Kuwait Walls Report Report Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

History of the City

Construction of the first walls

The construction of the second Kuwait wall

Construction of Kuwait’s third wall

Kuwait’s green wall

Conclusion

Reference List

Abstract Kuwait is widely recognized for a variety of important features that the country is endowed with. Some of the most popular features include the four walls of the country that have since been reduced to three following the demolition of one of the walls to create room for the development of the Al soor gardens.

The sole purpose for the development of these walls was to ensure security of the borders against various attacks and invasions that Kuwaitis constantly faced other tribes (Hauer 2010).

The purpose of this report is to provide a descriptive review of the Kuwait walls. The report shall take into account the construction period, the area covered by the walls, the people that constructed the walls, and the materials used in the construction, among others.

Introduction According to the history of Kuwait, the Kuwait walls were built round the city to ensure that it was ably safeguarded. These walls were actually very important in the history of the country and also as a way of displaying the solidarity of its people. The major component that was used in the construction of the walls was mud.

The first wall was erected in 1760, the second one was built in 1814, while the third wall was constructed in 1920. The purpose of the walls was to ensure that the country was safeguarded against constant conflicts and wars (Facey, 1999).

There is also another version of the Kuwait wall, that involves planting of some 315,000 trees across the country’s border. Dubbed Kuwait Green Wall, this project is aimed at improving air quality in Kuwait,

History of the City The city of Kuwait was initially made of tents. Most of the inhabitants of the city were people from the Bani Khalid tribe who originated from the Interior of the Arabic lands. One of the reasons that these people came to the city was to evade the drought conditions in their homelands (Kuwait Statistics, 2012). Consequently, the city came to be known as Kout and thus its name and that name of the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The city, due to its environs continued to attract more people, majority of whom were settlers. Other people who were attracted to the city were nomads who were escaping the hot weather in the eastern parts of the country (Kuwait Statistics, 2012). The availability of a harbour in the city further made it a lucrative place to settle in, with majority of the people being attracted by the trade that would emanate therein.

Initially, the walls built around the city were aimed at ensuring that the country and its borders were well defined and confined. However, after the advent of the oil boom in the country, it was virtually impossible to ensure that the city was contained (Kuwait Statistics, 2012). Most of the city walls that had been built were thus destroyed following the many invasions and conflicts that ensued thereafter.

Construction of the first walls The first wall of Kuwait was constructed period 1760, during the legislative era of Sheikh Abdullah Bin Saya. The wall was 750 metres high and was considered as the first means of defence for the people of Kuwait.

This was with a view to ensuring that they were safeguarded from most of the foreign invasions taking take place at the time. It was especially important to safeguard the city and its people from the invasion and attack from the Bani Kaab tribe who had become a menace to the locals, as evidenced by the battle of Al riga.

The length of the wall stretched along the coast towards the current location that is now described as seif palace. The borders of the walls were on the east side of the cost near the ministry of planning. The border walls were characterised by a semi-circular arc that extended towards the west near the central bank.

It is said that the remains of the construction materials have been used to construct the current Grand market mosque, Al kahlifa mosque, Al Hadad mosque and the Al Adsani mosques. Other remains of the wall include the al fadda,Qibll al Mdairis and Al Griwiya. The walls were additionally characterised by five gates namely, Maders and Alfdaa, and Bin Butti, among others. These gates were located to the west of the country.

The main reason why the wall had to be constructed to its height was to ensure that all the weak positions of the country had been covered. This was especially important, given the weak nature of Bani Khalid to protect the country from the ensuing internal conflicts. It has been stated that after the death of Suleiman Bin Mohamed in 1166 AH/1753, the country constantly suffered threats from communities that lived in the south.

We will write a custom Report on Kuwait Walls Report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These communities normally operated under the instructions of their leader Saud bin Abdul Aziz. The inhabitants of the city further suffered attacks from the al-Sadoun, located in the northern part of the country.

The major construction material that was used to erect the walls was mud and this was adequate enough to guard the inhabitants of the city from the persistent attacks coming from the nomadic communities at the time. It was also sufficient enough to ensure that the inhabitants were protected from the ever ensuing conflicts that were instigated by the people from the neighbouring tribes.

The construction of the second Kuwait wall The second Kuwait wall was built and erected in 1973, during the reign of the country’s second ruler. This was after the Al Mintifi tribe tried to invade the country’s borders. The invasion took place when the people of Kuwait were struggling to restore and expand their walls in order to hold the gates of the country (Facey, 1999). The second wall was 2,300 metres wide with a surrounding area of about 273 square kilometres.

This famous wall was accorded the name, the gate of darwaza after the additions of the five darwaza to the features of the wall. This wall was strongly built, a feature that enabled it to remain solid for a very long period of time until 1874 (O’Shea, 1996). In total, the wall lasted for a whole 70 years.

Construction of Kuwait’s third wall The country’s third wall was built in the year 1920 during the reign of the third ruler of the country. The area covered by this wall extended through the waaty lands located near the slaughter area to the Roman Catholic Church located in Shamiya. It further extended to the areas covering the current Kuwait towers.

The main reason for building this particular wall was with a view to curtailing the border war between Kuwaitis and the Najd. Once World War 1 was over, the British defeated the Ottoman Empire. As a result of these developments, Kuwait was declared an Independent sheikdom once the British had annulled the Anglo-Ottoman Convention.

However, the new sheikdom still had to be under British protectorate. As a result of the defeat of the Ottomans by the British, a power vacuum occurred in Kuwait, and this only acted to escalate consist between Najd and Kuwait.

Construction of the walls began on 14th June 1920. The walls were also completed the same year, after two months. This wall also had a fence built around it to ensure that the city was safe from any resultant ground attacks. This is after the Kuwait army had been defeated in the Himth battle. Materials used in the construction of the wall comprised of clay, paste and mud.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kuwait Walls Report by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The gates of the wall were designed from wood and were four metres high and 1.5 metres wide. The wall was a further 6400 metres long with the surrounding areas covering an extensive 7500 kilometres square (Hauer, 2010).

Fig 1: Diagramatic representation of Kuwait’s third wall (Facey

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Communication Skills in Management Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The benefits of good communication

How leaders should use communication

My development for communication skills this semester

Evidence of skills

How I will use these skills in the future

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Organisations bring together people from different backgrounds. To ensure that diverse groups of people working in an organisation are organised such that they work towards common aims and goals, communication is an essential skill for any leader. Organisational leaders select various communications strategies depending on the situations that they encountered in their work environments.

Communication strategies are crucial in organisations, particularly in the information age. Organisations are growing into immense complexities and are constantly looking for mechanisms of becoming competitive.

One of the ways of gaining competitive advantage is by “discovering and implementing a communications strategy that supports company business objectives for its customers, workforce and partners” (Perry

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Under the sole dome: the time for magic has come Critical Essay online essay help

Analyzing a design in order to check its efficiency and comment on its strengths and weaknesses is not an easy task, mostly because personal taste issues will most likely stand in the way of an objective evaluation.

However, when taking a wholesome construction of a design of a particular object or site apart, one can possibly provide an adequate evaluation of the expressivity of the chosen artistic means and the message that the design in question conveys.

Although the way in which the SOL dome looks might strike one with the lack of meaning and expressivity, after a thorough analysis of its elements, one will be able to see the efficacy of the chosen medium and the uniqueness of the construction.

A single glance cast at the SOL installation is enough to be impressed by its grandeur and magnificence; truly a work of art, it incorporates the modern idea of what technology is and what it is going to be. First, it is important to stress that the material

When it comes to the color cast of the installation, one must mention that the artwork, as well as its creator, has stuck in the eighties, with the rainbow-like choice of colors and the combination of the color cast with the texture.

Although the latter can be considered a technological breakthrough, as it has been mentioned above, the palette chosen by the artist washes the message that the given texture conveys away and sets the stage for the fashion of the era whose time in the sun was at least two decades ago.

It could be argued, though, that the choice of colors was restricted by the material that was chosen for the installation. Indeed, when it comes to picking the palette for solar powered LEDs, an artist is most likely be restricted by the limitations of the material; in fact, the audience was lucky enough to see the sculpture the way it was made, luminescent yet at the same time not shedding an acid bright light all over the place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, taking the honeycomb structure into account, one can assume that the choice of a warm color instead of a cold palette would have been a much more reasonable choice; in fact, the color of steel would have hit the chord with the general idea of the installation in a much better way.

However, the message has still been conveyed efficiently. The author of the installation has out a proper emphasis on the role of technology in the present-day world by stressing the fact that the construction is powered by the sun. Thus, a cautious remark about the nature vs. nurture conflict has been made.

That being said, the SOL dome definitely makes an impression. It can be argued that the shape of the construction lacks clarity and that the color cast could be improved for the installation to be brighter, therefore, pushing its exotics to the breaking point and, thus, transporting the audience to the postmodern era.

However, the fact that the author of the installation decided to take such a bold step by crossing the line between retro and technological breakthrough eras that the installation definitely deserves being looked at a bit closer. A love letter to the era of the 80s from the glamorous and sophisticated 2010s, the SOL is definitely worth a prize for its originality.

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Forms of propaganda Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

‘Confessions of an Economic hit man’ and ‘The American War Machine’ are forms of propaganda that use several similar techniques to advance their agenda. One of the most obvious techniques of propaganda that they both have used throughout is emotional appeal.

As noted by Shabo, emotional appeal is a very compelling method as the audience drops the rational thought and focuses on the suffering of the victims. In this case, the victims are the innocent people who die as a result of the wars brought about by the corporateocracy, whose main aim is profit. Both media use emotional appeal to help the audience see the gravity of the issues at hand.

This is especially useful when Perkins talk about the sleepless nights that he spent thinking about the innocent people who died when the United States of America invaded Panama, the children suffering from malnutrition that he met in the cities he visited, and the former financial assassin who had been brutally tortured.

Joe Rogan’s video uses pictures of dead people taken during the Vietnam War and sad music to evoke very powerful emotions from the targeted group.

John Perkins and Joe Rogan also have a similar target audience. They both target the anti-government group that is most likely to criticize and question the actions of the government. The propaganda in both media endorses action that is consistent with their progressive self-interest and interest of the targeted group. They can therefore be classified as rational propaganda.

They are both ‘activism’ types of films because their aim is to provide their audience with information that will inspire them to fight for a change in the operation of government affairs. Perkins and Rogan want people to hold the government accountable.

On Howard Zinn’s chapters on patriotism and nationalism, the author explains that people have lost their understanding of patriotism. He defines patriotism as total compliance with the government and an uncritical acceptance of the will and actions of the government.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most people are devoted to promotion of the policies of the government which are subject to change and manipulation, instead of promoting the core principles of the country. The policies of the government have been hijacked and are now in favor of the ruling elite.

Joe Rogan talks about the same point, bringing out the fact that the government has been taken over by a group of powerful corporations that compel the government to enforce laws and policies, which benefit their profit interests.

And all these are made at the expense of other poorer nations and at times the American people too. Both Howard and Rogan point out that people in this generation have been deceived into joining the army for the wrong reasons. Young people sacrifice their lives for the selfish interests of the owners of the giant corporations that control the government.

Deluca’s argument in “Thinking amidst the Corporate-ocracy” is that the USA and most of the Western World have moved from democratic states to Corporateocracy where corporations create and define the world we live in. He uses examples such as, the invasion of Iraq despite the global outcry to withhold and the 2008 financial collapse caused by illegal practices in the banking industry and how nobody was held accountable.

The media should also be held accountable for the rise of the Corporateocracy since they have not done their work in calling out these very evident violations of the constitution. Instead, they have chosen to go to bed with those people who are bringing down not only this society, but the rest of the world.

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Research Report on Ecotourism in Mauritius Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction to Tourism in Mauritius

Profile of Mauritian Tourists

Major Attractions

Major Activities

References

Introduction to Tourism in Mauritius Tourism is regarded as one of the most important foreign exchange earners in Mauritius. The IMF (2012) reports that tourism is slightly over 8 percent of the country’s GDP, making it an important aspect of the island’s economy. The growth in the tourism sector over the past 3 decades has contributed to the overall growth of the Mauritian economy.

The IMF (2012) reveals that tourism has served as a large engine of job creation in the country. The performance of Mauritius’s tourism sector has been impressive with the country experiencing a remarkable increase from having some 18,000 visitors a year in 1970 to some 400,000 visitors in 1994 and an impressive 960,000 visitors to the island in 2012.

The tourism sector in Mauritius is largely homegrown. There are a number of major luxury hotel chains owned and operated by Mauritian entrepreneurs. In addition to this, the Mauritius business community has reinvested part of the proceeds from the sector into the Mauritius economy thereby fostering the country’s economy.

Profile of Mauritian Tourists Mauritius is marketed as a high-class destination and targeted at up-market tourists. As an expensive tourist destination, the island is out of reach for the standard tourist. Bulcke and Verbeke (2009) reveal that the inflated airfares are an important factor in making the destination inaccessible. Graham and Forsyth (2012) observe that more than 90% of the total number of visitors to Mauritius go to the country for leisure purposes.

The national carrier, Air Mauritius, enjoys almost a monopoly as the main passenger carrier to the island. A key attribute of the airline is that it charges high prices, which help to uphold the high-class destination image that the island has and continues to project. The limited competition faced by Air Mauritius allows the airline to implement price discrimination based on nationality and the origin of the travel.

This discrimination ensures that foreigners are charged significantly more than the Mauritius residents are. Since chartered flights are not allowed into the country, reaching Mauritius at a favourable rate proves to be impossible for many.

European high-spenders make up the vast majority of Mauritius’ foreign tourists. The largest number of tourists to Mauritius is from France and the French island of Reunion located in the Indian Ocean. These two countries combined account for about 41% of the total number of foreign tourists visiting the country annually.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The popularity of Mauritius among the French travellers can be attributed to the island’s long history with France. The island was held as a French colony from 1905 to 1810 when it was lost to the British after the Napoleonic wars.

There is therefore deep history between France and the island with many cultural and language similarities between the two countries (Graham

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Love and the girl child in “The King of Masks” Critical Essay scholarship essay help

“The King of Masks” directed by Wu Tianming is a kindhearted Chinese melodrama that renders a clear understanding of the theme of love. The film begins with Wang Bian Lian (Zhu Xu), an old street performer frantically searching for a male heir to teach him the face changing techniques according to the Chinese culture. In this regard, Wang meets a tender child who was eager to learn acrobatics.

The film demonstrates an excellent scenic cinematography that accompanies an elaborate theme of love. Wang was very sorry when the young Doggie fell sick and he had no money to take her for medication. Doggie’s sickness resulted in Wang realizing that she was a girl and not a boy. However, Wang continued to stay with Doggie, but declined to teach her the face changing technique because only boys were allowed to earn the trick.

The relationship between Wang and Doggie became shaky after Doggie accidentally burned Wang’s boat and went to hide in the city where she returned again with a child (Wengui 103).

The new child restored Wang’s joy although he was later arrested and jailed, but Doggie is determined to rescue him. As such, the relationship between Wang and Doggie highlights how true love is important during harsh times and how women were discriminated in China.

The ageing street performer was a lonely man in the film who kept on searching for a grandson to teach him his artistic prowess. The old man was determined that one day he would find a grandson through his regular visits from one town to another. When he met a female character in the film, he became certain that finally he had found a grandson.

The female character told Wang: “….Do not die without an heir or your magic will die, too.” (Wengui 93). The sentiments from the female character gave Wang a deep thought and finally bought the child to teach him the tactics. At the same time, the old man was headed to a nearby town to buy a grandson (Wengui 93). However, the Chinese cultural practice requires that only girls are sold because the girls were less important.

The Chinese traditions during the ancient times did not value the importance of a girl child. Tianming demonstrates the evils of the Chinese culture of the 1930 using this film to show how Doggie found herself in the old street performer’s hands (Jade 234). Although the old man was feeling bad after discovering that Doggie was not a boy, he still cared for her.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The girl categorically stated to the old man that she had been sold seven times and that is the reason she had to pretend to be a boy. Additionally, the man who claimed to be his father was not her actual parent, but somebody who used to torment her.

The old man was touched with the girl’s assertion and realized how the girl had undergone severe hurdles. The viewer is able to understand how the ancient culture was unfair to girls in the Chinese set up.

The film is an excellent love story with important moral lessons about how the girl child suffered on the Chinese traditional set up. The elaborate account of events that happened to Doggie demonstrates how a girl child was treated unfairly. In her case, she was sold seven times in eight years, regularly tormented and had never enjoyed being free in a society where the opposite gender was free.

The cultural belief impact was so strong for the Chinese people at that time to an extent that even the old man who saw sense in Doggie’s misfortunes could not teach the girl the face changing techniques. Tianming used the film to illustrate the suffering the female character had to undergo to liberate a girl child from the unfair Chinese myth.

Later on, the old man is convinced after watching an opera called Attaining Nirvana to teach Doggie acrobatics. The young girl does not understand why the real world should treat the girl child in such a manner yet they were all from the same society.

It is clear that Wang still believed in the traditions about the girl child. When Doggie worked hard to please and worship him he just complained and said “…..if only you were a boy” (Wengui 93).

“The King of Masks” is an interesting film revolving around love, but further illustrates how culture can be used as an injustice in the society. Tianming used Doggie as a female character to demonstrate the suffering, but also introduces another character Bodhisattva who brings hope to the discriminated gender. The great mother of Bodhisattva has dedicated her sacrifice to fight against the cultural belief about girls to change the society.

We will write a custom Essay on Love and the girl child in “The King of Masks” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The society did not understand that the girl child could provide some help to the society at one time. Tianming demonstrates that the important thing is real love and determination and not a specific gender. The old man was jailed after being found with a kidnapped child, but Doggie is determined to rescue him.

They collectively with Bodhisattva pleaded with the police to release the old man after demonstrating the bruises on Doggie’s body (Jade 234). After being released from jail, the old man learned that although he had less concern about the young girl, she had proved to be more helpful than a boy he would have wished to have. As such, Tianming carefully demonstrates the importance of love and the girl child in the Chinese society.

The film has an important moral lesson because the secrets that were used in the film would demonstrate the need for a reformed society. The film took a dramatic turn when the old man discovered that Doggie was not a boy as earlier cheated by the seller. The viewer would expect that the old man who believed so strongly on the Chinese cultural beliefs would send away the young girl.

However, the girl explained to Wang her lifelong misfortunes that persuaded the old man to change his mind partially. At the end of the film, Doggie’s heroics help rescue the old man from jail. The viewer is able to learn from this act that the young girl would have learned enough tactics from the old man and she knew what was expected of her to rescue the old man.

Therefore, Tianming points on the importance of the Chinese cultural belief of ignoring the girl child yet she had the potential like the boy child that was preferred (Jade 234). As such, the Chinese cultural belief was an unfair judgment of the potential of the girl child.

Works Cited Jade, Ladder: Contemporary Chinese Poetry edited by WN Herbert and Yang Lian with Brian Holton and Qin Xiaoyu. London: Picador publisher, 2008. Print.

Wengui, Chen. The king of the Masks (1997). New York: Shearsman Books, 2008. Print.

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Usury and Ethics Critical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Historically, usury has been thought of as being unethical. The people who practiced usury were shunned by society as they were seen as greedy. Historical hatred towards usury is also well documented by Shakespeare in his book “The Merchant of Venice” where Shylock, a Jew who practices usury, is loathed by the members of the community.

Charles Eisenstein notes that even though the society abhors usury, they are the same people who promote its practice. He further illustrates the fact that the very money we use today is a result of usury in a disguised form. Eisenstein argues that today lending with interest in mind is an accepted practice unlike in the past.

The only difference today is that the lender and the borrower agree on the expected interest rate and the amount of time within which the loan is payable. He uses examples such as banks that offer loans to their customers, hire purchase enterprises, security bonds that are sold by the government and the mortgages (Eisenstein, 2011, p. 47).

He further argues that this new form of usury is being used as a form of money creation. This is illustrated by the stock exchange market where one is able to purchase securities without actually using their own money but interest bearing security.

This analogy defines his main argument that today’s form of usury is so diverse such that money created by an individual is most often accompanied by a corresponding debt. It is this money that he refers to as the monetary base, which means that money has been created, but actually does not exist (Eisenstein, 2011, p. 47).

Abdul Gafoor, the author of “Interest, Usury, Riba and the Operational Costs of a Bank” uses a bank as an example of an organization that practices usury. He refers to the fact that most bank customers are borrowers who are charged interest on the loans they take while the other majorities who deposit also get interest on their deposit amounts.

According to him, they are all the same although greed is exhibited when banks charge higher interests on loans than deposits (Gafoor, 2011, p. 46).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also through him that we get a religious point of view that clearly expounds why the Islamic religion prohibits lending with interest and thus the emergence of Sharia banks that do not charge interest on loans or deposits in line with Islamic laws.

The author does not find fault in charging interest as is the case with banks since most of the lenders usually use the money for business and thus making profit. Hence, the lender has a right to ask for something in return, but faults for charging interest when the borrower is not business oriented (Gafoor, 2011, p. 56).

Michael Hoffman, in his book “Usury in Christendom: The Mortal Sin that Was and Now is Not” gives a clear account of how usury was greatly abhorred and discouraged among Christians earlier. The practice was highly loathed by the leaders of the early Christian churches as it was condemned and even compared to robbery and in extreme cases murder (Hoffman, 2012, p. 103).

Hoffman wonders how the same churches today have become a haven that promote usury since they have learnt to arm twist the scriptures and this has allowed them to be able to invest their offering through bank accounts while at the same time encouraging their members to take loans from banks.

Some have even gone a step further by opening Sacco’s where they lend their congregation money on interest. This is a clear indication that society today has accepted the practice of lending with interest (Hoffman, 2012, p. 123).

Adam Smith, a moral philosopher, in his book “The Wealth of Nations”, discusses various principles and ideas on what actually builds a nation’s wealth. He suggests and elaborates a number of issues in regard to the division of labor and specialization, productivity and free markets as pillars of national wealth (Smith, 2009, p. 402).

In response to these philosophical explanations, some economic authors agree with Adam’s philosophy, although they also disagree and give their opinion on the same principle discussed by Adam (McCreadie, 2009, p. 32).

We will write a custom Essay on Usury and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regarding the real and nominal price of commodities, Adam offers two approaches. He first asserts that the actual price of commodities that a buyer should be sold at is predominantly determined by the labor involved in the actual production of the commodity. David Ricardo, a political economist, in his book “Principles of Economy and Taxation”, agrees to this principle.

He supports the fact that the actual worthiness of a product reflects the relative difficulty in producing it. In the second part of the definition of commodity nominal price, Smith observes that labor is the real measure of the exchange value of all commodities.

Ricardo disagrees and is of the opinion that both the cost of production and the utility of the commodity should be jointly used in determining commodity worthiness rather than labor alone (Ricardo

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History of the Peloponnesian War Essay (Book Review) cheap essay help

This article focuses on the role played by inequality and morality in international politics based on Thucydides’ depictions of the Athenians

Book Review Because of globalization, international politics has lost its potential for moral relationships and virtuous action. Many argue that the growth of self-consciousness with freedom has disintegrated into pure self-centeredness, objectification, and instrumentality (Art

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Coach Inc. Is its Advantage in Luxury Handbags Sustainable Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

Executive Summary This paper presents a case analysis report on Coach Inc. The case analysis is comprehensive and focuses on the nature of operations in the company. The first part focuses on the operations of the company and the issues that face the sustainable operation and positioning of Coach Inc. in the competitive industry.

The second part of the paper presents an analysis of the issues of competitiveness of the company based on the SWOT analysis framework. The third part of the paper explores the strategic choices as far as the future competitiveness of the company is concerned. This is followed by the development of a number of recommendations and how they can be implemented by the company to ensure sustained performance.

Coach Inc.: Is its Advantage in Luxury Handbags Sustainable? Background

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Project for the Design and Construction of a Bridge across the Murray River Report (Assessment) online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Project Aim

The aim of this project is to provide an alternate route from South Wales to Victoria for pedestrians, motor vehicle users, and cyclists through the Murray River.

Project Objective

The principle objective of this project is to enhance travel to and from South Wales across the Murray River using the easiest and cheapest option.

Project Background and Rationale

XYZ Infrastructure Engineering Group Inc. has been awarded with a Design and Construct Contract from Federal Government of Australia to construct a multi-purpose bridge across the Murray River from and to South Wales. The bridge is to be named the “The Murray River Bypass”.

The proposed new only multipurpose bridge across the Murray River will greatly reduce traffic from the existing Victoria Bridge. The bridge will greatly enhance efficiency of delivery of goods and services between the two cities. This proposed bridge will provide safe crossing for local commuters, encourage walking and cycling as an alternative option of transport.

The project has been commissioned following extreme pressure from local residents, businesspeople, and politicians regarding too much time taken to make trade across the two towns. The distance between the two towns using the Victoria Bridge is twice as much as the “The Murray River Bypass” which will cut through the river almost at the mid level.

Pundits reckon that business between the two towns will increase two folds and there is likely to be increased tourism. The latter is because of the scenic nature the new way will create interest from commuters. Hence, landowners along the new route will most likely come up with ways to shore up tourism attracting residents of the two towns.

Bridge Specification and Design Bridge Dimensions

Central Span: 100 metres

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deck Spans: 50 metres

Deck Widths: 8 metres

Entrance/ Abutment Lengths: 15 metres either side

Construction Materials/ Specification

Component Description Drilled Bored Piers – 5 off 50 MPA cast in situ concrete, steel reinforcement Piers above 8 off 50 MPA cast in situ concrete, steel reinforcement Masts/ Towers 10 off 50 MPA pre-cast concrete towers, steel reinforcement Headstock 10 off 50 MPA cast in situ concrete, steel reinforcement Cables 200 mm Steel Conduits with internal steel cables, which comprise of steel rods/ wires within. Concrete panels/ decking 8 off pre-cast concrete panels 25 metres in length 300 mm thick with 60 MPA concrete, with steel reinforcement The bridge must have permanent metal decking with interlocking joints. Line-marking Yellow painted marking on concrete to distinguish between oncoming and outgoing motorists. The bridge must have white markings on either to mark bridge edges. Bridge Design

How cable stayed bridges work

A cable-stayed bridge consists of one or more pre-cast towers. The outgoing cables support the deck of the bridge.

Just above the deck are inclined cables that provide intermediate support for the bridge. The cables are anchored into these pre-cast concrete towers located above the piers. All of the weight of the bridge goes to the top of the towers through the cables, which kills off tension. The weight is then transferred and supported by the ground through a combination of forces.

Other bridge specifications deal with type of materials used in construction. The bridge functionality section defines the usage of certain materials that are part of the main elements selected and their purpose in the general design.

We will write a custom Assessment on Project for the Design and Construction of a Bridge across the Murray River specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More SWOT Analysis Project Strengths

The extensive experience of XYZ Infrastructure Engineering Group Inc in construction

XYZ excellent relationship with potential partners in materials and expertise

XYZ Previous engagements with the Australian Government (commissioner of the project)

The project is independent and virgin in nature, hence no disruptions to anyone

No interference with waterways

Potential tourist attractions

Project Weaknesses

Possibility of negative environmental impact since some trees may be uprooted

Noise, vibration and dust during construction

Complaints from animal conservationists that will claim that the road in wild animals habitat

Project Opportunities

Boost economy through increased business operations and tourism attractions

XYZ can improve on its already good reputation with Australian Government hence possibility for further business

Provide alternative routes for motorists, pedestrians, and cyclists across Murray River

Increase in value to the area due to increased amenities and appreciation because of accessibility

Likely Improvement of the landscape of Murray River

Project Threats

Continued opposition from conservationists

High inflation may increase cost of materials, labour, etc over the period of the project

Economic Analysis Outline of costs/Budget

The following are the main cost/budget areas and their respective amounts in Australian Dollars. The total cost of the project will be Australian Dollars $6,600,000 (Ahrens

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Constructing a Bridge to Link the Riverina Highway to the Hodge Island Reserve Report writing essay help

Introduction The Murray River is one of the most important waterways in the entire Australian continent. The river is the lifeline of hundreds of thousands of people who live along its banks. This proposal presents the requirements for constructing a bridge to link the Riverina Highway to the Hodge Island Reserve. The Bridge will open up the Island for tourist activity, and in the process, it will improve the economy of New South Wales (NSW).

The aim of the bridge construction project is to provide tourists with a means of accessing the Hodge Island Reserve for camping and for leisure activities. The project objective is to build a 100-meter bridge to serve as the access route to the Hodge Island reserve.

The rationale for the construction of this bridge is as follows. First, the Hodge Island reserve is currently uninhabited and it serves as a breeding ground for various animals. The island has the potential of employing more than 5000 people directly and indirectly if the NSW government opens it up for tourism.

The Island is an ideal camping ground and can serve a mooring bay for boats. The government will not construct permanent structures on the reserve. It will identify ideal camping spots and make sites for pitching tents. This will ensure that there is minimum disturbance of the environment of the island.

Figure 1: Map Showing the Proposed Location of the Hodge Island Bridge

Bridge Design The Hodge Island Bridge should meet the following design constraints. First, the construction process and the final structure should not lead to major disturbance of the natural environment of the Hodge Island Reserve. The reserve serves as a breeding ground for several species of animals. Extensive damage to their habitat because of bridge construction may lead to permanent loss of breeding grounds for these animals.

Secondly, the bridge should avoid the riverbanks to ensure that the water way is not disturbed. Thirdly, the final design of the bridge and its access road should not disturb traffic on the Riverina Highway.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The bridge should be large enough to accommodate camping trucks, and should be able to support light traffic. The bridge should also have a pedestrian walk way. Since the bridge will lead to a reserve, it will require a barrier to ensure that only authorised traffic enter the Island.

The best bridge design for this project is a cable stayed suspension bridge. This will require only two supports in the waterway, and minimal works on the riverbanks. The proposed design for the is shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2: Sketch of a Cable Stayed Suspension Bridge.

The dimensions of the Proposed Bridge are as follows. The central span will be 100 meters, the deck spans will be 20 meters each. The width of the decks will be 5 meters to accommodate two-way traffic and a pedestrian walk way. The abutment will be 10 meters.

SWOT Analysis Table 1 below presents the SWOT analysis for the bridge construction project.

Strengths Weaknesses The chosen bridge design is popular in Australia. This will make it easy to conduct accurate feasibility studies and impact assessments.

The construction company has experience in making such bridges in many part of Australia

There will be little or no disturbance to the traffic on the Riverina highway because of the proposed location of the bridge

The inclusion of a barrier will promote controlled access. This will eliminate overuse and will increase the confidence of the environmental regulators in the sustainability of the reserve

There will be some disturbance to the environment during construction from debris and noise. This may lead to pollution of the river water, and the death of some organisms

The project will also lead to the loss of some trees and plants to make way for the embankments and the anchorage blocks.

Micro ecosystems in the immediate area of the bridge will be lost.

Opportunities Threats The bridge will help create 5000 jobs in the post construction phase, and another 300 jobs in the preconstruction and construction phases. This will help reduce unemployment in NSW

The bridge will position NSW as a tourist destination because it will make the Hodge Island Reserve accessible to tourists

The Bridge will also increase the sense of ownership of the reserve among the locals because it will enable them to enjoy its benefits

There may be resistance from environmental activists who would not like to see the Island opened up for human activity. This may influence the state government

The riverbanks may prove unstable because of the silt deposited during the formation of the island. This may complicate the construction of the embankments, and may increase the cost of the project

Unstable prices of construction material and the high cost of labour will also complicate the project

Table 1: SWOT Analysis.

We will write a custom Report on Constructing a Bridge to Link the Riverina Highway to the Hodge Island Reserve specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technical Challenges This project has three main technical issues. These are the design of the bridge, the construction process, and the maintenance requirements in the post construction phase.

The design of the bridge is a technical challenge because of the possibility that the riverbanks may not support the weight of the bridge. This means that extensive civil works may be necessary to ensure that the final structure is stable. The choice of a cable-stayed bridge came from the need to for minimal disturbance of the waterway.

The construction process will also be technically challenging. Any construction process inevitably leads to the accumulation of debris. It is crucial for the contractors to come up with construction processes that will lead to the least accumulation of debris in the construction site. One of the options of achieving this goal is to commission a secondary site for the construction of all steel parts for later assembly.

The third technical challenge associate with the project is the maintenance requirements of a cable-stayed bridge. Cable stayed bridges require regular inspection to ensure that all parts are functioning well. The bridge will have exposure to local humid conditions, as well as fluctuations in the weather patterns. The NSW government will need to appoint a maintenance contractor after the commissioning of the bridge.

Economic Analysis The main costs associated with this project are as follows.

The Net Present Value

The following calculation gives Net present Value (NPV) of the project.

F = P(1 i)n

Where

Not sure if you can write a paper on Constructing a Bridge to Link the Riverina Highway to the Hodge Island Reserve by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More F = Future Value

P = Principal

i = Interest rate (10% pa)

n = number of years (5 years)

The NPV for this project is $ 7649922.5

Payback Period

The projected income from this project is estimated at $2,000,000 per year. The Simple Payback Period (SPP) in this case is given by F/I

Where

F = Future Value

I = Income

Therefore,

SPP = F/I

= 7,649,922.5/2,000,000

= 3.8 years

Environmental Impacts This project will have a varied number of environmental impacts. Table 1 below provides an analysis of these impacts and the mitigation measures applicable for each case.

Category Impact Mitigation Measures Direct Indirect Cumulative Cultural Impacts The arrival of tourists at the Hodge Island reserve will lead to cultural interaction between the local population and the tourists

Tourists will become potential immigrants to the region if they like the environment

A population surge will occur as more people join the nearby communities, leading to alterations in the local culture.

A greater population will lead to more pressure on resources

Stricter immigration policies to guard against a population surge

Economic Impacts NSW will make money from tourist activities at the Hodge Island Reserve, and from other supporting industries such as transport, and entertainment.

There will be more jobs for locals directly at the reserve and indirectly in industries supporting activities at the reserve.

Jobs will be created during the construction phase of the project

The increased earnings from the reserve will increase the capacity of the NSW government to take care of the reserves in its jurisdiction

The GDP of NSW will increase based on earning from activities at the Hodge Island Reserve

Ensure that all businesses operating in the reserve are licensed and are tax compliant

Water Quality Debris from the constructions site will pollute river water.

Siltation will result from the drying of concrete lumps on the river bed

Debris (concrete remains, silt from excavation works, )will affect water flow characteristics and

Debris will also have an adverse short term impact on current downstream uses of the river water for the period of construction

Alteration of the water quality

Divert the river course during construction work on the river bed

Use construction nets to catch falling debris

Flora and Fauna Permanent loss of Flora and Fauna displaced by bridge

Loss of breeding and nesting grounds due to changes in water flow characteristics along the river

Debris may lead to death of certain species that are not tolerant to constructions waste.

Loss of breeding and nesting grounds due to changes in water flow characteristics may lead to an upset of the ecological balance of the river basin, leading to further unpredictable ecological changes

Permanent changes in the ecology of the river basin with greater effects being felt downstream

Assess flora and fauna that will be affected and develop a response strategy based in extent of effect

Table 2: Environmental Impact Assessment

Risk Analysis A construction project always has a number of inherent risks. The risk management Matrix below in Table 3 presents the profiles of the risks, their assessment and management options.

Risk Profile Risk Assessment and Management Category Specific Risks Sources of Risk Impact Probability Priority Actions Technical Risks Design failures Design failure can result from wrong assumptions about the conditions of the construction site. Design failures can also result from poor design skills. 5 1 5 Carry out a site assessment before the commencement of the construction Use of low quality materials This risk can occur if the suppliers of the raw materials do not provide the right kind of materials for the project 5 2 10 Procure materials from reputed firms. Test each batch delivered before committing them to the project Financial Risks Cash flow constrains Cash flow constraints can result from failure by the NSW government to remit payments in tandem with the construction schedule. This can in turn affect the overall project duration leading to an increase in overheads 1 4 4 Negotiate for large payouts Budget overshoot The project can go above budget if there is need to repeat the construction process because of poor construction material or poor applications of the materials. This risk can also occur of there is an increase in the work needed to deliver the project objectives such as the need to carry out more excavation to ensure the stability of the final structure. 2 4 8 Cost underestimation The cost of materials can change very rapidly. If this happens, then the finances of the project will be insufficient. It may also occur if the company conducts a poor project appraisal 1 5 5 Ask the NSW government to allow for fluctuations in the cost of materials for the project. Appoint a project economist to appraise the proposal to eliminate underestimation of costs. Environmental Risks Noise Pollution Construction equipment will cause noise during the construction of the project. 5 3 15 Warn the neighbor of the noise levels that will emanate from the site, and schedule all noisy activities to reduce the number of people affected by the noise Water pollution Falling debris and excavation works will lead to the pollution of the water in the river 3 5 15 Use construction nets to catch falling debris Destruction of Flora and Fauna It is necessary to cut down some trees and to clear bushes around anchorage of the bridge 3 4 12 Cut as few trees as possible Project Risks Labor unrest Labor unrest may result from poor working conditions, poor pay, or because of dangerous working conditions 2 5 10 Ensure that all workers have adequate protective apparatus while at work Negotiate with the workers for competitive rates that are within the budget estimates Ensure that workers have comfortable and predictable working schedules Project scope creep There will be need to construct a driveway to the bridge and one after it to access the part. These driveways are not part of the bridge construction process. 2 5 10 Ensure that the scope statement is agreed upon before the construction process starts Time (Approvals and getting supplies) This risk can occur of there are delays in approvals or the release of funds. Such delays can occur in case on an instability in the government 2 4 8 Negotiate for large payments reduce the need for approvals during the life of the project. Table 3: Risk Management Matrix

Reference List FHWA 2011, Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements. Web.

Karim, S. B. A., Berawi, M. A., Yahya, I. A., Abdul-Rahman, H.

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An Analysis of Productivity of Major ApplichemCompany Plants. Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help

ApplichemCompany was one of the leading manufacturers of specialty chemicals in the early 1982s. As a result of the increased demand for its products in the global market, the company’s top management was forced to establish additional branches in different places across the world.

Four of its major plants were built in Gary, Mexico, Frankfurt, and Sunchem. Release-ease is a product that earned the company a global recognition for many years. The company’s performance in terms of production and distribution of release-ease varied from one plant to the other.

Looking at the general performance of all plants from a profitability perspective, one can easily note that Frankfurt plant was the best performer overall followed by the Gary and Mexico plants. The Sunchem plant was the least performing branch. Despite its expansive market, the Frankfurt plant incurred low manufacturing costs compared to other plants.

The raw materials were relatively cheap in Germany compared to the US and Mexico. The manufacturing costs in Japan were so high that the Sunchem plant’s expenditure on inputs was huge. This reduced the revenues to a great extent and eventually affected the productivity of the plant.

Since profitability is positively correlated to productivity, the different profit levels attained by different plants also impacted the productivity levels. This implies that the productivity of each plant depended on the prevailing conditions of the location.

Labor productivity The productivity of labor was the highest in the Frankfurt plant. This can be attributed to the introduction of computerized processes. The technical team was equipped with computer skills making it to be effective with regards to performance. This not only ensured that time was put in its optimal use, but also minimized raw material wastage.

Additionally, the Frankfurt plant was headed by an experienced manager who understood every detail of release-ease production. He understood the needs of customers very well. By doing that, he incorporated certain specifications in the production of release-ease. This attracted a large market for his plant in comparison to others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Gary plant had the highest number of employees. However, the productivity of each employee was low, because the hiring processes were based on loyalty to the plant and the plant manager and not on merit. However, the Mexican plant had operators with the lowest education levels. This hampered innovation and problem solving as no decision would have been made without consulting the plant’s general manager.

On the other hand, the Japanese plant had most of the processes automated forcing the employees to do product development work rather than production. Although the workers of the Sunchem plant acquired the necessary skills through training, their productivity was low. This was due to the few hours of work rule that was enforced by the Japanese labor laws.

Capital productivity The Gary plant had more capacity and facilities required in the production and storage of release-ease. This explains why the products manufactured in the Frankfurt plant were shipped in bulk to Gary for packaging.

Moreover, the computerization of processes in the Frankfurt plant increased the effectiveness and efficiency of production in relation to other plants. The same applied to the Sunchem plant. Nearly all production systems were automated and also managed to stand alone as the only plant that effected the recycling of waste.

In summary, the success of the Frankfurt plant was not only due to the extensive investment in capital, but also as a result of its optimal utilization. This was the prerequisite for profit maximization that was sustainable in the long run. The least performers like the Sunchem plant needed to boost their productivity to allow for profitability in the long run.

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Brazil Economic Development and Conserve the Environment Evaluation Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Component One

Component Two

Component Three

Component Four

Vicious Cycle

Conclusion

References

Introduction Brazil is the second, fifth-largest country in the world geographically and in terms of population. In this view, Brazil epitomizes on the ongoing global tension pitying biodiversity preservation against sustainable agricultural practices and economic growth.

According to current statistics, Brazil is a critical emerging economic power, which has a GDP of US$6040 billion and a GDP per capita of US$326.21 billion in 2004 (European Commission, 2007). The country’s environment is one of the richest in the world because of not only flora and fauna, but also because of its ecosystems, which contain an excess of 15 % of the plant and animal species known to botanists (Saxena, 2005).

The country is the source of water, and also a water table of up to 12% of the available freshwater worldwide Brazil is also undoubtedly one of the leading producers of food and biofuels in Latin America and globally (Ferreira, Pardini, Metzger, Fonseca, Pompeu, Sparovek,

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Global Citizenship in Langston Hughes’s poem “Let America be America Again” Explicatory Essay college application essay help

The world we live today is like a global village. Mankind should work towards improving the living conditions. Development has come with its universal challenges; it’s obvious that development is not distributed evenly across the universe.

We are beginning to realize that our separate actions have consequences for the world is interconnected. People grow up hoping for a better future, only for mankind to turn up against each other. Unless we treat mankind and the planet better as envisioned by our forefathers, by appreciating our complex and diverse nature, we may end up compromising the progress that everyone hopes for.

Any action and activity mankind undertakes is always aimed towards betterment of life. On the contrary mankind has demonstrated to be its own worst enemy. This can clearly be illustrated in Langston Hughes’s poem “Let America be America Again”.

The poem speaks of the famous American dream that never existed. Throughout the poem the tone is angry and disillusioned, though there is some bit of hope. Langston Hughes speaks for the thousands of immigrants who hoped for the better that was never to be achieved. It is more tightly controlled with tone, rhyme, imagery and unified with repetition.

He emphasizes on the fact that there is the poor man who keeps getting poorer whereas the rich is getting richer. It is also evident that he doesn’t only speak for the poor black man but also for the minority group in the society. By mentioning the poor white, the red man and the immigrant in one stanza signifies that this is a universal problem that affects people from all walks of life.

The fact that he emphasizes that he would like America to be America again, clearly shows that not everything is lost and that America is not what was supposed to be. By the mention of “kings connive” the author illustrates that there are those that are deprived of their rights by the elite who are in power.

The tone of the poem brings some sense of reality; in that the writer sounds as if he is speaking from a personal experience. Through the use of rhetorical questions the writer is able to capture the attention of the reader. This enables the reader to pause and think. Not as an American but as individual.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By answering the questions for the reader shows that he expects mankind to have common and coherent thoughts. The poem speaks to different people of different races from different parts of the world.

The use of imagery such as “slavery’s scars” throughout the poem, does speak to the reader. The poem is an indictment of the idea of equal opportunities for all regardless of race, color, religion or origin. The last stanza depicts a strong message of hope. The fact that he talks about “we’’ rather than “I” in the last stanza shows that we all have a role to play so as to achieve the American dream.

The topic “Let America be America Again” shows that it was once a nice place. Unless we treat mankind and the planet better as envisioned by our forefathers, by appreciating our complex and diverse nature, we may end up compromising the progress that everyone hopes for. From the poem it is clear that everyone hopes for a better life and this can only be achieved through collective effort.

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An Ethical Dilemma in the “Government, Regulation and Business Ethics” Case Study best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Ethics is a term that is used to refer to moral behaviours in the society, a business organisation, or any other setup. Ethics are at times referred to as moral philosophies. Ethics determine what behaviour is good or bad within a given society. In business, ethics have become important in the bid to gain a competitive advantage (Painter-Morland

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Significance of Chinese revolution led by Mao Zedong in term of the search for modern China Exploratory Essay college essay help

According to Zhou (1996), Cultural Revolution was introduced in China by Communist Party in the 1960s. The cultural aspect was incorporated into policies of the New Democracy, which was responsible for claims of a new state for legitimacy. However, there were various anomalies identified within the New Democracy.

A good example is undertaking land reforms for purposes of ending feudalism, where land was to be redistributed to landless citizens for equity purposes. Land reform issue was applied differently in towns and countryside, whereby labour and bureaucratic regulations were enhanced in cities as opposed to the countryside.

There was need for reinforcing individual entrepreneurship which was measured against public requirements and control. All these were as a result of penetration of the ruling Party within society and based on class alliance and democracy (Scott, 1985). The Party’s ideological commitment to socialism granted them the concentration of political and economic power, which was applied through forceful interventions.

Inclination to socialism was as a result of country’s cooperation with Soviet Union. This collaboration assisted in the building and development of an industrial base through mobilization of internal resources (Blecher, 1989). It resulted into building of heavy industries within the agricultural sector through collectivization.

The Chinese countryside was collectivized in the mid-1950s, which resulted into communes. At the same time, reorganization of the countryside was followed by abolition of private ownership within industrial estates (Zhou, 1996).

However, despite achievement in moving from New Democracy to Socialism, there was accumulative impatience amongst people based on their disastrous welfare. Crisis amongst people led to intra-Party conflicts and struggles, which eventually led to Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

The revolution was used as means of socialism, which assisted in creating new power structure best referred to as bureaucratic capitalism (Blecher, 1989). Such power structure was associated with inequality and exploitation, whereby Cultural Revolution created fresh wounds against the new power structure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The mass Cultural Revolution practiced by Maoists was viewed as means of creating cultural habits in support of socialists and their power game rules. Such revolution as experienced by Chinese community introduced new dimension within the socialist political theory which focused on culture as a central ingredient for change as opposed to material change, which formed the core ingredient in the creation of socialism (Garnaut, 2009).

The demise of Mao in 1978, led to a period of ‘reform and opening’ which resulted into China being amongst the emergent global capitalists. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, there were pronounced hesitations as well as contradictions of policies that were characteristic of New Democracy between the 1940s and 1950s.

However, such desired change was introduced in the late 1980s and led into dispute between Party and urban constituencies (Blecher, 1989). The disputes and policy contradictions experienced was resolved by deep concentration on capitalism resulting into eminent progress despite betraying promises of socialism (Bernal, 1976).

This led to current spread of inequalities within Chinese society built upon ‘socialism with Chinese characteristics’ as expressed by political vocabulary and grammar. Despite being included in a global capitalism, Cultural Revolution experienced within socialist society, still have elements of its presence to-date.

Increasing unrest and inequality within rural society led to the formation of political movements aimed at establishing a stable society. Also, various development activities within the community acted as potential paths through which cultural, ecological and social contradictions emerged.

The current situation considers the world of a global capitalism as accommodating to socialism provided it considers adhering to rules of capitalism. According to Garnaut (2009), the communist grasp in China has strengthened for the last sixty years.

The current celebrations marking rule of Mao has seen beefing-up of security within major avenues within cities. Strict political rules safeguarding Communist Party governance were set against any political troublemaker. The policies championed for the denial of access to Beijing upon any migrant worker. There is also flooding the film industry with patriotic movies, documentaries and use of symbolism.

We will write a custom Book Review on Significance of Chinese revolution led by Mao Zedong in term of the search for modern China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Policies applied by Mao led to sidelining of millions of democrats and entrepreneurs who championed for freedom and equality within China. Garnaut (2009), recorded that Communist party have every reason to pride based on various achievements, which made China a wealthy and powerful nation.

According to Pye (1986), formation of the Great Proletarian Revolution caused disastrous results where millions of people lost their lives as well as property. The ten years revolution left several victims traumatized and so much during that era could not be defined through conventional theories of politics. Individuals could describe the experience only through personal tragedies.

The Cultural Revolution affected Chinese citizens in a multi-dimensional way through various institutions within the country, including families and learning institutions. Mao’s policies resulted in an ideologically purer group of individuals best referred to as revolutionaries.

However, there was always a great wave of violence and sufferings of the people from the countryside which was entirely ignored by the Chinese government and considered merely part of the inevitable cost of revolutionary (Blecher, 1989).

Mao’s regime was characterized by a reckless and ruthless attack on ‘capital roaders within the Party’ who were considered as spear headers of ‘revisionism’. Some of the victims happened to be writers who endured humiliations and violent torture involving imprisonment in labour camps situated within the countryside. Mao refused to acknowledge the extent to which human rights were violated.

Even western scholarship was unable to establish the adverse effects of Cultural Revolution, including suicide claims, mistreatment at labour camps as well as within prisons (Pye, 1986, p. 604). Memories resulting from Cultural Revolution consequences can be traced to the government’s lack of control on the price structure.

There are also numerous negative effects on economic grounds, which includes; worthiness of Yuan within currency markets, preventing use of subsidies within the market and contributing to the decline of foreign exchange reserves.

Other consequences of Cultural Revolution included extensive disloyalty towards authorities. This was as a result of allowing citizens to indulge intensely into politics with cultural freedom. Such political liberalization produced anarchy and uncontrolled change (Pye, 1986, p. 610).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Significance of Chinese revolution led by Mao Zedong in term of the search for modern China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The new Chinese government led to ceasefire amongst civilians leading to peace after a century of political feuds and wars within the nation. The leadership which emerged after defeat of Guomindag regime and Japanese invaders became dictators of their system. They used farmers as representation base for power as well as a channel for Communist access to power.

However, Chinese earned greater percentage of foreign exchange from agrarian products which supported bureaucratic elite leading to affordable urban life. Cultural Revolution made it possible for farmers to rebel against any oppressing authority, hence using force for purposes of improving their lot.

Consequently, communist rule under Mao and associates sought support for themselves and farmers. Communists had to disseminate surplus from the farms in favor of livelihood within cities.

In education sector, China has attracted hosts of Australians willing to invest and study within the country. Mao’s policies led to creation and development of the middle class with the same styles as that of Sydney. Such developments have enabled a lucrative partnership between China and non-communist countries such as Australia.

There has been an exchange of labour between the countries; for example, a Sydney architecture firm won the contract of constructing significant buildings within China (Dirlik and Chan, 1991).

Also, there have been innovative architectural constructions within the capital, such as sports halls used for international events such as Olympics. Education is known as potentially delivering significant private benefits to employees within China and partner countries such as Australia. This is since training has provided personal investments within earning capacities.

In Australia, the government has expense deduction reprieve on those studying at universities but not yet secured formal employment. Suggested deductions ensure that many professionals and employees are trained further to ensure that they are updated within their various field of work.

The existing income tax law provides that deductions be made only on costs incurred in the process of producing income. The Act provides the arrangement of work-related expenses liable to deductions. According to tax assessment act, there is a clear guideline concerning various deductions associated with assessable incomes.

Under the same provision with respect to education expenses, the deduction is claimed in such a case where educational programs can be directly traced to taxpayer’s current employment and are utilized for acquiring specific knowledge (Dirlik and Chan, 1991).

However, deductions are not made in cases where education activity is perceived to be for the purposes of enabling the taxpayer to become employed or for the purposes of opening new opportunities for earning.

The current policies within modern China provide the fact that there is no change in the development of compulsory Marxist studies within learning institutions. The learning process embraces issues on rapid economic growth as opposed to original Marxism.

Deductions within education sector are allowable to the taxpayer with respect to expenses of self-education with the net amount of expenses being valued at affordable rate.

However, there are some categories of expenses included in the amount considered as inevitable, such as bus fares. Such cases present anomalies to the amendment since the non-claimable expenses are ultimately claimed by taxpayers as deductible expenses (Needham, 2006).

Mao’s strategy on economic world proved to be suitable in cases where the country experiences intense pressures in line with cost reduction and less pressure in the process of introducing new ventures within countryside and urban centres. In such cases, all strategies applied by the government and all decision-making processes are centralized.

This strategy emphasizes on nature of monitoring, integration and coordination of activities within governance. This has ensured that the right policies access targeted cities as well as the countryside. Besides, there is also emphasis on creation of efficient development channels (Selden, 1995).

Various disadvantages of Mao’s strategy included government institutions’ limitations to satisfy citizen needs both within cities and countryside. There was also increased costs and expenditure on the movement of goods and services from a centralized location to across borders.

The challenge was based on high tariff costs on exports, which largely depended on country’s legislation rules. Mao’s Rectification Movement resulted in the destruction of various influences within Party brought by two groups of intellectuals; Russia-trained and Western democratic liberals (Liang, 2003).

Mao’s revolution led to rising of ‘fifth generation’ of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leadership who majorly operates on princeling background. Such a crop of young leadership is expected to take the leading role in the Chinese political arena in the next two decades. The young leadership is being trained for top government positions with more authority as they vie for posts within CCP Party Congresses (Dotson, 2012).

Western democratic liberalism allows for decentralized decision making for the purposes of easier modification of policies depending on local demand. In this case, policies were modified for specific target groups hence leading to affordable costs of living within major cities.

At the same time, such a strategy forced the government to utilize local knowledge and capabilities, for the purposes of satisfying needs and taste of local consumers (Liang, 2003). This strategy easily led to loss on distinctiveness since local adaptation kept changing over a long period of time.

Additionally, there was increased spending owing to complexity experienced in coordinating a range of strategies across boundaries within Chinese territory. Such a strategy was used in cases where political parties required more power to overcome pressures emanating from cost-effectiveness as well as adaptation with Maoist rules.

However, the government allocated assets and capabilities depending on benefits obtained from each specific activity. Most activities within ‘upstream’ value chains experienced centralization with such strategy for satisfying citizen’s needs. Conversely, activities within the countryside were decentralized.

Mao consolidated his authority before Yan’an was fully established through the military as well as political forces. There was extensive reassignment concerning those in opposition to Mao’s governmental policies. These were performed through educational institutions as well as universities.

Consequently, life revolved around sports within basketball court, military duties, entertainment, class-work and other productive work within the society. The original central participants within this work were artists and writers from Lu Xun learning institution (Apter, 1995).

Various conflicts were experienced within China as a result of Cultural Revolution. These included complete fallout between political parties based on ideologies.

However, the nature of the approach adopted by modern China ensured existence of strong national security bodies capable of considering civilian affairs on an equal basis. Policies used within these institutions regarded as a possible dichotomy between competition and complementarities.

According to Chongyi (2012), there is a resultant claim for Chinese uniqueness through political and economic guidance amongst the ‘fifth generation’ within CCP. The concerned leaders were made to draw much power from intensive authority created by communist regime. Various shifts experienced within the political arena, including growing assertiveness, were as a result of opposition from other political parties.

This led to disruption on several strategic representations which signified settled democracy. There were increased experiences on a clear-cut division of labour within institutions which led to political-diplomatic interactions between political parties. The effectiveness of oppression prevention programs as introduced by Mao through learning and economic institutions largely depended on governmental policies.

For instance, any intervention program applied in either middle or high school will show little outcomes if combined intervention of policymakers, administrators, parents, teachers, students, and educationists is not available. Therefore, some factors favour the effectiveness of an intervention program in either middle schools or high schools.

References Apter, D1995, Discourse as Power: Yan’an and the Chinese Revolution, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Bernal, M1976, Chinese Socialism to 1907, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.

Blecher, M 1989, Socialist Transition, Durham, NC, Oberlin College.

Dirlik, A

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Action plan for better listening Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Theory and usefulness The skill area under consideration is listening. Theory on the subject reveals that listening may occur at various levels, starting from the least effective to the most effective. At the bottom of the pyramid is passive listening, which is a synonym for not listening. Usually, this level of listening occurs when the person feels that what the speaker has to say is unimportant.

It takes no effort at all and may be detrimental to organisations with high levels of it. The next level is responsive listening, which is also called pretend listening. In such scenarios, persons will not care about what the speaker has to say but will pretend to listen in order to appease them.

Usually, this process will involve nodding and the use of typical listening cues like ‘aha’ or ‘yes’. Eventually, such persons will not recall what was said. This type of listening is deceitful because it attempts to disguise a listener’s lack of interest in the conversation.

Projective listening is the third worst form of listening; some experts like to call it biased listening. It is an approach in which a person already has a strong opinion about the topic under discussion and will project this opinion onto the speaker. The listener may hear what is being said but his biases may cause him to disregard the speaker’s words.

This person is usually defensive and will not allow the speaker’s assertions to change his opinion about something. In close association with this type of listening is misunderstood listening. Sometimes a person may listen and even be open to suggestion. However, the listener’s interpretations could cause him or her to alter those words in order to fit into their version of the issue.

Such individuals would not know that they are actually engaging in selective hearing as their mistake is not intentional. Nonetheless, it is still as dangerous as the other forms because a person would not truly understand a speaker’s feelings. Organisations with such kinds of managers will be confronted with unexpected departures or conflict since employees will feel misunderstood (Bentley, 2000).

The next level is attentive listening for data alone. In this form of listening, a person concentrates only on the words that someone says and does not bother about the other aspects of communication like non verbal cues or intonation. Therefore, the person will hear what another person has to say but will fail to contextualise it. Such an approach to listening places greater emphasis on facts rather than the motives behind the message.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective communication depends on a listener’s ability to understand the feelings and emotions that surround what a speaker is saying. This implies that the communication is still superficial. Managers often require their sales persons to be aggressive or persuasive when pursuing new clients.

Usually, these sales people will exhibit some form of attentive data listening. They might manipulate clients into committing to something, but will not care about the non verbal cues of the customers. As a result, their approach hampers those clients from bringing business back to the firm.

Active listening is an improvement on attentive data listening as it involves understanding the verbal and non verbal forms of communication. At this level, listeners take in the emotions and feelings associated with what is being said. On the other hand, this is still not a superior form of communication because it does not involve empathising with the speaker.

Such managers would understand facts and place matters into context but few of them would use those feelings to react to the speaker. Several individuals adopt this form of communication because they feel constrained by company policy.

Alternatively, others may choose to listen actively because their level of emotional maturity prevents them from engaging deeply. Some people may be too insecure to engage further or others might simply have their own agenda. They may intend on manipulating others thus lacking the ability to identify with the speaker.

A more mature way of listening is empathetic listening. Here, a person pays attention to the voice, the actual words, the cultural background, feelings as well as the non verbal cues of communication.

Sometimes this may involve the pace at which ones speak as well as their facial expression, their volume as well as their style and general feelings. This component also involves reacting and offering feedback to the speaker. Sometimes one may take actual notes of the conversation or mental ones.

We will write a custom Report on Action plan for better listening specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, it may also entail showing understanding in a manner that will minimise the build up of emotions. Managers who engage in such types of listening are quite sincere and successful in their duties (Cohn, 2007).

The top-most level of communication is known as facilitative listening. In this form of communication, the listener will go beyond merely understanding or analysing the emotions and non verbal cues of the speaker. Instead, the person looks out for genuine signs and outputs. It is sometimes possible for speakers to say one thing and do another.

Therefore, facilitative listeners are the most effective because they get to the root of a communication. Studies indicate that some people may be hiding their emotions subconsciously. Therefore, the facilitative listener assists the speaker to reach out into himself and understand the potential he has to solve those problems. He expounds the choices and lets the speaker know that he has his support.

Facilitative listening may not be appropriate for all situations since emergency situations could impede it. Legal issues as well as organisational policy may come in the way of such a method. Managers who exhibit this form of listening are highly valuable. Nonetheless, some of them may be constrained by company policy.

It is a selfless form of listening as it is not motivated by personal gain. Instead, such a listener only wants to assist the speaker to achieve his interests.

Implications of listening in management practice

Management practice is incomplete without proper listening skills. This spans throughout the entire job description. For instance, managers often have to hire new employees when gaps arise or new functions come up. An organisation needs to decipher the truth behind a person’s CV or job application letter.

It is not always possible to write everything about oneself in these documents, so effective listening skills enable administrators to understand a little more detail about the candidate’s competencies. Furthermore, a manager who listens well can also deduce the kind of attitude that the applicant will bring into the organisation. This skill area will thus ensure that managers hire persons who are a right fit for their organisations.

The success or failure of projects depends on managers’ ability to listen. If a person’s department is in charge of a new project, some anomalies may develop along the way. Managers have the capacity to tackle small problems as soon as they arise and thus prevent them from turning into crises. However, this mitigation can only come about when the manager listens to his team members effectively.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Action plan for better listening by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sometimes it may come in the form of a concern. Alternatively, some workers may feel that their strengths are incompatible with the work to which they have been assigned. They may try to convey these insecurities indirectly, and it is only the effective listener who will understand those cues.

Managers who do not focus on these statements may assign workers to project areas that are incompatible with their strengths and this could harm project outcomes.

Effective listening is crucial in management because it gives one ideas on how to enhance performance (Janusik, 2005). For instance, an employee might talk about the need to alter seat arrangements such that they might concentrate on their work. Alternatively, a worker may request for masks from his supervisor to protect him from mould. The effective listener will note these concerns and thus do something about them.

Eventually, the workplace will have fewer workplace injuries and thus greater productivity. In companies where managers listen to employees, people are more likely to give alternative solutions to problems. Therefore, managers are not left with all the work. Additionally, these individuals tend to me more creative as they know that their input will be heard. This adds value to the company and makes it more conducive for growth.

Interactions between management and external stakeholders make the difference between leading firms and insignificant ones. Maintaining strong customer relationships is dependent on how well one listens to one’s clients. Most times, customers with something to complain about will usually request for the manager.

If the manager listens to the client effectively, then the problem will be dissolved and the company will have maintained its reputation. The same applies to customer care efforts. If management does not emphasize the importance of effective listening, then customer-care employees will not listen to consumers and this could lead to dissatisfaction or abandonment of business with the company.

Similar principles apply to interactions between an organisation and its suppliers or other business partners. Managers must maintain satisfactory relationships with their partners or this could cause them to look elsewhere. The only way a business will develop a relationship with its external partners is through listening to them.

Maintaining a positive and conflict-free culture is crucial in heightening production. Managers can build such cultures by listening to others and teaching their subordinates to do the same. This approach prevents misunderstandings and frustrations that stem from being misconstrued. Companies where superiors dominate meetings or rarely allow members to give their input are likely to build resentment in their workers.

Many of them will start discussing these issues amongst each other and may even back bite their superiors. Such individuals tend to focus more on gossip and rumours rather than work.

Likewise, a manager may boost morale by listening to the things that motivate their workers. Not all employees can respond to the same incentives or rewards. Therefore, managers ought to pay attention to these aspects in order to customise reward plans to each employee. This would definitely increase outcomes and make for a better work environment.

Action plan The action plan involved a six – step process. First, I identified the listening approach that I use and why I need to improve it. I realised that I used to engage in attentive data only listening. This came from the fact that I never knew how to read people’s non verbal cues.

Whenever someone spoke about body language, I always failed to understand what they were saying. Additionally, I have always been a practical, hands-on person. Social interactions are not my forte, so reading people’s unsaid messages was definitely a challenge.

The next step in the action plan was understanding nonverbal communication by observing someone who was really good at it. During that week, I found that the person was rarely distracted when talking to others. In other words, she rarely focused on her phone, email or other distractions when conversing. I also found that she was available to her colleagues every time they called on her.

It seemed that she had a positive attitude towards these persons all the time. My colleague was keen on making eye contact but she also observed what was around her. When I asked her how she read non verbal cues, she maintained that posture was the first thing she considered. If a person slouched and rested his head on his arm, then she would deduce that the person was disinterested.

Additionally, facial expressions were an immediate give away. She said that sometimes people smiled yet their eyes sent a totally different message. Therefore, she preferred to rely on the latter than the former.

My communication role model also seemed to react to the dynamics of voice as she would increase or decrease it in response to the speaker. She usually gave feedback to others and even repeated some of the things the person was saying.

After knowing what active listening entailed, I started working on identifying the barriers that keep me from listening accurately and thoroughly. First I noticed that I always have a lot on my mind when speaking to people (Moulic, 2012). Sometimes this causes me to get distracted as I will plan my day or think about where I will buy supper.

This tendency to clatter my mind with several things is what keeps me from reading non verbal cues. I have also realised that I did not understand some of the cultural cues for non verbal communication. I was simply not aware of these components, so it was difficult for me to identify and respond to them in kind. I have always been a matter-of-fact person who focuses on the bottom line in any of life’s endeavours.

Therefore, it is easy for me to look for the main point in everything and dismiss the rest. Another obstacle that prevents me from listening actively to others is the frequency of communication. I hate the silence that comes between certain phrases and will say anything to fill that gap.

I needed to get comfortable with momentary periods of silence during conversations. Sometimes when people speak, I may start thinking about what to say in return, and this prevents me from engaging with the speaker. Anxiety causes me to dwell on the things that will come next rather than what they are actually saying.

Another reason that causes me to be an ineffective listener is that I have never encouraged other people to keep speaking. Most times, lack of eye contact or poor response to people’s expressions can cause me to misunderstand them. Perhaps the biggest obstacle is the lack of intent to listen. Once I change this attitude, then everything else will fall in place.

I also used memory aids in order to identify the instances that led me to ineffective listening. First, I bought a diary in which I would write about my communication experiences for the day. I would recall instances in which I had not understand non verbal cues and would describe them at length.

Sometimes these scenarios would be concentrated in one session but in other instances they would be distributed in different scenes throughout the day. I used my mobile phone as a recording device. It was quite insightful to listen to my own voice from an objective point of view. I found that it was easy to detect tension-filled moments or situations when I was contemplating what to say.

The next phase of my action plan was going through listening exercises. One of the exercises I found useful was listening to all the information I could absorb before making a contribution. I practiced delaying my responses until all the information in the conversation had been collected (Emanuel et. al., 2008).

I also found that if I focused on what was new rather than what I already knew, then I was more likely to listen to the person. The tendency to respond to what I had heard before often caused me to be too engaged with my own issues rather than to listen to the speaker. Therefore, I practised focusing on the things that I did not know rather than what I knew.

The last component of the action plan involved practising habits of active listening. For this part, I approached my role model and had an imaginary conversation. In one instance, we talked about the food at a common restaurant.

She stated the following: “Am so frustrated by the soup at Ramitas; it always seems bland or too spicy. They just can’t seem to get it right.” I replied by saying “Oh, is that so? I had no idea.” My role model congratulated me on that reply because it came at the right time. She also noticed that I was maintaining good eye contact and did not confront her.

I am still working on the last part of the action plan as I will forward my findings to the tutor in order to get acknowledgement. I am also working on my personal approach to listening as I would like to move from active listening to the most advanced method of listening, which is facilitative listening.

Outcomes

The outcomes of improved listening will be better results in school as well as in other gatherings. If I listen better in class, I will recall more and thus increase my chances of passing exams. Additionally, it is likely that I will strengthen the relationships I have with my friends.

When I remember what my friends say, many of them will be impressed by this and will feel connected. Active listening can also cause me to make new friends easily as I will recall important details about their lives.

Currently, learning to listen to non verbal cues will allow me to detect instances in which gestures do not match behaviour. This will allow me to seek clarification on what the speaker really means. In essence, I will deal with hidden issues that make people unhappy.

In the future, when I become a manager, it is likely that I will be an effective supervisor. My subordinates would trust me with their ideas because they would know that I will listen to them. The employees may become more comfortable with the workplace as they will have a senior who listens to them.

Measures of achievement

In order to determine whether I have succeeded in being an active listener, I will use a pen and paper to analyse conversations. I will write down the things that the person was saying. If I cannot remember any of these words, then it proves that I was not listening actively.

I will also get back to speakers on a weekly basis and try to interpret what they meant to say during conversations we had with them using their non verbal cues. If the speaker agrees that my interpretation of their feelings was accurate, then I will have succeeded. In other words, I will match their mood with their non verbal forms of communication (King et. al., 2006).

I will also engage in practice sessions with friends. In this regard I will ask them certain questions like how they spent their weekend. I will then expect them to ask me questions about what they said and whether they actually meant it. If I give them correct answers, then I will have become a good active listener.

References Bentley, S. (2000). Listening in the 21st century. International Journal of Listening, 14 (3), 129–142.

Cohn, K. (2007). Developing effective communication skills. Journal of Oncology practice, 3(6), 314-317.

Emanuel, R., Adams, J., Baker, K., Daufin, E. K., Ellington, C. and Fitts, E. (2008). How college students spend their time communicating. International Journal of Listening, 22(2), 13–28.

Janusik, L. (2005). Conversational listening span: A proposed measure of conversational listening. International Journal of Listening, 19(4), 12–28.

King, G., Servais, M., Bolack, L., Shepherd, T.

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Outgoing and Incoming Tour Operators Report (Assessment) college application essay help: college application essay help

Two Main Categories of Tour Operators Tour operators are people or companies that offer various travel packages that are used by tourists. Tour operators are very different from tour agents. Tour operators combine everything that the tourist would possibly need into one package. There are two main categories of tour operators in the United Kingdom. These are the incoming tour operators and the outbound tour operators (Aramberri

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Texas v. Johnson Case Study college essay help online

Table of Contents Procedural

Rule

Analysis

Conclusion

Works Cited

Facts: The defendant in this case, Gregory L. Johnson, participated in demonstrations that some Americans had organized to protest the policies of some Dallas-based corporations, and the Reagan administration in general.

The demonstrations were held at the same time as the 1984 Republican Convention that was also held in Dallas. The demonstrators marched the city of Dallas with the event culminating in the respondent’s public flag desecration. As he desecrated the flag, no threatening was done on anyone and no physical injuries occurred. However, the desecration of the flag offended a number of witnesses.

Procedural History: The trial court found the defendant guilty of violating a Texas statute by desecrating a venerated object. The decision was affirmed by the State Court of Appeals. The defendant appealed in the Court of Criminal Appeals in Texas.

Issue: Did the desecration of the flag by the defendant amount to expressive conduct, permitting the respondent to enjoy First Amendment protection? Did flag preservation as a nationhood symbol justify the respondent’s conviction?

Rule The Court of Criminal Appeals in Texas reversed the earlier ruling that Johnson was guilty of desecrating a venerated object. The State of Texas agreed that the conduct of the respondent was expressive in nature. The flag was burned during a political demonstration, which proved its expressive nature. The First Amendment protects such rights.

The court also held that the restriction of the defendant’s expression by the state was content-based. Therefore, the preservation of the flag as a symbolic object by the state must be exactly scrutinized.

The State is interested in taking proper care of the flag, but this does not require the state to criminally punish protesting people who desecrate the flag. Therefore, the interest of the state in the preservation of the flag as a nationhood symbol does not warrant the conviction of the respondent because it is inconsistent with the Constitution’s First Amendment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis The fact that the respondent burned the flag as a political event was taking place in Texas led to the confirmation that his action was expressive in nature. The defendant burned the flag solely to express a political message and thus his action was protected by the First Amendment.

Additionally, the court decided that, because the burning of the flag did not in any way breach the peace of the state, the state’s interest in preserving the flag’s image as a nationhood symbol could not warrant criminal punishment of the respondent.

Conclusion Yes, flag desecration done as part of a demonstration that is held on the same day as a political event amounts to expressive conduct. The First Amendment allows such conduct.

No, the state is interested in ensuring the flag is preserved as a nationhood symbol but this does not mean that it should punish demonstrators who desecrate the flag without jeopardizing the state’s peace. Additionally, there was another statute on breaches of peace, which could have been utilized in preserving the state’s peace without criminally punishing the respondent.

This case drew battle lines between Congressmen who advocated for Constitutional amendment to allow restraints on desecration of flags and Congressmen who thought that the issue needed to be solved with new legislation, and without amending the Constitution.

Works Cited Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397, 109 S. Ct. 2533, 105 L. Ed. 2d 342 (1989)

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Bio Diversity and Future of Our World Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Living things are known to have varying characteristics, even when they belong to the same species. Climatic conditions are not the same in every part of the world. Therefore, animals and plants are known to exhibit different characteristics in different regions. On the same note, adaptations to different requirements for survival have been known to bring about different physical characteristics in organisms.

In this regard, it is not unique to see animals or plants of the same species having completely different physical characteristics, yet they are in the same locality. Biodiversity refers to the degree of variation among living things and it includes genetic diversity, ecosystem difference and cultural diversity.

It should be noted that biodiversity is very crucial for the continuity of life in the world. Nevertheless, there have been threats to the natural biodiversity thus posing a lot of questions on the future of the world.

The importance of biodiversity cannot be overlooked. Firstly, biodiversity provides the ecological balance that is crucial for sustenance of live in the world. Each and every species that is present in the world has a role to play as regards the continuity and balance of its ecological niche. For the resources of the world to be maintained, biodiversity has to be present.

It is important to understand that all living things coexist and they depend on one another in one way or the other (Mbolo, 2010). No living thing can leave in isolation and elimination of one organism or even changing the ecosystem of one organism has ripple effects on the world as a whole. It therefore goes without saying that biodiversity is essential for optimum production in the world.

Biodiversity is also very crucial for business activities. Sustainable development of any nation is highly dependent on biodiversity. Raw materials that are used in production are derived from diverse sources. In this regard, absence of even one species poses a risk to a certain production process in a given industry. Natural resources would become extinct if biodiversity is destroyed.

This is because while one organism uses a given resource, there is another one that adds it to the ecosystem. The nutrients available in the world, the variety of food stuffs that human beings eat and production of biomass all depend on biodiversity (Spanou, Tiniakou

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Child aged 5-12 Case Study argumentative essay help

Introduction Learning forms part of a child’s growth and development. A child aged between five and twelve years old learns only from his or her surroundings unlike teens and adults who learn from their experiences too. The child’s surrounding is made up of parents, siblings, friends and caretakers, furniture, television, computers, radio, toys, reading materials, and other components.

Those components play a major role in both physical and intellectual growth of a child. However, parents, siblings, friends, and other caretakers should watch over the child while interacting with objects that are in the surroundings in a bid to keep the child away from anything that could be harmful. Looking into the case study, the child’s learning skills and development rate regarding physical characteristics were normal.

The child was exposed to the learning environment at a good age of age six months, at which he interacted with toys that helped his mental growth through imagination and creativity. In addition, his interest to engage in a variety of sports at age seven is a clear evidence of a healthy growth of a child. However, there are different ways that could enhance quick growth and development of a child of the same age.

Five ways that enhance the child’s learning skills Spending more time with the child

Good parenting is the most essential element for growth and development of a child and it is mostly exhibited by the closeness of a parent or caregiver to the child. A child needs the attention of a caregiver at all time, whether the caregiver present physically or emotionally. However, caregivers should spend some time with the child because the child needs to be guided in almost every activity during the childhood stage.

A caregiver who spends more time with the child is capable of ensuring that the child’s aspects of social growth and development are up to the required standards in accordance to the culture and style of parenting that the child is exposed to in the process (Lerner

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Collecting the phone data logs of all citizens Critical Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Details of the Program

The Program Rationale

The Program Criticism

Argument against the Program

Works Cited

Details of the Program The National Security Agency (NSA) has gathered phone data from several cell phone users. Such data could reveal critical details about their owners. Big data are important in identifying individuals and their habits.

However, the program does not require the service provider to reveal subscribers’ personal details like names, contact information, or addresses. In addition, the NSA does not monitor subscribers’ calls and text messages (Luckerson 1).

The US government has the right to collect metadata legally under the Judicial Order issued to the cell phone service provider. Hence, the NSA does not require any authorization from cell phone owners to collect their data. Metadata include call time and phone details of users (Luckerson 1). However, the NSA order prohibited the service provider from revealing the big data collection program to customers or any other party.

There was also a revelation that the NSA had gained direct access to other modes of communication and data storage facilities. These included Internet servers and databases of service providers. The exercise focused on e-mails, chat sessions, and videos of customers.

The government concentrated on big data storage facilities of Yahoo!, Apple, Google, and Microsoft. Technically, big data are useful for tracking and identifying any suspect, either foreign or citizens and their intentions. However, the issue is that the government has been conducting surveillance on its citizens secretly.

It is not clear whether other service providers are also a part of the metadata collection program, but it is clear that communication logs from most customers are in the database of the NSA. The secrecy of the entire program has created a sense of uneasiness within the public.

The Program Rationale The government launched the metadata collection program as a part of a wider push for improving internal security and tight surveillance because of constant terrorism threats.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The federal government has a critical role of providing security and privacy to all its citizens. Hence, the government must maintain the right to privacy always. Many critics believe that this action amounts to invasion of right to privacy and civil liberties provided under the Fourth Amendment.

Security scholars have claimed that one major lapse that contributed to the 9/11 attacks was the inability of the government to use available data and link them to terrorists.

Hence, the decision to collect metadata from cell phone service providers is an effective way of gathering useful information about networks of suspected individuals. However, the use of data analytics is not enough to fight terrorism. Instead, security forces should rely on reliable methods of fighting terrorisms.

Today, majorities have cell phones. Wireless communication gadgets have immense data, which are useful not only for security agencies, but also for commercial enterprises (Minelli and Chambers 19).

The NSA can analyze such data in order to detect unique patterns of behaviors among suspects, their spending habits, socialization patterns, and factors that shape their thoughts. The cell phone is unique because it belongs to only one person and can stay with the owner throughout the day (Miller 1). However, the law prohibits the government from unlawful use of such data.

The federal government believes that the NSA requires such big data in order to track and discover any links between their targets abroad and individuals in the US (Associated Press 1). A big data project is least invasive and respectful method of hunting for criminals among the innocent public. This goes beyond race, culture, or political affiliation, and the NSA does not have to listen to anybody’s conversations.

The use of the big data is to create a pattern that can lead to specific individuals of interest to the government. However, the NSA must observe the law throughout these processes and listen to anybody’s conversation after approval from the court.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Collecting the phone data logs of all citizens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phone firms have used their customers’ handsets to gather market intelligence. The system collects all calling data, messaging, chats, and other online trends (Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier 123). In addition, consumers have smartphones, which already have tracking devices, identify other people nearby with phones, and capture images and videos.

For instance, in an experiment Robert Lee Hotz notes that every student’s phone scanned the area after every six minutes for any nearby phone in order to facilitate face-to-face communication. In addition, after every 20 minutes, the phones scanned the area and kept call logs, behaviors, relationships, and buttressed by detailed surveys (Hotz 1).

This experiment shows possible ways through which the NSA and the FBI could use to collect data from people and invade their right to privacy. It is a smart way of collecting data about behaviors of people and analyzing them secretly in order to understand intelligence details, which can help in spying and intrusion into personal lives of others.

The Program Criticism The federal government must guarantee the right to security and right to privacy of American citizens. However, many critics believe that gathering of metadata from the public infringes on civil rights because it is an intrusion into individuals’ privacy. Based on the Fourth Amendment, any form of invasion and intrusion on the right to privacy is illegal (Roots 20).

They claim that the surveillance is outrageous and lacks position in a democratic and free society. Hence, it is imperative to review the big data collection program and, the NSA should find other suitable methods of gathering data.

Past studies have revealed useful insights in complex nature of humanity, but they also indicate that the metadata collection program brings a new challenge to basic rules of interactions among individuals and challenges the idea of privacy. Many critics believe that the NSA’s action to collect private information and communications of millions of people is quite disturbing, particularly the secrecy of the program.

Although the proponents of this program claim that it is necessary and vital in the fight against terrorism, it remains illegal under the law.

They also claim that the NSA does not listen to anybody’s private calls and communication and there are adequate oversight and safeguard measures to ensure that the NSA does not abuse metadata in its possession. However, one cannot be so certain about what the NSA does with personal data it collects from people privately.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Collecting the phone data logs of all citizens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Civil libertarians have refuted the NSA big data program because they believed that the NSA has gathered enormous data from individuals who were not necessarily criminals or suspects. Under the law, cell phone companies should not distribute their customers’ information to any third party, unless such customers’ provide their consents or directed by the court.

While one may claim that Americans are concerned with their privacy rather than their security, it is unreasonable to institute surveillance on every citizen as a way of combating terrorism. Privacy issues are not simple to understand since many entities have often misused and abused personal data. Thus, the NSA should conduct such surveillance on specific individuals with criminal intent.

The right to privacy aims to protect people and the kind of information they share with others and usages of such information. Cell phone firms have all data about their clients. These may include names, social security number, bank details, financial data, e-mail address, demographic and physical address among others.

It is difficult for customers to know how these firms handle such data, but they are useful for marketing activities and security issues. Personal data are susceptible to identity theft and fraud.

The flow of personal information may increase such cases. However, such organizations must have effective internal policies to protect data from abuse and theft. The challenge has been that not many organizations adhere to right to privacy of their customers.

The Privacy Act of 1974 protects all personal data in possession of the government against any form of abuse and unauthorized sharing, transfer, or disclosure. In addition, people have the right to seek for clarification, correct mistakes, and get information in case of any disclosure.

These processes rely on the Freedom of Information Act. Yet, the NSA and cell phone companies have engaged in illegal acts of sharing and transferring citizens’ data without their knowledge or consent.

Critics must understand that privacy and security are critical and intersect at some points. One must recognize that many issues of importance touch on both security and privacy. These may include communication, detection of secret agendas, intrusions, training, and responses among others.

From a theoretical perspective, security measures should protect individual privacy. However, these are two critical factors, which overlap. Security must focus on both physical and virtual aspects of protection. In other words, security must offer protection to sensitive data in both electronic and physical forms.

The government should use information security policies in order to protect information privacy and individuals’ private information. However, in situations on national security, the NSA must violate such privacy of individuals and use tools they have to fight terrorism and protect potential victims.

This interrelationship between security and privacy shows that matters of national security and safety are paramount and will remain superior to individual privacy.

Argument against the Program This memo does not support the government’s decision to gather big data secretly because the Fourth Amendment regards electronic surveillance as a form of abuse against right to privacy. The era of big data has arrived. The NSA must use tools at its disposal to fight terrorism, but it must not violate citizens’ right to privacy.

The Fourth Amendment recognizes that cell phone data collection, which is under electronic surveillance, could be illegal means of obtaining evidence. Although analysts believe that the 9/11 happened because the government lacked data to rely on for decision-making in fighting terrorism, the government can use right procedures to collect evidence from suspects rather than resorting to violation of citizens’ rights.

Relying on such metadata from phone records is an important method of understanding networks of terrorists and other suspects.

However, it is imperative for the NSA to bring the process to the public domain. Ethically and legally, it would be right for the NSA to collect these data on a large-scale and use them appropriately, but it does not seem right when the spying agency does it in secret.

Works Cited Associated Press. Report: NSA maps out a person’s social connections. 29 Sept. 2013. Web.

Hotz, Robert Lee. The Really Smart Phone. 22 April 2011. Web.

Luckerson, Victor. 7 Things to Know About the Government’s Secret Database of Telephone Data. 5 June. 2013. Web.

Mayer-Schonberger, Viktor and Kenneth Cukier. Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think. New York: Eamon Dolan, 2013. Print.

Miller, Wayne. R.I. critics see U.S. government’s phone data collection as intrusion. 7 June 2013. Web.

Minelli, Michael and Michele Chambers. Big Data, Big Analytics: Emerging Business Intelligence and Analytic Trends for Today’s Businesses. New York: Wiley, 2013. Print.

Roots, Roger. “The Originalist Case for the Fourth Amendment Exclusionary Rule.” Gonzaga Law Review118 (2010): 20. Print.

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India’s Caste System: The Laws of Manu. Primary Source Analysis Report (Assessment) college essay help: college essay help

Perhaps, one of the weirdest and by far the most mysterious society structures in the East for an average European or American citizen to encounter, the Indian cast system has a pretty long history and allows take a closer look at the specifics of the relationships among the members of the Indian society.

Despite the fact that the concept of caste seems incredibly dated when compared to the other principles of social structures and systems of society employed all over the world, it still bars a unique air of the Indian culture and is rooted way too deep into cultural and, more importantly, religious aspects of the Indian people’s lives to refuse from following the principles of caste, even though often these principles come at a price of people’s lives.

When evaluating the texts dealing with such complex social and religious issues as the history of castes, one must take into account the numerous limitations of such papers so that these limitations should not later on be considered as drawbacks.

First of all, it is essential to realize that a one-page-long text cannot engulf an entire culture of Indian people and, therefore, cannot allow the cultural background of the phenomenon of caste to come out in full blue.

As a matter of fact, the author of the text in question is doing very well by creating a historical background and commenting on the premises for castes to emerge: “The Lord assigned only one activity to a servant; serving these [other] classes without resentment” (Indian caste system: The laws of Manu, 2000, p. 43).

Therefore, the given text offers a peculiar example of how religious prejudices can lead to social discrimination. However, in a way, the given document offers a unique example of religion spawning prejudice, seeing how the latter is aimed not at the people of different race, ethnicity or nationality, but at the people of the same origin and faith.

There is little to no difference between the ones who were lucky enough to be born into the families of the “upper class” and the ones whose origin could be defined in one simple yet sad word, “outcast.” Thus, the text under analysis also offers extensive information on the difference between the religious principles of the Indian people and the rest of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, analyzing the castes, which the Indian society is split into in accordance with the existing law, one might find something very familiar in the types of castes that the given excerpt features. As the author of the text says, there are priests, rulers and servants. Once split into the given three castes, the society is guaranteed to remain in harmony until the end of times – or until the breach of balance, for that matter.

The existing castes, in fact, have a lot in common with another concept of what a perfect state looks like; moreover, the latter concept is just as ancient as the Indian idea of castes.

Described by Plato, the Utopian republic is suppose to have a philosopher king, who has a lot in common with the caste of rulers, citizens, and warriors (Magstadt, 2011, p. 46). However, in contrast to Plato’s Republic, where social justice is considered the top priority, in the given excerpt, the Indian concept of caste exists outside the realm of social justice.

Nevertheless, it would be wrong to judge the given excerpt based on the ideas that it suggests. Since the text basically retells the social traditions of India, judging these ideas would be basically the same as judging the traditions of the Indian people, which does not seem legitimate seeing how the Indian principles of social hierarchy are rooted deeply into history, down to the birth of the mysterious Arian nation.

With that being said, it is more reasonable to consider the way in which the facts concerning the Indian society are arranged. While the author does a very good job by describing every single caste, it would still be a good idea to mention the ways in which the members of different castes interact.

The Indian caste system cannot be denied its doubtless weirdness; for a person of non-Indian descent, the given system can hardly be considered as a social structure worth implementing, or, at the very least, as a reasonable concept of society. However, despite the numerous flaws of the caste system adopted in India, it is admittedly deeply rooted into the Indian traditions and has a clear historical justification for its existence.

More to the point, it cannot be doubted that at present, the caste system is the only possible system in accordance with which the Indian population can live with, as the article in question shows in a very graphic way.

We will write a custom Assessment on India’s Caste System: The Laws of Manu. Primary Source Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A snapshot of the Indian culture and its development throughout centuries, the current caste system might seem unacceptable and lacking in humanism for a stranger, yet it is the only system in accordance with which India can align its social standards at present.

Reference List Indian caste system: The laws of Manu (2000). In Expressing world history, P. N. Steams

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The HR labor relations: Unionization Research Paper college essay help online

In today’s world, labor unions have become popular in all sectors of the economy. The unionization process begins when a selected group of representatives obtains the authorization permits for a particular group of employees. This allows it to play the role of an intermediary between management and the workforce (Budd

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Ethical Implications of Data Mining By Government Institutions Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Introduction Data mining can be defined as the process of extracting useful information from the large amount of data stored in databases. With the rapid development in computer and information technologies, large databases are used to gather, store and retrieve data (Vaidya

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Benefits of a Valuable Strategic Fit Explicatory Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Approaches for competing internationally The three main approaches for competing internationally are global strategy, transnational strategy and multidomestic strategy. Multidomestic strategy requires business managers to think and act locally. The strategy focuses on offering different products in the market. Further, the competitive approaches used by firms vary from one country to another. The strategy has a number of advantages.

First, it can enable firms to precisely meet the specific needs of each market. Secondly, it enables companies to quickly meet the changes in local demand of a given region. Thirdly, the strategy enables companies to respond amicably to the moves of local rival companies.

Finally, the strategy allows companies to respond swiftly to local threats and opportunities. On the other hand, the approach deters the ability to transfer resources and capabilities across various markets. Secondly, the strategy is not conducive in the worldwide competitive market. Finally, the strategy may result in an increase in the production and distribution costs.

The second approach, global strategy, encourages business to think and act globally. The strategy employs same basic competitive approach in all regions where a firm operates. The strategy has a number of advantages. First, it enables companies to lower their cost due to large economies of scale. Secondly, the strategy results in improved efficiency and innovation due to the ability to move resources and capabilities across regions.

Finally, the strategy enables companies to enjoy the benefits of global brand and reputation. On the other hand, the approach has a number of disadvantages. First, it may not be able to address the local needs accurately. Secondly, the strategy may not enable a company to respond swiftly to changes in the local market conditions. Finally, the approach is likely to result in higher costs of tariffs, integration, transportation, and coordination.

The third approach, transnational strategy, incorporates the elements of global and multidomestic strategies. The strategy has a number of advantages. First, it enables companies to benefit from the ability to respond to changes in local and global markets.

Secondly, the strategy results in improved efficiency due to the ability to move resources and capabilities across regions. On the other hand, the approach is complex, time consuming and expensive to implement. Also, companies may find it hard to merge conflicting goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How to build a competitive advantage A number of approaches can be used to build a competitive advantage. The first approach is to use international location to minimize cost of operation and to produce differentiated products. Secondly, firms can build competitive advantage by distributing resources, proficiencies and abilities across various markets. This improves efficiency.

Finally, a company can build competitive advantage from the benefits of cross border synchronization. Thus, an organization should ensure that the cross border activities are well coordinated to enable the company reap benefits.

Example of a company Aramex Inc. is a company within logistics and the service industry. It deals with provision of consumer related solutions such as supply chain management and express logistics. From the perspective of Multi-domestic strategy, Aramex Inc. entered into partnership with Zubair Corporation (Z-Corp) in Oman for purposes of offering integrated services within the region.

Aramex Inc. also uses Berco Express (Pty) Ltd. to offer logistics and transportation services within Africa region. The company uses global strategy in cases where it experiences strong pressure in cost reduction and less pressure in the process of venturing into local markets. In this case, the company centralized major functions.

The strategy emphasizes on monitoring, integration and coordination of activities within local markets. The company utilizes the transnational strategy in cases where it requires expertise for the purposes of overcoming the pressures from cost effectiveness as well as local market adaptation.

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Comparison between six sigma and Total Quality Management Compare and Contrast Essay best college essay help

Even though six sigma and TQM are efficient apparatus for quality management, they have a number of differences. Six Sigma is a management plan initially designed by Motorola Company to develop the quality of production by recognizing and eliminating causes of failures. It was also designed to reduce inconsistencies in the production process.

The process was established by Bill Smith in the early 1920’s. on the other hand, Total Quality Management is a long-term effort made by workers to ensure customer satisfaction. It was developed by Deming, Juran, and Feigenbaum in the early 1920’s. Six sigma is not only designed for quality control, but also to improve customer satisfaction by reducing shortages.

It also defines and improves production processes. This management plan can be used to assess the root cause of a setback and establish appropriate solutions. Conversely, TQM applies plan, data, and efficient communications to incorporate quality control into the culture and processes of a company.

Six sigma has many methodologies including DMAIC, DMADV, and the 5Whys. A DMAIC plan method has five segments. The first step is the definition of the problem, customers’ demands, and project objectives. The second phase is to measure the main characteristics of the present process and gather relevant information.

The third phase of DMAIC is the study of data followed by improving the present process depending on data analysis. The last phase is to control future processes as this will solve any problem which deviates from a company’s target. DMADV project methodology also has five stages. The first phase is to define goals that are in line with the requirements of consumer project strategy.

The second phase is to measure and recognize CTQ’s, product potentiality and dangers. Third step involves the analysis to create options. This is followed by designing details which involves the optimization and preparation for design authentication. The last step is to verify the design, execute production procedures, and present it to the proprietors of the process.

In TQM, the customer establishes the level of quality. All the workers are also required to take part in the processes aimed at achieving objectives. It majorly focuses on the production thinking. This process involves a planned and systematic approach to attain an organization’s objectives. The main driving force of Total Quality Management is continual process enhancement.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It provides viable solutions for improvement and effective competition. The process of Six Sigma depends on the “5 Whys.” This exercise starts with a statement of the setback followed by the identification of the root cause. Arguably, the 5 iterations of “Why” establishes the main cause of the setback.

Six Sigma has a number of functions. For instance, senior managers are accountable for establishing the implementation of Six Sigma objectives. Campaigners jointly implement Six Sigma and provide guidance to black belts. Senior black belts recognized by campaigners provide in-house training on Six Sigma. Therefore, the process provides superior and efficient outcome compared to TQM.

The process is also more precise and result oriented than TQM. The other difference is that Six Sigma is more complex than TQM as it requires highly trained personnel.

This clearly explains why their trained workers are licensed as “green belts” or “black belts” according to their level of competency. In TQM further developments cannot be realized after reaching the saturation point while Six Sigma attains the saturation level by instigating a next point quality process.

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Media Violence Study Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Depiction of Violence

Influence of Depicted Violence

Conclusion

References

Introduction Modern popular culture has embraced violent movies as a key component of entertainment. This is evident in the article, which was written by Grisham, where he explains that Sarah and Ben went to Memphis to watch the Grateful Dead Movie (Grisham, 1996). It is, further, noticeable that they had watched Natural Born Killers. This movie was dominated by immense murder, human brutality and cruelty.

Ben admits that he loves this movie implying that the modern popular culture accepts violent movies in this community. This paper will, therefore, focus on how violence is depicted on the movies that are described in this article. It will, further, discuss on how the movies influence the character of the audience when they are exposed to them.

Depiction of Violence Grisham describes the content of Natural Born Killers in a clear and detailed manner. In this movie, violence is depicted through brutal acts of murder. The main actors Mickey and Mallory randomly kill people as they move to southwest. They are described as mindless lovers implying that their killings were entirely unreasonable and senseless.

The brutality is well illustrated by killing fifty two people on their way before they are arrested by administrators (Grisham, 1996). When the two lovers were caught, the police imprisoned them to restrict them from killing more people. However, they successfully planned to escape from the prison where they killed additional fifty people in the process.

Murder is the main depiction of violence in this movie since the two actors senselessly commit murder in the entire film (Stone, 1996). In terms of degree, the violence that is depicted in this movie is severe. This is due to the use of dangerous weapons and the presence of murder alongside adverse brutality.

Influence of Depicted Violence In this article, Grisham has described critical behavioral change experienced by Ben and Sarah. In the first instance, the author states that Sarah armed herself to reserve security in case Ben attacks her. Although the reason for this speculated attack was not specified, I contend that Sarah could have possibly noted a change of character in Ben.

This intensifies when Ben start talking about open murder where he introduces topics that are related to openly killing people. In this case, it is evident that he has the quest to kill people just like Mallory and Mickey. From this statement, it is indisputable that Ben had been affected by the violence depicted in Natural Born Killers. Further, he intensified this by expressing his passionate hatred for farmers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ben ordered Sarah to stop the car nearby a farmhouse where Ben tested his gun and then proceeded to Mr. Savage’s farm. After a short struggle, Ben short Mr. Savage on the head leading to instant death and forcing Sarah to escape. However, Sarah quickly decided to help her man to rob Mr. Savage at the farmhouse. In addition, Ben admitted that the feeling of killing people was powerful.

This is the feeling that was expressed by Mickey when he was killing people on his way to Southwest (Stone, 1996). It is, therefore, evident that he had been influenced by the violence that was depicted in the movie (Grisham, 1996).

This implies that violence which is depicted in movies can influence the audience by developing violence in real life situation. From this article, it is additionally clear that severe depiction of violence lead to severe brutality in real life. This implies that mild violence would result to weak levels of violence since the audience copies the actions directly.

Conclusion The above analysis validates the argument of Grisham which contends that depicted violence result to real violence. This is supported by real testimony that is given by Sarah in relation to her previous murders. People should consequently control their exposure to depicted violence to prevent unconscious embracement of brutality.

References Grisham, J. (1996). Unnatural kilers. Oxford American, 4, 11.

Stone, O. (Director). (1996). Natural born killers [Motion picture]. USA: Warner Home Video.

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E-Business Planning Report. Kids Designed Craft Cards Report essay help free

Introduction E-business has gained a lot of popularity in the recent past due to advancement in technology. The world has been turned into a global village as the emerging technologies change the world into various fronts. Business units also find themselves in position where they can no longer ignore changes being brought about by these technologies.

The geographical boundaries that existed before have been eliminated by advancement of technology in the areas of transport and communication. Movements from one country to another have been made easier through the invention of various means of transport.

Communication has also been enhanced and it is now possible for one to communicate with others in other regions of the world in real time using phones. The social media has also improved communication in the world.

Business units cannot ignore the technological advancements in the market if it intends to remain competitive. The management of Kids Designed Craft Cards must realize that the only way of remaining competitive in the market is to adopt the emerging technologies as soon as they come into existence in order to remain one-step ahead of market competition.

This firm must find a way of employing e-business in its operations in order to increase its efficiency and market coverage. E-business has become very popular in the current market in Australia and other developed countries. People have limited time to go shopping around.

They prefer making their purchase while in office or at home. This means that only those firms that conduct e-business stand better chances of tapping into a wider market in the current market. This research proposal seek to develop a prototype and give an explanation why e-business is very appropriate for this firm.

E-commerce business model According to Bhusry (2005), it is important for a firm to come up with an appropriate model that will be able to respond to the market dynamics in order to enable a firm succeed in the market. The following model can help Kids Designed Craft Cards when developing a prototype for e-commerce business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Source (Manzoor, 2010)

The diagram shows all the stages that should be observed when developing a prototype for e-commerce business.

Driving revenue through e-commerce business The main intention of this project proposal is to increase the profitability of this firm in the market. Increasing revenues in the market may not be a simple process. It requires a model of how the firm will increase its profitability in the market. The management must realize that this process involves conversion of innovation process into economic value. The model below demonstrates this.

The model above identifies some of the factors that Kids Designed Craft Cards must understand in order to generate the needed revenue. It must first identify customers’ needs through this new technology. Then it should segment the market based on the demographical factors.

The firm should then determine the best value proposition for each market segment. This will result into increased sales, which will then increase the firm’s revenues.

Network and communication infrastructure required In order to have a successful operation in e-commerce, it is necessary for the management of Kids Designed Craft Cards to understand some of the infrastructural requirements needed in this project.

This will help ensure that before the project starts, the management have rough estimates of what this project will cost in order to be completed successfully. The following list identifies the infrastructural requirements to be observed by this firm.

We will write a custom Report on E-Business Planning Report. Kids Designed Craft Cards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Search and advertising software

Contracting and order software

The billing and settlement software

Production and distribution of receipt software

Customer service software

Knowledge and information processing software

The hardware

The management must understand all the associated costs for all the software and hardware needed for this project. These infrastructural needs are further discussed in other sections of this proposal.

Applications required in meeting specific e-commerce business goals According to Manzoor (2010), when starting a new system in a firm that has been in existence for some time, it is important to ensure that the intended goals are achieved within a specified timeline. To achieve this, the application must observe the following requirements.

Effective and efficient online shopping functionalities

Easy process of maintaining online stores using minimum effort

The site should be fast loading

The interface should be user-friendly and easy to navigate

Attractive and professional product displays

Purchase function should be easy to operate

Data of clients should be easily captured

The credit card facility must be secure

The system must have online validation of credit cards

The system must be able to deliver on the above applications in order to be considered effective enough to achieve the goals of the firm.

Addressing security issues According to Schneider (2011), just like brick-and-moter stores need some form of security to eliminate cases of robbery or burglary, e-business must be secured. This scholar says that cyber-crime has become so rampant in the current society as crime take a new shape with the changes in the technological environment.

In order to operate an e-business successfully, KDCC must develop some form of security that will protect its operations. The customer needs to be protected from fraudsters who may be intending to steal from them by purporting to be this firm. This firm must also protect itself from any form of threat from these fraudsters in order to eliminate any form of losses that may be incurred because of fraud.

This means that the technical team must develop software that will be able to fight any malware that cyber-criminals may use to corrupt the system of this firm. All users must also be given password that they have to use any time they want to make any form of e-transaction through the website of this firm. The customers should be given an account with a password that they will use when making any transaction with the firm.

The password will remain a secrete for the customer. To enhance security, the customer can always change the password whenever he or she feels that the current password has been compromised. Every department involved in the online transactions will always have its own password when dealing with e-customers.

For instance, the marketing department will be able to deal with the customer from the time he is given an account, and respond to any issue whenever this is necessary.

Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Business Planning Report. Kids Designed Craft Cards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The finance unit will be directly involved with the customer during the process of making payment, while the logistics unit will coordinate with the customer during the process of delivering the purchase to the designated place. Each member of this organization will be responsible for all the transactions taking place through his or her account.

Addressing e-marketing requirements It is important to understand e-marketing requirements in order to deliver quality service to the customers. The management of KDCC should understand all the requirements of e marketing in order to run without many huddles that may affect the normal operations.

According to Awad (2002), starting an e-commerce business may appear a simple process that can easily be realized as long as there is access to the internet. However, this is not as simple as it may appear. This complex process not only requires the right instruments, but also the skilled workforce that will help in addressing various issues within the firm.

The management must first address the issue of hardware needed to develop an e-commerce. This will involve a number of computers and accessories that come with it. It will also need all the hardware used in internet connectivity. The firm will also need to identify a room where these machines will be operated from, within its premises.

The firm will then need to purchase the software that will be used to develop and run e-commerce within the firm. This will also include the software that will be used to protect the system from cyber criminals. Finally, this firm will need the skilled workforce that will help in running the system.

The marketing unit will need to have its customer-care unit at the station 24-hours a day to address any question that may come from the customers. Other departments of this firm should also be active in this new system.

Choice of payment systems to be used Choice of payment to be used with this new system should be selected with a lot of keenness in order to enhance customer experience. According to Bhasker (2006), it is important to realize that some fraudsters are always keen to rob firms that do not have foolproof payment system.

The management must therefore, develop a payment system that will always protect itself and its customers from fraudsters. Choosing the best payment method should take a number of factors into consideration.

The first factor, as mentioned above, should be security of the firm and its customers. The second factor should be convenience. The payment system should be convenient to the client and the firm. The third factor is the ability of the firm to realize that payment has been made the moment the customer makes this payment.

Factoring all these issues together, the best approach that would be very appropriate for this firm would be the use of credit cards. This would allow a strict interaction between the customer and the finance department of this firm during the process of making payment.

However, the firm should consider another alternative of making direct bank deposits to the bank accounts of the firm in case the payment is huge and cannot be transacted easily using credit or debit cards. However, it is important to find a way through which the system will detect any direct payments to the bank account and all the necessary details of the customer who has made the payment.

Addressing privacy and other relevant ethical concerns Some of the main concerns that have been raised by stakeholders in relevance to e-business are the need to maintain ethical issues related when conducting this business. This involves privacy issues and other issues related to customer care and protection. According to Corchuelo (2003), some customers may always want their private life to remain as such, especially when it comes to making purchase of some specific products.

It is the ethical responsibility of the firm to ensure that customers’ identity is not revealed to the public when they make purchases from the firm. Failure to observe this may seriously affect business operations of the firm as customers may lose trust with it. Another privacy concern is the need to protect the finances of the customers who is paying through credit cards.

The officers responsible for effecting the payments should not withdraw more than the right amount from the account of the customer. This is an ethical responsibility of this firm if it intends to keep its customers. It is also important to ensure that customer is not double-charged for the products they purchase from the firm. Yokoo (2008) says that it is ethical to deliver on the promise made to the customer.

When a customer sees a product online and pays for it, the firm should make an effort and deliver that particular product to the customer. The product must meet all the specifications made by the customer during the purchase. The time of delivery should also be as prompt as promised on the company’s website.

Addressing legal issues connected with the e-commerce business As Gasós (2003) observes, it is not possible to run a business in an environment that lacks proper legal structure to protect the customers and the firm. The law is meant to protect all the stakeholders involved in the transactions. In e-commerce business, laws exist that helps in guiding the relationship between the customer and the firm, and that between the firm and other firms or the government.

The laws are already in existence, and the only issue that the firm should address is to implement them. In order to address the legal issues properly within the firm, it is important to ensure that all employees understand this law and its relevance in an e-business environment. This will help in ensuring that these employees appreciate the need to observe these legal issues in all their activities.

The next step would be to let customers know the laws and regulations governing their online transactions. The company can let them know their rights and responsibilities, and how the law protects them and the firm. This will help in creating a legal environment where stakeholders get the respect they need.

Addressing customer service issues According to Kidd (2000), the only way in which a firm can succeed in e-commerce business is to find a way of treating its customers with a lot of decorum, and addressing their concerns as soon as possible. This means that KDCC must have a very active customer care unit that will be able to address needs of the customers as may be appropriate.

To do this, the firm must develop a state-of-the-art call centre, which will be the customer care centre. The call centre should be equipped with all the necessary communication systems and qualified workforce that will be able to respond to the questions of the customers and direct them as may be necessary. It is important to ensure that the customer care service is offered round the clock.

At no moment should the customer call and fail to get response as needed. To enhance communication, the firm may engage the social media in addressing customers’ needs. This may involve responding to customers through Facebook and Tweeter. The firm can also develop a live chart in its website where customers can reach the firm directly.

Measuring the success of your proposal It is important to measure the success of a project in order to determine if it is economically viable. Coming up with metrics that can be used to measure, the level of success of the project may be very important in helping the management determine the next approach to take. Three departments of KDCC can do this. The first department can be the marketing unit.

The can determine the level of success by determining the increase or decrease of customer engagement within the firm. The finance unit can determine the level of success by determining the increase of income directly related to the new system. The logistics unit can measure this by determining the increase in delivery of products to online customers.

Conclusion The discussion above demonstrates that e-commerce is the best approach through which Kids Designed Craft Cards can increase its market share locally and internationally. The new system may cost a lot to this firm during the initial installation. However, the firm stands to benefit a lot upon its completion. This research has demonstrated that if the firm comes up with the appropriate prototype, then it will be successful in this market.

References Awad, E. M. (2002). Electronic commerce: From vision to fulfillment. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.

Bhasker, B. (2006). Electronic commerce: Framework, technologies and applications. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Bhusry, M. (2005). E-commerce. New Delhi: Firewall Media.

Corchuelo, R. (2003). Technology supporting business solutions. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Gasós, J. (2003). E-business applications: Technologies for tomorrow’s solutions. Berlin: Springer.

Kidd, P. (2000). E-business: Key issues, applications and technologies. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Manzoor, A. (2010). E-commerce: An introduction. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Acad. Publishers.

Schneider, G. P. (2011). Electronic commerce. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Yokoo, M. (2008). Electronic commerce: Theory and practice. Berlin: Springer.

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Enlightenment and revolution Cause and Effect Essay best essay help

Introduction The modern political system of the European nations is a by-product of the enlightenment and political revolution that took place in the late eighteenth century in Europe. The mastermind philosophers of this enlightenment resided in France. The world before the enlightened political system seemed full of superstitions, irrationality, and naivety.

The church and kingship kingdoms had denied the right to contribute in the political decision-making systems, thus leaving the citizens under the authority of a few individuals. The French enlightenment was more radical in religious thoughts than its politics due to various reasons, but the major one was the fear of retaliation from the rulers for the rebellious subjects.

Hence, the enlightenment in France brought about a political revolution from the old regime to the modern political system.1 Interestingly, the French enlightenment and revolution were more radical religious thoughts than politics because religion was the most suitable avenue to promote the agenda.

Who Was Responsible For Causing The Revolution? There seems to be a great controversy amongst many historians as to who was responsible for the French revolution. Many argue that philosophers were responsible, others believe that political publishers aggravated the public anger that led to the overthrowing of the monarchy, and others believe that it was an appreciation of philosophers’ ideologies by the wider social mentality.

However, the philosophers were the main sources of ideas some of which motivated political news writers to take great risks of revealing the monarchy’s bad images to the French public. According to Marisa in her article ‘The Intellectual Origins of the French Revolution’, there exists no centralised concept as to the origin of revolution greater than the public opinion.2

In addition, she argues that that concept was the creation of Habermas, a German Philosopher. Habermas argues that the eighteenth century gave rise to a new public revolution through enlightenment, and resulted to the development of the public sphere through the formation of today’s form of journalism and media freedom.

Public sphere indicates the intellectual vacuum that existed between state and the civil society, which had been denied the opportunity to participate in the political and government affairs by the monarchical regimes.3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, Habermas referred to that kind of public sphere as ‘bourgeois’. The bourgeois class contributed significantly to the enlargement of the gap in the social class and gave room for the rising prominence of intellectuality in the public sphere. The public did not have initial political motivation at the beginning, but rather the feeling of being an emancipated social class in their own country.

Interestingly, people did not use media to communicate their common ideas; on the contrary, they did it orally for fear of aggravating anger in the monarchy, which could have suppressed their ideas in brutality.4

Hence, people took advantage of the growing social institutions such as salons, clubs, hotels, academies and societies, and other social places where they discussed ideas from the stories in the published journals and authorised gazettes. As time went by, the public voices continued to grow confident and articulate in raising opinions on political and government affairs.

Their voices grew louder in matters concerning engagement in wars, prominent court proceedings, and power disputes among the monarchy and other authoritative organs. However, the more their voices continued to be ignored, the more they become solid and took shape, which later developed into a universal public phenomenon until the collapse of the monarchy regime in 1787.

In addition, the political regime tried all it could to limit the public access to the political issues through enactment of laws of censorship of the publications, which included newspapers, journals, and others. Nevertheless, censorship failed to impede the ever-growing and solid public opinion as it was intended, but gradually it undermined the wishes of the authority.

Intellectuals used public forums to campaign for their political ideas and tribunes as it was the only communications channel that political regime could not have banned. Hence, it is believed that philosophers took advantage of the social forums as the most effective channels to influence the public opinion.

Unfortunately, Marisa argues that though public opinion is seemed to have been solidified, there were elements of divisions in the social classes, which could have contributed to some people taking advantage of others.5 She believes a few people had set their goals on leadership for they were social elites and hence opted to take advantage of the majority who were economically disadvantaged.

We will write a custom Essay on Enlightenment and revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She points out on philosophers as intellectuals who most probably took advantage of the ignorance of the majority to have their wishes granted. Hence, the revolution cannot be said with certainty to be a result of popular opinion, but rather a result of ignorance, and abuse of the common people in the state.6

In supporting her arguments, Marisa argues that she had evidence, which indicated that the poor were of little significance to the intellectuals and hence were used to pose challenges to the existing political regime.7

In addition, the elites were better placed than the poor and illiterate were in understanding and judging the behaviours of a political regime. Hence, it is the elites whose quench was nourished by the revolution since both as writers and readers played a major role in the enlightenment.

The Political Revolution The Natural Law Theory

The intellectual elites were of the view that political revolution would bring about a platform of shared ideology or common political beliefs, but that goal was never achieved. The initial motivation was to eliminate the old regime and introduce an unknown political system that to some, would have adopted either the English or the American political system.

According to the public opinion, the absolute monarchy needed to be abolished, as it seemed dictatorial, and adopt a new political system, which would allow public to contribute in the government and political affairs. The natural law theory is believed to have been developed by the French philosopher, Burlamaqui, and is one of the theories that influenced public opinions and rendered to the political revolution.8

It was an alternative theory to the theories of morality and political authority but legally based as opposed to the previous theories on the same subjects. That theory set out the government’s contractual theory, which implicitly and to some extent explicitly challenged the base on which legitimacy of absolute monarchy governance system was founded.

In addition, in 1751, Diderot wrote an article “Autoritepolitique” in which he gave a demonstration of the radical potential of the natural law theory. He wrote, “No man has received from nature the right to command other men…

Freedom is a present from heaven, and every individual of the same species has the right to enjoy it as soon as he enjoys reason.”9 This article was found offending and led to the suspension of the Encyclopedie, in which it had been published. However, it was an influential article to the public opinion and hence, it aggravated public demands for the demolition of absolute monarchy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Enlightenment and revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Republicanism

According to Marisa, Republicanism is also one of the concepts believed to have had a major influence in the political revolution of France.10 It had many themes and ideas, but one of the most influential was the idea of centrality of the civic virtues in the politics. This idea implied that a republican state ought to give its citizens the right to exercise public goodness.

However, the republican concept did not advocate for the demolition of the monarchical system of governance, but it stressed on the concept of every citizen being a subordinate to the public good, including the rulers. Hence, for the case of the old regime, the king ought to exercise the public goodness in his governance.

Unfortunately, the monarchical elites who were drunk with power and used to despotic leadership could not accept anything close to republicanism where the King would be subject to the public good.

Republicanism is one of the most ancient concepts of governance and to the French citizens, it was an old regime given that it was applied by a few city-states, though they did not exercise it to the extent at which it could have had influence across the entire nation. However, the American adoption and redefinition of the republicanism had a great impact on the French revolution and especially between the years 1776 and 1789.

American founders managed to prove to the world that republicanism was no more an old regime as it was assumed to be confined to, but a flexible and adoptable form of governance in the modern politics. The American republicanism influence on the French politics brought about a gap amongst the intellectual elites who had a great influence to the French revolution.

Some intellectuals like Mirabeau were of the idea of adopting the English republicanism, while others supported the French republicanism form of political governance.11

English republicanism was of the form of a constitutional monarchy that separated the powers of the executive and legislation to exclude absolute ruling. The influence of the two forms of republicanisms was exhibited by the adoption of the direct democracy that was embodied on the right to insurrection.

Application of Theories

Having theories and desire to adopt a new political system was not enough to bring about a political revolution to the French citizens without the taking of actions. Marisa looks into the Baker’s influential concept of the discourse theory. Baker illustrates the discourse theory to be a form of language that is powerful to give people access to power.12

The first discourse that had a significance influence is believed to the discourse of justice that demanded that the king should act according to the law, in the sense that he should not abuse his constitutional power.

On the other hand, it stipulates that the citizens should have limited powers within the constitution of the monarch. According to Marisa, Baker associated the discourse theory with parliamentarians and their supporters in the modern political systems.

The second influential concept of the discourse theory is that of willingness. Baker argued that popular sovereignty or in other words, the people’s will, was superior to the will of the monarch, and hence the French citizens had the rightful power to oppose it. The third concept of discourse was based on reasoning. Reasoning was a powerful discourse that demanded the enlightenment, as it is associated with wisdom.

Some French philosophers explained the need to have a governing system that would allow for enlightenment governance. Baker argued that discourse theory and especially the above three concepts had a great significance in the French political revolution for they moved people into action.13

On the other hand, hardly is there a theory that has no critics in the intellectual world. Some critics argue that Baker’s arguments that the political revolution was due to the words ‘power’ and ‘politics’ in the discourse theory were too shallow to define the revolution.

They argue other oppositional elements must have spurred people into action. They somehow continued to divide the elements of discourse into the classical republicanism, the religious critiques of absolutist policies, and the public opinion. Interestingly, the above elements are sub elements of will, justice, and reason, and hence the Baker’s discourse theory is seen to have had the greatest influence.

The Virtue Politics in France

Virtue is the most significant element of human behaviour. Hence, it was central to the political culture of the eighteenth century and was featured as a discourse in the French monarchy political regime. The political virtue implies an abnegation of individual’s self-interests in the exercising powers in order to achieve a comprehensive devotion of oneself to the goodness of the public.

The political culture of France in the eighteenth century was lacking the exercise of political virtue and hence the reason for the citizen outcry through public opinion for the adoption of new political regime and system.

According to Marisa, it is evident from the modern French politics that the political system of the eighteenth century had three competing and significant political discourses of virtue, whereby each discourse was used to satisfy a different source of political authority.

Looking into the political virtue discourses, the first one is the discourse of a virtuous king. By looking into the king as an individual, he lacked a good personal character capable of ruling diligently, which to some philosophers was a great risk to France and her citizens.14

Secondly, there was a discourse of noble virtue as it was attached only to the elite groups. There were individuals whose skills and prowess were used for state services but lacked the virtue to exercise their mandates for the goodness of the public due to high self-interests.

Thirdly, there was a discourse of civic virtue, which originated from the classical republics of Italy and Greece. In those republics, the civic virtue had been dispersed across all societies, where citizens laid claims on, and through it, they could freely make their case for political rights and justice. French citizens had a great thirst for the right to exercise civic virtue in their state.

However, philosophers added another virtue into the civic virtue in the mid-century. That virtue was defined as a natural virtue, which depicts the desire to care for one another in a brotherly love in an effort to ensure happiness to their colleagues.

The above four virtue discourses created an unwanted political environment to the citizens of France as they felt like they had been denied natural freedom according to Baker’s view of natural law theory, whereby nobody ought to deny another the natural freedom.

According to philosophers and other French thinkers, the French revolution aimed at bringing forth a political system and regime that would uphold virtues, and hence make French citizens virtuous citizens.

The French Enlightenment and Religion

French enlightenment is the root of the political evolution. According to Keiser and Kley, enlightenment is defined as the work of a few intellectuals and their followers.15

By looking into French political revolution, the entire process was initiated by a few philosophers who had a great influence on the French citizens to the extent of solidifying a common public opinion. In addition, through enlightenment, philosophers managed to take advantage of discourses, as described by Baker, that through them the public opinion was motivated into taking political actions.

According to the history of the French revolution, enlightenment was exhibited by the making of the common public opinion. The process was started by a few enlightened in society who passed on their views to the reading society and then moved to the social communication strategy of meeting at social places to share their ideas with people.

That process exhibited a great deal of enlightenment and especially through convincing the public through social forums to the extent of reaching a consensus.

Through the enlightenment, the political culture of the eighteenth century even though it had ancient political regimes, is seen to be having sources of the modern political evolutions and cultures. Enlightenment has a close tie to the religious view more than political view. The main goal of French enlightenment was to achieve a political goal and in so doing, there had to be a motivation of the public.

The intellectual elites had to take religious concepts and use them to convince the citizens in order to get them into action. Critics argue that philosophers, who were the intellectual elites of the eighteenth century, were schemers and thus they chose to take advantage of the ignorance of the majority in their effort to get their desired political regime and system.

They could only have taken advantage of the citizens by using religious perspectives in trying to convince them on the need to have a new governance system in France. In addition, the monarchy system did not deny people their religious rights and hence it was easier for the intellectual elites, who opposed the monarchy, to use religious platform to get the public into a uniform move.

The enlightened people of France in the eighteenth century were moved by the desire to have a change of the governance system from monarchy that did not allow for social freedom and freedom of citizens in the political and government affairs.

The majority of the enlightened people were philosophers, university students, and professors. Their great desire to change the governance system was challenged by the unavailability of communication channels that would get to the majority of French citizens. Secondly, the government did not allow for the freedom of speech as it the case in the modern world.16

The only option for the change pioneers was to use the books and other publications though they were thoroughly monitored by the government in an effort to protect its image and universal public reactions and demands. The intellectuals published their messages in the satirical passages that aimed at denouncing highhandedness and corruption of the few who were in power.17

In most cases, some publications were confiscated and to some extent, their licences revoked. Successful publication and distribution of the information were later boosted by sharing ideas and discussing such messages at social places, in an effort to win the hearts of the public in building a public opinion.

Conclusion Evidently, the French political revolution relied heavily on the French enlightenment. Political revolution could not have been achieved without the intellectual elites who were capable of realising the weaknesses of the monarchical governance system. Unfortunately, the intellectual elites felt the adverse effects of the ills of the existing regimes, whereas the majority who were illiterate and ignorant did not feel such an impact.

Hence, the intellectual elites ought to work hard in trying to convince the public of the necessity of having political system and regime that would empower the public. The intellectual elites faced communication challenges for the monarchical political system could not allow them to advocate for the empowerment of citizens freely.

Hence, they had to use publications and social forums as the most effective ways of communication beside the great risks posed by the ruling monarchy. In order to convince the public and motivate them to take action, the intellectual elites had to take advantage of the religious views and use them to make the public feel the pain of their rights being held hostage by the few powerful people.

Religion was the most suitable vehicle to advance the elites’ revolution because the majority of people ascribed to a certain religion and the monarchical governance allowed people to associate freely with any religious affiliation. Therefore, the revolution and enlightenment inclined more to religious thought than its politics.

Reference List Dijn, Annelien. “The Politics Of Enlightenment: From Peter Gay to Jonathan Israel.” The Historical Journal 55 no. 3 (2012): 785-805

Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Israel, Jonathan. A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy. Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon. New York: Penguin, 2002.

Kaiser, Thomas, and Dale Kley. From Deficit to Deluge: the Origins of the French Revolution. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011.

Linton, Marisa. “The intellectual origins of the French Revolution.” In The origins of the French Revolution, edited by Peter Campbell, 139-159. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Outram, Dorinda. The Enlightenment. London: Cambridge, 2013.

Footnotes 1Annelien Dijn, “The Politics Of Enlightenment: From Peter Gay to Jonathan Israel,” The Historical Journal 55, no. 3 (2012): 787.

2Marisa Linton, “The intellectual origins of the French Revolution,” in The origins of the French Revolution, ed. by Peter Campbell (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 141.

3William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 148.

4Ibid, 122.

5Linton, 146.

6Jonathan Israel, A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy (New York: Princeton, 2010) 67.

7Linton, 146.

8Colin Jones, The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon (New York: Penguin, 2002), 89.

9Ibid, 93.

10Linton, 144.

11Israel, 122.

12Linton, 145.

13Ibid, 145.

14Thomas Kaiser and Dale Kley, From Deficit to Deluge: the Origins of the French Revolution (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011) 98.

15Ibid, 83.

16Dorinda Outram, The Enlightenment (London: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 65.

17 Ibid, 86.

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A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Dear Sir, I am writing to you about the short story that might be published in the upcoming issue. In particular, I would like to speak about William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily since it can appeal to many well-educated readers who buy our magazine. It has been selected among others for several reasons. First of all, the author enables the readers to feel the atmosphere of the American South after the end of the Civil War.

By describing a fictional Yoknapatawpha County, William Faulkner recreates various aspects of American life. The time of the action is not specified by the author, but one can deduce that people live at the end of the nineteenth century. This is one of the details that can be singled out.

William Faulkner examines the.tensions between Southerners and Northerners by showing the people’s prejudices against Homer Barron. In my view, the readers may be willing to learn more about this issue. So, this short story can be important for understanding the culture of the United States as well as possible tensions within the society.

Moreover, it is important to mention that the writer creates a very interesting plot. For instance, the author creates a non-linear narrative which portrays the life of the main character Emily Grierson during different periods. In this way, the writer shows how the personality of Emily Grierson evolves. The writer subtly describes the events and factors which could have shaped her behavior.

This approach to writing can appeal to many readers. Moreover, William Faulkner adds a shocking ending to his short story, and it will produce a profound impression on the readers. To some degree, this short story has the elements of a thriller, and the plot is very engaging. This is another reason why this literary work can be published in the upcoming issue of our magazine.

This short story is also interesting because it portrays the struggles of a person who does not to accept the changes in external environment. For instance, he does not want to admit that she no longer lives in the antebellum South. William Faulkner gives a powerful psychological portrayal of this individual and seamlessly incorporates it into the plot. In my view, this goal cannot be easily achieved by many writers.

This is one of the main details that can be identified. I was astounded with the way in which the writer characterizes the main characters by using only several phrases. In my opinion, other readers may also find this writing style very enjoyable since it prompts a person to use his/her imagination while thinking about the protagonist or secondary characters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the author’s work can be viewed as a great example of Southern Gothic. William Faulkner relies on grotesque images that enhance the sense of mystery. For instance, the readers do not know what is hidden in the house of Emily Grierson. Moreover, the personality of the protagonist remains unknown to the reader until the very end of the narrative.

Nevertheless, this short story can be seen as a great example of realist literature since William Faulkner meticulously describes the life of a Southern American town. One can understand the challenges that this people encountered or the way in which they could perceive the world.

This is one of the things that may attract the attention of readers since the ability to combine realistic and Gothic literature is not very widespread nowadays. This quality can distinguish William Faulkner among other writers. This is one the main aspects that can be identified.

Apart from that, I was impressed with the author’s approach to narration. William Faulkner’s novella is told by the collective voice of the town. The author uses the personal pronoun we and the readers do not know to what extent he/she is familiar with the main characters. One cannot determine whether the collective voice is omniscient or not.

This narrator makes the story much more arresting because readers do not know how the narrative will evolve or what kind of decisions the characters can take. This is another reason why I selected this novella among short stories that were submitted for publication.

In my view, this short story can be of great interest to people who read our magazine. It has two elements that you value. In particular, I can speak interesting plot and the presence of many thought-provoking details that the readers will like. I do hope that this text can be included into the upcoming issue of our magazine. Certainly, there may be other short stories that are also worth attention.

Their literary merits cannot be disregarded. Nevertheless, I believe that this novella combines the best qualities that are valued by the audience of our magazine. This is why it can be incorporated in the following issue of the magazine. So, hopefully, you will consider this short story. In my opinion, the readers will not be disappointed.

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Discrimination in the Workplace Essay writing essay help

In Ricci v. DeStefano, the U.S. Supreme Court made a contentious ruling on workplace racial discriminate practices. In the case, eighteen firefighters from New Haven’s fire department had sued their employer for engaging in discriminatory practices. Seventeen of the firefighters were Caucasian while one firefighter was Hispanic. The officials of the fire department refused to promote the fire fighters.

This is despite the fact that they had passed promotion tests. The officials refused to promote the employees since none of the black firefighters had passed the promotion tests with marks that warranted promotion (Fitter

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Hegemony Theories Synthesis Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Leaders apply different forms of ruling all over the world. Some of the methods are still in use in the modern form of governance. Cultural structure affects the framing of leadership. Some leaders use their power to dominate every action needed to be taken in line with leadership responsibilities.

The article ‘torture’ has related the old and the modern forms of governance by highlighting the relationship between leaders and their subjects. Some leaders humiliate law offenders and anyone resisting their governance.

Different theories put forward by scholars describe the cultural and leadership aspects in an organization. An example is the hegemony theory referring to modes of governance where leaders dominate every action. The article also highlights power and knowledge, and the way they are perceived by the society.

Hegemony is a good example of theories touching on power and dominance in an independent society. This refers to imperial dominance- where leaders assume total power and ignore the peoples’ opinions. This form of ruling has its roots in the old days where leaders ruled on a geopolitical form through dominating other states.

The method of ruling was magnified in the 19th century where nations started dominating others affecting their internal independence. Scholars have argued that hegemony was the cause of colonialism that was widespread in the world in the 18th century. Powerful kingdoms and nations could take full control of the affairs of less powerful nations and African continent was the major victim of the ruling (King 203).

This causes cultural imperialism which is one of the most common forms of political ruling in the modern world. This is where a leader dictates political action by using his powers as the dominant factor. The article discusses this form of governance by stating that leaders assume total powers and think that they are invincible. Knowledge has a stake at this form of leadership. The educated dominate coming up with policies.

They enact laws that favor their agendas, therefore, dominating those with little knowledge on the issues affecting the nation (Piaget 38). Leaders are able to suppress any rebellion from the subjects by using armed forces. They do their best to remain in power and elevate themselves to top positions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Structuralism is another theory scholars use to explain the cultural aspects and the way people relate. This requires people to understand their relationship with things around them, and how they think about the nature. This theory is traced back in the early 18th century before civilization took place.

People loved their cultural lives, and this means close relationships and interactions. They had enough time to reflect on the tangible things around them. People thought that they were in touch with nature, so their feelings grew as they interacted with the natural environment. Scientists and scholars have developed this theory and applied it in psychology and anthropology.

Structuralism was applied in linguistics where scholars studied language development. In linguistics, structuralism is used to trace the detailed relationship words and things designated by such words. Changes in words and their meanings have also been explored; enabling scientists to trace the origin of words and their meanings.

The theory has also been used at the study of culture where social anthropology is given much attention in the study. This is the widest part where religion and people’s way of life are explored. This research reliably analyses the ancient and modern way of human life.

Structuralism is applied at the article where it touches on the way of life of the people (Foucault 16). It talks of knowledge and power and how these aspects determine the way of life of the people. From the article, knowledge and power are related. Leaders are assumed to be people with adequate knowledge. They acquire an obligation to run political affairs of the people.

Another theory used to reflect people’s way of life and relationships between different races is orientalism. The term refers to the way Arab nations are stereotyped to have exaggerated views. Western nations imagine and perceive Arab nations as common threats to world peace.

The theory also explores the relationship between power and knowledge in the society. It states that “knowledge dictates power”; this is witnessed in situations where knowledgeable people become powerful leaders. There is a great relationship between the educated and those in power (Chomsky 38).

We will write a custom Essay on Hegemony Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scholars have come up with theories to explain the general structure of society. These theories show the internal organization and people’s way of life. Relationships between cultures are also explained because one culture may affect the affairs of another.

Leadership is also explored where knowledge is seen as the basis of getting into leadership. Some leaders use their powers to dominate and humiliate their subjects. Knowledgeable people in the society are given a chance to take leadership positions. They are able to achieve this because of their ability to outwit the rest of the society. Their knowledge is an advantage in their quest for power.

Works Cited Chomsky, Noam. Hegemony or survival: America’s quest for global dominance. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2003. Print.

Foucault, Michael. Discipline and punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books, 2006. Print

King, Richard. Orientalism and religion postcolonial theory, India and ‘the mystic East’. London: Routledge, 1999. Print.

Piaget, Jean. Structuralism. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.

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Difference Between Silent Films and the Contemporary Movies Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Body

The Golden Age

References

Introduction Louis Lumiere receives recognition for inventing the moving image camera in 1895. Lumiere’s tool kit was significantly small considering the civilization at the time. It functioned as a camera, a motion processor and a display all folded in one.

Lumiere would film in the morning, develop it after lunch and display it for his audience during supper. His first motion picture was the entrance of the locomotive at Ciotat (Cook, 2004). Cinematography developed into complete maturity during the silent era (1895-1930).

In the late 1920s, synchronized sound was developed with the invention of Vitaphone system (Cook, 2004). Since that time, films have been produced with perfect sounds and dialogue. The striking difference between films produced during the silent era and the modern movies is the absence of sound in the former.

The introduction of sound in movies had far-reaching implications on movies. For example, the overacting evident in silent movies disappeared with the introduction of sound. This study examines the difference between silent films and the contemporary movies in terms of the synchronization of sound with motion pictures.

Main Body Human desire to document himself in activity dates back to early cave images. Clear examples are in existence in France and Spain. The Indonesian leathered puppet silhouette performance is a later illustration worth mentioning. Filigree performance silhouette are projected on a display as entertainment.

Movies that were produced later did not contain synchronized sound although they were accompanied by sound such as directives from directors or live performances as the movie was being projected (Christie, Felperin

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Microsoft Case Study essay help online

Introduction The rapidly growing world of industrialization and globalization has witnessed a sharp growth of industries, which are substantial in economic and social growth. Technological advancement is probably one of the major characteristics of the industrial revolution in the postmodern world with virtually every important aspect of a technical profession, largely relying on technological support to operate efficiently.

Notwithstanding their aptitude to integrate business ideas that support them through the rapid diffusion globalized economy, corporate organizations are facing unrelenting challenges in their operations. Since its advent into the corporate world, Microsoft Corporation has been arguably one of the prevalent corporate names in the technology industry, with its performance positioning it among the fortune 500 organizations.

Analogous to other organizations, Microsoft has also been facing challenges that have marred its corporate growth. Fundamental to this notion, the purpose of this study is to analyze problems that Microsoft faces and provide possible alternatives and recommendation.

Symptoms of the problems Notwithstanding its long outstanding performance within the technological business paradigm with unbroken performance track record, Microsoft is experiencing something different in the contemporary days. Several critical symptoms to its downfall in the technological consumer market are becoming more eminent in the current days.

Dropping in Microsoft’s market value is one of the first symptoms that significantly demonstrate possible problems confronting Microsoft Corporation; hence, its fall in market prominence and dominance in the last two years before the advent of Apple, which has proved to be one of the world’s most honored technological companies.

Another significant symptom to the problems marring corporate growth is the gradual loss of human capital that has been forming potential strengths to the initial success of Microsoft Corporation.

As postulated from the case study, Microsoft is gradually losing a majority of its innovative human resources to the prevailing competition with many of its top executives withdrawing from the organization either through formal work retirement process or attracted by competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Microsoft third most possible symptoms to its current problems is technological eschew or stagnancy with the case study report indicating that Microsoft is steadily losing value and lagging behind its competitors as the company has failed to continue producing modern technologies including gaming devices, tablets, mobile phones, and other media.

From its initial growth in productivity that made almost all its employees virtually millionaires, one of Microsoft’s significant symptoms of downfall is its low revenue generation as compared to its operating income. This performance trend started stagnating and fluctuating from the beginning of 2008 towards 2010.

From the case report, employee rapport with Microsoft Corporation started dwindling following the company’s inability to handle integral employees concerns including low pays of wages and reduction of benefits despite the company’s ability to record high profits. Indicative of these symptoms, Microsoft is now struggling to deal with numerous problems within its operations.

Problem statements Microsoft Corporation is facing a continuum of challenges in the recent days. One of the major problems that form a great challenge in the progress of Microsoft within the technology realm is low productivity, underproduction, or simply poor organizational performance. Microsoft is gradually falling short of market performance, which is characterized by low performance as opposed to its initial phenomenal success.

Also, as a software giant, flagship products are becoming rare. From the case report produced by the Wall Street, Microsoft was lagging behind its competitors in almost all aspects of business including technological advancement, marketing techniques, and relatively low financial capacity following the invasion of other technical companies.

Management is one of the critical success factors that determine the initiation and resilience of the organizations in its operations. Organizational management is normally responsible for administering leadership techniques that determine organizational performance as it controls both human and financial capital.

According to the case, as provided by Wall Street, poor management is one of the potential problems affecting Microsoft in the contemporary days within evidence of bureaucratic management that has significantly affected creativity and stock performance.

We will write a custom Case Study on Microsoft specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The case study indicated that innovative workforce is withdrawing with members claiming that Microsoft was responding too slowly to technological changes and other employees cited that Microsoft failed to address their concerns.

Any modern company aims at organizational success that is currently achievable by addressing significant production factors including actively focusing on quality of products that meet customers’ demands and preference. Research on this case study unveiled that Microsoft is currently facing stiff market competition from potential competitors in the technology industry, including the rapidly growing Apple, Mac, and Linux.

With demand for advanced technologies cutting across different devices and services, Microsoft is facing technological competition from the PC market to its services, including the Windows division that provides computer-enabled operating systems. This competition is stiffening from software production to hardware systems, which were Microsoft’s main tools for competitive advantage.

Problem Analysis Low and deprived productivity

Organizational productivity is determined by numerous factors that entail financial comportment and market performance. From the case study provided about Microsoft, market performance and financial status clearly indicate that Microsoft is currently surviving under deprived productivity.

Discussing on financial performance that signifies performance or productivity in organization, Exhibit 3 provided in the study can significantly demonstrate this concern. A closer analysis of annual financial statements of revenue and operating income of Microsoft from 2008-2010, the company’s financial stability is dwindling.

The financial statement indicates that Microsoft has been recording profits, but in quite unstable performance characterized by hikes and drops between the years. In 2008, the company recorded $ 60, 420 million values of revenue and $22,217 operating income (loss).

In 2009, the company recorded annual revenues worth $58,437 and reported annual operating income worth $20, 363. This financial performance trend proves that the company is recording unsteady performances.

Management

Management forms an integral part in organizational performance as policies and objectives articulated by management and their competence normally influence organizational success. One of the useful indicators that point to management failure in Microsoft is the continued employee-management wrangles that have posed serious issues in the company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Microsoft by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As indicated by the report, despite its uninterrupted track record in attracting and retaining significant human capital, the company has in the recent past witnessed a substantial loss in its key creative human resource. Top executives attached to business long term endeavors have resigned and others sought employment from other potential employers.

The current management has failed considerably in handling essential employees’ concerns including complaints regarding wages and benefits reductions, characterized by a widening compensation gap between executives and employees.

The management’s laxity in adopting new technologies that are integral for intensifying competition in the technology industry is keeping the company at stake, thus forcing it to struggle in the market performance.

Technological market competition

The response to the market demands and customers’ preference for certain products is currently one of the paramount business factors that entrepreneurs have recognized to have a potential impact on a firm’s stability. A key problem facing management in Microsoft is the constantly rising technological market competition that in most occasions has found the company unwary.

The fast pace at which other technologies are rising and their capability to respond to the rapid technological changes has created enormous problems to Microsoft. The company has lagged behind in realizing innovations involved in new technologies, including supporting the development of gaming services, tablets, mobile technologies, and other sources of media.

Microsoft has failed to recognize the rising demand for Smartphone technologies and continued to perform in dwarf of PCs. The company is performing dismally in server and tools and in providing online services while at the same time, the entertainment and devices section are dwindling in its performance in the technology market.

Alternatives for the problems and their Evaluation Problems normally occur in businesses, but they only become detrimental when alternatives and approaches to handle them never emerge. The main problem in the case of Microsoft that has a significant influence in the existence and continuation of others is the issue of management itself. The management is arguably part of barrier to implementation of important strategies in Microsoft.

In a bid to reclaim its aptitude and performance in the rapidly changing technological industry, reshuffling and changing the management style is paramount for positive results in Microsoft Corp. Bureaucratic management stifles performance and each significant change will begin by streamlining the management.

As stated from the case, the current management is autocratic and tyrannical, with little expertise as top executives, including the current C.E.O Steve Ballmer have not received any credible welcome from directors and employees.

Attracting and retaining innovative workforce to help in innovating new technologies would help in reshaping Microsoft Corp. as talented human resource is imperative in analyzing problems, making critical decisions, and supporting management with progressive ideas.

One of the essential factors to consider in the technology industry is the trendiness in the products as integrating services and products with significantly advanced technologies would greatly aid in improving the market demand for its products.

After identifying innovative workforce that would produce competitive products and brands, it would be significant for Microsoft Corp. to consider expanding its market through strategic marketing techniques and enhancing the prevailing partner relationships. The restructured managed is capable of building more powerful partners.

Course of action (Recommendations) Step 1: The entire action plan would require one year for effective implementation. Each step would require three months. The first would be a three-month strategic action plan development, which denotes the beginning of changes. The first step would involve revamping the management to allow integration of significant changes in Microsoft Corp. Designing implementation committee is integral in this phase.

Step 2: The second phase of change that would create significant change to Microsoft is attracting new and innovative workforce that would help in generating ideas on developing new technologies. The new management can practice this aspect throughout the company’s operations, though for the start, three months are adequate to identify the desired workforce competent enough for improving Microsoft.

Step 3: In three months, the new talented workforce will work with the management team in critical decision making to improve the company’s operations including changing and designing new and advanced products that follow the market trend. This move would help restore the company’s reputation on the quality of products and subsequently improve its market rapport with clients.

Step 4: The last step that would significantly place Microsoft Corp. in the best market position would involve developing a global marketing team and designing strategic marketing plans that will aid in expanding the market share for products of Microsoft. For instance, a huge marketing team to market the new windows 7 and Windows 8 is paramount.

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Horror Movies: We Are What We Are Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

When marketing a horror movie, it is essential to take into account a number of peculiarities of this genre. Horror movies have specific audience and tend to explore certain topics. As far as Jim Mickle’s “We are what we are” is concerned, it requires special attention. First of all, this horror movie is a remake of the Mexican movie called “Somos lo que hay”.

However, Mickle did not intend to simply translate the movie into the English-speaking reality, but he retold the story from a totally different angle (Olsen 2013). Thus, Mickle’s family consists of parents and three children (two daughters and a son). Notably, the protagonist’s wife dies which is one of the first major surprises for those who have seen the Mexican movie (McDonagh 2013).

There are lots of other surprises which make the viewer understand that the American version is a totally different story. Therefore, while marketing Mickle’s movie, it is possible to focus on such aspects as peculiarities of remakes, sequels and prequels, the movie’s audience, religion and traditions, and feminism in horror films. These aspects will draw the potential viewers’ attention and they will bring people to the cinema.

In the first place, it is important to focus on such aspects as remakes, sequels and prequels. Mickle stresses that his film is a brand new story with some remains of the original story (Turek 2013). It is crucial to make the potential viewers aware of the fact that the movie is based on Jorge Michel Grau’s “Somos lo que hay”. Firstly, it will attract attention of those who watched the Mexican movie.

They are likely to wish to see the American version of the film they appreciated. Admittedly, it is always interesting to view the story from different perspectives. Of course, it is necessary to stress the fact that the story is shown from a different angle to foster those viewers’ interest.

Secondly, the reference to the Mexican movie can also attract those who have not seen the original. The marketers should make this group of potential viewers aware of the fact that the Mexican film is a success and has attracted a lot of attention worldwide.

Furthermore, it can also be fruitful to mention that the filmmakers are considering the possibility to work on the prequel and sequel. Kohn (2013) notes that Grau is already working on the sequel. The very existence of a sequel and/or prequel is often seen as a proof of high quality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the filmmakers are interested in exploring the past and the future of the main characters of the story, it means the story is rich and a variety of angles to look at. Admittedly, people eagerly watch movies which are regarded as successful and high-quality products. Therefore, the marketers should pay special attention to this aspect.

Apart from this, the marketers should not forget about the movie’s genre. It is a horror story set in an ordinary American town. There are no monsters or aliens but it is a horror story that creates the necessary tension. The marketers should also point out that the remake is based on an Indie horror film. Erbland (2012) claims that Mickle translates the Indie story into a movie with a wider audience.

People are often attracted by Indie films which become a topic of a heated debate. Indie films are often seen as a product for a group of the chosen who can understand the message and appreciate the movie. “We are what we are” is a good chance to become a part of the group of chosen and the marketers can also use this aspect in their strategies.

Nevertheless, though the genre of the movie has already been identified as a horror movie, it is possible to state that “We are what we are” refers to another subgenre. The story is not a pack of horrific situations and monsters killing people. The story explores a variety of psychological and spiritual issues. The family has certain traditions and they are trying to preserve them as well as fit in the society.

There is a constant struggle within the main characters who try to come to terms with themselves and people around them. Apart from pure psychology, the movie is grounded on spiritual aspect of human life. Catholicism as well as devotion to the family is central to the film in question.

Hence, it is possible to note that the work in question is a psychological and spiritual horror movie. The marketers should pay certain attention to this as people are always interested in new genres and new aspects of something they know well.

These three aspects do not only help to market the movie, but also provide a valuable insight on potential audience of the movie. As has been mentioned above, fans of (or just people who have seen) the Mexican original can be a part of the audience. People interested in Indie movies and their remakes can also be a part of the audience.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Horror Movies: We Are What We Are specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the major part of the movie’s audience will include people who like horror films and suspense. At present, horror films are popular and they have already become a part of the contemporary culture (Teusner 2005). Therefore, while marketing the movie, it is necessary to focus on this group of viewers.

Admittedly, to attract people’s attention to any film, marketers have to mention certain issues explored in the film, if any. When it comes to the movie in question, it addresses a number of serious issues which are now in the spotlight. For instance, one of the major themes in the movie is religion and adherence to traditions. It is important to highlight this aspect of the film.

Thus, Teusner (2005) claims that horror movies have always referred to religious beliefs and tried to explore a variety of religious issues. The family in the film is a group of devout Catholics. At the same time, they cannot be regarded as righteous people.

Thus, Mickle explores the gap between religion and the contemporary world, i.e. religious values and individuals’ actions. Clearly, this topic appeals to lots of people and discussion of these issues is likely to attract potential viewers’ attention to the film.

Furthermore, the topic of traditions is also transparent in the film. The members of the family do not simply want to commit certain crimes due to their sinful nature, but they follow certain tradition which has existed in the family for generations. The filmmakers try to explore the extent to which it is acceptable to keep family traditions.

Mickle shows that some families can have peculiar traditions which make them totally different from the rest of the world. The founding father of the family started the tradition and the contemporary members of the family do not think they have the right to stop it. They believe they are doing the right thing and are not going to change their ways as it is impossible to change own nature.

Notably, people living in the modern globalized world are often preoccupied with preservation of their identity (ethnical, religious, etc.). Thus, the movie is also a reflection of the modern society and different groups within it. This aspect can also be used to market the movie.

Admittedly, one of the major themes in the movie is cannibalism. Mickle tells a story about a family of cannibals. Of course, this is a horror story, but the filmmakers do not create monsters eating human flesh. The Parkers are seemingly an ordinary American family.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Horror Movies: We Are What We Are by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Again, the film refers to the ongoing discussion of the issue. Notably, some people are trying to justify cannibalism or at least find the justification. For instance, Wisnewski (2007) provides a philosophical analysis of the problem.

The author also mentions the Kuru disorder and tries to reveal positive aspects of cannibalism. Importantly, Mickle makes the horror story as real as possible and the Kuru disorder is also mentioned in the film. The film can be regarded as another illustration of the discourse. This realistic presentation of the horror story can also attract people’s attention.

Finally, the marketers of the movie can also resort to the feminist approach. As has been mentioned above, Mickle’s story is totally different from the Mexican original and in the American version females (the mother and the daughters) are central characters.

Brewer (2009) notes that the contemporary culture (movies are a part of the culture) is characterized by feminist approach to different aspects of human life. It is also important to mention that Mickle brings to the fore female’s attempts to remain on good terms with themselves and the world.

Apart from the discussion of the themes revealed in the movie, it is also essential to mention the filmmakers and their expertise. Of course, the marketers should refer to Mickle’s previous works (“Stake Lane” and “Mulberry Street”) which are very successful. Thus, Mickle is now regarded as one of the most successful horror film directors (Tallerico 2013).

He manages to create the necessary tension and the stories he tells are full of suspense. Duhamel (2013) stresses that Mickle creates a number of symbols to explore the issues related to cannibalism.

The story told by Mickle is a combination of a children’s tale about Ogres, children’s nightmares, and discussion of family values (Duhamel 2013). The director brings a horror movie to a new level which is more complete and sophisticated. Clearly, people are now seeking for new experiences and they strive to see new techniques in their favorite genres.

The cast is also worth mentioning as critics praise the performance and state it is really exceptional. For instance, Duhamel (2013) praises performance of the two leading actresses, Julia Garner and Ambyr Chiders. The young actresses manage to reveal the doom of the family. The girls’ appearance and their ‘reluctant’ moves create a really tensed atmosphere of doom and devotion to the family (Duhamel 2013).

Bill Sage, Wyatt Russell and Michael Parks reveal the strong male world where each of them is trying to pursue their goals in their search for self-identity, justice and happiness.

The marketers should stress the exceptional performance of the cast as some viewers (who are not horror movie fans) have certain prejudice and they do not want to watch some horror films as they believe these works are characterized by poor performance. One of the advantages of the movie in question is the great performance, so the marketers should stress this.

It is noteworthy that there is a lot of information on the film available in media. In the first place, the film was premiered at Sundance Festival and it was praised by critics. It was also shown at Cannes Festival where it was also warmly accepted. Admittedly, these two movie festivals are influential and positive reviews from critics can be seen as certain evidence of the movie’s high-quality.

The marketers should stress the movie’s success at the two festivals. Favorable attitude of critics is one of the reasons to watch a movie. It is widely known that people tend to rely on critics’ reviews. Therefore, the marketers should refer to numerous favorable reviews available online.

More so, the very abundance of the information is a sign of the movie’s value. If people keep talking about a film, it means the film is worth seeing and viewers should understand that Mickle’s movie has been discussed for months. It can be useful to refer to some peculiarities of the movie’s production. Thus, Mickle’s struggle with the ‘bad’ weather can foster people’s interest to the film.

The director tends to stress that the major symbol and even the ‘character’ of the film is rain (Tallerico 2013). Mickle claims that the story is set in the middle of a natural disaster, i.e. heavy rains, storms and flood. The place was chosen with specific deliberation, but they did not have rain.

The way the director created the ‘natural disaster’ and the atmosphere of certain rainy doom is worth specific attention. This curious detail can draw a lot of attention to the film as well.

In conclusion, it is possible to note that “We are what we are” is a horror movie which is rather easy to market. The film has already attracted a lot of attention and there is a lot of information in a variety of film magazines. While marketing the movie, it is possible to focus on numerous aspects of the film. First, it is essential to mention the original Mexican version.

The marketers should also pay special attention to the movie’s genre which is different from a mere horror movie as it is full of psychology and spirituality. It is crucial to make the potential viewers aware of the upcoming sequels and prequels. Besides, the marketers can refer to the major themes in the film. Such themes as religion, traditions, cannibalism and feminism have been topics of quite heated debate recently.

Finally, it is also important to mention the cast’s performance which has been praised by many critics. Al these aspects are likely to attract potential viewers’ attention. Notably, the audience of the movie is really wide as it can include horror movie fans, psychological thrillers fans and those who are interested in exploring the issues revealed in the film.

Reference List Brewer, C. 2009, The stereotypic portrayal of women in slasher films: then versus now, Thesis, Louisiana State University. Web.

Duhamel, M. P. 2013, Cannes 2013. “Did you eat my daughter?”: Jim Mickle’s ”We are what we are”. Web.

Erbland, K. 2012, ‘”We are what we are” getting an American remake from Jim Mickle and Nick Damici’, Film School Rejects. Web.

Kohn, E. 2013, ‘”We are what we are” director Jim Mickle and Jorge Michel Grau discuss remakes, sequels and why their movies aren’t really about cannibals’, Indiewire. Web.

McDonagh, M. 2013, ‘American gothic: Jim Mickle’s “We are what we are” reimagines 2010 Mexican horror hit’, Film Journal. Web.

Olsen, M. 2013, ‘Director Jim Mickle sinks teeth into “We are what we are” remake‘, Los Angeles Times. Web.

Tallerico, B. 2013, Exclusive interview- Jim Mickle explains why ”We are what we are”. Web.

Teusner, P. 2005, ‘Resident evil: horror film and the construction of religious identity in contemporary media culture’, Colloquium, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 169-80. Web.

Turek, R. 2013, ‘Comic-con 2013 interview: Jim Mickle on “We are what we are,” the prequel

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Krishna Das (Jeffrey Kagel) Research Paper essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Bibliography

Style of music

Discography

Influences

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Krishna Das is a vocalist from the United States of America. He was born Jeffrey Kagel in 1947. He is famous for compositions and performances in a music genre known as kirtan. He has released eleven albums since he started his music career in 1996. Das is the most famous American singer of the kirtan genre of Hindu music. Even though the music style is not very famous, he has sold more than 300,000 albums worldwide.

His versatility and creativity are the main reasons why his music is famous in the western countries and certain regions of eastern countries (Dwyer and Cole 39). His prowess is evident form the number of records sold and albums produced in a genre that is not common among artists in the world.

Bibliography Das was born in the year 1947 in New Hyde Park, Long Island. In his childhood days, he learned to play several musical instruments such as piano, cornet, and baritone euphonium. He was an active music participant in high school, and played the euphonium as a member of the Marching Band (Titon 46).

The first genre of music that he was interested in was rock ‘n’ roll. In his teenage days, he became involved in basketball, which he played during the day. However, during the night, he attended music concerts by artists such as Skip James and Bukka White.

His interest in music intensified when he joined Stony Brook University (Titon 48). He joined a group of young people and formed a band but later separated from them. Afterwards, he joined the State University at New Paltz to study Eastern philosophy. However, he dropped from the university after a short period.

However, his stint at the university was fruitful because he met Ram Dass, a spiritual teacher who influenced him significantly (Propp, 51). At one time in his life, Das found himself at crossroads. His childhood friends invited him to join their band. On the other hand, his spiritual teacher invited him for spiritual lessons.

He chose to follow Dass, and they both travelled to India in 1970. He participated in several pilgrimages together with his spiritual teacher. He learnt Bhakti yoga and as a result started to chant hymns (Propp 53). After two years in India, he returned to America on a short visit with intentions to return.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, after the news of the death of his yoga teacher, he decided to stay in America. To fight grief, he practiced yoga and joined other artists to form a band called Amazing Grace (Propp 53). The band performed and recorded several Indian songs. Das also formed a recording studio known as Triloka Records.

Style of music Das specializes in Hindu devotional music popularly known as kirtan. Kirtan involves singing while chanting the name of God (Titon 62). He is known for his expertise in combining traditional Hindu chants with modern instrumentation and melodies. As a result, he has been labeled as a rock star.

His style of music has made him the best-selling chant artist in the world. In other instances, he mixes chanting with rock ‘n’ roll. For example, his album titled Heart As Wide As the World was produced by incorporating aspects of both kirtan and rock ‘n’ roll (Titon 63). His music style incorporates several aspects of western music such as chord progressions and instrumentation.

His performances start at a slow pace and gradually grow into fast chants. Chanting is an important aspect of Devotional Yoga that characterizes kirtan. In some cases, his performances start with devotional chants that are accompanied with instrumentation, and later followed by chants without accompaniment. Some performances include yoga teachers who guide participants in sessions of devotional meditation.

Discography Das had produced 11 albums since he started his musical career in 1996. His first album was titled One Track Heart. It included chants from traditional Bhakti yoga. The second album was titled Pilgrim Heart and was produced in 1998 (Dwyer and Cole 44). It featured an artist known as Sting. His third album was titled Line on Breath while the firth album was titled Breath of the Heart.

The fifth album, Door of Faith, was released in 2003. Three years later, the album All One was released. The album is a remake of the mantra of Hare Krishna that combines contemporary styles and South African traditional styles. Other albums include Gathering In the Light, Flow Of Grace: Chanting the Hanuman Chalisa, Heart Full of Soul, Heart As Wide As the World, and Live Ananda (Dwyer and Cole 45).

Flow of Grace was released in 2006 as both a book and a CD. It contained chants from Hanuman Chalisa, and an Indian hymn. Among his albums, Heart Full of Soul is the most unique because it includes songs that were recorded in live performances. Das has sold more than 300,000 albums around the world (Dwyer and Cole 46).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Krishna Das (Jeffrey Kagel) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His music is more famous and widely accepted in the west than in other parts of the world. Hearts as Wide as World was released in 2010 and it was reminiscent of his youthful days. It explores the development of his music style through fusion of rock ‘n’ roll and certain concepts of Indian spirituality (Dwyer and Cole 47). The album also contains several songs that incorporate both eastern and western instrumentation styles.

Influences Das has influenced many artists significantly. His influence in kirtan motivated fellow musicians including Sting and Hans Christian to produce music together with him. Other artists that he influenced include Prana, Mike D, Stanley Jordan, and Baird Hersey.

He has produced music with many artists whom he influenced with his unique style of chanting. Das is one of the most significant artists in the kirtan genre of music (Dwyer and Cole 69). He is considered to be the greatest artist who has contributed to the growth of the genre. His inclusion of instruments and melodies has contributed towards evolving the genre, which has increased its acceptance in the west.

Conclusion The musical contributions and achievements of Das are numerous. He has contributed significantly in the evolution of the kirtan genre of music. Since launching a career in music in 1996, Das has produced eleven albums. He has collaborated with different artists including Prana and Baird Hersey. His style of music incorporates kirtan chants with modern instrumentation and melodies.

Das has been labeled as a rock star because of his revolutionary and versatile style of music. His achievements include emerging the best selling kirtan artist and nomination for Grammy Awards. He has influenced many artists and has great influence in the kirtan genre. He is a versatile artist because he possesses the ability to incorporate several music styles into his own style without altering it.

Works Cited Dwyer, Graham, and Cole Richard. (2013). Hare Krishna in the Modern World. New York: Arktos, 2013. Print.

Propp, Steven. After the New Age: A Novel about Alternative Spiritualities. New York: iUniverse, 2008. Print.

Titon, Jeff. Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World’ People. New York: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Krishna Das (Jeffrey Kagel) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

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