (Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter, 2006). As such, immigrants provide the much-needed supply of labor in the United States of America. Such labor is usually cheaper than that offered by Native Americans.
America has been able to maintain a competitive edge courtesy of immigrants. Immigrants play very significant roles in crucial fields related to science and engineering (Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter, 2006). It is on record that half of those who joined engineering graduate studies in the US were immigrants in 2004 (Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter, 2006). The US has no option but to keep attracting and assisting immigrants to enrich the economy as they are always among the best and brightest in the face of tight competition by China and India (Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter, 2006).
Immigration enhances entrepreneurship, as the probability of immigrants engaging in self-employment is quite high. For instance, the number of enterprises owned by people from Hispania “has grown at three times the national average” (Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter, 2006). It is common knowledge that such establishments are bound to create employment for the population in America, and this contributes to economic growth. Also, “one-quarter of Silicon Valley start-ups were established at least in part by immigrants, including Intel, Sun Microsystems, and Google” (Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter, 2006).
Dynamism is a prerequisite to any state that seeks to entrench itself in the global system. Immigration is one of the driving forces of this dynamism. This dynamism manifests in food eaten in America, forms and places of worship, entertainment as well as sports (Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter, 2006). Immigrants have excelled in areas like estate management, theatre, and military service to name but a few (Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter, 2006).
Conclusion With this in mind, the question remains as to what should be done about the illegal immigrants in America. Having seen how useful they are and can be to the welfare of the US, it is up to the government to assist them through welfare programs and assist them to be proper US Citizens (Moffet, 2013). If anything, they become more important to the economy when they attain legal status since they start paying taxes.
References N.A. (2006). Immigration and America’s Future: A New Chapter. New York: Migration
We will write a custom Essay on Political Issues: Welfare Programs for Illegal Immigrants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Policy Institute.
Kenny, C. (2013). Small World. Retrieved from
Moffet, D. (2013, March 30). New Immigrants Assimilating Into U.S. Society. Retrieved from http://immigration.about.com/od/usimmigrationhistory/a/New-Immigrants-
Phil for Humanity. (2013, March 30). Illegal Immigration. Retrieved from
Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Issues: Welfare Programs for Illegal Immigrants by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More US Immigration Support. (2012). Illegal Immigration. Retrieved from
Ecological Sustainable Approach Concept Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Environmental issues have been out of the public attention for quite long since the dreadful effects of industries on nature were discovered. However, in the XXI century, the old-time conflict of nature vs. nurture seems to have been reborn, seeing how the issue has been raised not only in researches (e.g., Nixon’s Slow violence), but also family-friendly movies like The Lorax.
In the scene that starts with the words “Excuse me, Sir, I need to talk with your boss” (Geisel, 2012), the problem that the movie focuses on its being depicted. As the scene opens with a shot of Once-later in his char, his attempt at justifying his cruel actions towards the nature of the Thneedville and Truffula trees pretty much sums up the environmental problem of the XXI century:
“Bad? I’m not bad; I’m the good guy here. He just doesn’t get it. Do you think I’m bad?” – “Quack.” – “Thank you! I mean, something good finally happens to me, and he just has to come along and rain on my parade! What’s his problem?” – “Quack.” – “See? Yeah, bad. Right.” (Geisel, 2012).
This whole scene shows people’s attitude towards nature in a nutshell. Portraying a careless attitude of the humankind, the movie renders the same issue of the lack of responsibility that Nixon raises in his work. According to Nixon, “The representational challenges are acute, requiring creative ways of drawing public attention to catastrophic” (Nixon, 2006–2007, 15).
While the way in which Nixon pits the key concern of the XXI century is somewhat more obscure and, when taken out of context, can be related to not only environmental, but also to a number of other issues, it still shows that people are apt to make choices without thinking about the consequences, which leads to the most deplorable results.
One might argue that the concern over the state of nature and the effects that people’s actions have on the latter can be considered somewhat overrated.
The plot holes in the movie do not make the argument of the proponents of sustainability any stronger either since the similarities between the real world and the reality portrayed in The Lorax are rather far-fetched. The effects of the tree-chopping process that Once-later started does not seem to have any tangible effect on the world that the residents of the Thneedville live in. The problem of Thneedville was that it was “plastic and fake, and everybody liked it that way” (Geisel, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The movie does not explain exactly why a “town without nature” (Geisel, 2012) is a bad idea; the threats of the environmental catastrophe that the lack of natural resources triggers is not displayed. The city is portrayed equally colorful at the beginning of the movie when it had a problem regarding sustainability, and at the end, when Truffula trees finally appeared. The above-mentioned does not help the case of sustainability.
However, much to the movie’s credit, it did manage to convey several interesting ideas, many of which cross with Nixon’s concept of nature and the issues raised by him. Sustainability being the prior concept and the most efficient solution to the problems currently faced by the humankind, the problem of responsibility deserves considerable attention.
Nixon puts the dilemma regarding the progress and the cost for this progress in a much sharper way than the movie does, for a quite understandable reason – being a family-friendly picture, The Lorax cannot threaten its audience with the consequences of unsustainable use of natural resources. However, both the film and the book manage to get across the fact that the problem is becoming more urgent and is slowly getting out of hand.
With that being said, one must admit that environmental changes are an integral part of progress. With every new step that people take to make another scientific discovery and reinvent the production process, creating a new strategy and, perhaps, even a new industry, nature suffers unless precaution measures are taken. Even though the movie might get the message across a bit boggled, it still explains in a very distinct manner that careless actions harm the environment.
Unless people want to pay the consequences and see several species dying out, including flora and fauna, and the humankind being put in a permanent threat of running out of resources, sustainability must be adopted as the key means of treating the environment.
The given idea is also conveyed in Nixon’s work, though approached from a different angle; according to Nixon, people have to take responsibilities for their actions: “How can leaders be goaded to avert catastrophe when the political rewards of their actions will not accrue to them but will be reaped on someone else’s watch decades, even centuries, from now?” (Nixon, 2006–2007, 14).
Even though the concept of sustainable approach presupposes the involvement of several elements apart from responsibility, the art of accounting for their actions is what people currently need to keep the resources safe from pollution and exhaustion.
We will write a custom Essay on Ecological Sustainable Approach Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Geisel, A. (2012). The Lorax. Retrieved from http://megashare.info/watch-the-lorax-online-TlRBMk1BPT0
Nixon, R. (2006–2007). Slow violence, gender and the environmentalism of the poor. Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies, 13(2)–14(1), 14–37.
“One is not Born a Woman” by Monique Wittig Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
In her article, Monique Wittig (2003) argues the feminine is only one distinct gender, while the masculine has no distinguishing features. Masculinity is described by this writer as something “general” (Wittig, 2003, p. 255). This statement may appear to be provocative, but there are certain examples which can support it. To a great extent, this opinion is based on the ideas of Simone de Beauvoir, especially her book The Second Sex, where she examines the formation of women’s identities (De Beuvoir, 2010).
To elaborate Monique Wittig’s argument, one should focus on such issues as women’s strong awareness of their gender, the requirements that they are supposed to fill, and the myths about alleged supremacy of males. These factors contributed to the distinctiveness of femininity.
These are some of the themes that should be examined in this paper. Overall, feminist writers show that women are often supposed to meet some distinct requirements that are often defined as gender roles. To a great extent, their behavior is artificially constructed. This is why females pay much more attention to the notion of gender because they can see that it imposes significant restrictions on them.
At first, one should mention that women are keenly aware of their gender, and this is one of the aspects that differs them from men. In her book, Simone de Beauvoir says that “a man never begins by presenting himself as an individual of a certain sex” (De Beuvoir, 2010, p. 2).
In other words, their gender identity is not a central question for them. This is one of the main issues that should not be disregarded. Moreover, there are many academic and non-academic books about femininity, but one can say the same thing about masculinity. This is one of the distinctions that can be singled out.
To a great extent, this situation is the result of the discrimination which was based on such a criterion as gender. In contrast, masculinity was often perceived as the only norm. This is one of the main problems that should be considered since it can throw light on the identity of many women.
Furthermore, it is vital to remember that the behavior of a woman is an artificial construct that is formed in the process of socialization. This means that the behavior of females is not biologically determined. For instance, in her article, Jana Cvikova demonstrates that girls are conditioned to take certain roles; for instance, the role of a mother.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Boys are not usually taught to act as fathers (Cvikova, 2003). Moreover, various roles of women are limited mostly to the domain of family; however, such restrictions are not imposed on males who are encouraged to choose various career paths (Cvikova, 2003).
In other words, many women can sense that their life choices are more restricted due to some reasons that are not known to them. This is why one can say that feminine is the only distinct gender. This is one of the main points that can be made. To a great extent, Monique Wittig’s statement can give people in-depth insights into the feminist ideology.
Finally, the distinctive aspects of femininity can also be explained by the myth about the primacy or supremacy of males. In her book, Simone de Beauvoir refers to the ideas of some philosophers such as Aristotle who believed that female nature had been “afflicted with a natural defectiveness” (De Beuvoir, 2010, p. 3).
Similarly, medieval philosophers described women only as “imperfect men” (De Beuvoir, 2010, p. 3). It should be kept in mind that such ideas were expressed by prominent thinkers who had a strong influence on public opinion. As a result, women were marginalized and reduced to subservient status.
On the whole, one can argue that for a long time, females were believed to be secondary to males. Furthermore, this stereotype continues to influence the attitudes and perceptions of many people. This is another reason why women became so aware of their gender.
In contrast, males have never had to struggle with this sense of inferiority. This issue is important for understanding various aspects of femininity. One should take into account that the problems mentioned by Simone de Beauvoir and other feminist writers have not been eliminated nowadays. This is why their ideas continue to be relevant in many modern societies.
These examples show that the distinctiveness of feminine gender is the result or response to the existing social tradition which limited the opportunities available to women and led to the stereotypes according to which females were inferior to males. These are some of the main themes that are explored by contemporary feminist writers.
We will write a custom Essay on “One is not Born a Woman” by Monique Wittig specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, much attention should be paid to the educational practices which legitimize inequality. So, to some degree, Monique Wittig is right in arguing that there is only feminine gender. This statement is critical for understanding the differences in the identity of men and women. Overall, these questions can be of great interest to educators, sociologists, and educators.
Reference List Cvikova, J. (2003). Pink and Blue World. Gender Stereotypes and their Consequences. Retrieved from http://www.ruzovyamodrysvet.sk/chillout5_items/4/1/2/412_92f5e9.pdf
De Beuvoir, S. (2010). The Second Sex. Boston: Random House Publishers India Pvt. Limited.
Wittig, M. (2003). One is not born a woman. In C. McCann (Ed.), Feminist Theory Reader: Local and Global Perspectives (pp. 249-260). New York: Routledge.
Teacher Career: Office Hours’ Role in Quality Education Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Availability of teachers and professors is necessary to give students a consultation opportunity. However, part-time working schedule is denying students this vital aspect. Consequently, students are not able to access assistance for tough questions and problems in a free manner.
This essay will evaluate how adjuncts could increase office hours to serve students. In a bid to make this evaluation, I will lay principles of the problem and propose ways to solve the issues identified.
Benefits An instructor’s office is a center that provides clarifications, accessible consultation, and advisory services to the student. Instructors assess the work done by students and mark assessment papers during office hours. When these services are unavailable, students might not be able to learn without mistakes, confusions, and misinterpretations.
Learning must be directed fully to facilitate clear and concise understanding. Therefore, instructors must have offices to hold student issues diligently. Enough time should be allocated to office work for these reasons
Distance Most adjuncts seek jobs from different institutions separated by long distances. Therefore, they must spare time to travel from one institution to the other. Shifting between institutions reduces the time that could be allocated to office services. Additionally, the instructors not only waste money and time but also become tired to work in the office. This arises from the long journeys traveled to provide part-time services.
It is necessary to employ instructors for fulltime services in an institution. Fulltime employment will enable students to access instructions and consultation freely. In situations where this solution does not apply, institutions should share courses according to the available resources. These resources should include full-time employment of instructors for each subject. For instance, students who need a specialist should be admitted to receive the services fully in one institution.
Inadequate Instructors Most institutions do not have enough instructors to direct students on various courses. Also, some subjects cannot be accommodated by the arising specialists. This implies that institutions may not get enough instructors to satisfy the full-time requirements of all institutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, strategies could be initiated to bring these students in fewer institutions where fulltime services are provided. Otherwise, students could be encouraged to specialize in this marketable area. This would provide long term security for the instructors. In adverse cases, instructors could be hired to provide full-time services from other countries.
Mismanagement Some managers do not inspect the operations of instructors daily. Therefore, reluctant instructors could ignore office work for other purposes distinct from their duties. Other adjunct instructors do not plan their time properly to allocate appropriate office time. Probably, managers who cannot control an institution properly to provide quality services should be fired. Superior leaders should direct managers to inspect office work.
This could be done by assessing their schedules and programs. Suggestion boxes and questionnaires could be used to retrieve information about the instructors from students. Finally, education on time management, warnings, and fines should be implemented to facilitate proper time management.
Conclusion Extension and strict observation of office hours are necessary to provide quality education. They give students the freedom to consult, seek clarity, and receive advice. These allow students to understand and perform well after assessments. Therefore, the strategies described above should be established to provide solutions. Finally, other innovators should identify and expose other ways that could assist in improving office hours of adjunct professors and teachers.
Education Issues: The Shrinking Enrollment Problem Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Many countries around the globe are grappling with numerous challenges as pertains to their education systems. For instance, higher education has been bedeviled by claims of deteriorating quality, financial challenges, and a myriad of other issues affecting both students and staff. One of the contemporary issues affecting universities, especially in the United States, is the problem of shrinking enrollment.
Most American universities have reported a drop in their intake quotas. This scenario cannot be allowed to persist because its consequences may have far-reaching consequences for the United States’ economic wellbeing. Therefore, there is a need to tackle this problem early enough by seeking its root cause and stamping it out to rejuvenate the enrollment trends at universities.
If addressed well, this problem will bring several benefits to the economy of the United States and other countries whose citizens seek professional training in American universities.
Some of the positive developments that can be realized by solving this problem include supplying the labor market with adequate professional manpower to avert any crises that are typical of doing otherwise, providing a job-market relevant workforce when it is needed, and ensuring a smooth transition from one generation of employees to the next. This goal can only be achieved when there is an adequate supply of professionals relevant to all fields of the job market at all times.
The greatest challenge affecting universities today is that of being unable to raise funds capable of financing their programs as desired. In the past, public or government universities have depended heavily on financial support from the central government. All funds ranging from those used for financing research and developmental studies to those that finance co-curriculum activities and infrastructural development largely came from government coffers.
However, in the recent past, the government appears to be overwhelmed by the gigantic financial burden it is carrying. Consequently, it has cut down on some areas of recurrent spending, thus forcing universities to run on lean budgets. As a measure of balancing this scenario, universities should come up with acceptable ways of raising the extra funds necessary for their normal operations. Enrolment of foreign students is a viable option on top of investing in profitable ventures that can yield funds for all programs at different levels.
Besides financial woes facing universities, the global recession has also taken its toll on these institutions. Many companies decided to cut down on employees and as a result, numerous people, whose employment prospectus seemed slim, flocked institutions of higher learning to increase their qualifications.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economies seem to be recovering from the adverse effects of this recession, and thus, institutions are experiencing lower enrolment rates. The best way to handle this situation would be to find golden means, which the institutions would strive to achieve higher enrolment levels no matter the circumstances by applying a variety of techniques that they have at their disposal. This move would deliver reasonable numbers of students in low seasons and balance out the excess in the high seasons.
Tackling the diminishing enrollment rates is the only viable option in the face of the prevailing conditions, as many economies will greatly benefit from the availability of adequate and relevant workforce in the job market. Stakeholders, viz. the government, all other authorities concerned with higher, and the citizens should thus stop watching the situation helplessly and rise to action because the task is not too large to accomplish.
Comparison: “Sunday Morning” by W. Stevens and “To Elsie” by W. C. Williams Essay scholarship essay help
Modernism manifested itself in the late 19th century and early 20th century when human nature underwent a fundamental change. The field of art was not an exception to this change. Artists around this time found themselves striving to depart from the ancient conventions of art. In poetry, this transition compelled poets to make brazen efforts in the quest to isolate their works from the conventional Victorian and Romantic approaches employed by their predecessors.
The transition allowed poets to transcend the rather restrictive conventions that prescribed how far they could delve in their literary endeavors. This essay compares the poetic styles employed by Wallace Stevens on Sunday Morning and William Carlos Williams in To Elsie with a focus on how each represents a different approach to modernist expression.
The literary style as employed in each poem shall be considered separately before conducting a comparison of the findings to give ample room to systematically handle each poem independently in depth and outline its approach to modernist expressions in a non-biased manner.
Williams is an acclaimed poet who produced numerous poems, which attracted both positive and negative criticisms. This aspect implies that he had both proponents as well as adversaries as far as his poetic life is concerned. In To Elsie, Williams addresses three matters of serious concern to him at the time, viz. “a despoiled America, the alienated and self-alienating human condition, and the ravished Eden of imagination” (Thompson 31).
Right from the introduction of the poem to the end, Williams cuts out an image of a reckless person moving dangerously in an undesired direction. People do not have time to take even a single moment of their life to reflect on the importance of their surroundings to find out just how much a change could come from the surroundings.
This description typically embodies the modernist poetry in the sense that it departs from an organized and luscious setting that would be appealing to the audience or forge an atmosphere of peace in the mind of a reader.
In To Elsie, the author successfully creates an air of futility concerning the pursuits of the folks described within it. The mere reason why people resort to these pursuits is in itself futile as evidenced in the statement, “Devil-may-care men who have taken to railroading out of sheer lust of adventure” (Williams 218).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A plethora of motives drive people to take up occupation of some sort. However, to posit that the anticipation of adventure causes one to seek employment somewhere is a demonstration of lack of focus in life, which amounts to futility. Additionally, Williams’ choice of language here is notable. He uses the word ‘lust’ instead of desire or some other palatable word to describe these people’s drive to indulge in an adventure to create an atmosphere of anarchy in the poem.
Besides the clear depiction of chaos and futility in the poem, there is also an indication of almost a total collapse of moral values in society. In the statement, “sheer-rags succumbing without emotion save numbed terror under some chokecherry or viburnum, which they cannot express” Williams (219), the poet gives an image of women who give in to sexual advances from men without having second thoughts about it, and they do so under some hedges or viburnum. This observation is a clear depiction of the moral decay in this society, which is a characteristic of modernist poetry.
The stylistic devices employed by Williams will thus be evaluated in the light of their being able to compound the chaotic and reckless atmosphere already developed in the poem. The diction in the poem is such that the intended effect is to some extent, vulgarities or simply dirty language.
The author’s use of “ribbed north end” is not exactly vulgar, but it causes the reader to visualize a naked or bare-chested human being whose health has deteriorated — the decision to use this choice of words to describe topography points to modern poetry. The use of the word “lust” to refer to love for adventure is to a given extent vulgar, but it gives the intended effect, thus showing the author’s freedom in modernist poetry.
The imagery used seems to be too sexually oriented. The phrase “voluptuous water” is used when describing Elsie, the only character named in the poem. It can easily be taken that even the “young slatterns” were also of this very description, which would mean that this choice of words is the author’s idea of women in the poem.
At the end of the poem, the author talks of a car without one to drive it, and it gives a picture of loss of direction, which is still linked to the chaotic scene that the United States has become to the poet. This effect seems to have been achieved when John Lowney notes, “The poem’s final stanza expresses the despair of modernity in the figure of a driverless car” (Thompson 32).
The poem Sunday Morning on its part employs several styles, which are typical of modernist poetry. Although the language is kind of nostalgic (Bates 42), this aspect does not mean that it fails to depart from the conventions of pre-modern poetry. The author, Wallace Stevens, employs numerous literary techniques to deliver this poem.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison: “Sunday Morning” by W. Stevens and “To Elsie” by W. C. Williams specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Notably, right from the first stanza of the poem, a picture of a woman who has refused to go to church on a Sunday morning is created. Her pursuits at that point are intended to achieve pleasure, which gives both an element of rebellion from the norms and a course of action whose results are likely to be futile.
The futility in the line of thought that the woman decides to pursue further stands out when the poet suggests that to invest the human with the divine would make the earth a paradise (Bates 49). Although the woman is not willing to buy the idea, the fact that she does not go to church still qualifies her as a member of this naturalist religion.
The poem moves further to picture heaven, which has been touted to be a desirable place where the ripe fruits never fall thus making it look boring, which is a departure from what Christianity and Islam teach about religion and is thus typical of modernist poetry.
Stevens’ poem, Sunday morning, is a scathing attack on the Christian faith and its promises. The woman is led to relinquish her Christian faith with the hope of better compensation than what Christianity would offer. The statement “Death is the mother of beauty” (Stevens 82), compounds this assertion, which tends to propagate the idea that every dead thing is beautiful. This notion implies that beauty begins at death such that the ‘littering leaves’ and ‘pungent oranges’ is a manifestation of beauty.
The two poems are typical examples of modernist poetry. Even though they address different issues in life, they are quite similar in their modernist expressions, which are deductible from the scrutiny of the two. The authors apply different techniques over different aspects of life, but in the end, they invoke the same feelings in the audience. A poet’s job is to look for words that give the intended meaning (Placard 39), and the two poets achieved this goal.
In To Elsie, Williams uses different techniques to create an atmosphere of anarchy. The existence of this state is what seems to allow people to pursue their futile desires without stopping to care about the consequences of such pursuits. The women in the poem, save for Elsie, are sluts embroiled in filth all week long under the bushes. The men are not any different as they lack a sense of focus on their lives.
They take up jobs on the railroad, for example, to satisfy their desire for adventure and not to organize their lives, as it should be the case. In Sunday Morning, the same state of anarchy is portrayed although slightly different. Once there is a departure from the control of God, that is, moving away from Christianity or other forms of religion, which direct people to one divine being, there is a shift in the natural order.
It is not possible to deny God and pretend to believe in the order that is brought about by his being. A departure from the belief in God sets about a state of affairs in which there is no measure of immorality or wrong and right. Although these elements do not stand out conspicuously in the two poems, the ideas propagated by the poems, if pursued exclusively, would lead to such a state of affairs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison: “Sunday Morning” by W. Stevens and “To Elsie” by W. C. Williams by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Modernist poetry is also characterized by a state of confusion in which the pursuits of the society in the poem are always futile. However, the society in the description does not realize that its pursuits are futile. In To Elsie, this state of futility is embodied in people’s inability to focus on meaningful pursuits of life and resort to chasing sluts all over the place to the extent of sleeping with them under bushes.
This futility is compounded by the fact that these people claim to be adventure-driven, which only means that the ventures that drive them to take up occupations include women. Sunday Morning on its part does not feature people directly engaged in such acts as mentioned, but their pursuits to are futile.
The futility of their pursuits is substantiated in their deliberate departure from their very source of life, viz. God, and start believing all sorts of ideas such as believing that death could bring about anything meaningful. Such a belief would make one accept to die for the wrong cause by thinking that s/he is doing the right thing, which is futile.
Conclusion The two poets, though varying in their approaches coupled with tackling different issues, depict the main aspects of modernism in full splendor. They also show that it is still possible to borrow slightly from ancient poetry, but maintaining one’s work within the prescriptions of modern poetry. Stevens and Williams, thus demonstrate how stylistic devices can make unrelated pieces of work appear very similar.
Works Cited Bates, Milton. Wallace Stevens: A Mythology of Self, California: University of California Press, 1985. Print.
Placard, William. The Poet’s Dictionary: A Handbook of Prosody and Poetic Devices, New York: Collins Reference Publisher, 1994. Print.
Stevens, Wallace. “Sunday Morning.” The New Poetry: An Anthology. Eds. Harriet Monroe and Hendersen. New York: Macmillan, 1917. 1860–1936. Print.
Thompson, Christian. “A Science of subjectivity.” American Poetry Review 38.6 (2009): 31-32. Print.
Williams, Carlos. “To Elsie.” The Collected Poems of William Carlos Williams, Vol. 1: 1909-1939. Eds. Christopher MacGowan and Walton Liz. New York: New Directions, 1986. 217-220. Print.
Ethical Concerns and Technological Progress Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000
Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978
Introduction Technological advances have contributed to several ethical concerns. These ethical concerns threatened to destroy the trust and responsibility among humanity. The consequences of these ethical concerns necessitated the establishment of several acts that would offer appropriate control and limitation in use and misuse of technology.
Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the advances in information technology that resulted in the establishment of new acts to control ethical concerns. The acts explored in this paper include the Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000 and the Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978.
Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000 The use of the internet as a communication tool has developed tremendously in the last decade. Reflectively, it has grown to encompass the aspect of information exchange and the creation of cultures by special interest groups. Same as face-to-face communication, internet media can reverse a group’s view of life either positively or negatively.
If the content directed to an audience is demystifying, the final effect over some time is the same. Before the introduction of the Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000, very little regulation existed on protecting the minor against exposure to explicit sexual or violent material via the internet. Pornography is an erotic representation material that is solely designed for instigating sexual arousal (Federal Communications Commission, 2010).
In the legal language, obscenity is an offensive act that interferes with morals and is unlimited, that may target the minors. On the other hand, adult pornography is has limited access to adults and may be in the form of magazines, erotic books, recordings, and films that have parental advisory messages indicating the age of viewers. Therefore, it was necessary to establish an act that would define the boundary of internet material users.
Through banning internet obscenity and pornography directed to minors, the Supreme Court endeavored to protect the moral of the society from decay as a result of unlimited explicit contents that may directly corrupt the minds of juveniles and other young irresponsible persons who may be easily swayed by what they see.
Thus, by banning, obscenity, the Supreme Court was reaffirming the rights of the society to protect its moral views and norms that would not arguer well its set limits of behavior since obscenity consists of materials that appeal to prurient interest and are utterly lacking redeeming the social value. Besides, these materials or acts are patently offensive since they affront community contemporary standards and valueless to the moral cycles of the societal building blocks (Federal Communications Commission, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of decency was meant to protect minors from X rated content that would create fantasy, false judgment, and lead to a certain behavior that is not acceptable in society. Thus, the Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000 was informed by the rising abuse of internet use freedom by decadent bodies that were disseminating explicit content through the internet to young people below the legal adult age bracket.
As a result, the Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000 introduced criminal sanctions to a party or parties who knowingly “(A) uses an interactive computer service to send to a specific person or persons under 18 years of age, or (B) uses any interactive computer service to display in a manner available to a person under 18 years of age, any comment, request, suggestion, proposal, image, or other communication that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs” (Federal Communications Commission, 2010, p. 02).
Thus, the Children’s Internet Protection Act of 2000 was initiated to counter the rising cases of internet sources abuse directed to the minors. This act targeted restoration of morality and decency in the society and protection of the minors from inappropriate internet materials that are easily accessible just by a click of the button.
Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978 In contemporary society, internet transaction has grown rapidly into the most preferred means of transaction. Since internet transaction surpasses the boundaries of the judiciary, several critical issues arise. The first major challenge is formulating a balanced legal obligation that involves more than one law.
For instance, managing the geographical location of the agreement may prove challenging, especially when the same involves countries with different laws on the same. Besides, establishing universal acceptance formalities and verifiable content such as acceptance evidence and signatures are difficult to keep for future reference. Also, there are no clear laws regulating contract agreements for international internet transactions. Moreover, litigation and arbitration venue may not be defined (Lloyd, 2009).
Specifically, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978 was initiated following the technological development of electronic means of transferring funds. Among the methods that became possible through technological advancement include transfer through ATM, debit cards, among other automated bank withdrawals. Several instances of fraud were reported across the globe as many dishonest agencies and parties involved themselves in fraudulent activities in the course of transferring funds.
To minimize the unethical behavior, the act was introduced in 1978 as a means and a remedy of correcting and regulating errors in transactions done via electronic ways. Besides, the act was intended to provide a uniform platform for liability allocation and limiting losses as a result of loopholes in these forms of funds transfer such as stealing of cards, inconsistent recording, and general fraud (Lloyd, 2009).
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Concerns and Technological Progress specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since the introduction of computers had reduced paper checks, which acted as the tangible evidence and legal tender for fund transfer, there was an urgent need for regulation. The electronic fund’s transfer explosion necessitated the need for a universality accepted standards that would accord customers with the same degree of confidence as was the case with the paper checks. The act generally provided a sixty days window for correction of any errors or canceled transfers without any serious losses.
The introduction of the Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978 provided an ideal ground for an accepted code of identification and comparative methods of acceptance, reception, and authorization of electronic devices used in the transfer of funds.
Through the disclosure requirement, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978 has made it very easy to follow up on the source of fund, the recipient and even the intermediary bank to ensure that the regulations on transfer of funds via electronic means are not abused. Also, the act provides for a mandatory 2-year window for safe storage of all documentation to ensure compliance to e-transfers (Lloyd, 2009).
Generally, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978 was introduced to minimize abuse of technology that made it possible for electronic funds transfer. The act regulates the actions of the senders, recipients, and intermediaries in the transaction cycle.
References Federal Communications Commission, (2010). Children’s Internet Protection Act. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://www.fcc.gov/guides/childrens-internet-protection-act
Lloyd, C. (2009). Electronic Funds Transfer Act. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://www.bankersonline.com/tools/efta.ppt.
Solution to Parking Space Problem on Campus Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Benefits of Proposed Solutions
Objections and Counter-Objections
Introduction For many students, finding parking space on campus is an expensive nightmare. Students spend a significant amount of time trying to get a parking spot for their cars. If they are lucky to get one, they have to pay a high parking fee. This situation negates the convenience that a car is supposed to offer the student.
Students have cars so that they can travel efficiently and attend their classes on time. The difficulty in finding parking space leads to time wastage and makes the car an inconvenience. The campus administration should increase the parking options for students, reduce the current parking fees, and present alternative means of transportation to tackle the inefficiency of the current parking system.
Benefits of Proposed Solutions By increasing the parking alternatives available to students, the campus administration will help ease the parking space shortage currently being faced. Such a step will ensure that students do not have to compete for only a few numbers of parking spaces. Another solution would be for reducing the current parking fee.
This will greatly alleviate the financial burden that students currently face. The students will be able to use the extra money for car maintenance and to cover additional educational needs. The current high rate of parking makes it hard for students to save their money for other needs.
The last solution would be for the campus to provide alternative means of transportation for students within the campus will reduce the need for private cars on campus. Such a move will ensure that the demand for parking space is reduced. With few cars on campus, it will be easy for a student to find parking space.
Objections and Counter-Objections Some people might argue that providing additional parking space will cost the campus a significant amount of money. This is true since building a parking lot with high capacity will require significant financing from the campus. While creating additional parking space will be costly for the campus, the money will be recovered once the parking area is in operation, and students pay for the services.
Opponents of reducing the parking fee might argue that such a move will reduce the revenue that the school enjoys from parking fees. This observation is right since the campus makes money from the high parking charges imposed on students. However, the loss incurred from reducing parking fees is justifiable since the students will demonstrate better educational outcomes if their financial obligations are reduced.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An argument against the implementation of alternative transportation is that this solution will require the administration to invest a lot of money in alternative transportation means. While this is true, the campus will benefit from the additional income that will come as the students pay for the use of the alternative means of transportation. The campus will also benefit from reduced traffic in the campus vicinity.
Conclusion The campus administration needs to provide alternative parking space and reduce parking costs to address the current problem. This paper has shown that by engaging in these actions, the administration will increase student efficiency and reduce the financial burden for students. Students will, therefore, be able to dedicate their time to the major objective of attaining a good education in the institution.
Language Difficulties Among Foreign Students Essay a level english language essay help
Learning a foreign language is very important, particularly the popular language. Most of these popular languages are used as the principal means of communication across the globe. There are numerous ways of learning a foreign language, and the best way is studying in a country where there are native speakers.
However, this has never been an easy task for foreign students. These students experience countless language difficulties in their classes, particularly during their first year of study. This essay will highlight several language difficulties facing foreign students in their classes and their solutions.
Language difficulties One of the most common language difficulties facing this category of students is grasping new vocabularies and foreign accent. This is a major obstacle during the learning process. The best solution to this problem is to allow out of class language practice; for instance, foreign students can speak with the native speakers inside and outside the school.
Out of class practice is very important because students spent most of their time outside the classroom. Also, learning new vocabularies will help the foreign student to understand their teachers and fellow students who are native speakers. Another solution would be paring foreign students with native students during classroom sessions. This will ensure that foreign students are accorded maximum assistance.
Another difficulty may be in the assessment systems used in the host country, which may differ from the home country’s system. This normally hurts the student’s study habits and their mindset towards knowledge and education. This can be solved by providing clear directives and explanations to the foreign students on what is expected of them about study and assessments. Also, the school should provide language inductions and workshops for foreign students to familiarize them with the new system.
Besides vocabulary and accent difficulties, writing and listening skills also challenge facing most foreign students. Difficulties in the two skills often lead to misspelling and content misunderstanding. One of the solutions to the two problems is providing handouts or notes before lessons.
This will assist foreign students in understanding the content of the lessons and also enhance their concentration. Also, the classroom front seats should be reserved for foreign students to minimize listening difficulties. Teachers should also write key words and concepts on the board and highlight significant points. Last but not least, teachers should pause occasionally and ask students if they need any clarification.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reading proficiency and speed of the foreign students have often been below those of the native speakers. Lack of reading proficiency and speed may also affect other aspects of learning, for instance, note-taking, making summaries, and strategic reading. One of the solutions to this problem is providing reading materials earlier, with more focus on foreign students. The students should also be encouraged to form reading and discussion groups.
Writing proficiency is also a problem facing most foreign students. Many of them do not have the writing skills required for certain courses or programs. These skills may be in the form of sentence structures, writing styles, referencing, and level of plagiarism. The best solution to this problem is to provide foreign students with writing guidelines and assistance whenever needed.
Conclusion Foreign students normally face numerous language difficulties. These difficulties include normal communication, adjusting to a new culture, listening and understanding, reading skills, and writing skills. All these difficulties should be given special consideration.
The Book “Wild” by Cheryl Strayed Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Emphasis on Transformation
Introduction Self-transformation and self-reflection are critical parts of heroic journeys in literature. Often, heroes fail to succeed, but their experiences provide philosophical insights into the essence of personal reflection journeys. In this paper, I explore “Wild,” a hiking memoir of Cheryl Strayed, as she embarks on a 1,100-mile journey through the Pacific Crest trail “to save herself.”
This paper explores the underlying thoughts behind personal journeys because it undermines the idea that Cheryl Strayed pursues the attainment of goals in her narration, Wild. Instead, this paper shows that Cheryl Strayed focuses on the process that leads to the goal of her journey, even when she cannot attain the goal.
Essentially, this paper demonstrates that quest literature (“Wild”) mainly focuses on transformation, as opposed to evaluating how the hero meets or fails to meet her goal. Therefore, this paper suggests that the end of the road is not important in quest literature; instead, people should focus on how the subject transforms throughout the journey.
Personal Journey Cheryl’s adventure throughout her journey is gripping, not because of its adventurous nature, but because of Cheryl’s ability to relate its details with her journey. Through this journey, Cheryl strives to understand herself and the predicaments in her life.
Faced with the emotional torment of her mother’s death, her stepfather’s demise, her heroin addiction, and her failed marriage, it is difficult to ignore the emotional journey that Cheryl experiences. This journey could easily contrast with her physical experiences with rattlesnakes, black bears, and adverse weather conditions that symbolize the emotional turmoil that she experiences in her emotional journey.
Emphasis on Transformation Cheryl’s focus on the beauty and loneliness of her journey, through the desert and the mountains, overshadow her quest to reach her destination because the main message in her narration focuses on her experiences, as opposed to how she will reach her destination, or not.
Certainly, Cheryl aims to tell her experiences throughout the journey, as opposed to how she will reach her destination. Indeed, she focuses on describing how she suffered countless bruises, how she repeatedly affirmed to herself that she was fearless, how she overcame the harsh physical conditions of her journey, and how she would accept her grief. For example, she says that whenever she heard a branch break outside her tent, she had to shout that she was fearless.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cheryl’s relationship with her mother (before her mother’s death) also symbolically shows the emphasis on transformation, as opposed to the end of the journey (her mother’s death). Cheryl does not hesitate to explain how her mother affirmed to her children that she would always be with them (she made most of these affirmations, as she grew sicker).
Cheryl’s thoughts regarding those moments made her stronger in her journey because she understood that her mother was always with her. In fact, throughout her lonely journey, Cheryl’s mother stood out as her only “companion.” Cheryl carefully narrates how her mother’s love proved to be a key mental pillar in her journey because, in her words, it was not the loss of her mother, but rather, the love she had for her mother that was the most important factor in her journey.
Also, concerning her experiences with her family and the disappearance of her stepfather, Cheryl says it was not the rebellion or the abandonment, she had suffered that mattered; instead, the loss of love bothered her.
Her narration clearly shows that the goal (demise of her stepfather and the death of her mother) did not matter in her self-transformative journey because the emotional journey and the loss of attachment she shared with her parents were more saddening for her. Somewhat, Cheryl tries to show that the end is not an important goal in her journey. Instead, the love (or the lack of it) was more important in her transformative journey.
Personal Healing Cheryl’s transformative journey also symbolizes that the end of the road is not important because it does not provide the healing that she desperately needed. Her admission that she lacked all the answers to her problems and questions is also an open acknowledgment that the end is not defined, or important, in her journey. Instead, she focuses on what makes her survive and how it is possible to “find” her inner strength when she has lost the will to live.
Through this analysis, Cheryl bears more emphasis on how she can cope with grief and how she will repair the “hole” in her heart. Here, it is crucial to mention that Cheryl considers these goals as the most important issues in her journey. Strategically, she fails to wonder if she is going to make it to her destination, or if she will live to see another day.
Spiritual Journey Lastly, in my view, Cheryl’s journey resembles many spiritual journeys that often involve people unplugging themselves from their ordinary lives to live in foreign lands or isolate themselves from modernity. Similar comparisons of personal journeys include the journey made in Elizabeth Gilbert’s film, “eat, pray, love.” Through this comparison, it is plausible to say that Cheryl’s memoir is a spiritual journey that does not aim to communicate with God, but the universe.
We will write a custom Essay on The Book “Wild” by Cheryl Strayed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The mere fact that her journey is spiritual shows that the emphasis of her narration is on healing herself, as opposed to reaching a destination (as is common in physical journeys). Therefore, spiritual journeys differ from physical journeys because spiritual journeys do not emphasize on the destination (end of the road). Cheryl’s experience is, therefore, a powerful transformative journey that teaches us the value of “finding ourselves” so that we can continue the journey of life.
Conclusion Self-transformation is at the center of this analysis. This paper shows that Cheryl’s focus throughout her whole journey centers on how she lives and accepts her circumstance, as opposed to if she will make it through the desert, or reach her destination altogether. Therefore, throughout this analysis, this paper shows that the ultimate focus of quest literature is in the journey and not at the end of the road.
Indeed, through this lens of analysis, we can see how Cheryl, a young woman, transforms herself through solitude and physical difficulties to become a force to reckon with in the world of literature (even as she fails to provide all the answers needed in her journey). Even when she reaches her poetic destination, “Bridge of the Gods,” Cheryl still reminds us that her most important concern is not her arrival at this destination, but her trust that whatever she had done throughout her journey is true (emphasis on the process).
Zeiss Vision Care Business Group Analysis Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Carl Zeiss AG is a company manufacturing optics, lenses and medical devices. The company was founded in Germany in 1846. Carl Zeiss is the oldest optics manufacturing company still existing in the world. The range of products manufactured by Carl Zeiss Company is wide, they produce optics for many different spheres such as astronomy, medicine, photography, science.
Carl Zeiss is leading in the sphere of medical technologies. It has contributed a lot into the sphere of diagnostics and treatment of ophthalmic diseases and disorders. The company’s innovative solutions have been the moving force for the progress in the optic medicine. Right now Carl Zeiss is a promising and future oriented company participating in the progress of the sphere of intraoperative radiotherapy (One of the World’s Leading Medical Technology Companies, n.d).
The old and new logos of Zeiss Company.
The company’s mission is improving patients’ quality of life. In the middle of the nineteenth century Carl Friedrich Zeiss opened his first workshop specialized at making microscopes. Carl Zeiss was studying optics and technologies deeply and travelling a lot. He invested plenty of time and money into his business improvement and during the first year of operation he sold twenty three microscopes.
The business of this talented man was developing well and in a year he moved to a bigger facility and took his first apprentice (Carl Zeiss – A History of a Most Respected Name in Optics, 2013). He manufactured scientific equipment and devices for universities and scientific facilities. His products were named ones of the most advanced tools created in Germany. In 1866 Carl Zeiss started to work with his future partner Ernst Abbe. Together these two outstanding professionals made a great impact on the world of science and medicine.
Nowadays the company is socially oriented with fair payments; also Zeiss Medical Technology declares that protection of the environment goes without saying for them and is a part of their corporate policy. The company fulfills all the basic requirements for quality management and marketing. Zeiss nowadays is not only a company with an amazing history, but also a company with an admirable reputation and outstanding achievements.
The company structure includes semiconductor manufacturing technology, industrial metrology, microscopy, medical technology and vision care. Besides, the company is manufacturing camera lenses and sports optics. The company’s staff counts more than twenty four thousand people all over the world, the revenue is more than four billion Euros, ten per cent of which goes to the research and development needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has more than seventy market stock points worldwide, four global distribution centers, three regional distribution centers. The company receives more than two hundred thousand orders a day and sells over a billion lenses every year in more than fifty countries.
Dr. Hermann Gerlinger, born in Bad Mergentheim, Germany in 1953, has a doctorate degree of Physics and Astronomy. Member of Zeiss AG Board since 2006.
Dr. Ludwin Monz, born in Trier, Germany in 1963, has a doctorate degree in Physics and Astronomy. Joined Zeiss in 1994 as a research scientist. A board member since 2014.
Thomas Spitzenpfeil, born in 1962 in Bad Sauglau, Germany, has a degree in industrial and medical engineering. Member of executive board of Carl Zeiss AG since 2010.
Reference List Carl Zeiss – A History of a Most Respected Name in Optics. (2013). Company Seven. Retrieved from http://www.company7.com/zeiss/history.html
Dr. Hermann Gerlinger. [Image]. (n. d.). Retrieved from Retrieved from http://www.zeiss.com/corporate/en_de/about-zeiss/management/executive-board-and-supervisory-board/short-biography-of-dr–hermann-gerlinger.html
Dr. Ludwin Monz. [Image]. (n. d.). Retrieved from Retrieved from http://www.zeiss.com/corporate/en_de/about-zeiss/management/executive-board-and-supervisory-board/biography_dr-ludwin-monz.html
We will write a custom Research Paper on Zeiss Vision Care Business Group Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the World’s Leading Medical Technology Companies. (n.d). Zeiss. Retrieved From http://www.zeiss.com/meditec/en_de/about-us/facts-figures.html
Thomas Spitzenpfeil. [Image]. (n. d.). Retrieved from Retrieved from http://corporate.zeiss.com/about/en_gb/management/boards-and-committees/biography-thomas-spitzenpfeil.html
The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God Essay college essay help near me
The Ontological Argument The ontological argument is an a priori argument that attempts to prove God’s existence based purely on reason. The argument sees no reason for attempts to prove the existence of God using empirical approaches. Instead, it seeks to prove God’s existence using essence. According to the ontological argument, the existence of God is a necessary property of God in the same way that a triangle comprises three sides. Anselm, for instance, believes that the claim of God’s non-existence is in itself self-contradictory as it implies that God is imperfect. Other philosophers who adopt the same line of argument as Anselm include Spinoza, Leibniz, Godel, Descartes, and Hegel.
The ontological argument adopts a modal technique to reasoning using the concepts of necessity, possibility and actuality. The argument assumes that supreme perfection necessitates existence. It starts by defining God as a supremely perfect being who is omnipotent, omnipresent and benevolent. In the view of ontological theorists, God must exist since existence is perfection and God is perfect.
Kant’s objection to the ontological argument stems from his view of the concept that a being that is conceived in the human mind, and which exists in the real world, is superior to an idea of a being that is merely conceived in the mind. Kant questions the ontological perception of existence as a predicate that necessarily applies to the concept of God in the same way that the three angles of a triangle necessarily belong to the triangle. In contrast, Kant argues that, though existence applies as a predicate in the grammatical sense, it differs from other predicates. Kant views existence as a property, unlike all ordinary properties, and argues that existence is merely the conjecture of a thing.
What Kant’s argument means is that when one asserts that God exists, he is not alluding that there is a God, or that he holds the property of existence. On the contrary, to say that a thing exists is to allude to the notion of that thing being typified in the universe. If Kant’s take on the ontological argument that existence is not a property that can be inherently possessed is correct, then we cannot compare an existent God with a non-existent God.
I believe that Kant’s position regarding the ontological argument (that a God that exists is essentially similar to a God that does not exist) is considerably defensible. An existent God is similar to a non-existent God, since they are both omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient. This implies that the ontological claim that ‘an existent God is greater than a God who does not exist’ is essentially wrong. More than anything, the ontological argument succeeds in providing the definition of God as a supremely perfect being.
Because existence is a logical predicate rather than a grammatical one, it cannot belong to the concept of God as postulated by the ontological theorists. On the contrary, existence is a predicate that merely fulfills the definition of the concept of God. What this means is that existence is not a property like the green property of a leaf that belongs to the leaf. Even if existence is to be perceived as a property, it is not the property that impacts the essence of the thing which possesses the existence. Therefore, I do not believe that the ontological argument succeeds in proving the existence of God.
The Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God The cosmological argument for the existence of God is founded on a posteriori reasoning drawn from empirical experience of the universe. Thomas Aquinas formalizes the argument in his ‘Summa Theologica.’ Aquinas outlines five arguments in an attempt to prove the existence of God. Three arguments of Aquinas can be described as cosmological.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first form of the cosmological argument for the existence of God is referred to as the first cause argument. This argument asserts that all things are caused by something else. If we go back through the causal sequence, we are likely to arrive at a first cause from which all else is caused. The cosmological philosophers argue that the supreme cause is God. It is important to note that the cosmological proof of God’s existence dismisses the idea of infinity or an infinite regression.
The second form of the ontological argument stems from the concept of contingency. This argument asserts that things can either exist or fail to exist. This argument implies that there is a possibility of a time when nothing existed, and some external being must have created what exists. Cosmological theorists call this external being God.
The third ontological argument considers the possibility of a prime mover or an unmoved mover. Aquinas states that everything in the world is in a constant state of motion. Since a thing cannot ‘actually be’ and ‘potentially be’ at the same time, everything that is in a state of motion must have been put in motion by a mover. Going by the trend of denying infinite regression, there must be a first mover who sets all movements in motion.
The fact that the cosmological argument applies an a posteriori system of reasoning works against as well as to the soundness of the position. Being a posteriori, the cosmological argument is easily testable using empirical data. For instance, we can test the argument by observing changes and processes in phenomena and seeking an explanation for the nature of events. The argument seems convincing since it answers the insatiable human desire to seek an explanation for natural events.
However, the knowledge acquired a posteriori cannot be absolutely trusted. Human desire to explain existence is not a reason enough to embrace the cosmological argument, since the empirical universe is filled with probabilities. What we know about the universe is obtained from the things we perceive today, rather than what existed at the time of creation. We cannot ascertain the sequence of events that took place at the time of creation to relate them with what we experience today.
Science also has the potential of working for or against the cosmological proof of God’s existence. Though science has failed to explain the happenings before the Big Bang, modern scientists have proved that there are some items, such as a particle generated by a vacuum, which can exist without being caused. This implies that God is not the only uncaused thing.
The problem raised by the ontological argument is that, even if there is a prime cause that caused the Big Bang, there is no absolute way of confirming that the cause of the Big bang is the theist God. To assume that the first cause is the theistic God requires one to take a leap of faith without logical or factual support systems.
We will write a custom Essay on The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Allegory of the Cave In the allegory of the cave, Plato paints a picture of prisoners held in a dark cave. The prisoners are chained around their feet and necks in a way that inhibits their movement. Plato describes a world outside the caves and a wall separating the cave and the outside world. There are shadows of people moving outside the cave which are cast on the cave walls. Since the prisoners are chained, they are unable to raise their heads to see the real people moving outside the cave and only have access to the shadows. Consequently, they believe that the shadows are real. When one of the prisoners escapes, he is not able to see anything since he is blinded by the brightness of the sun. As he stays in the outer world, the prisoner comes to realize that the outside world is the real world and that the things to which he has been accustomed are mere illusions.
The prisoner believes that it is better to live as a slave in the real world than to live like a king in the cave. When the escapee returns to the cave, the other prisoners ridicule him for leaving the world of the cave since they cannot understand a reality they are yet to experience. The prisoners warn the escapee of possible death in case he tries to release them.
The cave in the allegory signifies people who are so accustomed to what they know from empirical faculties that they do not conceive any other way of life. The shadows in the allegory signify knowledge obtained from sense perception. In his portrayal of the game played in the cave, Plato implies that those perceived as masters actually have limited knowledge of reality. The breakout prisoner in Plato’s allegory represents a philosopher who has moved away from reliance on sense perception and who seeks knowledge that is outside the realm of the senses. While the sun represents truth obtained through philosophical inquiry, the intellectual journey of the escaped prisoner represents the path followed by philosophers in their pursuit of wisdom and truth. The reactions of the other prisoners depict how most people are afraid of seeking philosophical truth and prefer to stay in their ‘safe’ worlds.
To explain true knowledge, Plato presents his model of the Forms. Plato’s forms are fixed objects described as the most real objects conceivable. The world as we perceive it is just a shadow of the real Forms, which can only be grasped through rationality. For instance, the property shared by all triangles is the Form of triangularity, which is the essence of what is called a triangle. For instance, for two or more things to belong to kind X, they must share in the Form of X-ness.
Plato, being an idealist, believes that true knowledge can only be acquired through rational faculties, rather than through sense perception. Unlike physical objects, the Forms presented by Plato are unchanging and are universally knowable.
The sun in Plato’s allegory represents a philosopher’s understanding of the Forms, particularly the Form of good. A philosopher needs to appreciate the Form of good so that he can identify and comprehend the goodness available in other Forms. I agree with Plato that the knowledge we use to understand the world is inborn and cannot be acquired by sense perception. Ideas such as roundness exist in the human brain.
Hume and Kant on Synthetic a Priori Judgments Before we can understand the concept of synthetic a priori judgment, we must define what is meant by analytic propositions and synthetic propositions. In Kant’s view, the terms ‘analytic’ and ‘synthetic’ are merely different types of judgments, which are assertions or propositions. Analytic propositions do not give us any new information about reality, but merely state that a property is encompassed by an object as part of its meaning. An example of an analytic statement is ‘husbands are male.’ The concept ‘husband’ contains the concept ‘male’ as part of its definition.
Synthetic propositions, on the other hand, are statements whose predicating concept is not part of the definition of the subject concept. For instance, the proposition that ‘all matter is heavy’ is synthetic in the sense that having weight does not form part of the definition of matter. Synthetic a priori judgments are statements that are verifiable independent of empirical experience, and which are not logically encompassed as part of the definition of the subject.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hume builds his philosophy around an empiricist assumption that all propositions can be known through sense experience. In Hume’s view, causality is not founded on a priori judgments. On the contrary, Hume believes that the concept of causality is completely unfounded. He asserts that there is no foundation in experience to imply that a specific event must necessarily follow another event. He concludes that the causality cannot, therefore, be justified rationally.
What Hume implies is that there is no contradiction in rejecting the alleged necessity of causality. However, the refutation of a proposition is what demonstrates it to be necessary, especially when the refutation occasions a visible inconsistency. Since there is no inconsistency in refuting the assumed necessity of causality, such refutation is not tantamount to inconsistency. Since there is no inconsistency in refuting the necessity of causality, the causality cannot be said to be a priori.
In Hume’s postulation, the human mind develops a pattern when it is used to seeing an event follow another. The mind, therefore, assumes a causal relationship between the two events. Causal relationships, in Hume’s view, are just assumptions created by the human mind and are not certifiable by experimentation. Necessity of causal relations, therefore, lacks reasonable backing and must be psychologically defended.
I believe that Hume’s dismissal of the hitherto popular laws of causality and induction is what inspires Kant to try to save natural science from the implications of Hume’s philosophy. The reason Kant refutes Hume’s view on causation and induction is because Hume rejects the certainty upon which natural science is built. Kant, therefore, tries to address the problem raised by metaphysics by designing a framework of transcendental idealism that can enable people to avoid skepticism.
Kant admits that causation seems impossible, but suggests a different approach in understanding causality. Instead of looking at causality as a metaphysical process involving the organization of natural events, Kant suggests that causality should be viewed as a universally and necessarily occurring property, impressed by the human mind upon reality. This view of causality as a requirement for the intelligibility of occurrence seems more plausible than Hume’s dismissal of causality in its totality. Synthetic a priori propositions are, therefore, depicted as rationally validated since they serve as preconditions for comprehensibility.
I believe that Kant is right in his postulation that certain rational categories ought to typify objects of sense perception so that the wholeness of a person’s experience can be consistent. These innate a priori intuitions (for instance, spatial-temporal intuitions) are assumed in any act of acquiring knowledge, and are validated as sources of all conceivable experience. To reject the innate intuition of causality causes sense perception to be incomprehensible.
Hume, Locke and Berkeley on Empiricism Hume, Locke and Berkeley are all British empiricist philosophers who believe in weeding out any concept that portray inconsistency with empiricism and believe that knowledge must be drawn from experience. This results in skepticism about most of the things that we generally assume to know. Locke, Berkeley and Hume all adopt a technique of constructing a corpus of knowledge using modest building blocks.
Locke’s philosophy seeks original and certain knowledge as well as the levels of belief. He attacks the principle of innate ideas, which asserts that human infants are born with some amount of knowledge that is not obtained from sense perception. Locke argues that the human infant is born with an empty mind, which is gradually filled with knowledge acquired through experience.
Locke also believes that the human mind resembles a mirror that only reflects objects presented to it. In his view, knowledge can be classified as sensitive, intuitive and demonstrative. Human beings often possess instinctual knowledge concerning their personal existence, sensitive knowledge about the presence of specific finite objects and demonstrative knowledge about the existence of divinity. Locke attempts to reason that human beings have knowledge of sensible things from simple ideas. However, Locke fails to support how we acquire this form of knowledge.
Locke also distinguishes between primary qualities and secondary qualities of objects. While primary qualities such as shape and motion exist in the world, secondary qualities depend on the person perceiving the object. Secondary qualities of objects include taste, smell and color as perceived by an individual.
From his arguments, Locke is depicted as an empiricist in the limited sense who believes that all materials upon which knowledge is attained are acquired through sense perception. His limitation as an empiricist stems from his acceptance of the possibility of rational, a priori knowledge of objects outside the realm of the senses.
Berkeley discards Locke’s categorization of objects according to primary and secondary qualities, and asserts that all experiences fall under the secondary category. He believes that the distinction between the qualities of objects generates unwarranted skepticism. Berkeley’s epistemological postulation only recognizes the existence of minds, in which God inputs ideas. He dismisses the concept of independently existing objects. However, Berkeley concedes that we have some amount of knowledge that we acquire through sense perception such as knowledge concerning God’s existence.
Berkeley believes that God is the greatest mind who controls the world of ideas. He distinguishes between the universe of God and human universe. Human beings cannot acquire knowledge about God’s universe except through fantasy.
David Hume improves on the premises proposed by Berkeley. In my view, Hume is the most consistent of all the three empiricists. Though he adopts the empirical approach to epistemology as developed by Locke, he refuses the idea of any knowledge obtained outside sensory experience. Hume asserts that though the human epistemological realm is limited to sensory experience, the possibility of any other realm (including God) is unknowable.
Hume also dismisses the concept of common sense since it is based on indefensible beliefs formed by the mind. He dismisses anything that cannot be empirically verified, including the idea of causation and the concept of induction. In terms of consistency and adherence to the empirical principle, Hume is the most commendable of the three British empiricists.
Technology Issues: Cell Phone Effects Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Response to My Objections
Introduction Technological advancements have brought many changes in the modern world. According to Ling (56), technology has greatly changed the way various activities are undertaken. One aspect that has undergone significant changes is the mode of information transfer. Initially, people wrote letters in case of a need to pass information to another person, or use messengers to deliver such information later. This area has continued to advance, and currently there are very many ways of passing information from one person or place to another.
The most common means of communication in the modern society are Facebook, Twitter, cell phones and many others. Through these modes, people are able to share ideas and information from different corners of the world. Among all these means of communication, the most reliable and convenient one is a cell phone. Through cell phones, people are able to pass and receive information at any time, and in any part of the world.
Cell phones have many benefits to the users. These users include business people, government officials, and all individuals who use the cell phones for one reason or another. Several arguments have been raised concerning the dangers of cell phones to social health. Some of these arguments may be true or false depending on the validity of the studies undertaken.
It is, however, important to have the correct information on the relationship between the use of cell phones and personal health. My claim is that cell phones have no impact on people’s health because it is supported by a number of researches, in particular on the psychological influence of cell phones on pregnant women and the role of cell phones to play in the development of cancer cells.
Criteria-Match Arguments The issue of cell phones and health has raised a lot of concern from many scholars. As a result, many researchers have come up with several arguments on the health issues related to cell phone use. In this section, some of the arguments of the researchers will be analyzed.
The argument of Glotz (65) claims that cell phone radiation causes deadly diseases like brain tumor, breast cancer, traffic accidents, and some behavioral change in pregnant women. This case claims that there is a link between the use of cell phones and human health. However, it does not meet the criterion of a standard scientific research because their hypotheses were not empirically tested.
The second case is about the findings by Richard S Ling. The research was done in Cambridge University, and it showed that the cell phones have a serious negative effect on the reproductive system of men, and caution should be taken when using it. This scholar argues that cell phones have been found to reduce the number and quality of sperms in males. Thus, the use of cell phones can be claimed as the main cause of low fertility rates among men today.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ling (84) also points out that apart from causing cancers; cell phones have been identified as the main cause of traffic accidents among the users. This researcher further explains that in most of the developed countries like the United States, cell phones led to poor performance in schools.
This is so because young learners in such countries are allowed to use cell phones in schools, which makes them spend a lot of their time on mobile phones rather than spending the time with their books resulting in the low performance. Although I do not agree with his first argument on the effect of mobile phones on men’s fertility, I think the argument about accidents has some truth in it. I believe that this case meets the criteria on what a valid social research should entail.
The third case was based on the arguments made by Horst and Miller (23) that there is a close relationship between the use of mobile phones and breast cancer, especially among lactating women. These scholars developed a hypothesis that closely relates to increase in the number of breast cancer cases to the increasing use of phones, in particular chances of getting breast cancer in women. This case does not meet the criterion because the argument was not based on a scientific research, but a general believe that has not been tested empirically.
Response to My Objections In the three cases presented above, I make a concession in one, but refute the other two. I believe that some of the arguments that associate the use of mobile phone to various health problems are not genuine. I disagree with the arguments of Ling that relates the use of mobile phones to low productivity in men.
This argument is not good because it fails to meet the standards of a scientific research. An independent research by Hales (65) explains that the number of cancer cases has not changed, but it has remained the same as it was before cell phones invention. This research report is good because it meets the requirement of a phenomenological study that embraces close comparison of incidents when deriving a conclusion. This is a clear indication that there is no relationship between cell phone use and cancer as many researchers are claiming.
The opinion that the cell phones have a carcinogenic effect may be true, but there is no valid study to support this argument. Burgess (51) argues that the microwave radiation emitted by cell phones is too weak to affect the DNA structure. This research is good because it is a scientific investigation that meets the criteria for an empirical study. It supports my argument that cell phones have no carcinogenic effects.
This also explains why cell phones cannot be said to have an effect on the quantity and quality of sperms in males as many researchers prove. If there are any such related effects of cell phones, than those results are long term, and are yet to be reported but as per the current state, such effects do not hold any ground.
We will write a custom Essay on Technology Issues: Cell Phone Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The only impact of cell phones that I may support is that, its use has some relationship with road accidents. It is true that when using a cell phone, driver’s attention may be directed to the phone, and this may result into an accident. This also applies to the pedestrians who use cell phones while crossing or walking along the road.
Conclusion Cell phones have many benefits and their importance to the users should not be corrupted by invalid arguments that they are dangerous to health. Since there is no valid research to support this negative argument of some scholars, the users should not be misled by the information that cell phones have negative effects on their health, unless proven otherwise. Researchers should come up with valid empirical research to support their claims.
Works Cited Burgess, Adam. Cellular Phones, Public Fears, and a Culture of Precaution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
Glotz, Peter. Thumb Culture: The Meaning of Mobile Phones for Society. Bielefeld: Transcript, 2005. Print.
Hales, Dianne. An Invitation to Health. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Horst, Heather A and Daniel Miller. The Cell Phone: An Anthropology of Communication. New York: Berg, 2006. Print.
Ling, Richard S. The Mobile Connection: The Cell Phone’s Impact on Society. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 2004. Print.
Sexuality Through a Lens of Heterosexual Relationships Research Paper college essay help
Introduction Arguably, society has always perceived sexuality through a narrow lens of heterosexual relationships (a romantic relationship between a man and a woman). This perception has often defined traditional romantic relationships. Through this framework, human sexuality was predictable.
It defined people’s identity, gender, societal roles, and other attributes associated with sexuality. For example, traditionally, men were the providers, while women were homemakers (Unger 360). Women would also rarely take part in the employment sector because their work was to give birth and take care of their families.
However, times have changed, and so have gender roles and sexuality. For instance, human sexuality, although still part of human identity, has become more complex. Increased sexual liberty among different societies informs this trend (Gummow 1). People are now more willing to try new sexual lifestyles, without the traditional societal barriers associated with past human societies.
The new sense of sexual liberty has dominated different lifestyle aspects. Modern art forms have strived to show the new sexual freedoms in their design and contents. For example, films have highlighted the growing complexity of sexual identity in modern society. Same-sex relationships, wife-swaps, and other alternative lifestyle choices, although a taboo in many societies, have become part of mainstream film production, today.
Similarly, bisexual relationships have become increasingly acceptable in film and some sections of western society. These changes have influenced film production, casting, and script writing because film directors strive to represent the changing modern lifestyles that characterize present-day societies. Relative to this assertion, such changes in film production processes also explain the influences of films on societal perceptions of gender and sexuality.
While it is interesting to analyze how films and movies influence societal perceptions about this issue, this paper argues that modern society has adopted liberalized sexual lifestyles that have redefined people’s identities. Particularly, this paper focuses on a 2011 film, Shame, directed by Steve McQueen, to show increased sexual adventure in modern society.
Indeed, by analyzing the character of the protagonist in the film (Brandon), this paper argues that human sexuality has become increasingly liberal. The same liberty has created “complex” sexual identities among many people today. Indeed, compared to past societies, people are now choosing to live sexual lifestyles that are more adventurous and, often, unconventional.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Infidelity, group sex, homosexuality, online sex, and prostitution outline some sexual practices, of some main characters in the film, which highlight this fact. Through the high incidence of these practices in the film, this paper affirms a high sense of sexual liberation in modern society. The structure of this paper shows this fact by using the attachment theory, evolutionary theory, and the Cass model because they explain the changing sexual practices in modern society.
Shame and the Attachment Theory Today’s high numbers of sexual partners (mainly in heterosexual relationships) explain the changing nature of sexuality in modern times. While people could have had many sexual partners in the past, Hollywood films have made the practice more mainstream today. In fact, through films, such as Shame, Hollywood exposes the growing complexity of human sexual identities in modern times.
By many measures, a relationship between a man and a woman would largely define the “conventional” perception of heterosexual relationships. In fact, sexual and romantic relationships between men and women largely define the “norm” in many societies. However, according to Brandon’s sexual relationships, in Shame, this is not the case.
In fact, the film depicts conventional heterosexual unions (a married man and a married woman living together) as the exception, and not the ‘norm.” For example, throughout its plot, the film shows Brandon developing a friendship with a female colleague, Marianne. Their relationship later becomes romantic.
Like normal couples, the two went for dates, walked together, and shared romantic jokes. Throughout the courting period, Brandon appeared “normal.” He was genuinely interested in the company of his colleague. However, when their relationship became serious, he had trouble sustaining it.
For example, in one afternoon, he took Marianne to a hotel and although they had a good time together, Brandon was unable to have sexual intercourse with her. He became anxious about the incident until Marianne requested to leave. While still at the hotel, Brandon called a prostitute and had sexual intercourse with her. This action shows Brandon’s inability to live a “normal” life and enjoy a normal sexual relationship with someone he likes. However, he has no problem sharing the same intimacy with a stranger.
Brandon’s inability to have a “normal” sex life also manifests through his peculiar online pornographic viewing habits. In several instances in the film, Brandon seeks the services of online webcam girls that know him by his name. He tried to hide such practices from his sister (when she comes to visit), but she quickly discovered his sexual practices after viewing his laptop. This action made Brandon uncomfortable about his sister’s presence in the house.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sexuality Through a Lens of Heterosexual Relationships specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mackenzie (2) offers a deeper perspective to this issue by saying Shame portrays society’s misplaced sexual intrepidness. He takes a broader look at this issue and says today’s “sex-drenched” society portrays worsening moral decay (Mackenzie 2). Relative to this assertion, he also says, the society fails to link pornographic addiction to changing sexual behaviors.
Through the same analytical lens, he believes many people are developing bad social behaviors that span across human sexuality and eating habits, such as the growing obesity rates and the growing fast-food culture (Mackenzie 2).
Aloisi (9) supports the above view by saying that Shame supports a new sense of sexual freedom in modern society. However, he believes this sexual freedom has imprisoned people by adopting “wild” sexual behaviors to numb their pain. He also says the internet has significantly changed human sexuality by promoting these habits (Aloisi 9).
The connection between Brandon’s sexually adventurous habits and most of the sexual behaviors practiced by many people today is vivid. Relative to this assertion, Aloisi (10) believes that Brandon’s sexual behaviors represent the deviant sexual practices that characterize modern society. In fact, he affirms that most of Brandon’s sexual adventures are recognizable to most of us (Aloisi 10).
The attachment theory explains the deviant sexual behaviors manifested in Shame. Researchers developed this theory in the 1940s and 1950s, when they revealed that pathology often exists from a conflict between two human impulses (Porter 2). An alternative hypothesis of the theory shows that deviant sexual behaviors (considered peculiar among most societies) stem from biology and not fantasy. The attachment theory plays a significant role in explaining the “wild” sexual behaviors that characterize Shame.
Based on the above view, the attachment theory suggests that the complicated sexual behaviors stem from proper, or improper, attachment during infant and adult years (Shemmings 40). People who share a close attachment to family members and caregivers often develop a deep sense of security in their adult years. However, those that are emotionally distant do not develop the same (sense of) security.
Instead, they develop negative emotional experiences that force them to adopt “peculiar” sexual habits (Shemmings 40). They have “affect regulation” problems that inhibit them from developing intimate and autonomous relationships. Therefore, instead of searching for relationships that meet their wholesome emotional needs, they only seek the relationships that meet such needs, physically.
This fact explains why Brandon was unable to develop any emotionally satisfying relationship in his adult life. Instead, he sought physical relationships that provided momentary emotional satisfaction. Whenever he had a real chance to enjoy a “normal” relationship with a family member (his sister), or a colleague (Marianne), he withdrew emotionally.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sexuality Through a Lens of Heterosexual Relationships by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Both siblings (Brandon and his sister) also show a deep sense of emotional void that could stem from their childhood. Brandon’s (sense of) emotional void stems from his withdrawal and sexual addiction. His sister’s emotional void manifests in a strong need for male affection, which she seeks from her brother and her brother’s boss. In fact, in several instances in the film, she begs Brandon to be affectionate to her.
This need explains why she crawled into his bed and often wanted to cuddle with him in the living room. Brandon resisted such advances because his emotional problems affected him that way. Broadly, both actors have many (deep) emotional issues that affect how they relate with other people. These problems stem from attachment issues that they both developed at a young age. The same issues developed into unhealthy and wild sexual behaviors in their adult years.
These issues highlight a wider social phenomenon that exists today, through a high divorce rate in the society that affects children’s development. Indeed, many children today grow up in single families, or without their biological parents. Some of these households nurture children that have many attachment issues. Similar to Brandon and his sister, they grow up to develop “strange” relationship habits that thrive on their unresolved emotional issues.
Shame and the Cass Model Shame presents different sexual behaviors in one film. Sequentially, this section of the report, first, defines such identities and uses the Cass model to explain them. Developed by Vivienne Cass, in 1979, the Cass model identifies six stages in human sexuality – identity confusion, identity comparison, identity-tolerance, identity acceptance, identity pride, and identity synthesis (Moon 24).
Identity Confusion Stage: The identity confusion stage incorporates the awareness of sexually confusing feelings, such as attraction to the same-sex. Here, people may ask themselves questions like, “Am I gay?” or “Am I a lesbian?” People who experience this sexual confusion may find support from the occurrence of sexual identity along a spectrum (Moon 24). Therefore, they may be comfortable to explore several sexual identities.
Identity Comparison Stage: Unlike the identity confusion stage, the identity comparison stage outlines personal convictions for sexually confused people to accept their sexual identities (say, gay or lesbian). Here, confused people explore the wider implications of their identities, such as not having children, or being unable to legally marry. People that are in this stage may accept an unconventional sexual identity, but still have a heterosexual identity. They may do so by thinking that their unconventional sexual behaviors are temporary (Moon 24).
Identity Tolerance: The identity-tolerance stage manifests when people realize they are not the only ones with unconventional sexual identities. For example, at this stage, a person may realize that other gay people exist. Therefore, they feel they are not alone and seek partners that have the same sexual identities. Unlike the identity comparison stage, decreased social alienation characterizes this stage because afflicted people find solace in people who share the same sexual identities (Moon 24).
Identity Acceptance Stage: The identity acceptance stage manifests when people believe that their sexuality is acceptable. Stated differently, they start to believe that although they may have different/unconventional sexual traits; their lives would still be “livable.” Furthermore, instead of tolerating their sexual identities, they accept it.
Identity-Pride: The identity-pride stage manifests when people start to feel the need to let other people know who they are. For example, at this stage, people often understand why conventional and unconventional sexual identities exist. If they associate with unconventional sexual identities, they express pride in it and minimize contact with people who think differently. Broadly, this stage manifests in an “us vs. them” mentality (Moon 24).
Identity Synthesis: The identity synthesis stage is the last stage of the Cass model. At this stage, people perceive their sexual identities as part of personal identity. However, instead of sexual identities becoming wholesome parts of human identities, they only form part of it.
As shown above, the Cass model explains how people develop unique sexual behaviors. Particularly, it explains homosexual behaviors within the gay and lesbian community. This reference draws a special attention to the lead character, Brandon, in Shame, because his sexual adventures include engaging in sexual activities with other men. This happens in a night out in New York, when he goes to a gay bar and starts kissing another man.
They later enter a dimly lit room and engage in (what appears) as sexual intercourse. This act happens, although Brandon openly lives a heterosexual life (having sex with other women). In fact, this incident is the only part of the film where he engages in sexual activities with a man. Since Brandon has sex with women, as well, Shame depicts his sense of sexual adventure as a first stage of the Cass model – identity confusion stage.
Indeed, Brandon’s sexual relations with both sexes show that he has a confused sexuality. Here, Brandon’s “gay incident” shows the relevance of the Cass model in explaining human sexuality. Moreover, this incident shows the relevance of the identity-tolerance stage, which outlines people’s quest to seek people who profess the same sexual attitudes as they do. When Brandon went to the gay bar, he sought solace from other gay people.
He did so, almost effortlessly because he did not hesitate to engage in sexual relations with another man, unlike people who are “trying out” a new sexual lifestyle. Instead, he participates in consensual sex with another man, almost as if he knew what he was doing, or he had done before. Therefore, this incident shows that Brandon sought solace from other people who resonated with his sexual preferences (sexual tolerance stage).
The film fails to show how Brandon’s multiple sexual identities affect him. However, it shows how his homosexual and “sexually awkward” behaviors isolate him from the society. This representation affirms the identity comparison stage, which outlines the awareness and the consequences of a person’s sexual identity. For example, Brandon understood that other people would not accept his “awkward” sexual habits.
Therefore, he chose to live an isolated/solitary life. Coincidentally, although he was about 30 years old, Brandon did not have a family, or live with any family member, until his sister came. Shortly after his sister started to live with him, he became uncomfortable with her presence (around the house) because he understood that, he could not engage in his “wild” sexual behaviors anymore.
This fact manifests when he gets overly angry with her for walking into the bathroom, unannounced, and finds him masturbating. After this incident, he storms out of the house in a rage. Later, he indirectly complains about her unannounced stay at his apartment. He insinuates that she should leave and “let him be.”
These feelings manifest because Brandon understands that his actions isolate him from the society and he is uncomfortable when people infringe on his personal space. Surprisingly, he is comfortable with this fact and prefers to keep it that way. This analysis outlines the identity comparison stage because it defines people’s resolve to understand the implications of their sexual attitudes/behaviors (they learn to live with them).
Lastly, the identity synthesis stage also manifests in Brandon’s sexuality. As shown in this paper, this stage highlights how people perceive their sexual identities, as part of their personal identities (instead of sexual identities becoming wholesome parts of human identities, they only form part of it). Although many sexual behaviors define Brandon’s sexual identity, he lives an “ordinary” life as a paid New York employee.
His sexuality does not directly affect his life, except for the one incidence when his boss found pornographic materials in his computer. Nonetheless, Brandon lived a normal life and his multiple sexual identities did not seem to affect his life (directly). Overall, the Cass model shows how Brandon developed his wild sexual behaviors and how he lived with them. Within the wider framework of Brandon’s “gay incident” Gummow (4) says such sexual adventures stem from increased opportunities to explore sexual fantasies (that exist today).
He says many societies today enjoy increased freedoms to pursue alternative sex lifestyles. Moreover, he affirms the existence of sexual groups (like Brandon’s gay club), that promote specific sexual lifestyles that past societies considered shameful and unacceptable (Gummow 4). Today, like-minded people exploit these freedoms through increased sexual adventure (Gummow 4).
Shame and the Evolutionary Theory The evolutionary theory explains the wide spectrum where modern sexual practices exist. This theory stems from the works of Charles Darwin, through his book, The Origin of Species (Rosario 23). Broadly, the theory explains how organisms change over time, in terms of behaviors and physical attributes.
The theory also suggests that these changes occur for better environmental adaptation. Scientifically, many people have used this theory to explain animal behavior. However, sociologists have also used the same framework to explain human sexuality. Rosario (23) says this theory has helped to explain several aspects of people’s sexual behaviors (particularly heterosexual relationships). This section of the paper explains the relevance of the theory in explaining several “wild” sexual behaviors depicted in the film, Shame.
Brandon’s Sexual Adventures
Through the film, Shame, Brandon engages in “wild” sexual activities at work and at home. For example, he often took several breaks at work to masturbate in the toilet. He did the same while at home. Furthermore, he would later have sexual intercourse with the prostitutes he called to his home, and the women he met at the club. For example, Brandon’s sense of sexual adventure manifests when he goes to a bar, one night, and meets a woman at the counter.
They immediately lock eyes and he starts to tell her what he would do to her, sexually. Later, he narrates graphical details about his fantasy for her, until her boyfriend comes along and an argument ensues. After this argument, the film shows Brandon in a train with multiple injuries on his face (meaning he had fought with the boyfriend).
In a different scene, Brandon engages is a random sexual act with two women when he visits their apartment. The film shows the protagonist engaging in sexual relations with both women, at the same time. These sexual activities show that Brandon was overly adventurous with this sexuality.
The evolutionary theory explains the sexual behaviors of Brandon as comprising an innate need to spread the human gene to future generations. For example, the evolutionary theory suggests that although Brandon may have experienced pleasure masturbating, the need to have sexual intercourse, with real women, was unavoidable because, as a man, he had to transfer his genes to future generations through sexual intercourse. Indeed, the evolutionary theory explains why people often prefer sexual intercourse to masturbation.
However, the society often promotes the idea that masturbation is an undesirable practice that often exists among “socially awkward” people who cannot get a sexual partner. Moreover, evolutionary theory subsets suggest that masturbation produces a stronger physiological intensity than other types of sexual activities.
Nonetheless, Eisenman (2) observes that although some societies may perceive the practice as taboo, people always engage in such activities because it is an inherent human trait for people to investigate what gives them pleasure and continue doing it.
Sister’s Sexual Adventures
Brandon was not the only character in Shame that exhibited “wild” sexual behaviors. As shown in this paper, the sexual relationship between his sister and his boss also shows how both characters adopted unconventional sexual behaviors. For example, although a married man, Brandon’s boss sleeps with Brandon’s sister, at Brandon’s home, after a night out.
This incident disturbs Brandon, but he is unable to stop it because he does not want to argue with his boss. However, he later complains to his sister about her sexual relations with his boss because he was in a compromised position, where he had to choose between both of them.
Although the sexual act may not (particularly) support the thesis of this paper, this sexual encounter presents an interesting analytical piece because both parties were in other sexual unions. For example, Brandon’s sister was in another relationship with an unknown man because his brother often overheard her talking to an anonymous person and professing her love for him. Similarly, Brandon’s boss had a wife and children at home.
Yet, he did not hesitate to have sexual relations with Brandon’s sister. Broadly, these incidences occurred almost casually for the characters. They marked a departure from constrained sexual unions (in past societies) to unregulated sexual behaviors (in modern society). Pearson (11) believes that the sexual behaviors of Brandon’s sister represent her damaged “feminism.” These behaviors also match her brother’s malfunctioning masculinity (Pearson 11).
Singh (6) believes that these sexual adventures represent a new era where women are becoming bolder in expressing their sexual and emotional needs outside the conventional confines of marital unions.
Comparatively, Gummow (2) adopts a broader understanding of today’s sexual liberties by saying the changing nature of societal perceptions towards human sexuality stem from increased exposures to erotic content. Relative to this assertion, he says, “Society’s increasing openness towards erotica, coupled with greater exposure and opportunities today to seek out adventurous sexual behavior has certainly enabled us to broaden our sexual palate” (Gummow 2).
Although the above commentators affirm the growing sense of sexual adventure in modern society, the evolutionary psychology explains the reaction of Brandon to his sister’s relationship with his boss. Evolutionary psychology suggests that most men are more sexually adventurous than women are, in terms of sexual behavior and fantasy (Eisenman 9). It also shows that most men are more adept to engaging in sexual relations with many partners, and are more comfortable doing so with strangers, than women are.
The same framework explains why women are more inclined to tolerate infidelity than men are. This finding exists within the same understanding of “gene spread” analogy. Deep within this understanding is the need for women to feel emotionally secure and cared for. Based on this understanding, the main threat for women is a man developing an emotional attachment with another woman.
Similarly, the main threat for men is their women having sexual relations with other men because they could raise an offspring that does not have their genes. This fact explains the differences between male and female jealousy. This is why even famous women tend to tolerate infidelity and wild sexual behaviors of their men.
However, men seem to have a problem doing the same. From this observation, Eisenman (9) says, “Women tolerate their boyfriends, or husbands, for having sex with others, but men will often seem to go crazy when their mates do that, and may engage in violence. This behavior does not seem to fit the pattern of the more accepting male” (9).
Moore (1) says the sexual adventures showed in Shame reflect the same behaviors in modern society. In fact, he says most of Brandon’s behaviors represent the sexual energy that characterizes many American cities. Referring to New York’s social culture, he says,
“You can feel that pulsating energy day or night in the Big Apple, on the street, the line of women as they wait in line for a bus at rush hour on Fifth Avenue, the looks you get from them as you walk by, at bars, restaurants, and bookstores” (Moore 1).
Similarly, Moore (1) says he is familiar with all the sexual behaviors Brandon depicts in the film. They largely represent today’s sexual behaviors. From the same view, he says,
“For better or worse, many men and women in the audience will likely recognize parts of themselves in Brandon. Some will recognize themselves as people who have behaved almost exactly the way Brandon does in Shame. We have all looked at pornography. We have all had our sexual adventures. We all think about sex. And fantasize about it” (Moore 9).
Comprehensively, Shame shows the growing sexual freedoms and adventure that characterize modern society.
Conclusion This paper argues that the film, Shame, fits into a wider social pattern of increased sexual adventures in the society. Infidelity, same-sex relationships, group sex, online sex, and prostitution are some evidences of this fact. Most of the characters in the movie adopt at least one of these practices.
However, Brandon’s sexual practices encompass most of these acts. Therefore, he is the epitome of sexual adventure in the film. Moreover, his wild sexual adventures border on sexual addiction. This paper also relies on the attachment theory, evolutionary theory, and the Cass model to explain the increased sexual adventures that Shame portrays.
The attachment and the evolutionary theories share similar findings because they explain the “wild” sexual behaviors of the characters, through biological and psychosocial explanations. For example, the attachment theory affirmed biological influences, as opposed to fantasy, in explaining deviant sexual habits. Particularly, it highlights the lack of attachment during the early developmental years of a child, as the main cause of deviant/adventurous sexual behaviors during the adult years.
Comparatively, the evolutionary theory adopts a biological perspective to explain increased sexual adventures in the society by highlighting reproduction need influences on male and female sexual behaviors. This theory mainly explains infidelity, group sex, online sex, and prostitution, as demonstrated through Brandon’s sexual behaviors. Overall, the sexual behaviors of Brandon, and other characters in the film, Shame, show a high prevalence of liberal sexual attitudes/adventure in modern society.
Works Cited Aloisi, Silvia. Film Shame Brings Sex Addiction Tale To Venice. Reuters, September. 2011.
Eisenman, Russell. Evolutionary Psychology and Human Sexuality. Social Psychology, November. 2002.
Gummow, Joddie. Kinky Sex: Have We Become More Sexually Adventurous? Alternet Organization, February. 2014.
Mackenzie, Mandolyn. Shame. Word Press, December. 2013.
Moon, Lyndsey. Feeling Queer Or Queer Feelings?: Radical Approaches to Counselling Sex, Sexualities and Genders. London: Routledge, 2014. Print.
Moore, Omar. Shame: A Harrowing, Powerhouse of Sex Addiction via Steve Mcqueen. Examiner, December. 2011.
Pearson, Chris. The Reasons Shame Is My Least Favorite Movie of 2011. The Critical Condition, December. 2011.
Porter, Jake. Addiction and Attachment Theory. Academia, January. 2013.
Rosario, Vernon. Homosexuality and Science: A Guide to the Debates. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2002. Print.
Shame. Dir. Steve McQueen. Momentum Pictures, 2011. DVD.
Shemmings, David. “Adult attachment theory and its contribution to an understanding of conflict and abuse in later-life relationships.” Journal of Adult Protection 2.3 (2000): 40 – 49. Print.
Singh, Vanita. A Byte of The Apple. India Today, January. 2006.
Unger, Rhoda. Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender. London: John Wiley
Language Contact Situation Essay a level english language essay help
Language contact is one the most researched social science problem in the modern society. There has been a need to explain the events that always take place during such interactions, and their possible outcome. According to Baker and Hengeveld (2012), when there is an interaction between two or more communities, it is likely that the language spoken by the dominant group will prevail over other smaller spoken languages.
A linguistic diglossic relationship will develop especially when two or more languages have almost similar number of speakers (Rosenberg 2003). Analyzing this relationship among children can be very interesting because the barrier in language will not stop them from the urge to interact and play together.
This analysis will also give a true result of this relationship because children would talk freely without fear of ridicule from peers. In this study, the focus was on the experience of international students at CBU bringing up their young children in Cape Breton in an English dominant environment.
This study was conducted within a small location with a high number of international students within Cape Breton. The focus was to determine the result of the interaction of different languages that these young children had learnt as their first languages. According to Baker and Hengeveld (2012), young children have a higher ability to learn a foreign language than the older people.
This is partly attributed to their aggressiveness in trying to understand a foreign language by making several mistakes and learning from these mistakes. One thing that was observed was that, in this community, the first language for these young children was numerous. This population had Africans, Arabs, Indians, Portuguese, Chinese and European. The language was so diverse that it was difficult for the children to learn all of them.
During the initial interactions of these young children with varying languages, it was interesting to witness their manner of speech. Most of the communication was done using sign language. One child would issue an instruction in its mother tongue only for the other party to respond in a different language. Although this phenomenon was a little shocking to them, they easily adapted to it.
It was witnessed that these young children would try to pick some words from other parties that were commonly used in order to make the communication easier. However, their language gradually converged to English because of a number of factors. According to Baker and Hengeveld (2012) children are great learners and they would be attentive to observe environmental factors that affect them directly. It would be interesting to analyze why the language of these children shifted from their mother tongue to English.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the research by Baker and Hengeveld (2012), a dominant language will always eclipse other minor languages in case of language interactions. This scholar says people would find it easy adopting the dominant language, especially if it is the language of the natives.
This is what took place in this particular case. When these children went playing as a group, one common language that was coming out was English. Some of these children had already learnt English besides their mother tongue out of their parents’ initiatives. When they realized that some of their peers could understand English, they considered switching from their first language to this common language.
This forced those who could not learn English to make an effort and learn the language. Some of the words that were learnt within a short period of interaction included ball, shoot, friend, run, and thank you. These were words that were common during such games. There were instances when some of these children engaged in what one would consider a learning process. A child would be seen explaining some words to its peer so that they could communicate effectively. This played a great role in helping them understand this language.
The communication between these children at school, in the playing field, or at home also played a major role in enhancing their knowledge of English. In their preparatory school, the language that was used by the teachers was English. This means that these children had to understand this language. Such interactions also made them realize that this English was the right language to be used in social forums.
In the playing fields, these young children interacted with adults who were giving those instructions, guidance, or other such interactions. Their communication would be made in English. This was a further pointer to these youngsters that this was the language for all social forums. Finally, the interaction with their parents and family friends back at home also played a major role in making them shift from their mother tongue to English.
For instance, Arab child would be greeted by a Chinese family friend in English. At first, the child will take time to respond based on the guidance of the parents. However, they would slowly come to understand that this is the language they should speak in their everyday life. As Rosenberg (2003) observes, it is common for such children to forget their mother tongue, unless their parents decides to engage them actively in their language as they develop.
References Baker, A.,
Martin’s Textiles Company Analysis Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Issue identification When the American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was enacted, the Martin’s Textiles was plunged into a major survival challenge (BrainMass par. 1). The agreement was adopted with the aim of tariff elimination. In addition, the quota system was introduced for all imported textile products from Mexico and Canada. Worse still, the company had been making progressive losses for a couple of years.
Some of the long term customers were also threatening to quit doing business with the Martin’s Textiles because the company had raised its prices. As a result of these developments, the Chief Executive Officer of the company (John Martin) had to decide whether to transfer the production of textiles to Mexico (BrainMass par. 5).
However, making such a decision was not easy for John bearing in mind that the production plant in New York had several advantages. Nonetheless, relocating the production to Mexico would probably minimize the cost of labor and also diffuse the possibility of the company going into bankruptcy.
Analysis Although the Martin’s Textiles has been in operation for over 100 years, the current market competition is proving to be a major challenge. For example, there are several cheap imports from the Asian markets as well as the local production. The cheap goods are hurting the domestic market.
In addition, the cost of labor is apparently high ($12.5 per hour). The high cost of labor has been occasioned by the fact that all the employees of the company are unionized. If the company decides to operate in Mexico, the labor expenses may be sustainable (BrainMass par. 9). The high cost of competition is indeed compelling the company to seek other austerity measures.
Moving the production of textiles to Mexico has its own merits and demerits. For instance, Mexico is well endowed with a cheap human resource base. In other words, the company will be in a position to sustain the cost of labor. Second, tariff elimination implies that the overall cost of production will be lowered. Consequently, the company will revert to profitability.
As much as the above benefits may be derived, it is still not clear whether the purported production advantages will be practically realized. To begin with, it cannot be an easy task to secure a committed, reliable and loyal workforce as it is the case with the operations in the New York textile plant (Myers, Bryce and Kakabadse 17).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Workers in this textile factory pledge their allegiance to the company. They are also very productive. Such benefits cannot be guaranteed when the company will move its operations to Mexico. The current labor relation with employees is indeed great because most of them have worked for the company for a long time.
A simple SWOT analysis can be used to demonstrate the possible strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that may be realized if the company moves to Mexico (see appendix).
Recommendations The company should relocate part of its production to Mexico in order to enjoy the trade benefits that will be accrued from the NAFTA partnership. The remaining textile plant in New York should be downsized both in terms of employee reduction and the scale of production.
Since the cost of labor in Mexico is considerably low, the Martin’s Textiles will return to profitability within a short time. Finally, the company should seek cheap sources of raw materials and also expand its production lines according to the needs of the market (Zahra and Covin 451).
Appendix: SWOT analysis for John Martin’s Textiles Strengths
Loyalty from employees
Low labor cost in Mexico
Adequate knowledge in production
Lower taxes in Mexico
Benefits of NAFTA agreement
Tariff elimination in Mexico
Available raw materials in Mexico
Absence of vital skills in Mexico
Importation hurdles to the US market
Low customer retention in Mexico
Molding a new customer base in Mexico
Closing the US market
Stiff competition in Mexico
Works Cited BrainMass. Martin’s Textiles case: Shift production to Mexico NAFTA. 2014.
Myers, Andrew, Mairi Bryce, and Andrew Kakabadse. “Business Success and 1992: The Need for Effective Top Teams.” Management Decision 30.6 (1992): 17. Print.
Zahra, Shaker and Jeffrey, Covin. “Business Strategy, Technology Policy And Firm Performance.” Strategic Management Journal (1986-1998) 14.6 (1993): 451. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Martin’s Textiles Company Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
The Bleeding Heart Restaurant and Bistro Swot Analysis Case Study writing essay help
Table of Contents Company Background
Company Background The Bleeding Heart Restaurant and Bistro serves more than a thousand guests on a daily basis, even though Robert and Robyn Wilson faced a lot of criticism that it would not succeed when they established it in 1983. In addition, it offers French foods and its name is linked to the eleventh century, Lady Elizabeth, who met her death there. The annual Winter Ball was a highlight of the London social season and this made this place famous. This essay examines the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing this restaurant.
Strengths The greatest strength of this restaurant is that it has a rich history and every journalist dreams of spending a night here. It has been used to honor ancient writers like Charles Dickens, who wrote praises about it. Its initial architectural and cultural values enable it to serve a multi-segment market and compete with other popular joints. It’s farmyard illustrations offer the impression of a game drive and this keeps visitors coming back for more adventure in this restaurant as they enjoy a variety of excellent-value wine.
In addition, media comments from the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Transworld Publishers, Wall Street Journal, Business News and Harden’s London Restaurant Guide enabled this hotel to market itself in the international level especially in America. Moreover, it was feted as one of London’s Top Ten Bars six months after it was established and this achievement has been maintained to the advantage of this investment.
Its performance and services were rated as London’s most romantic by The Times and this has continued to promote its image in the local and international scenes. Moreover, it has massive capital that enables it to hire the services of professional advertisers like the Wilsons and other prominent local dailies
Weaknesses The Bleeding Heart Restaurant and Bistro relies on its rich history to market its products and services. However, there is no guarantee that this trick will help this business in the future. Clients are running away from traditional themes and thus this company should modify its presentation and appearance to retain its clients.
In addition, it focuses on French dishes yet it has an international appeal to clients. This limits its client base and lowers its profits. Moreover, some people do not like visiting places that are associated with death. Therefore, Lady Elizabeth’s memories will not be an advantage to this restaurant because it will discourage potential customers from visiting it.
Opportunities This investment has higher chances of expanding its client base by blending traditional and modern architectural and cultural aspects. It has a large farmyard that can be converted into a mini-game park for social wild animals like birds. In addition, it can construct a modern restaurant in this farmyard to ensure it attracts clients from both (traditional and modern) worlds.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, it should utilize its rich history and huge capital to advertise its service and products and if possible subsidize its prices to ensure clients do not forget the wonderful experiences available in its premises.
Threats Fast food restaurants are threats to all traditional hotels because they offer quick and ready services and products. The products and services of The Bleeding Heart Restaurant and Bistro are not flexible and this means that other upcoming modern hotels stand high chances of competing with this investment. In addition, its peaceful and natural farmyard is facing the risk of extinction because of pollution and encroachment from the hotel and neighborhood populations.
Lastly, this restaurant relies on its rich history to attract customers. However, the present generation does not have a keen eye on issues that had significant meaning in the past. Therefore, it may be deserted if it does not introduce modern aspects in its dishes and themes.
Research Methods: Experimental or Quasi-Experimental Study Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
How the application of the designs differ In this study, the first aspects of the design involved identification of variables. The quasi independent variable was the use of iPad technology. The study was focused on determining how the use of iPad technology among children in kindergarten affected early literacy skills.
The use of the quasi experimental design used in this study deferred with some of the conventional approaches in many ways. The researcher had absolute control over the assignment to treatment condition (Cubelic
La Costra Nostra and Al-Qaeda: Similarities and Differences Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Today, more than ever before, it is important for criminologists, law enforcement officers and other stakeholders to have adequate knowledge in differentiating between organized crime and terrorism, particularly in light of the fact that scholars now believe that the convergence of international terrorism and organized crime is increasingly becoming a reality (Shelley
Business Objectives’ Achievement: Market Penetration Essay college application essay help
Market penetration refers to the ratio of the total number of customers who purchase a certain commodity at any given period of time to the total targeted population. It involves either increasing the current market share of an existing product or promoting a new product into an existing market. Thus, it basically encompasses all activities by a company aimed at popularizing its brand within a market with existing similar products.
Successful market penetration is achieved when the company is able to convince and take over competitors’ clients as well as obtaining new clients for its products. Common strategies employed to achieve market penetration include, adjusting prices, promotions, product improvement advertising and increasing distribution channels.
A company can effectively increase its market share through adjusting the prices of its products in such a way that they offer slightly lower prices compared its close competitors. Low prices are meant to appeal and attract more customers who are willing to offer a lower amount for the same products.
A general assumption made here is that higher prices deter potential customers from purchasing products and the reason for lowering prices is to increase the total number of product units purchased as compared to sales from competitors (Aaker, 2012). In some rare cases, a company may decide to implement higher product prices with the view that the total revenue realized from each sold product unit which in turn generates into increased sales volume.
Increasing distribution can also aid in market penetration. This strategy is meant to ensure constant availability of products to the potential customers or clients by increasing the means through which products are availed to customers.
One such method to achieve this is through telemarketing where customers and retailers place their orders for the company’s products online via electronic mails as well as phone calls. Telemarketing can be used alongside retail selling in order to increase distribution channels. Buying more display space in retail units can also help increase product distribution since the quantity available for display subsequently increases with display space.
Promotions, advertisements and customer incentives are other strategies employed to achieve market penetration. Advertisement is the oldest and widely used strategy in market penetration and may be carried out through the media or by engaging sales representatives. It is basically carried out to create awareness about existing products being offered by the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Promotions are common, especially when trying to enter new markets or introducing new products. The company may opt to conduct a massive promotion campaign targeted at creating more awareness about its products as well as luring more customers to purchase its brand.
Promotions can also be short lived to run within a given time span. During this period, the company may give away small prizes to customers to further lure them into purchasing their products (Aaker, 2012). Alternatively, the company may also offer drastically reduced prices for its brands for a given time span. Promotions are not only aimed at penetrating new markets, but also to regain lost market share.
Product improvement is the latest strategy in market penetration. This is a term used to refer to utility improvement in products. Basing on the sales realized the company may opt to make certain adjustments on its products either to improve the quality or make them more appealing to the customers.
This may include creation of extra application for products, improved packaging or improved quality. Product improvement is aimed at increasing purchases after experience; customers need to first test the products before increased sales is realized.
Reference Aaker, D. (2012). Strategic Market Management. London, UK: McGraw Hill
Descartes’ Argument for the Existence of God Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Rene Descartes is a renowned philosopher and mathematician of French descent. Descartes’ ontological argument is an a priori argument to prove God’s existence. The argument is based on the analysis of God’s essence rather than on empirical evidence (Oppy 22).
In Rene Descartes’ view, all human beings have an inherent conception of a perfect entity. Descartes argues that we cannot envisage a perfect entity if the entity does not exist. Moreover, since human beings are imperfect, the idea of a perfect being does not originate from us and must have been placed in us by an already existing perfect being.
Descartes postulates that God must exist because existence is perfection and God is utterly perfect. To prove God’s existence, Descartes begins by describing God a ‘supremely perfect being’ (Oppy 21). In Descartes’ postulation, God is omnipotent, omnipresent and independent, and is the perfect being that can be conceived.
Descartes argues that since an existence is more real than nonexistence, and because God is exceedingly perfect, it is only logical that God exists (Oppy 23). This argument implies that if God does not exist, then he is not supremely perfect. Consequently, by His very nature of supreme perfection, God must exist.
In his exemplification of the ontological argument, Rene Descartes equates God’s nature to a triangle, whose essence comprises the interior angles that make up one hundred and eighty degrees. We, therefore, cannot envisage God without imagining existence.
I do not believe that Descartes’ ontological argument succeeds in proving the existence of God. As appealing as the ontological argument appears, Descartes commits a major logical fallacy by assuming that the existential verb is similar to other properties, and can be possessed or not possessed. However, existence is a trait different from any other trait. Something either exists or does not exist.
Descartes’ ontological argument also fails to prove God’s existence since it makes the assumption that anything conceived in the human mind has to be existent in reality. For instance, it implies that if a person has an idea of a perfect island unlike any other, then the island must exist.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If one accepts Hume’s account of the degree to which we have the knowledge of causation, is science possible? Explain your view fully Regarding the idea of causality, David Hume starts by asserting that all human beings possess an idea of causality (Beebee 46). What interests him is the nature of the idea of causality and how people arrive at this idea. According to Hume, the idea of causality begins from single impressions. These impressions offer no basis for causality as they are complete in themselves. According to Hume, multiple impressions of empirical events cannot be extrapolated to predict new events.
Hume argues that just because two events (such as X and Y) occur together does not imply that one causes the other. Hume concedes that when X and Y constantly appear together, the appearance often generates an impression of causality. According to Hume, the only truth is that so far, we have been able to perceive X each time we have perceived Y. Hume seems to distinguish between correlation and causation, and implies that cause-effect relationships are creations of the mind.
Hume’s argument gets interesting when he postulates that regardless of the number of times we witness a succession of events (such as a ball moving in a certain way when struck), we cannot predict the succession of events (Moore and Bruder 133). This argument by Hume attacks the core of scientific experimentation where certain steps are intended to generate specific results.
In science, experiments are repeated to establish causality and inferences of causality are made depending on the rate at which X and Y occur together. Hume, on the other hand, believes that causation is a figment of human imagination. He implies that when the human mind gets accustomed to witnessing two events appear in sequence, it starts to anticipate a particular event to precede another. For a follower of Hume’s principle of causation, scientific experimentation and theorization is impossible.
What is the distinction between a hypothetical imperative and a categorical imperative? How is this relevant to Kantian moral theory? Imperatives are directives that guide us on what we should or should not do (Rescher 23). Immanuel Kant differentiates between categorical and hypothetical imperatives.
Hypothetical imperatives inform us of the course of action we should take if we intend to achieve a particular goal. For instance, if one wants to stay out of jail, he should not steal. Unlike hypothetical imperatives, categorical imperatives instruct us on what should be done regardless of personal desires. For example, we should not steal whether we desire to stay out of jail or not.
By differentiating between categorical and hypothetical imperatives, Immanuel Kant positions categorical imperatives as the foundations of moral actions (Moore and Bruder 137). Kant postulates that categorical imperatives approach morality from the perspective of one’s duty within the setting of goodwill. Kant’s imperatives are simply formulas of reasoning that determine the will of individual action.
We will write a custom Essay on Descartes’ Argument for the Existence of God specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kant argues that the categorical imperative is the basic principle of moral duty (West 223). The categorical imperative is called an imperative because it commands people to exercise their will in certain ways and to choose certain courses of action over others.
It is categorical since it applies to people unconditionally, without considering the consequences or ends. The categorical imperative is particularly significant to Kant’s moral philosophy since Kant advocates for people to be treated as ends in themselves rather than as a means to an end.
Kant distinguishes the hypothetical imperative from the ‘moral ought’ (categorical imperative) by introducing the concept of ends (Moore and Bruder 135). The hypothetical imperative requires actors to exercise their rational will in a conditional form that considers the consequence of the actions.
The hypothetical imperative only applies to actors who intend to achieve certain ends by their actions. For instance, if you want a good job you need to go to school. This comparison implies that the only reason the actor has for going to school is to get a good job. In Kant’s view, the hypothetical imperative involves more than just desiring an end. It requires the actor to exercise practical rationalization and dedication to accomplish that end.
The Kantian morality is grounded in the categorical imperative. For an action to be perceived as having been motivated by good will, the actor ought to act according to a maxim that can be made a universal law.
Outline the forms of utilitarianism developed by Bentham and Mill. What are the principle differences between them? Which do you believe is the most defensible, and why? Utilitarianism is a moral principle in philosophy propagated by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill (Bailey 103). It is primarily concerned with establishing the greatest amount of happiness or pleasure to the largest number of people. Bentham’s ethical theory makes sense when viewed in the context of his political theorization in which he tries to establish a sensible methodology for legal and legislative decisions.
Bentham advocates for a scientific method founded on the concept of utility in dealing with legal and moral problems. Bentham introduces a calculus for measuring pain and pleasure using intensity, certainty, nearness, duration, fecundity, and purity. His utilitarianism also considers the extent of pain or pleasure expected from an action.
Mill’s utilitarianism focuses on the quality of happiness rather than the quantity of pleasure (West 23). Compared to Mill’s theory, Bentham’s pleasure calculus seems unreasonable, since the qualities of pleasure are not quantifiable. In response to this weakness, Mill’s utilitarianism proposes a greatest happiness principle where an action is good if it produces the greatest amount of happiness to the largest number of people.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Descartes’ Argument for the Existence of God by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mill distinguishes between higher and lower pleasures. To avoid creating a swinish philosophy, Mill advocates for people to embrace higher pleasures such as music, poetry and art. Lower pleasures include sex and food. Mill proposes experienced judges to help in distinguishing between different kinds of pleasures.
Mill’s utilitarianism is more defensible than Bentham’s since Mill advocates for goals and virtues besides pleasure (West 34). Bentham fails to address the problem of infringement of minority rights that might bring about maximization of the pleasures of the majority.
A problem that can arise from the maximization of pleasures includes lynching. Mill responds to this loophole by advocating for rights and justice. He asserts that happiness can only be ensured by establishing laws and rules that advance general happiness and guarantee individual rights.
Works Cited Bailey, Andrew. First Philosophy: Values and Society: Fundamental Problems and Readings in Philosophy, New York: Broadview Press, 2004. Print.
Beebee, Helen. Hume on Causation, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2006. Print.
Moore, Brooke and Kenneth Bruder. Philosophy: The power of ideas. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.
Oppy, Graham. Ontological Arguments and Belief in God, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.
Rescher, Nicholas. Kant and the Reach of Reason: Studies in Kant’s Theory of Rational Systematization, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.
West, Henry. An Introduction to Mill’s Utilitarian Ethics, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
The Bauhaus Influence on Architecture and Design Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Founding of the Bauhaus
The Russian Revolution, the De Stijl, and Weimar Republic
Students and the curriculum
Departments and workshops
Effects of changes in leadership on Bauhaus style
The closure of Bauhaus
Introduction Bauhaus was a school in Germany founded in the year 1919 (Droste, 2002). Its curriculum comprised crafts like metal and woodwork, as well as fine arts. The institution was famous for a unique style of art referred to as the Bauhaus style or the international style. In addition, the school advocated for embracement of the style by artists and designers in Germany.
Bauhaus operated for 14 years (Droste, 2002). An architect known as Walter Gropius established the school in the Weimar Republic. After establishment, Bauhaus operated without a department for architecture even though its founder was an architect. In today’s world, the international influences art and architecture in many parts of the world.
Founding of the Bauhaus After practicing architecture for many years, Gropius decided to establish a school. The main intention of starting Bauhaus was to create a school that would incorporate all genres of art into its curriculum (James, 2006). Gropius was successful because Bauhaus style formed the foundation for the establishment of modern design and modernist architecture. The style influenced many genres of art during the 20th century.
Genres like art, graphic design, interior design, typography, architecture, and industrial design had many concepts of the international style (Droste, 2002). Bauhaus was founded in Weimar but later relocated to Dessau and Berlin due to political instability and financial problems. In Dessau, the school existed operated for seven years while in Berlin, it operated for one year (James, 2006). Its directors had varied influences on the curriculum.
Gropius directed the school from the year of establishment until 1928. Hannes Meyer who headed the school for two years succeeded Gropius. On the other hand, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe succeeded Meyer and directed the school for three years (Droste, 2002). Each of the directors altered the curriculum based on taste and preference in art.
The Russian Revolution, the De Stijl, and Weimar Republic The Russian Revolution elicited immense cultural experimentation in Germany after commencement of the communist rule (Maciuika, 2005). Three events heralded the emergence of German modernism. These include Germany’s defeat in World War I, disintegration of the German Monarchy, and obliteration of censorship (Maciuika, 2005). The ruling regime during the defeat of Germany had suppressed efforts by art enthusiasts to incorporate radicalism in their traditions and art.
The cultural experimentation that emerged after the Russian Revolution had far-reaching influence on many Germans. Theo von Doesburg was one of the founders of De Stijil. He contributed greatly to the suppression of expressionism in Bauhaus style (James, 2006). He claimed that the director was encouraging individual expression in art, which did not adhere to any discipline.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More De Stijl had a conviction that the role of art was to reconcile the masculine and feminine, as well as the negative and positive principles of nature (Droste, 2002). After visiting the Bauhaus in 1920, Doesburg was angered by the students’ activities. In 1921, he relocated to Weimar and announced a course for young artists. The announcement was aimed at fighting the school’s curriculum. Criticism from Doesburg motivated Gropius to create a new style that was incorporated into the curriculum (James, 2006).
Leaders of the Social Democratic party established the Weimar Republic in 1918. The constitution of the republic was drafted in Weimar, which was a cultural centre for the entire republic. The culture of the city created a foundation for establishment of Bauhaus in 1919. Gropius resisted the rise of cultural radicalism in Germany.
Therefore, he decided to establish a school that would pursue apolitical genres of art (Lupfer
The Word ‘Antique’ New Definition Essay essay help site:edu
In today’s capitalist markets, sellers are using various strategies to entice the usually naïve buyers. Marketplaces around the world are dominated by labels and classifications that are meant to put certain products in a class of their own. The same trend applies to the ‘aged’ products’ market. Traders always try to convince prospective customers that their products are vintage, retro, or antique with the aim of raising these products’ value.
It is quite difficult for an ordinary consumer to differentiate between a genuine antique dealer and an unscrupulous trader who is just trying to make a profit. Most buyers consider antiques to be ‘one-of-a-kind’ or ‘very old’ items. Moreover, antiques are often confused with rare, vintage, retro, or used items. For instance, some people consider things that were made before 1950 to be antiques.
According to popular English language definitions, ‘an antique is a collectible item such as a piece of furniture or work of art that has a high value because of its considerable age’. Other definitions associate antiques with valuable but old objects or objects that belong to ancient times. Due to the confusion surrounding the accuracy of what objects fit the antique-description, the definition of the term antique should be changed to explicitly refer to objects that are more than a hundred years old.
Most forums relating to antique items are misleading or lack sufficient research to back up their claims. Whenever one visits online forums and antique shows, he/she witnesses frequent usage of the terms ‘rare’ and ‘one-of-a-kind’. However, the usage of these terms cannot be justified by any other reason except the fact that the holder of the item is trying to convince his/her audience how valuable the item under scrutiny is.
For an item to be described using these terms, other factors have to be put into consideration. For instance, one has to consider what decade or era the item is from and how many of these items were in circulation during its manufacture. For example, an ancient coin might be rare but it cannot be one-of-a-kind. Most antique dealers tend to be ignorant about the factors that make a certain item vintage and they also lack the necessary tools to conduct comprehensive research on their items.
On the other hand, prospective antique buyers face the same challenges when they are perusing through antiques. Therefore, if the definition of antiques was changed to mean items of more than one hundred years, it would be easier to conduct research on the said items.
The timeline of the said antique would be easy to establish and in extreme circumstances, carbon dating methods can be used to certify the ‘antiqueness’ of an item. Antique buyers are mostly forced to rely on untrustworthy appraisers. Independent research on a product would help prospective buyers to establish the antiqueness of a certain product beyond doubt.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As early as 1930, the legal system defined antiques as items of a hundred years or more. In 1930, the United States’ government passed the Tariff Act. The Act was sponsored by the Customs Department and it limited the definition of antiques to those items that were made before 1830. The Tariff Act was reaffirmed in 1966 and it maintained the one hundred years’ threshold as the defining factor for antiques.
The Tariff Act was instituted to help the customs department deal with the confusion arising from definition of antiques. For example, antique-items do not incur Custom tax and individuals were referring to items of less than 100years old as antiques to avoid paying these taxes. The English language did not take the cue from the legal system but it maintained the existing state of confusion by not including the age limit of items to its definition.
The Tariff Act was later neutralized by the Mod Act, which included restored items to the definition of antiques. This amendment was made in 1993 and it has since contributed to the misuse of the word antique. Using the 1993 definition, antiques can refer to restored, repaired, or any items bearing the characteristics of the original article.
According to Mod Act of 1993, items can qualify to be termed as antiques even if in reality they are only fifty percent antique. These subsequent amendments to the legal definition of antique have undermined the quality and institution of antique business. If the definition was reverted to refer to antiques as century-old items, the integrity of antiquing would be maintained and the government would not lose money through avoided taxes.
Antiques are valued possessions whose integrity has stood the test of time. This integrity was previously recognized by the legal system through the 1930 and 1966 legislations, but it has since been neglected. Without an explicit definition, individuals will continue to pass of modern items as antiques with the intention of making a quick profit.
There is a lot of confusion surrounding the definition of the word antique with other similar terminologies such as rare, vintage, and retro. The confusion behind these terms stems from lack of a solid definition for the word antique. Some individuals including antique dealers themselves confuse between vintage and antique items.
The definition of the word vintage is mostly associated with wine. However, any item defined as vintage should be accompanied with its year of manufacture. For example, 1960s vintage Mercedes or 1930s vintage wine, are both correct usages of the word vintage. Therefore, vintage is a description about an era and not necessarily old age.
We will write a custom Essay on The Word ‘Antique’ New Definition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, an antique can only be described as vintage if its era is more than a century old while vintage can be used to describe items that are less than a decade old. Redefining antiques to refer to century-old items can help eliminate the misuse of the term vintage. The current description of the word antique does not emphasize on age limit of antiques and hence the confusion between the two terms. Retro is another term whose usage is often confused with vintage.
Retro is associated with the past, revival, and nostalgia. Therefore, individuals usually use the term antique to refer to retro items. For instance, not all retro items are antique because the latter does not necessarily have the element of nostalgia. The current definition of antiques has terminologies that touch on retro elements. For instance, Webster includes the words ‘relic’ and ‘ancient object’ in his definition of antique. Therefore, without a time-limited description both the terms antique and retro can be easily confused.
The confusion surrounding the use of the word antique could be eliminated by simply changing the current definition of the word. The most logical and effective approach is to include an age limit of one hundred years to any object that is described as antique. This approach would also make the term antique stand out from similar terms such as vintage and retro.
Controlling Organized Crime Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Organized crime affects law enforcement efforts in many countries. As a result, governments need to come up with effective enforcement strategies that are responsive to evolving crime trends. Organized crime is a form of crime that is committed by sophisticated criminal networks which engage in different forms of illegal conspiracies. Organized crime creates an environment of lawlessness in a particular location and thrives due to social and economic inequalities.
There are many factors that make it easy for criminal networks to carry out their activities without being deterred by law enforcement agencies. Inadequate resources, lack of tactical awareness, corruption and ineffective laws allow criminals to commit serious offences. This paper will discuss various issues that impact on organized crime and how they affect law enforcement in different areas where they are practiced.
Organized crime syndicates in various countries have been accused of using their transnational networks to engage in different types of illegal activities. Unethical behavior, rampant corruption and collusion by law enforcement officers make it possible for criminal syndicates to carry out their illegal activities with little or no interference from the state. In many instances, illegal schemes perpetuated by criminals make it difficult for law enforcement agencies to distinguish between legal and illegal business enterprises (Mallory, 2007, p. 56).
In the last three decades, there has been an increase in criminal enterprises that seek to gain high returns from illegal activities. However, in many instances, these enterprises are able to acquire a significant amount of power that allows them to influence the legislative agenda of different territories they operate in.
Criminal organizations are increasingly relying on different technological platforms to communicate and share ideas on how to evade arrests by law enforcement agencies. In addition, they are using proxy companies to cover up their activities to enable them to save large amounts of money which they obtain from criminal activities.
Despite these changes, crime intelligence and analysis strategies have not evolved to deal effectively with these new threats on law and order. Law enforcement officers lack the necessary resources required to deal effectively with complex criminal schemes that are planned and executed by large criminal organizations (Mallory, 2007, p. 59). It has become critical for law enforcement agencies to rely on different forms of tactical analysis to monitor new organized criminal trends and the impacts they have on different societies.
More importantly, ineffective laws do not place more emphasis on information sharing and this loophole makes it difficult for law enforcement officers to prevent serious criminal offenses from happening. As a result, criminal organizations find it easy to execute their activities without any form of deterrence from law enforcement agencies. The causal links between organized crime and socio-economic problems have not been adequately addressed in many countries (Mallory, 2007, p. 67).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has made it easy for criminal syndicates to control poor urban settlements because they offer unemployed youth economic opportunities which elected governments cannot offer. Therefore, it is important for law enforcement agencies to appreciate the sociological factors that expose young people to crime to come with more effective remedies. They need to win the minds and hearts of residents in poor neighbourhoods to encourage them through community policing initiatives that address different criminal situations.
There are different legal limitations which hamper the fight against organized crime. Criminal experts argue that drug trafficking in Pakistan and Afghanistan enables terrorist groups to acquire funding which they use to destabilize governments. As a result, they are able to network with other terrorist cells in other parts of the world easily because they have the financial power needed to disguise their activities.
Policy makers are always distracted by bipartisan interests and they are slow to react to different criminal trends that pose a grave danger to national security. Criminal networks find it easy to clean up dirty proceeds from their activities through legitimate economic channels without being subjected to scrutiny (Mallory, 2007, p. 72). In many instances, financial firms are unwilling to reveal the nature of their dealings with large criminal enterprises to law enforcement agencies because they generate a lot of profits from such activities.
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Crime is one of the internationally recognized legal frameworks that outline steps governments need to follow to deal with organized crime.
However, its main weakness is the inability by foreign governments to share information with one another on how to eliminate intricate transnational criminal networks. Some countries have failed to institute extradition treaties with one another and as a result, they provide a safe haven to vicious international criminals (Hauck,
Cyprus Implications of Exiting the Euro Zone Essay (Article) essay help
The indication that Cyprus might leave the euro zone raises questions on the socioeconomic effects of adopting the Cyprus pound. The current economic crisis facing Cyprus highlights the ripple effects of the discontinuity in economies sharing a common currency. Cyprus exit from the euro zone would allow the country to restructure its economic infrastructure by introducing a domestic currency and floating exchange rates, which would boost exports and minimize the country’s trade balance.
A floating exchange rate would allow the Cyprus pound to rectify the country’s trade balance because the currency’s value will adjust in respect to Cyprus’ economy rather than as a projection of the entire euro zone (Nixon par. 5). The exchange rate mechanism (EMR) adopted among EU members limits the fluctuations of the value of a country’s currency, which negatively affects the response to deficit differentials in different countries.
Having the Cyprus pound would allow the country to engage in the simulation of the local currency by printing money proportionately. A flexible exchange rate would play a crucial role in correcting the economic inefficiencies facing Cyprus and boost sectors such as tourism to facilitate the country’s emergence from depression and high unemployment. A small economy has a high possibility of recovery from an economic crisis when using an individual currency because of the flexibility in adjusting rates.
For example, a forty percent decrease in the value of the Cyprus pound would translate into a forty percent decrease in the cost incurred by tourists visiting Cyprus. A surge in income generated through tourism can help the country to normalize the effects of high unemployment and increasing spending. Adopting the Cyprus pound would eliminate the main component of Cyprus capital account, which is the transfer of payments from the European Union for investment and capital transfer purposes.
Cyprus would experience an imbalance in its financial accounts due to an excess of the disposal of financial assets because investors would expect a devaluation of the Cyprus pound. Retaining the Euro increases the susceptibility of Cyprus to a fiscal crisis because of the lack of a currency that is responding to the local economic factors.
Having an individual currency eliminates transition costs, which faces countries relying on a major currency such as the Euro. Transition costs have detrimental effects on the operating costs of multinational corporations because of currency conversion, which arouse litigation cases. A multinational company in Cyprus owning a trading partner in Germany would have the challenge of accounting for the debt with Cyprus pounds or Euros.
Exiting the euro zone now would have devastating effects on Cyprus’ economic stability considering the current economic status of the country, which suffers from a large trade balance deficit due to an overreliance on imports. The devaluation of the currency for an economically unstable country may induce a massive withdrawal of deposits from banks due to risk aversion as investors shift to other stable currencies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The exit of investors would have negative effects on Cyprus current account due to a decline in returns on investment as people transfer their assets to high-return currencies (Eun and Bruce G 213).The withdrawal of investors would counter the supposed benefits of devaluation of the Cyprus pound to enhance competition in the globe in the short-term. Cyprus economy would gradually improve and recover with the inflows on exports and services such as tourism to offset the deficit accrued on imports.
Works Cited Eun, Cheol, and Bruce Resnick. International financial management. 6th ed. 2011. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Print.
Nixon, Simon. “Cyprus Deposits a New Challenge on the Euro Zone.” The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones
Fast Food Industry and Its Impacts Essay essay help: essay help
First attempted in March 2004 the American Personal Responsibility in Food Consumption Act was successfully reintroduced in October 2005. The Act, nicknamed “the Cheeseburger Bill” has a purpose of protecting the fast food corporations from being sued by their own clients. The act says that the legal responsibility for consuming products stuffed with sugar and fat and harming their own health fully lies on the customers of fast food restaurants.
The film “Supersize Me” has revealed horrifying details. The experiment made in the film shows how consuming of the fast food influences the human body, presents a visual demonstration of the processes happening in our inside organs under the influence of chemicals contained in the food. McDonalds’ fast food even turns out to cause addictions. Consuming such products every day is not only harmful, it is also life threatening.
The film presents statistics of obesity level in the USA, general obsession with fast food, large advertisement campaigns and numerous restaurants with harmful meals all over the country. This experiment has brought awareness to the society, knowledge of what is being eaten in enormous portions. Of course, it became highly popular, caused a public reaction, a wave of attempts to sue the fast food companies and gave a push to the appearance of the Cheeseburger Bill.
The article from Fat2Fit suggests that we should simply outlaw the fast food companies that endanger public health (Cheeseburger Bill, 2011). Practically, fast food industry is gigantic, it is indescribably popular, its revenue is enormous.
The mega corporations that are spread all over the world are very well equipped, as it is said in the film “Supersize Me”, these corporations have many really experienced and expensive lobbyists working for them, and these lobbyists have one purpose – not to let the government pass the Acts that are not favorable for the business and income of the corporations, and at the same time help the Acts that work in favor of the corporations go through (“Supersize Me”, 2013).
To my mind, the consumers are helpless in this case; they are simply not a match to such powerful opponent as fast food mega corporations. Logically, the best excuse of all the obese consumers of fast food is useless. It is possible to sue a fast food company for “pushing” their product on the consumers, but it is not the company’s business to count our calories and tell us when we should stop consuming fat and sugar. The choice is and has always been ours.
Reference List Cheeseburger Bill. (27 Jul, 2011). Fat2Fit.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Villageconsciousness. (2 Jul, 2013). Supersize Me with English Subtitle.
Quantitative Approach to Research Essay best essay help: best essay help
Quantitative research is called this way because it is directly connected to numbers and data. Quantitative research works though collecting data, converting it into the form of numbers and processing it through the calculations and formulas (The Four Main Approaches, 2009).
The conclusions will be also presented in the numerical form. Reliable data is the strength of this approach; it allows more calculations and tests (Crossman, 2014). There are several different approaches to the quantitative research. There is a positivist approach – in the positivist way of thinking science is positioned as a way to learn the truth (Positivism
Hollywood Taxes for the Film Industry Essay a level english language essay help
The article “Hollywood Asks California to cut Taxes for the Film Industry” discusses a petition launched by Film Works aimed at convincing the state of California to implement tax cuts for the film industry. Film Works is a company that advocates for the rights of stakeholders in film production and distribution. In order to make the petition successful, the company launched an online appeal in order to elicit support from film enthusiasts.
The company’s main goal is to lobby for creation of tax incentives that will boost the growth of the film industry in California (Daily Caller News Foundation, 2014). Many states have implemented tax incentives for their film industries. Therefore, California is in danger of losing film producers, actors, and distributors to these states. Hollywood put California on the world map for being the unrivaled hub of film production in the world.
However, this is changing due to the decline of the film industry in the state. The reason for the petition is burgeoning operating costs that have curtailed growth (Pomerantz, 2014). In the past decade, costs have increased significantly. Many states have created incentives like tax credits in order to encourage film production (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014).
According to Film Works, failure to pass tax-cuts legislation might lead to loss of California’s monopoly in film production. The state is at risk of losing to other states because of lack of competitiveness (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014). Lowering taxes will give production companies an opportunity to compete effectively with upcoming companies around the country.
Film Works bases the argument on what happened decades ago when California lost its competitive edge in the aerospace industry. It failed to create tax incentives that would encourage companies to invest more money in the state. Companies moved to states that had better business environments. Thousands of jobs were lost and the rate of unemployment soared (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014).
It is important for the governor to act swiftly because the film industry has experienced significant decline in the last decade. For instance, between 2005 and 2013, the state lost 8,500 jobs (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014). According to the petition, Film Works ascribes loss of jobs to a declining market share of one-hour TV series by 38% (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014).
A report released by the San Francisco Film Commission revealed that loss of the aforementioned jobs had a twofold effect. First, it raised the rate of unemployment in California, and second, it affected the economy. According to the report, the economy loses about $112,000 for every job lost in the film industry (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The feature-film sector has also experienced significant decline in the past fifteen years. The decline prompted the state to give an incentive of $100 million in tax cuts (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014). However, it was insignificant and failed to boost the film industry. New York, Louisiana, and Georgia are examples of states that have cut taxes (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014).
The cuts have increased economic growth of individual states. After passing tax credit legislation in 2002, Louisiana experienced a surge in film production spending. Spending increased by 19,000 percent within a period of eight years (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014). Leading businesses have joined Film Work’s petition in effort to lobby Governor Jerry Brown to enact legislation to boost the declining film industry.
This is important it is a lucrative industry that makes great contributions to the growth of the economy. Supporters of the petition include SAG-AFTRA, Warner Bros, and the county of Los Angeles (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014). The petition was launched on grounds that failure to implement legislation to cut taxes would lead to loss of the film industry’s stakeholders to other states.
Paul Audley reiterated the effect of high taxes on the film industry. Audley said that the industry is waning and urged the governor to act swiftly. He added that high operating costs could drive producers, actors, and film distributors to other states that have better tax incentives (Daily Caller News Foundation 2014). Audley said that the governor has little time left to boost the film industry before stakeholders look for other options.
Research has shown that states that have created tax incentives for the film industry have experienced significant growth (Pomerantz, 2014). The film industry has been a monopoly of the state of California for a long time. However, there is stiff competition from other states that have realized the potential of the industry.
It is important for the governor to create tax incentives for the industry in order to enable it compete with other industries in other states that are growing rapidly (Pomerantz, 2014). Failure to act swiftly will affect stakeholders and the economy. On the other hand, it will lead to loss of jobs and consequently increase the rate of unemployment.
Film Work’s petition is an indication of tough economic times the industry is experiencing. In California, film production is a billion-dollar industry that contributes greatly to economic growth. However, the state has dropped to fourth position with regard to film production in the U.S. (Pomerantz, 2014).
We will write a custom Essay on Hollywood Taxes for the Film Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Daily Caller News Foundation: Hollywood Asks California to Cut Taxes for the Film Industry. (2014). Retrieved from http://dailycaller.com/2014/02/17/hollywood-asks-california-to-cut-taxes-for-the-film-industry/
Pomerantz, D. (2014). Cameras Rolling Away from California: State Falls to Fourth in Film Production. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/dorothypomerantz/2014/03/06/local-film-industry-in-deep-trouble-in-california/
The Dance Video “Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2” Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2 The video “Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2” is a carefully choreographed piece of art. The choreographer has merged different aspects of dance to produce this masterpiece. To begin with, the choreographer has used both rhythmic and non-rhythmic composition techniques to make the dance spectacular. There is also variation and repetition thus making the composition entertaining.
The choreographer has also used the best emotional context, human energy, and space. The concept of improvisation is also notable in this dance. The choreographer has also used canon, unison, and shadowing choreographic techniques. The choreographer has used various dynamics to produce long, short, and soft movements (Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2).
The performance quality of this dance is exemplary. For instance, the dancers sustain the best dynamics, time control, and space. This makes the dance meaningful and entertaining. The dance combines certain aspects of performance such as space, dynamics, and time.
The motion is fantastic because most of the dancers show proper coordination and movement. The dancers use their skills to interpret and communicate to the audience. This shows how the dancers commit themselves to the act. This explains why I have liked the dance (Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2).
This video excerpt shows an orchestra dance technique. The dancers combine certain elements of dance to achieve their goals. The dancers use different choreographic techniques to pass across the intended message.
The dance excerpt portrays how choreographers can be sensitive about human emotions. I strongly believe that the content of this except encourages the viewer to appreciate the dance. The dance also embodies the best performance styles, movements, actions, and compositions (Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2).
Remanso, Vladimir Malakhov, Parrish Maynard
Studies of African-American Women by Kimberle Crenshaw Essay cheap essay help
Kimberle Crenshaw presents the challenges that women encounter in their daily lives in various societies. The scholar explains the ways through which women have been using to reclaim their rightful positions in society. For instance, the author explains that violence is the major hindrance to the realization of individual goals among women and notes further that this is considered a routine that has been affecting their lives.
Feminists have come together to share their experiences that have helped them come to the realization that these injustices can best be fought through political instruments, as they have come to the realization that the political demands of millions speak strongly than the appeals of a few secluded voices.
The writer observes that injustices, such as wife battering and rape, were viewed in the traditional society as private issues that women were not expected to share with the public (Crenshaw 1241).
Again, aberrational, also referred to as errant sexual aggression, was an issue that affected women for many years, but a solution was not provided until recently when the problem is largely acknowledged as part of a broad-scale system of domination that influences the lives of women of all classes and a lasting solution has to be provided.
In the modern society, the recognition of social and systemic process of domination and subjugation is considered a long journey towards finding a permanent solution. Consequently, various groups, including women of color, gays, lesbians, and African-Americans are aware of the problems that they face in society and they have devised ways through which they can manipulate the system to ensure their survival.
All groups share one characteristic, which is employing identity-based politics in developing the solution, as this provides the strength, the sense of community, and intellectual knowledge. However, the scholar observes that the use of identity politics in advocating for the rights of the group raises tension because of the issue of social justice.
Kimberle Crenshaw’s view sheds light on Assanta Shakur’s experiences in the sense that she expresses the same problems that women faced in the United States, as Shakur’s autobiography suggests. Shakur gives a touching story of a poor African-American woman who sought healthcare services in one of the public hospitals in the country after sustaining serious injuries in a shootout.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More JoAnne Chesimard (Black Panther Assata Shakur) was almost dying in a hospital bed, but the police never cared about his condition, as they went on to ask her about the shootout incident that had taken place in New Jersey (Shakur 24).
The author observes that local, state, and federal security agents were only concerned with the information that the poor woman held, but they never considered her health given the fact that she was in a critical condition. The white state trooper had lost his life in the shootout, but the state agents were not concerned with saving the life of the African-American woman.
The state security agencies accused Shakur of shooting and killing the white trooper, even though there was no enough evidence supporting the claim. Shakur’s incarceration was based on the propaganda that had been extended by Edgar against blacks with an aim of defaming the black race, infiltrating the African-American, and criminalizing the nationalists and those fighting for the rights of the blacks.
The poor African-American woman was enslaved for four years before being imprisoned based on delicate evidence in 1977, with claims that she was co-conspirator in the assassination of the white trooper. Shakur notes that the state and the media presented blacks as bad people who were the major threat to the development of the country, which was never the case.
The government never gave blacks a chance to realize their potentials meaning that it only aimed at fulfilling the interests of the whites. Shakur decided to engage in activism after realizing that the government was weak and never wanted the blacks to exercise their rights in the country.
Similarly, Kimberle Crenshaw observes that the government supported male domination in society, as it opposed identify-based politics, terming it illegal and sensitive to the country’s security.
On her part, Angela Davis notes that feminism its related activism is a new phenomenon that aim at preventing sexual assault and domestic violence, even though a heated debate locally, nationally, and internationally is ongoing regarding the relevance of activists and politicians focused on feminist issues.
We will write a custom Essay on Studies of African-American Women by Kimberle Crenshaw specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women in various prisons are aware of their rights and they are opposed to the idea of using them as objects to satisfy the wishes and desires of men (Davis 341). She notes that men are naturally violent and they always engage their spouses in conflicts without specific reasons, which results in manslaughter.
In this regard, she notes that all women in prisons should be handed amnesty, especially those who killed their husbands because they might have acted to save their lives. Unfortunately, the government is reluctant to listen to the pleas of feminist activities.
Kimberle Crenshaw observes that women are unable to achieve their interests because the government is indifferent to their sufferings. This claim supports the views of Davis as both underscore the fact that social structure does not help women in any way since men own and control it.
Works Cited Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color.” Harvard Law School, 1.1 (1984): 1241-1299.Print
Davis, Angela. “Public Imprisonment and Private Violence: Reflections on the Hidden Punishment of Women.” New England Journal on Criminal and Civic Confinement 24:2 (1998):339–351.Print.
Shakur, Assata. Assata: An Autobiography. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 1999. Print.