Kraft Foods Group Strategies Report (Assessment) Writing Essay Help

Executive summary In the increasingly competitive food industry, it is imperative for companies to be alive to the changing markets. In order to meet this objective, it is important for companies to review their strategies regularly to align them with strategic choices.

In some cases, the companies need to review the strategic choices to leverage on strengths and take advantage of the environmental advantages to gain competitive advantage. This paper explores the case of Kraft Foods with regard to its strategies.

Introduction In any competitive market, companies that are almost certainly to achieve organizational goals are the ones with the capability to lead as opposed to trailing vicissitudes within the market.

The managers of such companies require building an enterprise capable of reacting rapidly to variations in both customer needs and the enterprise environment.

This demands for constant development of innovations, possess the capacity to launch them and developing strategies that will enable the business to effectively meet its organizational objectives.

Businesses that succeed in the market are composed of different individuals united in a collective purpose through corporate vision, mission and goals. In any business organization, the essential component in ensuring that individuals are focused on the goal is an organizational strategy that develops the organization so that it adapts to changes and advance with time.

This case study examines the strategies employed by Kraft Foods Group. It will propose ways in which the company may leverage its strengths and reinforce its weaknesses to gain competitive advantage. In order to achieve this, the study explores the company’s generic strategies and strategic choices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Main Body Product variety

Kraft Foods engages in the development and selling of packed food and beverages. It operates in the increasingly competitive North American, European, Asian Pacific and Latin American markets. Over the years, it has managed to create a niche in the food and beverage industry thus ranking second in the world behind Nestle (Marketline, 2012).

The company has a wide range of products including opportune meals, coffee and grocery products. It has an assortment of globally recognized brands. The food and beverage classes include breakfast, lunch and dinner. The products can be consumed in the food service outlets or at home.

This caters for the wide range of customers with diverse preferences of consumption location. The brand portfolio includes nine strong brands ensuring that customers have a wide variety to choose from.

In the fast changing market, having varieties of products within the core brands ensure that the company enjoys a huge market share as all customers have their needs met. The number of products had initially reached twenty. An overhaul in strategy led to the reduction with the company adopting ‘fewer, bigger, and better’ approach (Watrous, 2013).

Kraft Corporate Strategies

In 2011, the company revealed organizational strategies aimed at driving the growth of the company during the yearly Consumer Analyst Group conference (Shah, 2014). The strategies include delighting its global consumers with unique snacks.

The company would also release the power of its iconic brands through vigorous marketing and promotions. The company planned to create a performance-focused and principle-led organizational environment. These strategies would result in organic revenue growth of 5 percent.

In devising these strategies, the company viewed itself in an apt position to achieve growth considering its worthy cycle. The main features of the worthy cycle were envisaged to accelerate growth at a higher rate than competitors and categories include renewing the power brands.

We will write a custom Assessment on Kraft Foods Group Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is to be achieved through investment in research and development for innovation and advertising of the power brands. Additionally, the company would utilize its business management policies to enhance local brands.

Another feature is the increment in the sales and marketing brilliance. It would also develop end-to-end cost control to attain record savings. This will be achieved through streamlining the supply chain and endeavor negative overhead development.

The emphasis on the general organizational strategy is hence divided in two categories namely brand building (focus strategies) and cost reduction (cost leadership). The company is no longer developing new brands but is vigorously advertising and marketing the existing brands to create brand awareness among its customers.

Subsequently, it will create brand loyalty to its products. The cost reduction strategy will help the company to increase the profit margin. The company is making efforts to ensure that the supply chain is aligned to the mission and vision of the company.

By delivering the products to the consumer in a timely manner, the company will be viewed as the unquestionable leader in the food market. The customers will view the company as a requisite partner (Hill, 1988).

Generic Strategy

Kraft foods started with few product brands. As business increased due to vigorous marketing by the company staff, the number of products was increased. The company has developed sufficient brands and is no longer focused on developing beyond that. It is concentrating on ‘focus strategies’ to create strong position for the existing brands.

It has developed a set of ‘fundamental values’ that assist in guiding employees. Among them is promoting teamwork and creating room for innovation among employees. There is unrelenting emphasis on the need for the staff from all backgrounds and expertise levels to work in unison in supporting the company’s core brands.

In order to attain this goal and eventually the company’s mission, the company structures its business in ‘Category Teams’. This is focused on ensuring a cross-operational tactic to decision making.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kraft Foods Group Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Strategic Choices

For any company that seeks to integrate its innovations for growth, it must first plan on how it will integrate the innovations with the corporate vision and mission. Kraft’s mission is to gain recognition as the unquestionable leader in the world food market.

In order to attain this vision, the company needs to ensure that the quality of foods and beverages it offers are healthy for the consumers. In the contemporary market, consumers are increasingly becoming health-sensitive regarding what they consume. The company is financially endowed.

Its revenues exceed $1 billion (Noria, 2014). This is considered as the strength for this company. It is vigorously advertising and marketing its power brands globally particularly in highly competitive markets to gain competitive advantage over market rivals and increase its market share.

However, this does not completely align with the company’s generic strategy of cost leadership. The cost of advertising and marketing the brands are increasingly becoming higher. Additionally, the cost of supplying the products to markets outside the United States is higher.

This means that the price of the products is still high. Furthermore, the delivery of products to these locations is not timely. The company may require setting up plants in these markets to ensure timely delivery for customer convenience and reduction of supply costs.

Leveraging strengths

Kraft Foods has a unique combination of refreshments and legacy brands. The company is financially stable. It should use this strength to market the power brands in the emerging markets. In order to reduce the supply costs, it should set up manufacturing plants near these markets.

The marketing, advertising and promotions will help in creating the ‘perceived value’ by customers. It should endeavor to create a niche among consumers by selling directly to them as opposed to the current approach where it sells to retailers.

The elimination of distributors and retailers will help streamline the supply chain and effectively lower the costs (Meeta, 2012).

By entering new markets, the company will take advantage of the environmental opportunities. There are fewer competitors in the emerging markets.

This will allow the company to create customer loyalty for its unique products. In most of the emerging markets, there is relative political stability with less favorable conditions for foreign investors as the countries seek to globalize and attract investors.

The company should take advantage of incentives offered in such markets to grow its profitability. The company should alter its strategic choice of vigorously marketing in the existing competitive markets and concentrate on the emerging markets.

Reconfirmation of Kraft Foods vision and mission

Kraft Foods’ mission of gaining recognition as the unquestionable leader in the world food market is enhanced by the fact that it engages expertise from diverse professional fields. This ensures that the company offers its consumers high quality and healthy assortments of foods and beverages.

In pursuing this mission, the management creates an environment that enables a strong connection between the organizational strategies and the performance of its brands. The company builds its market performance through the engagement of competent managers and field personnel.

The employees function within vividly defined strategies that are carefully designed by professionals. By creating a performance-focused and principle-led organizational environment, the company is able to deliver to its customers the services and products envisaged in the company’s strategic plan.

The management structure of the company replicates the strong point of the management team. The team is able to positively influence the employees to devote to the achievement of the company objectives through meeting the expectations of the customers.

In order to achieve cost leadership in the food industry, the company encourages the employees to participate in decision making. It encourages innovation among the employees through shared expertise.

The creation of category teams enables the involvement of planning experts who take an active part in decision making. They help the employees to concentrate on adding value for the clients in an approach that progresses the competitiveness of the entire company.

Conversely, to achieve the vision and mission of the company, the management has divided the entire organization into three key teams namely business divisions, collective services and the corporate core. Nevertheless, the corporate core is responsible for deciding on the overall strategy of Kraft Foods.

It sets standards and manages talent as well as composing the business portfolio. This way, the company is able to remain focused on its mission. The corporate strategies and strategic choices require realigning instead of altering the mission statement.

Conclusion Kraft Foods corporate strategy has been effective for years. However, the increasingly competitive food and beverage industry requires realignment of the company’s strategic choices to reflect on the delivery of the corporate mission. The company’s mission and objectives require no alteration.

Instead, there is need for reviewing the generic strategy to enable the company to adapt to the changing market and create a niche in the food industry. The company should leverage its financial endowment and strong brand to gain competitive advantage.

References Hill, C. (1988). Differentiation versus low-cost leadership or differentiation and low-cost: A contingency framework. Academy of Management Review, 13(1), 401-412.

Meeta, I. (2012). Application of bowman’s clock to Kraft foods ltd. Web.

Noria, C. (2014). Kraft foods lay out new global growth strategy. Web.

Shah, V. (2014). Kraft foods. Web.

Watrous, M. (2013). Product development overhaul at heart of Kraft foods strategy. Web.


Wassily Kandinsky: the abstract expressionist Analytical Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Abstract painting

Composition and improvisation

Geometric paintings and publications

Kandinsky in Paris

The expressionists movement




Introduction Wassily Kandinsky, born in 1866 in Russia was one of the pioneer abstract artists. The first pieces of paintings he created were the Improvisation and compositions in 1910. Many things influenced the working method he used. This influences include; the paintings he saw done by Monet.

He got motivation by the opera by Wagner that made him think that melody could be used to indicate shade1. He got awed by the different things he experiences in his tours. In Paris, he saw exhibitions done by different painters. While, in Munich, he studied theosophy that played a crucial role in shaping his aesthetic values.

He began his painting career by painting things that had a Russian topic. He tries to match the value of post-impressionistic process of painting with the palette.

This helps the people identify with the subject of his painting because such features art established in the local elf tales and folks songs. A good example of such work is the one seen in his painting, Composition 2. He later explains that the theme of the painting based on life in Motley2.

However, his theme of painting changed after he visited Paris. While in Paris, he got a chance to see landscape paintings. He then started painting fauvist-motivated paintings3. There was also a difference in his use of color. He shifted from the use of naturalistic and evocative colors to communicative colors.

His focused shifted from painting Russian theme based paintings to painting fauvist and landscapes. He focused more on three themes; impression, composition and improvisation. He described the paintings he made from the direct impersonation of the external environment as impression.

Improvisation, on the other hand, was the paintings he made from motivation he got from the things that happened in the spiritual level. Lastly composition was those paintings that he made based on the inspiration he got from both the improvisation and impression paintings4. However, the main reason for the development of such paintings was the long time that he spent in Munich studying anthropology.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He made his first publication on abstract painting during this time. He concerned himself with comparing colors to the day to day activities in the world. For example, he uses the yellow color to show the articulateness of different sounds on earth. Blue to compare it with the heavens and the sky. Color represented sounds and places and every color used in a painting have a different meaning5.

Abstract painting After his stay in Munich, he settled in Germany with his mistress who was also a painter. This was where he began his journey in the world of abstract painting. This encouraged by the fact that he loved paintings, which had its lines, shapes and colors giving the inner meaning of things.

He did not want paintings that had objects that easily identified in a painting6. His main aim was to create paintings that could stir deep emotions in its viewers. However, he was not the only abstract painter at that time. There were other painters who tried to paint the same painting he was doing. This, however, changed after the World War 1. Before the war, there were many other accomplished artists who were doing abstract paintings including Cubists7.

The first prime abstract painting that earned him the title the pioneer’ was his composition 7 that he made in 1913. Encircled was another painting he made in 1911 that also proved his change of painting from recognizable to abstract things. His other significant paintings that also marked the begin of his work in painting abstract 5things were the “Landscape with Steeple”, “Improvisation XIV” With the Black Arch,” “Black Lines,” and “Autumn” and the “The Blue Rider”8.

Composition and improvisation Most of his paintings focused on composition and improvisation. The paintings focused on the spiritual aspects of life. It was a portrayal of the spiritual affiliation of the people and nature as a whole. The three types of paintings can be explained by music analogies that go well with these themes.

It was during one of his performances that he felt conviction towards abstract. He felt that each color had a different and mystifying existence unique to itself9. Composition required a lot of mental concentration as it was motivated by the mind and other internal factors unlike the impression.

When painting the compositions, he numbered them and based each composition on a different theme. However, there were times when the themes of an improvisation and a composition matched. This can be seen in his composition 6 and improvisation Deluge. The two paintings try to present a new world or a new beginning of the old world.

We will write a custom Essay on Wassily Kandinsky: the abstract expressionist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kandinsky always made sure that he never forgot about a topic or theme used in the previous paintings. He could hide a certain meaning in a painting and bring it out in the next painting. This can be seen his painting improvisation 30 and improvisation 31. In improvisation 30, he braces the topic of a sea battle, but does not make clear. He makes it clear in the next painting of an improvisation that his theme in the previous painting was sea battle10.

The painting done by Kandinsky was susceptible to change due to the changes experienced in the political, economic and social factors. Political instability during the World War 1 made Kandinsky reconsider moving back to his native country. This meant that he had to end his relationship with his mistress Gabriele Münter,11.

After resettling back in Russia, he married a younger woman and lived in Moscow. He got a job as a professor at the Moscow Academy of Fine Arts in 1918. During the times, time of the Interlude, he did not find enough time to do any substantial paintings12. He did some paintings that portrayed his change of painting style from his paintings in Munich.

His paintings characterized by water colors and canvases which were quite different from his previous paintings, where he focused mainly on landscapes.. However, he contributed to the growth of art when he built artistic institutes in different parts of the country. He started schools like; Russian Academy of Artistic Sciences and the Institute of Artistic Culture.

He also played a crucial role in the construction of museums across the country. He shifted from the unprompted, poetic, and unrefined style to a more purposeful, lucid constructional way of painting. This change was slow and it can be felt, and seen in his paintings that include the “White Line”, and “Blue Segment13.”

His life in Russia ended after the soviet government shifted its concentration form acceptable arts to social arts. Kandinsky had no other option but to leave the country. He left Moscow with his wife and went to Bauhaus. Here, he got a job as a lecturer at a local Bauhaus university. However, the university did not offer courses in non applied art, and he had to wait until 1925 before he started lecturing on non-applied painting14.

Geometric paintings and publications While, in Bauhaus, he continued with his advance geometric abstraction. However, he was more dynamic and focused more on the aspect-filled painting area. This was like a reminder of the early paintings he had made while in Munich. During his stay in Bauhaus, he became interested in supposition, and he started publishing books and articles15.

His last pieces of paintings in Germany were the Development in Brown’. This painting thought to be targeting the Nazi brown-shirted storm troopers, who did not appreciate his paintings. They claimed that his paintings were disintegrating.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wassily Kandinsky: the abstract expressionist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A significant change in his painting style after the First World War was the shift from the use of landscapes to blank spaces. This effect got empowered by the use of geometric dimension in the paintings. In addition to the geometric dimension, he also used standard forms and other drawings that looked like the living organisms. The messages probed the reader to search for the inner explanation of the painting16.

This was the last painting he did while he was still the citizen of Germany. The closure of the university of Bauhaus forced him to relocate to Paris France.

Here in Paris, he drew paintings that gave the public intrinsic view of the world. His paintings gave the public a chance to see the abstract things in life as separate and distinct from the ordinary things.17. He focused on using all his senses and soul during his painting. His aim was not to create pictures or decorations in his paintings, but to stir up some emotions in the public18.

His aim was to involve the viewer while painting. This could make it easier for the artist to paint and create a scenario that will capture the viewer’s attention. His use of concealed imagery in his paintings was a technique he used to reflect the state of confusion that was common in the world.

His painting in Paris was not as blooming as in the past areas where he settled. Here, people did not appreciate their presence, and the existence of abstract painting. He spent lonely hours in his apartment with his wife in the apartment. This forced him to lead a lonely life without interaction with other painters. The foreign artists he met there in Paris did not accept him as their own. The only option he had his old friends as the only art friends19.

His last evolution in the world of painting occurred in Paris. He no longer used a mixture of primary colors that were common in his past paintings. He started using supple colors that had a more sophisticated and delicate texture. This new range of color forms went in line with the forefront in Paris that always appeared to be biomorphic20.

This goes a long way to show how well he was in touch with his inner being. His paintings represented a life that was full of excitement and not one that was dull and full of boredom21. Some of the pictures he created during this time include the pictures “Sky Blue”, painted in the early 1940, “Complex-Simple”, of 1939 and the, “Colorful Ensemble”, which he painted in 1938.

Kandinsky in Paris It was during his stay in Paris when the Second World War began. This was a period marked by scarcity in the supply of painting materials. This forced him to use less paint in paintings making the drawings shallow and pale. The situation worsened and forced him to start painting on small cardboard22.

His focused shifted once again to the theory part of abstract arts. In his publications, he said that arts put a new world, a new beginning and a fresh start on bare ground without the certainty of its existence. He tried to prove that the two worlds were not different and if given a chance can integrate in to one thing23.

Even up to his last days on earth, Kandinsky never lost the sense of his innermost feeling while painting. He drew strength from his inner being, and the abstraction arose from the determination, concision and vigor that was deep within him. Kandinsky died in 1994 in Paris, but his life spent contributing to the development of abstract art or the arts of expression24.

His work was one of the major breakthroughs in the world of abstract arts. It was one of the finest works that helped guide the beginning of a new age in the world of abstract movements. He played a leading role in the beginning of the abstract expression era of painting.

The expressionists movement This movement emerged in the early 1940s in leading cities in the world including New York. The artists in this movement wanted to change the common believe that art was just any other thing that had no meaning. They wanted art to be seen as a way of thinking, something that could be used to pass information; a communication tool25.

The existence of abstract expression had been in existence for a long time, but the expressionists wanted people to focus on the whole process. They did experiments on how to engage themselves fully in the work of painting. They wanted to engage themselves in the whole process, feel the texture of the painting, understand the tools used and appreciate the work26.

The abstract expression that erupted in New York was commonly known as the ‘New York School’. They adopted the way of painting used by Kandinsky. They refused to use the common way of painting used in the United States of America in the past. They wanted a painting that reflected their own experiences and one that was in touch with their inner beings.

They rejected the use of social realism prevalent in the Soviet Union and the geometric abstraction. They were interested in their own individual work. However, this changes in 1943 when some of the abstract expressionists began appreciating the work done by others27.

Later on in the 1940s the different expressionist’s artists exhibited their and the work done by the pioneer abstract artists like Kandinsky in the art galleries around the country. The artists also formed groups, and started social organization where they met and shared ideas.

However, this was short lived because the onset of the cold war in early 1950s. The expressionists who were proud of the work in pure romantic and freedom, in their deeds, affected by the war. Most of the abstract expressionist artists went back into the old way of paintings that involved the use of objects and theme in their painting28.

Conclusion Wassily Kandinsky played a crucial role in the evolution of the abstract painting. He never lost touch with the spiritual aspect of the painting. This approach applied by the expressionist in the early 1940s and 1950s. The artists always felt an inner fulfillment in the expressionist art. They use color order to represent their inner feelings and thoughts, and at the same time passing vital messages to the public.

This has not been a pleasant thing. The onsets of abstract expressionists affected by many factors, but the most common ones were the political instability29. Many up coming abstract artist have to change their residential areas during and after wars..Others that are not successful loses their lives in the war stricken countries.

Political instability causes shortage in supply of the materials required. This forces the artists to seek other alternatives that may not suit his painting style. However, most of the artist who have a passion for abstract art do not lose touch with their painting30.

Bibliography Alberti, Leon. Alberti on Painting. Translated with Introduction and Notes, by John R. Spencer. London: Yale University Press, 1966.

Ball, Peter. Bright Earth: The Invention of Colour. London: Penguin, 2002.

Banai, Alison. Colour after Klein: Re-Thinking Colour in Modern and Contemporary Art. London: Barbican Art Gallery: Black Dog Publishing, 2005.

Bill, Max. Wassily Kandinsky. Paris: Maeght, 1951.

Bomford, Dan. Colour Pocket Guides to the National Gallery. London: National Gallery,company, Ltd,. 2000.

Bowlt, John. The Life of Vasilii Kandinsky in Russian art: a study of “On the spiritual in art” by Wassily Kandinsky. Newtonville, MA.: Oriental Research Partners, 1984.

Callen, Allan. Techniques of the Impressionists. London: Orbis Publishing, 1982.

Cennini, Cennino: The Craftsman’s Handbook, translated by Daniel P Thompson, Jr. Yale University Press, 1960.

Dabrowski, Magdalena. Kandinsky Compositions. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002.

Delamare, Fred. The Story of Dyes and Pigments. New York: H.N. Abrams, 2000.

Düchting, Hajo. The Avant-Garde in Russia. New York : Oxford Publishers,2009.

Düchting, Hajo. Wassily Kandinsky 1866–1944: A Revolution in Painting. Taschen, 2000.

Ferrier, John. The Fauves: The Reign of Colour: Matisse, Derain, Vlaminck, Marquet, Camoin, Manguin, Van Dongen, Friesz, Braque, Dufy. Paris: Terrail, 1992.

Gage, Janet. Color and Meaning: Art, Science, and Symbolism. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999.

Girard, Raymond. Matisse the Sensuality of Colour, New Horizons. Italia: Editoriale Libraria Trieste, 1994.

Golding, John. Paths to the Absolute: Mondrian, Malevich, Kandinsky, Pollock, Newman, Rothko and Still. London: Thames and Hudson, 2002.

Grohmann, Will. Wassily Kandinsky. Life and Work. New York: Harry N Abrams Inc., 1958.

Kahnweiler, Daniel. The Rise of Cubism in Art in Theory, 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas. edited by Harrison, C., and Wood, P., 203-209. Oxford; Malden: Blackwell, 1949/2003

Kandinsky, Wassily. Kandinsky, Complete Writings on Art. Da Capo Press, 1996.

Kandinsky, Wassily. Klänge. Munich: Verlag R. Piper


Critical Perspective on Management and Leadership Report best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Case Set Up

Case Study Analysis


Transformational Leadership




Introduction Critical Management Studies (CMS) form a substitute to a number of conservative administration presumptions and approaches. The key reason behind the development of CMS was to provide a transformative approach to traditional management. CMS is a sceptical look at the management and organisational structures that are currently in use.

These structures are evaluated and criticised based on their demonstrated social and ecological sustainability (Adler 2007). Contrary to the popular belief, CMS is not rooted on the focus on individual organisations and their managers’ poor management practices (Adler 2007).

This belief, which is propagated by the outsiders of CMS, is largely untrue. CMS stands for the critical assessment of the wider organisational and management structures.

Adler states that CMS focuses on ordinary elements such as ecological pessimism, public discrimination, and pitiable management that are displayed in the wider social and economic structures whose traditions have been simulated by long-established administrators and the evolving conformist organisations.

The current framework of CMS entails the critical assessment of issues in management such as marketing, organisational strategies, information systems, accounting, organisational relations, and international networks (Clegg, Dany,


EU Zone Crisis Exploratory Essay best college essay help

There are a number of criteria that member of Eurozone should follow to be signed in. Most importantly, the inflation rates of the aspiring member state should not be above 1.5 percentage points. The second factor should be government finance; both annual government deficit and gross government debt. The other important factor is exchange rate of the applicant countries. It is required that, the aspiring member state, must have joined mechanism for two consecutive years. The last and equally crucial criterion is long-term interest rates.

Henceforth, an analysis is drawn of the causes of crisis in the Eurozone. The main crisis in this zone is financial crisis. The crisis is said to have been caused by structural layout of member states. This is because different member states have different level of developments.

Financial needs of all different countries were determined and means of curbing contagion were created for the year 2012. All factors leading to spread of the Eurozone crisis were studied carefully. Emphasis was laid on the change of inflation and interest rates over the years using graphs and charts.

This consequently, helped to establish the effect the crisis on the economy of E.U. In addition, the effect of this Eurozone crisis did spread to other countries. Hence there was a need for careful analysis of the effect of the crisis in other countries other than Greece.

It should be noted that, if the Eurozone crisis is not tackled in the excellent time, there would be minimal hope if any, to realise a stable E.U currency. Therefore, strategic plans are supposed to be put into places to eradicate this crisis for good.

In conclusion, concerted efforts of all stakeholders, citizens, policy makers and politicians in the E.U. are needed to ensure that they adopt effective policies aimed at restoring the financial strength of the counties in the region.


Balance of payment crisis Essay college essay help: college essay help

Balance of payment crisis is also known as currency crisis. It is characterized by spontaneous devaluation of currency for a country. This devaluation often affects the foreign exchange market. The crisis arises from persistent imbalances in the balance of payment.

The impact of currency crisis has more effect on a fixed exchange regime than a floating exchange regime. Further, such crisis might have an impact on the foreign reserves of a country thus creating instability in the economy (BBC 1).

An example of a balance of payment crisis is the European sovereign – debt crisis. The Euro crisis is a balance of payment problem that was characterized by a persistent rise in the amount of net debt over several years. The high amounts of net debt led to collapse of the economies within the European region.

The five regions which were adversely affectedare Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy. These countries failed to produce adequate economic growth to repay the debt balances. The debts were in the form of bonds.

It is not only these five countries that felt the negative impact of the Euro crisis but various countries in all the continents suffered the consequences of the Euro crisis. The epitome of the crisis was felt in late 2011. Though the five regions started to feel the impact from late 2008 (BBC 1).

The crisis was instigated by unproductive fiscal policies that were implemented by the governments of these countries. The governments instituted unsustainable fiscal policies. For instance, these countries fund their budget deficits using debt.

This led to the creation of Ponzi scheme hence the large amounts of debt balance and budget deficits. The economies started to experience slow economic growth and reduced tax revenue. In some countries such as Greece, the amount of debt surpassed the magnitude of economy (BBC 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The crisis in these countries had a serious impact on the financial institutions. Capital providers started to demandextremely high returns on the amount of capital they invested especially in government bonds. This resulted in an increase in the cost of capital in the countries such as Greece.

Besides, it also resulted in an increase inthe cost of borrowing in these countries. Before the crisis, the banks reported increases in revenue which were not supportable. When the economy of these countries collapsed, banking institutions were the most affected. It is because the banks reported revenues which could not be earned.

Besides, banks that invested massively in bonds of these countries experienced heavy losses. Despite these indications, some countries did not attempt to alter their fiscal policies thus making the situations worse.Countries which changed their fiscal policies felt less consequences than the countries such as Greece and Portugal.

These countries had to receive a bailed out. For instance, Greece was bailed out of the crisis twice. The first bailout amounted to $163 billion in 2011. The second bailout occurred in March in 2012 and it amounted to $157 billion.

The bailwas provided by the International Monetary Fund and European Union. Similarly, countries such as Portugal received bail in 2010 while Ireland received bail in 2011. All the bailwas in the form of restructuringdebts (BBC 1).

Several measures were put in place tostabilize the affected economies in the European regions. First, the European Central Bank bought all the government bonds to ensure that the interest rates stabilize.This initiative was branded Long Term Refinancing Operation.

The initiative saved some countries that had a small amount of debt. The measures that were put in place partly solved the currency crisis. The countries have not fully recovered from the currency crisis (BBC 1).

We will write a custom Essay on Balance of payment crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited BBC. Greece in crisis: How European Debt problem affects you. 2013. Web. .


History of France Economics over the Past 20 Years Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Demographics France consists of a population of 65,312,249 with 64.7% of the inhabitants lying between the ages of 15 and 64. It has a population growth rate of 0.5%. The main and official language in the country is French. It is spoken by one hundred percent of the population. However, some regional dialects do exist such as Breton and Provencal. Previously, France used to use the French Franc as its major currency.

However, after entering the Euro zone, it adopted the Euro as its official currency. In 2011, the official exchange rate for the Euro against the dollar was 0.755; this was an increase from the previous year of 0.434 Euros. France is a republican government. It operates under its own constitution and that of the European Union.

The country has a chief of state or President called Nicholas Sarkozy. It has a Prime Minster who is the head of government as well as a cabinet that the president appoints in consultation with the prime minister. Elections in France are done after five years; subsequently the president must appoint the Prime Minister.

The country has a bicameral parliament and this has assisted in maintaining a balance between the executive as well as the legislative arm. The predominant industries in France include energy or power generation, retail as well as tourism. France is the third strongest country in the global tourism sector.

In terms of the economic indicators, the Nominal growth rate of 2010/2011 was reported as 2.145 trillion. This was an increase of 34 trillion US dollars from the previous year.

Furthermore the GDP per capita was 1.5% and this was an improvement from the previous year which grew by -2.5%. It should be noted that the country’s economy was adversely affected by the global economic crisis in 2009. It had an adverse decrease in almost all economic indicators.

Unemployment rates were at 9.3%, which was an increase of 0.2% from the previous year. Additionally, the country’s budget deficit was at 0.18 trillion dollars. This emanated from revenues of 1.26 trillion US dollars and expenditures of 1.44 trillion US dollars. In terms of percentage comparisons to the GDP, the budget deficit was -7% of the GDP. The balance of payment accounts was 54.4 billion dollars as of 2011.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country is ranked 193rd in the world owing to these figures. Inflation currently stands at 2.5%; this was an increase from the previous year which recorded an inflation rate of 1.7%. It should be noted that the current figures reflect the economic crisis and the government stimulus efforts that the French government is undertaking. It is experiencing one of its worst budget deficits and public debts in the decade. Therefore the government has embarked on a serious expenditure freeze to prevent further increases in debt levels.

Behavior of the same economic indicators over the past 20 years The nominal GDP growth rates for France have largely been increasing over the past two decades. Some minor exceptions have arisen between 2008 and 2009, but most of them have been positive. In the early 1990s, the nominal GDP growth rates stood at 2.645 on the mid 1990s, they were at 2.248.

The nominal GDP continued to rise and peaked at 3.871 in 200. It then started decreasing; in 2003 to become 0.888. In the next year, a dramatic increase occurred when the nominal GDP increased by 2.346. These increases continued until 2007 when the country’s rate was at 2.31.

However it began reducing to -0.213, -2.632 in 2008 and 2009. Nonetheless, this increased in 2010 to 1.384. On the other hand the GDP per capita was a different account. In 1990, it stood at 1.4% percentage points. In 1995, it was 1.4 also, in 2000, the figures were 1.9 while in 2003 they reduced to 1.6. In 2009 they reduced by 0.2% while in 2010 they increased to 2.5%; this was equivalent to $33,100.

Unemployment in France has been at an average of 9.5 percent in 1990, the country underwent a percent decrease in unemployment, which stood at -4.48% from the previous year. In 1993, unemployment figures increased from the previous year by 12.86%. They eventually reduced in ’95 to -4.56%. In 2000, unemployment went down by -13.155. In 2002, there was an increase of 6.15% from the previous year.

In 2003, this figure corresponded to 0.94%. In 2006, the trend again changed to a decrease of -0.62. Later on in 2008, there was a percentage decrease of -6.68%. In 2009, the country had landmark increases in unemployment levels. There was a 21.67% increase from 2008.

In 2001, unemployment stood at 9.787, which was an increase of 3.02% from the previous year. In the past 20 years, the highest unemployment rate occurred in 1996 and this corresponded to 11.583 while the lowest figures were in 2001 corresponding to 8.392. Overly, France’s unemployment levels have never gone beyond 12% over the past two decades.

We will write a custom Research Paper on History of France Economics over the Past 20 Years specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The budget deficits have always been a problem for this country in the past twenty years (OECD, 2005). In the late 1990s, they stood at -2.6. In 2000, they reduced to -1.8. The country had -1.5, -4.1, -2.9, -2.7, -7.5 in 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 respectively. It should be noted that these figures are quoted as percentages of the GDP.

The balance of payments in France was quite strong in the 1990s but dramatically weakened in the 2000s. In the early 1990s, the country boasted of a surplus of 31 billion Francs. This trend continued to the mid 1990s where the country kept exporting commodities to European countries.

In 1995, the country had about 11,175 million US dollars worth of a trade surplus. The surpluses stopped in 2001 when the country reported a deficit. Later on in 2002, this changed again into a surplus of approximately 4.1 billion US dollars. In 2005, this started reducing and became a deficit of 12, 395 million US dollars.

From that year onwards, France’s balance of payments has remained negative. In 2010 it had a budget deficit of 56.13 billion and in 2011, the balance of payment figures were at -54.4 billion. This is the reason why the country is struggling to control these figures through minimal government stimulus plans as well as expenditure freezes.

The lowest inflation rates ever recorded by France were in 2009 where they stood at -0.7%. Over the past twenty years. Inflation rates in this country have been at an average of 4.93. In the early 2000s, they were maintained at between 1-3%. They started decreasing between 2007 and 2008 and reached the record low of -0.7%. In 2010, the figures stood at 1.7% while in 2011 they were at 2.5%.

Historical relationships between the following Variables Real GDP and labor productivity

These figures are directly related; real GDP has grown in proportion to labor productivity in France. This is especially true for the period between 1995 and 2002. It should be noted that the numbers are not as high as they are in other developed nations such as the United States. The relationship between real GDP and productivity in this country also mirrors the performance of other EU countries (Artige


Concept of United Nations Conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in Business Report (Assessment) best essay help

Trading in the global market means that transactions are done with businesses located in different parts of the world. There are quite a number of challenges that businesses and organizations face while doing transactions based on the CISG treaty.

By joining the United Nations Conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), there are several organizations and businesses that have widened their ability to face these challenges with victory.

According to the argument posed by Flechtner (1), this consortium is one of the best in ensuring that businesses realize the required international commercial laws.

It is best known for helping its member businesses and organizations to avoid or reduce the legal obstacles connected to international trade and commerce. It unifies the laws and makes them easy to understand and interpret, and also redefines the whole contract.

The advantage is that the law is upgraded depending on the conditions of the global economy. The treaty does so in a bid to ensure that all businesses that are under it enjoy all the benefits associated with its membership.

Aliano (1) explains the implications for any business that wishes to operate within the countries that have not agreed to the United Nations Conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). Ever since it was started in 1980, the treaty has succeeded in bringing down the high number of obstacles that businesses face in their quest for profits through the global economy.

Businesses enjoy benefits of fair international trade laws. The treaty demands no written laws. In as much as it acts as a union, there are challenges and hardships associated with it. It is complicated and may sometimes be the main reason why some countries have not yet adopted to it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a tough implication especially for countries that attach more importance to their local laws. In some cases, these laws might not conform to what the treaty laws have stated. In this case, it is better for the business not to accept to trade under the treaty. Brazil, UK and South Africa are some of the countries that do not trade under CIGS.

Implications are that they are not protected by the CISG law and as such, they trade on their own. In addition, they have no treaty to aid in ratifying the international trade law. This makes sure that the laws of their mother countries do not contradict with the laws of the treaty.

In cases whereby the CISG laws are likely to interfere with the local trade laws for a certain country, it is the highest point that the businesses shift to other different treaties. According to Vollmers (1), the CISG laws apply only for transactions that are conducted internationally.

This implies that a business has the freedom to choose whether to adapt to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. This gives room for organizations to trade without being forced into unnecessary laws. Businesses that are not bound by local law would rather choose to work under the CISG treaty.

This is due to the fact that it helps in closing the gaps that trade might bring to businesses, as well as the obstacles that businesses face in the course of trading. The latter scenario may be pronounced largely on a global scale.

Works Cited Aliano, Tiffany. United Nations Convention on Contracts for The International Sale of Goods (Cisg). Socyberty, USA. 2011. Web.

Flechtner, Harry. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. (1980). 2008. Web.

We will write a custom Assessment on Concept of United Nations Conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vollmers, Todd. The U.N. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. U. S department of Commerce, USA. 2002. Web.


assignment, you’ll use the readings to think of a political issue today and how debates around federalism impact various understandings of that issue. You’ll find a news source online that discusses that problem and then write a substantive paragraph in which you summarize that source (be sure to include a citation) and explain how it connects back to debates about federalism. For example, if you are interested in mass incarceration, you might find a source that examines the federal prison system or federal policing agencies versus the idea of crime as a distinctly local matter. Other issues that you might choose to write about in terms of federal and state (or federal and local) disagreements include immigration, policing, the COVID-19 pandemic, taxation, education, healthcare, water, climate change, voting, or any other issue of your choosing. scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

This is a Credit/No Credit assignment. To receive credit, you need to write a substantive paragraph (5-7 sentences) and include the citation of your source. Here is an example of correct citational practice and an article that would work well for this assignment on how debates about federalism continue to shape politics today: Arun Gupta, “In Portland, Questions Swirl Around Local Police’s Coordination with Federal Officers,” The Intercept, July 24, 2020: (Links to an external site.)


Descartes Goes to Hollywood Essay (Book Review) essay help

Samantha Holland’s article addresses the ‘cyborg’ element in modern contemporary films and the philosophy surrounding cyborgs. Holland’s article focuses on Rene Descartes’ philosophy when analyzing the use of ‘half human-half machine’ characters in films.

Samantha Holland addresses various angles of the mind-body philosophy in this article including personal identity, dualism of beings, gender, and technology.

Throughout the article, the use of cyborgs in films is used as a tool of analysis by the author. This paper provides a précis of Holland’s “Descartes Goes to Hollywood: Mind Body and Gender in Contemporary Cyborg Cinema”.

The article begins by providing examples of how materialism and dualism are manifested in cyborg cinema. The movie “Robocop” is used to show both the materialistic OCP and the dual existence of Robocop (Holland 158).

Holland presents readers with an example of how the mind-body philosophy is the central theme in most cyborg films. According to the article, there are a lot of conflicting philosophies that are contained in most cyborg films. In most cases, the film will be seeking to perpetuate a certain viewpoint but it ends up bringing up a contradiction.

The conflict of the body and the mind is also the main theme in most cyborg films according to Holland. The author cites “The Terminator” and “Robocop” as examples of films with their main characters suffering from mind-body conflict.

The article addresses the gender element in cyborg cinema. According to the author, although cyborg creators insist on the authenticity of the cyborg’s body, they also enhance the cyborg’s gender-look. The article cites the muscled Terminator and the feminine Cherry as examples of the emphasized gender-look in cyborgs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article points out that the reason for gender emphasis in cyborg cinema is to maintain the body-essence and exploit gender roles. In addition, the article faults the notion that cyborgs are meant to go beyond gender boundaries and that they do not emphasize the common gender stereotypes.

The author points out how the titles of cyborg films such as “Robocop”, “Cherry”, and “Eve of Destruction” are gender specific (Holland 165).

The article continues by covering the feminist myth in most cyborg films. According to the author, most producers only try to portray strong female characters but they do not succeed. The portrayal of Sarah Connor in “Terminator” is used as an example of how feminism is usually misused in cyborg cinema.

It is argued that feminism is portrayed in both narrative and visual levels in cyborg films. The masculine male body possessed by most cyborgs is an example of the visual portrayal of the ‘strong male-gender’. The article also addresses the issue of how cyborg cinema portrays reproduction.

According to the author, the ability to reproduce without using the female element can be interpreted as chauvinistic. The role of the cyborg cinema in the modern world is also addressed. Holland believes that cyborg cinema not only addresses future events but also present events. In addition, they serve as a critique of the human views on mind-body relations.

The article concludes by noting that the cyborg cinema represents only the more acceptable notions of the body-mind theories. In addition, most cyborg films highlight the dualism of human beings and other forms. However, no film has been able to portray Descartes’ body-mind philosophy on an advanced level.

The author also notes that most cyborg technology focuses on the machine-human interface as opposed to the human-machine interface. Therefore, most cyborg films are a manifestation of the growing anxiety over the increasing use of technology.

We will write a custom Book Review on Descartes Goes to Hollywood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Holland, Samantha. “Descartes Goes to Hollywood.” Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. Ed. Mike Featherstone and Roger Burrows. New York, NY: Sage, 1996. 157-174. Print.


The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online Essay (Book Review) essay help free

Introduction This book is about the power of online activism. The author reveals how it is hard to contain a society that is not satisfied with the status quo.

With well elaborated illustrations, the book reveals how a society fights against corruption in government, abuse of employee rights and social inequalities among other hot button issues through the online platform.

The book reveals that the Chinese online audience is actually a society taking into consideration that it has more than 253 million users (Yang 2), whose ages and occupations are quite diverse (Yang 32).

This book simply shows how the Chinese people have resorted to cyberspace as a means of fighting against vices they view to be wrong in the society.

The author puts this more clearly “This book is about people’s power in the Internet age” (Yang 1). The author makes a number of arguments three of which are

The cyberspace users form a society: The internet offers a platform where people grow stronger in the pursuit of their rights

The civil society is taking an interest o societal affairs: As opposed in the past, there is a change in the manner of managing crisis to a bottom-up process.

Grievances will always be aired irrespective of the obstacles confronted: It is not possible to completely censor the opinions of the society especially where injustice is involved.

How the Themes are related to Class Work This section discusses the above listed arguments made by the author. References are made to the class lecture notes and articles used in the course syllabus. An attempt is made to relate the class work with the views expressed in the book especially in regard to the three arguments identified above in the introduction section.

The internet users form a society Yang presents the cyberspace as a platform where people grow stronger in the pursuit of their rights. Internet users have grown explosively in numbers. Yang puts the figure, as at 2008, at 253 million users (Yang 2). He also illustrates that the internet users are of various ages and occupational backgrounds (Yang 32).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This online society is quite heterogeneous with groups like “homeowners, pensioners, migrants, hepatitis-B carriers, ant farmers, consumers, computer gamers and pet owners” (Yang 27).

He further notes that there is participation by ordinary people in issues that affect them: “Ordinary people engage in a broad range of political actions and find a new sense of self, community, and empowerment” (Yang 2). The author therefore shows that indeed the Chinese cyberspace users form a society.

What is covered above by Yang is directly related to what has already been covered in class. This trend whereby people form groups of association is common with the Chinese. Lecture 16 shows how members of the society attempt to form groups which will fight for their own rights.1

In the class work, the willingness of the Chinese society to fight policies which are harmful was also discussed. It was shown that students have been very vocal in fighting for the rights of various members in the society. The social evils against which public demonstrations have been carried out were discussed well and mainly touch of disrespect of civil rights by government agencies.2

As one may expect in societies, public events receive response. Some events receive praise while others are condemned. The internet users are very quick to apportion praise or condemnation to any public events as the need arises. Yang shows how the Chinese cyberspace is active in reacting to unjust actions which affect the public.

In some cases, the internet society has forced the central government to spring into action on issues it had previously ignored. The story of illegal brick kilns in the province of Shamxi and many more others are just illustrations of the effectiveness of the internet society in China as illustrated in the book.

Articles used in class showed that the Chinese society has evolved to fight for its members. These articles showed students being at the fore front especially in championing the rights of the marginalized in the society.3 It was also shown that during national calamities, the Chinese people have a strong will to stand by each other.4

We will write a custom Book Review on The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the willingness of the online community to stand by each other as Yang depicts is well reconciled. The last lecture we had in the month of March touched on how some environmental Non Government Organizations have found reinforcement from online communities.5

The civil society is taking an interest in societal affairs As opposed to the past, there is a change in the manner of managing crisis to a bottom-up process. This is expressed in the class article by Shawn Shieh and Guosheng Deng. The people made a great demonstration of a bottom-up strategy in dealing with the crisis that confronted the people of Sichuan.

We learned that the Chinese society is growing more cohesive and members of the society are learning to help each other without necessarily being pushed by the government.6 Class lectures also showed that Chinese society is becoming more used to engaging the government through public demonstrations.

Again students were shown to be very active in this area. This can be said to be a trend which has been gradually growing within the Chinese civil society.7 This is clearly shown throughout the book as the civil society uses the internet to air their grievances against actions they view as being unfair.

Evidence in the book that the civil society is taking more interest in affairs concerning the society comes out well when the determination of the internet users against bad policies is reviewed. The chapter titled Civic Association Online shows how civic associations are actively encouraging the online communities to join hands for the common good of the Chinese people. The author shows that the internet is playing a leading role in creating informed citizenry.

This trend of the civil society trying to emerge amid suffocation from government suppression was well discussed in the lectures. A historical snapshot shows that after what seemed to be a rapid growth of civil society organs, the violent Tiananmen Square demonstration suppression slowed these organs. However, afterwards there was a renewed growth of these organs.8

Lecture 16 also highlighted the efforts of civic bodies to push the government for reforms. It was shown that the civic bodies believe that reforms in the governments were required. The interference of the party in government was pointed out as an obstacle to these reforms.

The kind of issues that raises responses from online communities are varied but all of them affect the people. According to Yang, the issues that the online community has responded to are “popular nationalism, rights defence, corruption and power abuse, environment, cultural contention, muckraking, and online charity” (55).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As already noted from lecture notes and articles, these are issues that the Chinese society has been fighting against. Through the article ‘Popular Protests’ various issues that the Chinese society has been pushing for were discussed. These issues are very similar to the ones that the author has listed above.9

The lectures showed, for instance, how the household responsibility system was adopted by the people secretly and later openly despite the government dragging its feet to give it a full support.10

Grievances will always be aired irrespective of the obstacles confronted The author also argues that the society will always air their grievances no matter what obstacles are on the way. This determination has been demonstrated several times in class through various articles. One good illustration is the 1989 Tiananmen protest by students.11 It is not possible to completely censor the opinions of the society especially where injustice is involved.

The author argues that despite the constant effort by the authorities to censor the internet, the Chinese online community has always found ways of going round this obstacle. He notes that “state power constrains the forms and issues of contention, but instead of preventing it from happening it forces activists to be more creative and artful” (Yang 7).

This has been well illustrated through the class work. Being creative and artful in the expression of opinion in the face of stern opposition from the state and state organs seem to the way of the Chinese society as was illustrated in the use of the ‘democratic wall’ by students.12

From the articles used in class, it was also shown that the members of the society quickly learn from each other. And if what they learn is important but somehow suppressed by the government, it is adopted and applied in secrecy. The people also have a way of defending themselves if they are taken to task on why they adopt such actions.13

Under the chapter Politics of Digital Contention the author gives details of how the state has engaged internet activism specifically to ensure that it is under control. The state is always watchful and applies different techniques to ensure that the internet community is censored. It has already been shown in the class that the Chinese government has that tendency to control the public.14

The book also raises a lot of concerns that censoring the Internet might be slowing the economy of the nation. Free access to information and exchanging of such information freely greatly determines economic growth of a nation. It also empowers people as there is exchange of information with the world.

The censorship of the internet however hampers this free flow of information and therefore does not encourage transparency.

In class, the effect of the high handedness of the government was shown. It was discussed that this control by the government negatively affects the economy of China – lack of transparency in state function fosters corruption and therefore affects the economy.15

Hampering free flow of information by the state is an old trend in China. The Mao era was strongly opposed to free expression of views by writers and those who were suspected to be against the government were subjected to harsh conditions and as a result literary work in China suffered a great blow.16

Conclusion Guobin Yang makes a compelling argument that the internet has become a force to reckon with in China. He systematically shows how the internet use has affected the civil society in very great ways.

In this article, the arguments made by Yang are discussed in three themes: the cyberspace users form a society, the civil society is taking an interest in societal affairs, and grievances always get aired no matter what kind of obstacles are faced.

These themes are discussed as Yang presents them in the book with special reference to the lecture notes and articles used in the coursework.

The arguments made by author were part of the issues that were discussed in class. The first argument by the author was that the Chinese tend to form a society through the internet platform.

Several of the articles that were covered in class showed that Chinese people have adopted the spirit of working together as a society. This is especially the case when they need to help each other or when they are fighting against government brutality or high handedness.

The class work had also covered the second argument by the Yang. Civil bodies are continuously teaching the citizens on their rights. Part of the 16th lecture covered in class discussed how various bodies are pushing for reforms in the government.

The class work also covered the attempts by students to launch public demonstrations some of which were ended fatally. All these illustrate that the society has become more sensitized to issues affecting them than they were in the past.

Lastly, class work also showed that the society is dynamic and adopts various ways of expressing their grievances. It was also shown that when the government becomes too restrictive, the society resorts to secret measures as is discussed in the article Calamity and Reform in China by Dali L. Yang on page 159.

Works Cited Yang, Guobin. The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.

Footnotes 1 Lecture 16 on Political Reforms, slide number 16.

2 Popular Protest in China’ by Kevin J. O’Brien.

3 ‘Civil Society and political Change in Asia’ edited by Muthiah Alagappa on page 441. Also refer to lecture 16 slide number 6.

4 Article ‘An Emerging Society: The Impact of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake on Grass-roots Associations in China’ by Shawn Shieh and Guosheng Deng.

5 Page 147 of the article ‘Popular Protest in China’ by Kevin J. O’Brien

6 ‘An Emerging Society: The Impact of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake on Grass-roots Associations in China’ by Shawn Shieh and Guosheng Deng

7 ‘Popular Protest in China’ by Kevin J. O’Brien

8 ‘Civil Society and Political Change in Asia’ specifically chapter 13.

9 ‘Popular Protest in China’ by Kevin J. O’Brien

10 Chapter six (The Political Struggle over Reform) of the book Calamity and Reform in China by Dali Yang examines this trend

11 ‘China Politics 20 years later’ by Joseph Fewsmith.

12 Refer to Dennis J Doolin, Communist China: The Politics of Student Opposition, p. 15.

13 Calamity and Reform in China by Dali L. Yang on page 159

14 ‘China Politics 20 years later’ by Yang.

15 Ibid

16 Communist China: The Politics of Student Opposition by Dennis J Doolin on p. 16.


The Matrix Structure Advantages and Disadvantage Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction There are several ways of organizing groups of people. Generally, this tends to fall into one of the five organization structures. These are the functional, the hybrid, the matrix, the geographical and the product. The functional structure groups people according to specific functions.

The next structure, the product one, unites individuals in regard to the services they offer. Thirdly, the geographical structure depends on the location of the different organizations. Fourthly, the hybrid is a mixture of all the organization structures. Finally, the matrix is a combination of the functional and the product structures.

Since they have different advantages and disadvantage, the organizers of the London 2012 Olympic Games chose to adopt the matrix structure. As a result, this paper presents the benefits associated with the matrix organizational approach as well as the problems that the organizers may experience. Finally, the paper ends with description of problems associated with a project involving a mix of different companies and cultures.

The matrix organization structure The matrix organization structure involves grouping people with similar skills for work assignment (Rollinson, 2008). For instance, the organization of the Olympic 2012 Games uses varios bodies with different functions. Moreover, this structure divides authority by functions and by project.

As a result, the employees answer to two managers who are the functional and the project supervisors. The functional supervisor is responsible for managing employees in specific areas like engineering as well as marketing. On the contrary, the project supervisor oversees a specific venture (Robbinson et al., 2010). For example, the head of the Government Olympic Executive is the project supervisor while the heads of the other bodies are the functional managers.

The benefits associated with matrix organization structure Resource coordination

The matrix organization structure allows managers and supervisors to concentrate on their areas of proficiency (Mullins, 2010). On the one hand, the functional managers focus on recruiting, developing and managing workers. On the other hand, the project supervisor deals with attaining the mission of the venture.

For example, the major concern of the manager of the Olympic Delivery authority is coordinating resources that will facilitate the building of the permanent venues and infrastructure needed for the games. On the contrary, the manager of the Government Olympic Executive is responsible for ensuring that the games will be on time and within budget as well as represent value for public money and benefit for the whole UK.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Specialization

Placing workers in functional units gives them chances to work in specific areas (Moore, 2009). For example, employees can specialize in product development, distribution or marketing.

This distribution is important because it helps workers perform well resulting to the achievement of the overall goals and the objectives of the project. For instance, if the workers of the British Olympic Association are highly skilled, the Olympic movement throughout the UK will be smooth. This will result in attainment of the overall goal that means a success of the Olympic Games and their legacy.

Breadth of the skills

According to Martin et al (2010), the isolation of employees in a functional unit makes it hard for them to benefit from the knowledge and the skills of other workers in different areas. As a result, in a matrix organization structure, employees of a specific unit are always in contact with workers of other areas through their membership in the project teams.

This means that employees engaged in activities like engineering can easily interact with workers involved in other activities like marketing. Thus, employees have chances to develop a variety of skills. For example, the personnel of the London Development Agency can learn from the workers of the Olympic Park Legacy Company how to plan, develop and maintain the Olympic Park.


According to Bucanan et al (2010), in a matrix organization structure, employees are always in contact with each other. This facilitates free movement of information as well as resources in the different functional areas. This coordination of information and resources assists the project manager to handle intricate challenges. For example, it is easier for the Government Olympic Executive to handle any problem facing the different bodies involved in the organization of the London 2012 Olympic Games.


The matrix organization structure allows sharing of the human resources across the products (Bliosi et al., 2007). For instance, workers who have not specialized in any field can assist in different areas while skilled employees remain in their areas of specialization. This is imperative because it ensures that work is always on progress, thus the organization achieves its objective within the stipulated time. For instance, if the Olympic board does not have enough unskilled workers, it can get some untrained employees from the London Development Agency.

The problems associated with the matrix organization structure The roles and responsibilities conflict

Arnold (2005) argues that confusion over the roles as well as responsibilities is prevalent within the matrix organization structure. For instance, the London Government can experience an amount of conflicts over roles and responsibilities between the manager of the Government Olympic Executive who oversees the project and the functional supervisors of the other bodies.

We will write a custom Essay on The Matrix Structure Advantages and Disadvantage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This opposition can be manifested through angry letters to the supervisors and functional managers not attending meetings. As a result, the Olympic Games may not be successful.

Inefficient reporting system

According to Bliosi et al (2007), the matrix organization approach does not have a reporting system that monitors the activities of the functional managers. As a result, the project manager relies on the assurance from the functional supervisor that everything is fine. This keeps the project at a risk of failure especially when the functional manager does not concentrate on his area of expertise.

For example, the Olympic Delivery Authority may report that the building of the needed infrastructure is complete but because the project manager, he does not need to go to see it on his own. So he may not know if all the buildings are constructed and ready to be put into operation.

Politicization of the resources

Politicization of resources, which is a characteristic of the matrix organization structure, means that it is the responsibility of the functional manager to distribute the materials needed for the project implementation (Bucanan et al., 2010).

This division is critical because the functional manager may not recognize where to allocate more resources and this can lead to failure of the project. For example, the manager of the British Paralympic Association may invest more resources in one of the Paralympic Games leading to failure of the other activities.

Lack of the project level focus

In the matrix structure, the functional areas of the organization are more powerful than the project side (Martin et al., 2010). As a result, the functional managers do not focus on the overall goal of the project. For instance, the Mayor of London may focus so much on the residents and the visitors that he forgets about the prior goal of the project. This concentration on a specific item can lead to failure of attaining success in organization and holding of the Olympic Games.

Difficulties in need of skills training

Moore (2009) states that in the matrix organization structure, it is difficult to train people who do not have specific skills. This is because the dual authority of this organizational approach needs people who are content with ambiguity so that the negative pressure to motivation as well as job satisfaction will be reduced. Due to this fact, the organizers of the 2012 Olympic Games may not train unskilled workers, and this can lead to production of low quality work.

Increase in cost

The creation of functional managers as well as different organization bodies leads to an increase in cost (Mullins, 2010). This is because the functional managers will need an increase in pay as they are of different levels from the other employees. Additionally, the establishment of the different functional organization bodies will lead to duplication of resources.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Matrix Structure Advantages and Disadvantage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, some companies and departments organizing the London 2012 Olympic Games will require their own resources. This means that the government will spend a lot of money funding each body. In the light of the fact that the government lacks money, the entire project is likely to collapse.

Problems associated with a project involving a mix of different organizations and cultures Power culture

The power culture exists in organizations where authority is in the hands of few people who have ability to make decisions (Robbinson et al., 2010). Hence, these individuals enjoy most of the privileges at work place. The problem with this culture is that the management may find it hard to link many activities as well as maintain control. As a result, the management creates several independent organizations while retaining the financial control.

This leads to duplication of resources, which put the company at a risk of increased expenditure. Additionally, the power culture depends on individuals and not committees (Arnold, 2005). Thus, performance appraisal is based on results hence the organization tolerates average performance. Furthermore, the employees have low morale, and there is an increase in staff turnover. Lastly, in the extreme cases, this culture is a dictatorship.

Role culture

According to Rollinson (2008), role culture involves giving employees certain rights and responsibilities according to their specialization as well as education qualifications. Furthermore, according to this pattern of behavior, the employees decide what they want to do and tackle the challenges that accompany their actions.

The problem with this role culture is that it is difficult for the organization to adapt to change. This is because the whole structure is slow in perceiving the need of modification and responding to the change. Moreover, the role culture is annoying for power driven ambitious employees who are interested in results and not the methods (Mullins, 2010). This is because it gives employees opportunities to specialize within their functional areas only.

Task culture

Moore (2009) states that task culture involves formation of teams in order to achieve certain goals. As a result, individuals with similar interests and specialization form teams of five to six members. Each member contributes equally and completes tasks in inventive ways. The problem with this culture is that control is a difficult task (Martin et al., 2010).

This is because the senior manager retains the essential control as he focuses on the allocation of the employees and resources. As a result, when the resources are inadequate, the senior manager begins to control methods and consequences, and this leads to competition between him and the teams’ leaders. Thus, morale in the teams decreases, and the job becomes less satisfying as each employee begins creating his or her own objective.

Person culture

In this culture, individuals are concerned about themselves and not the organization (Buchanan et al., 2010). As a result, an organization with such a culture eventually suffers because workers report to work because of money and they do not have any attachment to their work.

Moreover, the workers are not loyal to the management, and their decisions do not favor the organization. According to Bliosi et al. (2007), many organizations cannot survive with this type of culture because associations have objectives that are above personal goals. Besides, the control mechanisms and the management hierarchies are impractical in the person culture, except by common consent. For instance, an employee can leave the organization, but the management has no power to expel him.

Conclusion The matrix structure is perfect for organizing the London 2012 Olympic Games. This is because it combines the efficiency as well as the effectiveness of function and product organization structures. Although the matrix organization structure has some problems, the benefits outweigh the disadvantages.

Finally, a project involving a mix of different organizations and cultures usually faces a number of problems concerning roles, persons, power and tasks. As a result, managers need to be cautious when choosing the type of cultures they want their organizations to adapt.

References Arnold, J 2005, Work Psychology. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Bliosi et al. 2007, Management and organisational behaviour. McGrawhill, New York.

Buchanan, D


Working in Teams Report writing essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary


Characteristics of a Team

Critical Literature Review

Effective Teamwork

Why Working Teams Fail

Practical Implications of Working Teams


References List

Executive Summary The work of teams is an increasing concern for top management as well as all other leaders in any organization. Real groups offer an attractive potential for boosts in small group performance at all levels in the organization (Katzenbach, 1998). The versatility of a team is well suited to the dynamics of speed and rapid change that is faced by high performing organizations.

This paper looks at the assumption that people working in teams always achieve their goals more efficiently and effectively than those working in isolation. It provides different definitions and characteristics of a working team and goes on to discuss what different authors have said about the working of teams. Challenges of creating and maintaining a good working team as well as factors that lead to the effectiveness of a team are also discussed.

Towards the end, the practicality of working teams in organizations is examined and explanations are given to show why the actual implementation of a team is a difficult task.

Introduction A team may be defined as a group of people who have come together to pursue a common goal. Barnes (2008) defined a work team as a group of people who work together on a common task to achieve a specific goal or objective.

In the present day competitive business world, it is almost impossible for any organization to succeed in isolation. Teams are therefore a common characteristic in most organizations today. According to research, when people join efforts, it is possible to work well than when individuals are left to work individually.

According to West (2004), when we create teams, it is important to think beyond the relatively unchangeable aspects of the person such as their personality and think more of their motivation, knowledge and skills for working in teams.

This includes their preference for working in teams; whether they have an individualistic or collective approach to working with others; their basic social skills such as listening, speaking and cooperating; and their team working skills such as collaboration, concern for the team and interpersonal awareness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Team working practices are based on the belief that when working together effectively, a group of people can make a much greater contribution than would be made by those people working as individuals (Barnes, 2008).

Barnes also points out that a team is more than just a group of people. A team works together on a common task to achieve a specific goal or objective. Team work requires cohesion, complimentary skills and leadership (Barnes, 2008).

An organization may create a variety of teams such as action teams, problem solving teams, project teams or production teams (Barnes, 2008).

Characteristics of a Team A team is defined by a clear common goal that is well understood by everyone in the group who also believe in it. The goal could be a sales target, the development of a new process, or managing a group of business units (Maginn, 2003). Whatever it is, achieving the goal is clearly the reason for the existence of the group.

Another characteristic is that individuals have to work together to achieve the set goal. People on a team often depend on each other’s expertise, perspective and efforts (Gaines, 2006). Working in teams enables organizations to bring together employees with varying skills and this creates opportunities for staff to grow in their various fields. When the power of the different perspectives within the organization are brought together to deal with a problem or challenge, the outcome is always amazing (Maginn, 2003).

Critical Literature Review According to Barnes (2008), working teams have always been an important feature of most organizations. It is very rare to find an individual working in total isolation in any organization. As a matter of fact, one of the main purposes of business organizations is to bring people together so that they can perform more efficiently than if they acted a lone (Aronoff


Second Language Teaching Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

How Does the First Language L1 Help Make Content Accessible in the L2 In teaching second language literacy to English-Language Learners (ELL), teachers must be aware of the similarities and differences of the linguistic features that exist in the student’s home language. Thus, for a student to acquire literacy in a second language, some form of literacy in the first language is also required.

The second language (L2) reading and writing process involves the interplay of two language system so that when reading or writing in second language readers often use their L1 as a reading strategy to access the material (Helman,2009).

This factor is particularly important for ELLs. Students who can read and write in their native language find literacy in English much easier than students who never learned to read and write in any language. ) The following literature review given the reader a background understanding of the how developing the L1 plays an basic part in helping student access the content in the L2.

Literacy Literacy refers to the ability for comprehend and use printed information at work, home and all other daily activities. The ability allows persons to achieve their goals, enhance their knowledge and build their potential to acquire more knowledge. Since literacy has a wide definition, a more specific component, the functional literacy, will suffice for this review.

Street (1984) shows that functional literacy serves people by allowing them to solve their immediate problems. For example, literacy would enable farmers to take notes about the better ways of managing their crops. The same farmers should later be able to refer to what they wrote and use it to expand their knowledge, which may include listening or reading additional materials.

The extensive research by Street (1984) takes the reader through the different metamorphosis of theories and ideologies that shape the term literacy. The following sections of the literature review use the functional definition of literature as alluded before.

Richard (1993) examined the teaching of literacy to second language learners at a Municipal Workplace Language Training Program in British Columbia. He notes that, most programs are affected by the selection of teachers and their training. Teachers must have certain attributes, and these depend on their personality and attitude.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The teacher has to be trained on the ability to trust oneself to do the right thing. They need to believe in the learners and relate well to people. The main challenge is usually the schooling of the teacher. Richard (1993) observed with the workplace literacy education that, the active learner-centered teaching yielded the most benefits for workers, unions and management because it centers on students developing and using their own language.

The above observation was also apparent in the study by Benseman, Sutton and Lander (2005) who explained that, the involvement of the learner in the teaching allows students to increase their use of first language literacy in understanding the second language. Moreover, the method covers for the teacher’s shortcomings by allowing students to include cultural and social experiences in the classroom (Verhoeven, 1994).

Literature by Richard (1993) shows that, a good grasp of the first language and its usage led to useful attitudes and practices. This was contrary to the explicit use of the second language that was full of self-restrictive attitude and practices.

The first language use, leads students to use writing, to bring the wisdom of their earlier experiences into the new environment with the second language. Richard (1993) highlights the need to investigate the relationship between learner-centeredness and active teaching and their effect on developing the second language.

The general definition of literacy and the availability of many strategies for teaching may be a challenge for language teachers. Helman (2009) comes to the teachers’ rescue explaining that they must know the limitations of applying a specific strategy to teaching the second language.

One limitation is the difficulty in establishing comparison groups of those with and without L1 literacy ability, which means that one can normally describe correlations rather than direct effects. The wide range of factors, which affect literacy, must play a part, particularly for adults who have varied exposure, time constraints, prior educational experience, and so on, in addition to such personality variables as motivation (Helman, 2009).

Different Types of Literacy Students The study conducted by Benseman, Sutton and Lander (2005) shows that the characteristics of learners influence their ability to learn a language. Therefore, they should be the focus of any language lesson plan. In general, learners have diverse needs. For example, English-speaking leaners may be good at speaking but average on reading and some may not be able to write.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Second Language Teaching specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Others could have no skill in any language and need to improve their spoken English. People who go back to school after previous failures have a low confidence while those who are learning a second language because of a change in environment have a high confidence (Benseman, Sutton,


Social Media Marketing Plan: Subway Fast Food Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction The communicative power of the internet has essentially replaced many of the traditional tools, particularly in the world of traditional advertising in print and broadcast media.

Properly designed online marketing and product distribution management strategy facilitates the success and sustainability in online marketing since it operates within stipulated business laws. This analytical treatise attempts to present an explicit social media marketing plan for the Subway Fast Food.

Objectives for Social Media Marketing Attract

The main objective of this digital marketing plan is to attract the younger customers’ market through the Subway’s website and a twitter fun page in order to increase the customer traffic in its stores. The objective aims at packaging the fast food company as a favourite of the younger customers who frequent social media and actually share a common communication culture.

Apparently, this segment forms the largest bracket of those who visit Subway stores (DeLong, 2012). The use of social media to attract this market segment is achievable since the target market frequents social media as a site for interaction and purchase of different products (Stokes, 2011).

Customer retention and loyalty building

Properly modified website and the twitter fun page will reassure the customers on the quality of the sandwiches served at the Subway stores. Through massive recruitment of Subway funs in the twitter page, the company will not only benefit from an increased traffic of online compliments, but also record high rates of customer loyalty as most customers are influenced by reactions from other clients.

Customer retention strategy is meant to position the company as a market leader in terms of customer satisfaction tracking and response. This will be achieved through optimisation of the Subways website’s search engine and improving on the visibility of its twitter fun page (Farris, Bendle, Pfeifer and Rebstein, 2010).

Online Value Proposition (OVP) In order to increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the Subway’s website and the proposed twitter fun page channels will encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate a healthy lifetime relationship between a business and its client.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the new development elements that will be incorporated in the twitter fun page will include trust, reliability, distribution, fair retribution process, and passing accurate information to target audience to restore confidence (Farris et al. 2010).

Content engagement strategy Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)

Search engine optimisation for the Subway’s website can be achieved through installing plugins that possess extra features like page navigation, thumbnail and customized page numbers. Specifically, this proposed system in Google will consist of a multi tab page that will serve different areas and services to online customers. The main categories are eatery menu, e-newspaper/magazines and brochures for the related different sandwiches served at the Subway restaurant (Stokes, 2011).

When implementing SEO in the Google, it is necessary to revise the algorithms constantly for the search result for the Subway website to remain at the top. This can be achieved through revising the content to ensure that all the information in the website pertains directly to the needs of potential clients.

Thus, constant blogging on the website and recruiting other independent bloggers to blog about the website will give the Subway website a competitive advantage in marketing its products. Beside each item, the price, quantity, and availability are posted at the bottom left page (Farris et al. 2010).

Twitter fun page promotion

Social media, especially Twitter has gained popularity among potential customers of the Subway restaurant who uses this site as interaction modules to share food culture and exchange ideas. The tweeter is an ideal tool for branding and community following building for the Subway restaurant (Subway, 2013). This will allow people to interact and let users to add content to align to different orientations of group products.

There are three perspectives which will help in understanding the impact of the twitter fun page. It will help the company to reach their customers by skipping or bypassing the traditional gatekeepers, such as written magazine publishers, and placing them online so that customers can get them directly (Stokes, 2011).

Content design examples The use of the Subway’s website and Tweeter can be promoted by building an interest, location and need based initiative. Through likes and tweets, the customer base for the company will expand substantially over a short period of time. Social media focuses on e-marketing which involves building friendly partnership and working relationship with a market segment without necessarily having physical contact with it.

We will write a custom Report on Social Media Marketing Plan: Subway Fast Food specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, the current bomb internet channels of reaching the consumers should be tailored to encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate a healthy and a lifetime relationship between the business and its clients. The success of e-marketing is deeply entrenched in the principle of keeping reliable and professional reputation in exchanging ideas and convincing customers in online selling (Stokes, 2011).

Measurement strategies Use Twitter page insights

It is necessary to determine the online behaviour of the target market before selecting the best channel for internet marketing to minimize the issue of changed consumer preference. Essentially, success of brand and product management depends on a proper alignment of a functional idea into the creation of flexible, involuntary, and quantifiable measurement of perception among the target audience.

Thus, the Subway Company will be in a position to track the engagement ratios on its twitter fan page and classify different contents according to the level of engagement recorded (Stokes, 2011).

Use Google analytics

The Subway Company may use the online traffic results to draw a growth calendar for the social media marketing strategies after every six months to fast track the initial objectives against the realities of market swings. Besides, the company may be in a position to locate the regions with the highest and the lowest traffic in order to improve its social media marketing strategy.

In addition, the company may be in a position to accurately determine the average duration of access to these sites in order to track the success of its social media marketing channels (Farris et al. 2010).

Reference List DeLong, K 2012, Zagat 2012 fast-food survey: Subway is most popular,

Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P.,


Radical Rights Groups Essay cheap essay help

How do current radical right groups such as sovereign citizens threaten the legitimate federal authority in the United States? In the United States, a radical right group is a term used to assign common depiction to each extreme side of the political spectrum (Johnson 46). Radical right groups comprise of a number of fanatic movements that support nationalistic leanings. These groups can be classified into supremacist movements, militia movements, sovereign citizens’ movements, and various single-issue movements (Johnson 46).

Among these groups, sovereign citizens are the most active. The groups, together with other right groups in the United States threaten the legitimate federal authority in a number of ways. As such, these groups champion for secession. They want to fight for the removal of their states from the United States. These groups argue that state separation is a constitutional right that the federal government should respect.

Based on these motives, it is apparent that these extremist groups are after undermining the legitimate federal authority of the US. Similarly, sovereign citizens have always insisted that the US federal government is illegitimate. Therefore, they have always tried to reinstate an idealized and an inconspicuous government that has never been in existence in the US.

To date, these groups wage confrontations against the federal government and similar related authorities by use of paper terrorism, pestering, threat tactics, and infrequently resorting to aggression (Johnson 47). In addition, sovereign citizens assert that the county is the legitimate seat of command in the US. Their ideology is supported by the fact that county administration is nearer to the citizens than the federal government.

Why does the FBI classify this group as domestic terrorists? According to the FBI, domestic terrorism group is a faction that satisfies the below characteristics (Johnson 47). The first attribute is that a group must be planning dangerous acts against fellow humans contrary to the national or state law.

Second attribute is that a group must seem to be intentionally threatening civilians, undermining the policy of a government through threats, and have an effect on the behavior of a government by mass obliteration, murdering or abducting.

Lastly, for a group to be considered a domestic terrorist it acts must occur inside the territorial jurisdiction of the United States and be carried out by its citizens. Sovereign citizens are categorized as internal terrorists because they exhibit the above characteristics. For instance, ever since the fall of the Posse the group has witnessed a momentous increase in numbers of its acts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These acts comprise of attempts of aggression frequently against the legislative body of the government. During the year 1993, radical escapees Linda Lyon Block and George Sibley, who were the members of the group, assassinated a police officer in Alabama (Hamm 217). In mid 1990s, a gang of radicals linked with the extremists battered Karen Mathews at her residence.

Similarly, in the year 1998 two members belonging to the group fired their guns at two firefighters in Ohio. They attacked the firefighters because the two servicepersons’ vehicle had blocked their way. At irregular intervals, the group members have engaged themselves in high-profile confrontation with the authorities.

In spite of aggressive activity, the favored weapon of this group is referred to as paper terrorism. Paper terrorism utilizes the use of fake legal credentials and filings. Similarly, paper terrorism employs the misuse of lawful credentials and filings. These acts are undertaken to threaten, annoy, and pressurize public officials, police officers, and the public (Johnson 46).

Works Cited Hamm, Mark S.. Terrorism as crime: from Oklahoma City to Al-Qaeda and beyond. New York: New York University Press, 2007. Print.

Johnson, Daryl. Right wing resurgence: how a domestic terrorist threat is being ignored. Lanham: Rowman


Stage Theory and Stages of Grief Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

The Stage Theory and Its Pros and Cons Stage theories are developed to organize and explain the complex life processes, to make definite predictions in relation to the further development of the process, and to conclude about the expected process’s outcomes. That is why, stage theories are typical for different social and behavioral sciences and disciplines (Rutjens et al., 2013, p. 313).

Thus, stage theories are developed to explain the processes of the people’s adaptation to various situations as well as the changes in the people’s behaviours, attitudes, and perceptions (Dillenburger


Little Red Riding Hood in Matthew Bright’s Freeway (1996) Research Paper a level english language essay help

In the past, different societies used varied tales to educate the society as well as children on different matters affecting humanity. Besides, they used narratives to warn children against engaging in some activities that could compromise the established social norms. Little Red Riding Hood is a narrative used to warn the children against revealing their secrets to strangers.

The narrative tries to show the children the dangers of associating with strangers (Lang, 1891). Later, Matthew Bright came up with a film version of the same narrative.

In spite of making significant changes in the narrative, the film propagates a theme that is somewhat similar to the theme of the initial oral version. The wordings in the different versions of the tale might be different. Nevertheless, all the versions convey the same message though in different ways.

There are both oral and non-oral versions of Little Red Riding Hood. Generally, non-oral and oral versions of any tale differ significantly. While both versions may try as much as possible to bring out the same theme, the characters in both versions might differ as well as significant changes appear in different scenes. Moreover, some of the scenes in the oral version might differ from the scenes in the non-oral version.

There are significant differences between the Freeway (1996) film by Matthew and the Little Red Riding Hood narrative by Charles Perrault. One of the differences occurs with respect to characters in both the tale and the film.

Perrault uses the title of the narrative as the name of the main character in his narrative while Matthew uses Vanessa as the main character (Wratislaw, 1889). Besides, according to the narrative by Perrault, he uses wolf as the other character while Matthew coins up a character by the name Bob Wolverton who is a serial killer (Preston, 2004).

Significant disparities between the two versions appear with respect to their plots. According to the narrative by Perrault, Little Red Riding Hood’s mother requests her to visit her grandmother and, she prepares some cakes for her. On the way, the girl encounters a wolf, which she tells it all about her grandmother.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The wolf plays a trick against the girl and gets to her grandmother’s house before her. On the other hand, Matthew’s plot is very different. According to the film, Vanessa decides to go to her grandmother after suffering in the hands of her cruel stepfather and prostitute mother.

After her foster parents are arrested, she vows not to live under foster care again. She stills a car and on her way to her grandmother’s house, the vehicle breaks down forcing her to look for assistance (Bright, 1996).

Bob offers to help her. Vanessa sees him like a good person and she confides her secret about her sick grandmother. In the middle of their dialogue Bob reveals his deviant side and he attempts to kill Vanessa who declines to give in to his demands. Vanessa draws a gun that his boyfriend had given her earlier and shoots Bob severally rescuing her.

The shooting incidence lands Vanessa in prison while Bob is treated like a hero. Later, Vanessa escapes from prison and decides to go looking for her grandmother, but after entering the house, she learns that Bob, who is in the house brandishing a gun, had killed the granny. Confrontation ensues where Vanessa manages to strangle Bob and kill him. While Perrault’s narrative ends with the demise of Little Red Riding Hood, Matthew’s film depicts Vanessa as victorious.

Besides the difference in the plots, the two versions were established in different periods. The narrative came prior to the modern civilization, while the film came during the modern society. Therefore, there are significant differences with respect to the language and words used throughout the narrative.

Perrault chooses his words carefully and avoids using obscene words or scenes throughout the narrative. On the other hand, Matthew takes the initial narrative, twists it in a satirical manner to depict the modern society. He includes a lot of profane language in the film.

This helps to bring out the level of moral degradation existing in the modern society. Further, Matthew depicts Vanessa as a determined woman who is not willing to succumb to male domination. This portrays the level of women liberation.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Little Red Riding Hood in Matthew Bright’s Freeway (1996) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For a narrative to be captivating and to draw the attention of the target audience, the narrators use different surface elements. The elements may include words or themes that the target audience likes most. The elements are packaged in a way that they keep the audience attentive throughout the narrative or film, therefore making sure that the film or narrative delivers the intended message (Preston, 2004).

The narrative by Perrault is intended for young children. It warns them against associating with strangers. To draw the attention of the children, Charles tries to come up with fascinating characters. He uses characters like the little girl, the grandmother, and the wolf.

Majority of the children love their grandmothers and thus they would never wish to see or hear anyone or anything harming them. Furthermore, narratives that include wild animals as the characters mesmerize many children. Hence, the inclusion of wolf in the narrative makes it attractive, therefore, attracting the target audience.

Besides using different characters that attract the target audience, the narrator also organizes the story in a thrilling manner. She depicts the girl as going through a forest where she encounters a wolf and dialogue ensues. This makes the audience attentive as it wish to know what happens in the process of dialogue.

The thrill of going through the forest in the company of a wolf makes the children wish to know what happens to the young girl (Wratislaw, 1889). The thrill acts one of the surface elements that make the narrative captivating to the young children. Throughout the narrative, Charles uses elements that are known to the target audience.

Besides, he does not make the plot complicated as a way to ensure that the audience is capable of following every event in the narrative. The narrator also includes the trick used by the wolf to dupe Little Red Riding Hood as one of the surface elements. To most children, the trick appears like a fascinating game.

In many times, children participate in games that help them outdo each other. Consequently, the trick applied by the wolf makes the children perceive it as a game. They are keen to see if the girl defeats the wolf without knowing that it is a trick to help the wolf eat the girl’s grandmother without the girl’s knowledge.

Matthew establishes his film in a modern setting. Unlike Charles who targets the children, Bright targets audiences from different groups. He does not focus on the children. Instead, he focuses on the youths as well as the older generation. Among the surface elements he includes to make the film relevant include, moral decadency, discrimination of poor by the rich as well as sexual illusions (Preston, 2004).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Little Red Riding Hood in Matthew Bright’s Freeway (1996) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moral decadency is one of the challenges facing the contemporary society. Nevertheless, many people do not like talking about it. Consequently, in an attempt to bring out this theme, Bright includes it as one of the surface elements in the film. Nevertheless, he does not depict it directly. Instead, he repackages it in a way that does not put off the target audience.

Bright directs the film with numerous twists and turns. He uses some scenes of aggression and irreverent dialogue as a way of bringing out the element of moral decadency within the society (McGurk, 2012). Many people have the allure of the serial killers. He depicts Bob as a serial killer with an aim of brining out this fascination and showing the public how it is inclined towards the negative norms at the expense of social ethics (Bright, 1996).

There is great disparity between the privileged and the underprivileged in the modern society. The privileged in the society look down upon the underprivileged and exploit them in different ways. Bright includes the element of this discrimination in the film as a way of portraying the level of hypocrisy in the modern society.

He portrays Vanessa’s parents as irresponsible (Bright, 1996). The mother engages in prostitution and the father is a drug addict. Moreover, he depicts Bob as a well-up man who takes advantage of the poor girls. He exploits them sexually and later kills and disposes them.

Sexuality is an issue that challenges the modern society. The problem faces both the young and the old. Bright takes the initial narrative and turns it upside down to fit the modern society. In spite of sticking to the main theme, he twists his plot to enlighten the target audience on the challenges of sexuality (Preston, 2004).

He uses a perverted tone to make the film relevant to the teenage audience who are the major victims of sexuality. Bright manages to blend these elements to make the film fascinating to all the target audiences. Eventually, he not only makes the film entertaining, but he also manages to put across his intended messages in a way that all the audiences understand.

Tales, narratives, and anecdotes act as good avenues of enlightening the public on different issues. The main reason for using them is that they are easy to understand and retain. Film directors identify different tales and twist them in a manner that suits them to convey certain messages (Preston, 2004). Similarly, Matthew Bright takes the Little Red Riding Hood tale and twists it to fit his film.

The main reason why he re-uses the tale is that he perceives it as the most appropriate in delivering his intended message. The plot and theme of the initial tale are somewhat congruent with the theme and plot of his film. Moreover, the characters and environment used for the tale do not change significantly in the film.

For instance, Bright uses Vanessa to represent Little Red Riding Hood while Bob represents the wolf. The traits of the new characters are almost similar to the trait of the initial characters in the tale. Therefore, the film director is able to articulate his themes using these characters without difficulties.

There was no better way of helping the public understand the level of moral decadency, gender discrimination, sexuality, and other challenges facing the society than through a film. Furthermore, to bring out these challenges, Matthew needed to package his message in a way that the target audience understands.

The Little Red Riding Hood tale offered a better platform of portraying these themes. As the tale was easy to understand and remember, Matthew saw it as the most appropriate to apply in communicating with the public. The tale facilitates in developing and directing the plot of the film.

Freeway is a revised version of Little Red Riding Hood. Bright manages to twist the initial tale to reflect a different theme in the modern society. In addition, he changes the various characters from the previous tale and uses them to play different roles in the film. In spite of changing the plot of the film relative to the original tale, Bright manages to convey his message in a way that all the target audiences understand.

In a bid to make the film relevant, Bright uses numerous surface elements. He includes the elements of moral decadency, sexuality, and disparity between the privileged and the underprivileged, as they are the main challenges facing the modern society. The main reason why the film director opts to re-use Little Red Riding Hood in his film is that the tale’s plot and characters fit well in the delivery of his intended message.

Reference List Bright, M. (1996). Freeway [DVD]. US: Kushner-Locke Company.

Lang, A. (1891). The Blue Fairy Book. London, UK: Longmans.

McGurk, M. (2012). ‘Freeway’ an old but alluring ride. The Cincinnati Enquirer, p.32.

Preston, C. (2004). Little Red Riding Hood uncloaked: Sex, morality, and evolution of a fairy tale (Review). Marvels


Operation management – Nokia Corporation in the UAE Report (Assessment) essay help online

Introduction: Background of the Company Nokia is one of the most internationally renowned leading mobile phone companies that originated from Finland, with its headquarters in Espoo. The company emerged in 1885 and has since then been dealing with providing telecommunications and information technology services such as developing mobile phones and their accessories, internet services, and telephony technologies.

Be sure to discuss the main products and/or services that the company sells Nokia Corporation deals with an assortment of products and services related to telecommunication and IT. For products, the company ventures in mobile phones, mobile phone accessories, computer devices, tablets, and several other portable Information technology gadgets. Nokia also provides internet services, including mobile phone internet applications, routing services, digital mapping, gaming services, and multimedia services.

Describe the industry in which the company operates Nokia Corporation is a mobile phone manufacturing company under the mobile phone industry, but is under the telecommunication and information technology industry as it deals mostly with communication products and services. The telecommunication, cell phone and the information technology industries are industries dealing with inventing modern communication devices and providing efficient communication services.

Nokia Corporation is a multinational company that is currently venturing in almost every state or nation across the continents. Within the UAE, Nokia has a series of argent companies that operate under the Nokia umbrella. Nokia Corporation has sub-companies in Dubai and within other major cities around the United Arab Emirates.

Mention something about the competition and how you believe the company competes (relating this to their operations) Nokia UAE is facing stiff competition in the Middle East as well as across the world because companies like Samsung, Apple, and Huawei have come up with unique models of phones in terms of hardware, operating systems, and applications that meet diverse needs of customers. However, I believe that Nokia UAE is increasingly becoming competitive in various markets because it is expanding its operations to reach many customers.

Nokia UAE has made sure that it provides customers in the UAE with all models of Nokia phones and applications in Ovi Stores. Moreover, Nokia UAE has an extensive support system that allows customers to optimize the use of phones. The advent of smartphones has compelled mobile operators to offer high-speed networks and business solutions. Hence, the operations of Nokia UAE are very competitive in the markets.

Nokia Corporation performed very well during the last few years with a market share of approximately 18%, which currently seems to have downsized to about 3%. Although still earning a somewhat good market reputation, its market value is diminishing. Nokia is in fact currently facing financial disaster and has lost over 40% of its cell phone revenues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategy of the Company Nokia UAE Corporation has an articulated mission indicated as, to become the dominating communication products manufacturer and distributor of the world.

Nokia Corporation serves under a strategic plan that focuses on cost-effectiveness and differentiation strategies. Nokia UAE has a cost-effectiveness strategy by ensuring that it produces and distributes low-cost products that are quite affordable for the Emirati people. It also utilizes differentiation strategy by producing unique products and in varieties exceptional from its competitors.

Nokia Lumia model is a smartphone that competes with android and other models. Nokia’s first-ever Windows tablet is Nokia Asha, which is a unique model with crystal-clear design, high pixel camera, and very sensitive user interface.

Are they following their strategy or not? And why? Differentiation is a strategy that is paramount for Nokia UAE and remains unchanged. For the cost-effectiveness strategy, the strategy fluctuates depending on the market trends. Since it is a determinant in the decision-making process, the strategy relies on the consumption and other factors.

Does the company measure the productivity of their workers? Employees are important facets to Nokia UAE and their productivity is paramount to the management of the company. The company’s human resource department measures and analyses the performance of its employees and offers motivation through employee empowerment.

How do they measure productivity? Nokia UAE measures employee productivity through analyzing the potency of a single employee per the work assignment given to them on their first day. The company assumes that productivity depends on job satisfaction.

Is productivity difficult to measure in this industry or company? Why? Nokia UAE rarely faces challenges in measuring the productivity of its employees, as the company’s human resource management team is normally competent in assessing employee productivity and a strong top management with sufficient information regarding the company’s operational capabilities.

We will write a custom Assessment on Operation management – Nokia Corporation in the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How is Nokia different from others in the industry? Differentiation as a paramount business strategy makes Nokia an exceptional company, with its assortment of portable information technology gadgets being exemplary. For instance, while many cell phone companies produce smartphones with integrated android operating system, Nokia has devised its unique approaches. Ordinary phones and smartphones of Nokia have unique shapes, colors, and features.

The features of Nokia phones are user-friendly and customized to suite customer’s tastes and preferences. Moreover, Nokia phones have the largest internal memory when compared with other phones, and thus allows them to run many applications just like android phones.

Forecasting Forecasting is a management strategy that is useful in analyzing organizational strategies and productivity. Regression, qualitative, and quantitative are the major business forecasting techniques. Regression-based forecasting model examines trends in the business costs and net income to examine their business market. Qualitative forecasting model is where a business uses actual opinions and ideas as forms of data to ascertain the situation within the market.

Quantitative forecasting model uses sales numbers and web interchange numbers and new accounts to examine market state. Quantitative approach uses statistical analysis in predicting trends in various markets. Nokia UAE uses the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) demand as a forecasting technique.

Nokia UAE uses the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) demand is a forecasting technique that calculates demand variability of the products and services in the market. Within the Nokia UAE, the Mean Absolute Deviation Percent (MADP) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) are forecasting techniques common in this company.

In enhancing forecasting accuracy, Nokia UAE uses certain time horizons that include short-range time forecasts where certain programs, operations, and activities follow short-term stipulated schedules to achieve its targets. This explains the reasons why their products do not serve for long in the market before other new ones emerge.

Given the rising competition in the modern-day business world, forecasting as a strategy should receive the needed attention to make Nokia UAE more successful. Regression as a business-forecasting model is becoming an effective modern approach, as it focuses on costs and net income of the company. For Nokia UAE, this approach will help the company balance costs, forecast of income and meet operational demands as anticipated.

Product and Service Design Like its international program, Nokia UAE deals with an array of telecommunication and information technology products and services as well. In terms of products, the main intent of the company is to produce affordable and portable communication and technology devices that are anticipations for the vibrant youth consumer population.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Operation management – Nokia Corporation in the UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smart phones, tablets, portable computer devices, internet-enabled phones, simple communication phones, various touch screen phones, and many other advanced technology tools. The products have been so reliable for the consumers, something that keeps Nokia Corporation on the market. In terms of services, the company offers mobile gaming services, internet applications, instant messaging, and multimedia services.

Nokia Corporation, unlike several other mobile phone companies known to the world, has at least managed to produce high-quality products characterized by durability. With high-quality assurance and quality control measures designed by the company strictly followed, the products produced by Nokia UAE and its international allies are of exceptional quality with recorded evidence of long-term durability. The life shelf of many of the Nokia products exceeds that of its direct competitor, Samsung.

Is the company managing product design according to their selected strategy (low cost/ differentiation/ response)? The concept of low pricing and differentiation as the main market triumph strategies are normally in line with the product designing strategies. Nokia UAE designs products, with consideration of the consumer preferences and the consumer ability as determined by the pre-existing market research evidence documented.

The company designs its products and offers services while considering the purchasing power of its consumers as per the market where the products intends to serve. The products designed differ, but sometimes clients have expressed their resentments over the little changes made to each advancing Nokia product, as they reflect a slight change from the previous ones.

Reverse engineering, is a business practice that involves the process of unveiling the technological ideologies pertaining to a device, system or even a business operation or program through structural analysis of its composition.

The Nokia Corporation, as aforementioned, has a weakness of relying on their previous technological designs to invent a new product. Reverse engineering will help Nokia figure out new products and make design decisions without using recurring ideas.

Capacity Planning Nokia, as a multinational company, seems to have been sailing through the market due to its initial financial capacity, though sudden twist in its economic status may undermine this fact. Capacity planning means understanding the potential of accompany to initiate and manage a business program.

Nokia UAE has the best-talented workforce with perfect skills required for high productivity of the company. However, wrangles between managers, employees, shareholders, are ruining their capacity in strengthening the company.

The company seems to have the right capacity of both human and capital resources required to make the company more effective than it seems. Nonetheless, the current situation in the management is not appealing as the conflicts arising from the company are ruining its productivity. This means that the company requires reexamination of its management capacity to perform well.

Strengthening the management and ensuring constant employee empowerment and support as motivation is one of the key employee retention techniques that seems more effective in the modern-day business environment. Over-employment of the workforce is also harmful nowadays for companies.

The company has no excess capital capacity the current resources, especially human resources are functioning optimally while the room for growth is diminishing due to lack of excess resources for development. Currently, the company’s production is currently not exceeding the consumption demands.

Cost-effectiveness in the company includes analyzing company’s capacity before investing in any business product or demanding more workforces. The capacity management of Nokia UAE is in tandem with the customer demands regarding products unveiled to the market.

Nonetheless, the internal conflicts are affecting proper utilization of the human resources and this affects the cost-effectiveness aspect as the employee productivity remains underutilized.

Process Design Process design involves determining, equipment requirements, program implementation, and workflow required to meet needs of the clients. Nokia UAE uses design for assembly line with sophisticated machinery because it reduces the assembly costs. The design for assembly line process involves the use of automated machinery in the generation of products in sequential manner.

The automated controls aid in the assembly of products continuously, and thus increasing the volume while reducing variable costs. Moreover, design for assembly line is flexible as the company can increase or decrease the volume of production while maintaining the cost of production at the same level. Thus, this process design has helped Nokia to increase production while reducing the costs of production.

Typically, the concept of cost-effectiveness in the company seems convoluted because, as the company provides cost-effective products, the process design seems sophisticated and expensive than anticipated.

The operation cost designed in the freight-designed manner is relatively higher than their market strategy demands. Sophisticated technologies employed to design products, offer services require exemplary care, and the company spends immensely to handle the machinery and maintain the processes.

Location The physical location of Nokia Corporation from its backdrop is Finland. However, its location within the UAE countries lies within places with fast-growing business premises and Dubai is one of the centers where the company operates. Dubai is the fastest-growing Muslim city with millions of investors attracted to this capital. Dubai is a strategic location within the UAE and Nokia expects to excel in this place.

In locating the headquarters in Dubai, Nokia UAE had targeted the fast-growing city as part of its strategic location planning. Technological innovation and consumption of technological communication services and its devices are on rapid growth in Dubai. Located within the Al Thuraya Tower II, also known as Dubai’s Internet City, the center is a technological zone that pulls millions of potential consumers.

In your opinion, is this a good location? Why or why not? Nothing can match the most effective decision made at the headquarters of the Nokia Company around Dubai, as it currently stands out as the most advanced Muslim city where millions of potential investors and consumer population converge. The city is a growing technological center with a vibrant youth population who anticipate for such modernized mobile technologies.

The strategy of cost-effectiveness and differentiation remains well supported by the Dubai City, as although it may deem expensive due to the city structure, a pool of consumers is enough to bring back the desired profits. Although several other companies have invested in Dubai, Nokia is still a unique technological company. The unique technological products are a potential force behind the market success.

Quality and Quality Control The reason behind a constant supply of desirable Nokia product rests upon the fact that the company has been in the forefront in strengthening the quality management system. Although somewhat poor in innovation, the products designed in quality-oriented manner where durability is a great concern, the company products are exceptional.

The quality control system of Nokia UAE entails persistent quality examination undertaken by a team of quality management experts who perform quality checks. Early test, pretests, in routine cycles throughout the production processes help Nokia UAE.

The early checks, constant reexaminations, and pretests to ascertain the quality of the phones and other technological devices is part of the inspection process that examines the quality of each product in Nokia UAE.

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), Ishikawa diagram, and statistical process control (control chart) are the types of quality tools that Nokia UAE uses in its quality assurance and control procedures. FMEA is an effective control tool because it identifies faults, and thus aid quality assurance and control procedures. Ishikawa diagram is a control tool that depicts the relationships between a problem and its causes, and thus it is a cause-and-effect tool.

The Ishikawa diagram is significant because it identifies causes of problems in a process by grouping the causes of problems into machines, methods, materials, management, and human resource. Statistical process control (control chart) allows measurement of attributes over a period. The control chart is important because it monitors processes and ensures that they are performing optimally as expected.

Adding some external quality control overseers is important to help the company acknowledge the importance of producing goods in respect to reverse engineering as an important business practice involving technological companies. This enables the company to avoid reinventing technologies following their previous designs.

The company’s quality management system seems effective, especially when considered in its effectiveness in maintaining the quality of the Nokia phones and accessories. Lack of understanding of the principles of reverse engineering makes the expertise of the quality control seem questionable.

Conclusions It is slowly becoming clear that companies venturing within the Arab nations are receiving a motivating welcome and Nokia being a technological investment, the possibility of Nokia UAE becoming strong and independent in the UAE is considerably high. Of greatest concern is the growing concept of Nokia International assuming the importance of the principles of reverse engineering, something expected to influence its future survival when consumers realize this weakness.

It may remain unknown whether the company is really serving under its two aforementioned strategies, differentiation, and cost-effective techniques. This is solely because whereas the company is producing affordable devices, the sophisticated operational process consumes many finances. Inasmuch as the company is producing trendy products, the differentiation aspect remains undermined by lack of proper adherence to the reverse engineering principles.

Introducing technological devices of different shapes, colors, and design is not enough to manipulate the lively technological consumers who are becoming more technologically suave in the modern-day. Consumer’s high exposure to a series of technological devices may finally lead to discovery and design lapses in the devices produced by Nokia. It is imperative to understand the principles of reverse engineering to enhance the quality of its products in terms of innovation.


Documentary “Caves” Essay (Movie Review) essay help: essay help

Summary of the Film This documentary illustrates the formation of caves and shows the diversity of species that inhabit them. At first, the authors speak about limestone caves. They note that although these rocks can reach hundreds of feet above the sea level, many were formed under the water. For example, one can mention the famous limestone towers located in Vietnam’s Ha Long Bay (BBC, 2006).

It should be kept in mind that limestone is derived from coral and marine shells. Additionally, the film-makers examine food chains in caves. For instance, there are many species such as cockroaches that never leave the cave, and they are dependent mostly on bat droppings.

Furthermore, this film shows how people can enter the caves even despite the extreme dangers of such trips. Apart from that, this documentary depicts how stalagmites and stalactites are created as a result of calcium deposition.

Moreover, this film shows that caves have been crucial for sustainability of different societies. For instance, one can speak about the caves on the Yucatan Peninsula that acted as water wells. They enabled Maya civilization to get access to water (BBC, 2006). These caves continuously attract divers who want to map them and examine various forms of life that can be found there.

This documentary throws light on the way in which troglobites evolved; for instance, they lost their capacity for vision since they did not use it for thousands of years (BBC, 2006). Moreover, the pigmentation of their skin also changed profoundly. The film demonstrates how the organisms that live without sunlight derive energy. Very often, hydrogen sulphide gas helps them sustain themselves (BBC, 2006).

Furthermore, the authors speak about the discovery of Lechuguilla which is one of the longest caves in the world. This cave is famous for its gypsum crystals (BBC, 2006). The Chandelier Ballroom is the major attractions that can be found here. There may be undiscovered caves which can be compared to Lechuguilla.

Reference List BBC (2006). Caves [Television Broadcast]. In Planet Earth. England: British Broadcasting Corporation.

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Slow Growth of Golfers in the Golf Equipment Industry Essay cheap essay help

The introduction of new rules that limit innovation in the Golf Equipment Industry (GEI) is a major reason for the slow growth in the number of golfers in the recent years. In addition, the global financial crisis that began in December 2007 to 2009 had a devastating effect on the number of golfers in the GEI.

Competitive rivalry force was the most affected among the Porter’s five forces (Gamble 11). This force determines the value that is created in an industry through head-to-head competition among firms. Competition within the GEI was centered on technological innovation, which was permitted initially by the United State Golf Association (USGA) and R


Indian myth and legend by Mary Fraser Essay (Book Review) online essay help: online essay help

Summary of the article in the book Mary Fraser begins by exploring Nova Scotia and its aboriginal inhabitants. From the article in the book, it is evident that the Miemac Indians were the aboriginal group that dominated Nova Scotia from very early times. The confederation of eastern Algonquins was the original homeland of this group of people.

They were also considered to be in the third place especially when it came to the ownership of land as a resource. They were given the name Souriquois by some of the earliest missionaries who visited their original land. Before the close of 1693, they were being refereed to as the Miemac. When the land was originally distributed to these Indian ethnic groups, they were given the Algonquin name known as the Migmagig.

This piece of land was made up of southwestern New-Foundland, Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and Nova Scotia. From the article, it appears that they were largely a peaceful community according to the sentiments of Father Biard. Their main source of income was fishing and hunting. They could also participate gathering of wild fruits, insects and herbs.

The sun was a major point of veneration among the Micmacs according to the historical records obtained from Leclercq. In other words, they worshipped the sun bearing in mind that they saluted the sun both in the morning and evening. Mentou was also part of the great spirits that was worshipped by this group of people. Although they clearly knew that Mentou was a rebellious spirit that had gone against the rules of the Great Spirit, they continued to worship him.

Strengths of the article From the summary of the article, it can be noticed that the author has attempted to explore the background roots of this Indian sub tribe. Fraser does not merely give an outline of the background information of the Micmacs. Instead, the author creates a detailed background of this aboriginal group beginning from the time when their history was first recorded. For instance, Fraser discusses their economic, social, political and cultural ways of life.

Second, Fraser has organized this piece of writing in the most chronological manner. The text can be read and understood quite easily by the reader. The structure of the language used is also friendly enough to the readers in this level. As a matter of fact, this is a mid 17th century history that targets tertiary or college level learners. Therefore, the language used in most suitable for this category of learners.

The author also attempts to give cause and effect of each action taken by this Indian sub tribe. This is similar to expounding the reasons why certain events take place in the piece of literature. This writing technique assists the reader to follow the plot of the historical record of the Indian sub tribe being studied.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fraser approaches the aspect of civilization of this Indian sub tribe from a very objective point of view. This is apparently one of the strengths of the article. For example, Fraser explains how the Micmac ethnic group was at one time deeply entrenched in worshipping traditional gods and goddesses and how they eventually accepted to turn away from their deeply held traditions.

The author does not give guidance on how the reader should go about the reasoning process after reading this part of the book. This creates room for personal evaluation and promotion of critical thinking skills.

Weaknesses Fraser has apparently failed to balance the three aspects of Micmac’s development and early civilization in Nova Scotia. The author has largely concentrated on the social wellbeing of this Indian sub tribe. A lot of emphasis has been put towards the social civilization of this group of people. This has impeded the development of political, economic and political history of the Indian sub tribe.

The author has also concentrated so much on the discussion of individual missionaries and the vast amount of work they did in converting the aboriginal tribe into Christianity.

In addition, although the author has pointed out that religion was a key pillar in the cultural and social well being of the Micmac people, she has not described the various roles that were played by the same religion. Whereas we may make an assumption that readers are aware of the roles played by religion in this community, the outcomes may be completely wrong.

The political way of life among the Micmac people has not been discussed at length by the author. Although a slight mention of governance has been pointed out in the text, it is not adequate at all. It is imperative to assert that one of the factors that made the Micmac people to be remembered was their strong systems of governance and leadership structures. Perhaps, the author could have given additional attention to the political way of life of this Indian sub-tribe.

The Glooscap myth of the Indians can also be used to explore the fancies, ideals and thoughts of the Indians. Although this myth was dominant during the pre-christian times, it is also interesting to observe that it has remained fundamental in the modern world. Therefore, Fraser could have discussed the transformation phase of the Glooscap myth as well as its relevance in the contemporary Indian society.

We will write a custom Book Review on Indian myth and legend by Mary Fraser specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In recap, it is vital top reiterate that the author of this book was particular objective when presenting the historical plot of the Micmac people from the Indian aboriginals. This implies that the author avoided any possibility of bias when presenting the historical evidence of the Indian sub tribe. Therefore, the audience has been left with full choice of judging the events in the book.

As already mentioned, the article is an interesting piece to read regarding the primitive civilization of the Micmac aboriginal tribe from India. Fraser has clearly documented all the facts regarding the funny lifestyle of this group of people. This presentation technique makes the audience to remain attentive and interested to read the entire piece of writing.

Weaknesses of the article have also been discussed in this piece of critique writing. For example, the political way of life among the Micmac sub tribe was not sufficiently discussed even though the historical documentation was presented in a systematic manner. In addition, only a limited number of social myths have been explored in the article.

Since the Indian sub-tribe was a community entrenched in deep cultural practices, the author could have given more attention to the socio-cultural aspects of the Micmac people. Finally, this section of the book should have covered additional details on the political way of life of the Micmac people.


The song “Simple Gifts” Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Joseph Brackett is the composer of the song Simple Gift. He wrote and composed it in 1848 in Maine. Brackett was born in 1797 and died at the age of 85 on the 4th of July 1882. He spent his entire life in Maine where he was actively involved in writing, composing songs, and in religious activities of the Shakers community. His father supported the nuclear unit of Shakers by providing settlement for members of the sect.

His active involvement in the sect led him to be appointed an elder in the community. Brackett is widely known for his songs, particularly Simple Gifts, which are classified as dance songs, work songs, or hymns. The song Simple Gifts was only known within the Shakers community until 1944 when it was first performed at a ballet concert.

The melody was used in Appalachian Springs, a ballet performance by Martha Graham. In 1950, the song was used for the second time in an orchestra performance. Since 1950, the song has been used many times by different composers. They have either rearranged or adapted the song in different ways.

Brackett did not favor specific lyricists, song writers, or composers. He was only affiliated to the Shakers sect. It was through his strong involvement with the sect that he got inspired to write and compose his songs. He wrote dancing songs, the most famous being Simple Gifts.

He is known today because of the song which has been adapted several times. Both the adapted and original versions have an international audience. The most common adapted version is Lord of the Dance, a 1963 publication.

Brackett was active in a social and religious movement. He joined the Shakers sect at the age of 10 with his entire family. His father provided temporary settlement for the first ever nuclear group of the sect. After the death of his father, Brackett continued to rise in ranks, gaining the position of an elder.

He was appointed to lead members of the sect in Maine. By the time he became an elder the nuclear unit of the community had already expanded and occupied other areas within the south.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The song, Simple Gifts, was originally written as a dance song for the Shakers community. The song was performed during special religious events and celebrations. Members of the community used to compose songs and dances for their devotion services. According to the community, one could have several spiritual gifts. Music composition was considered among the spiritual gifts.

They composed and recorded musical inspirations as an exercise of their spiritual gifts. The composers and writers were mainly scribes and elders in the community. They did not have any formal training in music composition. However, they used a notation system called ‘letteral’ that used alphabetical letter with rhythmic notations. The dance songs were significant to the community because they formed part of their culture.

The song, Simple Gifts, has also formed part of popular culture today by being performed in movies, television series, and documentaries. An adopted version of the song was performed at the inauguration ceremony of President Obama in 2009.

Christian religious denominations have also adapted the tune into hymns sang during worship. The only difference is the name given to these hymns. However, the tune is the same. Essentially, the song has been part of larger musical performances.

[supanova_question] Tech Award Application Research Paper essay help site:edu

Lack of drinking water and water sanitation issues plague most third world countries. Sanitation related diseases and deaths is the number one threat to survival. The current conditions provide little or no regard to the long-term use of the land and the direct effects of dumping human waste in to the water table.

Water for People uses current land surveying technology to map the lands available, viable water sources and create routing systems for drinking and sanitation to create long-term solutions for the residents.

Water for People employs digital land surveying technology in addition to modern plumbing techniques to find viable sources of water and create irrigation for drinking and sanitation systems. Using a system called FLOW and android cell phone, Google earth mapping is used to monitor the systems. They are able to gather data to see what is working, what is in disrepair, and what needs to be changed for optimal efficiency.

Water for people uses community members, entrepreneurs, industry professionals, partners, staff, and World Water Corp volunteers to implement these systems in to the areas of need. Earlier on, Water for People tried to take on all the areas of need on a global basis, they quickly found themselves overwhelmed and the quality of the solution was not up to par.

Water for People has now committed to taking on smaller areas of need in specific regions with a 10-year follow up plan. By concentrating their efforts in selected areas at one time, they are able to implement a long-term solution that is truly effective.

The target market for this project of Water for People Involves people in regions where water is scarce and where the water used for drinking is not safe or even clean. This involves some regions of Asia like India, some regions of Africa such as Uganda and Rwanda, Central American countries such as Guatemala and Honduras, and some regions of South America such as Peru and Ecuador. In all these regions, there is no access to clean water and without the necessary help through such schemes, people would suffer from various infections and diseases.

The FLOW is used as an efficient and effective tool for examining the status of the projects on water. This is however done in a technological manner using the Android technology via a cell phone, Global Positioning System and through the Software called Google Earth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the FLOW, the parties to the project, which include partners and workers, are able to collect information on the various water points. Then through such information, a project’s progress, that is whether it has failed or succeeded, or is ongoing, wrecked or even requires repair, can be monitored through a worldwide map.

FLOW has had several advantages as a technological tool in monitoring of water and sanitation projects. The information received through the FLOW can be used to come up with decisions on programming. Through FLOW, it is easier to supervise and check on the progress of the various water projects.

FLOW also helps by identifying the advancement in the projects, the overall accomplishments of the projects and its major challenges1. Another advantage of FLOW is that data collection and gathering is simple and fast, and the information can be shared by a group of people and still be easily understood.

With this technology, projects can be tracked and the efficiency process enhanced as instant reports on whether a project has failed or passed or requires repair are given immediately. This is not the case had the project’s progress was been checked by persons or supervisors who can lie on the progress. FLOW is therefore an efficient project management tool.

FLOW should be awarded the Tech Award due to its applicability in helping to solve the issue of water and sanitation among individuals in regions such as Africa, South America, and Asia among others.

The issue of water is one that is very pressing in some regions of the world and any efforts whether short term or long term like FLOW, should be recognized, and awarded accordingly. This therefore means that FLOW has helped to improve the health of individuals who are now protected from diseases that are caused due to lack of or taking dirty water.

FLOW should also be awarded for its contribution in solving this global issue of water and sanitation. This issue of water may look like it is a minor issue but due to the importance of water to human life and to all natural habitats, the issue is one that is of global concern.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Tech Award Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More FLOW is an innovation that still has room for more improvement in terms of the modern technology and therefore meets the Tech Award criteria. The advantages portrayed by application of this technology are also many and thus FLOW should be awarded for its usage of the modern technology, android technology.

The business model innovations for the FLOW project include the ease of project monitoring, and the use of the Google Earth to facilitate easier passing of data immediately as it is happening. The employment of the latest technology, android, in doing business is also a business model innovation. All these have benefits to the project apart from boosting and enhancing the image of the company through the technology.

Often, many projects are started in Africa, Asia and other countries that are in dire need of clean water. What then happens is that those who are left with the responsibility of monitoring the progress of the projects, or to deal with the finances of the project escape their responsibilities and instead sue the money for their own personal gains.

This is because those who are left with such responsibilities may not be in need of the water services and so may not be passionate about what those who are at ground level go through without having water or walking for long distances to look for water. Therefore, there have been massive failures of water and sanitation projects in areas such as Africa due to this embezzlement of funds by the leaders of such projects, which has seen many projects, fail and even the donors to such projects withdraw from offering help.

The FLOW project is therefore one that can help overcome these problems since one can see the project’s progress technologically without having to receive false information from the project supervisors who sometimes lie about the progress. This technological innovation is therefore very effective and efficient2.

The major constraints and conditions that surround the implementation of this project are that the project requires adequate and unlimited internet access to be able to apply the android technology and Google Earth Software. This is because in order to be able to utilize these two, internet access must be there and it must be consistent.

This means that FLOW cannot go on without internet access, as it is dependent on it. Another issue that can be cited as a constraint to this project is that it is quite expensive to run, but at least worthy for the purpose to be achieved3.

The most likely thing about the founders of this project regarding other innovation approaches is that if in the future they would want to carry out another project, they will still employ technology that is much more advanced. This is following the success and the efficiency brought about by the usage of the android technology.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tech Award Application by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even if they are not satisfied with the level of progress and the contribution of the android technology in implementing the FLOW project, I still think that a next attempt to come up with an innovation would still require modern technology, as the benefits that come with it are many.

The demographic features of the target market for the FLOW project include; a very large population that comprises of women and children who suffer a lot to walk for long distances in search of water. This is mostly done by women and children irrespective of their age whether too old or too young.

Another feature is that the areas have very harsh climates, which are characterized by lack of rainfall. The populations are also very poor with small pieces of land, and lack employment opportunities. The distances between their homes and the sources of water are often very large and therefore the people walk for long distances in search of this important commodity.

The psychographic features of the target market include very poor lifestyles. This is because the populations are generally poor and even lack most of the necessities of life. They therefore can just be considered as poor people who often receive relief food from donors around the world4.

Another attribute of psychographics is personality, and although one cannot quite state the personality of everyone, the general personality of such a population is that they are peaceful people who perceive life as unfair and who think that they cannot make it in life without help from others either through food or water. Generally, such a population comprises of people who are desperate for help, and who in most cases, do nothing about their situation unless a third party comes in.

Such people have embraced the practice of begging for help from others and believe that without it they cannot live well 5.Lack of education is also another major challenge faced by people of such populations as many of them have never gone to a classroom and do not know the value of it. Some even perceive it as a waste of money.

The FLOW project utilizes the android technology as it primary source of the innovation. With the growing challenges faced by the android technology, FLOW may end up being affected in the long term due to the current increase in the android malware.

It may take sometime after the project has succeeded or even affect the completion of the project. This means that there is some level of uncertainty regarding the usage of android technology since it is a new technology, which many software developers and technology experts are trying to face out.

For the innovation to become a success, several challenges will face it. This includes high costs of internet, hiring of experts to organize and make the project a success, and high legal costs for the innovation to be branded as a new one. Despite all these challenges, it is important to carry on with the innovation as it one that will reach out too many poor people and thus will be awarded in the Tech Awards Ceremony.

Works Cited Grant, Allen. Beginning Android 4. New York: Springer, 2012. Print.

Hammond, Allen, Koch James, and Noguera, Francisco. “The Need for Safe Water as a Market Opportunity,” Innovations—Technology, Governance, and Globalization, 4.3 (2009): 107-117. Print.

Hart, Stuart, and Clayton, Christensen. “The Great Leap: Driving Innovation from the Base of the Pyramid,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 44.1 (2002): 51-56. Print.

Koch, James. “Breaking Down Barriers to a More Equitable and Prosperous World,” STS Nexus, 8.1 (2007): 8-15. Print.

Koch, James, and Thomas, Caradonna, “Technologies and Business Models that Work in Developing Countries.” International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD 2006), University of California, Berkeley, 2006. Print.

Footnotes 1 Koch, James. “Breaking Down Barriers to a More Equitable and Prosperous World,” STS Nexus, 8.1 (2007): 8-15. Print.

2 Hart, Stuart, and Clayton, Christensen. “The Great Leap: Driving Innovation from the Base of the Pyramid,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 44.1 (2002): 51-56. Print.

3 Hammond, Allen, Koch James, and Noguera, Francisco. “The Need for Safe Water as a Market Opportunity,” Innovations—Technology, Governance, and Globalization, 4.3 (2009): 107-117. Print.

4 Grant, Allen. Beginning Android 4. New York: Springer, 2012. Print.

5 Koch, James, and Thomas, Caradonna, “Technologies and Business Models that Work in Developing Countries.” International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD 2006), University of California, Berkeley, 2006. Print.


CarMax Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


CarMax Strengths




Introduction It takes genius to establish a company from scratch and to turn it into a business leader within a decade. The leadership at CarMax did just that. They founded a company based on retailing concepts adopted from other sectors and successfully built a well-respected used car dealership. The company is a good case study on what focused leadership can achieve.

This paper explores how CarMax innovated on its operation by adopting strategies used in other sectors of the economy to revolutionize the sale of used cars. This chapter focuses on the role of Human Resource, Innovation and organizational culture in organizational leadership. By looking at these three elements, it is possible to decipher CarMax’s, business strategy, its challenges, and future prospects.

CarMax The success of CarMax brings to mind similar success by Wal-Mart, which revolutionized retail with innovative concepts. Wal-Mart sought to alter the customer experience when buying goods and therefore developed an ingenious system allowing for a very efficient inventory management system supported by a counterintuitive marketing model.

Wal-Mart went for rural markets that did not have the “superstore” experience. However, the rural areas could provide sufficient markets. CarMax entry into the used car market did not worry many of the used car dealers at the time. However, nineteen years later, CarMax boasts of pride of place among not just used car dealers, but amongst the very best companies to work for in the United States.

As one of the Forbes “100 best companies to work” for five years straight, CarMax indeed is testament to the place of ingenuity in business based on solid research and headed by focused leadership. Its innovative model warrants study to determine the place of leadership in an organization.

CarMax has over 15000 associates in over 100 stores spread throughout the United States (CarMax, 2011). Latest reports indicate that they have plans to open up at least ten more stores in the coming year. This expansion will seek to leverage on the emerging market for used cars because consumers have more confidence in buying used cars through CarMax compared to the traditional used car dealerships.

The cornerstone of CarMax business is customer service based on a robust business system. The founders of the company successfully defined a new way to sell used cars and made the experience of buying used cars much less frightful for buyers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They removed the barriers that made people fear buying used cars such as haggling over prices, risk of getting poor quality cars with no clearly defined recourse for the buyer, insurance, financing among others. CarMax literally revolutionized the buying and selling of used cars.

In order to reduce the stress of pricing, CarMax uses fixed prices for all their cars. All the customers are sure that the price on the sticker is the price of the car. This relieves both the sales associates and the client of price related worries that come with ordinary used car buying experience.

CarMax pays a fixed commission on unit sales to the associates thereby eliminating the pressure on them to push the pricier cars. The associates can therefore concentrate on providing the customer with support to get the best car for their needs than on getting them to buy the most expensive cars in the yard. This ensures that the cars sold respond to real demand rather than being a reflection of the selling prowess of the sales associates.

CarMax also offers a wide inventory usually consisting of more than 500 cars in a single store (CarMax, 2011). This inventory surpasses the total annual sales of some dealerships. The decision to maintain this level of inventory makes it possible for the client to have variety at any CarMax store.

In addition, the outlets maintain an inventory showing the brands of cars available regionally hence if the client wants a car not present in a particular store, CarMax can arrange for its transfer to the client at a fee.

In addition, the company arranges financing and insurance making it possible for a client to walk in and leave with a car in a few short hours. They offer a five-day money back guarantee (CarMax, 2011). If within the five days after purchase of the car the client feels that the deal is not proper, the client can return the car and get back their money with no questions asked. In addition, the company offers a 30-day warranty on all cars sold.

The offers makes the company stand out because normally, used car dealers sell cars on ‘as-is’ basis. Many of them do not have a refund policy, unless mediated by regulators, and they do not provide any kind of guarantee on the cars. The employment policy of the company does not lean towards experienced used car sales people.

We will write a custom Essay on CarMax specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, the company prefers to employ inexperienced persons whom it takes through a two-week training program to enable them sell the cars. They look out for presentable people who are apt to listen and are able to win the confidence of potential clients.

Selling cars is one-half of the operations of the company. CarMax buys cars in order to resell them. It buys them either from individuals or in bulk from organizations getting rid of their fleets. It makes an offer for a car in as little as 30 minutes and the offer stands for up to seven days, allowing prospective sellers to weigh their options.

This is similar to their stress free shopping policy it extends to buyers. The organizational culture does not support pressure tactics in any of its operations. There is however disquiet that it offers lower prices than a seller can get from other buyers.

In this case, the benefit they offer is that it is less stressful to deal with CarMax even when they are offering a lower price for the car than most other sellers are. For people who value that, CarMax is a good business partner.

The current head of CarMax is Thomas J. Folliard who has been in charge of the company since 2006 (CarMax, 2011). He is a long-term employee of the company who has worked in various departments since its inception in 1993. Folliard has a motivational leadership style crucial for a sales driven entity.

His appointment as CEO shows that the company recognizes the value of transition planning and has a robust system to allow for internal development of talent (Burns, 1979). It also shows that the company appreciates that the business is innovative hence; it requires someone familiar with its organizational history and steeped in its organizational culture to run it profitably. This increases consumer and investor confidence.

CarMax Strengths CarMax has some definite advantages in used car dealership segment. Among these, there is the national presence of the company, the strong brand image, its reputation for superior customer focus and its well-optimized business model that matches inventory with demand.

A national presence is an asset for the company because it increases the visibility of the company. Its nationwide operations make it work as though it were one large store, at least regionally. A client can get whatever car required provided it is available in one CarMax store within the region (CarMax, 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on CarMax by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This increases sales volumes and makes inventory management much easier than for individual dealerships. In addition, the size of the operations makes it easier to analyze demand trends, which influences how the company acquires new stock.

It is clear from previous analysis that the optimization of the CarMax business model covers all fronts. In particular, maintaining the critical balance between inventory and demand ensures it has healthy turnover ratios. This limits the quantity of dead stock and increases the ability of the company to respond to shifts in consumer demand at short notice.

Other elements that demonstrate this balance is the ability of the company to provide guarantees to its customers. Guarantees on products only come with a clear understanding of how the products move and the proper management of their quality. Offering guarantees without a strong quality and inventory management system, a business unit risks collapsing based on the possible costs associated with returned stock.

CarMax is a strong brand. Apart from originating a very innovative business concept, it has also managed to provide services at a level that has given it positive visibility. The accolades that contributing to the company’s strong brand image includes the recognition by Forbes magazine as “America’s Most Admired Company in Automotive Retailing” and in addition, the company has consistently been on Fortunes list of “100 Best Companies to Work For” since 2005.

This is good publicity, which speaks of the brand strength of the company and which, also enhances the brand image. Its unrivalled business system guarantees its place in the used car segment of the automotive retail industry.

Without doubt, CarMax is a customer-oriented organization. Its business system does not focus on the bottom line only but focuses on the customer experience while dealing with it. This is probably its greatest strength and its key selling point because a satisfied customer shares their experience with other people, who become potential customers.

CarMax seems to offer everything that conventional used car dealers fail to offer, except the cars. They understand that they are not just selling cars, but are providing an experience for their clients. This is revolutionary.

Unlike profit-focused, commissions-chasing conventional car salespersons, CarMax sales associates come out as trustworthy, well trained, and presentable. They have the requisite training in the business system that they form part of and in addition, they work in an environment that stresses customer satisfaction.

Challenges The most serious challenge that CarMax has is getting good quality cars to put on sale. In as much as the core business of the company is the selling of used cars, the quality of used cars bought by the company present a serious risk to the business both in terms of customer satisfaction and in terms of cost. The company cannot lax in any way when it comes to inspecting the cars bought for resale. Poor quality cars may lead to high refurbishment costs and eventually high resale prices, which may out-price the market.

The company risks turning its employees into robots acting in specific ways because of the high level of optimization so far achieved. While this works perfectly for innovative business models, it also brings about the risk of aversion to innovation. In the long term, it can kill the business because the entity must continually evolve (Murthy, 2007).

It may lead to loss of employees who no longer feel challenged and consequently, a pool of staff unsupportive to change will emerge. This means that the company must remain vigilant during promotions to ensure that the people who hold supervisory roles are supportive of change and accommodative to new ideas (Murthy, 2007). The way to ensure long-term success is to retain the most innovative people in the ranks since the CarMax business model is inherently innovative.

One of the things that may erode the brand image because of unresolved poor customer experiences is class action against the company. As a used car dealership, there is possibility that some of the cars that pass through CarMax have certain defects that the company cannot detect or solve.

If these defects are not declared in advance, a recourse action established in advance, the result can be a pool of unsatisfied customers. If they come together to sue the company, the corresponding publicity may lead to erosion of the brand’s image and subsequently loss of market share.

In light of the mission of CarMax which is ‘To provide our customers great quality cars at great prices with exceptional customer service’, CarMax must do everything in its power to ensure that the challenges it faces does not weaken its efforts to achieve the mission.

CarMax must ensure that its quality control procedures work perfectly because it is the business’ lifeline. Ignoring quality in the business processes will effectively derail the organization’s mission. On the second issue of innovation, the company stands on a foundation of innovation. Its business processes are very innovative and therefore it requires innovative people throughout the system to maintain and improve it.

The risk of class action threatens to rob the company of its brand image. In this case, the company must ensure that it communicates as clearly as possible to all its clientele on the possible defects in the cars it sells and all other business terms to reduce the risk of lawsuits. In the case that they come about, the business must handle them as amicably as possible to ensure it retains the confidence of present and future clients.

CarMax needs to devote its attention to some three areas that are likely to influence its leadership position in the automotive retail sector. They include mainstreaming innovative practices, strengthening quality control and maintaining the obvious strength it possesses in customer service.

The underlying aspect in the organization culture of CarMax is innovation. The business model is innovative blending aspects that other businesses such as Wal-Mart demonstrated. It amalgamated careful research in testing and establishing the model as viable. Its implementation was also very innovative, ensuring that all the stores offered the same standard of service.

If the company loses this innovative edge because of highly streamlined operational process, it risks losing this aspect of its organizational culture (Murthy, 2007). This recommendation requires the alignment of the HR policies of the company towards innovation.

The second recommendation is that in light of the focus on quality that the company works with, there are risks associated with deteriorating quality standards. Quality standards keep changing towards a more stringent stance by both regulators and by market forces.

The company must remain on the forefront of developing acceptable quality standards in all its operations to ensure that it remains reliable as a provider of quality products and services. A possible approach towards ensuring that quality standards remain high is adapting the kaizen practices popularized by Toyota that among other things, stresses on continuous quality improvement.

The third recommendation is that the company must do everything in its power to ensure that it maintains a good public image at all times. The Harvard Business School ( 2005) encourages every organization to leverage on the key aspects of growth to take advantage of the strategic position provided by its sources of competitive advantage.

With growth, there is always the risk of suits and claims of dissatisfaction among customers. The process used in handling complaints must have the robustness required. As the company expands, a proportional expansion of its services must be part of the company’s policy.

Conclusion The CarMax case shows that despite the success of an organization at any point, there is always a clear need to maintain an innovative edge in business practices to maintain competitive advantage. The role of innovation comes out very clearly in the case of CarMax that now boasts the pride of place in the automobile retail sector.

The challenges identified prove that despite success, it is very risky for a business to slacken because it may lead to a loss of competitive advantage. CarMax has a good standing now. It has no assurance that things will always be like that. It should achieve greater heights in its business if the management remains focused on the company’s vision.

References Burns, J. M. (1979). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper


Comparison of Religion in Australia and the United States Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Significance of religion in Australia

Significance of religion in America



Introduction Religion refers to multifaceted dogmas and does that point to a set of standards and comprehension of the significance of actuality. All over the world, human beings have engaged in religion for thousands of years. In the United States and Australia, a number of their citizens cannot trace their place of origins in the last century (McDannell 2002, p. 123).

Equally, up to a quarter of them were born outside of the two countries. Surprisingly, most of the major world’s religious groups are represented in the two countries. In some other parts of the world such as in Europe and Asia, religion was practiced as early as 2000 years ago.

In both countries, the indigenous religions have vanished as the natives adopt the religions from outside the continents. This illustrates that spiritual values and forms can vary quite rapidly, whereas features of the old religion created elsewhere can also be preserved. This article seeks to compare and contrast the significance of religion in Australia and the United States.

Significance of religion in Australia In Australia, the sacred societies that have faith in religion portray a number of diverse structures of conviction, practice, and group, which determine their attitudes towards life. Two-third of the country’s populations is made up Christians (Bouma 2006, p. 79).

The other one-third comprises of the Islam, Buddhists, Jewish, and atheist. Despite its popularity, religion plays a significant role in the attentions and ordinary lives of few Australians. With respect to the research done by International Survey, 28% of the Australians consider themselves non-religious (Bouma 2006, p. 79). Among this group, religious practices and values have hardly featured in their day-to-day lives.

According to the same survey, 25% of Australians consider themselves as deeply religious (Bouma 2006, p. 80). Equally, 44% of the Australians categorize themselves spiritual. However, religion does not play a vital role in their day-to- day lives.

Forty eight percent of Australians do not participate in personal prayer. Similarly, 52% do not attend religious gatherings. In general, religious conviction scored lesser than all other parts of Australians daily life, considered that more than 50% of the population perceive religion the least significant unlike families, partners, or careers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From mid 19th century, the state provided aid to various organizations to establish and run churches and schools across Australia. These institutions formed the basis of an ordered social existence and community life. Ever since then, churches have played major roles in civilizing Australians.

They have inculcated principles of integrity and character, which have enhanced civic accountability and admiration for others. From the 19th century, churches have collectively enhanced the democratic ideals and practices that preceded the formation of the Australian nation state. These churches were intrinsic to the success of the Australian democratic experiment.

The church missionary activities socialized and cultured ordinary people, so endowing them with the kinds of property and capital that was the requisite for the achievement of the democratic ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity in the regional and federal governments.

Similarly, religion has had a say in the education and development of youths. Through this, religion has had an influence on their social behaviours and promoted the comradeship and civic literacy that is crucial to democratic participation.

Moreover, all through Australian history, religion has played a vital role in legitimating political power, bestowing certain leaders with supernatural powers, providing social power to governments and laws, and strengthening prospects of service and public spirit on the part of persons (Hughes


Answer the following question on 2 double-spaced pages: The movie discusses how the Prison Industrial Complex uses the free labor Essay college admissions essay help

Answer the following question on 2 double-spaced pages: The movie discusses how the Prison Industrial Complex uses the free labor of incarcerated people to fuel the production of goods for major companies and private industries like McDonalds, Boeing, Microsoft, Anderson Flooring, and even Idaho potatoes, much like the sweatshops that we denounce overseas for exploiting free labor. What role does capitalism/consumerism play in Mass incarceration and racism, and what, if anything, you think we can do as consumers to potentially impact change and help end mass incarceration?


Hertzberg Theory: Application at the Workplace Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Critique of Herzberg theory and application at the workplace

Herzberg theory at my workplace



Critique of Herzberg theory and application at the workplace Developed and proposed by the American psychologist Frederick Herzberg in 1950s, the Herzberg Theory states that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction at the workplace are independent of each other and are caused by two sets of distinct factors (Herzberg 2004).

The theory proposed the “two-factor” fundamentals, in which it states “job motivators” are the factors that produce satisfaction (positive), arising from intrinsic conditions at the workplace. They include recognition, personal growth and achievements (Herzberg 2004).

On the other hand, “hygiene factors” do not produce positive satisfaction, but their absence results into job dissatisfaction. According to the theory, hygiene factors are the extrinsic conditions at the workplace and include a number of aspects such as company practices, policies and remunerations to the company employees (Schultz


Planet Earth: Mountains Essay (Movie Review) online essay help

Summary The Planet Earth series are amazing in that they embrace practically all wonders that nature has to offer. One might think that Planet Earth is solely about soil, lava and the core of the planet, yet it, strangely enough, manages to capture a number of other peculiar information into the scope of a forty-minute series.

The video opens with an image of the “frozen alien world” (documentareorg, 2011, January 31, 0:41), and the next spot that it takes its audience to is one of the hottest spots in the entire world, the “other extreme” in Ethiopia (documentareorg, 2011, January 31, 01:01).

After a short introduction about how volcanoes are made and what the volcanic forces are, the narrator switches to practical examples by showing Ethiopian mountains and describing the process of their formation. As soon as the history of the Ethiopian Mountains is briefly touched upon, the local mountain dwellers are sown to the viewers.

Attractive in their own anthropomorphous way, Gelada monkeys appear to be rather well adjusted to the harsh environment of the Ethiopian Mounts. To prove his point, the narrator shifts the focus from Geladas onto the Ethiopian mountain climate, describing it as very changeable. Clearly, Ethiopia is a place where one can observe “all seasons in one day” (documentareorg, 2011, January 31, 09:35).

After the audience had learned about the herbivores that one can encounter in mountains, it was time to talk about the local carnivores. The narrator made the audience face the heat of Africa and follow a family of pumas, which he described them as the “lions of the Andes” (18:04).

Soon more dangerous dwellers of mountains were revealed to the viewers – the latter were able to observe a family of bears. Speaking of danger, the issue of avalanches was discussed as well.

Finally, the audience appears at the “roof of the world” (documentareorg, 2011, January 31,), known as the Mount Everest. The documentary ends on a relatively general and rather sad note, with a demoiselle crane hovering over the mountains in search for its nestling, which fell prey to an eagle.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the depressing ending, the movie still leaves a tangible feeling of wonder about the subject matter, as it actually should. Though explored well, mountains are still very fascinating, especially taking their rather unusual nature into account. A true wonder of nature, mountains are, and will be, one of the most wonderful places on Earth.

Reference List documentareorg (2011, January 31). Planet Earth 02 – mountains. Web.


The Effects of Energy Drinks and Alcohol on Neuropsychological Functioning Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free: essay help free

The article by Curry and Stasio (2009, pp. 473-481) acts as a literary source of information when a clinician intends to gather data on a clinical trial. However, a critical review of this article reveals that there are several issues that the authors fail to adhere to. The evaluation carried out in the current paper seeks to point out these areas. According to Brody (2012), a research article is expected to provide adequate and reliable information on its subject matter.

That notwithstanding, the evaluation conducted in this paper highlights the relevant issues addressed by Curry and Stasio in this article. The article is titled The Effects of Energy Drinks alone and Alcohol on Neuropsychological Functioning (Curry


Trials and Verdicts Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The important result of the legal decision-making process is the verdict which can end the trial process and state the form of punishment for the convicted person.

However, to understand the details related to interpreting the cases and law and to stating the verdict, it is necessary to analyze the processes related to different courts according to their jurisdiction, and to focus on the real-life examples in order to discuss the problems of accepting a plea bargain and of being wrongly accused.

The question of the court’s jurisdiction is discussed when it is necessary to select which court can decide on the certain case appropriately. Following the Felkner v. Jackson case, it is possible to state that different courts are effective to discuss concrete issues and decide on the aspects of the case, but the process of the case resolution can be rather long and complicated.

In 2011, Steven Frank Jackson was convicted of many sexual offenses. However, Jackson referred to the Batson v. Kentucky case, and focused on the issue of racism in relation to the California jury who discussed the case.

Jackson’s petition was accepted and examined by the California Court of Appeal, and then the California Supreme Court decided according to the court’s jurisdiction to reject the necessity of the case’s review (Felkner v. Jackson, 2011). Nevertheless, the case was not unresolved even in relation to the Federal District Court.

In this situation, the Supreme Court took the jurisdiction to provide the decision, and the previous courts’ decisions were defined as unreasonable. Finally, it is stated by the Supreme Court of the United States that the petition “for certiorari and the motion for leave to proceed in forma pauperis are granted.

The judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is reversed, and the case is remanded for further proceedings consistent with this opinion” (Felkner v. Jackson, 2011). As a result, it is possible to note that the decision to discuss the case in the Supreme Court of the United States is appropriate because of the necessity to resolve all the controversial points of the case which cannot be resolved in the other courts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The cases when the defendant accepts a plea bargain as an alternative to trial are also very controversial and complicated because this decision can be associated with a kind of pressure from attorneys and prosecutors. Furthermore, the defendant can change his or her decision during the process. Thus, to discuss the question in detail, it is necessary to focus on the Freeman v. United States case (2011).

William Freeman was convicted of different crimes associated with drug trafficking and drug delivery. However, Freeman decided to develop the plea agreement under Fed. R. Crim. P. 11(c)(1)(C). The agreement meant that Freeman could plead guilty depending on receiving a specific sentence.

The case was rather complicated, and it was decided in 2011 that referring to 18 U.S.C. § 3582(c)(2), the sentence could be reduced “for the offense to which the defendant pled guilty” (Freeman v. United States, 2011).

In spite of the fact that the plea agreement does not mean the alternative to the trial, the case is important to be discussed to decide whether or not justice was served. Referring to this concrete case, it is possible to state that the justice was served because the severity of crimes should be taken into account every time when the possibility of the plea agreement is discussed.

The most problematic cases are those ones in which defendants are wrongly accused and later vindicated. One of the most famous cases is the case associated with the famous sportsman Brian Banks who was convicted of raping Wanetta Gibson. Brian Banks accepted a plea bargain because of the threat to be imprisoned for more than 40 years.

However, in 2011, it became possible to state that Banks was not guilty, and he was vindicated. The most important aspect to be discussed in relation to the case is the fact that Wanetta Gibson lied during the first trial process in order to receive the significant financial compensation (Powers, 2012).

The decision of the court could be different, but the lawyers failed to prove or not Gibson’s words. That is why, these details affected the whole trail process, and Brian Banks had to accept the plea agreement in order to avoid being imprisoned for a long period of time.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Trials and Verdicts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the fact, the United States’ legislative system should contribute to the people’s welfare and protection, there are many controversial verdicts and trials which can influence the statement of the principles of justice in the country.

From this point, it is necessary to pay much attention to the controversial aspects and issues discussed during the trial processes in order to resolve cases in the appropriate courts with the focus on their jurisdiction and to avoid the ineffective decisions which can lead to the unalterable consequences. As a result, all the details of the case should be taken into consideration to decide on the person’s guilt and possible verdict.

References Felkner v. Jackson. (2011). Retrieved from

Freeman v. United States. (2011). Retrieved from

Powers, A. (2012). A 10-year nightmare over rape conviction is over. Retrieved from


E-Marketing: Mobile Development Essay (Article) cheap essay help

Table of Contents Email Marketing

Social Media Strategies

Search Engine Optimization

Online Reputation Management


The past years witnessed the growing importance of mobile technologies in e-marketing and e-commerce. As more consumers start to use mobile devices for daily communication, online and brick-and-mortar companies seek to use these technologies in their marketing strategies.

According to Hovancakova (2011), the current trends and patterns in global marketing justify the importance of mobile development as a tool of marketing, but with the growing intensity of business competition, organizations and marketing professionals will have to be aware of the new mobile technology developments, in order to be the first to use their advantages in the short and long run.

Hovancakova (2011) writes that mobile marketing is a relatively new term, which is used to define messages that are distributed with the help of mobile technologies, including SMS, MMS, and others. For many organizations, mobile technologies have become a real salvation in the field of marketing.

With the help of wireless communication media, organizations can reach broader audiences and reduce the costs of their marketing efforts. In the meantime, potential and real customers can use these messages to keep in touch with their suppliers and be aware of the most attractive product and service propositions that may be available within a limited period of time.

For instance, it has become quite common for large and small stores to inform their customers of new discount propositions, by sending an MMS or an SMS. As a result, the company knows that its customers are informed, whereas customers are not afraid of missing an attractive product opportunity.

Mobile development in e-marketing has become so important that some governments develop new legal frameworks to be applied in the field of mobile marketing (Hovancakova, 2011). At the same time, due to the rapid development of the mobile technologies field and the lack universal criteria of use, cases of misuse in mobile marketing are not uncommon (Hovancakova, 2011).

Nevertheless, mobile development offers immense advantages to organizations and marketing professionals. A piece of technology as small as mobile phone can empower the largest organizations to reach each and every customer with a simple and attractive product or service message.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The success of mobile development in e-marketing depends mostly on the quality and consistency of the technologies used by firms. Given the growing diversity of mobile applications, only organizations that are aware of the latest technology developments will be able to use their benefits in their marketing strategies.

For instance, as more customers start to use smartphones for daily communications, marketing executives and researchers should focus on the analysis of marketing opportunities that become available with this kind of technology (Persaud


The Challenge of Constructing a Bridge over the Chacao Channel Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Torben Forsberg and Anton Petersen are two renowned civil engineers with qualifications from the Technical University of Denmark. In their article The Challenge of Constructing a Bridge over the Chacao Channel, the authors describe possibilities of improving the design of a new bridge. The authors’ arguments on alternative possibilities are based on the fact that the construction of the new bridge has many challenges.

The challenges mentioned in the article include large tides and currents, strong seismic loads, wind and unstable ground conditions. According to the authors, the proposed design is compromised and requires technical review to ensure that the bridge is aesthetically pleasant and cost-effective.

However, the article provides a solution by proposing new bridge alternatives. The authors review new bridge alternatives in relation to existing challenges. In each of the new bridge alternatives, a clear discussion with technical details is outlined. In this regard, the reader detects advantages of using various design alternatives in respect to technical demands and cost-efficiency.

The article describes the construction project, its geographical location, as well as environmental challenges associated with the new bridge. Examples of such conditions include possible earthquakes, wind and strong currents. The authors’ description of the Chacao channel as extremely challenging is effective. This description justifies the need to initiate technical competency in construction of the new bridge.

The authors also estimate the depth, tidal variation and the speed of water. Besides, they mention the possible magnitude of earthquakes expected in the region. Moreover, a description of the climatic conditions such as wind speed provides insight into the technical demands of the project.

The authors’ description of bridge alternatives follows technical logic by providing specifications of each design. In this regard, the authors explain why each design is only effective in prevailing environmental conditions. For example, the authors give details and advantages of using a continuous two-main-span suspension bridge.

The article evaluates alternative bridge designs that can withstand the existing environmental challenges. In this regard, the authors evaluate both classical and conventional bridge solutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main strength of the article is the focus on a factual project that exists in a geographically known territory. This is important to the reader who may decide to research further about the project and on the engineering design used to build the bridge. The authors’ credibility as civil engineers from a reputable engineering school is additional strength of the article’s content.

The article’s weakness that can be highlighted is that the article does not entirely solve the challenges of building the bridge. In fact, the authors offer a detailed research of other alternatives that could improve the construction of the bridge, but do not provide details of how the construction of the bridge was completed. Moreover, the authors fail to give examples of replicas of bridge designs in other regions.

The credibility of the authors as civil engineers is effectively felt in the article, though it is not emphasized. In my opinion, the article content is clear, accurate and insightful. The authors have been able to engage the reader’s mind using simple terms and graphics.

For example, the authors have used graphs and maps to emphasize on their arguments. Another important aspect of the article’s strength is the use of Chacao channel topography. In addition, the article is useful in providing future research material.


Understanding the Mind Report college admission essay help

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether early alertness on misinformation reduces chances of creating false memories in humans, and whether there was any relationship between DRM false memories and misinformation. As noticed from the study, initial perceptions on certain issues or events created after receiving the first information always affects human memory.

As evident from the findings of this study, there is a relatively positive correlation between early alertness about the occurrence of misinformation and chances of creating false memories about certain events in human beings.

Children filled with misconstrued information about certain aspects of their childhood will eventually build false memories due to receiving misleading information earlier. Alerting or warning people about incoming information increases their alertness, and thus, reduces chances of building false memories. The DRM technique of identifying false memories in humans is practicable in human cognitive psychology.

Understanding the Mind The impact of misleading information on people’s perception of certain life events, issues, or experiences is still unknown. How people communicate and interpret information during conversation is imperative in determining the final perception of the content delivered (Blair, Lenton,


Sportswear Merchandise in UK Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Businesses operate in industries characterised by unique attributes, which emanate from interaction between internal and external forces. These forces interact in both predictable and unpredictable ways. Silber and Kearny (2010, p.110) argue that the ‘interactions are both complex and uncontrollable’. Action oriented business executives have an obligation to understand the industry in which their organisations operate.

Subsequently, business executives should put sufficient efforts to understand and utilise the complex interactions between businesses for the success of the organisation. Gaining insight on the prevailing industry dynamics gives business executives perceptivity on the business model and strategies to implement.

The retail industry is among the most dynamic industries in the world. According to the Euro Monitor (2013), the retail industry is characterised by inconsistent consumer preferences, intense competition, and short product life. This paper analyses the retail industry. The analysis mainly focuses on sportswear merchandise. Considering the large size of the global sportswear industry, the paper focuses on the UK market.

Industry analysis Industry structure

The sportswear industry is comprised of the apparels and the athletic footwear industry. The industry is labour intensive; consequently, firms in the industry undertake their production activities in low-wage countries. According to a Press Release by PRLOG, the UK fashion industry is very price-competitive.

Moreover, the industry is characterised by high market demand. It is estimated that approximately 90% of UK citizens under the age of 35 years, which covers 75% of the total population, purchase from the fashion industry. This high market potential has led to remarkable increment in the intensity of competition (Euro Monitor 2013).

Campbell and Craig (2005, p.72) accentuate that understanding ‘the underlying structures of a company’s industry, now and in the future is a core discipline in strategy formation’. Understanding the prevailing level of competition is one of the ways through which CEOs can gain insight on the most effective strategy to adopt.

CEOs should take into account the Porter’s five forces. The five forces assist in organisations’ efforts to determine the long-term profitability of the industry. Below is an analysis of the forces that shape competition in the UK sportswear industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Threat of entry: (high)

The major industry players include Nike, Puma, Adidas, Under Amour, and K-Swiss. Currently, Nike ranks as the leading industry player in the global sportswear industry. Nike has gained substantial market dominance over the past years. In 2011, the firm’s revenue amounted to $ 23 billion. Moreover, the firm’s global market share increased to 4.6% in 2011 to 3.7% in 2006.

The firm’s market share is expected to increase to 6.3% by 2017. The firms’ growth illustrates the industry’s potentiality (FashionMag 2011). The threat of new entrants in the industry is relatively high due to the low manufacturing cost. Most sportswear products in the UK are imported from emerging economies such as China. Subsequently, the barriers to entry into the industry are relatively low.

New firms are increasingly entering the industry in their pursuit to exploit the prevailing market potential. It is projected that the sportswear market value will grow to 8.6% by the end of 2015 (FashionMag 2011). The high threat of entry has significantly reduced switching cost.

Supplier bargaining power: (low)

There are a large number of suppliers in the sportswear industry. Moreover, the suppliers have not differentiated their raw materials. Consequently, their bargaining power is relatively low. Lack of differentiation enables the firms to switch between suppliers at a minimal cost.

The main raw materials for the industry include rubber, cotton, and leather, which are readily available in the market. Despite the low supplier bargaining power, the leading conglomerates such as Adidas and Nike have a distinct bargaining power (British Fashion Council 2011).

Buyer bargaining power: (high)

The industry is characterised by high buyer bargaining power emanating from the large number of sportswear consumers. Consequently, the industry players such as Nike and Adidas must differentiate their products in order to attain the desired market share and sales revenue.

The high buyer bargaining power has stimulated the industry players to implement mechanisms aimed at nurturing a high level of customer loyalty. For example, Nike Incorporation has developed, hence providing consumers with an opportunity to customise their footwear and apparel designs.

We will write a custom Essay on Sportswear Merchandise in UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Threat of substitute: (Low)

According to the British Fashion Council (2011), the buyers’ propensity to substitute sportswear is relatively low due to the little alternatives that consumers can switch to in their purchasing trends. The products and performance specification of each brand makes the threat of a substitute to be low. For example, football players cannot wear boots when playing football.

Rivalry: (high)

The large number of industry players has led to an increment in the degree of rivalry. Large firms such as Adidas AG, Callaway Golf Co., Amer Sports, and Nike Incorporation dominate the industry. As aforementioned, Nike Incorporation is ranked as the largest sportswear company in the industry; on the other hand, Adidas has gained substantial market position as it has been in existence for over 60 years.

These firms have undergone remarkable growth over the past two decades. The firms have attained substantial market recognition by integrating effective marketing strategies such as Internet marketing and electronic commerce. The use of emerging technologies has enabled the large firms to maximise their sales revenue.

Nike Incorporation plans to increase its market dominance in the European region by exploiting the Winter Olympics, the Super Bowl, and the World Cup (Marketing Week 2013). Below is a summary of the competitiveness of the sportswear industry in the UK.

Competitive analysis The sportswear industry is characterised by intense competition emanating from the adoption of effective strategic management practices. The industry has experienced a high level of consolidation over the past few years. In 2013, Nike sold Umbro, which is one of its brands, to Iconix. Subsequently, Nike positioned itself as the official sponsor of international renowned international football clubs.

The Adidas-Reebok merger is another example of the strategic changes in the industry (Euro Monitor 2013). The collapse of JJB, which was a sportswear retailer in the UK, led to the entry of new firms such as Matalan. Other major retailers include Sports Direct and Sporting Pro.

Sports Direct ranks as the leading sportswear retailer in the UK. On the other hand, Sports Pro has attained an optimal market position by carrying other brands such as New Balance, Adidas, Reebok, Nike, and Asics. Moreover, the firm has established over 5,400 stores.

The high market potential in the industry will stimulate market growth significantly. For example, Nike and Adidas announced their plan to expand their store network over the next few years (Joseph 2013).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sportswear Merchandise in UK by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Goldfingle (2013, par. 12) argues that with ‘the brands’ interest in becoming retailers, the sportswear market could look very different and more competitive in five years’ time’. Appendix 1 illustrates the brand positioning in the UK sportswear industry. The positioning map has been based on the age of the respective brands and their affluent amongst the consumers.

Macro environmental forces

The competitiveness of the sportswear industry is also influenced by external forces, which emanate from political, social, technological, social, economic, and environmental factors. Consequently, business managers should evaluate the environment in which their businesses operate. Below is an analysis of the major external forces.

Political structure and trends

Expansion of firms in the retail sector is subject to the land system policies adopted in the UK. The UK government influences operations of firms in the retail sector through the land-planning system. The UK government has instituted tight restrictions on green-field and off-centre development.

The policy has made it extremely difficult for retailers intending to expand in other areas of the UK by establishing retail outlets. The UK government also controls operations of the retail sector through the Competition Commission, whose objective is to safeguard the consumers’ interests.

Economic structures

The prevailing economic structures in a country have a remarkable impact on the success of a particular industry. The UK has experienced a significant economic growth over the past decades. The 2008 global economic crisis adversely affected the country’s economic performance.

However, the government has been very committed to improving the country’s economic performance. In 2011, the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) averaged £329.1 billion. Moreover, the country’s GDP increased with a margin of 1.5% during its 2009/2010 fiscal year. This trend shows that the economy is undergoing an upwards spiral economic growth, which is predicted to be sustained in the future.

Social environment

There is a significant change in the consumers’ purchasing patterns in the UK. This trend has arisen from the increment in the consumers’ disposable income (Pahl


Examining a Sector in Travel Industry Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction The travel industry is one of the most lucrative service sectors in the UK. The industry accommodates various companies that offer different travel services such as vacation reservation via the Internet, tour operations, and travel agency professional services.

Other sectors in the industry are cruise lines, airlines, food service companies, car renting, rail travel companies, meeting and conventions, parks, sporting and entertainment companies, publication organisations, marketing research organisations, and regulatory agencies. Each of these sectors has various organisations, which operate under competition.

For instance, in the marketing sector, there are different organisations that offer marketing research services to various organisations that deal with travel services in the bid to help them analyse their industry trends to derive better strategies to retain and increase their market share.

Competition also occurs between organisations in different sectors. For example, the airlines sector competes with companies that offer alternative means of travel such as the rail travel.

The vast and the sheer number of organisations operating in the entire travel industry in the UK makes it impossible to conduct an overhaul examination of the services offered in the industry. This paper focuses only on the cruise lines sector.

Operational cruise lines in the UK include Cruise and Maritime Voyages, European Water Ways, Fred Olsen Cruise Lines, Cunard Line, P


The Role of the Brain in Cognition Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Role of the brain in cognition

The case of Phineas Gage



Introduction Cognition refers to the process through which information is processed, stored, and recovered for use (Glees, 2005). This process involves several mental processes that play different roles in order to enhance functions such as memory, comprehension, learning, problem solving, thinking, and decision making. The brain plays a pivotal role in cognition.

It is a faculty that helps to process sensory information, apply knowledge, and make important decisions (Glees, 2005). Cognition comprises mental functions and processes, as well as intelligent entities. The brain uses its various parts to process information.

For example, certain parts are concerned with memory while other parts deal with learning. The case of Phineas Gage is widely used to demonstrate the role of the brain in cognition. His brain injury is used in the field of psychology to understand and explain the functioning of the human brain with regard to cognition.

Role of the brain in cognition The brain plays a pivotal role in supporting cognitive functions. Examples of cognitive functions include learning, memory, and perception (Glees, 2005). The brain has several parts that play different roles in the execution of cognitive functions. Parts of the brain involved in cognition include prefrontal cortex, frontal and parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobe (Roizman, 2010).

The prefrontal cortex is the latest part of the brain to be discovered in the field of psychology. It executes high-priority cognitive functions that include planning, assessment of the outcomes of actions, and expression of personality traits (Roizman, 2010). In addition, this area expresses the aptness of various behaviors in different social contexts.

The frontal lobes deal with two main cognitive functions that include language comprehension and memory (Roizman, 2010). The left and right frontal lobes perform different functions. The left lobe deals with language comprehension while the right lobe processes information. Damage to these lobes is characterized by poor decisions and inability to make good plans.

Parietal lobes aid in the processing of sensory information. For example, it converts and consolidates sensory input into memories that are stored in the brain. Temporal lobes serve the role of processing auditory sensory information mainly for speech recognition (Glees, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, they aid in memory and recognition of physical objects. For example, the brain’s role of identifying sounds and odors is executed by the temporal lobes. Finally, the occipital lobe plays the role of processing visual information (Roizman, 2010). Damage to the occipital lobe causes a condition that is characterized by reduced functionality of sight, and inability to recognize apparent deficits.

The case of Phineas Gage Phineas Gage was a railroad construction worker who is an important figure in psychology. Gage survived an accident in which his brain’s frontal lobe was damaged by an iron bar that passed through his head (Flesichman, 2004). The injury had far-reaching effects on his behavior and personality for the 12 years that he lived after the accident.

This incident is widely used in the field of psychology to explain how certain brain areas support cognitive functions. After the injury, Gage showed certain changes in behavior that characterized changes in behavior due to damage to certain brain areas. The frontal lobe plays roles such as problem solving, planning, and decision-making. The prefrontal cortex expresses personality.

After the accident, studies of Gage’s behavior revealed several changes. For example, he could make plans and fail to execute them to completion (Flesichman, 2004). His friends also reported that his personality had changed significantly. Before the accident, Gage was a shrewd, persistent, and energetic businessperson. However, after the accident, these traits were replaced by destructive qualities that affected his life negatively.

He neither made good plans nor completed his projects due to lack of persistence. His personality traits after the accident included irreverence, impatience, and irresponsibility. Other behaviors that resulted from the injury included irresponsible sexual behavior, domestic violence against his wife and children, lying, gambling, bullying, and lack of foresight (Flesichman, 2004).

These behaviors mainly resulted from poor judgment and planning. One of the most common signs of frontal lobe damage is change in behavior. An individual who suffers damage to their frontal lobes does not behave as they used to before the damage.

People who are close to the individual can observe these changes in behavior. After the accident, Gage showed a decrease in the efficiency of functions that included planning, judgment, inhibition, and decision making (Flesichman, 2004).

We will write a custom Essay on The Role of the Brain in Cognition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The brain serves several roles, one of which is supporting cognitive functions. Parts of the brain that support cognition include prefrontal cortex, frontal and parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobe. Each of these parts performs a different role. Examples of cognitive functions performed by these parts include judgment, memory, and decision-making, problem solving, and planning.

The brain injury of Phineas Gage is used by psychologists to demonstrate the role of the brain with regard to cognition. After the accident, Gage’s personality changed tremendously after damage to his brain’s frontal lobe. Behavioral changes included irresponsible sexual behavior, domestic violence against his wife and children, lying, gambling, bullying, and lack of foresight.

References Flesichman, J. (2004). Phineas Gage: A Gruesome but True Story about Brain Science. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Glees, P. (2005). The Human Brain. London: Cambridge University Press.

Roizman, T. (2010). The Brain Functions Involved in Cognitive Functions. Retrieved from


Communication Perspectives Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Definition





Definition Interpersonal interactions occur through symbols or gestures. During communication, the sender is often unconscious of the subtle symbols he or she is communicates to the receiver. These symbols form the unconscious communication that develops into language.

Thus, ‘language as communication’ is the “communication through significant symbols” (Márkova


Screw Compressor Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Screw compressors are some type of gas compressors that use two interlocking screws to capture and compress gas. Screw compressors are of two types, the dry running screw compressor, and the oil-flooded screw compressor. Lubricating oil is used in the oil-flooded compressor to facilitate the screwing process. The oil also provides a hydraulic seal that passes energy between the screws.

In the dry running compressor, male and the female rotors maintain a special alignment in a timely manner, such that, one screw drives the other to form a continuous rotation of the screws (Bloch and Soares 76). The interaction of the male-female thread traps air, compresses it, and converts it into energy.

In both types of screw compressors, the air enters through the suction point; the rotors compress it while they rotate, and it finally gets its way out through the outlet as energy. Unlike other compressors that are somewhat noisy, screw compressors are noiseless and they compress air continuously.

The first step in operating a dry running screw compressor is ensuring the power unit has a strong cooling system. Two-screw gear units inside the chambers are shaped differently, but in a manner that they interlock perfectly. While rotating, the screws suck and trap air as they rotate from one end.

The rotation of the screws reduces the size of the chamber and this facilitates the compression process. As the screws rotate, they push the compressed air forward to the next screw to allow the sucking of new uncompressed air. The highly compressed air forces itself out at the discharge point. Compressors work differently depending on whether they are oil free or oil flooded.

There is no oil lubrication in the oil free compressors; thus, the movement of the screws compresses the air without necessarily depending on the oil seal. Such compressors do not give high-pressured power. However, there are multistage compressors that give high-pressured power by compressing air at several screw sets. In the first stage, air is compressed into a few bars to become light and extremely hot.

The light air will thus moves to the succeeding screw bars easily. Every move of the air makes it extremely hot, and this continues until the air reaches the outlet point. In most case, oil-free compressors are made up of about seven bars. For the oil-flooded compressors, users inject oil into the screws. As the screws rotate, the oil finds its way onto the sealing of the cavities to provide some cooling effect.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The oil is also useful in capturing particles in the air during the air sanction process. When the compressed gas gets its way into the discharge end, any oil that is present in the air is filtered and recycled. However, this is not an assurance that the compressed air is free from oil traces.

The applications of screw compressors vary from construction to industrial applications. Oil-injected screw compressors are used in industries that require large volumes of compressed air. Moreover, industries that operate high-powered tools would find it worthwhile to use screw compressors to generate the required volumes of compressed air instead of using piston compressors.

Contractors can also use oil-injected screw compressors to operate the construction machineries, whereas, the wastewater treatment machineries also find it worthwhile to use such compressors in their process because they consume low power. In the case of medical researches, dry running screw compressors would be of great use.

Lobe Compressor A lobe compressor has some similarities with the screw compressors, only that the screws in the screw compressors are replaced with lobes. A lobe compressor has two 8-shaped profiled lobe blowers. The 8-shaped lobes rotate inside some somewhat oval casings. The lobes are always 900 apart at any instance whenever they are in operation. The distance between the two lobes allows them to hold as much air as possible.

During operation, one of the lobes acts as the driver. It obtains is power from external sources while the other lobe relies on it to rotate. The oval casings and the system pressure do not allow the discharged air to came back unless under very small spillages.

However, the spillages are negligible, as only small amounts of air would be allowed in case of a slip. With the air coming and going out, there is no change in the volume of the air within the machine. The system’s pressure at a particular time draws in air, compresses it, and lets it out as compressed power.

The air across the machinery determines the temperature levels of the discharged air. It is noteworthy that lobe compressors do not require oil lubrications within the lobes. The lobes run for restricted clearances to deliver compressed air that is free from oil spillages.

We will write a custom Essay on Screw Compressor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As discussed, lobe compressors discharge compressed air that is oil free (Stosic, Smith and Kovacevic 69). Therefore, lobe compressors are used in fish hatcheries and aquacultures to support life.

They are also useful in meat processing systems as they produce compressed air that is free from harmful chemicals. People have also found lobe compressors useful in the printing and paper converting industries, wastewater treatment industries, and in the environmental remediation systems.

Works Cited Bloch, Heinz. A Practical Guide to Compressor Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley


Ecosystem Report (Geelong Botanic Garden) Report best essay help

Introduction Ecosystem comprises of biotic and biotic factors that are present in a given environment. The biotic factors are the living organism such as microbes, plants, and animals, while the abiotic factors are nonliving components like water, air, rocks, soil, sunlight, and topography. The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors in a certain environment occurs in a form of a system due to the flow of nutrient and energy.

In essence, ecosystem examines how biotic and abiotic factors interact as a self-sustaining system (Chapin, Matson,


Begin by researching Shamrock Foods company ( In 250-500 words, address the following: Describe the company and its sustainability model.How has sustainability he argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help In 250-500 words, address the following:
Describe the company and its sustainability model.
How has sustainability helped to achieve the company’s goals and competitiveness with other supply chains?
What are the financial impacts of sustainability on the company?
What are the benefits and challenges associated with sustainability efforts?
Are there any federal mandates in the United States on sustainability? Make sure to include current and future mandates.


Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE Report online essay help

Overview Introduction

Entrepreneurs, regardless of their inherent location or gender, share similar problems in relation to properly accessing sufficient capital to start their business, developing a sufficient cash flow to sustain their venture and a variety of other distinctions that are connected to the process of developing a business.

With the development of new internal policies within the UAE comes an era where women have become more empowered, both in the workforce and in entrepreneurship. This is evidenced by the fact that nearly 54% of all university graduates within the UAE are women and that a growing percentage of them focus on furthering their own careers and the development of their family business or their own business [1].

This is not to imply that women themselves cannot be entrepreneurs within the country, far from it:, women are actually actively encouraged to take part in business and several have become successful entrepreneurs.

However, due to various types of cultural restrictions which are a part of social traditions in the UAE, this creates demonstrates a low rate of female entrepreneurship with only 3 out of 10 entrepreneurial businesses being started by a woman [2], [3]. These restrictions come in the form of:Women needing permission from a male to start a business,insufficient support from the government, Lack of collaboration with other women.

In this research what will be analyzed are the inherent difficulties experienced by female entrepreneurs within the U.AE from 10 year back to now. It is expected that through the various facts and arguments presented in this research, a clearer picture can be developed regarding what difficulties female entrepreneurs experience within the UAE and what processes have been put in place by the government in order to address such issues.

It is expected that through proper investigation and analysis, this research will create effective suggestions as to how female entrepreneurs within the region can best respond to the financial opportunities and challenges they are currently experiencing.

Problem Definition

Ten years ago, female entrepreneurs within the UAE suffered from a string of limiting factors that prevented their expansive growth. This came in the form of traditional cultural practices, insufficient government support and lack of proper access to financial institutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since these factors were in place ten years ago, this research will thus seek to determine whether these problems continue to exist at the present, how female entrepreneurs view such problems and what solutions may be needed in order to effectively address them.

It is based on this discovery that in the following section an investigation will be conducted regarding the current perception of female entrepreneurs involving the problems they face and what possible means of addressing them could be developed. The fact remains that the current policy system within the region suffers from significant gender specific biases.

This creates barriers towards the creation of a better business environment for female entrepreneurs. What is necessary is the development of better policy initiatives in not only removing gender barriers in entrepreneurial activity but also in developing the necessary networks for female entrepreneurs to thrive.

Another necessary examination is to elaborate on the current status of female entrepreneurial funding within the country and how this has affected the success/ failure rates of entrepreneurs. Another question that must be explored into is whether all the recent programs aimed at creating better conditions for female entrepreneurs have been effective or have things remained the same despite their implementation?

The end result of such an analysis is to understand what methods of female entrepreneurial funding would the entrepreneurs like to see implemented so as to create a better business environment that is more conducive towards entrepreneurial activity.

The question of the research is: What are the key obstacles that women entrepreneurs in the UAE believe they faced 10 years ago, and still stands now?

Women entrepreneurs in the UAE face a lot of challenges [3]. Studies indicate that despite the rapid growth of women entrepreneurs in both developed and developing countries as the UAE. The issue of gender equality, particularly within the UAE cultural context, stands not efficiently resolved [4], [5], [6]. Entrepreneurship plays a significant role in boosting economic growth.

We will write a custom Report on Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The UAE happens to be among the country that shows impressive progress in economic growth, through encouraging entrepreneurship projects. Most of the women entrepreneurs in the United Arab Emirates participate in small-scale businesses, and hence receive socially little support [7]. However, women in the UAE go through lots of challenges running their own businesses [5], [6].

There are several factors against women entrepreneurship in this region. These include cultural factors, religion restriction, opportunity recognition, work-family balance, motivation, gender discrimination, financial support, and performance among others [6].

Recognizing opportunities is a bit hard for the Emirates women, considering that gender differences are linked to the varying variables of human capital. The differences primarily revolve around work experiences and education. In the UAE, men receive more advantagesd than women, considering that their experience in entrepreneurship experience and management of employees is a bit higher.

Researchers indicate that women have less human capital to invest in businesses compared to men [8], [9], [10]. This makes it hard for women to identify opportunities and utilize their potential skills, experience, and power.

The restricted structure in labor markets of the UAE, demotivate women entrepreneurs on grounds of gender inequality. The cultural and religious factors to some extend play a significant role in denying women right to own businesses without the support of their male partners.

On the contrary, the women’s entrepreneurship experience in other countries such as Jordan and Kuwait is quite different. The recognition of women’s entrepreneurship’s contribution to economic growth is higher in these Arab countries compared to that of UAE. For instance, the Kuwait Economic Society implements projects that empower women.

These projects enhance trade and investment [11], [12]. They also focus on creating a business environment that supports women entrepreneurship. For instance, an already established KES program in Kuwait provides women with opportunities such as training, sharing of experience, business networking, and growth among others.

In Jordan, there are numerous funded projects that create awareness of issues surrounding business environments. Here, women receive training concerning entrepreneur issues such as performance and decision making processes [12]. This promotes their entrepreneur projects. Jordan and Kuwait also strengthen legal awareness of issues surrounding women entrepreneurs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This increases the depth of their skills, techniques and offer capital to women for starting new businesses. This all in the long run contributes a lot to the economic growth of the country [14]. For instance, Saudi Arabia offers them 3,000 Saudi Riyals every month to start new businesses [15].

There are several measures that should be put in place to help women entrepreneurs in UAE to overcome challenges in businesses. These include education, training, and support of the UAE governmental funds among others [15]. The UAE should copy some practices from countries like Kuwait, Jordan KSA, and other developed Arab countries, which encourage women entrepreneurship [16], [17].

These countries understand the importance of women entrepreneurs in economic growth, and employs strategies that influence them to become entrepreneurs. However it cannot be denied is clear that the UAE has made a progress in addressing issues associated with the Emiratis women.

For instance, the Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Foundation in collaboration with the American University of Beirut came up with a plan supporting women innovation and entrepreneurship in 2008.

New programs have also been introduced in the country enabling the emergence of many partnerships of women entrepreneurs and large corporations. In 2009, the chamber of commerce and industry registered more than 4,160 women as members [18].

Motivation and Relevance to Masdar/UAE

Since Masdar City is a clean, green and sustainable city, this atmosphere requires innovational yet responsible business ideas. The UAE Women entrepreneurs could try translating, their creative business ideas to sustainable technologies, producing useful products, providing environmentally friendly services or maybe help with creating new jobs in Masdar.


The primary objective of this paper is to compare the situation of female entrepreneurs within the UAE 10 years ago with their current situation in 2013. Through this analysis, this research will be able to show whether sufficiently positive developments have been enacted that would be conducive towards developing a better environment to encourage female entrepreneurship within the UAE or not.

In this research what will be examined is the current state of SME’s within the UAE and the situation of female entrepreneurs in 2014 as compared to how they were ten years ago. This paper will be able to determine whether sufficiently positive changes have been implemented resulting in a better overall situation for the growth of female entrepreneurship within the UAE.

Through this section, a greater understanding will be developed regarding the various factors that restricted the growth of female entrepreneurship within the region and if such factors continue to take a dominating role in gender based entrepreneurial growth.

So far, what this section has shown is that the problems female entrepreneurs currently face within the country come in the form of traditional cultural practices, insufficient government support and lack of proper access to financial institutions.

When comparing the data from the article “Small Enterprises: Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan with current academic articles examining the state of female entrepreneurship within the country, it was shown that the issues have remained roughly unchanged from the time that the Haan article was written.

It is based on this that the primary objective of this paper is to expound on such issues and determine how they can be resolved.

In conclusion the main objective of this research would be to attempt a 10-year review of Haan’s study results to see whether the same conclusions apply today – after many innovational attempts nationwide were formed or not. What factors faced women in the past get improved, and which still stand and needs further investigation, action or regulation.

Some ways to inspire and assist woman entrepreneurs in the UAE would be:

Empowering UAE’s woman entrepreneurs to seek collaborations with educational and research institutes that promote development of novel innovative and practical business ideas.

Educating enterprising entrepreneurs on development and creation of creative innovations that have high chances of legalization, with potentially big impacts on the economy where ready market is available.

Empowering woman entrepreneurs with knowledge of identifying the processes and procedures those innovative ideas must pass through in order to be socially accepted as viable and worth investing in.

Educating entrepreneurs on ways of getting government funding and reaching out to non-governmental organizations to fund their innovations and noble ideas; entrepreneurs fail to venture into markets due to inadequacy or complete lack of funds and under-informed on available sources of funds.

Literature Review

Entrepreneurs in the developed countries (USA, Sweden and Finland)

Although government policies, infrastructure and large markets provide vast investment opportunities in developed countries, young entrepreneurs continue to face challenges [8]. [15] Point out that the decline in economic growth has resulted in decline in entrepreneurship opportunities and constant increase in business’ start-up costs.

Young entrepreneur’s sale their ideas to capital ventures and find themselves exploited as capital ventures benefit and leave them with nothing [19]. Other scholars argue that the content of entrepreneurship in the local education especially in Finland is so wide; the methods of teaching entrepreneurship in schools are poor and the goals of the entrepreneurial education conflict with the local business environment [7], [18], [19].

According to MoniaLougui, young entrepreneurs in Sweden and in the developed countries face entry barriers; these are obstacles that promote existing firms to make constructive economic proceeds while making it difficult for new firms to make impacts in the market. They also face financial barriers and cultural and value barriers [17], [20], [21].

Entrepreneurs in Gulf Countries

The Gulf region has attracted a lot of attention in the recent past due to its rapidly growing economy, especially Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Researchers suggest that the main obstacles facing young entrepreneurs in the Arab world is having access to capital [21], [22], [23].

Saifur Rahman [24] further says that despite Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) contributing greater percentages in national GDP, they are highly neglected and Lending for SMEs in the Gulf Coast Countries is very low and access to finance is the Greatest Challenge.

Khalid Al Ameri argues that that the Middle East education system has not shifted to meet the needs of the current technology and young entrepreneurs may not have enough knowledge about the business environment [23], [25].

HanifaItani, Yusuf M. Sidani and ImadBaalbaki [17] support Khalid Al Ameri saying that insufficient managerial and financial information and lack of government support are major obstacles to UAE SMEs and entrepreneurs. Bruhn et al point out that lacks of managerial capital is the key restriction for young entrepreneurs in most developing countries [26], [27], [28].

Entrepreneurship Development in the UAE

The main measures of entrepreneurship skills are scores on motivation, personal attitude and aptitude. Action planning in entrepreneurship is of importance to create solution oriented task and strategy implementation function for quantifying task orientation levels [30], [31], [32].

Thus, a budding entrepreneur must possess task orientation leadership skills at an individual task management level in reviewing actual and expected outcome of any business opportunity [33], [34], [35].

With the number of entrepreneurs supplying or dealing with similar products and services on the rise, it is imperative for entrepreneurs or businesspersons in UAE to understand factors influencing the consumer purchase decision in order to design the best strategy for meeting consumer demands [32], [37] [36].

Elements of Entrepreneurship Development in UAE

Scholars in the field of economics have approached entrepreneurship from different perspectives with numerous views regarding entrepreneurships and innovation. Peter suggests that entrepreneurship goes in hand with innovation, changes and opportunities for innovation [38].

On the other hand, Steve Blank, a business school professor avers that entrepreneurship is about getting out into the world and doing and not basically researching and writing [24]. These scholars do agree that entrepreneurs face difficulties of finding the right opportunities and the needed innovation, creating competitive brands using strong products and finding the right markets [39].

Rob and Marry postulate that innovation involves doing things differently or doing different thing in order to arrive at large gains in performance at micro and macro level of entrepreneurship [36], [37], [38].

The two authors further recognize that lack of capital and funding is the main obstacle for innovation. Others however contrast with Rob and Marry by associating innovations with the rise of technical inventions such as the computers and steam engines [10], [34].

As opined by Schawbel [35], [36], [37] an excellent entrepreneur should possess transformational leadership skills that identify a range of problematic situations that an individual faces in his or her social environment, and generates multiple alternative solutions to those problems.

Besides, he/she should lay a series of procedures that are necessary to achieve desired results rather than postponing response strategies [38], [39]. The three building blocks of situational management skills include learning intra personal performance, supportive learning environment, concrete learning processes, and practice leadership that reinforces performance [40], [41], [42], [43].

Consumer Behavior in UAE and Entrepreneurship Development

Consumers in UAE exhibit a particular sequence of purchases or proportion of purchases that may be predictive of consumer behaviors such a brand loyalty due to their unique Islamic culture. Consumer behavior can be determined through listening carefully to what the customers say about a product or service.

The focus here is to consumers feeling through assessment of her voice and comments about a product or service [44]. Understanding of consumer behavior facilitates effective entrepreneurship and promotion resources through ensuring that such activities are well planned in order to yield the desired result in the most efficient and effective way possible [45], [46], [47].

Consumer behavior in UAE is not only of great importance to entrepreneurs but also crucial to consumer protection agencies, ethicists, public policy makers and regulators and consumer advocacy groups who protect consumers from any unsafe offerings or decisions by marketers [46].

Understanding consumer behavior in UAE enables entrepreneurs to strategize on the best way to reach out to the clients. It also assists in establishing ways of changing unfavorable consumer behaviors as well as reinforcing positive behavior patterns [48], [49].

Challenges Facing Swedish Entrepreneurs

Rojewski [34] shows that entrepreneurship and small firms play a significant role in economic growth. Entrepreneurship is considered as innovation. It drives people to create their own jobs, and hence improves their living standards [11]. The author identifies the obstacles that entrepreneurs go through, when starting businesses.

Most of the Swedish entrepreneurs, particularly the women, find impediments and challenges when starting businesses [21]. Through the use of a multinomiallogitmodel regression, the author confirms that administrative costs and financial problems are the primary barriers to success of new businesses in Sweden [29].

In addition, the self-employed individuals who invest in manufacturing industries face many obstacles during the early stages of product development. In relation to the Emirates women entrepreneurs, it can be confirmed that women entrepreneurs in most parts of the world, particularly those in the developing world face lots of problems when starting their businesses.

Considering that the link between entrepreneurship and economic growth is positive, countries all over the world should modulate entrepreneurship. The UAE, for instance, needs to call off the cultural and religious barriers that restrict women from starting their own businesses.

Economic growth enhances high living standards, and hence improves the lives of women who would have otherwise been left to depend on their husband for everything [30].

Factors Undermining Entrepreneurship Development in UAE

The detrimental of insourcing to entrepreneurship attitude in UAE is often negative. The outsourcing UAE government has lost considerable taxes when only the foreign entrepreneurs carry out insourcing services. The outsourcing government cannot claim revenue on taxation because this benefit ends up with the foreign country that insources [51].

In addition, there is great concern regarding the rate of unemployment of local countries that outsourcing some activities to the insourcing countries. The situation became even more critical when developed countries compose the insourcing team as is the case in UAE. As a result, the rate of entrepreneurship development in UAE has been slow [51].

UAE has a reputation of setting high legal expectations of a business which is a repellent to internal and external entrepreneurship investors. Federal law of 1975 no. 5 on commercial registration makes verification of a business difficult since it has to pass many a lot before approval [4], [5].

Federal law drafted in 1992, no. 37 defines the provision of patent and trademark rights in UAE has helped eliminate the chances of fraudulent attempts on a company’s product to ensure that the company is not disadvantaged.

Besides, federal law no. 13 drafted in 2007 defines the legality of import and export business to ensure that entrepreneurs are protected [4], [5]. We could take up this as an assurance of the protection to be offered to their products against illegal dealers though the registration process is very expensive in time and cost.

For the social dimension of the evaluation of the UAE market for entrepreneurship products, it is necessary to tailor such products to suit the acceptable cultural norms. This way, it is necessary for the entrepreneurs who are carrying out the research to evaluate the literacy levels of the UAE people.

Specifically, it is recorded in the World Fact book of the CIA that literacy level by 2003 was at an average of 97% among young generation who are the target of entrepreneurship activities. [50], [51], [52]. This will include the evaluation of the education system and levels. Most importantly is to link the findings to the target market of entrepreneurship products.

By doing this, entrepreneurs in UAE will establish the level of awareness of the people of UAE. Several questions may pop up during this feasibility study. Comprehensively, it would be necessary to establish how conversant the people of UAE are to technological advancements constantly changing a cross the global arena [53], [54], 55].

The answers to this question could be relative as it depends on the country’s technological advancement. Research has it that UAE though very populous, have a high percentage of the literate in its population [56]. UAE has a high number of literate young who would be the target consumers for entrepreneurship products [57]. This is as a viable business opportunity.

Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE

Haan [58] gives a clear explanation concerning the UAE women entrepreneurs, their experiences in the field, and the roles played by public and private agencies in modulating entrepreneurship [59]. The author provides an analysis and a survey of 30 UAE women entrepreneurs.

The survey involves in-depth interviews concerning how they run their businesses, the challenges they face, and the support they get to pursue or continue running their enterprises. The Haan’s article provides a study about two different segments namely, the modern and traditional activities in the UAE women-managed enterprises. The latter is engaged in the most recent economic activities.

In incorporates advanced information and communication technologies and updated practices of businesses [60]. It is in most cases run by young UAE women, educated and business-oriented [57]. On the other hand, the traditional activities segment consists of simple manufacturing and trading [56].

The study in Haan’s article analyses the constraints faced by the UAE women entrepreneurs, and gives suggestions for the most appropriate recommendations. For instance, there is a need to formulate policies and create institutional capacity that promotes women entrepreneurship. There is also a need for pursuing specific support services for segments, as well as the government support and other agencies in the UAE [51].

Entrepreneurship, Emirati perspective

[26], [55] narrate that globalization, technological advances, and innovations among others are instrumental in the transformation of societies in the world [32]. However, there are challenges and opportunities associated with the aforementioned shifts particularly in women entrepreneurship. According to the authors, for the UAE to become a fully transformed entrepreneurial nation, it has to inculcate entrepreneurship at an early stage.

This should include teaching children at their early age about it, incorporating it in the education system, and using awareness platforms to inform, educate and influence people, particularly women, on the need to pursue entrepreneurship [33].

There is also a need to formulate policy insights to give policy makers a direction to assist them formulate efficient policies and programs to support the UAE women entrepreneurs. As mentioned earlier, the UAE has shown an impressive progress in the recent past with regards to social development and economic growth sustainability [38].

For instance, in 2011, the GEM study survey in 54 economies confirmed the UAE as one of the most innovation-driven country in the world. However, the nation needs to continue making immense progress in strengthening entrepreneurship, particularly women entrepreneurship [39].

This will not only help them become creative and create new jobs, but also enable them to empower others to do the same. This will ensure that the future generations of the UAE will be vibrant both in entrepreneurship and in growing the country’s economy [40].

Women business owners in the UAE

In the article “Women business owners in the United Arab Emirates” it is clear that the UAE women entrepreneurs are more educated than those from Jordan, Tunisia, and Kuwait among other countries [37].

According to the survey conducted in UAE, more than 89% of women entrepreneurs have an optimistic outlook towards their businesses and the country’s economy at large [38] [39], [40].

More than 73% of the women surveyed focused on growth and expansion, but needed financial opportunities. Only 8% felt that running a business was disadvantageous for them. This confirms that most of them love managing their own businesses compared to those from other Arab nations [39].

Female business students in the Middle East

Hossan, Parakandi, and Saber suggest that there are several barriers that restrict female students in the Middle East from pursuing entrepreneurship interests [23]. The authors analyze the strengths/opportunities, weaknesses/issues and challenges that these students get exposed to in the country.

From their research, it is evident that despite having potential to start ventures, these students lack enough knowledge about the organizations that support ventures [68]. Prior work experience and different entrepreneurship barriers, which are based on gender discrimination, deny women opportunities to participate in business ventures [23].

Current Attitudes Regarding Business Financing

Based on the article “Small Enterprises: Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan, it was noted that women within the UAE rely on their own personal savings as their primary method of creating startup capital [4]. This is an incredibly laborious and time consuming process which would of course slow down the process of entrepreneurial activity within any country that utilizes such a system [5].

Such a situation is in stark contrast to the way in which the entrepreneurial sector in other countries such as China, the U.S., the UK and even in certain sectors in the Middle East work since it is often seen that investing in entrepreneurs creates numerous beneficial actions, such as a: A better local economy, gGreater amount of bank deposits and hHelping out what could potentially develop into a larger enterprise [13].

Banks generally think of entrepreneurs as “safe bets” when it comes to loans due to the attitude of entrepreneurs in paying back what they owe even if a particular business did not turn out as successful as expected [4].

Thus, startup capital in such situations often comes about through bank loans resulting in a far quicker level of business creation. After conducting an analysis of the Erogul (2011) article which examined the current situation of women entrepreneurs within the UAE, it was revealed that female entrepreneurs still continue to rely on their own slowly accumulated capital as compared to merely taking out a bank loan [3].

This shows that from 2004 till the present, there has been little change in the cultural attitude regarding entrepreneurial financing among women [8]. One of the potential reasons behind such a state of affairs has been connected to the currently arduous process of taking out a loan within a bank wherein a male sponsor is needed in order to sign and guarantee all aspects of the loan [13].

Since female entrepreneurs have to rely on a sponsor who may not always be there, this further impedes the process of business development which actually discourages women from relying on banks as a source of capital 10]. It was seen that in the article “Small Enterprises:

Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan that in the case of the UAE, family played a crucial role in the funding and development of small to medium scale business ventures for women wherein more than 25% of local businesses started by female entrepreneurs were a result of family members contributing towards the initial starting capital of the entrepreneur and actively gave advice regarding the proper management of the business [10].

In fact, it was noted by researchers such as Mostafa (2005) that it is the strong interfamily ties within the country’s culture that limits the export market of the UAE. This is due to the development of a business culture where it has become preferable to deal with family members or friends of the family when it comes to joint business ventures and business opportunities.

This in effect severely curtails the ability of a business to expand beyond its current market due to the inherent hesitance in dealing with the unfamiliar [5]. While there is nothing inherently wrong with family based methods of capital financing, studies such as those by Mostafa (2005) stated that it often came with certain conditions related to the types of business that can be gone into by female entrepreneurs [5].

This often entailed clothing, textiles, and manufacturing that were often detailed as the “traditional domain” of female entrepreneurs within the UAE.

This conditional funding through family based methods of capital development can actually be considered a limiting factor in the capacity for female entrepreneurs to establish themselves in new types of business and, as such, can be considered a detrimental feature of the current “entrepreneurial funding” system within the UAE [13].

Analysis of Government Policy Initiatives

An analysis of government policy initiatives that were mentioned in the Haan article showed the presence of gender specific barriers in entrepreneurship wherein male sponsorship, male networking and overall male assistance was required when it came to women entering into any form of entrepreneurial activity.

The problem with the implementation of male sponsorships is that it is not needed in the case of women entrepreneurs since males basically just sign their signatures on a piece of paper [59]. They are not partners in the business nor do they take an active role in it; basically the Haan article shows that men are just there to show that there is a level of biased gender supervision occurring.

Through the work of Madsen (2010), it was revealed that at the present, there have been no government policy initiatives to address such issues with the same policies continuing to exist [60].

Contributing to this problem is the lack of sufficient government funding in the development of female support networks which are there to help women in connecting with each other and developing the necessary relationships to grow and expand their business.

While it may be true that the UAE government states that it actively promotes female entrepreneurship and even gives awards to prominent female entrepreneurs, the fact remains that the current policy system within the region suffers from significant gender specific biases. This creates barriers towards the creation of a better business environment for female entrepreneurs [6].

In a presentation, a number of things have changed over these ten years, yet the issue concerning women in business somehow remains just as unsolved as it used to be, mostly because the basic initiatives still revolve around introducing agencies that will help regulate the issue within the market.

However, certain changes are definitely worth being mentioned. While the issue regarding women in the UAE business still leaves much to be desired, considerable concessions have been made over the past decade.

To start with, the formation of the Khalifa Fund can be considered the stepping stone of female empowerment in business in the UAE. Khalifa Fund was created in 2007 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The fund was originally intended to help SMEs and encourage the development of small businesses across the country.

Offering to invest in new and promising industrial and service sectors within the Abu Dhabi area, the fund allowed for small business growth. Funded by the government, the organization reflects the attempts of the latter to change the UAE business landscape. In 2012, the organization announced its determination to invest in microbusinesses [61], [62], [63], [64].

In fact, the given organization can be considered by far the most supportive and efficient of all; being one-of-a-kind project, it provides “venture capital, training, development, data and consulting services, and even marketing support” [3], which is very impressive.

However, financial assistance does not have a tangible impact on the Emirati society and its concept of women in business: “However, unlike other countries, there is a lack of support targeting female entrepreneurs in UAE” [4].

Recently, the organization has been paying special attention to women in business. In 2013, nearly 30% of $14 m was provided to allow for more options for UAE women in SME. At present, the Khalifa Fund is tackling the issue quite efficiently.

However, there is still a long way for the Khalifa Fund to go in order to provide UAE women with the same options as men have in business.What is necessary is the development of better policy initiatives in not only removing gender barriers in entrepreneurial activity, but also in developing the necessary networks for female entrepreneurs to thrive [65], [66], [67], [68].

Research Plan Methodology

The methodology that will be utilized within this particular research will be, a serial of questions sent to a variety of female entrepreneurs within the UAE. In order to determine the various difficulties they experience on a daily basis when it comes to entrepreneurial activities. To achieve statistical significance results and conclusions, we chose the initial number of surveys distributed to be 200 with the goal of obtaining 100 useful responses.


In wWomen business owners in the United Arab Emirates, 2007 paper, a44 survey questions were analyzeds in their study [21]. Haan conducted a survey of 30 questions in his UAE women entrepreneurs’ paper [13]. In this research a similar set of questions will be incorporatedin the survey.

To provide solid and statistically useful data, around 200 candidates will be asked to answer these questions. Then an analysis of the results obtained in this step will be made. This all will help us perform a sampling campaign for candidates of the next step.

Personal Interviews

Thenwe will narrow down the number of candidates, to a reasonable number of candidates from UAE women business owners, to conduct personal interviews with them in order to obtain qualitative assessments of the factors explored in the survey. We will be choosing candidates who follow a certain pattern, to better measure the problem in hand.

The candidates will be sharing their experiences before and after they started their businesses. For instance they will talk about the challenges, opportunities, and the support they needed to make their businesses a success. Mentioning strategies that helped them succeed as entrepreneurs, despite the constraints that acted as barriers. Again all information gathered will be analyzed for the in depth interviews.

In Depth Interviews

This will be the last step on the methodology, and the number of candidates will get even smaller than step 2, because the questions in this stage will get more specific and detailed and more personal. All information that will be obtained via any method of the data gathering will be kept strictly confidential.. Their feedback would give a huge impact on the recommendation section of this research.

The Gantt chart demonstrates the monthly milestones of the research for spring semester.

Gantt Chart

Spring Plan Jan 2014 Feb 2014 Mar 2014 Apr 2014 May 2014 Gathering Information Review literature

Conduct surveys

Conduct interviews

In Depth Interviews

Integrating findings Analyzing Results

Giving Conclusions

Giving Recommendations

Thesis Defense Thesis Writing References Y. Itani, S. Yusuf, and I. Baalbaki. “United Arab Emirates Female Entrepreneurs: Motivations and Frustrations.” Equality, Diversity