Table of Contents Introduction
Classic Approaches to Job Design
Characteristics of Jobs in Job Design
Introduction Job design is defined as the arrangement or rearrangement of work activities where the main objective is to reduce job dissatisfaction among employees and also reduce employee alienation within the work place.
Job design also refers to the organizing of responsibilities and work duties so as to make sure there is productivity amongst the employees of an organization. Job design addresses the content of jobs and how this content affects the performance of employees (Mathis
Examining Sandel’s proposal Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Examination of Sandel’s proposal
Moral principles of authors from Justice: A Reader
Introduction The question of the right ways of ensuring that the rules that govern the society accomplish justice is an intriguing one even to the most advanced civilizations all over the globe. Scholars adopt various ways in their interpretation of what constitutes justice. They have also come up with the necessary ingredients that form part of the characteristics of political systems to ensure that justice is availed to every member of the society irrespective of the existing social differences.
One of such an approach is to perceive justice as a way of ensuring maximization of welfare or rather utilities to facilitate happiness for the wider society. The paper examines the four principles about justice that Sandel defends in What Is the Right Thing to Do. Later, it presents a response about Sandel’s proposals. It also provides a clear explanation of what policy, law or moral principle that two authors in Justice: A Reader would defend on that topic alongside the writer’s opinion on the same.
Examination of Sandel’s proposal Among the principles, which may lead to the achievement of justice, which Sandel immensely defends include the citizenship, sacrifice and services, the moral limits of the markets, inequality, solidarity and civic virtue, as well as politics of moral engagement. According to Sandel, the utilitarian approach faces two significant defects. Sandel argues that this approach “makes justice and rights as a matter of calculation, not a principle” (Sandel “Justice: What is the right thing to do” 260).
This argument is somehow crucial. This holds when one bears in mind that accomplishment of justice needs people to have priory established and laid out rules and regulations that he/she has to follow to arrive at what is right. The second defect of utilitarian perception of justice according to Sandel is that it “tries to translate all human goods into single, uniform measure of value. This flattens them and takes no account of the qualitative differences among them” (Sandel “Justice: What is the right thing to do” 260).
To resolve these defects, there is a need for a different interpretation of the right things that one ought to do to arrive at a just and fair society. One of such a different approach would require the interpretation of justice from the concepts of freedoms of choice.
Unfortunately, Sandel argues that this approach solves the first defect of the utilitarian approach of justice interpretation. It fails to solve the second problem since the theories based on freedoms of choice “don’t require one to question or challenge the preferences and desires he/she brings to public life” (Sandel “Justice: What is the right thing to do” 261).
Citizenship, sacrifice and services encompass one of the principles that Sandel, immensely defends. He claims that it has the capacity to render the society more just. For people to engage in activities that promote and inculcate the highest sense of communalism, they need to inculcate some sense on citizenship.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A second attribute is placing moral limitation to the free markets. Marketing of social responsibilities, arguably, leads to degradation or rather corruption of the precise norms that guide the society’s social practices. In this context, Sandel argues, “people need to make inquiries about the constituents of nonmarket norms that need protection against market intrusions” (Sandel “Justice: A reader” 89).
There is the need for adequate answers into this inquiry. This may help by far in arriving at the right way of seeking mechanisms of ensuring emergence of a better society in terms of justice. Failure to accomplish this perhaps makes the realization of justice exceedingly impaired.
Now, Sandel postulates that “unless people want to let markets rewrite the norms that govern social institutions, they need a public debate about the moral limits of the markets” (Sandel “Justice: What is the right thing to do” p. 265). Furthermore, in an endeavor to realize justice propelled by the concerns of collective reasoning, people need to address ardently the questions of inequalities and civic virtues.
In this context, the Sandel’s third principle: inequality, solidarity and civic virtue make some sense. This is perhaps a paramount endeavor since inequalities like the ones resulting to widening the gaps between the poor and the rich serve to escalate the existence of more and more injustices within the society.
“Politics of moral engagements” is another conspicuous principle that Sandel upholds in his book Justice: What is the right thing to do? (Sandel “Justice: What is the right thing to do” 268). Majority of people presumes that public involvements in interrogation about the concerns of the abundant life embrace civic transgressions.
This presumption is crucial, as Sandel voices it out “politics and law should not become entangled in moral and religious disputes. However, people often think that such entanglement opens the way to coercion and intolerance” (Sandel “Justice: What is the right thing to do” 268). It is, however, crucial to note that, one cannot conduct politics in an environment that is neutral.
Moral principles of authors from Justice: A Reader Among the authors in Justice: A Reader include John Rawl. John Rawl upholds the moral principle that human beings are worth of respect. Arguably, John Rawl would enormously concur with Sandel’s proposal on the capacity of the moral engagement to contribute to the realization of justice.
We will write a custom Essay on Examining Sandel’s proposal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To reinforce this point, Rawl posits that “one way to think about justice is to imagine a social contract in which people come together to choose the basic principles that will govern their society” (Rawl 203). Sandal, on the other hand, argues in the lines of how people need to construct politics on grounds based on mutual respect.
Such an endeavor, more often than not may have at most an effect on minimization of prejudices among certain classes of people in the society in terms of according justice. Basing politics on the foundations of mutual respect, however, requires “more robust and engaged civic life than the one to which we have become accustomed” (Sandel “Justice: What is the right thing to do” 268). To some people, respecting other people’s beliefs, among them religious inclination, infers ignoring them in their reasoning.
To this end, a question remains, does ignorance of other people’s beliefs and practices amount to upholding the rule of justice guided by the very principles that regulate the interactions of people in the society?. However, Rawls confirms this from a different dimension. According to him, coming together for people to think collectively on the right things to do, calls the group of people concerned to seek the guidance of certain norms that apply equally to the entire group.
One may see these binding principles as to constitute the forces of morality. This way, it is evident that Rawl perhaps concurs with Sandel. For instance, he argues that, “rather than avoiding the moral and religious convictions that our fellow citizens bring to public life, we should attend to them more directly-sometimes challenging and contesting them, sometimes by listening to and learning from them” (Sandel “Justice: What is the right thing to do” 268).
From this line of view, the basis for sound justice seems largely inseparable from moral engagements. In fact, this may form adequate foundations for just and fair society.
In accordance with the myriads of acceptance of justice, John Stuart, another author in Justice: A Reader believes that morality entangles personal rights. According to him, morality is a dream without the recognition of personal rights. In fact, he contends that morality entails “a claim on the part of one or more individuals, like that which the law gives when it confers a proprietary or other legal right” (Mill 39).
Arguably, Mill sees justices pegged of moral engagement as relative. To him, justice may entail the deprival or even conferment of rights unnecessarily. Mill would perhaps question Sandel’s proposal for the capacity of justice to ensure fairness.
Would the person deprived of what he or she calls his or her right feel fairly treated when that right is eroded based on moral fairness considerations? Mill would thus not see moral engagements as catalysts of achievement of justice as Sandel proposes but rather as two distinct elements of forces that determine the actions of the society. He would shape them differently.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Examining Sandel’s proposal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Comparison Since the two authors, Rawl and Mill, uphold two differing moral principles, which they adequately back up, there is need to compare them based on the quality and weight of the evidence provided. According to the writer, Rawl’s views are the most illuminating based on the way he backs up his idea of bestowing respect to human beings.
This defense lies on the ideas about the value of appealing justice. It predominantly relies on the perception that, for realization of fine justice to the society, people need to reason together about what is right or wrong. Perhaps looking at justice this way, one rules out other approaches to seeking justice in society.
These include perceiving justice as a way of ensuring maximization of welfare or rather utilities. This happens to facilitate happiness for the wider society and from the dimension of looking at justice as a tool for paying due respect to freedoms of choice.
Personal opinion In the light of presentation of justice from the context of fostering the four principles that Sandel immensely defends, I believe that the exercise of justice means that fairness must prevail in the society. I wish to declare all the principles as imperative in any just society.
However, given a chance, I would defend the principle of social and economic inequalities. Concisely, this principle advocates for fairness as a trait of any society perceived as fair in terms of according justice to its members without discrimination. Congruent with this line of thought, I believe that reason on what is right and or wrong must characterize justice. However, certain forces of coercion such as differences in terms of power or mightiness need not to determine the choice of what is wrong or right.
With this regard, justice needs to foster fairness, as opposed to its historic association with fate, divine providence or even reincarnation. Equality forms an essential element that gigantically helps in defining the coordinates of justice. This perhaps stands out based on the manner of distributing wealth, opportunities and respect. The respect advocated for here is tantamount to that advocated by Sandel: one based on mutual respect.
Works Cited Mill, John. Utilitarianism. London: Routledge, 2003, Print.
Rawl, John. A Theory of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
Sandel, Michael. Justice: A reader. Oxford: Oxford University press, 2007. Print.
Sandel, Michael. Justice: What is the right thing to do? New York: Farar, Sraus and Giroux, 2009. Print.
Social problems and solutions: American perspective Term Paper college application essay help
Mankind has experienced problems of varying magnitudes over a long period of time now. These problems have been viewed to originate or to be caused by various factors. A number of sociological theorists have attempted to provide explanations concerning the occurrence of the realities faced by human beings.
Examples of sociological theories of knowledge focusing on the development of social phenomena include social constructivism and social constructionism (Loseke, 2003). Although the two theories consider how the social problems develop, they are unique in that social constructivism is considered individual or psychological while social constructionism centers on describing phenomena as social constructs.
The paper seeks to describe the term “social problems are constructs” in relation to the social constructionism theory. It will also use President Obama’s State of the Union speech to describe the ways he proposed concerning the solution of problems facing the people of the United States.
Social constructionism as a theory refers to the description of social phenomena in terms of the associated social context. The proponents argue that most common knowledge is developed through social interactions and hence the understanding of reality is perceived as being mutual within specific social contexts (Loseke, 2003).
The term “social problems are constructs,” therefore, implies that most social challenges have a direct relationship with the context in which they occur (Lefcourt, 1993). They are generated or shaped by the people within the given setting. Since the mid twentieth century, constructionism has spread across the states of America following the publication of several books and articles on this theory.
Apart from explaining the ordinary reality, the theory also seeks to explain extraordinary conditions that may occur. In the United States, for instance, such morally shocking events like the terrorist attacks, and the Columbine High School massacre have been explained from the constructionist perspective (Loseke,
Labour/Industrial Relations between USA and India Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
This comparative study is organised in the context of an explanation plan by Wal-Mart as it intends to expand its business to India. This report covers a comparative study of the industrial and labour relation between United States of America and India. The report is expected to give better results, because it will help planning the expansion program more efficiently.
Industrial relations may be defined as “employer-employee relationships covered specifically under collective bargaining and industrial relation laws” (Definition, n. d.). Industrial relation in an international context or in international business is different from industrial relations in domestic business.
The country difference has a great significant influence on the labour management and industrial relation. The issue that a company face in international context include language difference, cultural difference…etc. (Dowling, 2008, p.250).
For any business organization, to step in to or to make an entry to the international market it requires a deep knowledge and awareness of the concerned economy.
There are different modes of entry when expanding business to international level. They are export/import, license, franchise, and joint venture…etc. Among these franchise mode is the better option for Wal-Mart for its expansion plan in India.
Today the industrial relation is very important and a widely discussed subject and has a great significance in the growth of industries. It can be seen that many problems related to the human resource management is happened due to lack of proper industrial relations in the organizations. Proper industrial relation existing in an organisation means, there is an efficient and effective human resource management system.
The terms labour relation and industrial relation are interchangeably used (Introduction to Industrial relation, n. d.). In India the labour relations practices are giving much significance to the employees and their grievances are easily solved. However, the situation in the United States is not like that in India. There the organisations have very dominant power than the employees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good industrial relation has a significant role in the success of international expansion of any kind of business. Disputes are common at work places. If there is a better labour relation this disputes can be minimized. If an employer is interacting with the employees in a better way it can increase the loyalty of the employees, thereby increasing the productivity of the organisation.
Increasing the productivity is one of the main things to be done to ensure the survival of any organisation. The better labour relation practices by the organisation can make the employees more committed to the organisation and achievement of its goal.
Industrial/labour relation in United States and Wal-Mart In the United States labour union and industrial relations has a long history. The labour unions in the Unites States tries their level best to ensure a better industrial relation thereby protecting the interest of poor workers who are suppressed by all means. Wal-Mart was always against unionizing the Wal-Mart and they are successful to some extent to prevent unionization of Wal-Mart Stores, but later on their management was forced to allow unionisation in the Wal-Mart stores.
The increased pressure form the labour unions was the one of the causes of acceptance of unions in the Wal-Mart stores. Another reason was the continuous campaigning of employees of the Wal-Mart by labour unions in such a way that they felt that they need to be unionized. The employees also started to work for the unionization of the Wal-Mart and in this situation Wal-Mart could do nothing.
Labor unions always tried to change the attitude of Wal-Mart employees and introducing union in the firm. They conducted awareness programs like Wake-up Wal-Mart (which was organized by United Food and Commercial Workers Union). It always criticized Wal-Mart for not giving reasonable compensation, poor working conditions and lack of proper health measures for the workers.
According to a significant study, a large number of Wal-Mart employees are in the below poverty line category and therefore, facing difficulty to provide a reasonable standard of living to their families. There is a Law in United States namely Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 1938 b which is applicable to the workers producing goods for inter state trading.
But later with an amendment the Law included, government employees and other employees who were not covered earlier by the Act in its jurisdiction. The Act involves some strict guidelines regarding the minimum amount of wages to be paid to the workers, overtime work compensation, employing minors…etc.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Labour/Industrial Relations between USA and India specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As per the Act “nonexempt workers are entitled to a minimum wage of not less than $6.55 per hour effective July 24, 2008; and $7.25 per hour effective July 24, 2009 (Compliance Assistance – Fair Labor Standards Act, n. d.). The Act also provides that the workers who work for time should be given a higher rate as specified in the Act.
Industrial/labour relation in India The Indian economy started to change from 1991 onwards. The Indian industry which was working in a confined setting started to face tough global competition. This necessitated the organizations to make change in their organizational structure and operations. Organizations’ main attention was to reduce the cost of operation and become one of the competitive powers in the industry.
These all influenced the conditions of the labour in the country in such a way that unemployment rate has increased, resulting in careless treatment of the employees by employers. This forced the labour unions to demand for providing better working conditions and making the employment terms more flexible.
In India the employment growth rate is not as expected and which was a shocking news for those who seeking employees. It can be seen that some laws existing in the country acting as obstacle in developing an efficient work force. Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 provides guidelines for handling disputes in the work place (Introduction, n. d.).
Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 provides a clear cut provisions for ensuring the safety and welfare of the contract labours (Preliminary, 1970). The Indian constitution ensures the safety and protection to the employees in the unorganised sectors of the employment.
From the above discussions it can be seen that there exists a tight rule in the country which ensures a better labour relation in the country. Expansion strategy for Wal-Mart focuses on the industrial and labour conditions in India and United States. The labour position of labour relation in India is different from that of the United States of America.
Therefore, the proposed plan of Wal-Mart to expand its operations to India is a challenging task for the management team of Wal-Mart. The reason is that they have to change their strategies according to the industrial relation and the employment conditions exist within the country. If Wal-Mart does not take into consideration this change in labour relation situation between these two countries, the success of expansion plan would be difficult.
It is not wise to think that a business organisation can implement same labour management systems and procedures in a foreign country. It is clear that the power of labour unions in India is higher than the power of labour unions in the United States for in matters of influencing the business operations of the organisations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Labour/Industrial Relations between USA and India by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If any business organisation go ahead with its decisions which are opposed by the employees, the labour union will intervene the situation may create problems in the smooth functioning of the organisation. As the labour unions are strong in India, a better and employee friendly industrial relations need to be followed, otherwise the Wal-Mart may not get the result expected by the expansion program.
References Compliance Assistance – Fair Labor Standards Act (No date.), Wage and Hour Division, United States Department of Labor, dol.gov Web.
Definition (n. d.), industrial relations, Businessdistionary.com Web.
Dowling, J. Peter, Marion Festing, Allen D. Engle (2008), International human resource management: managing people in a multinational context, 5th Edition, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Introduction, (No date), The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, labour.delhigovt.nic.in. Web.
Introduction to Industrial relation (No date), Industrial Relations, naukrihub.com Web.
Preliminary (1970) The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970, pblabour.gov.in Web.
International trade shaped the economy Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The Silk Road or silk route was a trade route across East, South, Western Asia and Afro-Eurasia (Xinru 2010, 17). This route was named after the major commodity traded-silk. This route was very significant for the development of China, Egypt, Arabia and Rome. Silk was the major trade from China, alongside tea, spices and porcelain, other goods traded included perfume, hemp and satin, gold. Silver, glass and these goods would travel to major oasis trade towns end to end (Xinru 2010, p.18).
The merchants business flourished with this arrangement and they kept enriching themselves from the trade exchange (Gordon 2010, p.169). The first attempt to open up the East was pioneered by Alexander, which came with the Alexander’s empire in Central Asia. Soon after the Romans and Egyptians joined in the silk trade route and explored East and Central Asia (Xinru 2010, p.18)
The silk route trade influenced in many ways the central Asian countries, and played a part in shaping the Asian societies. It is indeed true that cultural, economic and political aspects were developed as a result of the silk trade route (Stewart 2008, p.176).
The rise of the trade saw the people in these societies begin to adopt several settings and lifestyles borrowed from the merchants who came and settled and brought in different goods like gold, silver, glass and hemp for trade (Xinru 2010, p.18). Civilization also was established in the process because the trade route attracted many philosophers who came up with the Mongolian symbols that developed writing. The philosophers began teaching the locals how to read and write.
International trade was able to attract historians from Persian and Arabic states who also came to establish and discover the basis of the trade route and also try to connect the Mongolian history. The silk trade did have a great impact on the Mongolian’s economy. The merchant business continued even after Genghis, where they would bring clothes, food and other supplies and the Great Khan would exclude them from paying tax (Xinru 2010, p.21).
The Mongolian empire was able to benefit from the goods brought in and later they began to charge the merchants taxes. The economy became stable and competition arose in the market.
The merchants could sometimes face losses due to bandits on the road but the losses were recovered from the Mongolian treasury and so the Mongolian empire could work through its losses to stability (Xinru 2010, p.22).The losses also came due to delays of shipments. People preferred the camel as the mode of transport because it was the safest despite being slow. However sometimes merchants were faced with desert storm, daytime heat, sick camels and floods while transporting their wares for trading.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Silk Road played an important role in developing the Mongolian’s economy, because of the weight and measures used. Metals like tin copper and iron were measured in pounds, just like silk and saffron. Horses and ox-hides were sold by the piece and common stuff such as salt, spices were measured by the picco.
The trade was mainly in barter trade but after the Chinese conquered Xiongnu, coins were later to be introduced as a legal mode of exchange. Textiles, grain, animals, metals and carpets were the main commodities used to trade for other goods. However, people began accepting the coin, for exchanged people could pay loans in coin or with commodities.
East central Asian Merchants began to pay taxes using the coin, and it became an acceptable medium of exchange. In kashgar goods could still be traded with other goods but they were valued in terms of coin to reach an agreement. This came in handy to ward off the limitations of trade due to the different medium of exchange and different units of account.
Political forces The international trade loosened the political stability leading to the fall of the Mongolian empire. The Mongolians had captured most of the route trades and saw the entry and exit of merchants bringing in goods for trade and carrying out. However, they did not abandon their nomadic lifestyle. (Xinru 2010, p. 60)
The silk trade route also brought about political instability in china; this was because many tribes wanted to have control over the major trading routes. Ban Chao at one point gathered 70,000 men mounted with horses and Calvary to oppose the harassment along the silk route by Xiongnu (Xinru 2010, p.60).
The Uirghurus were to benefit from the purchase of horses because the Chinese bought them at a price of 38 to 40 pieces of silk for one horse. The Chinese in a year would buy 7500 horses and this made it possible for Uirghurus to be wealthy and powerful. For a long time Xiongnu harassed merchants who used the silk route and they would demand goods to access the trade route.
People along these routes also flee due to the constant war, between Xiongnu and members from other tribes. Xiongnu was later defeated by the Ban Chao warriors and fled to Caspian Sea, and they were no longer traced for many years.
We will write a custom Essay on International trade shaped the economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Romans also conquered Egypt in order to have access to the Southeast Asia, India, and Sri Lanka and China route (Stewart, 2008, p. 61). The Romans were attracted to the silk produced by the Chinese and wanted close trade in order to import the silk. They valued the silk and always believed that it grew in trees, and they began to spread across continents like Europe and the whole of Asia to acquire the silk. International trade was made regular and the Romans kept close contact guarding the silk route with great power.
The years after 760’s had the Chinese fall out with the Tibetans because of the principal commercial routes. The Tibetans beat the Chinese and controlled the trade route for 30 years. The Tibetans were to fall victims during the summer when the Chinese attacked and regained a significant portion of the commercial route.
Later the Turkmeni seized the silk trade routes and the Mongolian became separated and was defeated. The silk trade route then began shipping gunpowder and silk was no longer the main item traded (Xinru 2010, p.61)
Due to international trade, china was exposed and many tribes kept trying to seize the trade route, which brought instability in the region.
Cultural forces Culture can be translated as something that is passed on and taught, the people being influenced have to learn the culture. International trade was able to influence the Mongolian’s culture in many ways. The Mongolians for starters began adopting Christianity from the roman sand Islamic from the Arabs (Xinru 2010, p. 69).
Most of the Mongolians were either Buddhist or maanichaesits followers but were tolerant to other religions.
The Buddhist faith culture traveled through the silk trade route and slowly entered China, the faith was spread by foreign Buddhist preachers and traders who followed the Buddhism. Slowly small Buddhist statues, carves and decorations began emerging in china and later people began to build small temples (Xinru 2010, p.62).
Artist who came in China sold to the people the charts and drawings and people found the Buddhism religion easy to relate with. This way the people picked up the religion and it spread all over the empire. Soon Buddhism was a recognized religion in china and it had attracted many followers to its faith.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International trade shaped the economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are some Arab Muslim travelers such as Abu Zayd who travelled along with others as far as China through Iraq, Oman and then the sea. The sayed travellor was going to seek justice from the emperor in China against a functionary who had wronged him. Other Muslim travelers also began to travel by land far into China and were able to influence the natives to join their religion.
Modern technologies of cultivation were also interchanged with the China learning good practices from foreign farmers who settled on how to carry out large-scale farming. China had vast land, good climate and very fertile soil and foreign merchants taught China how to go about farming with technology.
The merchants who settled in China as traders were later to teach the Mongolians the alphabet and established the Mongolian writing symbols which led them to civilization. Philosophers who settled in the empire began to teach the locals how to read and write, and Mongolians adopted the alphabetical letters in their dialect (Stewart 2008, p.185). Slaves also got to read and write and this established a few more philosophers travelling East Asia spreading civilization across Asia.
The Mongolians deserted nomadic settled and formed an empire that inculcated everyone (Xinru 2010, p. 70). The use of gold, perfume and glass was introduced by the Romans and the Mongolians quickly adopted this lifestyle. The gold was used to make jewellery and utensils and was adopted in rich households (Stewart 2008, p.188).
Summary The Silk Road played a major role in influencing the Asian society, its influence carries along to the modern date, because they lay foundations of today’s society. The route brought civilization to Rome, China and India, and good was transverse between countries up to the Middle East.
Religion was spread through the route with Buddhism, Christianity and Islam been spread right across it and people were influenced to follow. The merchants and travelers were responsible for spreading the various religions which the locals embraced and passed on to future generations.
International trade however did cause political instability as a result of wanting to control the trade route. The Xiongnu nomads cause a lot of instability and war to gain control over the route trade, and to extort money from the merchants. The trade route however, did a lot of good because traders were able to sell their wares at a good price improving their standards of living.
The Silk Road route caused most societies to close on their political structures and cultural practices and assimilate new practices. The education given to the people by the philosophers and the cultural influenced was bound to change the qualities of the natives values and beliefs.
References Stewart, G. (2008) When Asia was the world. New York, Da Capo Press.
Xinru, L. (2010) The silk road in world history. New York, Oxford University Press University.
Whoops: Why Everyone Owes Everyone and No One Can Pay Essay (Book Review) college admissions essay help
Anyone who cares to know about the current financial situation; how we got there and who was responsible for it should read this enlightening and entertaining account by Lanchester. In his book, Lanchester brings to light what triggered the 2008 financial crisis. He lets people know what really went wrong in this compelling and understandable story.
The author takes us back in history and discusses the 1989 communism collapse that brought about financial markets liberalization and the abolishment of regulation in the United States. The author explains various financial concepts in a comprehensible language that can be understood by even the lay readers.
He clearly discusses the introduction and domination of the markets by collateralized debt obligations and credit default swaps. In the book, the author claims that “the process of lending is no longer driven by the legitimate desire of poor-but-reliable people to own a house, but instead a manufactured process driven by capital which is set loose looking for people to sign up loans.
An epidemic began of what has come to be known as ‘predatory lending’: mortgage lenders doing everything they can to sign up borrowers at higher-than ordinary, sub-prime interest rates, so that the debt they created could then be pooled and securitized and sold on as tranches of various grades of CDO”1.
After reading this book, the reader will get to understand several things. Firstly, the reader will get a clear and comprehensible explanation of financial instruments and derivatives. The reader will also get to know the history of how the financial crisis started in the United States and UK and the devastating effects it has had on the economy. The author also explains how and why humans are not able to evaluate risk.
He also discusses why risk analysis programs and models lead us into taking even more risk and consequently, lead us into making the wrong decisions. The author gives a clear account on how and why things went wrong and were unable to be detected by people responsible for that. The reader will also get an understanding of the history of financial deregulation in the United States and United Kingdom and the failure to regulate financial markets2.
In this book, the author tries to make sense of the 2008 financial crisis. He starts by describing an event where a student from Iceland cannot withdraw money for her rent because the country has run out of money. The author starts by making observations and later tries to dig out the truth. He blames the CDOs and CDS, the foolishness of the customers and poor regulation as the cause of the crisis, but lays the greatest blame on the bankers who underestimated risk by relying on incomprehensible and erroneous mathematical models.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lanchester blames the bankers’ greed and incompetence for the crisis. He describes the devastating effects the financial crisis had on the low income citizens who had applied for the sub-prime mortgages. He also explains the accumulation of huge debts by banks leading to bankruptcy and collapsing of some of them. The author concludes by explaining that the world does not have the ability of containing another crisis and therefore appropriate steps should be taken to avoid it3.
The author wonders how banks could have been blind to the risks posed by these derivatives. Bankers are supposed to be risk-assessment experts and it beats logic that they got themselves into investments without assessing the risks. These banks gave out mortgages to sub-prime owners without caring whether they provided any security in terms of income or assets. Moreover, the credit rating agencies did not expose these high risk investments that banks were getting into.
The author clearly gives details on how the incompetence and irrationality of banking experts put the society in a difficult situation. He also illustrates the negligence of the political system in dealing with this issue. Changes have not been made on the financial regulatory framework to prevent the reoccurrence of another crisis. The innocent citizens are the ones suffering the most from the effects of this crisis4.
Lanchester lays the blame on several events and people. He explains how each guilty party contributed to the crisis and outlines all the opportunities that were ignored that could have helped prevent the financial meltdown. He notes that “the current crunch was based on a climate (the post-Cold War victory party of the free-market capitalism), a problem (the sub-prime mortgages), a mistake (the mathematical models of risk) and a failure of the regulators.5”
The author tells the story with a brilliant clarity. Each chapter is explained clearly. The chapter that tackles the offering of sub-prime mortgages to low income citizens is particularly enlightening. The author explains the plan by bankers to give low income citizens an opportunity to own homes by giving them sub-prime mortgages without requiring any security like assets or income. The real estate business started thriving because of an increased value in housing facilities.
The increasing value of housing gave the banks the assurance that even if the low income citizens were not able to pay their debts, they would repossess the houses, whose value would have increased greatly. However, the plan flopped when the value of the housing facilities started going down.
The homeowners were unable to pay the debts and the banks had to reduce the value of these facilities. Many banks were left with huge debts while others collapsed. The sub-prime home owners who had bought the mortgages ended up losing their savings and homes6.
We will write a custom Book Review on Whoops: Why Everyone Owes Everyone and No One Can Pay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book exposes the horrifying truth about what really conspired to land us in the current financial mess. Those who want to know what really happened will find all the answers in this book.
The author patiently, clearly and skillfully guides the readers through the incredible details about the derivatives, regulators and sub-prime mortgages that led to the 2008 financial crisis. Everyone therefore needs to read this book so that we can all understand the ins and outs of modern banking. This will enable us to make informed decisions about our financial matters.
Lanchester takes us through each step of the unfolding financial crisis and exposes the immaturity and incompetence of the bankers and policy makers in believing in complex models and investing blindly in risky CDOs and CDS. This truth is disturbing as the bankers have a lot of influence over our finances and we trust them to make the right and informed decisions. The author brings to light how the world of finance is mysterious to us and yet it really affects our lives.
He therefore takes us on a tour of this world and exposes the baffling practices and laws involved. It seems the bankers have no idea about how financial products like CDOs and CDS operate, and this puts the civilians in a precarious situation. The author describes the whole crisis as “a huge unregulated boom in which almost all the upside went directly into private hands, followed by a gigantic bust in which the losses were socialized.” 7
In the story, the author applies psychological research findings that show that all human beings, even the most intelligent ones, tend to be inclined to erring in relation to risk. People believed that a free market corrects itself and referred to work based on historical data and therefore ended up underestimating risk.
The bankers relied on defective models evaluated by incompetent lawyers to buy and sell ineffective financial products. Lack of financial regulation has severe repercussions. However, everyone seemed to be in favor of deregulation of the financial markets. Regulating bodies such as the SEC of the United States and FSA of the UK were slacked in carrying out their duties8.
Anyone who has been trying to fully comprehend what happened to our economy will definitely find this book invaluable. The author understands that it is not just the economists who are interested in finding out what happened, but even the laypeople. Many books have been written about the 2008 financial crisis, but this particular one stands out because the author does not use terms that are incomprehensible to the layman.
He gives every reader a chance to know how the financial crisis started. The author has done a good job in helping amateurs in economics to know the cause of the crisis. He helps even more by illustrating his points using ordinary examples. Any reader will find this book enjoyable as the complex financial concepts have all been simplified and clarified. This book will leave the lay readers feeling more intelligent as they will be able to understand the complex world of finances.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Whoops: Why Everyone Owes Everyone and No One Can Pay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The last chapter of the book is very helpful as Lanchester proposes the way forward. He suggests what can be done to remedy the crisis and ways through which we can avoid a similar occurrence. The author advises people to try and make a distinction between investment and deposit banks so that if the people responsible for the crisis decide to come up with their deceptive schemes again, they will go down alone without affecting the rest of us.
In the conclusion, Lanchester reveals that the projected United States deficit is bigger than any other in history and it will take a really long time before this debt is fully paid off. He is not sure whether the appropriate measures will be taken to deal with this crisis and prevent the reoccurrence of the same in future. There have been no laws implemented to prevent the occurrence of another financial crisis9.
This book is recommended to everyone because it is skillfully written to help even those who have no prior knowledge about finances to understand the 2008 financial crisis. The book is also recommended to students taking financial related courses, and especially those who want to pursue careers in banking.
The book can be understood by everyone. Actually, the author is not a banker and he tries to show that even the ordinary citizens who have no training in financial markets can be able to spot something that the bankers overlook. The book discloses a gripping account of the crisis in a humorous and understandable way.
The financial experts may regard this book as too basic, and may prefer to read about the financial crisis from other books written in more complex terms. But this book will be helpful to the layman who is yet to understand what really happened during the 2008 financial crisis. The laypeople will be able to go through an account that is free from economic jargon to get to the bottom of what really happened, and the implication that the crisis has on their bank accounts.
The book is an illustration of great intelligence and achievement of the author in producing such remarkable work. The author clearly displays his skills and brains as he explains financial concepts that would have been incomprehensible to a layman, in a clear and witty language. The author skillfully takes the reader through the unnerving details in a simple and humorous way. This is the best account that I have ever read about the financial crisis.
Bibliography Lanchester, J. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
Footnotes 1 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
2 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
3 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
4 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
5 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
6 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
7 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
8 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
9 J. Lanchester. Whoops: Why everyone owes everyone and no one can pay. London: Allen Lane, 2010.
History of Multiculturalism in Business Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
Multiculturalism in business is applied by establishing enterprises in various regions and also integrating people from diverse cultures into the business work force. Before the existence of multiculturalism, people used to do business within the borders of their regions.
Communities were hostile to their neighbors hence people were limited from trading with people from other regions. This attitude changed when certain circumstances such as droughts forced communities to trade their possessions in exchange of food.
Today people have embraced each others culture because humans have realized that though we speak different languages and come from different communities, we depend on each other.
This idea was exhibited by European explorers when they toured Africa. They realized that Africa has great resources that could be used by the factories back at home and that are when they established their colonies to help them manage these resources (Fillion, 2009).
As time moved on businesses begun to be established beyond borders where the owners felt there were potential customers. But then multiculturalism in business world was enhanced by the establishment of international languages such as English and French because without a common language doing business in a foreign language would be difficult.
The entrepreneurs had to learn the local languages for them to be able to relate with foreigners; this is still one of the greater challenge for multinational managers. In addition to that the availability of skilled labor has been fostering multicultural enterprises. This is because foreign investors are saved from the hustle of importing skilled personnel from their countries (Fillion, 2009).
For instance, an organization that is setting up new offices in another country does not need to deploy employees from their mother country because there is adequate skilled labor in that nation. In fact there are so many people who are learned but they don’t have jobs hence the issue of laborers is no longer a problem.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Governments on the other hand have been requesting foreigners to invest in their countries and hence they have enacted policies that favor foreigners. In some countries a foreign investor can acquire the nationality of that country through investment. Governments have been supporting foreign investors because they know that foreigners will bring foreign currencies which will provide a source of foreign exchange.
When the business environment is favorable more foreigners are most likely to dash into that particular country and in return the currency of that nation will appreciate in value due to its high demand.
However, there exist unfavorable competition between local businesses and multinational corporations. Local companies feel that their markets are being invaded by foreign companies thus engaging in unhealthy marketing activities such as negative promotional messages about their rivals.
Moreover technology has also facilitated the development of multicultural businesses because communication takes very short time and thus it is very effective.
This is because when investors establish enterprises in a given nation they don’t remain there for the rest of their lives but rather move back to their home countries after assigning the management of their business to the local personnel, but they still keep in touch with the regional managers who update them frequently about the progress of their branches.
Due to technological advancement it is possible to communicate in real time thus investors are able to attend to issues that arise immediately (Bissoondath, 2002).
The internet has also contributed to multiculturalism in business. This is because the internet has converted communities into one global community. Additionally the internet serves as the platform where businesses can be based virtually.
We will write a custom Assessment on History of Multiculturalism in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, goods and services are being sold over the internet where the customers can see the virtual products. However, technology and the internet have led to a digital divide, where cultures that cannot access the current technologies are left behind.
In this regard, greater concern should be placed on multinational enterprises because of the increasing competitiveness in the business. Multicultural businesses should be managed by team players because the success of any business depends on the corporation of the entire work force towards the business’s mission.
In addition a multicultural business should be operated by someone who is a fast learner because the faster one learns about a foreign environment the better it is for the business. Besides that the person should understand and appreciate the cultures of other people including those of his/her workmates.
Reference List Fillion, R., 2009. Multicultural Dynamic and the Ends of History. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
Bissoondath, N., 2002. Selling Illusions: The Myth of Multiculturalism, Toronto: Penguin.
Strategic Marketing Management Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help
Introduction Internet marketing has played a major role in expanding the market shares for companies across the globe. Customers use internet-based online purchasing to acquire the commodities in the market. They use it as a means of saving time and to get a wide range of options for goods and prices for the goods.
Through the internet, the customers are able to explore the different products and company brands that are available in the market as well as their prices and therefore have the opportunity to make choices that suit their preferences and their financial capabilities. Although companies have many marketing and distribution channels to market and sell their brands, internet-based online distribution channels are growing at a fast rate considering that today, we are in a globalized market.
Companies employ internet-based online marketing to achieve market segmentation and positioning to target specific market areas so as to increase their market shares and therefore optimize profit. The internet-based online marketing has significantly changed the role of customers in the service industry. They have taken an active role in determining value creation. Services industries therefore have to balance trade-offs to achieve benefits while making sacrifices that favour their customers.
The airline industry is among the services industries that have applied internet-based online marketing strategy in the United Arab Emirates to achieve their marketing goals. One such airline company that applies internet-online based is Continental Airlines. Its airline industry data shows that online marketing has penetrated the leisure travel market as well as the low-fare market (Brunger 66).
Although the company’s internet distribution channels yield lower revenue as compared to its revenues from traditional travel agencies by a significant percentage, the data available shows that internet distribution channels are fast catching up in the market.
Purpose and Scope The aim of this study is to analyse Continental’s organizational effectiveness in implementing internet-based online marketing strategy. The paper examines the effect of the internet on the company’s marketing and the company’s ability to effectively explore the internet in the evolving role of marketing. The paper examines how the company uses the internet for pricing management as well as for product management.
It explores Continental Airlines ability to apply internet-based online marketing to achieve market segmentation and positioning as well as market targeting. It discusses the company’s market research and analysis through the use of the characteristics of its online travel agency and traditional agency customers to expand its services and market. Finally, the paper explores the company’s use of the internet in channels management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Methodology The study takes both qualitative and quantitative analysis of internet-based online marketing applied by Continental Airlines. The study reviews the literature written by William Brunger on the price effect of the internet. The data available in the journal is both qualitative and quantitative. The analysis takes a look at the research results presented by Brunger from the large multivariate regression analysis of the data from the company’s data base. The information available includes data that was collected between June 2003 and June 2007.
The study evaluates Continental Airlines’ effectiveness in the application of its internet marketing strategy by comparing its strategies to standard marketing strategies obtained from other written sources. The data that was used for the research presented in this journal was collected from the bookings from the airlines website (continental.com) as well as from its reservation offices and contained complete records of Continental Airlines’ customer information.
Literature Review Airline yields for Continental Airlines which is expressed as the amount of money each customer pays for a mile is said to be on the decline since 1988 when the company began to offer internet purchasing services to its customers. However, the internet sales have tremendously increased over the years and this has been the major reason for the reduction in its yields.
The study that was carried out from June 2003 to June 2007 found out that the company’s internet distribution channels yielded 25% less (Brunger 66). The company offers equivalent fares as well as equal inventory allocations to both its online travel agencies and its traditional travel agencies.
The company has established that its traditional travel agencies yield more revenue to the company since its business customers particularly business corporations rely on them to manage their travel budgets. The business customers are ready to pay higher fares as compared to the leisure customers since they acquire their travel tickets from the traditional agencies.
The traditional agencies sold higher fare tickets to customers than online travel agencies. On the contrary, Continental Airlines offered equal fare averages and inventory to both its traditional and online distributional channels.
The online customers are able to explore all the brands available through advanced searches to acquire low-priced tickets which are available during the off-peek hours and days while customer who use traditional agencies do not get the same chance to explore all the prices available. To them, they rely on the explanations offered by the traditional agencies. The study showed that the marked difference on its revenue collection depended on the purpose of the travel.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Strategic Marketing Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Continental Airlines offers an array of airline pricing structure as part of its marketing strategy. It has segmented its markets and offers a range of fare products in every market. Each fare product comes with fare restrictions particularly for the advanced ticket purchases. It sets penalties for ticket refunds and change restrictions and also sets conditions for stay requirements (Brunger 67).
The airline use price differentiation to segment its markets. Its offers different fare products targeting its main two categories of customers which are the leisure travelers and business travelers. Most of its online fare products structures are targeted to the leisure customers. The airline defines leisure travelers as those visiting friends and relatives as well as customers travelling on vacation.
The airline’s revenue management system ensures that it offers different fares products in each given flight at any particular time in the same market. The airline also uses the Expected Marginal Seat Revenue to predict the price that the customer is ready to pay by applying the power of its regression technique.
Thus the airlines revenue system enables it apply product differentiation as well as price discrimination to its customers in the same market. For example, in June 2006, the Houston-to-Seattle market had five different fare products in the airline’s fare structure which include a 7-day advance purchasing as well as change or refund restrictions.
The different rates offered to the customers were designed to suit different categories of customers which are the price-sensitive leisure customers and the less-price-sensitive business customers. The fares also varied with time of the day and the day of the week depending on the peak periods of the travel time or day.
The information available at the Continental Airlines’ database indicates that most online travel agencies customers were more likely to buy lower ticket fares. Customers who purchase their tickets through the airline’s online travel agencies use internet’s enhanced search engines to buy less expensive fare tickets which are offered by the airline’s revenue management system. The internet also provides real-time fare alternatives to customers (Brunger 70-71).
Continental Airlines uses its internet-based online marketing to segment its customer population. The airline uses the customer information to evaluate the purpose for the trip and its relative effect on the fare product chosen in order to design fare products which are market specific. It uses differentiated pricing for each of its market segments.
The differentiated product fares focus on homogeneous sub-groups of its customers who exhibit almost same characteristics. The data on its online customers allows the airline to analyse all the customer characteristics and therefore classify them into more homogeneous groups. This enables the airline to design fare products which best suits its online groups of customers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Marketing Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Previous studies and this research showed that leisure customers who use online channels to purchase their fare tickets tend to be more price-sensitive as well as less brand loyal as compared to leisure customers who use other distribution channels. This results from the internet’s enhanced search capabilities (Brunger 70).
The airline uses the data available in its database from the online customers to carry out market research and analysis. It uses regression techniques to determine the effect of its online marketing strategy on its sales volume, total revenue collection, customer characteristics and market effects.
It uses the results of its market research to redesign product fares which enable it achieve market segmentation and positioning through product and price differentiation. The information available from its online customers provides all characteristic needed for its quantitative analysis.
It analyses the mean value attributes of its customers to determine their attitudes towards its market brands and fare products and therefore classify them into a pool of homogeneous groups. This enables the airline to design brands and products that best meet their requirements through its distribution channels.
Findings Continental Airlines uses a customer-dominant marketing strategy in its service provision to create value to customers. Its customer-company interactions focus on the mental life of its customers who use its services.
The results from various studies show that the increase in internet usage has increased the spread of restricted and unrestricted airline fares. The studies also show that more customers have increased their search for airline travel online (Lane and Verlinda 1).
The Evolving role of Marketing
Internet has shifted the traditional role of marketing which focused on product marketing and exchange to interactions (Heinonen, Strandvik and Voima 3). The internet also increases the utility of the airline as it enables it trade off-peak inventory to its online customers who utilise high-search engines to explore its product fares and brands while at the same time reserving more economically valuable seats to its customers who are less price-sensitive.
The internet enables Continental Airlines to sell its seats during the off-peak days and hours when the customers are fewer. It online transparency as well as differentiated pricing gives its online customers the opportunity to purchase tickets and travel during such times.
The internet allows the customers to pay a positive cost to search on the airline’s offerings and therefore identify and purchase their preferred brands. Thus, internet-based online marketing enables the airline to apply brand-intensive competition through its differentiated product fares (Lane and Verlinda 2).
Product Pricing and Management
The airline uses the internet and the online travel agencies to communicate and effect sophisticated pricing policies to customers and therefore experiences higher degree of price management through its various distribution channels. Its revenue management system enables it to charge higher fares to a section of its customers in the same market.
The internet has also created numerous alternative sources for information on prices and hence enhances transparency in its fare products. The customers are therefore enabled to gain access to the fare products across a range of flights in the market.
This has enabled Continental Airline to attract more non-loyal customers. The regression analysis that was done after the research that was done between 2003 and 2007 showed that most of the airline’s customers who use the traditional travel agencies belong to the group of its loyal customers (Frequent Flyer Program).
The airline uses the internet information to calculate the minimum Expected Marginal Seat Revenue that it charges on every flight. The Expected Marginal Seat Revenue is the minimum price that the customer has to pay to purchase a fare ticket for a given flight. It uses sophisticated revenue management systems to determine the prospects for filling the remaining seats on the particular flight.
The airline continuously updates its Expected Marginal Seat Revenue as bookings for each flight continues. It optimizes network and high-level benefits by considering the connections and interactions that exist among flights.
It uses the Expected Marginal Seat Revenue as a mean average so that whenever a prospective online customer searches its reservation system on a given flight, the reservation system matches the particular Expected Marginal Seat Revenue with the fares offered in the airlines market during that period.
The reservation system would therefore only display fare products which have higher values than the Expected Marginal Seat Revenue. Fare products with lower values are hidden from the prospective customer (Brunger 69).
Internet in Channels Management
Internet enables airlines to manage their distribution channels by controlling the flow of information on its product fares and brands. It has changed the institutional functions of its distribution channels thereby allowing agencies to adopt online-based sales and advertisements of the organisation’s offerings.
It has enabled some of the airline’s channels of distribution to reduce their workforce’s participation since most explanations that the online customers may require are available on its website and that of its online travel agencies. It also enables the airline to efficiently coordinate its network of distribution channels and therefore bring its products to the ultimate customers.
Internet has enabled Continental Airlines achieve market positioning by enabling it to continuously monitor its online customers’ preferences and characteristics. This gives the organisation the ability to focus on value creation to meet its customers’ preferences (Finney and Spake 6). The internet plays a role in helping the organisation form relationships with both its non-loyal and loyal customers.
It provides its online customers with an interactive channel through the online agencies and thus enabling the airline adopt marketing perspectives which enable it deliver customer-specific products and brands thereby achieving greater sales volume.
The internet enable airlines to center their product fares and brands to customers by designing more appealing offers since they better understand their customers’ characteristics (Finney and Spake 8). Internet enables the airline to achieve value creation through its market offerings which enables it acquire market positioning.
Market Research and Market Analysis
The internet enables the airline to acquire information on the characteristics of its customers, particularly online customers. These characteristics are used to carry out quantitative analysis of the customer characteristics on its marketing and sales volume. The airline focuses its research on customer behavior, its pricing, and its marketing strategy among many other dimensions.
The results are analysed to determine the best means to ensure value creation and price differentiation to its customers through its fare products and market brands.
The information available from the airline’s database reflecting its online customers is used to classify the customers into more homogeneous groups and therefore effectively analyse and design fare products and brands which best meet the customers’ preference and which also enables the company to sell its products and inventory.
Market Targeting and Segmentation
The airline carries out customer characteristic analysis through its online distribution channels and therefore classifies the customers into more homogeneous groups. It therefore designs customer-specific fare products that target the specific groups of customers which enable it apply price differentiation.
It structures its fares into various fare products and restrictions which meets the preferences of its online customers. It applies restrictions to enable it achieve market segmentation.
Failures in Continental’s Marketing Strategy
The airline has failed to completely restrict its online customers from exploring the low fare products during peek days. This has been the major factor that contributes to the company’s low revenue collection from its online distribution channels. Online distribution channels limit Continental Airlines’ ability to effectively apply its price distribution and as a result, reduce its revenue collection.
The airline’s inability to completely restrict ticket fares to all its customers enables online customers to purchase lower ticket fares than higher ticket fares. Thus, while internet marketing enhances product as well as price transparency to customers, it causes greater price sensitivity among customers, thereby lowering revenue collection by business organisations.
Studies that have been done to determine the effect of internet purchases on the revenue collection have shown that internet purchases generally yields lower revenues as compared to offline channels of distributions.
The customers utilise the internet’s search capabilities, the transparency enhanced by the internet and also control the internet to purchase find less expensive seats thereby increasing their utility. The airline has also not been able to achieve customer loyalty from most of its online customers. The study shows that most of the online customers are not brand loyal.
Summary The paper discusses the Continental Airline’s effectiveness in exploring the use of online-based marketing. The paper discusses the purpose and scope of the study and also carries out a literature review of William Brunger ‘s journal. The paper explores the evolving role of marketing, the use of internet in channel management as well as in product pricing and management.
The paper also discusses the use of internet in marketing segmentation, targeting as well as positioning, it also analyses the use of the internet in marketing research and analysis. Finally, the paper discusses the failures of Continental Airlines in using internet.
Conclusion Internet has changed the market strategies employed by organisations as well as the sales volume realised by organisations. It gives online customers the transparency and the capacity to explore all the available product prices and company brands and therefore make choices that meet their preferences and economic abilities thereby giving them more control over company’s products. Online marketing also gives organisations the opportunity to increase the market positioning and therefore increase their market shares.
Works Cited Brunger, William. Revenue and Pricing Management. London: JINFORMS Revenue Management, 2010. Print.
Finney, Zachary and Spake, Debora. Lost in transition? The human influence on marketing’s emerging service-dominant logic. Journal of Management and Marketing Research. Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 2010. Print.
Heinonen, Kristina, Strandvik, Tore and Voima, Paivi. Exploring customer valueformation: A customer dominant Logic Perspective. Hanken: Hanken School of Economics, 2010. Print.
Lane, Leonard and Verlinda, Jeremy. The Effect of the Internet on Pricing in the Airline Industry. California: University of California Press, 2004. Print.
A Review of the Different Outsourcing Models Used By Different Companies Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Abstract The business world is changing and getting more sophisticated every day. Many of the functions and operations of different businesses are getting improved even as entry of more players in different fields is increasing competition and forcing companies to seek for better strategies of survival.
Most of these strategies are aimed at increasing the quality of products offered hence resulting to customer satisfaction. Improved company performance and increased productivity is a prime goal of every organization.
One way in which companies may be able to achieve these goals and result to improvement of their performance is through acquisition of the most experienced and skilled labor force. This procedure, however, may result to high spending by the company due to increased costs of production, resulting to lowered returns.
Hence, companies have been left with the option of hiring the services of third parties who are more experienced and skilled yet cheaper to operate with. This is where companies require utilizing the different types of outsourcing services available to them.
There are different forms of outsourcing available in the market and each one comes with different benefits and requirements.
Introduction Outsourcing involves a practice in the business that involves transfer of staff duties and functions to third people who are outside the organization’s labor force so that they may undertake the tasks in a more professional way or at a cheaper and faster manner. The third party may be an individual expert or specialist in a given field or an organization.
This process allows a third-party professional external to an organization undertake management of the different forms of work in a business. This factor causes an organization to require in-sourcing for its operations ands involves transfer of an outsourced work to a department within an organization where it gets fully managed by the organization’s employees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Outsourcing also involves the event of different organizations opening up branches in other nations rather than their countries of origin so as to get employees there and hence have the required tasks done (Burns, 2001).
This third-party service provider is what referred to as the outsourcing agent. On the other side is the rule of outsourcing that is applied in different organizations. This is where an organization utilizes an outside firm to cater for a required function of the business that may be undertaken by employees within the organization but at a lower degree of quality and accuracy.
Outsourcing of work is important for most of the organizations as it increases an organization’s competitive advantage while on the other hand helping it reduce on the costs of obtaining employees and also to be able to access better and more productive labor resources easily and economically. Organizations are able to penetrate the target market easily as they understand the cultural requirements of the population.
They also reduce risks of venturing into the market as a new player and easily increase their image and satisfaction by customers. In addition, there is noted a lot of improvements in different areas within the organization such as projects, better service delivery, improved skills and ability to properly deploy the available technological applications within the organization’s processes.
The costs incurred and the general exposure of the organization in terms of its accounts and performance also get reduced. Lastly, there is avoidance of capital investment (Babu, 2005).
However, there is competitive in-sourcing which involves employees within the organization competing for opportunities with experts from outside the organization who can provide outsourcing services for the task to be undertaken. In situations where there is need for joint efforts co-sourcing is improvised.
This is where a type of work in an organization is undertaken by both the organization’s employees and resources external to the organization such as consultants or outsourcing vendors who possess a lot of knowledge and skills in the specific type of work being undertaken. A client would also rely on outsourcing to undertake different forms of work that he requires.
We will write a custom Research Paper on A Review of the Different Outsourcing Models Used By Different Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shared services may also be utilized in the cases where outsourcing of a given form of work within the organization has been employed through use of a well-equipped and experienced department or group within the organization (Durkheim, 1984).
Large co-operations in different parts of the world use a method of selecting the right models to suit a certain or a particular business need to use for outsourcing. This involves selecting offshoring model. The whole process is long and involves a lot of strategizing and choice of the target market as well as determining the method of market penetration that the organization prefers to use.
Organizations may opt to select a list of preferred vendors to avoid the risk involved in the model. They can also opt to choose managers and source work. Offshoring can be expensive and a hard process altogether. Organizations hence need to invest into formulation of strategies to be able to select the most suitable, applicable and beneficial model for their outsourcing plan (Rothman, 2003).
Off-shoring allows organizations the advantage of being virtually present in a given target market even without its physical presence hence allows the organization easy penetration of the target market as well as increased competitive advantage in the market.
This study is aimed at identifying the different forms of outsourcing models available in the market, their requirements and benefits and also how they operate in real life situations.
Outsourcing Models and their Application There are different models utilized by organizations during outsourcing. These different forms of outsourcing are defined by the resource being outsourced which may either be labor force, a project or an activity or function within the organization. They may also get defined through the nature of the relationship involved in the whole arrangement between the one providing outsourcing facilities and the one utilizing them.
Organizations are usually left with a lot of pressure whenever deciding on the model to utilize since different models call for different scenarios and may result to positive results or very severe implications to an organization.
Since the main aim of utilizing outsourcing resources for an organization is to increase the competitiveness of an organization as well as increase its returns, there is a need to determine the most convenient and fruitful model to utilize (Enzine, 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Review of the Different Outsourcing Models Used By Different Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The various factors that may be considered when choosing the model to utilize may include the location of the outsourcing facility, nature of the outsourcing organization, how close the competitiveness between the two parties involved is, the type of skills and experiences as well as the performance history of the party for outsourcing and how reliable the other party is.
There is also a need to consider the costs incurred relative to the returns obtained from outsourcing as compared to utilization of workforce within the organization so as to determine how economical the model selected for outsourcing is (Bain
Culture Effects on Leadership Styles and Behavior Essay (Article) essay help: essay help
First Entry Effect of Culture on Leadership
The article is about the effect of culture has on leadership. Culture may have a great impact on leadership styles and behavior. A hypothesis that appears to support this claim is that certain leadership behaviors are particularly unique to certain cultures. Another argument is that there are certain specific structures or behaviors that a leader should perform so as to be effective, and this does not have any cultural dimension.
These two arguments could be proved by using a Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire as well as a Value Survey Module. Cultural biases may have a significant effect on the leadership of an organization (for example, in the case of a bank). Gender biasness may prevent a female manager from performing her duties effectively.
Personality in Leadership
There are certain leadership personalities that any leader is expected to posses so as to deliver effectively. A leader should for instance have courage. Courage is the first virtue upon which a leader should depend. All the other leadership qualities depend on it as well.
As such, lack of courage would only lead to failure of the management because people hold back and settle for less than their capability. As a bank manager for instance, one may have to take some decisions that might not please all the staff members yet this could be only key to success in the matter is at hand.
Any leader ought to have strength and effectiveness. In leadership, strength has a significant effect on the effectiveness of any group. Group focused leadership usually produces group identification hence producing efficiency among the staff. An effective leader needs to inspire the members and pay attention to the specific needs of the group members.
Any good and effective leader needs to have the positive trait of integrity. Personal integrity in a leader is a sign of honesty, reliability and trustworthiness. This trait is very vital in any leadership style. When a manager of such an institution as a bank portrays integrity for instance, this helps in shaping that institution.
As a result, the manager in question earns the respect of the employees, customers, and other stakeholders of the bank. Given the fact that integrity is an internal trait, it can only be proved by the actions and decisions taken. A leadership that has its basis on integrity makes the employees to feel secure because trust is built between the employees and the leadership, and the organization at large.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An effective leader also need to exhibit intelligence as another trait of leadership. Individuals with high intelligent quotients (IQs) tend to be more skilled in management as they enable the other members of the organization to feel at ease while working and they are in a position to balance between their personal lives and work.
They tend to be straightforward and help in building rapport between the group members, hence ensuring effective interdependence among the group members. In addition, such an individual is fully aware of his/her strengths and weakness and does not act on impulse.
An effective leader needs to have conviction. This is the ability to make a decision confidently, communicate it, and stick to it as well. Before making decisions, such a leader needs to seek input upfront. In addition, it is important for the leader to promote positive, critical and constructive assessment of the available options in open forums. Moreover, the leader also need to make a clear option and justifies the decision.
The leader needs to be clear-sighted. The leader should be able to measure the impact that the decisions made have over time. The leader needs to be realistic and not flamboyant. The decisions made should be achievable and not based on imaginations.
Second Entry Theoretical Perspectives
The Theory of female advantage and diversity dilemmas stipulates that there is prejudice towards the female leaders. This leads to the continued discrimination against those women in top positions.
There is therefore need to work towards eliminating such perceptions that are culturally- based and could go a long way to denying those women that have the capability to lead the chances of excising their leadership skills to the fullest. Such women could be having ideas that are transformational.
This is attributed to the fact that transactional leadership styles do not differ based on gender. In most cultures, it is always believed that men are the best leaders and women have to act like men so as to be considered as good leaders.
We will write a custom Article on Culture Effects on Leadership Styles and Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Vecchio (2002) however, in his view of leadership and gender differences, he contends that the male leadership advantage is being replaced by the female advantage assumption which is symmetrical. The masculine male style which is task oriented is being replaced by the feminine style which is people oriented.
Gender is usually socially-oriented and the behaviours of the leaders cannot be predicted by the masculine or feminine style dimensions. Each leader usually displays those behaviours that are associated with the respective gender characteristics.
According to Cox (2001), gender inequalities only form part of the wider inequality and diversity issues. Diversity poses practical and theoretical dilemmas. Whenever diversity is characterised in a narrow way, the consequence is usually discrimination which may be based on race, gender, or ethnicity.
The theories of diversity usually deal with the consequences of diversity which include ethnographic studies, social identity theory, race or gender studies, as well as organizational demography.
Such discriminations may make a leader of an organization not to be given an opportunity to exercise his/her leadership to the fullest. In reality, diversity should be celebrated as it enhances innovation. Dividing stereotypes should be done away with for any leadership to be effective.
Margaret Thatcher can for instance be perceived as a female leader who was in a position to lead her country to greater heights during her time as helm in leadership. She was the first female prime minister in the United Kingdom.
She worked towards the restoration of Britain’s economic prosperity and she even led her country to win against Argentina in a military dispute concerning the sovereignty of Falkland Islands in 1982. She portrayed leadership qualities, for instance, she was charismatic, believed in self and courageous as she did not hesitate to take that leadership position just because of her gender.
The Oriental Glass Ceiling
All in all, just like any other leader irrespective of her gender, she had her own weaknesses. For instance, she used the non-consensual leadership style which generated ideal conditions for her overthrow. Cultural factors in many societies usually lead to the exclusion of women from leadership roles.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Culture Effects on Leadership Styles and Behavior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These cultures are mainly defended by traditional groupings. They judge a leader according to the masculinity. Women therefore have to be very strong and work diligently so as to succeed due to such cultural traditions that are discriminative.
Organizational diversity is gradually being accepted in the leadership positions at different levels. The different entry barriers for those groups that are restricted are being relaxed particularly by the elite so as to provide equal opportunities for different groups without discrimination. This however is not absolute as progress is still restricted in higher leadership levels in different institutional sectors.
Stereotypical thinking usually ignores the cues of social worthiness. For instance, the fact that female executives usually rate higher on transformational leadership is ignored. Diversity is a potential for superior performances, although leaders have to understand and also deal with the differences. Diversity could be perceived as an opportunity or a problem.
The Third Entry Practical Implication
All these have practical implications for Australia as a country both to the leaders and the employees as well. It would be a revolutionary stem if at all the discriminative entries to any leadership positions were to be done away with, and everyone e given an opportunity for leadership positions based on his/her leadership qualities, and the ability to deliver and not on the basis of other cultural, racial, ethnical or racial discriminations.
Females could for instance be considered for executive positions and other related posts given the fact that they are not just task oriented but people oriented as well. One may for instance base his leadership on task accomplishment and service delivery and yet fail to take into account the worker’s satisfaction. This could only lead to a sad and unsatisfied lot of workers who instead of enjoying their work might in fact be enduring it.
The masculinity mindset of many Australians has led to the election and nomination of leaders to management positions just because of their gender. Some of the people elected in such positions may not be able to deliver as they do not have the required skills and qualities necessary for effective delivery in the respective positions.
On the other hand, some of those who can deliver have been left out due to the fact that they are female yet they have all the personalities that a leader ought to have. Some of the legislation has also fueled such chauvinistic beliefs of ideas that are irrelevant in the current century.
Efforts are however being made to by the government and other organizations to try and stump out gender- based discrimination in leadership as well as other positions. Efforts have been made by the federal government for instance through the establishment of a taskforce that is concerned with the management and leadership skills, with a view to making recommendations for the improvement of managers’ skills.
The taskforce addresses gender issues in the management as well. Gender stereotyping has traditionally been seen as a strategy in leadership. The topic is considered critical in the development of management and leadership skills. It is only through addressing such gender issues that greater organizational effectiveness shall be realized.
It has been found out by the taskforce that there is reluctance as well as lack of preparedness by the academic and the industrial management in dealing with gender issues. The subject is sensitive and it has not been easy when it comes to dealing with gender issues in the management of different managements of different organizations in Australia including the banks.
This has made it difficult for women to proceed with their career as managers. According to the Karpin’s report for instance, it has been observed that women play a minor managerial roles in the Australian economy (Kaprin 1995)..
However, this trend appears to have changed in recent days. The taskforce has been relevant as it has researched and established that there are minor differences when it comes to the performance of female managers in comparison with their male counterparts.
These differences are concerned with the matters of confidence, dominance, and the sense of security. According to the findings, gender is not very crucial in leadership. In the case of women, it is the issue of opportunity and not necessarily performance when it comes to the comparison between their roles and those of their male counterparts in the management situation.
These findings are vital in policy debates. The government is making an effort towards ensuring diversity at the workplace. Acts have also been enacted, for example, the 1999 Public Service Act which requires that the heads of agencies establish diversity programs at the workplace so as to eliminate gender based employment disadvantages.
This has proved successful as women are now effectively fulfilling their management roles in the public service. The representation however varies significantly at agency level as men still form a higher percentage of the employees at the management level. For instance, men form 80.1% of the employees at the Bureau of Meteorology, 63.5% in the defense while still at the Medicare they are 80.3%.
However women are still not very much represented at the senior levels (Vecchio 2002). Such gender based discriminations only form part of the influences that a culture has on leadership. As much as women are taking up these roles, this has not been easy for most of them, with a number of women witnessing harassment or bullying while at the workplace.
The issue of cultural influences on leadership could also happen in another form. For example, there are certain cultures which for instance stipulate that a leader must be elderly. Such culture will therefore not be at peace with the issue of youth empowerment, or they may not readily accept a young person as their leader.
Reference List Cox, T., 2001. Creating the multicultural organization: a strategy for capturing the power of diversity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Karpin, D., 1995. Enterprising Nation: Renewing Australia’s Managers to meet the Challenges of the Asia-Pacific Century. (Report on the Industry Task Force on Leadership and Management Skills). Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Vecchio, R. P., 2002. Leadership and gender advantage. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol.13, No. 6, pp. 643-671
The successful implementation of social networks for fashion marketing Dissertation a level english language essay help
Abstract Fashion marketing is a dynamic process that requires dynamic creation of the available opportunities in order for any fashion to stay afloat. The use of social networking sites has become the in thing in the realm of advertising. People and companies are taking advantage of the rate at which the social networking sites are visited in order to market their products.
This paper seeks to establish the way the social networking sites can be used by various people and organizations in the establishment of the right markets for the fashion products.
Introduction The current day proliferation in the use of the internet in the world has really transformed the way people can interact. The internet has been able to compress the world into one digital village where interaction with the rest of the world does not require one to leave the comfort of their sitting room or the desk at their workplaces. One of the factors and tools that have made this a reality is social networking.
Social networking sites have become the code of the day. There are various sites which offer social interaction capabilities such that people can communicate with their friends and families situated in diverse localities throughout the world and update them on their day to day activities as and when they happen.
Some of the sites in use today are facebook, twitter, friendstar, MySpace, flicker, zanga, Slashdot, dodgeball, bibo, blogger and so many others. Twitter and facebook comprise of the most visited and the most famous social networking sites.
Fashion marketing includes the analysis, development and marketing of current fashion trends into the sales department for the invention of the right sales strategies. Marketers in the fashion industry are involved in researching about the current trends in the fashion world, the industries and the people concerned and also the reason as to why the trends are so popular.
The simply are focused on the people who are interested in their products. Fashion marketing is a very dynamic process. This is mainly due to the spontaneous changes that are visible in the fashion industry. The competition is very stiff and requires the necessary stakeholders to be always on their toes or else they will find themselves trailing behind the rest in the fashion market (Gunasekaran, et al, 2002).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Integration of social networking sites and fashion marketing therefore tends to be one of the most attractive decisions that a fashion marketer can take. Today, social networking sites are recording the highest number of visits in an hour. This entails that once a product is advertised through the sites, there is a very high probability that so many people will be able to know about the product.
This paper looks at fashion marketing and seeks to garner more knowledge on the use of social networking sites in this industry. The paper will begin with a background and a review of the topic. This will be closely followed by the objectives of the study and the methods that will be used to gather information in the research project. A conclusion will wind up the paper stating some of the important lessons learnt in the paper.
Literature review In this section the paper seeks to describe how the popular internet social connection platforms can be used to market fashion. Bohdanowicz
The Quality of Work Life Is More Important Than Ever Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Work Life: A Brief History
How Work Life Affects Organizational performance
How to Improve Work Life Balance
Introduction Quality of Work Life has become an extremely important issue in organizations today. This is because it has been recognized that work-life balance has a direct bearing on the productivity of employees. While organizations could afford to disregard work-life issues in the past with little consequences, they cannot afford to do that today since the business environment is characterized by many competing demands between work and home.
These demands have been increased further by demographic changes in the workplace, an ageing population, and the presence of sophisticated communications technologies. As a result, there is a significant increase in the conflict between work and non-work responsibilities for the employee today. When these conflicts are not resolved, the productivity of the employee reduces significantly.
To counter these changes and the conflict they bring about, organizations have had to come up with strategies that are aimed at facilitating the employee’s effort to perform optimally at they job while at the same time fulfilling their personal responsibilities.
This paper will set out to discuss quality of work life programs provided by organizations. A brief history of work life and how work life affects the corporation’s performance will be given. The paper will also discuss ways through which work-life balance can be improved for the benefit of the employee and the entire organization.
Work Life: A Brief History While work-life balance issues have become increasingly important for executive and human resource professionals today, these issues have been in existent for decades. Work-life began to be given relevance by organizations as far back as the 1960s. However, the focus in these early years was on working mothers who were struggling to balance their work demands with those of raising children (Bird 2).
By the 1980s, major organizations had begun to make changes to their internal workplace policies so as to address the family needs of women. These changes included maternity leaves, flexible work hours, home-based work programs, and child-care services. By the end of the decade, men also began to voice concerns over their work-life issues. This resulted in work-life balance became viewed as an issue that affected both genders and not only women.
Bird declares that in the 1990s, there was unanimous recognition that work-life balance was a vital issue for all employees regardless of their gender, marital status or parenthood (2). The growing awareness of the importance of the issue led to many attempts being made to come up with work-life solutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Numerous studies were carried out and it was discovered that prospective workers were making job decisions based on work-life issues (Perry-Smith and Blum 1113). Bird notes that despite the adoption of family-friendly policies by organizations, employees and managers were not implementing them and many people continued to report feeling overworked and out of touch with their non-work lives (2).
A general consensus on work-life balance strategies at the beginning of the twenty-first century was that work-life programs had not achieved their intended effects. Stress and overwork were becoming even more prevalent among workers with negative impact on productivity being experienced as a result of this (Bird 3).
Today’s organizations are characterized by increased pressure to achieve profitability which translates to greater demands being made of the workforce. These pressures, if not properly dealt with, can have a detrimental effect on the life of the individual. It is therefore imperative that the steps be undertaken to ensure that work-life balance is maintained.
How Work Life Affects Organizational performance Conflicts between work and non-work responsibilities result in many negative outcomes for both the employee and the organization. Work-life conflicts have been associated with an increase in stress and burnout which results in cognitive difficulties such as staying awake, decreased concentration, and reduced alertness (Anderson et al. 791).
Stress and burnout result in decreased performance from the employee which will translate to less productivity for the organization. It is a well established fact that high levels of stress also result in lower job satisfaction by the employee and he/she is therefore less likely to work towards achieving organizational goals.
Organizations aim to achieve a cohesive culture which helps to focus the organization’s workforce on the goals and objectives that are important. This focus results in higher performance in the areas that interest the organization (Matthew 690). The number of conflicts is also reduced in a cohesive environment since the employees share objectives.
Work-life conflicts may result in weak organizational cultures which are characterized by a lack of a common culture throughout the organization. Matthew asserts that such a culture results in employee’s exhibiting reduced levels of commitment to the organization (679).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Quality of Work Life Is More Important Than Ever specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Provision of work-life practices has the potential to generate positive attitudes towards the organization by the employee. Social exchange theory explains why the presence of work-life practices results in favorable organization outcomes.
When the employees are treated favorably by their organization, they feel obligated to respond in a similar manner by adopting a positive attitude and engaging in behavior that benefits the source of this good treatment (Allen 429). This improved attitudinal and behavioral outcome will result with greater willingness of the employee to achieve set organizational goals.
By offering work-life balance practices, the organization is able to attract new members while at the same time reducing the levels of work-life conflict among its current workforce. This results in an enhanced organizational effectiveness.
Organizations which offer career paths which include family supportive policies and allow the employee to balance career and family are perceived as significantly more attractive that those that only offer traditional career paths (Carless and Wintle 400). This is because people are today keen to integrate their work lives with their family lives (Secret 410).
Work-life practices give an organization a competitive advantage in an environment where such practices are limited. Yeandle et al associate the presence of voluntary reduced hours to an increase in recruitment and retention by an organization (34). For example, the presence of onsite childcare centers is associated with lower turnover rates among employees.
A qualitative study by McDonald et al on employed women with dependent children found out that many of the participants would not continue working it they did not have access to flexible working hours and family-responsive policies (480).
How to Improve Work Life Balance Bearing in mind that a quality work-life balance results in increased organizational effectiveness, it makes sense for an organization to seek ways to improve work-life balance among its employees. Work-life balance practices are presumed to assist the employee to balance their work and family demands which in turn brings about enhanced employee productivity and hence higher business performance.
There are a number of strategies which can be implemented to ensure that a work-family balance is achieved in his life. One approach is the boundary-spanning strategy which involves an individual taking action to reduce the forces that interfere with their plans at home or at work (Vydanoff 135).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Quality of Work Life Is More Important Than Ever by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This approach requires the worker to reduce the stressors in their life so as to enhance productivity as well as social capabilities. The employee is required to set guard limits (boundaries) to ensure that his schedule is protected against any interfering forces. Undoubtedly, this strategy can only work with the support of the organization since if the organization does not respect the employee’s boundaries; it is unlikely that the employee can effectively carry out this strategy.
Another strategy that can be adopted is fostering an open environment where the employees are allowed to discuss their non-work lives with their colleagues. A survey by Poelmans revealed that employees who discussed their family situations with their co-workers were more satisfied and exhibited superior performance compared to those who kept their home issues compartmentalized (67). Talking about home life is beneficial to work-life balance since the employee can be assisted to fulfill his work goals by the other employees if they understand his/her home responsibilities.
The work demands and the resources available in an organization affect the ability of an individual to maintain a healthy work-family balance. Crane explains what then the work demands are great and the resources available are limited, the employee is forced to put in extra effort so as to meet the set organizational goals (159). Such conditions directly influence the work-life balance by escalating conflicts through an over commitment to work at the expense of the family.
Research indicates that the use of flexible working hours is associated with lower levels of work-to-life conflicts (Hill et al. 54). The reason for this is that flexible working hours give the employee a sense of control. This perceived control serves as a mediating mechanism for family supportive policies (Rogier and Padgett 94) When the worker is satisfied with work schedule flexibility, there will be a positive job attitude which will bring about increased organizational commitment.
A major concern for employees with families is the welfare of their children. The organization can assist to reduce this concern by offering facilities such as childcare centers, referral services and other family-supportive practices that will reduce the inconvenience that the parents might face while at the same time reducing their financial burden (Lewis 19). A study by Grover and Crooker demonstrated that these supportive practices had the advantage of increasing the levels of commitment to the organization by the employee (280).
Work life can be improved by adopting an organizational culture that is accommodating and which does not victimize the employee for wanting to spend time with his/her family. Kodz et al. reveal that many workers are de-motivated by the perception that using work-life balance practices will impact negatively on their career prospects (34).
This perception is valid in organizations which have cultures that are unsupportive of work-life balance such as deeply entrenched long-hours culture and an unaccommodating attitude among managers and co-workers. Managers should know that time spent at the workplace is not necessarily an indicator of an employee’s contribution and commitment to the organization.
Discussion There is no universal approach to achieving a work-life balance and no one solution can work for every employee. Work-life balance programs should therefore be viewed as on-going process which requires the commitment of the individual and the organization. Workers have different preferences and as such, certain work-life balance strategies may reduce conflict for some while increasing it in others.
For example, arrangements to work from home through telework may benefit some workers while others may resent it since it may appear to blur the boundary between work and home. Bird denotes work-life balance as an “individual issue that affects the organization than it is an organizational issue that affects the individual” (3). The individual should therefore be involved when coming up with a work-life program for him/her.
Organizations should ensure that work-life practices are not only present but are also used. Research indicates that while organizational acknowledge the importance of work-life balance and the impact it has on productivity, most of them do not come up with measures to help employees cope with work-life conflicts (Halpern and Murphy 33). In other cases, employees remain unaware of their work-life entitlements. This situation results in work-life practices failing to achieve their intended aims in the organization.
Conclusion This paper set out to discuss quality of work life programs in organizations and show how work life programs affect organizational performance. From the discussions contained herein, it is evident that the quality of work life is today more important than it was in the past.
It has been demonstrated that work-life conflicts have negative repercussions for employee performance which translates to decreased organizational productivity. Organizations should therefore ensure that they have effective work-life programs in place and that these programs are utilized. By doing this, the organization will nurture satisfied employees who will bring about increased productivity.
Works Cited Allen, Tammy. “Family-supportive work environments: The role of organizational perceptions.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 58.1 (2001): 414-435.
Anderson, Stella, Coffey Betty, and Byerly Robin. “Formal organizational initiatives and informal workplace practices: Links to work-life conflict and job-related outcomes.” Journal of Management 28.6 (2002): 787-810.
Bird, Jim. “Work-life balance doing it right and avoiding the pitfalls.” Employment Relations Today 33.3 (2006) 1-9.
Carless, Sally, and Wintle Josephine. “Applicant attraction: The role of recruiter function, work-life balance policies and career salience.” International Journal of Selection and Assessment 15.4 (2007): 394-404.
Crane, Russell. Handbook of families and work: interdisciplinary perspectives. USA: University Press of America, 2009. Print.
Grover, Samantha and Crooker Jake. “Who appreciates family-responsive human resource policies: The impact of family-friendly policies on the organizational attachment of parents and non-parents.” Personnel Psychology 48.1 (1995): 271-288.
Halpern, Diane and Susan Murphy. From work-family balance to work-family interaction: changing the metaphor. Sydney: Routledge, 2005. Print.
Hill, Edward, Hawkins Adams, Ferris, Mill, and Weitzman Morris. “Finding an extra day a week: The positive influence of perceived job flexibility on work and family life balance.” Family Relations 50.1 (2001): 49-58.
Kodz, James, Harper Henry, and Dench Susan. Work-life balance: Beyond the rhetoric. Institute for Employment Studies Report 384. London: IES.
Lewis, Sandra. “‘Family Friendly’ employment policies: A route to changing organizational culture or playing about at the margins?” Gender, Work and Organization 4.1 (1997): 13-24.
Matthew, Jack. “The relationship of organizational culture with productivity and quality.” Employee Relations 29.6 (2007): 677-695.
McDonald, Paula, Guthrie Diane, Bradley Lisa, and Shakespeare-Finch Jane. “Investigating work-family policy aims and employee experiences.” Employee Relations 27.5 (2005): 478-494.
Perry-Smith, Jill, and Blum Terry. “Work-life human resource bundles and perceived organizational performance.” Academy of Management Journal 43.6 (2000): 1107-1117.
Poelmans, Steven. Work and family: an international research perspective. Sidney: Routledge, 2005. Print.
Rogier, Sarah, and Padgett Marie. “The impact of utilizing a flexible work schedule on the perceived career advancement potential of women.” Human Resource Development Quarterly 15.1 (2004): 89-106.
Secret, Morris. “Integrating paid work and family work.” Community, Work and Family 9.4 (2006): 407-427.
Voydanoff, Patricia. Work, family, and community: exploring interconnections. New York: Routledge, 2007. Print.
Yeandle, Silas, Crompton Rein, Wigfield Andrea, and Dennett Jean. Employed careers and family-friendly employment policies. London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation Policy Press, 2002. Print.
Malcolm X Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The paper will argue that the film “Malcolm X” is a fight against the demonization of an African American icon. In light of critics’ remarks in the book “The mistakes of Malcolm X”, the director went beyond propaganda and told the story of a society changer. It will argue that the prison scene in the movie was designed to illustrate the story of a man who freed himself from a self created prison.
Analysis In the prison, Malcolm Little and another black prisoner are reading a dictionary. Malcolm’s friend reads out the definition of black from the book; all definitions were synonymous to evil, dirt and wickedness. He also reads out the definition of white, which was synonymous to honesty, purity and fairness (Lee, 1992). In this instance, the signifier refers to the negative definitions of ‘black’ that are found in the white man’s dictionary.
The signified in this case is the oppression and inequality that those words represent in the eyes of the protagonist as well as members of the black race. When Malcolm’s prison mate reads those definitions, the ideas shock Malcolm. He explains that the ideas come from a white man’s dictionary. It is at this point that Malcolm X realizes that knowledge was one of the greatest tools that white men used to control and dominate society.
The dictionary definitions assisted Malcolm in his self consciousness because he now knew that not all written material was accurate. His colleague points out that society gives out propaganda, and it is one’s responsibility to look beyond that propaganda in order to get to the truth. Critics assert that Malcolm X read too much into the racial-domination ideology (Lavelle, 2011). They believe that he looked for trouble even where it did not exist.
However, I disagree with this viewpoint because Malcolm’s analytical approach to literature reflected how social structures worked. It is necessary to look beyond certain objects and words in order to understand the intrinsic meaning behind those words. Malcolm was simply analyzing a society that treated black people as second class citizens. He was trying to get to the root of the problem through this analysis.
Malcolm X spoke to white and black audiences alike; however, his message was designed for the poor black people. He was deeply suspicious of the white man even after taking a long trip to Mecca. Furthermore, he was a radical. He made demands concerning black people’s separation from the white population. He believed in a violent propaganda that demanded equality by any means necessary.
Malcolm asserted that one should only be non violent to people that are non violent. Therefore, physical violence was a weapon that Malcolm endorsed. In this regard, the revolutionary message that Malcolm preached scared white Americans deeply. This was an individual who made sense, yet he preached hate. He was a powerful orator that the white citizens did not know how to handle. In essence, one can understand why Malcolm X’s image was quite negative.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The director needed to counter his demonization by portraying an individual that audiences could relate to. Through the journey of self enlightenment that the director highlights in the prison scene, it is possible to understand where Malcolm’s notions of racial oppression came from.
This means that non-black audiences can then identify with his ideas. The scene was crucial in bringing out the sociological ideologies that dominant classes used in order to protect their positions; literature was one such avenue. The dictionary was designed in such a way that it did not recognise the rights and opinions of black people who were not all ‘wicked’ or ‘evil’.
These words brought out the fundamental struggles that people in that society had to confront in their daily lives. These dictionary definitions were designed to give film consumers a better grasp of the black man’s struggles, and thus minimize chances of racial stereotyping.
The dictionary may also be perceived in another way in this film. When in prison, Malcolm X was ashamed about his lack of literacy skills. He could barely express himself in prose (Lee, 1992). Furthermore, he became envious of other prison mates who had a great command of the English language.
Having realized that his only path to liberation was his own literacy, Malcolm decided to learn how to read and write. The dictionary became his greatest companion because he would write out all the words on a page; including the punctuation marks. As he practiced this, his vocabulary kept improving.
When his command of the language increased, Malcolm became a book fanatic. The dictionary can also be seen as a signifier in this case. Critics, on the other hand, would explain that the dictionary represents someone who took responsibility for his actions (Lavelle, 2011). Such critics assert that many minorities failed to take responsibility for their own lives.
I disagree with this viewpoint because it does not recognize the importance of social and economic constructions in Malcolm’s society. ‘The signified’ refers to the journey of self discovery and emancipation. The dictionary was Malcolm’s tool out of the entrapment that others felt in the prison.
We will write a custom Essay on Malcolm X specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, Malcolm explains that when he learnt how to read, he finally felt free. This dictionary signified the protagonists’ ability to become self made. He did not accept his circumstances passively; Malcolm knew that he was disadvantaged, and his only way out was through an education. The dictionary came to represent liberation.
He chose to curve out a different path for himself. He would never have become the great leader that society recognizes today if he never took the time to teach himself the English language. In this regard, I disagree with the critics because the dictionary shows the drive and determination of the protagonist.
Other non black races did not have to make that choice. Teachers, parents and other individuals could always teach white children how to read and write. They did not have to struggle or fight the same battles that Malcolm fought, because they were already liberated. The dictionary was symptomatic of this journey.
Economically damaged people can identify with these struggles because a number of them still confront similar challenges to Malcolm’s. Some of them may not know how to read and write so self expression is indeed a great mystery. The dictionary can represent the same thing that it represented to Malcolm in their views.
As Malcolm X started to improve his vocabulary, he also started to learn about the idea of the Nation of Islam, as taught by Elijah Muhammad. Malcolm interpreted books about history in a different light. He started looking at the depictions of great men and women in the past from a different lens.
At the time, he believed that there was a whitening process at play that undermined black people’s accomplishments. In this regard, one may interpret the history books as an instrument of white propaganda. Critics assert that Malcolm’s reading of these books was tainted by the unfounded philosophies of the Nation of Islam (Lavelle, 2011). However, I disagree with this viewpoint because, true to Malcolm’s assertions, there was no mention of blacks in the history books. Malcolm found that explanation through the use of racial discourses.
Conclusion As this paper has demonstrated, the film was a fight against the demonization of Malcolm X in relation to critic’s attempts to downplay his accomplishments. Through the library scene, it is possible to see how self enlightenment, self consciousness and liberation were realised through this protagonist’s efforts.
References Lavelle, D. (2011). The many mistakes of Malcolm X. NY: AMZ
Not sure if you can write a paper on Malcolm X by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Malcolm X. 1992 [DVD] Spike Lee USA: Largo International
Merits and demerits of a balanced scorecard Research Paper essay help online free
Introduction Many organizations in the twenty first century usually use the balanced scorecard to align their strategies and visions. This is usually one of the strategic plans within such Companies. This concept is also usually incorporated by non profit organizations and government bodies.
It is also usually used in the measuring of overall performance of organization in relation to set goals. Some businesses usually use it to enhance their external and internal communications. (Atkinson, 2006)
This concept is mostly known to have been initiated by Kaplan in the early 1950’s but started being implemented in the nineties. This model is mostly used to analyse employees’ activities throughout the year.
This concept is usually praised for its advantages as a management framework within organization. It is also highly criticized for its various limitations experienced by users. This paper looks in-depth at the pros and cons of a balanced scorecard framework of performance management. (Kaplan and Norton, 2004)
Merits Balanced view of organizational performance
Just like any other framework of managing performance within organizations, the balanced scorecard has its pros and cons. One of the merits of the balanced scorecard is that managers are able to have a view of organization’s performance that is usually balanced in nature.
This is comparing to other traditional methods that were used to analyse Company performance. In most cases, the methods would give financial aspects of the business only. They usually overlook other aspects that are part of organizational performance. (Kaplan and Norton, 2004)
The balanced scorecard looks at all the features in the light of Company objectives. This enables management team to ascertain whether Company objectives are being met or not. This is considering the fact that an organization may be performing spectacularly in financial terms but has poor organizational development. (Neely, 2007)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This also could include very poor customer satisfaction. It is also possible for an organization to be making enviable profit while its communication systems are poor and processes outdated.
A balanced scorecard helps managers to analyze all these aspects and to have an overall view of the Company performance. Through the use of a balanced scorecard, there is a comprehensive view of the organization. (Pandey, 2005)
This tends to overturn the conventional idea of organizations having separate departments and isolated functions. It helps to show that all units within organizations are correlated. Analysis of all essential departments helps management team to correct areas that require change. This also includes putting rectification measures in time before the Company’s performance is adversely affected. (Zanini, 2006)
Helps in implementing organizational development
Through the use of a balanced scorecard, it is easy to implement organizational development. Organizational development is usually implemented in an official and organized way. It involves, coaching and instructing employees in areas of need. It also helps in accomplishment of organizational goals. Majority of the goals are usually long term in nature.
Organizational development is known to be part of the strategic plan in many Companies. This is where staffs are trained and educated on various areas such as customer care and resource management. The use of a balanced scorecard may show the customer care levels to be very low within the organization.
This usually indicates that staffs need training on customer care. Through this method, staffs easily trained on areas shown to have a deficit in service delivery. Research shows few managers implement strategic planning. (Atkinson, 2006)
The use of strategic maps as part of the balanced scorecard helps the organization to know its participation in achievement of strategic goals. The balanced scorecard in itself can be used to educate staffs on different organizational aspects.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Merits and demerits of a balanced scorecard specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through the balanced scorecard, it is easier to show staffs on the essence of incorporating more training and development. Staffs get to know the effect of training on overall performance of the organization both in the short term and long term. (Neely, 2007)
Benefits of long term performance remedies are enjoyed
Further analysis of the balanced scorecard shows that it is quite advantageous as compared to other traditional methods. Other traditional methods of performance management analysed financial situations in the Company.
This usually resulted in incorporation of short term remedies on handling the problem. For instance, an organization in financial performance would have short term corrective measures put in place. These usually included an increase in prices among other interventions. (Pandey, 2005)
Most of the times the short term remedies never worked in the long run resulting in a situation where organizations still had the initial problem to solve. When using a balanced scorecard, managers analyse both the short term and long term effects of remedies.
This usually helps as managers are able to put in place strategies that work well for the organization even in the long term. Organizations that usually utilize the balanced scorecard as a framework of managing performance benefit from long term interventions of improving performance. (Zanini, 2006)
Analysis of the balanced scorecard shows that it makes it very easy to make amendments to the organization when need arises. This makes the system to be highly portable and quite flexible to use. Global and local business markets are usually known to be very unpredictable with changes occurring on a day to day basis.
Such changes in the business environment usually necessitate organizations to make internal changes. A balanced scorecard usually helps to make necessary amendments in case of such changes in the business environment. A balanced scorecard helps to make changes in objectives and day to day measures so that strategic goals within the organization can be achieved.
Clear map that is strategic in nature
Research shows that the balanced scorecard clearly illustrates the strategic and operational features in an organization. In most cases, organizational measures, actions and day to day decisions tend to waver away from the organization’s strategy. The management team in the organizations usually assumes that they are usually working on strategic goals while this is not usually the case. (Neely, 2007)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Merits and demerits of a balanced scorecard by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The incorporation of the balanced scorecard as a framework of managing organizational performance helps in this realization. It usually provides a clear map that is strategic in nature. This also usually includes the cause and effect features of every action.
These usually include measures taken on a day to day basis in relation to organizational goals. These strategic maps are simple and can be interpreted by any of the staffs within the organization. This is even those who may not have any prior knowledge in strategic management. (Zanini, 2006)
A balanced scorecard is usually very essential in organizations since it can be used by managers as a planning tool. As earlier on illustrated, the business environment is highly characterized by uncertainty. Despite this, a balanced scorecard can be used to put in place a rational budget for a business’ financial year. It can also be used for resource allocation. This is more so financial and material resources within an organization.
This is usually based on the fact that a balanced scorecard provides a fact based and systematic management framework. This usually helps to replace planning based on intuition. It usually helps managers to anticipate future outcomes. This is usually because of leading indicators in a balanced scorecard. The simulations and cause –effect features of the balanced scorecard make planning easier. (Neely, 2007)
Facilitates improvements within an organization
A balanced scorecard is usually known to facilitate improvement within an organization. A balanced scorecard raises the visibility of managers on what is going on within the organization. This is because it shows areas that are currently performing well and those that are performing poorly. At one glance, managers can identify areas that need to be worked upon. (Neely, 2007)
Through this, managers easily identify areas that require urgent changes. This spurs improvements to be carried out within the organization. Managers are usually able to identify best practices within an organization through the use of a balanced scorecard. Proponents of this model assert that a balanced scorecard helps to create more innovation opportunities within organization hence improvement of service provision and overall performance in organizations. (Zanini, 2006)
Unlike other traditional frameworks of performance management, the balanced scorecard is more comprehensive in nature. Various features within the organization are thoroughly analysed and not just financial aspects.
This tends to encourage accountability of stakeholders within the Company. This is founded on the fact that the work done in every department has to be analyzed. This in most cases is not just the accountability of employees but also that of the management team. (Pandey, 2005)
Some organizations tailor the balanced scorecard such that time management of all staffs and management team is analysed. This also usually includes the way they relate to other staffs within the organization. Employees and management team tend to be more responsible as they go about their duties. (Kaplan and Norton, 2004)
Essential in benchmarking
Balanced scorecard helps managers to identify areas that are performing poorly within the organization. Benchmarking is part and parcel of strategic management. Many businesses are incorporating benchmarking in order to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. An essential step in benchmarking is identifying processes within an organization.
Generally, benchmarking gives a different view of handling quality issues within an organization. It actually acts against any resistance to change whatsoever. This entire process can be carried out by an organization as an individual venture or as a joint undertaking between organizations. (Kaplan and Norton, 2004)
A balanced scorecard makes it easy for managers to identify the process within the Company. It also makes it easy to compare the performance of various processes and departments. This allows improvement of quality of production, service delivery to be improved through benchmarking process. It is also essential to note that the balanced scorecard can be used for comparing performance of processes and departments between organizations. (Neely, 2007)
Break down of measures at the corporate level
A balanced scorecard is usually known to help in breaking down measures at the corporate level. This is such that managers at local levels clearly understand their role in enhancing organizational effectiveness. This also includes the role of the rest of the employees within the organization in improving overall corporate effectiveness.
This makes stakeholders take their positions and roles since they get to understand the organizational measures in their respective levels. This means that the organizational strategy is usually made operational through overall translation into targets and measures for each group of staffs. (Zanini, 2006)
Limitations Scorecard metrics
There are also some limitations of using a balanced scorecard as a framework of managing performance in organizations. One of limitations is the fact that the metrics in the framework do not relate to all organizations.
It means that the balanced scorecard metrics cannot be used for all organizations that would desire to use it. This usually leads to a situation where some organizations incorporate the balanced scorecard, use the metrics. These are usually not beneficial to the organization.
This makes the entire process of using the balanced scorecard meaningless as the organization may not benefit at all. It is usually recommended that managers tailor make metrics that are usually relevant to the organization before using the balanced scorecard. This would help analyse and improve current performance. (Atkinson, 2006)
Limited view of organizational performance
Critics of the balanced scorecard assert that it does not give a full view of Company performance. The scorecard has four major areas that managers use as a framework of analyzing performance. These areas in essence are mostly meant to show development and growth aspects of any business. The four areas, according to critics, do not who the overall picture of performance in an organization.
It is usually worth noting the financial metric on the framework is not comprehensive in nature. It is highly recommended that managers use the balanced scorecard as part of strategy that is bigger. There is mostly the need for organizations to incorporate comprehensive accounting models as part of the bigger strategy. This usually helps to have a more overall view of Company performance. (Atkinson, 2006)
Incorporation of non financial measures
For an organization to use the balanced scorecard, it has to tailor the metrics to the Company processes in order to enhance relevancy. This means that managers have to include non financial metrics in order to have an overall view of performance. This has been cited to be a complicated venture. This is usually based on the fact that organizations usually have many non financial departments.
It is mostly difficult for managers to identify non-financial metrics to be included and those that should be excluded. This is because the balanced scorecard cannot be effective if all dimensions within the organization have to be included in the framework. (Kaplan and Norton, 2004)
When the dimensions are very many, the balanced scorecard usually has high chances of failing. Critics of the balanced scorecard assert that it is challenging to track non-financial dimensions. This is because the dimensions are usually subjective in nature. The biggest challenge for managers is to include dimensions that are mostly related to outcomes that are usually defined in nature. (Neely, 2007)
While the balanced scorecard has been applauded for myriad advantages, it has one major limitation. It is usually a very time consuming process. This requires managers to burn the midnight oil trying to workout the balanced scorecard to suit their organizations. Collecting information concerning all the metrics on the balanced scorecard takes a lot of time.
Usually this involves collecting information from various stakeholders within the organization. The implementation of the balanced scorecard requires participation of both the management team and staffs. If any of them fails to participate then, the process can never be successful. This in the long run is usually quite time consuming. (Pandey, 2005)
Limited in scanning external environment
A balanced scorecard is an essential tool of analysing the internal environment in organizations. This tool is usually limited since it cannot be used to scan the external business environment.
This means that balanced scorecard cannot be used in scanning external environmental factors. It cannot replace external environmental systems used to analyse the environment. Managers need to incorporate other systems when scanning the external environment. (Pandey, 2005)
Resistance in initiating balanced scorecard
Researchers assert that there are various challenges commonly faced when managers try to implement a balanced scorecard. It is usually resisted by some of the staffs during the initiation process. This is usually because they do not see the holistic picture.
This requires total commitment of top management. In most cases, employees tend to resist the new system, since they perceive it as a tool that is mostly used to show underperformance. Some staffs tend to perceive it as unnecessary addition of administrative tasks. (Atkinson, 2006)
Conclusion A balanced scorecard is usually incorporated as part of a Company’s strategies. It mostly used to align strategies and visions in organizations. It is also usually used in the measuring of overall performance of organization in relation to set goals. This concept is mostly known to have been initiated by Kaplan in the early 1950’s but started being implemented in the nineties.
This model is usually used to analyse employees’ activities throughout the year. The model has various advantages and limitations. A balanced scorecard gives balanced view of organizational performance. It enhances flexibility when amendments need to be made. It also usually encourages accountability of staffs and even the management team.
It is useful to benchmarking process and helps in implementing organizational development. A balanced scorecard also has its limitations. This includes the fact that it is time consuming. It requires a lot of time to include all the metrics in the framework of performance management. It is quite challenging for managers to include all the metrics in the balanced scorecard.
It is limited in scanning external environment. This means that it can only be used in scanning the internal environment in organizations. Critics of the balanced scorecard assert that it gives a limited view of organizational performance. This is because it is not all inclusive in terms of relevant metrics in organizations. All in all, balanced scorecard is quite instrumental in organizations and the merits far outweigh the limitations.
References Atkinson, H. (2006). Strategy Implementation- A role for the Balanced Scorecard: Management Decision. 44, 10: 141-1460.
Kaplan, R., and Norton, D. (2004). Measuring the strategic readiness of intangible Assets: Harvard Business Review, 82(2): 52-63.
Neely, A. (2007). The search for meaningful measures: Management Services 51, 2:14-17.
Pandey, I. (2005). Balanced Scorecard Myth and Reality: Interfaces, 30, 1: 51-64.
Zanini, M. (2006). The Balanced Scorecard here and back: Management Accounting Quarterly, 7, 4: 18-23.
The Dependence of People’s Life on the Changes in the Technological Sphere Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Today is a great day, and I want to congratulate you on your successful graduation from the high school. It is the beginning of a new stage in your life, and it is a remarkable event for our family. Some days ago I found the essays written by Mary Paul in 1850 and by her grandchild in 1925.
They presented a retrospective on the history of our family, as well as many families in the USA during that period. These essays made me think of the peculiarities of our family’s development and the progress of the American society according to numerous changes in the urban life and technological sphere. I have analyzed the stories told by our grandfather and made some significant conclusions which I want to share with you.
Our grandfather was born during the period when the American society suffered from the Great Depression’s results. If in the 1920’s Americans had the opportunity to develop their capitals, the economic crisis of the 1930’s deprived them of the opportunity even to save their houses. However, after the election of Franklin Roosevelt the situation was changed. He proposed several social and economic programs.
Our great grandfather, who worked at the factory, got the opportunity to participate in the FHA and the HOLC. He was one of those who received long term loans in the HOLC and saved his house. Many Americans who lost their jobs and were at risk of losing their houses used these programs controlled by the Government. Nevertheless, many people lost their houses even participating in the program because they could not pay their credits.
The next dangerous challenge for our family was World War II. After returning from the war, our great grandfather decided to use the possibilities provided by the Government according to the G.I. Bill of 1944. The house in which his family lived was in a bad condition. That is why he bought a new house using the opportunities provided by this program.
However, this house was located in the suburbs. Moving to the suburbs was a tendency of that period. Today it is quite difficult for us to understand why people preferred leaving in large cities to moving to the suburbs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, the economic situation in cities was not advantageous for the most of the population. First, it was rather difficult to find a job. Second, those people who suffered from unemployment and GIs began building their new lives in the suburbs. Many our great grandfather’s friends, after returning from the war, also used the opportunities to get the education according to the G.I. Bill of 1944.
Now, life in the suburbs required new approaches to the question of roads because it was possible to get to the suburbs only by car. Comfortable highways within the territory of such states as New York and interstate highways were required according to the needs not only of the suburban residents but also of all the population.
Today it is difficult to imagine the time when getting from Boston to New York could take you more than three days. However, it was a real situation of 1850 which was depicted in Mary Paul’s essays.
In the period between the 1940-1950’s, the situation with transport infrastructure also required some improvements. The year 1956 was quite remarkable for the history of the American civil engineering. The Government admitted the Interstate Highway Act which became one of the largest technological projects of that time.
The development of a 42,500 mile-long interstate highway system was planned. If today we consider only innovative railway systems or the invention of powerful aircrafts as real breakthroughs, the project of this interstate highway can be considered as a real technological achievement of 1950’s.
Living in the suburbs, our great grandfather and his son could appreciate the possibilities of a new transportation policy of the Government. However, all the intentions of our grandfather were directed on improvement of his new house in the suburbs. After the war, the task of the architects in cities was to rebuild municipal houses.
In the suburbs, people concentrated on building their own houses. In this period, all the technological achievements in house-building were connected to the name of Arthur Levitt whose company built the whole planned communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Today, they are known as Levittown. It is interesting that many our relatives used the loans given by the FHA which began its activity in the period of the Great Depression.
We will write a custom Essay on The Dependence of People’s Life on the Changes in the Technological Sphere specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1960-1970’s our grandfather worked in the steel industry. The situation in the economy of the country was rather critical. The plants and factories of the industrial Midwest and Northeast of the USA did not receive enough financing.
Many plants were closed and a lot of people faced the problem of unemployment again. Thus, this region was known as the Rust Belt. A new economic situation in the country resulted in the decline of these industrial regions, but it gave the growth for the Southern and Western territories.
In the 1970’s, the industrial capitals were removed to the Sun Belt. Many friends of our grandfather had to move to the more successful territories in order to earn more money. They considered the problem of the movement from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt as the result of the lack of the necessary improvements in the industrial spheres. Today the situation with the technological development is not so crucial in many industries, and we can even observe a definite progress in it.
It is interesting that when I asked our father about his opinion on the problem of the opportunities of life in the suburbs, about his vision of the technological progress and its impact on our life, he stated that every period the history of our family was connected to some changes in the technological spheres. It is rather easy to understand the meaning of such usual objects and things as highways and private houses when you do not have them.
Father accentuated the fact that he was interested in the question of moving of a great number of people to the suburbs after the 1960’s. This phenomenon was connected to the economic issues in the country. Many people could easily find jobs in the suburbs, but not in the cities. However, the process of moving to the suburbs continues today.
This fact can depend on people’s interest in the principles of family life based on the traditions in the peaceful suburbs where you can find a lot of pleasant private houses. Our father also paid attention to the phenomenon of building of the gated communities. Today you know them as rather comfortable residential communities in large American cities, but some years ago people faced the problem of the insecurity of their communities and the high level of crimes. Today this problem is solved.
Thus, all the changes in the development of the technological possibilities in the USA contributed to the progress of the industries and country. They were successive and depended on the economic issues. Today our family prefers living in the suburbs. This fact is closely connected to the processes in the history of our country and can influence my decision to live in the suburbs too.
Blackberry in the UK Market Essay essay help online free
Over the years RIM’s Blackberry brand has been a powerful contender in the IT industry. It was one of the pioneers which drove the smart phone revolution in 2007 but as per our research we found out that while Blackberry’s revenue and gross profit have been improving between the years 2007 to 2011, the rate at which they have been increasing has been deteriorating. There are many factors to consider in the stagnation of the company’s growth.
These can be attributed to the world economy with financial crisis at bay, aggressive competitors such as Apple, Android and Windows consuming the Blackberry market and/ or problems with regards to the saturation of the market with an abundant number of players in the industry. In terms of net marketing contributions, our findings show that year on year percentage change has been decreasing.
Packaging the company’s sales, marketing and administration cost over the given years of 2007 to 2011 under the “marketing cost”, column we have observed that the 2011 marketing cost is two times that of 2010 which is more or less a 50% increase while revenue for 2011 has only increased by 33%.
Such occurrence may had been a result of the growing number of aggressive competitors of Blackberry namely Apple’s iPhone series, Google’s massive android franchises and Microsoft’s Windows Mobile smart phones to name a few. According to Iain Mackenzie of BBC New “For at least a decade, besuited city types spent every spare minute twirling their way through corporate emails and pecking out responses.
But then the iPhone arrived, after spending a year or so turning the consumer market upside down, it went after the office inbox” (Mackenzie, 2011). When the iPhone was first released in 2007, Apple improved its iOS’s exchange server compatibility and provided additional security which not only attracted graphic designers and artists whom are the target market of Apple as a company but also captured Blackberry’s middle-aged gentlemen from the finance departments market.
Along came Google’s Android which collaborated with other brands such as HTC, Samsung, LG and other mobile phones to house its operating system. With Android’s wide budget range it captured most of the markets of the smart phone industry from the high end ones to the lower end consumers. Lastly Microsoft’s Windows Mobile phones constant innovation and marketing has won a fair share of loyal followers in the corporate scene.
With these growing competitors RIM had been having difficulties addressing concerns with regards to Blackberry’s competiveness. Another theory of Blackberry’s declining sales can be attributed to the recent problems encountered by its marketing department. On October 2011, the Blackberry service in its largest markets had been disrupted causing its users to have problems accessing data services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to RIM the service problem was caused by a core switch failure within its infrastructure and the backup switch which was designed to carry over the functions of the system failed to perform resulting to a large backlog of data (Dipaola
Desiree’s Child Analysis Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Kate Chopin is one of the wonderful representatives of the South American literature; her short stories depict vivid pictures of the life, social and cultural implications of the South, relationships between people and classes etc.
The short story Desiree’s Baby is also a great example of what the life in the USA looked like after the Civil War; it shows not only the inhumane, racially biased and cruel attitude to African Americans, but the unequal position of women in the white male-dominated society.
The story of a quarter-black baby born in a young family of Desiree (a deserted child adopted by the family of Valmonde, and Armand Aubigny, the son of reputable aristocrats, slave-owners, shows how deprived both women and slaves were in the American post-war society, and opens new dimensions for considering the culture and dominating behaviors, attitudes, and values of the US nation at that time.
The beginning of the short story leaves no doubt about the attitude of Armand to slaves he owns: “Young Aubigny’s rule was a strict one, too, and under it his negroes had forgotten how to be gay, as they had been during the old master’s easy-going and indulgent lifetime” (Chopin 1).
The family of Armand raised their son in strictness, and gave him the full sense of his dominance, both over women and over slaves. The tough character of Armand is further underlined by the change Desiree noticed in her husband after the child’s birth:
“he hasn’t punished one of them—not one of them—since baby is born. Even Negrillon, who pretended to have burnt his leg that he might rest from work—he only laughed, and said Negrillon was a great scamp. oh, mamma, I’m so happy; it frightens me.” (Chopin 2).
The present quotation shows that in fact absence of punishment for slaves was a rare, if not an impossible occurrence in the house of Aubigny. This is why Desiree was so happy about the child in their family – the young woman supposed that the birth of an heir would make her husband kinder and milder, both towards the slaves and towards her.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The subordinate position of Desiree in the family union also leaves no doubt as soon as the woman describes their relationships; the author calls Armand’s nature “imperious and exacting”, and Desiree herself confesses that “[w]hen he frowned she trembled, but loved him.
When he smiled, she asked no greater blessing of God” (Chopin 2). Such an attitude surely shows that Armand was never interested in what Desiree wanted and felt, as she had to adapt to his mood, behavior, and actions.
The second proof for the subordinate position of a woman in the American society after the Civil War was the indisputable belief in the male rightness, without a slightest doubt in the fact that in case something goes wrong, it all comes from a woman.
The assumption that Armand makes on seeing that his baby is not totally white is terrifying for Desiree because of its groundlessness: “It means,” he answered lightly, “that the child is not white; it means that you are not white.” (Chopin 3).
As one can see from this remark of Armand, the man never doubts the fact that his blood is unique, pure, and reputable. His family name of Aubigny and the status of a white house-owner, a husband, and simply a man give him the right to make shameful conclusions without even supposing the guilt from his side, from his family.
The attempt to prove their equality does not give any result for Desiree – she tries to show that the shame of being black is not from her side, as she has all inherited signs of white people: “Look at my hand; whiter than yours, Armand,” she laughed hysterically. “As white as La Blanche’s,” he returned cruelly” (Chopin 3).
However, the fact that Desiree was an adopted child and her origin was disputable and unclear gives Armand the power to dismiss any suppositions about his dirty blood, and to claim about Desiree’s shameful roots. However, Desiree also understands that she may not be able to prove anything as she does not know her parents as well, and she has nothing more to do but to leave the family not to spoil the name of Aubigny so secured by Armand.
We will write a custom Essay on Desiree’s Child Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ending of the short story is quite eloquent for all readers, each of who may design the continuation on his or her own. The abused, frightened Armand gets rid of all things connecting him with his beloved wife (only because of the suspicion that she has dirty blood and black roots), but finally finds out that it is he who “belongs to the race that is cursed with the brand of slavery” (Chopin 4).
The ending seems very feminist in showing how white men act in an arrogant, racist and sexist way, while the problem may come from their own family. Some readers would think of what Armand will do next in the short story; for others it is enough to see the true state of affairs.
White men were dominating in terms of sex and race; the basis for their reputation was their name and skin color; for this reason such men as Armand were ready to do anything to never reveal their relation to black people.
It is hard to suppose that even on knowing the truth about his own origin Armand would return and apologize, return Desiree to his home and raise a beloved child together with her. He is more likely to burn the letter and forget about its contents than accept the idea that he is not dominating, not deserving the right for being totally white.
Hence, instead of a conclusion one can note that the cultural, social, and gender implications were quite strong in the South American literature of the described period, and Kate Chopin revealed the picture of the society of that time with vivid language and expressive images.
Works Cited Chopin, Kate. Desiree’s Baby. Vogue Magazine, January 4, 1893. Web.
Suburban Health Center Coursework college essay help online: college essay help online
Case Study: Suburban Health Center Executive Summary of the Case
Helen Lawson, a department supervisor at Suburban Health Center, received a request from Dr. Morgan to fire a staff nurse Dorothy Wilson who did not pass in the team well due to her personal and professional weaknesses. After conducting own research and interviewing some of her colleagues, Lawson faced a dilemma.
She did not have the authority to fire Wilson herself and her direct superior did not show much decisiveness for action either. And yet, Wilson’s low performance at work and lack of discipline could not be left unattended since they created a tense and conflict situation among the staff. (Evans
Changes in British Culture in the Last Quarter of 19th Century Term Paper online essay help
Gives a brief summary of the different changes that took place in Britain during the period and on the key points in the paper.
Introduction Britain was among the few countries in the early 19th century that experienced a major shift in industry and infrastructure. There were a great number of inventors during this time that greatly influenced the succession of the cultural trend that was evident in the latter parts of the 19th century, with most of the changes happening in the last quarter of the century.
Inventions such as the telephone, the steam engine, the motor, the radio, the telegraph and the light bulb all culminated in the industrial revolution. This saw Britain involved in mass production of steel, textile manufacturing, advanced transport and telecommunication, use of mechanical tools among others.
By the end of the 19th century, Britain had shaped itself into one of the greatest empires of the time, with most of the rural towns being transformed into urban centers complete with railways and electricity.
Architecture The 19th century saw an intricate transformation in British architecture and largely responsible for this was the contradictory approach in design perpetuated by gothic and classic architects. The early 19th century saw the escalation of the gothic design from the Georgian style in buildings, which was further augmented by the 1818 parliamentary vote that pledged a million pounds for the building of new Anglican churches.
Consequently, most of the churches that were constructed during that period (1818-1825) were of the gothic design like is St Luke’s and Chelsea in London. In 1834, the parliamentary houses were set up for rebuilding and competition between the gothic and classic styles of architecture was intensified.
Though the houses of parliament were given a gothic design to complement Westminster hall, the classic movement gained widespread acclaim and this led to the change of the gothic style intended to design a new Indian foreign office in 1855-1872, into the Italian Renaissance form by George Gilbert. By the end of the 19th century, the classic design was largely accepted and the gothic design being reserved for churches only (Gardiner 1997, 49).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gothic design of architecture was greatly inspired by the Romantic Movement in art and literature that was most popular in the early to mid 19th century. However, the need for familiar architecture together with the restoration of Jacobean and Queen Anne architecture brought about fierce debates in parliament that led to the adoption of the classic style of architecture.
Housing Early 19th century houses were modest and the poor lived in two or three roomed homes. One room acted as the living space and kitchen while the other rooms were bedrooms where they slept on straw beds. Skilled workers lived in a one-story home where the two rooms upstairs were used as sleeping space and the two down stairs were the living area and kitchen where the occupants spend most of their time.
Most of these homes were in rural vicinities but the industrial revolution brought about the expansion of urban centers and a better standard of living. This led to the introduction of more comfortable homes in the late 19th century that were affordable and less congested after town councils passed specific regulations concerning the construction of houses.
By the late 1880s, most houses were built with an indoor bathroom, toilet and water heaters. Gas cookers became more common, Furniture was also in mass production, and many homes were able to afford it. Affluent Victorians had their homes decorated in Art Nouveau, which was a form of design composed of flowing lines etched onto the walls and styled hedges, flower gardens and lawns (Brunskill 2000, 27).
Art The early 19th century saw the emergence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, which was the leading art contributor of that period. The movement mainly focused on religious, fictional and narrowed subjects that were colorfully portrayed and immensely detailed (Loades 1999, 32). Though the Pre-Raphaelites style was initially not widely accepted, over time it became a popular form of art that was highly copied by artists from all over Britain and parts of Europe.
Dante Gabriel and John Everett were among the first artists to contribute to the Pre-Raphaelite movement and helped establish it in 1840s with the addition of other talented members like Holman Hunt.
Landscape painting was also immensely popular during the early 19th century and proved to be a cornerstone in British art. Richard Bonington, Constable, John Sell Cotman, Robert Cozens, Turner and Thomas Girtin were among the first artists to popularize landscape art through their vibrant pieces.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Changes in British Culture in the Last Quarter of 19th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The late 19th century saw a divergence into the crafts, with the introduction of the Arts and Crafts Movement that encouraged the design of hand made goods and crafts. Leading artists included William Etty, who chiefly concentrated on the nude, Randolph Caldecott, John Tenniel, and William Morris who specialized in book illustrations, Edward Landseer focused on animal pictures and George Watts’ Victorian expressions.
Late 19th century saw an influx in French artists who criticized the storytelling descriptiveness that was the basis of Victorian art, gradually but persistently influencing British artists into concentrating more on texture, color, tone and form. French influence is to a great extent underscored in works by artists such as Wilson Steer, Augustus John and Walter Sickert (Beryly 1999, 101).
Occupation The industrial revolution brought about the transformation of labor from small scale to large scale after the establishment of industries (Sears 1973, 67-68). Most people in the early 19th century made a living from home based workshops and small-scale farming. The introduction of textile industries brought about the demand for labor and children were recruited to fill in the vacuum.
By late 19th century, a variety of careers for skilled workers had been created and categorized in accordance to skill and pay (Hobsbawm 1994, 52). These included Production, plastics and Metalworkers, supervisors, wood craftsmen, mechanical operators, textile and furnishing workers among others.
Professionals such as Architects, Cartographers, Surveyors, and Engineers were also recognized (Foster 2004 53). This form of grouping eventually led to the association of workers under the same category and consequently trade unions were formed.
Fashion In early 19th century, Britain had men wearing trousers and cotton shirts under a waistcoat and coat. This form of attire contained three layers of dressing and was largely fashionable. Women wore cotton dresses that had puffed sleeves and under the dresses, they put on crinoline made of steel wire or a corset, (Simson 1996, 88).
Gradually the bustle was introduced in the latter part of the 19th century and was recognized by the flat front and bulging back of the dresses. Women also first wore knickers or knickerbockers in the latter part of the 19th century, while women in the early 19th century wore drawers that were cumbersome for they were equivalent to tight fitting trousers.
Children during this time wore similar clothes to the adults, but the last quarter of the 19th century saw the introduction of clothes specially made for children (Lambert, 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Changes in British Culture in the Last Quarter of 19th Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Early 19th century clothes were made by a seamstress, the process was long, and tedious but with the introduction of advanced sewing machines and industrialization of the textile industry in the late 19th century, clothes became cheaper and readily available.
Shoes remained expensive through out the 19th century for they were hand made and there lacked an industry specializing in shoe production. Clothing differentiated social classes and this was evident because Wealthy men wore top hats, middle class men wore bowler hats while the working people wore cloth caps.
Victorian women wore chemises, parasols, jewelry, petticoats, corsets, drawers, hats, gloves, shoes and boots. Part of the reason why there was rapid progression in fashion in the latter 19th century was because of the class difference (Williams 2006, 107).
No sooner had a new upper-class trend emerged than the lower class copied it. This drove demand by upper class for better and unique designs and with the presence of capable technologies, led to steadily more elaborate fashions.
Education Britain had exceptional grammar schools and universities prior to the 19th century. Churches were responsible for educating children from poor families and orphans albeit no schools taught science subjects (Clow 1952, 33). In the late 19th century, new developments in industries provided the need for science subjects such as chemistry and the state was forced to take control of the educational sector.
The Victorian economy witnessed individual industries fail due to lack of managerial and organizational skills (Hudson 2000, 19). This was accredited to lack of actuarial education considering the primary education was poor, grammar schools mainly focused on classics and industrial courses were not studied in University because they lacked compulsory education.
The state therefore intervened, and primary education was made compulsory in 1870. Public schools were instructed to introduce science in the curriculum and build laboratories. The state went ahead to establish central exams, technical schools and colleges and teaching allowances.
In 1880 education was made compulsory for every 5 to 10 years old with the introduction of The Fosters Education Act. From 1899, children were required to go to school until they were 12 for a fee (Daunton 1995, 16).
Recreation In the early 19th century, employees usually had a day off on Sunday. Gradually, skilled employees in the late 19th century began taking Saturday afternoon off and eventually the whole of Saturday too. Football was recognized as a recreational activity and an organization called The London Football Association was formed to govern it in 1863.
Other sports such as tennis, cycling, rugby, croquet and volleyball all came to the limelight in the 19th century and the availability of free time during weekends led to these sports going mainstream in the late 19th century. Indoor games and board games such as ludo became more common and book-reading clubs became familiar social literature events.
Other activities included musicals, singing groups and middle class Victorians attended plays in theatres (Chambliss 1973, 20). Department stores were common phenomena for shoppers, with the first one having been introduced as early as 1863. Late 19th century also saw the construction of public recreation parks that were aimed at providing space for leisure.
Conclusion Through out the 19th century, Britain went through the most metamorphic period in its entire history. Primarily responsible for this was the industrial revolution that brought about an immense change in culture due to the urbanization of several rural areas and the increase in earnings for individuals.
Education however lagged behind as compared to other civilized societies of Britain’s caliber, and this was due to lack of science subjects in schools that preferred to teach a more traditional form of education based on culture. Houses were primarily of the same design in the earlier parts of the century, but there was a gradual shift to a variety of designs that saw buildings drastically change in design.
Homes of the well to do were dominated by portraits especially through out the latter part of the century, and affluent Victorians rarely lacked portrait of family members in their homes. Some of the greatest but less known contributors to the industrial revolution at the time were the entrepreneurs and inventors.
These groups of individuals were accountable for the turn of British small-scale production to mass production of goods and consequently creation of employment. Inventions such as the steam engine, the railway, the radio, the bicycle, the gas cooker, the sewing machine and the telephone were the catalysts that acted as precursors to the industrial revolution and played a major role in the transformation of the British culture.
References Brunskill, Roberts. 2000. Houses and cottages of Britain: origins and development of traditional buildings. London: Oxford University Press.
Byerly, Alison. 1999. “Effortless Art: The Sketch in Nineteenth-Century Painting and Literature’. Web.
Chambliss, William. 1973. Problems of Industrial Society. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Clow, Archibald. 1952. Chemical Revolution. London: Ayer Co.
Daunton, Mogan. 1995. “Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700- 1850”. Web.
Foster, Charles. 2004. Capital and Innovation: How Britain Became the First Industrial Nation. Northwich: Arley Hall Press.
Gardiner, Juliet. 1997. The Columbia companion to British history. Michigan: Columbia University Press.
Hobsbawm, Eric. 1994. The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848. New York: Weidenfeld
Conflict Management Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Conflict, according to Karl Max and Friedrich Engels in their 1848 book The Communist Manifesto, would best be defined as a misunderstanding between two parties, a tag of war that arises specifically because of two or more antagonizing ideas. This feud could be taking place within an individual’s mind, where an individual is forced to make a decision and has two possible choices both of which could be contradicting.
The conflict would be having profound yet unknown consequences and in such a case, the conflict is called intrapersonal. Another set of conflict could involve two people who work or have to work together with differing ideas and both believe that their ideas are the best and have to be employed. In such a situation, the conflict that ensues is referred to as interpersonal. Whichever the case, conflict should always be addressed well in time, before it degenerates to levels that may adversely affect the concerned individual (John,
Standards Driven Process in Education Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Cognitive Science Theory: Basic Principles
Cognitive Science Theory: Research and Findings
Cognitive Science Theory: Values and Limitation
Constructivism Theory: Basic Principles
Constructivism Theory: Research and Findings
Constructivism Theory: Values and Limitation
Growth and Change in Standards Based Education
Introduction The changes in education witnessed in recent years have seen the emergence of standard based instruction in schools across America. This new trend has its roots in theories of cognitivism and constructivism which have redefined the process of learning.
The discussions presented in this paper will briefly highlight the basic principles of these theories, the research that has contributed to the development and the values and limitations of each theory in instruction design. In addition the some of the models and concepts used in each theory will be presented.
Cognitive Science Theory: Basic Principles According to cognitive theorists the thought process plays an important role in learning and observed changes in behavior provide indicators to what is occurring in the learners mind. This approach also places importance on organization of problem solving and structuring activities to enable students to process information on a deeper level allowing for its reuse in different problems.
This theory includes concepts such as internal knowledge structure, information processing model that trace the process from stimuli to knowledge and several effects that affect learning (Koohang and Harman, 2007).Examples in teaching practice include computer programs such as Logo: Microworlds Pro and Plato math program.
Cognitive Science Theory: Research and Findings The cognitive science theory can be traced to the work of the theories of perception as advanced by Plato and Aristotle and attempts to explain the nature of human knowledge. These concepts were later advanced by the French psychologist and philosopher, J. Piaget (Phillips and Soltis, 2007).
Piaget’s work was the basis for future developments by J. Bruner, who concluded that learning was a process of developing categories of information that can be reused in future (Koohang and Harman, 2007). This theory which built on the findings of behaviorism began to influence instructional design around the 70’s.
Some models built around this theory include Collins
Learning of Environment Sustainability in Education Report (Assessment) essay help free
The class lessons taught about environment sustainability. Sustainability of environment refers to the ability of the world’s natural resources to satisfy our needs without becoming exhausted.
This is because human beings continue to extract resources from the environment without managing the disposal of the waste that is created after the useful resources have been refined. When this waste matter is released onto the environment it causes unfavorable conditions for other creatures.
The population of people has continued to swell hence the resources that are available can not be adequate for our needs. People have been felling trees in order to create new dwelling places without considering the consequences of deforestation. Humans and other living things depend on the environment to provide the necessary requirements for their survival.
Initially, the earth was created in such a way that its occupants depended on each other for survival. This means that as we release carbon dioxide into the air it’s taken by the plants which use it to process their own food. In exchange of carbon dioxide the plants release oxygen which quite vital to humans.
According to Biblical scriptures man was assigned the duty of taking care of God’s creation that is all the things that are found on earth including water bodies and animals. That’s why man was given more understanding which was thought to be crucial in his task. But man being intelligent he has boycotted his duty of protecting the environment.
Humans pay much attention to satisfying their needs but they don’t bother to reserve the resources because they don’t understand that the resources they are using today are not replaced when they are used and thus they may not be available in the days to come. For instance, the plastic paper bags that most people use to carry their shopping do more harm to the environment than good.
In as much as they are cheap and convenient they don’t decay when they are disposed and this means that they cannot support plant life because they hinder the survival of crops and plants. When crops can not survive our lives is also at risk because if the food reserves continue to reduce we may die of hunger.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human activities have interfered with the weather pattern. A few decades ago we could predict the weather patterns because the weather pattern was regular hence people knew which months are wet, dry, cold, and warm and we able to plant their crops early enough. Today farmers plant for the sake of planting because nobody can tell exactly when the rains are coming including the weather forecasters.
What hurts me most is that some of the resources were merely wasted. This happened when urban centers were being established. The developers were not interested in the trees that grew on the lands that are now world class cities.
They simply cut them down and excavated the earth surface to lay better foundation for their buildings. These events led to the elimination of some animal species as they were thought to be the most convenient source of food.
Today the few animals that are left are at risk and some have become endangered species because their number has reduced drastically. By this I’m thinking about animals like elephants which are hunted for their precious horns. Amazingly when people kill them they don’t eat their meat hence they would rather remain hungry while chasing after money.
Our soils have been eroded due to lack of vegetation cover which has led to the exhaustion of their fertility. Indeed, our forefathers did not find it necessary to use any fertilizers on crops because there were enough nutrients in the soil to support the growth of crops.
As time moved by, people begun to boost the fertility of soils since the yields had started to reduce. This practice has been passed on from one generation to another and that’s why you can hardly plant crops without using fertilizers and if you don’t you will get very little yields.
Of late man’s demand for speed has sky rocketed and everyone wants to ride in the fastest car, trains and etcetera. Although the automobiles enable us to move very quickly and comfortably they play a major role in degrading our environment. They use fuel which is heated at very high temperatures for it to operate the mechanism of a vehicle.
We will write a custom Assessment on Learning of Environment Sustainability in Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the final end carbon dioxide is emitted, which in other words is expressed as air pollution. When humans continue such contaminated air they begin to develop respiratory problems. In addition, when the same carbon dioxide reaches the atmosphere it fosters global warming.
Moreover, companies work very hard to process raw materials to ensure that they make enough commodities for everyone. One thing that bothers me is that they don’t consider the effects of the waste they empty into the rivers and other water bodies. The waste contains toxins which kill the living creatures that are found in water and besides when the same water evaporates it leads to acid rain which is very destructive.
With knowledge from the course, I think everyone has a role to play in advocating for a sustainable environment. If we sit back and watch as our environment deteriorates we will be gradually eliminated from planet earth. People should start practice sustainable economic activities such as recycling of waste and planting new trees to replace the ones that have been cut down. That way we can be sure that the resources will continue to satisfy our needs.
Developing Professional Careers Presentation Professionals, as they are referred to by many people, owe their success to their commitment. Most people think that they woke up one day and decided they are going to become professionals in their respective careers. A career should be based on one’s interests as opposed to what many people think.
Learners strive for the highest grades because that’s the only way they can pursue better careers. I think there is nothing like better careers because it depends on whether you like that job. Some of our careers start developing early enough in our childhood without our knowledge. For instance, a boy who tends to the sheep of his parents can make a good priest because herdsmanship goes well with priesthood since in both cases there are things to be taken care of.
A learner may achieve the grades that qualify him/her to pursue a given career but then if he/she is not interested in it, there is no need of enrolling for such a course because the learner will eventually develop a dislike for his present career and opt to shift to another one that interests him.
Most are the times when students are misguided about the choice of their careers. Some are influenced by their peers to take certain courses just because they want to remain in close contact with their friends.
For instance, it would not be appropriate to take a course that requires one to be good in mathematics because the learner will not get the concept of the course. Some parents are fond of deciding the career paths that should be followed by their children. This is wrong because the student is old enough to choose his/her destiny in career.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Learning of Environment Sustainability in Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The class lessons advises that before one settles on a particular career it would be advisable to consider your strengths and weaknesses as this will help you choose the career that matches with your abilities.
Additionally, students should observe their immediate environment and identify the careers that are needed the most. This is because the job market is exhausted owing to the many people who share the same expertise. When the learner has completed his/her course its important to go for industrial attachment as this would enhance his/her hands on experience.
This is because in colleges people are subjected to theories and equipments that have been extinguished in real world. For instance, a professional network technician would benefit from industrial attachment because he/she will learn how to apply the skills that were acquired in college. This is because the field of computing is so dynamic.
Knowledge through experience suggest that a professional should not settle on an ordinary college degree or diploma hence when you get the job you have been longing for, you have to put your best foot forward while demonstrating your skills. In this light, I must update myself regularly on the most current trends which will boost my performance as well as my productivity.
The course book outlines that when a professional is dealing with other professionals he/she should ensure that he/she learns something from the interactions he engages in. This contributes to sharpening my skills because someone could understand what I don’t know, hence by interacting with them I will be able to grasp that piece of information. This implies that a professional does not stop learning in the course of his/her career.
This is why you see people who hold high offices going back to class. The biggest mistake a professional can do is to terminate their work as they pursue further studies. It is better to enhance your professional skills while still working because you will be able to apply some if not all of the things you learn in class.
Sometimes a professional may not be successful in securing employment in his/her field of expertise hence he/she is forced to take the chances that are available. But then it has been said that when you don’t know where you are headed any path will take you there. This means that when you have clearly set your goals you will eventually achieve them in your lifetime.
Professionals around the World Professionals are now able to share their ideas with each other using the internet. There are so many blogs on the internet that are meant for professionals. The inventors of these blogs knew that an iron can sharpen another iron hence they needed a place where professionals could consult each other about issues related to their respective careers.
In these blogs the professionals are updated about the latest developments in their careers hence they are aware of the new trends when they emerge. The professionals also attend seminars and workshops where they are equipped with the latest skills in their careers. Most organizations sponsor their professionals to attend these seminars because they will come to apply what they will learn in their organization which can be quite beneficial both to the professional and the employer as well. The training seminars are not limited to the employed because they incorporate those who are in private practice.
The training is very crucial especially to professionals who are new to their field because sometimes they encounter difficulties that they did not expect hence they don’t know whom to turn to or what’s the best thing to do. As a business professional, I have found it important to register as a member of an accredited professional association. A good example is the associations of certified public accountants. There are others for lawyers and other professions as well.
These associations regulate the performance of professionals by ensuring that they adhere to the codes of ethics that are to be exercised in their field. The associations act as disciplinarians of professionals because if there member is found on the wrong side of the law they are ejected from the association and if they are in private practice their license or certificate is confisticated.
Professionals are expected to be keen when interacting with their clients and their peers This implies that I should exercise caution when performing my duties because a slight mistake can result in a big mess that can end their career. For instance when a surgeon is operating his/her patient he/she should be very careful because any mistake can result in death. This is because when mistakes occur it’s the professionals who are held accountable.
When Michael Jackson died people started pointing an accusing finger at his doctor and some went further by suing him in a court of law while the death was due to natural causes.
From the observations around the world, I have found it appropriate to try as it is humanly possible to carry tasks that am well acquainted to. As a profession in the business field, am supposed to inform the client that I cannot handle certain transactions and refer the client to the appropriate professional. This will help me in strengthening my career path and creating good reputation in my field of operation.
Social Marketing Essay (Book Review) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction “Why can’t you sell brotherhood like we sell soap?” True. Selling soap and social cause are completely two separate things. However, recently marketing has observed a mingling of the two wherein organizations have associated themselves with a social cause to promote their brand. The trend to promote products or brands with a social cause is supposed to boost image as well as sales.
Industry buzz is social marketing establishes a firm as responsible and boosts consumer demand even during recession . Companies are putting their brand names with social causes like fighting breast cancer or AIDS awareness. But the real impetus of such campaigns and its effect on brands’ image is uncertain. Target customer profile of such cause related marketing is also uncertain.
However, the question related to social marketing arises is its effectiveness. Further, with advent of new media social marketing has attained a new platform where word-of-mouth campaigns through repeated click on “Like” and “Retweets” increases social awareness. Social marketing therefore assumes great importance for marketers, especially during recession, in order to recreate their brand image.
In this report, I will explore how social marketing influences others in their purchase decisions. In order to understand this, I undertake a literature review of journal articles, books, and online articles to understand the effectiveness of social marketing for brands and its effectiveness with the new media (e.g. Facebook).
The objectives of the report are delineated in the following points:
To find the demographic profile of those influenced by social marketing campaigns,
To prove how new media such as Facebook and text messages influences young consumers
To prove how social marketing increases public relations and improves customer loyalty.
Literature Review In this section, I undertake a literature review on peer-reviewed journal articles and books to understand social marketing, its effectiveness, and the use of such marketing with help of new media. This section will also provide the demographic profile that is believed to be influenced most with social marketing through online or mobile campaigns.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evolution of Social Marketing
Kotler and Levy raised the question in the sixties regarding the relevance of marketing as a socially useful tool. They were aiming to make marketing as a tool “serving and satisfying human needs”. Researchers mentioned fleeting references of the similarity or difference of marketing soap and goodwill or other such concepts earlier.
Social marketing was formally introduced in the marketing arena with the 1971 article of Kotler and Zaltman titled “Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Change.” The transition from a socially useful marketing process to social marketing was a logical concept that brought forth serious pressure on the marketing discipline to become for socially relevant and ethical .
The need for development of a non-conventional, socially conscious marketing strategy was found to be necessary due to the following reasons:
Increased needs of nonbusiness organizations for marketing services. Attacks on marketing’s negative impact on society. The emergence of exchange theory, the coalescence of social marketing oriented theory. And the decline of consensus-oriented perceptions of social reality.
Therefore, sue to the greater demand of socially responsible marketing strategy aiming at social causes, this gave marketers the possibility to work with government and non-profit organizations to promote social change programs. This demand for social marketing was found from parallel academic streams such as advertising and public relations .
Though there was a lot of demand and debate about social marketing in the 1970s, there was little scholarly work in the area apart from Kotler and Zaltman’s 1971 article. It was not until Lazer and Kelley (1973) and Richard Manoff (1975) social marketing literature was facing dearth of academic attention. Manoff (1975) wrote the book on social marketing who applied many principles from his experiences working in social change projects.
After these there was almost a stagnation of a decade before Kotler
The Resource Based View Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction Resource Based View is an essential part of strategic management. It lays emphasis on the fact that the internal capabilities of a firm make it competitive, mainly entailing the firm’s capabilities and different resources. Indeed, it is the utilization of these resources that adds value to the firm. Despite its appealing nature, the Resource Based Approach has faced a lot of criticism from diverse scholars globally.
The views of the critics mainly focus on the conceptual and practical difficulties that plague this theory at the implementation stage. The purpose of this work is to bring out both the conceptual and practical difficulties in implementing it. Such difficulties include sidelining the vital external environment, failure to meet the criterion for operational validity, being boundary limited, and static, among others.
Meaning of the Resource Based View The resource-based view is founded on various concepts. First, inputs into the production process are determined by resources, which form the fundamental units of analysis (Royer, 2005, p. 95; Jones and Tilley, 2003, p. 124). The most common categories in which resources are grouped include the Human Resource, fiscal resources, technology related resources, reputation based resources, and organizational ones.
Most resources offer a very weak competitive value when applicable on their own. Thus, both collaboration and coordination of resources from different categories are required to obtain a competitive and productive activity.
Strategic capabilities can result from bundles of resources. What an organization can do effectively and better compared to its competitors is what constitutes its capabilities (Lengnick-Hall, 2003, p. 168).
Capabilities are embedded in cumulative skills and knowledge that are practiced through organizational process to enable a firm not only to coordinate its functions, but also to utilize its assets. The capabilities of a firm are based on its resources. A firm’s main competitive advantage is founded on its resources (Remenyi, 2008, p. 80; Birkinshaw, 2000, p.103)
To attain long-term success, most firms are supposed to be excellent in several aspects of value creation such as having developing insight in the dynamic client needs, responding promptly to advancement in technology, designing products with an innovative touch, being efficient and responding to problems quickly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A focus on the dynamics of a firm’s behaviors has replaced the logic of strategy fro products and positions. This has been brought about due to the need for both versatility and excellence.
This implies that processes that orchestrate assets and resources to obtain capabilities constitute the most imperative component of strategy. Firms that succeed invest strategically in infrastructure and in those processes that bridge together resources and rise above usual functional partitions (Lengnick-Hall, 2003, p. 169).
The longer the period and intricacy required transforming a collection of resources into capabilities, the more unlikely it becomes for competitors to copy the accomplishments that result. On the other hand, it is more challenging to transfer or achieve a capability within an organization that developed it if the capability is too complex.
Moreover, there is also core competence. This encompasses some aspects that form an exceptional contribution to the value of customers. They include expertise, resources, abilities, a pack of skills and other processes. In this case, competitive uniqueness is achieved from a core competence.
Since core competence’s outcomes have wide applications on broad product and market categories, they are able to provide gateways to future markets. Besides, rather than wearing-out or becoming depreciated over time, core competences get enhanced through use and so firms should not engage in what is outside their core competences (Lengnick-Hall, 2003, p. 169; Vigneaux, 2001, p. 122).
A firm that has particular competences and its rivals has the gap between value creating aptitudes and capacities widened by the persistent application of its core competencies. Changeable and unpredictable expectations on what is valued for a given purpose at a certain time introduce a creative tension. Valuable resources, abilities, and competences are developed on past actions and they develop over some time; in this way, they are thus said to be path-dependent.
The resource based view as an appealing model The resource based view focuses on organizational internal abilities that enable it to it achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in its markets and industries through formulation of a suitable strategy. Based on the ability to see an organization as one that is endowed with resources and capabilities that can be configured to enable it have a competitive advantage, then an inside-out perspective is enhanced.
We will write a custom Essay on The Resource Based View specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Put in different words, the way it competes in its external environment is determined by its internal capabilities. In some cases, both the creation of new markets and addition of value to the consumer may be the direct results of the organization’s capabilities (Anon, 2007, p. 126).
Examples are i-pod and hybrid cars from Apple and Toyota respectively. In cases where the creation of an organization’s competitive advantage stems from its internal capabilities, such a firm tends to concentrate on the configuration of its value chain activities. This is because there will be need to identify the firm’s capabilities within the activities of its value chain that enable it to have a competitive advantage.
For instance, the enviable manufacturing system of Toyota Motors is responsible for the management of its excellent material and inventory systems (inbound logistics). This ensures that customer demands are met by adequate inventory levels through ensuring that delivery of parts precedes their assembly.
Other primary activities in the supply chain like the operations point to plants that are both automated and efficient having been implanted with systems of quality control. Sales and marketing through advertising and dealership networks together with service in form of (guarantees and warrantees) are used in backing this up.
The existing linkages between the value chain activities of Toyota and its connection with the suppliers’ value chains form a configuration that make the Japanese competitor have a core competence of very unique capability. Its competitive advantage stems from this capability and is the one that its rivals find it difficult to emulate. Besides, these activities enable Toyota to derive an added value that it is also able to appropriate.
For example, the profits made by Toyota are greater than those made by all the three automobile companies in the United States combined. The resources and capabilities that reside within a firm or that which it may desire to develop in order to enhance a competitive advantage that is sustainable constitute its resource-based view of competition (Smit, 2007, p. 93; Peng, 2008, P. 98).
Resources refer to inputs, without which, an organization will not be able to carry out its operations. Cases of organizations in the same industry having varied levels of performance may be attributed in the varying ways in which they utilize their resources.
Organizations do not receive any added value from resources that lye idle within them. Value only comes after putting the resources to some productive use. Resources can be classified as either as either tangible or intangible (Henry, 2008, p. 127; Karami, 2007, p. 160).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Resource Based View by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An organization’s physical assets such as its physical, fiscal and human resources are what constitute its tangible resources. Intangible resources comprises of an organization’s intellectual, technological, cultural resources, brands and reputation (Anon, 2007, p. 128).
Difficulties in Implementing the Resource Based View The Resource Based View Sidelines the Vital External Environment
Based on its analytical rigor and seemingly managerial significance, the resource-based view of a firm has emerged as one of the key contemporary approaches to strategic research. However, the view still experiences aspects of problems that are unresolved and other unclear issues. Lack of a vivid conceptual model of the endogenous creation of new resources is one of the facts the Resource Based View has been criticized for.
Rather than placing focus on accounting for the environmental complexity within which a firm operates, the resource-based view’s concentration on the internal strengths of a firm restrains it. It has been criticized for failure to take into account how positive external factors like high levels of education may influence the resources of a firm.
Other study focuses on the holistic view of the conceptual model. For instance, Porter asserts that the Resource Based Concept is founded on arguments that go in circles. There is a criticism of the resource-based scholars who suggest that rents are used in defining the critical resources of a firm.
This is because identification of resources is achieved through comparison of firms that are successful and those that are not. Thus, resource-based proponents adduce from this that rents are generated from critical resources (Pommerening, 2010, p. 26; Enders, 2004, p. 13; Kirst, 2008, p. 90).
On the hand, other scholars argue that the Resource Based model is flawed in two ways. It is argued that apart from the model making implicit assumptions with regard to the product markets on the demand side, it is also made weak by the exogenous nature of the basic variable of value in the concept.
The critics reason that since the market environment determines the resource value, through risks and opportunities, it is exogenous to the Resource Based View. The fact that both product and customer focus being assumed constant makes the critics see this as a simplified assumption in the Resource Based View.
Such a Conclusion is arrived at by indicating that if there were to be a variation in the product and customer focus, resource value could be non-constant as well causing indeterminate outcomes of the resource-based analysis to emanate from the unpredictable resource value. This simplified assumption also has an impact on the current scope of analysis for the Resource Based View.
Shifts in the future demand curve for both product and factor markets could be integrated by models that are more dynamic. This could lead to the acquisition of factors hat can last for long through entrepreneurial cost.
Creation of a fast mover advantage will thus be possible since competitors will be required to incur a procurement cost that is relatively high. In this vein, it can be asserted that for the Resource Based View to give both a sound theoretical foundation and form a basis for a thorough analysis, it will need to make sufficient attempts to be interfaced with the external environment.
Besides the theoretical flaws in the model, its strong foundation in microeconomics has also made the Resource Based View to face a lot of disapproval.
The argument is that the Resource Based View incorporates aspects that are regarded in strategic management as disequilibrium phenomena hence making lack equilibrium orientation by excluding such vital factors like entrepreneurship.
This makes its analytical conceptualization to be narrow. Moreover, a 2007 research indicates that the relevance of the Resource Based View and hence its ability to be implemented could only be verified through 53% of the empirical tests that were conducted (Pommerening, 2010, p. 26).
Resource Based View does not meet the Criterion for Operational Validity
Embracing practitioners and valuing prescription is among the distinctive factors that encompass strategic management. Unless they connote an explicated linkage to performance, research questions may remain unanswered. Study reveals that firm level performance has been used as a definitive dependent variable in the discipline of strategy. Unless research questions include a clear connection to performance, they remain implicitly uninteresting or less important.
Thus, the ability of the resource Based Theory in developing meaningful tools of management in terms of prescriptions that are actionable for practitioners forms a key fundamental question for researchers who are strategy oriented. Theories are supposed to enhance operational validity. This means that the practitioners should be able to manipulate the theory’s independent variables thus implementing its action implications (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32). A research that is relevant to management requires operational validity, though not always.
Therefore, the Resource Based View theory could have been operationally valid if it was only descriptively accurate but unable to give managers the practicality of manipulating the independent variables. By merely directing practitioners to enhance competitive advantage through obtaining valuable and rare resources, the resources should be both non-substitutable and inimitable for sustainable advantage does not meet the criterion for operational validity.
Criteria on which each resource characteristic can be used to judge each alternative resource represents an effective prescription, at a minimum. Criteria for immutability and substitutability characteristics related to sustainability can be provided by industrial organization. Either social complexity or causal ambiguity of a resource constitutes this criterion (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32).
Resource Based View is boundary limited
Studies have shown that an aspect of theories that is as crucial as the theories themselves is the contexts within which the theories ought to operate. This can be supported from what some scholars have already indicated that many theories that are based in the United States may not be applicable in other parts of the world since quick and comprehensive decisions may work effectively in environments that encourage the same.
Apparently, there have been little efforts to establish the suitable contexts within which the Resource Based Theory should be based. However, some studies have been carried out to establish this.
One area where resource-based perspective has contributed significantly is in film industry, where it has been experimented for about three decades. Initially, there was high level of study that eventually resulted to change. During times of stability, high level of studio performance was attributed to control over property-based resources.
On the other hand, periods of higher performance during times of environmental turbulences were enhanced by knowledge-based resources. With this study, a step was taken to establish some boundaries for the Resource Based View. Through this certain contexts were established within which some resources were found to be of more value but of less value in other contexts (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32).
Similarly, another research indicates that the different classes of service in the veterinary industry are determined by the different capabilities. The implications from the contingency approach applied in this research can be used by industrial practitioners making investments that are resource based. If such contingency theories of resource value continue to be developed, they could continue to provide useful information in establishing contexts of the resource based theory (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32).
A closer look at the definition of the Resource based Theory reveals an all-inclusive approach to the resources that are used. Most definitions on this define resources differently. One of the definitions goes like this:
“By a resource is meant anything which could be thought of as a strength or weakness of a given firm; more formally, a firm’s resources at a given time could be defined as those (tangible and in-tangible) assets, which are tied semi permanently to the firm…….examples of re-sources are: brand names, in-house knowledge of technology, employment of skilled personnel, trade contracts, machinery, efficient procedures, capital, etc” (Wernerfelt, 1984: 172 cited in Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32).
Regarding anything that is associated with the firm as a resource may imply that operational validity may be the prescription of dealing with resources within the firm while it may be difficult for practitioners to measure and manipulate other categories of resources.
Tacit knowledge is an example of the resource that may be difficult both to be measured and manipulated. Tacit knowledge is that understanding that cannot be passed to someone else, is attained via experience, and is not known to the one holding it.
Some have expressed arguments that categorize tacit knowledge as a source of competitive advantage. Although referring to tacit knowledge as a source of competitive advantage may be descriptively in order, it may prove tricky for practitioners to properly manipulate what can be implicitly unknown (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32).
Moreover, although there can be manipulation of some resources, researchers are supposed to be clear regarding the specific practical levels where prescriptions are supposed to be made. One of the examples to be researched in this category is the CEO resources. It asserts that the top managers of firms that do not perform well should consider volitionally laying off their duties since they are the main cause of poor performance.
This may not be helpful at in any way. In this case, there would be prescriptive implications for the board of directors than the CEOs themselves when the latter are perceived as resources. Similarly, implications that are more prescriptive would result for the CEOs when viewing board of directors as resources since rather appointing the board of directors for themselves, the CEOs appoint it to help regulate them.
Therefore, some strategy researchers may consider some resources more important to them than they could be to others. This is determined by either group or the ability of the resource to be manipulated. A significant step in establishing boundaries for Resource Based Management is detecting resources that may be specifically effective for given actors in particular environments (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 33).
In a resource-based approach, the main factors of success are resources and competences. These two factors enable a firm to have a product development that is founded on a superiority that is long lasting. In this vein, the problems that may be encountered in putting these factors into practice in other firms are not relevant. This is because they are said to be resources that cannot be imitated and thus not implementable in different firms. This works well in the theoretical framework but not in empirical studies.
Conclusions in empirical studies normally end up in theoretical ways rather than really revealing how firms are practically dealing with the variables under study. Thus, the resource-based perspective does not offer a ready answer that vividly explains how firms are practically going about it. However, insights provided by the view on the attributes that make the resources and capabilities to be inimitable may provide some clues to understanding the issue of implementation (Foss and Knudsen, 1996, p. 143).
Some uncertainty involving what should be included in the definition of resources is revealed by the resource-based perspective. On one hand, resources are looked at as being assets that are owned and controlled by the firm. On the other hand, a demarcation is drawn between resources and competences.
Whereas resources are inputs to the process of production like employees, patents, and finance among other items, competences is used to refer to a bundle of resources that can be utilized in performing a certain duty. Thus, far from being just bundles of resources, competencies describe intricate patterns that enhance coordination both of people and of those people with resources (Foss and Knudsen, 1996, p. 143).
Shift from dynamic to static conceptualization of the Resource based Theory
The Resource Based approach began as a dynamic idea emphasizing on change over time. However, the literature on the subject that has followed is static in concept.
First, there is a presentation of the variation of the theoretical statement that competitive advantage can be produced from some resource. Second, by suggesting that resource can generate a competitive value, there is a demonstration of the resource value. Finally, sustainability of advantage is established through isolation of mechanisms that makes replication of resources difficult. Resources such as strategic planning and top management skills have received variations on this argument.
However, the strategic management research faces short comings regarding this static concept of the Resource Based View. First, rather placing comparisons to differing situations or resource comparisons, the static argument takes a descriptive approach pointing to generic attributes of the resources that generate rent.
For example in a given study, instead of judging CEOs on performance, they are merely argued to possess either superior or inferior management skills (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32).
Second, the processes through which competitive advantage is derived from some resources remain in a black box. For instance, other than heterogeneity, there is no other way through the resources are known to generate rents that are sustainable. There is also a question as to the generation of value by some heterogeneous resources but not others.
Third, it is inherently hard for some resources to be manipulated by practitioners. Tacit knowledge forms a good example of such resources. Therefore, the resources do not stand the test of operational validity.
Fourth, under a Resource based view that is static, most researchers normally take a frequently researched field and rename the dependent and independent variables as resources and competitive advantages respectively. They then use operations as measures that are often used in cross sectional strategic research. Such studies may reveal the irrelevance of the resource based labels in strategy research (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32).
Generally, these issues imply that the implementation of the Research based View to strategy research may be impeded by the current value of its static nature. A careful definition of the key underlying elements and the detailing of the specific mechanisms claimed to produce competitive advantage will result to helpful studies on the Resource Based View.
Extension of the Resource Based View to second order issues and beyond by theorists may very easily aggravate the problems of static studies. Moreover, the ability to desire to learn more about resources is a resource in the same way the environment that the learning is supposed to be carried out (Priem and butler, 2001, p. 32).
Further Criticisms in Practical Implementation
The sustainable competitive advantages of a firm are derived from resources and capabilities that are valuable, rare, cannot be substituted, and inimitable. However, there is an argument that a single inimitable core competency cannot be used to generate a sustainable advantage. This is because in the modern business world, there is a rapid change in the environment that leads to is coupled with changing organizational skills and resources.
The ways in which they are used undergoes continuous change to produce advantages that are dynamic. Other scholars argue that, as long as it renders additional value, the ability to be adaptive could qualify to be a competitive advantage in itself.
This is provided that it contributes to the instability of the environment by rendering additional; value (Hannula, Radosevic and Tunzelmann, 2006, p. 302). Thus, it is possible to assert that changes in the business environment can be achieved by the resource-based approach without necessarily introducing dynamic aspects in the underpinnings of the concept.
The resource-based view of internationalization suggests that customers and suppliers of a firm form part of the firm’s resources (Nothnagel, 2008, p. 262). Therefore, in order to have a better resource base, firms enlarge their operations to foreign markets.
Recent study reveals that problems in practical strategic management are created from both assumed stability in product markets and assumed possibility to determine the value of resources (Hannula, Radosevic and Tunzelmann, 2006, p. 30).
Moreover, research indicates that the resource-based approach has an impact in several aspects of the international business research (Fahy, 2001, p. 14; Schnedlitz et al, 2010, p. 2). However, the effect of the approach on the development of multinationals and on the market entry was found to be minimal.
This was in comparison to the fact that important fields like international entrepreneurship, globalization, and study on strategic alliances in upcoming markets were greatly influenced by the resource-based view (Hannula, Radosevic and Tunzelmann, 2006, p. 303).
Conclusion The Resource Based View is an old but yet very imperative element of strategic management. The fundamental principal of the Resource based View is that the resources at the disposal of a firm constitute its capability. The resources are both tangible and intangible.
Thus, the capability of a firm is enhanced by the utilization of these resources, which eventually add value to the firm enabling it to have a competitive advantage over other firms. The theory focuses on the internal environment of the firm that makes it distinct from other firms. Therefore, the performance of a firm in its external environment is based on its internal capabilities.
The Resource Based View is criticized by several scholars, managers and economists for various aspects that tend to restrain its implementation. The issues being criticized are found in the theory’s conceptual and practical frame works.
First, the view is criticized for concentrating on the internal environment alone as the main determining factor of a firm’s competitive advantage and neglects other vital aspects in the external environment such as high level of education that may positively impact the firm’s resources. Secondly, the theory does not form a strong basis for operational validity that is an important aspect in strategic research to establish the practicability of the variable in question.
Thirdly, the Resource Based View like other theories is criticized for being limited by boundaries. Research has revealed that its impact in one country under particular conditions may not be applicable to other nations in the same way. Thirdly, though the approach began on a dynamic note, the subsequent concepts have become static in nature.
This becomes an impediment in its implementation. Moreover, most of the views held by the Resource Based view in international business cause some problems. For example, the assumed ability to determine the value of resources results to difficulties in strategic management.
References Anon. (2007). The Internal Environment: A Resource based view of Strategy. Web.
Birkinshaw, J.M. (2000). Entrepreneurship in the Global firm. London: Sage Publications.
Enders, A. (2004). Management competence: resource-based management and plant performance. NY: Springer.
Fahy, J. (2001). The Role of Resources in Global Competition. NY: Routledge.
Foss, N. and Knudsen, C. (1996). Towards a competence Theory of the Firm. NY: Routledge.
Hannula, H., Radosevic, S. and Tunzelmann, G. (2006). Estonia: The New EU Community Building a Baltic stone? Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing.
Henry, A. (2008). Understanding Strategic Management. NY: Oxford University Press.
Jones, O. and Tilley, F. (2003). Competitive advantage in SMEs: organizing for innovation and change. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.
Karami, A. (2007). Strategy formulation in entrepreneurial firms. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing.
Kirst, P. (2008). Supplier switching management: an empirical analysis of supplier switching activities in an industrial context. Wiesbaden: Cuvillier Verlag.
Lengnick-Hall, M.L. (2003). Human resource management in the knowledge economy: new challenges, new roles, new capabilities. San Francisco: Berrett – Koehler Publishers.
Nothnagel, K. (2008). Empirical Research within Resource-based Theory: A Meta-Analysis of the Central Propositions. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.
Peng, M. W. (2008). Global Business. Mason: Cengage learning.
Pommerening, T. (2010). Strategic Changes for Business Models in the German Retail Banking Industry in the Post Financial Crisis Era: Using the Example of the Post bank AG. NY: GRIN Verlag.
Priem, R. L. and Butler, J.E (2001). The Academy of management review. Volume 26. Is the Resource-Based “View” a Useful Perspective for Strategic Management Research? Academy of Management. Web.
Remenyi, D. (2008). The 5th International Conference on Intellectual Capital. London: Academic Conferences Committee.
Royer, S. (2005). Strategic management and online selling: creating competitive advantage with intangible Web goods. NY: Routledge.
Schnedlitz, P. et al. (2010). European Retail Research. Volume 23, Issue II. Wiesbaden: Gabler.
Smit, P.J. (2007). Management Principles: A Contemporary Edition for Africa. Cape Town: Juta and Company Limited.
Vigneaux, S. (2001). Enhanced Services on the Next-Generation Network: Technologies, Business Drivers, Markets, and Architectures. Chicago: Professional Educational International.
Oppression, Sexual Harassment, and Employment Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction There are various factors which can be associated with an individual’s behavior or code of conduct since people tend to develop character traits and attitudes from what they either observe, experience or even associate with. The factors may be economic, social, cultural, political or even sociopolitical.
Among the sociopolitical factors that may have either positive or negative impact on an individual are; Stereotyping, Prejudice, Racism, Discrimination, Sexism, Disenfranchisement, Oppression, Sexual harassment, Concept of the glass ceiling, Human/Civil rights, Homelessness, Unequal education, Unequal pay, Minimum wage, Health care, Slavery, Immigration, Ageism, and Employment.
This paper will discuss some of the sociopolitical factors and their potential impact on psychological development, distress, and behavior on a culturally diverse individual with much emphasis given to oppression, sexual harassment, and employment.
Oppression Oppression can be defined as a brutal exercise carried on an individual where power and authority is involved. It usually affects ones body and mind as he or she tries to cope with the situation. Oppression is a broad concept and affects a majority of people in the society either directly or indirectly.
It takes various forms depending on the situation and the particular unjust activity in question, for instance, classism, ageism, racism, sexism, homophobia, and ableism. Oppression is suffered by people of all ages from the young children, the youths to the elderly.
Some children develop the attitude to accept oppression as a normal or acceptable issue from very early ages as their parents present the world as a bad place full of dangerous and hurtful people hence instilling fear in the children making them feel powerless and without control of what may come their way.
Oppression causes emotional distress and affects a person’s psychological development and in the long run determines the person’s conduct or behavior when faced with various situations in life. For example, fear instilled by the parents or adults to children makes a child get a wrong picture of the general world and any information got by the child is received wrongly making the child distressed and subsequent information is received in the same way forming a pattern.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The experience therefore becomes chronic and the individual acts in some illogical manner based on what he or she believes and in most cases may tend to revenge by oppressing others. Taking racism as a form of oppression, there could be discrimination of the blacks by the whites or vice versa.
At early ages children tend to be very friendly to all people without discrimination, for instance, children of the whites have lots of love and affection towards their black servants and get distressed by their parents’ behavior of despising the blacks through their hateful talks with other whites. They usually develop a sense of guilt especially when their parents are in their presence as they have fun with the blacks.
Some also develop fears towards things, for example, association with blacks as they observe their parent’s behavior and may end up avoiding or rejecting them in their entire life. Oppression operates in distress situations and observation or experience of oppression activities being carried out by those we honor and respect kills our morale of doing well to others.
The distress patterns formed during early age through parents and other adults makes one to accept other oppressions in life and live as an oppressed individual. Sexism is also a form of oppression where one gender is perceived as being superior to the other more often than not, the male. The women therefore grow up knowing that men should pursue the best education courses and therefore take up the best careers.
Through the distress pattern developed from early age, the psychological development of women is affected negatively and they are forced to behave as less adequate as compared to the men.
Most people who suffer from oppression acts usually exercise oppression on others and so the cycle continues as the oppressed learn to oppress others. In general, any form of oppression involves lack of respect and humanity by the oppressors towards the oppressed, and a feeling of powerlessness, low self esteem; self hate and self guilt in regard to the oppressor (Harris and Holdt, 1997).
Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment can be defined as any form of physical or verbal conduct pertaining to indulgence in sex without consent. It can be done towards a particular individual or a group of persons in an institutional setting, for instance, in the workplace usually by a person in authority such as an employer. It generally involves sexual advances that interfere with the smooth running of activities in the working environment.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Oppression, Sexual Harassment, and Employment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a form of sex discrimination as the person being sexually harassed usually has no feelings for the person involved and the sexual advances are unwelcome. The victims do not have consent to the sexual activities and is done through use force as the perpetrators considers the victims to be powerless for instance in terms of finances and even physical strength.
It makes working uncomfortable to the employee as she or he becomes distressed and develops negative attitudes towards employers especially of the opposite sex.
Sexual harassment can take two forms, where the sexual behavior in question is meant to be an exchange for an agreed benefit, for instance, a promotion in employment position or staying away from some form of punishment after committing an offence and where the sexual harassment is just meant to create an intimidating and unfavorable environment for the employee or any other person being harassed.
Sexual harassment may also occur in academic institutions, for example, universities where lecturers and instructors take advantage of their power and authority to harass the female students. The lecturers and instructors often threaten to give low marks to the students if they deny them the sexual favors they ask for and in some instances, the students give in with the fear of bad academic performance.
Most victims are women although there are some few incidents where men are harassed. This is because of the perception by the society that men should always dominate while women should be submissive making them more susceptible to this harassment.
Most of the sexual harassment incidences go unreported for many reasons for example, the fear of convincing people since there is no evidence, the fear of revenge by the perpetrators, for instance, getting fired from job or demotion or failing in examinations, embarrassment and guilt and also lack of proper information on how to report such cases.
Lack of reporting makes the effects of the problem even more severe as the victims are distressed by confiding in themselves and in most cases their psychological development is affected as the bad memories keep on recurring in their lives.
The victims’ behavior is affected by the experiences and they tend to develop fear and hatred towards people of the opposite sex especially their seniors as they see them as opportunists who are there to gain sexual satisfaction from them regardless of the consequences.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Oppression, Sexual Harassment, and Employment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It also have negative effects on an individual’s performance for example in school or work place, health due to psychological stress, career as there are always obstacles to its natural prosperity and also on the general livelihood as a person do not live according to his or her standards but under the influence of the perpetrators.
Also one always have a guilt conscience and his or her social and sexual life is usually affected as most of the victims may opt never to be involved in sexual acts or develop phobia. Since sexual harassment is a major issue especially in work places, it should be under all circumstances be prevented by educating the employees on ways of identifying sexual advances and the best way of dealing with such situations for example through speaking up and not giving chances for victimization.
There should also be combined efforts of the society, the government, employers and employees towards combating this problem of sexual harassment (Jill, 2006).
Employment Employment can be termed as a contract between an employer and an employee. The employer usually has control over the employees and governs their activities including payment. The employer may be the government for instance where employees are civil servants, a nongovernmental organization, a private institution or even an individual.
Employment is very essential in each and every ones life as it is the means through which one gets a source of living through the finances received either as salary or wages and other benefits. It is also a source of identity and accomplishment. People go through education programs and systems with an aim of securing good employment opportunities after completion of their studies.
Not all people are however lucky as some spend many years searching for jobs but in vain while others end up landing in poor and unsatisfying jobs, which distress them for their entire lifetime. Unemployment is a major issue in both developed and developing countries especially due to its impacts among those who lack job opportunities.
It is a key cause of depression especially among the youths as their expectations are not met living them hopeless and vulnerable to criminal activities as a means of dealing with their disappointments in life.
People generally are optimistic of getting job opportunities either for the first time or after losing their jobs but the hopes usually fades away with time bringing a sense of low self esteem, anxiety, and hence a possibility of being involved in criminal activities like drug abuse as their mental health deteriorates and have self guilt blaming oneself for the inability to secure a job.
The only ways of dealing with this problem is the provision of psychotherapy and finally a job opportunity to the victims. Availability of favorable job opportunities on the other hand contributes to positive living as individuals have high self esteem and are optimistic towards various aspects of life. Their health is therefore good as they are able to deal with aspects like depression, which is brought by unemployment and dissatisfaction in life (Goddard, 2003).
Conclusion An individual’s life in terms of psychological development and general behavior is determined by various factors for instance a person who faces oppression, sexual harassment, and poor or lack of employment opportunities is likely to be negatively affected psychologically and also may behave in an illogical manner due to low self esteem and hatred towards others.
Reference List Goddard, R. (2003). Psychological distress and burnout in Australian employment service workers: two years on. Journal of Employment Counseling. Web.
Harris, T., and Holdt, J. (1997). Insight about Oppression. Web.
Jill, S. L. (2006). Sexual Harassment or Consensual Sexual Relations? Implications for Social Work Education. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, Volume 3, Number 2. Web.
Human Resource Management: The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Report best essay help: best essay help
Recommendations Having considered numerous problems, connected with the human resource management in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, a number of recommendations may be given to cope with them.
Even though all the separate disadvantages of human resource management do not create any troubles for the company functioning, if to unite those, it becomes problematic for the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company to function properly. Here are some specific recommendations the human resource manager should take into account while organizing such procedures as recruitment, induction and retention.
One of the main mistakes the human resource managers make in the Ritz-Carlton Hotels is the attraction of too many candidates at the time of recruitment. Thus, there are too many people in the company who should perform the same functions. This leads to the problem that some employees who have been working in the company for many years remain unoccupied.
The main purpose of recruitment is “not just to attract any candidates – it is to recruit the right candidates (and hopefully put off the wrong sort of candidates)” (Yeung 2008, p. 66). Moreover, the attraction of too many candidates at one and the same time is also a bad idea as it is rather time consuming and costly to sort out applications.
It is also unreasonable to advise the organisation to attract too few candidates as this leads to choice limitation (McKenna
Economic Prospects For The Global Economy Impact on Patterns Of Migration In Developing Countries Coursework scholarship essay help
Introduction There are various reasons for which some processes occur. Internal and external migration in developing countries for instance happen for certain reasons for example better living conditions in terms of attractive salaries and wages, favourable climatic conditions and security. The migration process is also affected by many factors one of it being the economic prospects for the global economy.
Internal migration entails movement of a country’s citizens within the country for instance rural- urban migration while external migration involves movement of a country’s citizens to another country in most cases the reason being the search for greener pastures. The economic prospects of global economy affect different countries, developing and developed, differently depending on the economic status of a particular country.
The fiscal situation of various high income countries presents either positive or negative impacts to the developing countries and the world economy at large for instance the market instability present in most of the European countries is a challenge to the world economy. The emerging financial developments in Europe affects the financial conditions of developing countries for instance in terms of capital flow although this is only to a very small extent (Mussa 2008: 7).
Factors That Lead To Migration Globalization and urbanization are some of the factors that promote both internal and external migration especially in developing countries. People find themselves on the move to cities and towns or even to other countries for various reasons for instance in search for employment opportunities, better living standards and even better educational opportunities running away from places that cannot in one way or another support their specific needs satisfactorily ( World Bank 2005: 25).
Although urbanization has major positive impacts for example social and economic growth and development, excessive migration to the urban centres usually strains the countries economy due to the unequal distribution of the population and resources and makes it difficult for local, national and international governments to provide sufficient facilities and services like, water, proper sewerage and electricity to the population as the people in the particular areas exceed the services.
This leads to formation of slums as a result of rural crisis. External migration is also a common aspect in developing countries even with the presence of restriction of movements within borders. There are a lot of people moving from their countries of origin to the developing countries and also from the developing countries to other developed countries.
The immigrants include refugees who come to the developing countries in search of peace and settlement. The external migration may be either permanent or temporary also known as labour migration. Proximity enhances migration as the financial, political and cultural costs of migration are minimized. The presence of networks among individuals for instance families also makes migration easy (Ratha and Shaw 2007: 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reasons for Migration People move or migrate for a variety of reasons mainly after the consideration of the benefits and drawbacks accrued to either staying in their country of origin or moving to another or even from one particular section of the country to the other. Factors like cultural differences, transportation and communication efficiency and cost are also influential in making the migration decision.
There are both the push and pull factors in migration where the push factors entail reasons for moving from a place for example because of some difficulties while pull factors entail reasons for moving into a place due to desirable aspects like favourable climate and security (Pomfret 1997: 2).
The search for a better life is mainly the major reason for migration whether internal or external the difference in living conditions being as a result of income disparities among different regions and countries. The migration and labour policies involved in the sending and receiving countries affect the smoothness of the process of migration.
Political unrest is another contributing factor towards migration as people feel insecure and move either within or across borders in search of peace and security. Degradation of the environment in the mother country or a particular section of the country may also promote the process of migration for instance where there is inadequate pastures and farms.
There is also the movement of skilled and educated people mostly the youths from the developing countries to the more developed and industrialized countries to fill employment gaps. This leads to brain drain in the developing countries and some of the migrants to the developed countries are posted to low status and poor paying jobs and are exploited contrary to their expectations (World Bank 2003: 38).
Impacts of Migration Irrespective of the reasons for migration, the process of migration usually disrupts the population patterns and characteristics, the physical atmosphere, cultural and social patterns, the economic status, among other things.
This is because as people move, they carry along their traits, interests and needs and at the same time absorb what they get in their new areas or countries leading to diffusion especially in terms of social and cultural concepts (National Economic Expeditions 2005: 3).
We will write a custom Coursework on Economic Prospects For The Global Economy Impact on Patterns Of Migration In Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Effects of the Economic Prospects for the Global Economy on Internal and External Migration in Developing Countries From the discussion above, it is evident that economic prospects for the global economy can affect internal and external migration in developing countries. This is because people tend to move from their place of origin mainly to search for better living conditions. There have been a lot of changes in the global markets due to technological and other developments and factors like changes in population patterns, urbanization and globalization, and institutional diversity. All these are aspects that in one way or another affect the migration patterns in various countries.
Living conditions in a particular country or area is to a greater percentage dependant on the economic status or conditions of the country. People are more likely to move to places where there are better opportunities for instance in terms of employment, health facilities, electricity and even education facilities.
People usually move in search of higher incomes for example from densely populated and exploited countries to sparsely populated countries where there is availability of adequate natural resources and hence good economic status (International Organization for Migration 2008: 112).
The economic prospects for global economy is likely to reduce the internal and external migration of people in the developing countries as their economies are expected to grow through the support of the developed countries as they invest in the less developed countries making the living conditions better.
For instance there has been rapid technological development in developing countries which in a great way has improved the income status of the countries and its population hence reducing the level of poverty among the citizens. Economic growth in any country is likely to reduce movement of people from the country as it attracts movement of people from other places to the country.
According to the 2010 global economic prospects, the crisis and regulatory actions advocated for in regard to financial excesses of earlier years have a number of impacts on the economies of various countries for instance, the increasing in the borrowing costs the decreasing levels of credit and international capital flows.
This may in a way reduce the growth rate of developing countries although to a small percentage (World Bank 2010: 20). The economic prospects for the global economy may in some ways increase the internal and external migration in developing countries and also reduce it in some other ways depending on the effects it brings.
For example some people decide to migrate due to lack of proper information of where they are going or having greater expectations and when the correct information is provided, the uncertainty is reduced and people are able to make informed decisions on migration. Restrictions on migration imposed by the high income countries may reduce the possibility of people moving from their countries of origin or the developing countries to the developed countries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Prospects For The Global Economy Impact on Patterns Of Migration In Developing Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More World Bank and World Bank Group (2007: 15), asserts that in most cases, external migration leads to enormous improvements in people’s live as it raises the living standards making life more comfortable.
The immigrants usually enjoy higher salaries and wages as compared to what they would get in their countries of origin while the receiving countries also benefit from the increased supply of labour. The developing countries also benefits from the support they receive from their people in the high income countries.
The migration patterns in the developing countries are bound to be affected by the global economic prospects in different ways depending on the way the economic conditions in a given country favours its citizens or attracts people from other countries.
For example, if the economic growth is higher in the developed countries, the standards of living are better and even the opportunities are greater therefore it could attract external migration of people from the developing countries.
The economic growth will also come along with other processes like industrialization which will bring about the need for additional labour force which would render the movement of different people to the places of need necessary.
Development of technology and other aspects of the economy in the developing countries are also likely to attract foreigners from developed and other developing countries with the aim of exploiting the natural recourses which could have been left underutilized due to lack of information and technology on their usefulness.
Conclusion The process of migration has both positive and negative effects and it is therefore advisable to consider all the impacts associated with both internal and external migration and draw a balance among them. The governments in different countries especially the developing countries should invest in coming up with migration policies and strategies that take into consideration the economic constraints of the receiving countries plus the impact of migration on host communities and its impacts on the countries of origin.
Reference List International Organization for Migration, 2008. World Migration 2008: Managing Labour Mobility in the Evolving Global Economy. IOM world migration report series (Vol. 4). London: Hammersmith Press.
Mussa, M. 2008. Global Economic Prospects for 2010 and 2011: Global Recovery Continues. Peterson Institute for International Economics. Web.
National Economic Expeditions, 2005. What is Human Migration? Human Migration Guide (6-8).National geographic society.
Pomfret, R. 1997. Population and Migration: Development economic. pp. 205 -215, New York: Prentice Hall.
Ratha, D and Shaw, W. 2007. Causes of South-South Migration and Its Socioeconomic Effects. Migration information source Web.
World Bank, 2003. Global Economic Prospects 2004: Realizing the Development Promise of the Doha Agenda. New Delhi, World Bank Publications.
World Bank, 2005.Global economic prospects 2006: Economic Implications of Remittances and Migration. New Delhi, World Bank Publications.
World Bank and World Bank Group, 2007.Global Economic Prospects: Managing the Next Wave of Globalization. New Delhi, World Bank Publications.
World Bank, 2010. Global Economic Prospects: Crisis, Finance, and Growth. Site Resources Web.
Differences in Subject Teaching Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Teaching of Computer Science and History has both similarities and significant differences in various aspects of teaching and learning processes. These aspects include the teaching and learning methodologies, the resources used as well as the teaching and learning content.
Similarities and Differences Teaching and learning Content
The learning content for History as a discipline focuses on achievements of the past including past events and experiences of nations and regions in the world, cultures, continuity and changes that have occurred over time as well as the cause-and-effect relationships (Furay,
Rhetoric as an Art Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Rhetoric in Pre-Socratic period
Rhetoric during the Renaissance
Rhetoric in the 20th century
Introduction Rhetoric during the pre-Socratic time was seen as the art of discourse aimed at broadening speaker’s and writer’s horizons and developing their good communication skills. During that period, rhetoric provided heuristics for understanding, discovering and developing arguments as a way of winning audiences’ appeal.
For example, sophists created five laws to guide the study of rhetoric. These laws include invention, argument, delivery, memory and style. They were designed to persuade the audience and motivate them to listen to the speaker or to read the work of a given philosopher.
Rhetoric in Pre-Socratic period Pre-Socratic period was marked with Hellenic rhetoric that shaped the view of philosophers in relation to the connection of the thought and expression. For instance, the communication skills used by Plato and the Socratic movement formed rhetoric as a discipline. The ancient Greeks aimed at including common sense and truth in their conversations. In this case, rhetoric as a discipline concentrated on discovering the limitations of being either subjective or objective during conversations.
During pre-Socratic period, the aim of rhetoric was to set a framework for analyzing communications. Here, rhetoric did not produce critical theories. Speakers and writers were useful for creating civic engagements in the society due to their convincing public speaking and writing. Rhetoric emphasized the importance of eloquence and wisdom during conversations.
The main personalities associated with rhetoric include Plato, Aristotle, Quintilian, Cicero, Socrates, etc. Particularly, Plato questioned the teaching practice of that time and challenged the knowledge of the teachers. For Plato, rhetoric was not an art. Aristotle, on the other hand, expanded on the ideas of Plato, his teacher, before qualifying rhetoric as an art. Remarkably, Aristotle sought to develop a scientific approach to arguments.
Cicero, who was a Roman lawyer, used the arguments developed by both Plato and Socrates before classifying rhetoric as a liberal art. Quintilian is widely known for his emphasis on teaching rhetoric to the youth in schools.
However, when the ancient period ended, there were considerable changes in the attitude towards rhetoric and the way of its teaching. St. Augustine is associated with rhetoric of the medieval age. His main contribution to its field was the fusion of classical “pagan” rhetoric with the aims of the Catholic Church when he worked on the art of preaching.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rhetoric during the Renaissance Among the personalities associated with rhetoric during the age of reformation, it is necessary to note Erasmus. In his book, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, he treated rhetoric as the least comprehensive work of antiquity and added to it a traditional treatment of matter and form.
For Erasmus, the subject matter of rhetoric was to discover variety in discourse. For him, rhetoric was concerned with the quality of either a speech or a written work, given the fact that there existed many versions of writing and delivering speeches. Julian Luis Vivas is another well pronounced personality associated with rhetoric during reformation.
During that period, rhetoric was characterized by the conversion of teachings from Greek to vernacular. This can be attributed to the strong orientation of rhetoric towards Latin and Greek during pre-Socratic time. This period was also characterized by various reorganizations in the school systems that eventually led to rhetoric loosing its central position.
For instance, the five laws of rhetoric as indicated earlier in this paper were dropped. In place of these laws, new inventions and dispositions were included under the name of dialectic. During that period, rhetoric was defined by style of delivering messages during conversations and the ability to memorize philosophical thoughts.
During that time, religion was the dominant subject of discussion with Christianity playing a leading role. In this case, rhetoric concentrated more on gaining religious truths than ordinary knowledge. To be a Christian was the main focus of rhetoric. The main Christian doctrine was the establishment of a personal relationship with the divine.
This relationship was personal and opposed to proportional. Discovering the emotive experiences first, before focusing on logic, was, therefore, the main subject matter of rhetoric. It is worth noting that Christianity was not the only religious belief held by people during this time. Christians used rhetoric to prove that Christianity was the only true religion.
A case in point that demonstrates the subject matter of rhetoric during reformation is the encounter with the divine. Rhetoric of that time stated that it was normal to have a personal experience with the love of the savior.
We will write a custom Essay on Rhetoric as an Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main concern of rhetoric was on how this personal encounter could be used to make an individual to be a Christian, especially a non believer. This was particularly so because of the existence of many religious believes in the world. Rhetoric was, therefore, concerned with differentiating Christian experiences from the ones of other religions.
During the reformation, rhetoric had the role of establishing a guideline for judging different experiences with the aim of determining whether they were Christian experiences or not. Sophists proposed the use of logic and the Bible as a guideline for judging different experiences.
Logic referred to the application of reason in analyzing the arguments of people claiming to have a divine experience. For example, if a person claimed to receive a divine command from God to burn the Bible, rhetoric would dismiss such an experience.
That is why, during reformation, the art of rhetoric required individuals to apply logical reasoning in differentiating experiences like the one indicated above. Logic stated in such a case that God could not command an individual to burn the Bible, which is His own holy word. The above argument, therefore, contradicts with the nature of God and thus can not be from God.
Existentialism as a part of the subject matter of rhetoric was focused on the need to have a personal relationship with God during the reformation. It based its argument on the teachings of Christ, especially on His emphasis on love. This art also emphasized on the necessity to follow a practical Christian lifestyle.
Rhetoric in the 20th century This refers to the study of rhetoric during the 20th century. This period is characterized by the establishment of departments of rhetoric and speech in institutions. National and international professional organizations became famous during this time. With increased mediation in the 20th century, the study of rhetoric as an art was restructured to emphasize language and persuasion.
The effects of globalization led to increased advertisements and mass media coverage of information all over the world, thus making rhetoric an important part of people’s life. With these changes, the meaning of rhetoric as an art in the 20th century is more associated with the mass media than language as it was the case during the pre-Socratic period.
For instance, visual rhetoric is a common vocabulary in the modern world associated with the mass media that analyzes the persuasions done by non-verbal communication. The importance of visual rhetoric is realized in advertisements whereby pictures are designed in an appealing way to attract consumers to buy the product.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rhetoric as an Art by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The personalities associated with rhetoric of the 20th century include Chaim Perelman, Kenneth Burke, I.A. Richards, and Stephen Toulmin among the others. Chaim Perelman brought rhetoric to the centre of argumentative theories. He significantly influenced the concepts of dissociation, quasi-audience and presence. Kenneth Burke, on the other hand, brought the concepts of identification and dramatic pentad into the modern rhetoric.
For him, rhetoric referred to the use of language to induce cooperation in being. I.A. Richards considered rhetoric to be a study of misunderstandings and the ways how it can be prevented. He brought the concept of comparison to provide a critique to rhetoric. Stephen Toulmin introduced the argumentation theory to the study of rhetoric.
Modern rhetoric is characterized by lack of a conventionally recognized method of study. In the modern society, the study of rhetoric is considered to originate from reality. Nowadays, the main object of the study of rhetoric is discourse, thus making it difficult to differentiate rhetorical and discourse analyses.
It makes us use such mediation and ethos as concepts to describe the social and epistemological functions of the study. Rhetoric differs significantly from the discourse by extend of analysis, especially when discoursing similar items, such as speech or a poem. In this case, rhetoric does not only look at the argumentative claims advanced by the work, but goes ahead to identify the specific strategies employed by the writer to persuade his targeted audience.
Conclusion In conclusion, the above discussion indicates the extent to which rhetoric can be taken as an art with its own subject matter. It does so by considering how this issue was approached in different times in history. From the discussion, it is clear that rhetoric as an art originated from the Greeks and Romans, with Plato and Socrates being the major personalities behind the study of this subject.
During that period, the subject matter was discovering, developing and understanding arguments. The aim of rhetoric as an art then was to produce individuals with good communication skills, both written and spoken.
During the reformation, the subject matter of rhetoric was to understand the religious theories. The min focus of this subject was to judge arguments by individuals concerning their personal experiences with the divine. Here, rhetoric emphasized the use of logic and the Bible to discern experiences.
Finally, this paper looked at rhetoric as an art during the 20th century, a period during which rhetoric shifted its focus to the mass media. Rhetoric of that period is an impotent subject in the life of people as indicated in the paper. In the 20th century, the main concern for rhetoric is to discover the role played by the work of art in pursuing the targeted auditory. From the above discussion, rhetoric qualifies as a genuine work of art with the subject matter rightly on its own.
Internationalization and Cultural Implications for Joint Ventures in Saudi Arabia Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction Brief Overview of the Topic
In this literature review, it is necessary to consider the connection between internationalization and cultural implications for joint ventures in Saudi Arabia. This question is especially urgent nowadays due to the process of integration and cross-cultural communication.
Due to the fact that the prevalent form of international business in Saudi Arabia is joint ventures, it is really significant for companies in Saudi Arabia, particular for the industrialization process because it provides immediate access to modern technologies and offers wider opportunities for the development and advancement of human resources (Mababaya, 2003a, p. 157).
The increased interest in business operations in Saudi Arabia can be explained by the emerging opportunity for foreign investors to participate in the Kingdom’s industrial ventures. But what is more important is that international business relations are enhanced by Saudi’s impressive track records, respect for traditions and history, and international law (Mababaya, 2003a, p. 157).
Hence, Saudi Arabia is considered to be an ideal place for creating joint ventures in cooperation with foreign investors due to many reasons, apart from the presence of abundant hydrocarbon resources.
Importance of Literature Review for the Proposal
Despite the fact that the country’s culture is homogeneous to some extent, Saudi people, particularly the representatives of young generations, have experience in cooperating with business partners from other cultures. Before the oil was discovered, Saudi Arabia has low rates of production and the core business operations were focused on trading (Katz, 2007).
The commercial culture, therefore, assist them in becoming shrewd bargainers. Hence, due to the process of globalization and internationalization, cultural environment of Saudi Arabia has become really significant for other cultures. World market, therefore, is now more concerned with internationalization and cultural influence of the Middle East.
In this research proposal, it is necessary to examine the core cultural implications for joint ventures in Saudi Arabia. The literature review presented below will prove that integration of cultural issues into the international business is very important, both for Saudi Arabia and for the foreign investors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Review Cultural Features of Saudi Arabia and Importance of Culture for International Cooperation
In order to understand the process of globalization and cultural concerns related to it, it is necessary to study the peculiarities of Saudi cultures and traditions, particularly people’s strict adherence to them. Indeed, the mentality and history of the Saudi community should be taken in the deepest consideration. The importance of culture for the Saudi people and business world is proved by the researches presented below.
Hence, Moran et al. (2007) has identified that “Arabs are people of great emotions and sentimentality – and sometimes of excess and extremes. They hold in high regard friendship, loyalty, and justice, and, when events and behavior go against that sense of justice, they will likely to be morally outrages and indignant” (p. 339). All those features play a significant in building successful business relations, but still one should not adhere to the presented stereotypes to a full extent.
Walker et al. (2003) also agree with the assumption that cultural aspects should be carefully treated when it comes to the Middle East world. The researchers believe that the process of Westernization is rigidly confronted in Saudi Arabia, but this relates to Western culture only. In other words, Saudi culture reflects the ideas of accepting Western technology without impregnating Western culture and ideology.
In particular, the Arabs “are opposed to Western cultural influences, seeing them as corrupting and debasing and potentially undermining their religious, ethnic and tribal heritage” (Walker, 2003, p. 96). This opposition proves that the importance of culture can only be conceived on the rise of the globalization process.
The studies performed by Oxford Business Group (2008) have revealed that all issues connected with cooperation and trading in Saudi Arabia is closely related to Islam. It implies that all business transactions and joint ventures are initially based on conservative approaches to building relations. Hence, older generations of the Arab world adheres to strict social codes and discourages the participation of women in managing and concluding business agreements. At the same time, the research has also revealed that younger generations have different views on cultural issues.
Like Walker et al. (2003) and Moran et al. (2007), Mead and Andrews (2009) have attached importance to culture and religion in international cooperation with Saudi Arabia with the emergence of joint ventures. In particular, extreme conservatism of Saudi community still opposes to Westernization due to rigid loyalty to traditions and moral codes. In this regard, the management and human resource management system is not subjected to cultural democratization and socialization (Meat and Andrews, 2005, p. 74).
Shoult (2006) has also conducted research on joint ventures and importance of Saudi culture for establishing successful cooperation. In particular, the author notes that “if its performance has failed quickly to reach the Saudi partners’ expectations, it may even find itself treated as a distressed department of their own establishment” (Shoult, 2006, p.169). The knowledge of the Arab mentality and psychology is paramount for foreign partners to organize successful joint ventures.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Internationalization and Cultural Implications for Joint Ventures in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One way or another, it is essential to have an enthusiastic and creative Saudi partner who is willing to cooperate. Arising from this fact, Mababaya (2003b) has found that the failure of leading British company to establish successful relations lies in their feeble attempt to understand cultural specifics of the Middle East world. Ignoring cultural context, the companies failed to cope with emerging problems.
Other researchers (Onkvisit and Shaw, 2008; Broways and Price, 2008) also agree with the idea that a cross-cultural factor should be a priority to the Western partners if they plan to organize a joint venture in Saudi Arabia. In particular, they should know the specifics of working hours and holiday differences.
The author also examines the secrets of successful communication where a foreign partner should spend a considerable amount of time before proceeding with business issues. Onkvisit and Shaw (2008) state that trust is the basis of all business operations and a necessary condition for all joint ventures.
In general, the above-presented studies reveal several important facts about the Middle East world and Saudi Arabia in particular. First of all, the Arab people attach much attention to friendship and justice and have a great respect to older generations. Due to the fact that these people are of great sentimentality, they value a respectful and punctual attitude to them.
In business operations, they greatly oppose to the Westernization process and participation of women. Finally, they give credit to Islam and believe that trust is the basis of a successful cooperation. All these factors should be carefully tackled if foreign partners want to establish favorable relations with the Arab people.
Influence of Internationalization on Joint Ventures in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia is known as the main world producer of oil and, therefore, it plays a huge role in oil market (Cordesman, 2003, p. 473). Supplying about 95 % of oil, Saudi Aramco provides strong strategic privilege to the country as well as international flexibility and acceptance among other world producers (Cordesman, 2003, p. 473).
The process of internalization that has penetrated to the country has given rise to the country’s cultural recognition and compromise on the part of leading world producers. Judging from the above-presented facts, it should be assumed that the process of internalization has increased the importance of the Arab culture and has introduced the Middle East on the world arena. On the one hand, it granted brilliant opportunities for the country’s development. On the other hand, the country has faced serious multicultural and international issues that are hard to overcome.
The process of globalization has greatly contributed to the advancement of economy in Saudi Arabia. Import and export activities carried out by family business houses haves changed their course to global business operations. As a result the world has recognized such international enterprises as SABIC, Kingdom Holding, and ARAMCO (Ali, 2008, p. 227).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Internationalization and Cultural Implications for Joint Ventures in Saudi Arabia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the membership the WTO has also enables the country to advance their health care systems and improve the diary industry. According to Ali (2008), “globalization is more than business involvement and that the latter should not be divorced from its political and environmental concerns” (p. 227).
Ramady (2010) underlines the direct dependence of cultural concerns from globalization. With regard with this, the formation of an appropriate business and cultural environment is crucial for the Arab world to meet the challenges of Westernization. In his studies, the author insists on the idea that the major outcome of globalization is increasing concerns with preserving culture and religion and protecting them from outer invasion.
Therefore, although the process of internationalization providers wider opportunities for the economic development but creates challenges for traditions, ethnicity, religions, and moral codes. Aulakh and Schetchter (2000) have also provided evidence for ideological and cultural influence of globalization on Saudi Arabia and other countries with promising perspectives.
The authors provide arguments concerning the role of the countries involved in the process of globalization pertained to economic and cultural areas. Analyzing the studies presented by Ramady (2010) and Aulakh and Schetchter (2000), the process of globalization is also greatly influenced by the Middle East world whose traditions and customs are considered by other world agents structuring the stages of internationalization.
This point of view is also supported by Fox et al. (2006) who underline a huge role of the Middle East in forming the process of internalization.
Shifts in Culture Being the Result of Business Cooperation between the Western World and Saudi Arabia
A great number of studies have been devoted to multinational business operations all over the world, but few of them are connected with Saudi Arabia. Both foreign visitors and investors of Saudi joint ventures, and the Arabians should find a compromise in cooperating and building favorable business relations at the international level.
But the main task of this literature review is to analyze what how international culture influences the creation of joint industries in Saudi Arabia with regard to the Arab culture, religion, and firmly established traditions.
In studies presented by Moran et al. (2007), the researchers examine the cultural effects that the process of Westernization has on Saudi managers, which make them less paternalistic (p. 339). The scholars have also underscored that the increasing tendency in creating training programs in Saudi Arabia being the result of its cooperation with the United States.
The rapid integration of the Arab world to the international arena has led to rapid shifts in the Arab culture in terms of business operations and management. In particular, the country has faced a rigorous competition and increasing standards that resulted in some changes.
Rao (2001) in his studies of the globalization process emphasizes that lack of understanding of cross cultural relations and diversity can result in a serious failure to interact with the trading partners. The same concerns the Middle East world whose specific culture should be adjusted to the international culture and, vice versa, Western world should be more sensitive to Saudi managers and businessmen whose language involves both verbal and non-verbal communication (Rao, 2001, p. 154).
Studies by Adekola and Sergi (2007) also contribute to understanding cross-cultural relations between Saudi Arabia and other cultures. In particular, they investigate what the opportunities that the international business has created for the Arab worlds, how Western countries treat the Arab culture, and why cultural implications are tangible for the Arab community.
The rise of globalization has influenced many industrial areas of Saudi Arabia, particularly its dairy production. After the country has jointed the World Trade Organization, it has received access to free trade and many other benefits such as reduced tariffs, and the rise of joint venture organization with other foreign partners.
Fenn (1994) has conducted an independent research where the scholar has defined the specifics of carrying out business in Saudi Arabia. While discussing the peculiarities of Saudi culture and its influence on the international business, Fenn (1994) introduces some recommendations for foreign investors to follow before penetrating to the Arab world.
Studying the findings carefully, it is possible to admit that the Saudi managers have certain cultural rules which make women’s intervention problematic. This factor plays a huge role in business relations, specifically in the international world where both men and women have equal opportunities for self-realization.
Like Fenn, Mead (2005) insists on the fact that the process of internationalization implies “the free movement of political, economic, and cultural resources between countries, each society influencing and being influenced by every other society” (p.72). The problem is that Western values still dominate on the world arena of business and commerce. This particularly concerns the United States that propagandize their cultural and politics, which is often perceived as an assault of other cultures and economies.
Kangari and Lucas (1997) have also admitted the fact that the discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia has imposed a cultural change on the Arab world. The Kingdom has been forced to adapt to abrupt shifts in culture to advance Saudi industries and economies. According to the scholars, “rapid progress in the material sense has resulted in a sort of cultural backlash, and old traditions have been strengthened” (Kangari and Lucas, 1997, p. 42).
With regard to those dramatic changes, they consider it necessary to work our important strategies for dealing with cultural shifts for the Middle East world to adjust to a new cultural background. One of the best strategies proposed is avoiding conflicts and preserving neutrality in business world.
A thorough consideration of cultural effects on joint ventures in Saudi Arabia leads to an assumption that Western and Eastern worlds have rigid differences in conducting business. Nevertheless, a compromise should be reached to succeed in advancing international business.
Conclusion Although the culture of Saudi Arabia is homogeneous, the country’s population, particularly the younger generations, are experienced enough in cooperating with foreign business partners. Before the discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia, it has insignificant rates of production and the main focus was made on commercial operations.
However, this trading culture has played a decisive role in establishing relations with other countries and leading producers. With regard to this the process of globalization has considerably influenced the cultural environment of Saudi Arabia is carefully considered by other world agents. What is more important is that the Middle East world has faced with cross-cultural challenges as well.
In this literature review, we have found that much research has been made on studying the peculiarities of the Arab cultures and how it affects the global communities. However, little concern has been revealed concerning how the Saudi people deal with those challenges and who they adjust to the process of Westernization.
In addition, the literature has also disclosed the problem of inability of foreign partners to conceive the specifics of business relations with Saudi Arabia, including their cultural values, religion issues, and important customs. Arising from the above-presented considerations, a golden medium should be found between economic development, cultural aspects, and internalization to build successful joint ventures in Saudi Arabia.
Reference List Adekola, A. amd Sergi, B. (2007). Global business management: a cross-cultural perspective. US: Ashgate Publishing. Ltd.
Ali, A. (2008). Business and management environment in Saudi Arabia: challenges and opportunities for multinational corporations. US: Taylor
The Contemporary Politics of Development in Nigeria Essay essay help: essay help
For the past two decades, the concept of neoliberalism has been a subject of intense debate in many political and economic arenas. Scholars argue that we live in a world shaped by the ideology of neoliberalism. The term ‘neo’ means new or recent, therefore by its own definition, neoliberalism is a reincarnation of liberalism; meaning that the ideology of liberalism has undergone a complete transformation; a cycle that all ideologies seem to undergo.
This process includes the following stages: formulation and growth of the ideology, succeeded by a decline and finally emerging as a new and redefined ideology. Though neoliberalism stems out of liberalism, the two concepts are not identical (Wolfson 2004: 34). Classical liberalism is an ideology that advocates for a free market economy, where the state has limited influence on the day to day business of its citizenry.
In an attempt to define and shed light on this phenomenon, neoliberalism can be termed as:
“A theory of political economic practices that proposes that human well-being can be advanced by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills with an institutional framework characterized by strong property rights, free markets and free trade. The role of the state is to create and preserve an institutional framework appropriate to such practices.
The state has to guarantee, fir example, the quality and integrity of money. It must also set up those military, defense, police and legal structures and functions required to secure private property rights and to guarantee, by force if need be, the proper functioning of markets. Furthermore, if markets do not exist (in areas such as land, water, education, health care and social security) then they must be created, by state action if necessary.
But beyond these tasks the state should not venture. State interventions in markets (once created) must be kept to a bare minimum because, according to the theory, the state can not possibly possess enough information to second-guess market signals (prices) and because powerful interest groups will inevitably distort and bias state interventions (particularly in democracies) for their own benefit” (Harvey 2005: 2)
This definition views neoliberalism as a distinctive phenomenon, separate from liberalism. Neoliberalism is therefore, a political ideology which, strongly proposes that the legitimate function of the state is to ensure individual security, commercial liberty and to safeguard property rights. When these conditions are achieved, then the market is said to be free to transact and facilitate exchange of goods and services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Political Development in Nigeria Background
Nigeria is a federal republic with similar institutional structures as those found in the United States. This country has a population of 158 million people and a marked gross domestic product of 384 billion dollars and an annual growth rate of 9.1as per the 2010 fiscal year. Nigeria is an economic giant in the African region with vast resources in agriculture and in the oil industry.
According to the report provided by the United Nation, on Human development index (HDI) in 2008, ranked Nigeria 159th out of the 177 countries. The table shows statistical data collected by the CIA World Factbook.
Population (200) Life Expectancy (2008) Population below poverty line (2007) Total fertility rate (2008) Literacy (2008) Population living with HIV/AIDS 138,283,240 47.8 years 70% 5.4 Children/women 68% 5.4% Source: CIA World Factbook.
The data in the table above shows a number of failures in the overly neoliberal Nigeria. Though Nigeria is endowed with natural resources, a majority of the population still in deplorable conditions with poor sanitation, housing, no piped water and electricity. These conditions are further worsened by foreign oil companies that are exploiting the rich oil resource while leaving behind a devastating surrounding (Ihovbere 1994, p.24).
Poverty levels in Nigeria
Under neoliberalism, markets forces seem to be dominating the global economy. Despite the vast resources, Nigeria like any other third world is in an unequal global economy, with its development largely dependent on loans from multinational corporations, local banks and the political elite. The Neoliberal policies have been imposed on the African countries.
The international financial institutions (World Bank, IMF and WTO) ensure that there are neoliberal reforms attached to the funds that they loan the Africans. Economic disparities are further advanced by the neoliberal policies.
In his book Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality? Robert Wade claims that there has been a sizable gap in gross national products (GNPs) between the developed and the peripheral states (2004: 384). Wade also observes that claims of neoliberalism reducing poverty are not true, as the world economic inequalities seem to be rising everyday (2004: 400).
We will write a custom Essay on The Contemporary Politics of Development in Nigeria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The 2005 Millennium Development goals for the African region, showed an increased number of Nigerians surviving on less than a dollar a day. The report also showed that a growing number of people were slum dwellers (2005: 364-393). The gross domestic product per capita in Nigeria is $ 1,721 (United Nations Development Programme, 2006). This figure perhaps represents data for the wealth few in the State.
More than a half of the Nigerians are still living below the poverty lines. The oil companies enjoy a business atmosphere uninterrupted by the state; as a result, there is a little concern over protection of the environment. Every year, there are over 300 oil spills in Nigeria and the oil companies seem less concerned. The locals around the oil fields have been left with barren lands that can not be used for subsistent farming (Okeagu 2006: 202).
This has resulted in an increased migration to the urban areas; leading to massive congestions of people with no jobs and housing (Davis, 2006, p.23). This whole process has a net effect of reducing the productivity of the state and creation of slums within business districts.
Neoliberalism promotes the ideology that the most efficient way to allocate resources is through the market, this is not the case in Nigeria, resource allocation only benefits a small cluster of wealthy individuals as the poverty gap between the poor and rich widens.
Wage regulation is another condition of this ideology, as uncontrolled wages might push the inflation even higher and that private sectors should be allowed to invest in public institutions and enterprises. These conditions, when applied in Nigeria, the beneficiaries are the few elites as poverty levels keep on rising (Okeagu 2006, p.108).
The free- market economy and security The geo-politics of oil in Nigeria
Oil accounts for 95% of the total export of Nigeria and like all regions with rich oil reserves, the western countries always find a way to control countries with this resource. Though government has jurisdiction over all oil fields, it is the foreign companies that dictate the terms (Junger, 2007). The free-market ideology has put this resource in the hands of private investors and the political class of Nigeria who work with foreign companies to exploit the extraction process.
A militant group, called The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), unhappy with the way the foreign companies destroyed their environment, decided to wage war against them. In 2006, they took control of the Niger Delta. The MEND was vicious and had resoted to killing as a way of combating the foreigners (Junger, 2007). Neoliberalization claims that the state should use its institutions to safeguard and protect the citizens and their properties.
Since the militia started causing havoc, the state militarized the river states at the Delta. In 2006, a joint task force of the security forces attacked and killed 15 members of the MEND. This region had been restricted and considered dangerous to the community around that area. The insecurity also caused the production of oil to decline, leading to a decline of 2.6% in the growth rate of Nigeria. This is what prompted President Olusegun Obasanjo to order the security forces to pacify the region.
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In the last four decades, Niger Delta has experienced ethnic conflicts that are fueled by the desire to gain social recognition and the agitation to control the oil resource; thereby posing substantial challenges to economic development. These communities are grossly dependent on socio-economic activities, but they are marginalized, psychologically alienated and underdeveloped (Suberu, 1996, p.31).
The MEND and the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) engaged in constant conflicts over resources and had proposed the creation of states based on ethnicity. In order to deal with these conflicts, the government decided to create institutions that would deal with that problem. These institutions included: the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) formed in 2000 and the Niger Delta Ministry (NDM) formed in 2009.
Even thought these institutions were formed to develop the region, there is still a presence of conflict in the region. The free market allocation of resources proposed by the neoliberal theory has only caused more harm to the Niger Delta, as there is no evidence of equitable distribution (Castree, 2005, p.45). In view of this, people will always defend resources that maintain their survival and development leading to violent conflicts (Dibua, 2006, p.67).
Neoliberalism vis-à-vis human rights
According to the tenets of neoliberalism, the state is supposed to guarantee the freedoms and liberties of all the citizens. The fundamental rights of the modern Nigeria were first entrenched in the constitution in 1960 and were further revisited in 1999, when the bill of rights was included. Bill was aimed at protecting the political and economic well-being of the Nigerian people (Kalu, 2001, p.243-267).
These rights have however been violated by both the government and its institutions. According to the report by Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and labour (2010), Nigeria experienced human rights violations that included: depriving the citizens the right to change their government. There was extrajudicial killing that was politically motivated and carried out by Nigerian security forces. According to the Amnesty International report (2009), security forces were responsible for exciting detainees in their custody.
Societal Abuse and Discrimination
Nigeria is currently by the federal law, which prohibits homosexual relations; homosexual offenses carry a sentence of up to 15 years in jail. Northern states of Nigeria are mostly comprised of a Muslim population and apply the Sharia law to its full extent. Individuals found engaging in homosexual activities are punished by stoning to death.
In 2008, members of a church were stoned to death by an angry mob because they were friendly to the to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender groups (LGBT). As a fundamental right, the government should protect citizens against these discriminations (Herskovits, 1980).
Another group that is also discriminated against is the group with persons living with HIV/AIDS. Some people regard this disease as an evidence of immoral behavior amongst people living with the virus. This group has further been discriminated against the work places, schools, hospitals and in other social faculties.
In 2008, the Bauchi State Agency embarked on a mission to pair up couples that were HIV positive. By March the following year (2009), about 100 couples had been paired up and married. The activity was aimed at reducing and preventing further spread of the HIV virus. This in itself is gross violation of Human freedoms of association.
Rights of Association
The law stipulates that all citizens are at liberty to form and join any trade unions of their choice. Though this true, the law has also formulated statutes of limitations. Trade unions have to meet the requirements of the law in order to the recognized. First, they must be registered by the government and must reach the thresh hold of 50 members in order to be considered for registration. These limitations were perhaps aimed at preventing the proliferation of small trade unions which are mostly formed by the lower income earners.
In 2009, there were about 8 million people registered by unions, this represented 65 percent of the entire professional staff, both public and private (Koehn, 1998). However these figures have been declining fewer members registered each year. Although the laws states that unions should carry out their activities without any outside interruption, it also fails to effectively define what legal activity is and what is not.
The Nigerian law also prohibits the right to strike; this is one of the fundamental rights of workers. The right to strike is universally accepted and it is to this effect that the International Labour Organization (ILO) ruled that this policy by the Nigerian government was contrary to the universal convention. This is to show that the government has failed to affect the ideals of the neoliberalism (Hushala, 2010)
Child labour has also been common in Nigeria although this is contrary to the law. The government agents have failed to protect the Nigerian children against unlawful exploitation. The National Agency for the prevention of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) indicated that over 15 million underage children were involved in forced and child labour.
The law requires that underage children may be employed to perform small chores and receive wages at the end of the day. This had not been observed by the perpetrators of this crime. And so far, nothing has been done to curb this vice.
In 2010, the Nigerian parliament passed an Act that allowed workers to be compensated for work related injuries. These laws encompass all workers whether domestic or foreign (Ajulo, and Co. Castle of Law., 2008).
Conclusion Contrary to popular belief that neoliberalism defines the modern society, the failure of the third world to successfully integrate it tenets in political and economic policies as witnessed in the case of Nigeria shows that this ideology has a long way to go as far as the developing economies are concerned.
Bibliography Ajulo, K., and Co. Castle of Law., 2008. Constitutionalism and Fundamental human rights – Nigeria. Legal Directions. Web.
Castree, N., 2005. Nature. New York: Routledge.
Davis, M., 2006. Planet of Slums. New York: Verso.
Dibua, J., 2006. Modernization and problem of development in Africa. Vermont: Ashgate
Gramsci, A., 2007. Africa: The geo-politics of a modern democracy. New York: International Publishers.
Harvey, D., 1996. Valuing Nature: Justice, nature and the geography of difference. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Inc.
Herskovits, J., 1980. Democracy in Nigeria. Foreign Affairs. Web.
Hushala, T. 2010. The politics of a dying Nation. New York: Syracuse University Press.
Ihovbere, J. O., 1994. Nigeria: the politics of adjustment and democracy. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Junger, S., 2007. Blood Oil. Vanity Fair. Web.
Kalu, K., 2001. Constitutionalism in Nigeria: A conceptual analysis of ethnicity and politics. The Nigerian Judicial Review, 8, pp. 53-84.
Koehn, P., 1998. Political Developments in Nigeria-A Review Essay. Africa Today 35(1).
Okeagu, J. E., 2006. The environment and social impact of petroleum and petroleum gas. New York. American Library.
Suberu, T., 1996. Ethnic minority conflicts and governance in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.
Wade, R., 2004. Is globalization reducing poverty and Inequality? The International Journal of Health Service, 34(3), 381-414.
Influence of sex roles on the manifestation of leadership Essay a level english language essay help
During the old gone days, it was an abomination to belong in homosexual groups, people with disability were rejected, women and older individuals were undermined. In the world of today, it is seen that the minority groups such as the gay, lesbian, older individual, women and individual with disability are on the rise.
All over the world these groups have started to be recognized as a result of increased lobbying by human rights organizations. Therefore, this paper seeks to define a cultural group and highlight factors which make the groups of homosexuality, women, older individual and individuals with disability to constitute a cultural group.
According to Feldman (1984), a cultural group is a group of people with similar cultural experiences and share common characteristics. These common characteristics may include religious inclination, ethnic background and commonality as defined by the physical appearance of the group members. It also includes a similarity in the sociological characteristics of the group.
Given the above as our working definition, it is clear that sociological factors assist in defining a cultural group. This automatically makes the gays, and lesbians cultural group. Gays are male individuals who practise sex activity amongst themselves while the lesbians are female individual who practise sex activity amongst fellow women.
It is therefore worthy to note that these groups are defined with a commonality of practicing homosexual activity. Socially, it is believed that marriage happens between different genders. However, this minority finds same gender sexual relationship satisfying.
Therefore, the common factor within this group is the ability to find sex between people of similar gender satisfying. This is a sociological commonality. As a result, they all belong to a cultural group since they share a similar cultural experience (Feldman, 1984).
Another outstanding characteristic of a cultural group is physical commonality. Disability impedes with normal functioning of the body. It leads to difficulties in performing common and simple day to day tasks without special assistance. This makes individuals with disability to have a common cultural experience characterized by incapacitation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Incapacitation means the body of a person does not function properly and require some help in order to perform daily routine. There are different levels of incapacitation like blindness, deafness, cripple, mental handicap to name but a few that make individual to have a common physical characteristic hence leading them to belong to a cultural group (Megargee, 1969).
Apart from physical disabilities, old age can also be classified as a characteristic that can make one belong to a cultural group of the aged. These are people who have lived long and had some of their body organs fail to function normally. Similarly, they also have a common physical appearance in addition to some common incapacitation.
Furthermore, the way aged people behave draws a common line between them making them sociologically bound by a common behavior. Finally, aged people tend to have grown under similar culture and events making them similar in their way of life (Megargee, 1969).
Finally, physical commonality and sociological commonality make women a distinct cultural group. Physically, women have similar characteristics. They are also believed to be weak as compared to men. Their social positions in certain communities tend to make them distinguished from the rest of the population. This makes them a cultural group defined by commonality in physical appearance and sociological characteristics.
In conclusion, the factors discussed above (homosexuality, incapacitation and age) are some of the factors that lead to a similar commonality. However there are other factors which have not been highlighted in the paper. It is therefore prudent to argue that the mentioned groups are well distinguished cultural groups. This is important because it gives policy makers ability to formulate appropriate policies to better lives of the people.
Reference List Feldman, D.C. (1984). The development and enforcement of group norms, Academy of Management Review, 9, 47-53.
Megargee, E. (1969). Influence of sex roles on the manifestation of leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53, 377-382.
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Developing the Work Team Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Although many authors use the terms “team” and “group” interchangeably, hence drawing no distinction between the two, it is suggested in this paper that teams differ from groups in varied ways. In essence, teams consist of small groups of people who not only share responsibility for outcomes for their organizations, but are committed to achieving common objectives and producing high quality results.
In contrast, groups may lack a clear and common purpose, not mentioning that members belonging to a particular group may lack an understanding of their interdependence on one another.
Unlike in groups, teams have the capacity to increase organizational productivity and efficiency, improve communication skills, facilitate diversity of skills, improve problem-solving and decision making, as well as ensure efficient use of resources. For example, most technology firms are known to depend on their service teams to sell their products/services, maintain operational efficiency, and keep their customers satisfied.
Team members must demonstrate a meaningful common purpose by collectively understanding and committing themselves to the set purpose. Focusing on a meaningful common purpose ensures maximum commitment from members, especially in the context of shared values and goals. For example, a sales team must demonstrate a meaningful common purpose in the domain of sales to achieve efficiency and effectiveness.
This characteristic links best with a matrix team structure as it allows members to not only share information more readily across the task boundaries, but also to facilitate specialization that can enhance depth of knowledge.
The second behavioural characteristic is that an effective team must demonstrate clear performance goals and objectives through members accepting the end goal and the means to get there.
This characteristic is effective for team effectiveness as it binds members to the goals set by the team. A critical benefit of this characteristic is that organizations may end up using fewer resources to achieve productivity and competitiveness as team members are focussed on meeting their performance goals and objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This characteristic links to the matrix and network team structures as both require that performance goals be clearly delineated for team members to understand.
The third characteristic is the diversity of skill and personality, which implies that effective teams must attempt to bring different individuals together so that they provide diverse skills and perspectives with the view to spurring creativity and innovation. For example, research has shown that teams consisting of cross-cultural members are more creative and innovative than those that go for homogeneity of members.
As already mentioned, the benefits of this characteristic include enhancing creativity and innovation, hence organizational productivity and competitiveness.
Another characteristic is strong communication and collaboration for purposes of effective interaction among members, solving potential challenges, and approaching shared goals. This characteristic brings varied benefits, including enhancing accountability, maximising the amount of time that teams will be together, as well as supporting the motivations of team members.
The last characteristic is a strong sense of trust and commitment among team members, which bring team effectiveness by building rapport and improving productivity. These two characteristics link to both the matrix and network team structures.
The stages of team development can be described using Tuckman’s Team Development Model, which consists of four phases namely forming, storming, norming, and performing.
While the forming phase consists of establishing base-level expectations, identifying similarities, agreeing on common objectives, making contact and bonding, as well as developing trust and member interdependence, the storming phase consists of identifying power and control issues, obtaining skills in communication, identifying resources, expressing differences of ideas/feelings/opinions, reacting to leadership, as well as members’ independence or counter-dependence.
We will write a custom Essay on Developing the Work Team specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In our own work team, for example, we had to undertake a session in establishing effective communication avenues and strategies to be used by members.
Moving on, the norming phase entails members agreeing about roles and processes for solving problems, with decisions being made through negotiation and consensus-building. Lastly, the performing phase in the Tuckman’s model entails achieving effective and satisfying results, finding solutions to challenges using suitable controls, members working collaboratively, members caring about each other, establishing a unique identity, and members becoming interdependent.
The responsibilities assigned to individual members in team settings may vary, but typically include (1) understanding the purpose and objectives of the team, (2) ensuring a correct balance between team and non-team functions, (3) maintaining set timescales and working within cost constraints, (4) reporting progress to the leader against plan, (5) generating the deliverables to agreed specifications, (6) reviewing key project deliverables, (7) identifying issues and risks associated with the set goals, (8) working together as a team, (9) contributing towards successful communication, and (10) contributing towards positive motivation.
The main benefits of these responsibilities to all stakeholders include ensuring efficiency and productivity, guaranteeing that the team remains cohesive in its operations, as well as spurring creativity and innovativeness.
The main advantages include increased efficiency and productivity due to focussed attempt to pursue common goals, capacity to focus different minds on the same challenge, diversity of skills due to cross-cultural considerations in the team forming process, increased creativity and innovation due to inclusion of cross-cultural members, better business outcomes as the team can bring more resources, mutual support, increased employee satisfaction, faster job delivery, and a sense of accomplishment when members of a team collaborate and work together to achieve specific objectives.
In essence, working in a team is more effective than working in a group not only because groups often lack a clear and common purpose, but members of a group also often lack an understanding of their interdependence on one another. For example, my workplace team is able to achieve greater efficiency and productivity than my church group as the latter lacks a clear and common purpose.
The first disadvantage is unequal participation, which essentially entails some members sitting back and letting others do most of the work. Additionally, a team may have members who prefer to work on their own, hence finding it difficult to fit into the work culture and become team players.
The third disadvantage revolves around the fact that teamwork may also constrain creative thinking in that employees with immense talent may be so focussed on working for the overall good of the team at the expense of providing creative and innovative ideas that may catapult the organization forward.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Developing the Work Team by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another disadvantage is that some teams actually take longer to generate the needed outcomes, in large part due to the many processes and resources involved. Lastly, a team may fail to achieve the desired result due to inherent conflicts brought about by varied reasons, such as contrasting personal styles, peer pressure, as well as blurred judgement.
Confucianism Ideology and Its Usefulness Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction This assignment is a discussion on the topic of Confucianism. The thesis statement of the discussion is that Confucianism is useful in cultivating and instilling good morals in individuals and in so doing contributes to harmonious co-existence of people in society. In the discussion I will argue that individuals gain good morals through the scripture, experience, reason and traditions. I will conclude the discussion by refuting the criticism labeled against Confucianism especially by Marxists.
Discussion Confucianism is a philosophically derived ideology which outlines the moral and ethical principles which govern the relationship of people in a society. The philosophy has its roots from the Chinese philosopher Confucius who founded it in 551 BC.
Confucianism makes the project of moral self-cultivation central to human living and offers a distinctive account of the nature of the self and of its cultivation. According to early Confucians, the essence of humanity is to live to serve other humanity with a view of creating a harmonious society (Ivanhoe and Van Norden 244).
From the Confucianism view, morality is a behavioral based approach in distinguishing and classifying actions and decisions as being good or right on one hand and bad or wrong on the other. Put simply, morality refers to what is right and what is wrong based on some specific socio-cultural environments. It is synonymous to virtues, ethics and good.
About what constitutes knowledge, Confucianism views knowledge as “a belief which is best explained by the reference to its truth” (Ivanhoe and Van Norden 244). In philosophy, moral knowledge is knowledge of what is morally good. Philosophers however tend to disagree on whether there is moral knowledge. Some elitists like Aristotle argue that there is nothing like moral knowledge, but rather “knowledge of the forms”, which means that moral knowledge is only found in those people who are trained or have studied morality.
Other philosophers of the Confucianism orientation and especially those who are inclined towards the view that there is universal knowledge about morals based on our cultural and philosophical orientations argue that it is essential to reject the elitist views of Aristotle, and base our arguments on our conscience, simply because everybody has a conscience, which directs him or her to make judgments on what is good, right, bad or wrong.
The difference of this view from the elitist one is that conscience enables everyone, regardless of whether educated on moral knowledge or not, to be able to gain moral knowledge regarding what is good, right, bad or wrong.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Confucianism, morality is governed by moral codes of conduct which are written down rules which govern the moral conduct of a particular group of people, who share beliefs and customs. Examples of codes of conduct are the bible for Christians and Koran for Muslims.
The opposite of morality is immorality, which are actions which can be interpreted as being opposite of what a particular group of people belief to be moral. For example, Christians believe that faithfulness and trust in marriage constitute good morals. If one commits adultery therefore, he or she is perceived as being sexually immoral.
Moral knowledge, just like any other knowledge has got its sources. Each and every one of us lives in a society, which is characterized by values, norms and ethics which are specific for that particular society. It is these values, norms and ethics which make every one of us direct his or her conscience to comply with the expectations of the society.
It is important to mention here that a person’s conscience may go against what is considered to be good by many people within a particular social setting. This act of going against what is considered to be good by the society is what constitutes immorality within a particular social setting, even though it may be relative because it may depend on the reasons which make an individual commit or engage in such actions.
Even though there are the standard forms of behavior and actions governing our conduct in the society, it is important to acknowledge the fact that what may constitute good behavior in society A may constitute a bad behavior in society B.
As I have already mentioned that everyone lives in a society, the society itself may be seen as the main source of moral knowledge because people get moral knowledge through various experiences in the society, reasoning in regard to the prevailing societal norms, religion and tradition, all of which are either directly linked to the society or are part of the society itself.
Confucianism explains what constitutes knowledge and how morality is acquired within a society. According to Confucians, there are four ways in which morality can be acquired namely from traditions, the scripture, experience and reason. These are discussed below.
We will write a custom Essay on Confucianism Ideology and Its Usefulness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The scripture
One way through which we cultivate morals is through the Scripture. By this, I mean the various religious doctrines, books or publications which talk about God or gods. Everybody has at least an idea about the existence of a supreme creature, which is above all other creatures, and is behind the existence of all other creatures and the creation of the earth and the world. This is what is referred to as God.
God is the central theme in any religion, meaning that each and every religion outlines rules of conduct for those who belief in that faith. Both the bible and the Koran outline what the followers should adhere to, and thus the two may be seen as moral codes, because they shape the morality of the followers of those faiths. For example, the Christian faith is based on the Ten Commandments, which were given to Moses by God himself.
Those who subscribe to the Christian faith therefore follow the Ten Commandments as their guidance in their moral conduct by observing things like respect for older persons, not to steal, not to kill among others. Those who commit acts opposite to these are therefore considered to be morally wrong.Those who are not Christians on the other hand follow their doctrines as guidance to good moral conduct while those who do not have any religious doctrines are guided by their conscience regarding what is good, right, bad or wrong.
Every action is triggered by a reason. This means that many of our actions are based on some reasons and some realities. The big question is whether the reasons are genuine or not. The aspect of reason is synonymous to conscience; which can be seen as the basis upon which we base our actions, behavior and thinking.
One person may prefer steeling instead of borrowing money while the other may prefer borrowing to stealing. Even though the two are reacting to a similar problem of lack of money, they have different consciences, which lead them to meet their need using different ways.
The question of whether one is right or wrong or who is right or wrong may become debatable because we may not know the beliefs under which the conscience of the two were based, and whether the beliefs were true or not, but one thing we know is that both acted as per their conscience, which may have been based on true or untrue beliefs. The interpretation of their actions as either moral or immoral depends on our socio-cultural orientations.
Since we live in a social world, it constantly keeps on influencing our behavior, actions and thinking towards various social phenomena. This is what I refer to as experience. The ideas of John Locke, who argued that we are born as a tabula rasa, meaning that we are open to absorb what is within our socio-cultural environments explains how experience can be a source of moral knowledge. What we experience greatly shapes our morals.
If we undergo through tough life conditions like war or civil strife, we may find our self not caring much about killing other people, because we have witnessed others be killed any way as opposed to situations where by we are not exposed to such experiences.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Confucianism Ideology and Its Usefulness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If we live in a country where we experience a lot of official corruption, we may see nothing wrong with being involved in it because we would have either participated in it in one way or another or we would have benefited from the same. Experience can therefore enable us develop some ideas about moral knowledge.
Culture and traditions greatly influence our understanding and acquisition of moral knowledge. Each culture and tradition has got its teaching about what is acceptable as good behavior and what is not acceptable. The morals are passed on from generation to the other through birth and assimilation as well as acculturation.
Even though they keep on changing, each generation is able to have a chance to gain some moral knowledge from the culture and traditions of that community, which increases commonness and makes the community members, have a sense of solidarity as they acquire and share similar morals and moral knowledge.
Confucianism has however attracted criticism from various quarters in the manner in which it presents individuals as teachable, perfectible and improvable. For instance, Marxists argue that the ideology of Confucianism is a fallacy used by the elite in the society to oppress the poor.
They go to the extent of blaming it for the oppression and exploitation of the poor before the era of revolutions and also during the cold war, arguing that it created an ample environment for the rich to exploit the ‘humble poor’. They cite the contention by Confucianism that ‘human beings should live in harmony with each other’, as the one which was used by the bourgeoisies to exploit their subjects, who did not question the basis of the exploitation so as to avoid disturbing harmony in the society (Van Norden 87).
Conclusion Confucianism is useful in cultivating and instilling good morals in individuals and in so doing contributes to harmonious co-existence of people in society. This is my basis in responding to the above criticism by Marxists. Confucianism is not to blame for the oppression but rather, it should be credited for making people sensitive to those around them.
It can be argued that Confucianism ideology made the poor communities to be aware that they were being oppressed by the rich, which made them to stage revolutions in countries which perpetrated the inequalities. Those who criticize Confucianism fail to understand that every individual who has good morals has to put the interests of others before the interest of self. This is what Confucianism ideology is about (Van Norden 87).
Works Cited Ivanhoe, P.J., and Van Norden, Bryan William. Readings in classical Chinese philosophy. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 2005. 244. Print.
Van Norden, Bryan. W. Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 2011. 87. Print.
Developing Leadership Skills at QEWC Essay online essay help
Summary This report discusses the different programs of developing leadership skills in employees in Qatar with special interest in Qatar Water Electricity Corporation. The report focuses on the various programs and how they are applied. In addition, the criteria of choosing the most appropriate candidates to be trained in leadership skills together with ways through which the company can facilitate will also be discussed.
Moreover, there are employees who work for QEWC whose leadership skills have not been recognized hence the organization does not give them a chance to improve their skills. With regard to this issue, the report presents ways of identifying the employees who should be trained in leadership skills.
The research will be conducted through primary and secondary methods. Primary methods include conducting interviews for QEWC workers to get their views on training in leadership skills. The secondary methods of research include getting information from books, websites, articles and newspapers.
Definition of a Leader A leader can be defined as a person who motivates people or employees in a bid to ensure that they direct their efforts towards achievement of a common goal. Good leadership emanates from ideas but the ideas must be passed on to the relevant people in an engaging manner . In other words, leaders inspire the rest of the team members and give directions on what should be done.
The term leadership is at times used interchangeably with management making reference to the management system of a company to be its leadership or managers as the leaders of teams involved in management .
Types of Leaders Autocratic Leaders
Autocratic leaders possess most of the powers and authority to make decisions. The employees are never consulted when decisions are being made neither are they given a chance to make their contribution.
They are expected to comply with orders given without asking any questions. Since a motivating environment is important for the employees, this is created by coming up with a system of punishments and rewards. Autocratic leadership faces a lot of criticism since organizations which practice it are associated with high rates of employee absenteeism as compared with other organizations.
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In bureaucratic style of leadership, the leader adheres to strict policies and procedures to run the organization. If anything is not in the laid down procedures, the leaders consult those who are above them. Such leaders are comparable to police officers since their work is to enforce rules.
This type of leadership can be used when the employees are involved in performing repetitive tasks. It can also be used when there is need for the employees to understand certain procedures or when they handle dangerous machines that make it necessary for operation procedures to be given repeatedly (Kippenberger, 2002).
This type of leadership is very close to transformational leadership since charismatic leaders imbue the team members with enthusiasm and powerfully influence the team to move forward. However, charismatic leaders may believe in themselves more than they believe in the team members.
This poses a risk of slowing down some projects or even collapsing of organizations when the leaders leave. Charismatic leaders have followers who believe that success in the organization is tied to the leaders. They are therefore considered to carry heavy responsibilities which call for great commitment (Sadler, 2000).
Democratic leaders encourage other members of the team to give their views during decision making although they are the final decision makers. This is advantageous in that it enhances satisfaction of the team members and also helps them improve their skills.
The employees have a feeling of being in control of what goes on in the organization and this increases their motivation. Democratic leadership style may slow down things to allow members to contribute but the results are always worth the effort. Democratic leaders are appropriate in situations that are focused on quality and team participation.
Importance of Leadership Leadership is important in any organization since it increases efficiency and ensures that the goals of the organization are achieved. The first importance of leadership is that it initiates action in organizations . Leaders begin the work by informing other employees about the policies and plans to be followed. The second importance of leadership is that leaders motivate employees through non-economic and economic means hence increasing the productivity.
We will write a custom Essay on Developing Leadership Skills at QEWC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third importance of leadership is that leaders offer guidance to the rest of the employees. Leaders are not only supposed to supervise the subordinates but also offer guidance to them. The fourth importance of leadership in organizations is that leaders increase the morale of other employees hence enhancing efficiency at the workplace (Management study guide, 2008).
Leadership in Qatar Companies Structure
Leadership is very important for companies that run their businesses in Qatar. There are different leadership structures that Qatar companies adopt but the most common structure is the functional structure (Communication talk, 2007).This is a structure used by companies to organize their leadership on the basis of the demands and the roles of the company.
The different groups and teams in the companies are recognized on the basis of similar functions in the companies. The structure operates in a bottom-up system which means that leadership in the companies is not entitled to a single individual. It comprises of small functional sections such as marketing, human resources, and finance with their leaders.
These small sections are controlled by the overall leaders of the companies to ensure that every department is run effectively. Functional structure of leadership gives the top leaders of companies in Qatar the opportunity to run the companies effectively.
To ensure good leadership in Qatar companies, different programs are offered to enhance the leadership skills of the leaders . Companies in Qatar conduct specialized programs to assist their employees in enhancing their skills of leadership.
The companies endeavor to ensure that their employees have leadership skills that conform to international standards of best practice. Such programs result in long-term plans of improving the leadership capacity of the employees.
The leadership programs offered give employees organizational and personal leadership skills that impact the companies positively. The programs are characterized by universal principles and equip the employees with capabilities that eliminate the need for relying on consultations all the time. The programs address specific problems that face leaders in their attempts to come up with strategies of improving work performance in the companies .
Structure of School Leadership in Qatar Research has shown that school leaders in Qatar often find themselves in difficult situations due to the pressure that is associated with running the schools. As a result, schools in Qatar have adopted leadership strategies such as increasing the tasks of non-teaching staff and distributing leadership in a clear manner. Most schools in Qatar consist of governing bodies which are comprised of the parents, the community, local authorities, trust governors and staff.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Developing Leadership Skills at QEWC by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The senior leadership of the schools includes the head teacher, deputy head teacher, assistant head teacher and business managers of the schools. In some schools, there might be more than one deputy and assistant head teachers . The leadership is also comprised of a middle leadership structure with departmental leaders who are accountable to members of the senior leadership.
There are different leadership programs for schools in Qatar that are designed to meet the leadership needs of all those who hold leadership positions. For example, leadership seminars and workshops are held for school heads to equip them with the knowledge of managing their schools. During the seminars, school heads get the opportunity of sharing leadership experiences with their colleagues and discussing ways of improving leadership in their schools.
Since there are student leaders in the schools, there are also programs that target student leaders. For instance, there are leadership academies in Qatar where student leaders can acquire leadership skills. The leadership offered by students in schools is important since it makes the leadership of senior leaders in the schools effective.
Structure of Community Leadership in Qatar The structure of community leadership in Qatar is characterized by hereditary dynasties. These dynasties take the form of local governments which are accountable to the federal government. Individuals from ruling families are the occupants of the most senior political positions, information which has been backed research conducted by Northwestern University of Qatar (Qatar Northwestern University, n.d).
The political system manages to preserve some of its formal and informal values while adapting to the social changes and economic changes. In the leadership structure of the community, sheikhs are recognized for their roles of keeping the cultural heritage and functioning as modernizers. Traditional Majlis are also part of the leadership structure through which the local people can gain access to the senior leaders.
There are different programs in Qatar aimed at enhancing community leadership. The programs are geared towards enhancing a progressive society, promoting cultural life and dealing with the community needs. Some of the programs of fostering community leadership through a progressive society include Doha debate, Qatar career fair and Qatar debate. The ultimate goal of these programs is to produce community leaders who have the capacity to address the various social needs in the community.
Other programs like reach out to Asia and Social Development Center are aimed at producing leaders who can meet the social needs of the community members. In addition, there are programs like Arab and Islamic Heritage Library which train leaders who can preserve the heritage of the country .
Leadership in QEWC Structure
The company was formed in 1990 and is one of the largest public companies in Qatar. It is mandated with the management of generation of power and stations involved in desalination of water. The structure of the company comprises of a board of directors which has a total of eleven members.
The board is headed by a chairman assisted by the deputy prime minister. The leadership structure of the company is crucial since all parties involved must work together to ensure that the company meets the power needs of the country .
Identifying Leaders at QEWC
As already mentioned, leadership is very important in any company since it is through leadership that the performance can be improved (McConnell, 2003). There is a reasonable number of employees working for QEWC who have demonstrable leadership skills. Identifying employees with leadership skills and ensuring that they realize their full potential is one way through which QEWC can improve its performance.
When a company has a wealth of employees with good leadership skills, it is assured of good performance since they have the capacity of influencing all the other employees of the company . To identify employees with potential leadership skills, the company should conduct an assessment by assigning employees various tasks without revealing to them that they are conducting an assessment.
Such assessments are normally designed to measure particular leadership skills. The employees can also be monitored in their daily activities and through a close monitoring process, it is easy to identify employees with leadership skills.
Once QEWC identifies employees who have good leadership skills, it is important for the company to train the employees in various leadership skills. Leadership is natural but it is enhanced through training since there are particular competencies that good leaders should possess (Hubpages, 2011). The training process enables the employees to realize their full potential since some of them do not even have the knowledge that they can become good leaders (Noe, 2002).
Problems in the Process
The process of identifying and training leaders may be faced with some problems. The first problem that may arise during the process is that not all employees are contended when their colleagues are identified as potential leaders. Some might feel that they also deserve to be leaders despite the fact that they might not be in possession of leadership skills.
Such employees become difficult to deal with since they might lack respect for the new leaders. Another problem is that the process of training leaders may be costly. This implies that the company has to use a lot of money and resources in training the new leaders, something that may affect the financial strength of the company.
People Interested in becoming leaders at QEWC QEWC has the responsibility of ensuring that employees who are interested in becoming leaders at the company meet certain standards. This implies that the company has to come up with selection criteria to select the best leaders. There are different methods that can be used to select the employees who have the capacity of becoming leaders.
The first method that the company can use is conducting surveys. The surveys involve analyzing the performance record of the employees and identifying those who have demonstrated leadership skills in their work. The second method that can be used to select the leaders is conducting interviews. This is an appropriate method since it identifies the best candidates who perform well in the interviews.
Testing the Employees In order to identify the best employees to be trained as leaders, the company can use various testing methods. The first method that can be used is administering written tests. Written tests are designed with questions related to leadership that require the candidate’s response. The tests are then marked to identify the employees who score high marks.
The second method that can be used to test the employees is giving them project tasks. Some of the projects require the employees to apply certain leadership skills which can be used to identify the best candidates. In some situations, case studies may also be applicable in testing the candidates to undergo the training programs (Employee Testing, 2003).
Starting the Tests The time of conducting the tests is also important to the company. They should be conducted during a period when the candidates do not have much pressure since this might affect the credibility of the results. The tests can be administered either during working periods or in seminars.
Sometimes it is advisable to organize seminars that train employees on leadership then administer the tests after the seminars. This gives the employees a good chance of applying the knowledge they gain from the seminars and also ensuring that all the employees are given equal opportunity.
Interview with QEWC Employee Interviewer: Do you think there are employees working at QEWC who have leadership skills? Employee: Yes, there are many QEWC employees who have leadership skills.
Interviewer: has the company been doing enough to ensure that such employees realize their leadership potential? Employee: I think the company has done little to ensure that such employees realize their potential in leadership.
Interviewer: do you think it would be a wise decision for the company to train such employees in leadership? Employee: Definitely, this would benefit the company.
Interviewer: What is your final comment regarding the leadership QEWC? Employee: The leadership is not bad but the company needs to invest more in training more leaders.
Results and Interpretation of the Interview The results of this interview indicate that QEWC employees believe that there are individuals in the company who have the potential of becoming good leaders. However, the company has not given them a chance of realizing their potential in leadership. The employees have a feeling that there is more that the company can do to promote this but little effort has been made.
The interpretation of the results of this interview are that there is need for QEWC to come up with strategies of ensuring that QEWC employees who have the potential of becoming good leaders are trained in leadership skills. This is because there is a clear interpretation that the employees are not fully satisfied with the leadership of the company.
Conclusion Leadership is very important in organizations since it plays a crucial role in achieving the organizational goals. Without leaders, it would be difficult to achieve the goals of an organization because leaders ensure that employees perform their work effectively. There are different types of leadership styles that may be used in different situations.
However, it is important for organizations to identify the most suitable types of leaders to enhance achievement of the goals. QEWC is an important company in Qatar that is concerned with provision of electricity services hence good leadership is crucial.
Recommendations QEWC should adopt certain leadership skills to ensure that the company meets its goals in serving the people. It is important for the company to put the interest of the employees first since employees play an important role in the company. This can be achieved by using a leadership style that values employees.
One of the most appropriate leadership styles that the organization can use is democratic leadership style. This style of leadership gives the employees a chance to express their views which makes them feel motivated. QEWC should also increase its programs in order to identify more employees who have the potential of becoming good leaders.
References Communication talk. (2007). The Importance of Leadership Communication Skills. Web.
EBR. (2010). Qatar Electricity
The comparison of the three works of Woolf, Lawrence and Hardy Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Analysis of the key features of each, finding the elements of the authors’ signature styles and deducing the influence of modernism in the given works
The shift of the emphasis from the depiction of events taking place in the outer world to the inner world of the main protagonist is one of the most significant features characteristic of modernist novels. By applying the stream-of-consciousness technique and the method of literary impressionism, novelists intentionally revealed the deficiency of singular focalization limited to the experience and perception of single protagonists.
This paper will discuss the stream-of-consciousness technique used by Woolf in The Mark on the Wall, the embedded vision used by Lawrence in The Horse Dealer’s Daughter and the vision illusion used by Hardy in On the Western Circuit as the elements of the authors’ signatures and identify the common modernist features found in these three stories.
Stream-of-consciousness as the specific feature of The Mark on the Wall by Woolf
Though the first attempts to use a stream-of-consciousness technique were made by realists, this literary form as a mix of memories, expectations, emotions and unexpected associations simultaneously arising in the person’s mind is attributed to modernism (Kern 87). This uniquely interesting technique was used by Virginia Woolf in The Mark on the Wall which was recognized as a manifest of modernism (Leech 136).
Regardless of the seeming spontaneity and inconsequentiality of the writing style used by Woolf in The Mark on the Wall, readers can follow the train of thoughts of the main protagonist. Though everyone experiences a free flow of thoughts and impressions, the ability to put it into writing depends upon the writers’ knowledge of how other minds think and other bodies feel (Leech 143).
Therefore, the syntactic structures, parenthetic sentences, repetitions and contrasts used by the author demonstrate Woolf’s profound understanding of the process of thinking and ability to put complicated thinking processes into simple words.
The repetition of the phrase ‘the mark on the wall’ shows how obtrusive this idea appears to be for the protagonist. The definite articles used for both nouns from the very beginning show that the idea has occurred to the character previously and the background of the story is concealed from readers.
Woolf’s literary experiment of the stream-of-consciousness writing blurs the dividing lines between different genres, including a story, an essay and a diary entry. By blending the opposites of reality and fantasy, inner and outer experiences, the author creates a unique framework.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To reveal the process of spontaneous thinking and inner monologue of the main protagonist, Woolf uses exclamations, interjections and response forms. The stand-alone constructions and the use of the response forms produce an impression that the inner monologue is fragmented and misses certain linking elements. For instance, the protagonist admits: “Yes, it must have been winter time” (Woolf 2424).
In this sentence the protagonist gives a response to the question that was never voiced. However, readers can make certain guesses and fill in the gaps in the narration. Additionally, Woolf inserts a number of parenthetical sentences into the longer ones, destructing the linearity of the text. It makes the text to resemble the process of associative thinking which cannot be reproduced in simple linear sentences.
The interjections and exclamations used by the author make the inner monologue more emotional. “Oh! dear me, the mystery of life; the inaccuracy of thought! The ignorance of humanity!” (Woolf 2424). The progressive structures are used to reproduce the add-on principle dominating in everyday speech. “Yes, it must have been the winter time, and we had just finished out tea, for I remember that I was smoking a cigarette when I looked up and saw the mark on the wall for the first time” (Woolf 2424).
According to the grammar rules, this sentence is too long. However, the author does not divide it into shorter ones, attempting to show the spontaneity and speed with which these thoughts run through the protagonist’s mind.
The stream of consciousness used by Woolf in The Mark on the Wall portrays the process of thinking as an active and adventurous process, taking place in real time with its dynamics and undergoing the influence of external factors (Leech 143).
The embedded vision as the peculiarity of The Horse Dealer’s Daughter by Lawrence
The technique of narrowing and expanding vision which was characteristic of modernism was used by Lawrence in The Horse Dealer’s Daughter for structuring this short story (Kern 183). Additionally, the theme of vision and physical sight interrelated with the motifs of understanding and feeling is closely connected to the concept of self-identity of the main characters.
Touching upon an important philosophical question of body-mind dualism, Lawrence treats the eye as an instrument of physical sight in the first part, narrowing the vision of the narration and refers to it as a sentient organ in the second part of the narration, expanding the vision. The author’s attempt to show the relativity of physical vision which can be rather delusive is compatible with the modernism principle of embedded vision.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The comparison of the three works of Woolf, Lawrence and Hardy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the beginning when the vision is narrow, the first example of treating physical sight as a fruitless attempt to understand the outer world takes place when the doctor meets Mabel for the first time. “At this point Mabel rose from the table, and they all seemed to become aware of her existence… The young doctor looked at her, but did not address her” (Lawrence 2593).
Therefore, the doctor did not notice her previously even though she has been sitting in front of him. It shows how limited the physical vision can be because of the individual’s perspective. The second glance passes between Fergusson and the girl when he notices her at her mother’s grave at the cemetery.
Though this circumstance is concealed from readers and the doctor at this point, the girl intends this glance to be her last act before she drowns herself. Regardless of the intensity of this glance and the overall situation, the doctor’s vision appears to be only a fruitless attempt to understand it.
Taking into account the fact that readers are no aware of the girl’s intentions either, it can be stated that the vision of the narration is initially narrowed to the doctor’s perspective. The situation and the vision changes after Fergusson sees the girl go into the pond to drown herself. At this moment, the physical sight enabled the character to understand and interpret the meaning of the situation and the girl’s secret was revealed.
After the doctor throws himself into the pond to rescue Mabel, in the water of the pond the two of them lose their sight for a short period of time and vision changes after they go out from the water. “The pond remains an important point of mediation between the earlier focus on sight and the subsequent focus on the eye itself” (Bell 104).
Analyzing the situation in the pond and the following scenes, it can be stated that the doctor saves the girl and the girl saves the doctor because she appears to be the one in need. Mabel saves Fergusson from his loneliness and isolation. After the episode, the secrets are revealed and the characters look into the eyes of each other, perceiving the eyes as the windows of the soul.
The physical sight is closely related to vision and self-identity of characters. After losing sight for a few moments in the pond and expanding vision after going out of the pond, the doctor and the horse dealer’s daughter modify their personal identities.
Lawrence found the proper balance between the divine and trivial in depicting everyday reality of the male-dominated world in which his characters live and in which the girl is treated as the daughter of a horse dealer. The alteration of the vision, an open ending and involvement of readers into the process of interpreting the text of The Horse Dealer’s Daughter by Lawrence can be regarded as indicators of Lawrence’s individual signature in the modernism movement.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The comparison of the three works of Woolf, Lawrence and Hardy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The vision illusion in On the Western Circuit as an element of Hardy’s style
The vision illusion created by a roundabout has become a starting point of the love affair between the main characters of On the Western Circuit by Hardy. The aspect of the vision distorted because of the limitation of the personal perspective of characters as a feature characteristic of modernism has become an element of Hardy’s signature in this short story.
The delusion starts after Charles sees Anna on the roundabout for the first time and is intensified during their epistolary romance when Edith writes letters to Charles under the name of Anna who is illiterate. The juxtaposition between the urban phenomenon of the steam engine, roundabout and the rural life of the housemaid Anna can be attributed to Hardy’s complicated criticism of modernity and Britain’s policies concerning the imperial ventures overseas (Morgan 563).
The steam circuses not only hide certain aspects of reality from the viewers, but also create an illusion that becomes preferable to reality. Therefore, when Anna is spinning by on the roundabout and Charles is looking at her, under the influence of the visual mistake and the consequent queer emotion, the two of them delude themselves.
Charles believes that Anna is a girl he loves madly, while Anna becomes certain that she has chosen Charles herself. Therefore, the delusive image of a pretty girl spinning by on the roundabout becomes a starting point of the visual illusion and self-fraud of the main characters which would have been impossible in the ante-industrial era.
The second aspect contributing to the self-delusion of the main characters is the influence of writing upon them. Edith, who has written letters to Charles signing them with Anna’s name and read Charles’ responses to illiterate Ann, undergoes the influence of this correspondence and believes that she is Charles’ real correspondent and she has fallen in love with him in the course of their epistolary romance.
Additionally, Edith believes that their correspondence has the same effect upon Charles. After witnessing the marriage ceremony between Ann and Charles, Edith is disappointed. “’I have ruined him!’ She kept repeating. ‘I have ruined him; because I would not deal treacherously toward her!’” (Hardy 1934). After Edith tells Charles about the fraud with correspondence, he keeps repeating that she has ruined him.
However, Hardy shows that physical attraction is still stronger in creating bonds between a man and a woman than writing because Charles chooses Ann. Moreover, the main reason for the self-deception of the main characters is even deeper than visual illusion created by roundabout or the effects produced by writing.
One of the fundamental causes of their self-deception is their self-betrayal and the loss of identity. The characters deny not only their true features, but also their very names, betraying themselves and ready to betray others.
Therefore, the different levels of illusion and betrayal affecting vision of the main characters are peculiar elements of Hardy’s style in On the Western Circuit.
The comparison of the visions and the modernist features of the three stories
Notwithstanding the striking difference between the three stories under analysis and the peculiarities of the writer’s individual signatures, all of them have common features characteristic of the modernist aesthetics that influenced all of them.
The first and one of the most significant aspects is the language used by Woolf, Lawrence and Hardy. Event though the stream-of-consciousness technique in its pure form was used only by Woolf, Lawrence and Hardy chose other ways for revealing the conscious and sometimes even unconscious processes in their characters.
Despite the fact that Lawrence conceals Mabel’s inner monologues which took place in her consciousness before she goes to the pond to drown herself, this character shows the tension of her thoughts through her gaze which is defined as dangerous and frightening by the author. Edith as the character of Hardy’s story deludes herself that she falls in love with Charles.
Though Edith’s thoughts preceding her decision to say the truth to Charles are mostly concealed from readers, they can make guesses judging by the following development of the events. Additionally, the omission of certain episodes and active involvement of readers into the process of interpretation of the text which is characteristic of modernist discourse is evident in these stories (Childs 211).
The elliptical sentences and unpredictable associations used by Woolf in the inner monologue of the main protagonist require readers’ efforts for filling in the gaps in the chain of thoughts. Lawrence conceals Mabel’s intentions before she goes into the water of the pond so that the readers could reproduce her thinking process in their imagination.
Hardy conceals the thoughts and feelings of Edith until the concrete moment. Therefore, apart from the open endings of the three stories which offer variety of possible interpretations, Woolf, Lawrence and Hardy leave gaps in their texts for the purpose of involving readers into the active process of interpreting them.
Developing the theme of consciousness and thinking process, it should be noted that the authors emphasize the limitation of individual perspective by shifting the vision of their stories. Thus, the main protagonist of Woolf’s story cannot identify the origin of the mark on the wall until the unknown interlocutor intervenes into the inner monologue.
The doctor as the main protagonist of Lawrence’s story The Horse Dealer’s Daughter cannot understand Mabel’s gazes until he sees her going into the pond. The self-deception as the result of the vision illusion of the main characters becomes an important point of the plot of On the Western Circuit.
Therefore, by shifting the vision, narrowing and then expanding it, the authors show readers how limited their own views can be. Importantly, the theme of the false romantic correspondence as one of the generators of self-fraud in Hardy’s story reveals the potential impact of writing upon readers in its exaggerated form.
Though readers’ active involvement is required for decoding the messages conveyed in the three stories, the techniques chosen by the authors doubtlessly had an important impact upon the readers’ perceptions and responses.
Notwithstanding the significant differences in the main plot lines of the stories under consideration and the peculiarities of the individual signatures of their authors, the emphasis on the conscious and subconscious process of the main protagonists, active involvement of readers into the process of interpreting the stories and shifts of the vision are characteristic of the three stories and compatible with modernism aesthetics.
Conclusion Comparing and contrasting the techniques used by Woolf in The Mark on the Wall, Lawrence in The Horse Dealer’s Daughter and Hardy in On the Western Circuit, it can be stated that working in the frames of modernism aesthetics, these authors managed to preserve their unique signatures, combining them with the features characteristic of the movement.
Regardless of the differences in the techniques and themes developed by Woolf, Lawrence and Hardy, these novelists put emphasis upon the readers’ active involvement into the process of interpreting their texts and focused on the inner mental lives of their characters, showing that their perceptions can significantly differ from reality.
Works Cited Bell, Michael. Literature, Modernism and Myth: Belief and Responsibility in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Print.
Childs, Peter. Modernism. 2nded. New York, NY: Routledge, 2008. Print.
Hardy, Thomas. “On the Western Circuit.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature.Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and Meyer Howard Abrams. 8thed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. Print.
Kern, Stephen. The Modernist Novel: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.
Lawrence, David Herbert Richards. “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and Meyer Howard Abrams. 8thed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. Print.
Leech, Geoffrey. Language in Literature: Style and Foregrounding. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2008. Print.
Morgan, Rosemarie. The Ashgate Research Companion to Thomas Hardy. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2010. Print.
Woolf, Virginia. “The Mark on the Wall.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature.Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and Meyer Howard Abrams. 8thed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. Print.
Analyses CSR Report of the Emirate Airline Report essay help site:edu
Introduction Companies in modern market environments are working towards achieving competitiveness. Emirates Airlines is not exclusion because the management of the company has established strategies to capture more customers in the global markets. The resources of the company have been strategically directed towards improving performance in the global markets.
The intensifying competition in the airlines industry has forced players to embrace competitive strategies for sustainable business operation. Some of the competitive strategies adopted by companies in the industry are improving corporate social responsibility. This has achieved a lot of importance among many players in the airlines industry.
In addition, companies have focused on low-cost operations in the airline industry. This strategy has improved the prices offered in the market to the customers. Low cost products in the airline industry have been focused on reducing the prices of products in the market (Pride, William and Ferrell, p. 148).
Description of organization Emirates Airline is based in UAE and was founded in 1985. It started from a humble beginning because it leased two aircrafts from Boeing and airbus to start operations. The first flights by the company were made to Mumbai, Karachi and Delhin. The company provides commercial air transport domestically and globally. Emirates has different products that range from the transport of passengers, cargos and carrying postage.
Other products of the company are wholesaling and retailing consumer goods, in-flights, as well as leisure management. More than 130 jets are operated by the company, and an estimated 10 cargo freighters. Emirates has established partnerships with Boeing and Airbus for the supply of jets, airplanes and other products (Graham, Papatheodorou and Forsyth, 155).
The most recent global economic crisis has affected the performance of the company. The uncertainty in recovery of the economies of most countries is not predictable, and this has affected the sustainability of the company. The purchasing power of customers in the industry has been reduced after the global economic crisis, and this has forced companies in the industry to apply low cost strategies to reduce prices of the products offer4ed in the market.
As such, most companies are entering the low cost markets to improve their profits. Emirates Airlines has been forced to start the strategy of low cost operations to attract as many customers as possible from the global markets (Graham, Papatheodorou and Forsyth, 156).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Corporate social responsibility Economic responsibility
The company has operated responsibly to control the inflation in the global economies. The management has been responsive to global economic changes to ensure that the operations of the company do not violate the economic environments of the countries it operates in. In this respect; the company has introduced strategies to control inflation by minimizing expenditures. In addition, the company has been responsible in paying taxes to the government.
This has improved economic performance of the country. Even though the company is state owned, it has been responsible when complying with government regulations. Emirates has improved the GDP of the country by improving the tourism industry. The company has encouraged the growth of other industries (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 104).
Emirates has complied with international law on green flying by reducing the amount of carbon released into the air. The activities of the company are ISO Certified, and this indicates that the company has been complying with the legal frameworks.
The company has complied with the legal impositions provided by the governments of the countries in which it operates. As a state-owned organization, Emirates consults all legal stakeholders when undertaking any strategy. This policy has been introduced to avoid conflict of interest among various state organs (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 104).
Emirates conducts business in an ethical environment. The company has established leadership strategies to improve the status of its employees. The employees are provided with insurance covers. This helps protect workers against risks associated with the business. In addition, the company has encouraged its employees to improve the manner in which they handle the customers.
Customers are valued by the company, and the company has established communication systems where they express their opinions about the quality of services offered. The company has applied customer focused approaches when operating in different markets (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 104).
Emirates supports communities with philanthropic activities. The company has established education and research programs to assist people in conducting expensive scientific research. It offers the required resources in supporting research. In addition, the company has established other philanthropic projects such as supporting children in poverty stricken areas (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 104).
We will write a custom Report on Analyses CSR Report of the Emirate Airline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More SWOT analysis Strengths
Emirates has adopted advanced technological strategies in managing its operations. This has improved its innovativeness and competitiveness in the market. The company has developed diversified and differentiated products and infrastructure. For example, Emirates has terminal airport services, local and ground services. Emirates has purchased a fleet of jets which are large and young.
This gives the company a competitive strategy because it can accommodate services for several clients. The company has stable financial capacity because it is funded by the state. In addition, it makes a lot of profits from its operations, and this has made its financially stable. Emirates enjoys competent workforce, and this has been the source of strategic management as well as professional knowledge. The employees are skilled and are obtained from diverse cultural backgrounds.
Customers of Emirates Airlines are loyal to the brand and products of the company. This has increased the market share of the company. Emirates experiences cost advantages such as low labor costs from the home country, subsidized fuel costs, and low taxes at the domestic market. Since Emirates operates in large scale, the company has economies of scale in its operations. The scope of business has created value chain for the company (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 103).
Emirates relies on outsourced labor force. Few professionals are recruited from the local and domestic labor market. The financial capacity of the company is depended on the oil exported by the country. This creates a risk of financial incapacity especially when global oil prices drop.
The company employs cost intensive strategies to promote its business. This has resulted from the diversity in the value chain of the company. Emirates has over-relied on domestic economic support. The company has obtained many subsidies from the government (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 103).
Emirates Airline has the opportunity of gaining more customers because business ventures such as Disney Land attract global investors to Dubai. These investors will choose Emirates, and this will improve the economic performance of the company. Emirates Airlines has established airline alliance with other companies globally, and this will create more opportunities of exploiting the markets in the global scene.
There are incentives given by the government to companies with frequent flyers. Emirates has enjoy a lot of subsidies from the government and this gives the company the opportunity to exploit the market. There are other markets, such as Asia Pacific which have not been exploited by the company.
This provides the company with more market opportunities. The global market is increasingly becoming deregulated and liberalized. This offers more opportunities for the company because the global market will be expanded.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analyses CSR Report of the Emirate Airline by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The low cost airline market has emerged and Emirates has the opportunity to exploit this market to gain more products for its operations. The company has economies of scale to operate in low cost transport. This will also reduce the costs incurred by the company (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 103).
The Emirates Airline experiences threats from political interference because it is owned by the state. This threatens the efficiency and management of the company because there are many political influences on its activities. The company is exposed to threats of employee conflicts. There are different kinds of aircrafts, and this calls for the company to employ people from different careers.
Satisfying the needs of the diversified workforce cannot be successful without conflicts arising among the employees. More companies are entering the industry and Emirates Airlines faces threat of stiff competition. This may reduce the profits and competitiveness of the company in the market.
Most of companies in the industry have applied the low cost strategy of penetrating into the market. This has offered Emirates with intense competition. The global airline market is experiencing a lot of deregulation and liberalization. This creates more threats because more companies will penetrate the market to exploit the potential profits made in the company.
The fluctuation of oil prices threatens to affect the profits of the company. Oil prices have been unpredictable, and this makes it impossible to predict the future performance of the company. It is uncertain when countries will overcome the effects of the most recent economic crisis.
Most of the countries suffer from the impacts of global economic crisis. There are many environmental limitations such as change in global climate, global warming, reduction in natural resources and pollution of air. These are some of the environmental factors affecting the airline companies (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 103).
Porter’s five forces analysis Bargaining power of customers
Customers in the industry have a higher bargaining power. The industry depends highly on consumer loyalty, and this makes customers to have higher power in determining the strategies to be adopted by companies in the industry. There is intense competition in the industry, and customer satisfaction has been the main focus of companies in the industry.
Companies have focused on gaining high customer loyalty, and this has offered customers with more power to determine the strategies adopted by the companies. This has made companies to reduce their prices to accommodate the demands of the customers (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 103).
Bargaining power of suppliers
The suppliers have high bargaining power in the industry. There are only two aircraft suppliers in the industry; Boeing and Airbus. Airline companies in the industry can make orders from either of the two suppliers. This provides the suppliers with bargaining power, and this has made the airline companies pay high prices for the products supplied.
The airline companies entirely depend of the two suppliers because they have differentiated their products. In addition, the suppliers have the required expertise which makes it impossible for the airline companies to use the internal employees to provide products for their companies (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 103).
Threat of new entrants
The company experiences high threats of new entrants because there are high profits made in the industry, and there are few restrictions of entry. The growth in tourism industry has increased the profits made by companies.
For example, Asia Pacific market has been experiencing increasing profits at a rate of 8% by 2010. The airline companies working in the region have gained a lot of profits. This has attracted many investors into the industry to exploit the high profit potential (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 103).
Threat of substitute products
There is high threat of substitution of products offered by the company. The products offered by most airline companies are almost similar. Some of the common features are low prices, high quality services, among others. There are many companies offering different products in the global markets.
In addition, customers have alternative choice of using other means of transport such as road transport, sea transport and others. This makes it possible for the customers to avoid using products of the company. This has created high substitution factor for the products offered by the company (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt, p. 103).
Rivalry among competitors
Emirates Airlines experiences competition from Air France and Lufthansa from the European region. In the Asia pacific region, Emirates experiences competition from Cathay pacific. In the American market, United Airlines posses high competition to Emirates. These companies operate in the same market: NZ, UK, the US and the Hong Kong destinations. Competition in the industry has intensified, and growth in low cost airlines has been experienced (Jha, p. 169).
Major issues facing the company The Emirates Airlines has been voted number one in contributing towards promotion of tourism in the country. The company has increased its air flights by 16 percent, and this has improved the tourism sector by a great extent. It is predicted that Emirates might become the biggest airline in the world within a few years to come due to its fast growth (Report dubai, p. 170).
Recommendations Emirates should expand its cargo flights to achieve more profits. The existing markets are under-served with cargo flight services and expanding these services would increase the profits and competiveness of the company.
The labor costs of the company should be reduced to improve the profits made. Labor costs form 25-30 percent of the total costs of the company, and this is reducing the profits made by the company. The management should restructure its employment strategy to reduce the number of employees. The management should negotiate wage reduction and control the increment on wages to all workers.
Emirates should outsource most of its services to reduce the operational costs in the value chain. For example, the engineering services, maintenance, and other services such as catering should be sourced from other companies rather than using internal workers. This will not only reduce costs but will also improve production efficiency and expertise in operations.
To penetrate new markets, the company should use cost reduction strategy because other companies in the industry are using low cost strategy. Price competition is the most applicable strategy that the company can use to penetrate the low cost market. Customers in the industry are sensitive to price changes, and a slight price adjustment can affect the sales made by the company.
Emirates should consider establishing acquisitions or mergers with other companies so that access to certain markets can be possible. Strategic alliances will help reduce costs incurred by the company. These strategies will improve the market share and acceptability of the company’s products in many markets.
Conclusion Emirates Airlines has been successful in establishing excellent strategies to survive in the turbulent global market. The company has achieved growth since it was established, and this has been achieved from the support the company gains from the state. Irrespective of the global economic crisis which affected most countries in the recent past, the company has registered good and improved performance.
However, the company faces the challenge of increased political interference, changes in economic environments and increase in competition. Many companies are being established in the industry, and the liberalization in the industry has caused the competition to affect the existing companies. The management of the company has adopted corporate social responsibilities to improve the status of the communities in which it operates.
The company ahs adopted various CSR strategies to improve its image in the global markets. It is commendable that the management should reduce the operational costs to improve the long term sustainability of the company. This can be done by employing few workers, and outsourcing most of the services of the company. As such, the company will improve its profits, and the competiveness in global markets.
Works Cited Ireland, R D, Robert E. Hoskisson, and Michael A. Hitt. Understanding Business Strategy: Concepts Plus. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2012.
Graham, Anne, Andreas Papatheodorou, and P Forsyth. Aviation and Tourism: Implications for Leisure Travel. Farnham, England: Ashgate, 2010.
Jha, Abhas K. Institutions, Performance, and the Financing of Infrastructure Services in the Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005.
Report: Dubai 2008. S.l.: Oxford Business Group, 2008.
Pride, William M, and O C. Ferrell. Marketing. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2012.
Reckless Lending as a Cause of the Current Economic Crisis Essay college essay help online
From a conventional viewpoint, the major cause of the current financial crisis was the reckless lending by European banks and governments. This left countries like Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Italy, and Spain with huge debts. Although the people in these countries are blamed as being reckless borrowers, the European banks were also reckless lenders because they gave out money without putting into consideration the financial statuses of the people and governments.
It is believed that most of the lending institutions and banks knew that the borrowers were lying but wanted to make profits out of the European boom. The paper analyses how the issue could have caused the current financial crisis and if it was foreseen. It also analyses whether it could have been ameliorated and what can be done now to improve the situation.
The reckless lending practices by banks and governments in Europe led to the opaque and complex financial instruments of risk transfer (Daianu
Challenges of Being an Advocate and Neutral Facil Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Dual Relationship challenges
Personal philosophy and approach
Introduction This paper aims at exploring the ethical, moral and legal challenges of potential dual relationship as an advocate or otherwise a mediator. I will tell my opinions in the paper regarding the integration of advocacy and mediation process within the human services.
I will outline my philosophy and personal approach to advocating and mediating the Planned Parenthood Agency. However, advocacy and mediation are recurrently being integrated into various continuum of the human services field.
Dual Relationship challenges A mediator is a neutral third party who assembles with two or more conflicting parties to encourage and enhance communication to come up with an agreement or conclusion over a conflict that exists between the parties. S/he does not act as the decision maker but as a peace maker, he gives a more conducive discussion environment to the two or more parties and leaves to the parties to make the final decisions.
It’s the legal and ethical job as a mediator to ensure all communications remains confidential unless otherwise specified. This gives room to no doubts and guarantee mediator’s integrity, and accuracy is established between the conflicting groups (Barsky, 2007).
The mediator is expected not or never to be unfair to any party or force a party to come into concurrence with the other. Since mediators are impartial, their individual or personal beliefs and values sometimes can be a challenge.
Professionalism As a professional mediator there are legal, moral and ethical matters that you have to tackle when handling the conflicting parties. A mediator has to guarantee each party comfort and know that their issues are fairly heard without biasness. It’s very significant for the mediator to remain bias.
Personal Perception Mediators and advocates are very fundamental to the human service field. Clients depend on the mediator to enlighten them of their rights and protection. Always the clients seek for advocate assistance due to their lack of laws and procedures to seek justice and protection and this is why mediators and advocates are there to provide this assistance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Personal philosophy and approach The services given at the Planned Parenthood Agencies are significant enough, mostly there are teens that are very young and have no idea on how to communicate with their parents. The means of communication is this stage is advocated and mediated on to ensure that the relationship between teens and parents remains intact and their grievances are highly accepted by the both parties (The Association of Attorney-Mediators, 2001).
If any of the conflicting parties gets unsatisfied with the biasness of the mediator, they are encouraged to seek different counsel to complete successfully their mediation process fairly and accurately. I also believe that every situation in conflicts is different and that people deserves to exploit a second chance.
Furthermore, these people need help and as a human service officer we are expected to help them accordingly. It’s my personal philosophy that not everyone is badly if they are in a probation period. In sometime people go down the wrong direction in life and need to be helped to get back on track, this happens when we keenly listen onto their problems and help them to come up into a long lasting solution as they strengthen their relationships in life.
Conclusion Mediating and advocating for clients is a significant service provided today in the human service field but it takes strong, knowledgeable and wise individuals to accomplish this job. As an advocate you find yourself standing up for a party and its interest but as a mediator you negotiate agreement without getting involved in the decision making.
A mediator strives for a positive outcome for both groups while keeping his/her values out of the equation. If one wishes to be a mediator he should look for an agency that offer services to clients that they believe in; it’s difficult to expect a mediator to be completely frozen to the world around him/her
References Barsky, A. (2007). Conflict Resolution for the Helping Professions. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing
The Association of Attorney-Mediators. (2001). Association of Attorney-Mediators Ethical Guidelines for Mediators. Retrieved from, https://www.attorney-mediators.org/
We will write a custom Essay on Challenges of Being an Advocate and Neutral Facil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Using Social Networking Sites to Support Business Report college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
SNSs for Marketing Support
Benefits of Using SNSs
Threats of Using SNSs
Introduction Businesses are constantly striving to expand their customer base and increase profitability. This statement holds true in the e-business environment where business owners are aiming to increase their visibility and attract more clients. Over the course of the past decade, Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have emerged as a novel means for e-businesses to connect with customers and expand their customer base.
This prominence of SNSs has been caused by their popularity since the sights attract millions of user all over the world. These sites are the fastest growing segment on the web and their potential for ecommerce is great. Even so, the implication that SNSs have for business still remains unclear. Some authors such as Weber (2009) declare that marketing in SNSs will result in development of client base and help a person to build their business.
Others such as Clemons et al (2007) view the potential of SNSs in building business as overstated. Considering this varied opinion concerning the impact of SNSs on business, this paper will set out to discuss whether SNSs such as Facebook and MySpace are good for supporting business. The paper will delve into the potential threats as well as benefits that are associated with using SNSs to support business.
SNSs for Marketing Support The primary means through which businesses get customers is by advertising themselves. Traditional advertisements make use of mass media devices. However, there has been a notable change in customer response towards advertisement over the last decade. As a result of the huge volume of information on products that people are getting from mainstream media, a vast majority of people are losing trust in conventional advertisements.
In its place, people are not using the internet which provides an individual with a huge amount of information. The customer is now able to compare prices, discover discounts and discover a diverse option of attributes for similar products. As a result of this, today’s consumer is far better informed about their options and this informedness has significantly altered consumer behavior.
Research indicates that the availability of information via SNSs results in changes in the shopping habits of customers even for purchases that are made via traditional physical facilities. It is estimated that up to 90% of consumers perform some type of online comparison shopping before visiting a car dealer (Clemons et al. 2007). These findings suggest that to a great extent, informedness is replacing paid corporate promotions.
Ecommerce has therefore had to move from transaction based to social network based forms of advertising. SNSs are built around relationships and interactions within groups of individuals with shared interests or activities. These relationships play a role in the spread of information and influence among the members.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More SNSs sites demonstrate phenomenal amounts of traffic online. Stroud (2008) reports that as of 2007, social networking websites accounted for over 7% of all internet visits. This huge online presence can be used to increase the visibility of a business and its products. In addition to this, some of this traffic can be redirected to ecommerce websites with huge benefits being obtained by the ecommerce site.
While there are many SNSs available, MySpace and Facebook are important in the context of ecommerce since they attract over 70% of all US advertising revenues in the SNSs category (Stroud 2008, p.281). Businesses can participate in these two websites in a number of ways to market themselves to their prospective customers.
The most elementary manner is by becoming friends with users which allows the business to communicate directly with the user (Fatimah
Social Media and Arab Uprising Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction World transformation has been a long but intensive process affecting various persons and their activities. The issue of globalization is observed to be divided into various types, which are dependent on the activities that actually transform the human existence at a time. The initial stages of globalization dates back to the thirteenth century when it was entirely based on the globalization of countries.
This is evident with persons such as Vasco da Gama who explored other countries for better opportunities after having transformed their home countries. This is referred to as globalization 1.0. Globalization 2, which followed, was based on revolution of organizations. It was experienced from the Second World War to the end of the twentieth century.
During this period, the internet which led to further development was invented. Globalization 3 is mainly based on the development achieved in globalization 2.0. It mainly focused on individual revolution. In its achievement, the internet and its connectivity have been intensively used.
Early this year, various revolutions were observed in the Arab spring. This was facilitated by the use of social media, a tool in globalization 3.0. This paper seeks to give an in-depth analysis of globalization 3.0 which was instrumental in the Syria and Libya revolution by the use of social media.
Arab Spring The social media was very useful in sharing information in the Libya and Syria during their revolution. During this period, most of the media houses were banned from airing information. This was aimed at ensuring control of the public was easy by the administration. Despite this, the internet was easily available to the citizens through computers and cell phone which enabled them to share information.
This was specifically used by the youths who had been having access to social media at their schools as well as through in cyber cafes. In my opinion, I perceive collaboration of the youths through social media to have been effective in sharing information not only to the citizens only but also to other people across the globe. This is evident from the numerous footage videos and chats shared on Facebook and Twitter.
There are numerous arguments that have been raised on whether the social media was the reason for the uprising, or just a tool for spreading awareness. In getting an accurate answer to the argument, it is necessary to understand the reason for the uprising. In these countries, the leaders had held power for a long time which necessitated revolution. Moreover, the citizens felt that they were denied freedom in undertaking various activities due to the strict rules imposed in ruling the countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus the root cause of the uprising was the long tough ruling of their countries. Since there were restriction on media houses in regard to sharing of information, the social media remained as the only mans of sharing information as the government had not direct control over them. Thus the social media was not the reasons for the uprising but a tool for spreading awareness (Council on foreign relations, 2011).
During the uprising, there were no enough media personnel to share the information to others in a professional way as stipulated by their code of conduct. This did not hinder people from taking videos of the situation and uploading them into the internet through social media sites. This is mainly because, in social media communication, quality is not given much attention as the ideas shared.
The main tools used for collecting the information included cell phones and digital cameras. In some instances, the credibility of the information shared was doubted but through some reporting from professional media personnel undertaking their duties undercover, some credibility was accorded. In acts affecting large part of the citizen, credibility was necessary in order to give the international community authority to intervene in the uprising as stipulated in the international agreements (Pollack, 2011).
Due to the continuous development of social media and improved infrastructure, a larger population has got access to it. This has affected the overall interaction of human beings. Through social media such as Facebook and Twitter, one can have friends from all over the world.
Through them, communication between various people despite their origin has been essential in reducing racism as well as ensuring that no part of the world is left far much behind in respect to global development. When use of social media is integrated in an individual’s life, it directly influences the society at large since each person is a member of a specific society.
Conclusion The transformation of the world has been evident to all in all the stage; globalization 1.0, globalization 2.0 and globalization 3.0. The internet which has been the backbone of revolution was invented in globalization 2.0 with much transformation experienced in globalization 3.0. Through the internet, social media which was essential in creating awareness in Libya and Syria uprising was born.
Despite the lack of sufficient professional media personnel, the youth took videos and shared then to the world. In the case of international intervention, credibility of the information was necessary. Currently, due to the integration of social media in a person’s lifestyle, the society has continuously been shaped.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Media and Arab Uprising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Council on foreign relations (2011). The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next? New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Pollack, K. (2011). The Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East. Brookings Institution Press. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Effects of Technology in Education Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Technology has without doubt altered the way we conduct our lives. It has influenced nearly all the aspects of life and changed the way of living. Unquestionably, technology plays a significant role in every field of life. Thanks to technology, people do not have to perform majority of the traditional manual tasks since they can now be automated.
With the help of technology, many of the intricate and significant processes can be conducted with increased ease and accuracy with the aid of modern technology. Thanks to the multiple positive outcomes of technology, the education sector has undergone a notable change and as it is, this change has been for the better (Pea, 1998).
The invention of computers and the Internet technology have brought a major revolution in the education field. For this reason, the significance of technology in schools cannot be disregarded. In fact, the introduction of computers in schools has made it easier for teachers to disseminate knowledge and for the students to take hold of it.
To put it more aptly, the computer technology has added a fun-element to the learning process. Additionally, the invention of the internet has brought the much-needed interaction in the education sector (Miller, 2008).
The introduction of computers in schools has presented students with an interactive audio-visual media that makes learning easier. The invention of PowerPoint presentations and computer graphics software has been used in schools to deliver information to the students in an interactive manner something that enhances the comprehension ability due to increased interest from the students.
Additionally, the use of animation software and PowerPoint presentations acts as illustration aids to the teachers. This has been found to bring about alertness, increase student attendance and consequently improve grades. This goes ahead to show just how computer aided learning has revolutionized the education sector as compared to the use of textbooks (Miller, 2008).
Apart from the use of computers, another technology that has had a major revolution in education is the internet. The internet is a massive information center, which can be used as an effectual tool for obtaining knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike in the past when a student had to dig through tones of textbooks in a library to research for information to back a 1000 word thesis, all that a student who is connected to the internet needs to do is to type some simple search words and they are presented with countless search results.
Currently, there are numerous educational websites and web indexes that give information on a wide range of subjects and this has made the obtaining of information to be an easy task (Eide Neurolearning Blog, 2005).
Today, online education and distance learning have redefined the field of higher education. Unlike in the past, students do not need to be physically present in a classroom for them to participate on the deliberations.
Many higher learning institutions have online courses for students who are unable to attend regular learning classes. Additionally, nearly all schools around the world now give students an opportunity to present their assignments online. This is quite a big development in the field of education and it can all be attributed to technology (Pea, 1998).
Although most of the effects of technology on education have been positive, it would be a gross mistake to claim that there are no negative sides to it. it is sad to note that the availability of technology on all areas of education has made people to forget that there are some ages, disciplines and learning styles that are better suited to different, non-technological based methods.
However, technology has influenced people in such a way that most educators do not have clear goals and solutions for how to achieve particular outcomes in some disciplines with the absence of technology (Miller, 2008).
It is also important to note that the use of technology has negatively affected the stages of learning and of cognitive development in young children. In most cases, the cognitive development in young children largely requires a multi-sensory approach that is impractical to simulate through technology.
We will write a custom Case Study on Effects of Technology in Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For this reason, the insistence to use technological advancements in the learning process at this stage has greatly hindered the cognitive development of many children thus making many of them unable to function in the absence of technology (Miller, 2008).
Conclusion The impact of science and technology in educations is enormous. Within a few years, technology in the educational sector has transformed learning from being a boring venture into an interactive and fun-filled activity. This transformation has not only been on the side of students but the benefits on the side of teachers have been innumerable.
Despite these positive impacts, technology just like everything else in the world has a negative side to it. One of these negative influences is witnessed in the area of cognitive development in young children, which largely depends on a multi-sensory approach that is impossible to conjure up by the use of technology.
However, weighed against the positives, the negatives should not discourage us from adopting the use of technology, which has brought a revolution in the education field. Indeed, technology can be said to be God’s greatest gift to the education sector in the 21st century.
References Eide Neurolearning Blog. (2005). Brain of the Blogger. Web.
Miller, M. (2008). The Pros and Cons of Technology in the Classroom: Views of Technology in Education. Web.
Pea, R. (1998). The Pros and Cons of Technology in the Classroom. Web.
Application of Principles Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Video review and recommendations
Introduction In e-learning, there are various concepts, principles and theories that variably impact the process of dissemination and reception of information. As a matter of fact, in order for adequate learning to take place, there is need for various essentialities to be keyed in appropriately. In this paper, focus is going to be on highlighting how the principles of modality, redundancy, coherence and personalization influence e-learning.
In doing so; relevant concepts, ideas, facts and authoritative scholarly opinion on cross-cultural negotiations from relevant books and articles will be used to further the arguments presented herein. Additionally, a video review and a succinct analysis of the usage of fitting e-learning principles will also be presented to exemplify the importance of these learning principles.
Modality Principle In e-learning, several researchers have reportedly been able to evidentially find that the presentation of words in audio results in better learning when compared to words presented on on-screen text. This design theory which supports the use of audio narration, instead of on screen text, is what most e-learners refer to as the modality principle (Mayer
Speech Genre Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Essentially Masculine Genre
Introduction A speech genre can be defined as a relatively stable type of expression that matches a specific characterized situation. Speech genres consist of daily communication activities like greetings, conversations, military commands and many more. Most speech genres are based on social, economic and relationship status between the sources of the speech and the target audience. It is important to note that, each speech genre consists of a unique tone.
However, the presenter of a speech genre is free to use accent to express individuality and is capable of mixing genres from diverse spheres. Since this is a daily conversation and communication process, the better we use genre commands, the more effective we implement an open speech plan which allows us to mix genres comfortably.
Basically, speech genre can be referred to as an utterance. It is true that utterance never comes to an end when it ends another one emergences and a response becomes an utterance to reply the previous one. Vocal statement is always created and formed as a response to previous statement/s and is always created in anticipation of a responding statement. There is no complete language, all language is sporadic, provisional unfinished and can be compared with to a connecting web of utterances. (Crowston 2000:234-238)
Gossip Genre In this article we are going to discuss gossip as our genre and look into deep the causes and effects associated with gossiping. Mostly, the effects of gossip are normally negative and they do affect a person professionally, socially and even psychologically.
On the other hand gossip can be taken as an excellent bonding opportunity that provides an advance warning of possible potential crises with your company. They enable an individual to set his/her boundaries before in advance. Always it’s very painful; and damaging to the person who is a target of gossip. (Crowston, 2000:246)
Gossips mostly originate from one close friend who knows you in deep and discuss your characters with other on your back. They are common mostly in work place where maybe a person who originates with the gossip aims at receiving a favor and damaging other person reputation. Whenever giving rumors about the other person its good to understand the risks behind the scene, for gossips are taken as defamation and one can be convicted of a slander and be prosecuted. (Dillon, 2000:678)
For the gossip tellers its good to put in consideration some of the issues before spreading the rumors such as you have to weigh the importance a gossip is, check whether the rumor will affect someone career so if it’s a serious allegation its good to address the issue to the supervisor or the Human Resource Manager rather than gossiping about it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Always keep it light and instead of gossiping it is good to be a trustworthy person who can keep friends secrets and in some extent company’s secrets. Always assume whatever you utter will be spread and be blamed to be the source and avoid gossiping during work hour for it can lead to disciplinary action, ensure you gossip during tea break or lunch hour.
Finally, to the gossip teller never put it in writing no matter how legitimate the allegations are, avoid using e-mails or instant messages for some organizations monitor all correspondences and it can be very risky if your boss walks in with a printed e-mail or message to be evidence against you.
With invention of new media rumors and gossip spread rate increased to thriving one. People are nowadays using internet, e-mail, social media e.g. Facebook, twitter, Skype and even mobile phones to communicate with their friends on some selected topic.
It has proofed to be very dangerous with the way news are spreading with a very short span of time and lack of identification where people use different names and holds more than one account with the email providers and the social networks making it difficult to monitor the correspondences flowing in the social sites.
We can be sure that if a gossip teller gossip to us, likely we become target audience for their gossip and there are no justifiable reasons for gossiping. Those who gossips aims at ruining reputations, injure others and for no good reason than to achieve their personal ego. For those get gossiped about are not assisted but definitely harm is being done on them.
Additionally, if any one of us is not addressing the issue directly to the person but instead we are talking about them from their back we behave and become gossipers and this makes us malicious and backstabbing persons.
Literary Genre To define what is genre is like to embark on a conjectural journey within a theoretical minefield. Genre theory has drawn numerous debate and contemplation throughout literary history, however several conclusions have materialized. Genre types are unfixed categories whose characteristics differ considerably additionally, the role of literary history plays an important function in genre discussion for they evolve and shift with a new literary text.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Speech Genre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are some ways to discuss genre although challenges thrives in any approach, the subjective nature of the literary experience calls for attention to the importance of the interaction between reader and text to provide the final word on genre.( Spinuzzi,2003:75-77)
Although there is considerable theoretical debate about the definition of specific genres, the usual definition tends to be based on the idea that words or actions within a genre share particular convections of content and context such as themes, settings structure and even style. Consequently history and culture play a major role in the ever changing status of genres which are difficult to define because of their concept.
Essentially Masculine Genre The crime fiction genre has for long period held principle antithetic to feminism. Through the ethics these principles imply that female traits are diminished and female characters marginalized to specific duties and responsibilities in a society. In Michael Ondaatje’s forensic novel “Anil’s Ghost” and also in the Alan Moore’s graphic novel “Watchmen” female crime fighters must posses’ male characters to succeed in maintaining order and administering justice.
Equally, in John Huston’s classic noir film The Maltese Falcon and Alfred Hitchcock’s film Rear Window, female characters are shown as chauvinistic or centralized ways through the engagement of Crime Fiction conventions. The female crime fighter appears to be only successful when she adopts a certain prejudiced characters. In Anil’s Ghost this is definitely true of the eponymous crime fighters who take on the principles of the hard-boiled seeker-hero, such as Huston’s Sam Spade.
While the amateur female sleuth “has been a staple of mystery novels for generation. The professional female character is an exciting newcomer to a market which is fully dominated by males.” (Jasinski, 2001:335)This is clearly shown out by Anil, she is a loner, and her family died and is abandoned by his lover and husband. Her name serves as a metaphor for her muscles as she first purchase it of her brother ironically using her sexuality and then denies her family’s attempts to emasculate her name by adding as ‘e’ at the end of it.
The significant element of the men hard boiled crime fighter is pursuit of ladies and this is confirmed by the sexual relationship experienced between Anil and Leaf. Additionally, an apart of boiled romance is that the crime fighter is never taken in by their lovers as Anil is not accepted by Cullis and does not give in herself to be controlled by him resisting forcefully.
However, Anil is basically a female character and so her basic inability to fit the masculine principle is reflected in her critical failure to achieve justice and restore order as expected by the norms of the convection.( Jasinski,2001:320)
Masculine perception in today’s world can lead to a very serious problem. Whether a male or a female both has equal potential of securing any opportunity that comes their way in life time. A sense of denial to some women mess a lot with their performance where they believes that a man is there to work better than that.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Speech Genre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gender equality has brought confidence in women life and make them feels superior as a normal man. Women has been in the front war line fighting and protecting the integrity on their motherland and therefore any statement which may intended to cause gender differences is highly regretted and its important for us to utilize the media that we have both electronic and print in preaching gender equality and condemn any partiality. (Kress, 2003:45-47)
Conclusion Speech genre is generally supposed to support our means of communication. The way we send a message from the sender to the audience determines how our message will be received. The theme and tone of our utterances portray perceptions that we intend to send across hence one must be keen when making statements to avoid causing harm to him/her or to the others.
Once you utter a statement you become the originator and anything that protrude from the said words you tend to bare all responsibilities. Therefore, it is true that the language is naturally dialogic direct from its contexts. The sentence or phrases becomes a systematic utterance when uttered from one context of application to another.
References Crowston, K.
Strategic Human Resource Management Report (Assessment) college essay help near me
Human resource management (HRM) is the art of managing employees in an organization. It involves the use of people to achieve organizational objectives in a productive manner and still satisfy the needs of individual employees (Fuller, 2005). This is the traditional approach to human resource management. Human resource management has always been viewed as a department set apart from the rest of the organization.
Lately however, the human resource department has had to justify its existence within an organization due to the increase in use of technology in place of human resources.
The move is an attempt by the HR department to remain relevant to an organization in the face of the current technological changes. This has led to the emergence of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). SHRM is a form of management that links HRM with organizational goals and objectives to improve performance and to strengthen organizational culture (Fuller, 2005).
SHRM focuses on organizational performance rather than individual performance (Inyang, 2010). Unlike HRM, SHRM is not just reactive. It seeks to prevent problems rather than tackling them when they occur. The objective and activities of SHRM must be measurable, must include deadline for accomplishments, should identify and involve key stakeholders and HR customers, and should nominate individuals responsible for implementation (Fuller, 2005).
It is difficult to implement SHRM and as such, it is faced with various challenges. This paper discusses the issues that a human resource manager should understand and the actions that should be taken to get the job done. The three big issues facing HR managers in recent times include developing and retaining talent, anticipating change, and enabling the organization (Society for Human Resource Management, 2002).
Although strategic talent management lacks a consistent definition and clear conceptual boundaries, Collins and Mellahi have defined it those activities and processes that involve the identification of key positions that contributes to the organization’s competitive advantage. It is the development of a pool of talent consisting of high performing employees and the development of a human resource structure to facilitate filling of these roles (Collings
Distance Learning Research Paper essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Uses of distance learning
The impact on Universities and older people
Advantages of distance learning
Disadvantages of distance learning
Problems arising as a result of distance learning
Basic cases and statistics
Introduction Distance learning (distance education) is one of the fields in education that deals with teaching methods using technology with the objective of delivering teaching without face to face contact between students and their instructors. In most cases this system is based on individuals, along with students who are not able to physically attend normal classes.
People have described it as being a process of creating as well as providing “access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance or both” (Moore
Web Development Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction At the outset, web designing emerged as an easier and simple way of exchanging information. It was a better means of communication and had better networking benefits compared to the commercial reasons. Later on, the Web became an avenue for making profits, and the information space that was prior for providing free exchange thus changed to a space for commercial transactions.
The open source movement first emerged when major players met and decided to begin the initiative of licensing to protect software developers. The movement was therefore a licensing measure meant to make source codes available to others beside the author through leasing.
There was also need to allow programmers to distribute their software freely and enable people to modify source codes. The current web-based software developers such as PHP, Firefox, WordPress and Linux are thus major contributors to development of modern websites. Open source has consequently had a direct influence on web development and browsing such as flexibility and innovative development initiatives in addition to providing network solutions.
History Development of ‘open source’ receives very little attention especially official concerns by the initial founders for its development. The initial organizations to benefit from the open licensing systems directly included the Department of Defence (DOD), Research Agencies, and the Lab researchers such as National Laboratories (Reece et al, 92). These organizations were the most viable producers, users and beneficiaries of the licensing operation.
The firms also provided the platform for major advances such as the firewalls, and other network security tools. Open licensing therefore caused firms to merge ideas and integrate development of operating systems and related software to high-tech but inexpensive software/hardware supercomputers to replace the original Pentium-based systems.
Although departments such as the DOD or Space Agencies may have developed or initiated most of the research into open source, in overall, today’s beneficiaries include commercial agencies. Commercial enterprises such as Netscape, Red Hat, Cygnus, MacAfee and Caldera were quick to realize the opportunities offered by web-based methodologies and begun to offer the open source arrangements.
Other firms that latter on came in support of open source included the hardware developers such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Compaq, Sun Microsystems and IBM (International Business Machines) among others. Consistent with VanDyk, the concept open source emerged from software engineers, but today the entire movement is made of technologically motivated individuals (9). They focus more on technological productivity as opposed to economical benefits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Developments Although the initial authors retain all the rights of their code, restrictions are less and simpler to allow others to utilize the code. Today, different countries have constitutions supporting the freedom of speech. Users never thought programs would be freeware in a manner comparable to the way verbal communication is an inalienable right today. Redistribution of software code does not face unnecessary restriction, since developers found that ‘open source’ is an effective way of finding and correcting faulty codes.
Open source also encourages reliability and quality of software due to the independent reviews and the rapid dynamic nature of the web-based programming. According to Van Reijswoud, the simplified way of defining ‘open source’ may appear more pervasive compared to technical definition (230).
The open form of licensing allows any individual developer as well as a corporation to give others freedom to change competence and quality of a code, at the same time retain ownership as long as the beneficiaries agree to equally share the code with others under similar terms of agreement.
This form of web development allows development of new web programmers particularly among users who wish to make their contributions on success and quality of products. Web development has therefore advanced to allow better distribution of expertise through refinement of existing codes. Experts are also able to provide new services through innovation and inspired creations.
The new trend of user-developer enhances development of diverse and advanced modern websites. Open source therefore allows a progressive form of dynamism that is almost impossible to achieve given any other condition that developers may find (Meeker, 38). There is a revolution on the way the software engineering industry has developed in terms software quality and ability to assist beneficiaries from the developments.
Current success of the internet is for the reason that there is direct success of the open source form of web development. Success of World Wide Web therefore indicates the evolution and power of open content. According to Richter, ‘open source’ is a form of licensing that affects development, distribution and use of software, thus causing direct change on corporations (281). It assists to focus innovation of information technology to ensure generation of profits.
Cultural Benefits Pragmatism demands that people share ideas and beliefs as opposed to involvement in scientific formulae. Open source has therefore been on constant demand among human needs indirectly, since proponents hold up to strict scrutiny of applications. Scientists allow extensive source code usage and analysis, which often means critical review of design, functionality, structure and content.
We will write a custom Essay on Web Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In line with Allen et al, programming involves more that art or design work, it has a foundation of functionality and practical knowledge (81). Technology maturity has thus caused spreading of knowledge and enhancement of techniques. Programmers are ready and more willing to have their codes examined, verified and used by others. Allowing others to use the code is mostly based on utmost good faith that the favour will be replicated or returned as opposed to financial benefits.
Employers of excellent source-code providers such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sun Microsystems, IBM and other corporations also have a direct benefit of fame, recognition and demand for goods or services. Their products are a direct reflection of business personality, capabilities, and the collaborative nature.
The use of ad hoc organizations has assisted in great developments, for instance the Apache Group were able to build up the most popular server “World Wide Web”, without ever convening. Working partners such as the Berkeley Software developers’ in-charge of commercial firewalls have employees working from various locations and collaborate electronically. Open licensing therefore allows organizations to pull web-based initiatives together and ensure survival of best products without disenfranchising anyone.
Programmers are becoming smarter to ensure production of the best and greatest codes compared to potential competitors. The easiness of obtaining the source code is also a great inspiration and a guide for many initial code developers especially web designers. An author of a code can find feedback such as suggestions or criticisms from other users and this is vital for systems productivity.
Companies such as Microsoft can also be able to find the open-source teams and expand their capabilities indefinitely since such measure is global and allows full-time international interactions. In line with Koch, open source enables a firm to ensure continuous use, maintenance and enhancement of a product (5). They must be able to integrate change on future developments to ensure competitive investment. The systems are able to harness sustainability, through collaboration of users and developers.
Challenges “ Although code developers are eager to maintain a reputation in the industry, open source may compromise need to recognize ownership of the original version of code. Indiscipline among users and lack of tight security measures to protect originality leads to existence of multiple versions of a code. With such scenario arising, it is extremely difficult to give credit where it is due. The uses are supposed to benefit from enhanced applications and related financial benefits, while the initial developer gets recognition.
Conclusion Software developers have often engaged and appreciated the open source form of programming due to easiness on implementation of aspects that initially seemed to conflict such as reliability, innovativeness and interoperability. Internet community ought to value creativity and efficiency and ensure that accomplishments are not redone/duplicated but rather improved.
Good open source software incorporates other common data formats, and these forms of reuse and refinement have previously enhanced development of quality and unique software. There are various debates based on open source especially envisioning future prospects of the field of sharing codes. The current research studies on the matter provide only a glimpse of the facts and fail to expound on the possible pedagogy and technological changes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Web Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Today there is a unique but exiting era and as Canne puts it, “the perfect e-storm is becoming less cloudy and ominous” (151). The writer emphasizes the importance of maintaining the idea of open licensing. Founders such as CISCO termed open sources as the greatest investment a company and consequently the government can make.
Open source applications are thus the basis for implementation of the Internet, as well as mail servers. Ideas of the programmers provide chances for improvement, scaling and reutilization of code to achieve new goals. Various internet protocols such as TCP/IP are a long lasting communication and sharing rules still in use on any network today.
Works Cited Allen, Chris,. Balkan, Aral,. Grden, John,. Arnold, Wade,.
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory/Observational Learning Term Paper essay help
Introduction The social learning theory as postulated by Albert Bandura stresses on the importance of modeling and observing the attitudes, emotional reactions, and behaviors of other people. As such, social learning theories tries to explain the behaviors demonstrated by humans in the form of uninterrupted mutual contact between behavioral, cognitive, and environmental influences.
Bandura was convinced that learning can be hazardous and dangerous if we only rely on the individual actions of other people to guide our daily actions. Additionally, we are more likely to demonstrate the behaviors that we have learnt from others (Altshuler
Business Ethics on Global Enterprises 5th December 2011 Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Identified Scenarios/Ethical Issues
Legal and Ethical Issues
Fiduciary Duties and Manager’s Ethical Responsibilities
This assessment on business ethics in Global Enterprises is designed to identify and understand the best ethical and critical decision making options, consequences and legal provisions on management process (Dienhart, 2000). Effective decisions would be useful for both the company and the working staff and amicable solution of any issues should be of great importance. Business ethics always contributes to either bad or good reputation of a company and this also applies to the Global Enterprise Company.
Several global businesses including some of the major brands that the public normally uses in either way have violated this provision by not thinking rightly on the ethical business concerns and the binding laws. These businesses have been fined several millions for breaking these business ethical laws.
To avoid such consequences, Global Enterprises as focused contractor and manufacturer, should consider the scenarios it is in order to find the best solution that is acceptable to the employees and the Union of Munitions and Armor Workers (UMAW). The Authentic Assessment Project (AAP) in this case analyses the scenarios presented that the GEI is facing.
Identified Scenarios/Ethical Issues Employees of the company are registered members of the Union of Munitions and Armor Workers (UMAW). It is ethical to make decision that may not damage the reputation and good name of the company. Therefore, the most amicable way to deal with the employees who are under the umbrella of a union should be a sounding reason that befits the action against employees. It is automatic that the employees are enjoying the support of the union.
Often, the union binds the company to fulfill the rights of the employees and that they must be always paid promptly including better working terms and conditions. This is very ethical for the union to act in the interest of its members (Shaw, 1999).
It is not the problem of the employee, but a mistake of the managers who do not follow the provided laws to guide the business operations. In the labor market, unions and labor laws are provided, which must also be respected by the GEI. It is not a question of whether the company abides by the laws, but the effected action.
Manufacturing of land mines and exporting to Afghanistan and Iran is contrary to international law and treaties. There must be consideration of the parties involved in the international treaty. This is because international laws are not simply made by the law makers, but are brought up by legislators and some of them could be lawyers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These international laws that guide treaties among countries are made by the government legislators. All the parties that the law affects are required to abide as the government overseas the operations. GEI Company had violated the treaty and the business operates and deals with illegal and explosive devices.
The enforcement of these laws is through intergovernmental organizations, which create soft law. Ethical considerations are part of the factors that influence the formation of the international laws. In this regard, there must be a reason that such laws are enacted for the best interest of the population and any danger that might interfere with the international peace process and enhance good business performance. GEI seems not bothered by these possible outcomes.
This is very ironical, no wonder the management have got financial constraints and could not fulfill its fiduciary duties. This could also explain why the company produces substandard products specifically materials used in manufacturing and producing landmines where most are ineffective. However, ineffectiveness could be as a result of poor quality work, which could not be approved by the national government.
As a result, even though they pay highly when sold, the customers who had sensed the problem would hardly buy from them in future, apart from taking legal action against the company for compensation (Parker, 1998). The quality compromise could be difficult to mend because poor business practices and financial constraints disable the company to purchase quality materials for the business. This could be as a result of unethical behavior in the business.
Ethical behavior in a business is a fundamental virtue for all the parties involved. There are both merits and demerits in a business environment.
The advantages includes, getting higher revenues that could be used to settle all financial needs, improved business brand for awareness and recognition, excellent employee recruitments and motivation and lastly more other financial sources from ethical investors (Crane
Gatsby essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Nick’s contradictory feelings
Introduction The Great Gatsby is a novel of vibrant characters, and paradox is one of the main themes of the book. Nick, the main character, has contradictory feelings when it comes to Gatsby, his rich and showing-off neighbor. He dislikes certain things about him, while, at the same time, he admires him.
He represents everything that Nick has come to hate about the people who live in the West Egg. He also symbolizes the things that Nick and the other people around him would love to have, yet it is beyond their reach. Thesis Statement: Nick admires Gatsby because of his persistence in pursuing his dream despite the overwhelming odds against him.
Nick’s contradictory feelings Nick hates the way the people in the West Egg love to display their wealth. He dislikes their poor tastes in clothes or fashion, vulgar speech, excessive lifestyles, and their lack of social connections. The people who live in the East Egg, on the other hand, have aristocratic connections and pedigrees. They are also conservative.
Nick is disgusted with the rotten crowd composed of Daisy, Tom, and Jordan. They do not exercise any restraint when it comes to alcohol and illicit sex. Tom is having an affair with Myrtle, yet he is married to Daisy. He rents an apartment where they can meet for their clandestine activities without any disturbance. They engage in wild parties and get drunk on most occasions.
More about This Topic Who Killed Gatsby and How Did That Happen? 5 95 What Was Jay Gatsby’s Real Name
Product Life Cycle Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction According to definition provided in the biology sciences, living things follow a rigid development lifecycle of birth, growth, maturity and death. This cycle forms the basis for the concept of product lifecycle and, by extension, a framework for describing the path a certain product will follow in a particular period of time.
In product management, this concept comprises of introduction, growth, maturity and decline stage. In the introduction stage, it takes some time for a product to be accepted by the public, but by the time it reaches the growth stage it is able to attract many customers. In maturity stage, its market even out as competitors develop competitive products, and its popularity declines. Old products are finally withdrawn from the market marking decline (Marketing Teacher, 2000, Para 1).
Since PLC depicts the product path from the launching period, it is a perfect tool for managing a product. Organizations can establish customer demands and alter the products features to meet these requirements. In addition, it helps the organization to determine when cost recovery will commence, as well as define the volume of transactions.
This information is important to the organization for two reasons. First of all, it is possible to tell when a product can be introduced or withdrawn from a market. Secondly, it gives information about a product success or failure, as well as its position relative to competitors’ products.
However, PLC has its limitation, especially it lacks for the universality in application (Tellis, nd, 6). This paper discusses the concept of PLC and how it is applied to cost recovery. It further examines how the concept has been successfully applied in development of technological products by Apple Inc.
Stages of Product Life Cycle In addition to the four stages in figure 1 presented, I will also discuss the development phase in this section.
Figure 1. The Product Life Cycle
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Development Phase This phase involves the conception of a product idea and various changes made on the basis of the original mode before it is being developed into a final product. The model product is passed through the test market before being delivered to the target customers. In the development stage, company does not generate any revenue, although it incurs expenditures. This stage is followed by launching of the model product that survives test market.
At this stage, the product adopted after development phase is launched. The company’s goal in this stage is to ensure that the product will have maximum impact by the time it goes in the market. This is why it is necessary to take into account the customer’s demands that a product should meet (Haslam, 1989, p. 20-21).
Because of promotion at this stage, the costs are high, advertisements and need for equipment for distribution are needed, and thus, this phase involves spending with little returns (NetMBA, 2002, Para 2). Some companies prefer to outsource some functions such as distribution in order to reduce the cost. The main goal of this stage is to establish a customer loyalty and increase product demand.
A product that makes to this stage enjoys public awareness and significant rise in sales. As a result, the company is satisfied because it can now start recovering its initial costs (Business 101 — The Basics, Nd, 7). Because of the increased public awareness, distributors readily accept the product since it is easy to market.
Consequently, the company derives profit and recovers initial expenditure. This stage is an opportune moment to maximize product market share. Products that are new entrants into the market gain market share quite easily (Komninos, 2002, 6). However, as the market expands, competition begins to emerge and, as a result, prices begin to decline.
Previous stage competitions continue and increase in strength and ferocity. This is because more competitors have begun to develop similar products. Competition to maintain the market share becomes intense and profits starts to dwindle.
We will write a custom Essay on Product Life Cycle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Differentiation of strategies applied in order to survive in this market that were initiated at the previous stage are widely used. The result of this differentiation is a market that has many product models.
At the beginning of this stage and end of the previous one, sales have reached their peak levels. Customers are already familiar with the products and they have several substitutes to choose from, thus demand depends on customer preference of a products feature. Since the brand is established, advertisement expenditure is minimal.
Profit margins are also low as key players cut their prices in order to maintain market share. The best companies and products are the ones that stand competition at this stage. Thus, the main goal of this stage is to expand product market share from previous stage.
At this stage, many companies abandon the market as demand for their products decreases due to the fact that customers change their tastes and preferences. This tendency provokes the development of more competitive products. According to Avlonitis (2002, 14), the company’s strategies influences the decline of a product, as well as the generation of this products.
Old products will attract little customer demand, but companies that have highly differentiated products may continue to make profit (Perreault et al, 2009, 243). As a result, companies register low sales in this stage due to changes in customers’ tastes and fashions. As a result, companies embark on other marketing strategies hoping to rejuvenate and extend the product line on the marketplace.
Extended Example In this section, I will use iPod and iPhone products to demonstrate the differences between mature and growing market. Apple Inc is an American multicultural corporations dealing with marketing and designing of computer software, consumer electronics, and Personal computers (Markoff, 2011).
Technological products have shorter product life cycles because companies are persistently evolving and improving their products by prolonging their significance and extending their life. Apple Inc, for instance, develops new and better technology after every twelve to eighteen months and, as a result, the products it offers to its customers are always innovative and revolutionary.
Figure 2. iPods Sales Chart
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iPod sales trend in figure 2 shows the product cycle. Before its peak sales in 2008, various generations of the product had been introduced such as Nano, Class and Touch and iPhone in the middle of the year (Cahill, 2011, Para 2). This year, there was little competition for iPod but introduction of iPhone distracted its potential sales.
Both 2008 and 2009 years presented in the figure indicate that the sales had been stabilized and afterwards started to decline. In 2010, Apple quarterly sales report revealed a decline in the sales of iPod. These sales had been reduced from 11 million to 10.2 in a span of three months.
Figure 3. Apple Product Sales by Segment
Source: Ashcroft, Nd, 8
Figure 3 shows that iPod overstayed in a maturity stage and it’s now entering its decline. On the other hand, iPhone curve shows that these days it is going into its growth stage, and it has registered an increase in sales. The company has also introduced a new product in 2009 called the iPad.
However, it is iPod that has significantly contributed to the higher profits that apple has experienced. In spite of this, its sales graph has reflected the S-curve that indicates that it is undergoing the product life cycle. As we have already discussed, in order to prevent decline, it is necessary to improve the product features to rejuvenate the growth of sales. This may include development of new iPad model that will have additional feature.
Different Product Market Phases and Their Impact on Cost Recovery In introduction phase of the product, costs are higher and there is no return for the company. As a result, it does not recover the cost incurred in product development at this stage. As the product progress to the third stage of PLC, company registers increased sales and the brand is be recognized, this results in further cutting the cost and increasing returns.
In the maturity stage, since the product brand is already established, the company does not spend much on promotion (Nagle
Electronic Advertising Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In electronic advertisement, business enterprises take hold of the opportunities presented to them through the Internet and the World Wide Web to promote their respective businesses. Electronic advertisement involves the use of these and suchlike platforms to deliver marketing or promotional messages to potential customers.
Electronic advertisement is performed through search engines, social networking sites, blogs, E-mail and online networks devoted to its promotion. One major benefit presented by electronic advertisement that surpasses traditional advertising methods is the increased ability to customize adverts, thus making investments in this kind of business more efficient.
Another benefit of electronic advertisement over traditional advertising methods is that it has the ability to reach a wider audience comprising people of different ages, ethnic and racial backgrounds. the next advantage of electronic advertisement is that consumers wield more control on an item and, therefore, can choose whether to check the advert or not.
The Internet is the main platform through which electronic marketing is carried out. Its expansion to accommodate more capabilities is an incentive that attracts business enterprises to electronic marketing.
Literature review Organizations need information systems so that they can manage efficiently and provide security to the information at the procession. In addition, information systems are an effective means to improve integration and work processes in them. An information system basically creates a log of another system that is integrated into the organization.
The system which log is created by an organization’s information system is known as a target system. Owing to the dynamicity and volatility of the electronic marketing environment in which an organization or business enterprise finds itself in, there is a need to mange its marketing information more efficiently and log its marketing systems to ensure optimal performance.
Thus, there is the need for information systems based on the information technology devoted to the electronic marketing. Such information systems are known as Information Technology-based Marketing Information Systems (MkISs).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More MkISs can be defined as a collection of procedures and methods formulated for regular planning analysis and presentation of information that is essential in marketing decision-making (Talvinen, 1994, 8).
Managing marketing information through MkISs in an organization facilitates effective online or electronic marketing as it ensures that marketing decision-makers are presented with timely and accurate marketing information, thus enabling them to improve the design, plan and implementation of their electronic marketing strategies (Talvinen, 1994, 8).
MkISs collect, share marketing information and use it to promote the corporate and brand image of an organization. MkISs in organizations improve communication of marketing information between personnel in the sales (or promotion, or product management) and accounting (or corporate planning, or advertising) departments.
An examination of MkISs reveals that a number of models underlie their design and development (Talvinen, 1994, 10). These models present MkISs along two aspects, namely, typical subsystems and general dimensions. There are six classes of these models, thus the classification is done on the basis of the type of primary use of the MkISs.
The first class of these models is data gathering where MkISs that fall in this category are used primarily for gathering marketing data and all the necessary information. The second class of MkISs’ models is data analysis which comprises of MkISs used first for analyzing the collected statistics that is critical in marketing decision-making. The third class of MkISs’ models is marketing planning which captures all the MkISs that facilitate effective design of marketing plans.
The fourth class of MkISs’ models is marketing decision making, which captures MkISs that enable informed and positive decision-making with respect to the marketing strategies. The fifth class of MkISs’ models is the implementation of marketing activities, which capture MkISs that are used in the development and promotion of successful electronic marketing activities.
The sixth class of MkISs’ models is control, which is divided further into two subclasses, namely, external and internal ones. The external control subclass of MkISs captures the MkISs that are used in controlling an organization’s external marketing environment and activities. The internal control subclass of MkISs deals with the MkISs that are used in controlling an organization’s internal marketing environment and activities.
We will write a custom Essay on Electronic Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More MkISs can be divided into two groups, and this is dependent on two things. The first one is the position of the users of the MkISs in the organization, and the second is the use of a certain type of the MkISs. The first group of MkISs is used by managers, and the second one is that for use in sales and marketing activities.
Typically, in an organization, there is a variation in class of MkISs used by managers and marketing analysts and so on. Similarly, there is a variation in class between the MkISs implemented in operational sales activities and marketing. The users of MkISs, marketing information management and decision-making systems include marketing managers, senior executives, marketing analysts, marketing experts and SBUs (Strategic Business Units) (Talvinen, 1994, 10).
So as to come up with sound electronic marketing decisions, marketing managers heavily rely on marketing analysts and experts because the latter have skills to transform raw marketing information collected by data gathering MkISs into knowledge needed by the marketing managers. In today’s world, MkISs are not only designed and developed to be used strictly in the context of management but in other areas as well.
MkISs are integrated into operational process-oriented systems for sales and marketing that are used in operational daily marketing activities. These daily marketing operational activities include telemarketing, database marketing (or direct mailing) and operational sales management. The users of such kind of MkISs are personnel in an organization’s middle management, operative sales and marketing.
A very important factor to consider when integrating MkISs is the relationship between them and other information systems (Talvinen, 1994, 10). These other information systems include those used in other organizational processes, such as finance, human resource, production, etc.
The movement of data or data flow between the MkISs and the other information systems should be understood and defined well. Another very important aspect to consider in the integration of MkISs is data gathering. The MkISs have to collect information from the marketing environment of an organization and, mainly, from consumers and competitors.
MkISs generally gather marketing statistics of a qualitative nature whereas other information systems working with the MkISs collect quantitative data (Talvinen, 1994, 10). An example of data gathered by MkISs is consumer buying behaviour. MkISs can be tuned to generate management reports, such as sales forecasts.
To complement the statistics and information gathered by MkISs, there is an outstanding need for organizations to collect data on the organization’s external marketing environment. When such data is gathered, it can be again stored in the MkISs. Such statistics is accumulated through queries invoked against commercial databases and data banks. Another aspect to consider in the integration of MkISs is how to transform or convert the data gathered into usable information and knowledge (Talvinen, 1994, 10).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Electronic Advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MkISs are a vital tool in the implementation of the sales and marketing strategies as they provide an analysis approach and analysis tools for converting the qualitative data they have gathered into information and knowledge. An area in which the knowledge generated from an MkISs is used is in sales and marketing activities, e.g. telemarketing and database advertising.
Another area which benefits form the knowledge generated from MkISs is management which has to control markets, marketing strategies and activities, analyze target markets and make marketing decisions. Operational MkISs are vital sources of internal information for management MkISs’, which are the main systems that generate information from the data collected (Talvinen, 1994, 10).
Another area in which the knowledge generated from an MkISs is useful is in research and development where new marketing strategies are developed, and/or older ones are improved. Information generated from MkISs is also useful in market forecasting as well as planning. Another very important aspect to consider when integrating MkISs into an organization is analysis and decision-making (Talvinen, 1994, 10).
MkISs are tools for analysing the data they gather. Moreover, these systems are, therefore, essential in successful and effective decision making. Marketing analysts and experts should familiarize themselves with the analysis approach and analysis tools presented by the MkISs. Senior executives are the main decision-makers and should be, therefore, conversant with how the MkISs present their findings.
In the organization, marketing decision making involves close collaboration between the current analysts (experts) and the senior executives with the former ones transforming the raw data gathered by the MkISs into the information and knowledge that can be readily used by the latter
Analysis One of the underlying strengths of all the MkISs is information technology (IT) boom. The IT boom is a worldwide phenomenon encouraging the automation, storage and digitization of the knoweledge. This inherently encourages the development and use of MkISs. Another underlying advantage of MkISs is their need for digital storage of information.
Traditionally, marketing information would be kept and stored in paper form, which would make it more risky and arduous to manage high volumes of information. With MkISs, information is stored in electronic form in computers reducing the chances of it being lost and, in addition, it makes its management easy.
Another basic benefit of MkISs is their need for an integrated information management for marketing data. The marketing environment in which organizations find themselves in is very dynamic and volatile. Collection and management of marketing data in such an environment can be difficult, thus MkISs make it possible for the statistics to be collected and kept until the time when an organization is ready to transfer it or use it in one or another way.
The next main strength of MkISs is that they need to have a ready access to marketing data. The electronic (digital) storage of marketing data by MkISs allows its users to have a ready access to the marketing data from any geographical location as long as the MkISs are online, It means that they are running on the World Wide Web or through the Internet.
Another underlying strength of MkISs is its compatibility or support for advanced information technology infrastructure. MkISs can be implemented or integrated using advanced information technology infrastructure. This factor allows to have a huge storage of data and fast processing. This ensures that knowledge is generated from the MkISs in real-time and quickly integrated into marketing decision making.
On the contrary, one of the main weaknesses of MkISs is the need for advanced knowledge to operate them. Typically, MkISs’ infrastructure consists of computer hardware such as mainframes, which are less user-friendly to operate and thus may require additional training which can be costly.
Another disadvantage of MkISs is low security. Keeping information online as its risk as the information is vulnerable to online attacks from hackers who can maliciously use it for their own gain. An organization is to ensure that the information in the MkISs is secure, otherwise, lack of information security can be detrimental to the organization. Low security is a weakness as well as a threat of MkISs.
Findings From the analysis above, low security as been identified is both the weakness and the threat to MkISs. One way to enhance the security of MkISs can be implemented through cryptography where information is hidden from unauthorized individuals due to the use of encryption and decryption algorithms (Coulouris et al, 2005, 275).
In the face of the online attacks, cryptography ensures knowledge security by making sure that information being exchanged between the MkISs and the other systems is encrypted and decrypted by authorized individuals (Coulouris et al, 2005, 276). Another way to maintain the security of MkISs is through firewalls. Firewalls monitor as well as regulate the communication and interaction between a computer and an online resource and, thus, ensure that no malicious attacks can occur.
In addition to these security enhancing measures, it is also important that MkISs undergo continuous quality improvement (CQI). Continuous quality improvement ensures that MkISs do not become obsolete in the face of new challenges, especially those relating to security.
In continuous quality improvement, the potential failures of MkISs are determined beforehand, and action plans (proactive incident response plans) are formulated to eliminate or deal with them. One technique of doing CQI is FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) (Black, 2005, 25).
FMEA reveals the strengths, weakness and potential failures of a system. The main function of FMEA is that it predicts the failures related to the design of a system and, therefore, ensures that the system will be based on the set standards and work according to all the necessary requirements.
Conclusion As technology advances, the capabilities of the Internet and the World Wide Web are extended in tandem. This results in increased online traffic which marketers want to tap into. electronic advertising. This is, therefore, a positive strategic investment for organizations and business enterprises with long term growth and expansion objectives and endeavors.
To perform effective electronic advertising, it is imperative that such organizations are able to manage their marketing information effectively owing to the dynamicity and volatility of the environment they are to operate in. Thus, it is important that they acquire and implement MkISs, which are information systems dedicated to improving decision-making in the area of electronic marketing.
MkISs, however, have one major shortcoming which is that they cannot guarantee the security of information stored in them. This shortcoming necessitates the need for an organization to invest heavily and regularly in information security.
Reference List Black, R. (2002). Managing the testing process: practical tools and techniques for managing hardware and software testing. Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Canada
Coulouris, G. Dollimore, J. And Kindberg, T. ( 2005). Distributed systems concepts and design. (4th ed.). Pearson Education Limited: England.
Talvinen, J.M. (1994). Information systems in marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 29(1), 8 -10
Communism and Capitalism Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Revolution of Social Darwinism
Introduction During the modern history, there existed two main economic systems, namely: communism and capitalism. Their ideologies are intrinsically divergent and often unreceptive to each other. All over the hostilities defame and institutional propaganda has become extensive known creating worry and hatred between communist and capitalist.
Capitalism is defined as the economic system based on free trade where private sectors are allowed to do businesses with another individual or group of private citizens. In this system, the means of product and service production is mainly carried out and owned by the individuals instead of the government while communism also known as fascism is contrary to this where production and distribution of products is carried out by the state as non-profit organization.
Communism The book “The Time Machine” is mainly a social appraisal of H.G. Wells who was a Victorian England predicted into a far future. The largest part of his life he remained a socialist with communist background and he argued in most of his books that capitalism was a major challenge to the post-modern future.
Fast development in technology, social life, education and other capitals had commenced the industrial Revolution in during 17th and 18th century. Additionally, he argued that by the late 19th century of “The Time Traveler” the UK was most powerful with the economy whereas industrialists were enjoying their absolute wealth.
The capitalists during this era overworked men, women and even young children who were forced to work overtime with penny wages in dirty, smoke-filled industries. After observing all this as it took place, Wells decided to incorporate various scientific, natural and social ideologies in his arguments against capitalism and he majored on the citizens who were selective, discriminatory for their personal gain as they continued to exploit the poor and vulnerable members of the society (Wells 47 ).
Revolution of Social Darwinism First of all, Wells characterized capitalism as a revolution of social Darwinism. In this theory “Origin of Species”, the author Charles Darwin argued that nature allowed the reproduction of species that their characters fitted for best survival.
Therefore, social Darwinism was formulated by the British Philosopher Herbert Spencer whom regularly misrepresented this idea of natural fitness to validate 19th century social stratification among wealthy and unfortunate people. Wells contradicted with this philosopher where he argued that it did not imply that surviving species on an environment and the best but simply fit for their precise environment (Wells 83).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is therefore concluded that evolution does not guide into perfectibility but to the maximum adaptability of a species. Communism was therefore aggravated mainly by the pessimistic impact of the industrial revolution on poor industrial employees. It was aimed at creating a social class of public common ownership where they believed that the society in general was more important than personal rights liberty and individual’s freedom.
On the other hand, as the communist fought hard against the capitalist, there were negative impacts that were associated with it where most dictators erupted as the results of communism for they were overall decision makers. For communism to work out, it relies on human nature where they need to be completely humane and ready to work for gaining of their neighbors (Wells 94).
Capitalism Capitalism has the major economic system which takes control of the world economy and it has proved to be perfect enough comparing to the other economies such as socialism. It is characterized by its mode of production where prime resources such as capital and land are owned by the individuals.
Trade activities are fully controlled by the interaction between customers and sellers in the market and the owners here is free to make maximum profit from their resources. The main objective of a capitalist state is to secure concurrent high employment and stable prices (Wells 58).
During late 19th century, wars uprising and economic despair has acted against capitalism. The great depression period has acted as the most challenging moment within the capitalism history where shares in the stock market depreciated at an alarming rate. Capitalism on its sides is referred to as the best economic friend for it freely allows for global competitive market and capitalist contributes a lot to the economy of a nation.
There are two types of capitalism which are commonly known, of which one of them is the proprietary capitalism. During this period of capitalism, there were only some corporations and no one could relate them to the modern society. The other form of capitalism is progressive capitalist economy.
In this type of capitalism, business outputs are present as inputs of the future. Even though capitalism has gone through transitional changes all over the years, capitalistic economy structure has remained to be most influential economy as well as the political structure in the world.
We will write a custom Essay on Communism and Capitalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Finally, communism and capitalism has acted towards the economic development but several challenges have affected both economies. The communism has greatly affected it people where personal growth has been affected by national ideology of togetherness dragging back both economic and infrastructure development. On the other hand, capitalism has lead to emergence of life standards where it exists rich and the poor resulting to the exploitation of the vulnerable members of the society.
Work Cited Wells, H. George.The Time Machine. Penguin Classics, 2007. Print.
What are the most important challenges that museums are facing today? Term Paper college essay help
It is apparent that museums today are undergoing some radical changes. These changes reflect shifts in the relationships between dominant western cultures and those of indigenous, minority, and marginalized cultures everywhere. Historically, people have perceived museums in their own conservative sense.
This has made archivists in museums to respond to the conservative instincts of the people, thus causing moral dilemmas and premeditated challenges. Despite the challenges, it is imperative to note that museums act as agents in the development of culture. Meanwhile, the main goal is to foster knowledge through a process of continuous reinterpretation.
Besides this, they narrow their focus on collections that are multifaceted and diverse in order to cover a wide range of target audiences. For this reason, museums’ policies designs and stored artifacts are subject to change to fulfill their main goal. Due to these myriad facets of change, this paper discusses the challenges facing museum in the contemporary era. Moreover, the discussion will also expound on how best to respond to such challenges.
One of the major challenges affecting museums is the fact that they have failed to prioritize the audience preferences. Since this is seemingly a major concern, world museums have relentlessly attempted to seek for ways and means of accommodating large number of audience.
On the same note, they also want to advance their role in research. Quite often, research and audience interest might not coincide since scientific researches go beyond the visible and tangible world. Archivists use this knowledge to design, categorize and preserve collections in museums.
Additionally, most of the museums fail to identify their key targeted audience. In this case, they design their own archivist displays that their audiences perceive to be unsuitable. It is vivid that for a long time, museums have used the common way of doing things forgetting that new ideas and practices have transfigured people’s perception. At this juncture, it is evident that museums face dilemma on deciding what to display in order to match with the tastes and preferences of their target audience.
According to researchers, presentation in museum can at times deter acceptance from the target audience. There is empirical evidence that museums are changing frequently to match the demand and expectations of their target audiences. As a matter of fact, there is a huge challenge in determining how to shape collections, create exhibitions and organize programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another daunting challenge facing museum is the issue of illegal trafficking of artistic artifacts and ethnic objects (www.architectmagazine.com). In recent decades, some communities have reclaimed certain ethnic objects that were obtained from them. Ethnic groups claim some of the monumental objects and to some extent they fail to surrender them to museums. Moreover, policies that were followed by museums to acquire monumental objects have kept changing from time to time.
There have been critics where individuals from different part of the world to claim artifacts that were shipped form their countries to other places. This has raised controversy across the globe since it is perceived that the return of such artifacts would cause damage to them. It is evident that during the 17th to 19th century, site seers toured places and carried artifacts of material culture to their native countries.
Such artifacts were later surrendered to their country’s museum. A good example includes the British government that has been pressured by the Greeks to return back their Elgin marbles. However, through the universal museum declaration in 2002, the pressure to demand back such objects were curtailed. Movement of museum artifacts was restituted with the aim of enhancing a reflection of ancient values and phenomenon that existed at the time of acquisition.
In line with this, museums have put more emphasis on displaying artifacts for audience rather than creating meaning. According to research conducted in various museums, there exist long rows that are crowded by artifacts each under a certain theme. However, the labels that are put along with such artifacts normally provide scanty information. The main challenge is that, museums have been perceived as educational centers for the educated few.
Moreover, this disadvantages visitors who lack adequate background information about the artifacts in the museum. In line with this, lacks of understanding deter visitors from appreciating artifacts on display. Therefore, museums have been considered as reputable avenues where individual obtain accurate information on material culture in an entertaining manner.
However, this can only be achieved by engaging the heritage with come interpretations. However, lack of experimentation techniques such as videos and multimedia presentations make people not to learn about museum artifacts.
Nonetheless, there are possible recommendations for the challenges. For instance, the international museum community should discourage illegal trafficking of artifacts from museums. It is worth to mentions that artifacts that were acquired earlier need to be perceived lightly considering the numerous values, sensitivity and reflections of ancient eras. Additionally, monumental objects that have been identified should be acquired by museums through legal processes.
We will write a custom Term Paper on What are the most important challenges that museums are facing today? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Procedures that should be used include purchasing, portaging and rewarding the immediate communities who are already part and parcel of the museums. By so doing, the communities will have the will to protect such monuments as part of their heritage. Moreover, policies pertaining acquisition of archaeological and cultural artifacts should be kept constant and favorable thus making the communities involved to have the will to surrender them peacefully.
Consistently, museum archivists should design their displays in a manner that they favor the interest of various target audience such as visitors, learners and the general public. Besides this, they should also provide artifacts that have well defined subject in term of their original context and detailed information of their environment. Museums should not change abruptly with change in technology and values. Instead, they should incorporate artifacts that are rich in ancient and modern civilization.
Availing such artifacts in museum will foster universal admiration of world culture in the international sphere even for the forth coming generation. Nevertheless, the universal museum declaration should take keen measures to avoid inter-state conflict such as that which existed between Greek and United Kingdom. This can be attained by restituting activities involved in stealing, misappropriating, trading and re-representation of work of art in museums.
To recap it all, it is imperative to note that despite the changes in museums due to modernization and cultural evolutions, artifacts still remain excellent in illustrating human civilization. They describe how human culture developed from antiquity and its evolution up to the contemporary epoch. It is worth to mention that museums are not only meant to entertain but also to educate and inform society.
Moreover, museums should not merely benefit audience of a particular country. Nevertheless, contemporary challenges facing museums can be decimated through a collaborative effort in the international arena.
Works Cited Flynn, Tom. The Universal Museum: a valid model for the 21st century? 2011. Web.
Wise, Michael. The New Acropolis Museum, a Minimalist Showcase for Ancient Greek Art. 8 Sep. 2009. Web.
Ethics Between Law and Religion Opinion Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Ethics refers to moral behavior that is acceptable to a particular society. Seglin defines ethics as a set of moral issues that are regarded to be righteous (4). Given a narrower perspective, ethics can be considered as an act of doing what the society expects at the right time and in the right manner. However, ethics can be viewed from a wider perspective.
In this regard, it can be viewed as a meta-ethics, normative ethics, applied ethics, moral psychology and descriptive ethics. Whichever way one views ethics from, this is the morality in actions of an individuals or a group of individuals.
The current society is very sensitive on issues that pertain to morals. Many organizations consider ethics as a basic requirement that its members must consider when conducting their daily duties. It is a requisite for any institution that hopes to achieve its set objectives within a set time line.
Ethics in Law and Religion
Ethics cuts across different institutions, each with its own specifications of what it takes to be considered ethical.
Law and ethics may not go hand in hand in most of the cases. What the law may demand of an individual may be considered as unethical to the society. Law may demand that an individual make a confession against a friend or family member, act in line with some demands that may force one to hit back, or such other actions that may result in one being viewed as not considerate to others plight.
In law, ethics is viewed as practices that are in line with legislation of a given country or state. Professionals such as lawyers, doctors, marketers, engineers among others have a code of conduct that is expected of them. This is called professional or legal ethics. As a representative to his or her clients, a lawyer is expected to respect the privacy that may be due to the client.
He or she should be a representative who is trustworthy either financially or otherwise. Ethics in law is of benefit to the professionals and their clients. A lawyer who maintains ethics is likely to attract more clients to his or her firm. The clients will be assured of a standard service, without the fear of fraud from the service provider.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, ethics may not work well in some cases. One may fail to deliver justice if ethics is considered. There may be a case that demands for a punishment that the society considers unethical, but one which delivers justice. Therefore, one may be forced to sacrifice justice for ethics.
Religion refers to a set of beliefs of a given group of people. Ethics in religion may be defined as acting according to the beliefs and practices of a given religion (Badaracco 51). The world is characterized by a variety of religious groups, each with different doctrines. The Muslim religion has a very strict code of conduct expected of the followers of both gender.
This is in regard to dress code and other behavioral factors. Religion, unlike law, emphasizes on doing what society considers right, regardless of its standings in a court of law. The church emphasizes on forgiveness as one of the best form of ethics in society, a fact that may not be the case if law is to be followed.
According to most religions, law is the guide to the society. However, it should not be viewed as a source of oppression to mankind. For this reason therefore, what may be considered as ethical before the law, may be very unethical to a given religion.
Ethics is of benefit to religion. It ensures that a given religious group stays in cohesion, always seeing each other as a brother. However, ethics may be a source of punishment to the believers. What a religious group considers ethical may be oppressive to a section of that religious group.
Works Cited Badaracco, Joseph. Defining Moments: When Managers Must Choose Between the Right and the Right. Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press, 1997. Print.
Seglin, Jeffrey. The Right Thing: Conscious, Profit and Personal Responsibility in Today’s Business. New York: Spiro Press, 2003. Print.
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How Bad Pollution is in the Arab World Expository Essay best essay help
Currently, the Arab world materializes to be amongst the fastest growing countries in terms of population. The perceived population growth brings about expenses related to pollution. The commonly observed pollution include air and water pollution.
Environmental pollution in the Arab region result from fuel combustion, draughts, use of pesticides, clinical wastes, improper industrial and households’ waste disposal. These activities negatively impacts on the health of Arab world members.
Water pollution Arab countries face multiple environmental challenges. The scarcity of fresh-clean water has raised many concerns. From Arab future environmental challenge report, Arab countries face desertification, marine pollution and fresh water scarcity which are anticipated to increase due to climate variations. In Arab region, it is estimated that environmental degradation is 5% of the total GDP (Frederiksen 670).
In Arab world, water scarcity proves to be a key dilemma. It is reported that out of the 22 Arab countries, 15 fall under water poverty line. Very few individuals have access to clean water. Besides, the sea level is expected to rise in the next decades by four meters.
This will affect 18,000 kilometers of the total populated Arab coastal region (UN 45). Whilst Arab world apparently does not contribute above 5% to the universal climate change causes, water pollution effects will severely impact on the region. At the end of 21st century, the Arab region surface temperature will rise by 2 to 5.5oC.
Due to improper industrial wastes dumping, excessive application of pesticides and fertilizers, merely 84% of the entire population has access to fresh- clean water. About 21 years ago, the figure was reported to be 80% and the increase might increase the rate of diseases which would lower health and productivity rate. This region also fails to meet the set UNDP clean water target program which is to be realized by 2015. The organic water pollutants emissions are high and are approximated to be 500 metric tons (UNDP 23).
Air pollution Though Arab countries are the major oil producers and exporters in the world, they are also the leased greenhouse emitters in the world. A huge volume of oil produced by the Arab countries are not utilized within but are rather exported to developed countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Carbon dioxide emitted from greenhouse causes a rise in world temperature. UNDP report stipulates that greenhouse gases have increased in the atmosphere due to increased fossil fuel usage (p.27). Arab countries are however below the average contributors albeit there is a remarkable rise in their emissions.
UNDP estimate that by 2003, the amount of emissions in the Arab world rose to 1013 metric tons from 586 metric tons in 1990 (p.21). The rise in carbon emissions was attributed to increase in transportation which contributes 90% of the total emissions. As an economy grows, people use un-roadworthy private cars that lead to increased demand for unleaded fuel.
The efforts to moderate unleaded petrol usage are unsuccessful. Some countries introduced unleaded fuel without additives necessary for efficient operation of old engine. According to From New York Times, these types of vehicles are fuel inefficient and thus produce ground ozone with devastating health effect (p.1).
To manage carbon emission in gulf region, transport system must be dealt with. More efficient vehicle engines must be produced such as modern hybrid vehicles that use cleaner fuel. A sensible urban planning that reduces the use of cars while promoting efficient public means to communicate between work, residential and leisure locations ought to be introduced. There is the need to increase thermal energy efficiency utilization via adopting high technological advancement, hydropower source usage alongside other renewable energy.
Works Cited Frederiksen, Harald. “Addressing water crisis in developing countries.” Journal of Environmental Engineering. New Haven: Yale UP, 2005. 667-75. Print.
“Fresh start in the Middle East”. Editorial. The New York Times 5 Mar. 2009. Web.
UN. The Millennium Development Goals in the Arab Region 2005. New York: Longman, 2005. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on How Bad Pollution is in the Arab World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More UNDP. “Strengthening the rule of law in the Arab States: Project on the modernization of public prosecution offices.” Environmental Crimes in the Arab States, New York: Pearson/Longman, 2009. Print.
——. Making Progress on Environmental Sustainability: Lessons and Recommendations from a Review of over 150 MDG Country Experiences. New York: Longman, 2006. Print.
Similarities in The Sermon on the Mount and The Divine Comedy: Dante’s references to Christ’s Teachings Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Overview of the Two Works Admittedly, teachings of Christ are the most important conventions for the Christian world. One of his most famous sermons is The Sermon on the Mount. This sermon is provided in Mathew’s Bible. In this sermon, Jesus Christ teaches people to act rightfully. He also refers to the conventions mentioned in Hebrew Bible. Notably, Christ claims that some conventions cannot be rightful.
For example, Jesus Christ notes that people should be patient and forgiving. “Love your enemies,” he says (“The Sermon on the Mount” 1086). Of course, some conventions remain the same.
Thus, Christ claims that people should not try to accumulate wealth (treasures) in their earthly lives as they should think of treasures of heaven. Jesus claims that all earthly treasures will be destroyed by time (“The Sermon on the Mount” 1088). Of course, Jesus states that people cannot serve “two masters”: God and “mammon” (“The Sermon on the Mount” 1088). This is one of the most important conventions to be remembered. Unfortunately, people have broken this rule for centuries.
For example, Dante mentioned this in The Divine Comedy. Admittedly, Dante has been one of the central figures in world literature. He was a genius who managed to address vices and virtues of the society of the fourteenth century (James 1463). Therefore, he could not but address one of the most common vices. Dante wrote about people who tried to obtain as much gold as possible during their earthly lives. Dante encountered such people in hell and in purgatory.
Those people were vicious clergymen, misers, wasters, usurers, grafters, etc. All those sinners had to pay for their earthly life. They had to pay because they forgot that the only treasure could be found in heaven. Interestingly, Dante gave some sinners a chance to purge. Dante described “Purgatorio” which was full of sinners who could reach the gates of St. Peter (Dante 1576). It is also important to mention that Dante depicted “Paradiso” and it was clear what the real treasure was (Dante 1594).
Therefore, it is possible to trace several similarities between Dante’s most renowned work and The Sermon on the Mount. However, it is important to focus on a particular point. Christ teaches that people cannot strive for wealth but they should think more of heavenly treasures, the treasures of their souls. Dante considers this statement in his specific allegorical way.
Punishment for Sinners Misers
It goes without saying that Dante referred to Biblical books when writing his work. Of course, he took into account The Sermon on the Mount where the most famous teachings were provided. Dante paid special attention to Christ’s teachings concerning gold. Dante placed shades of misers in his hell. He allegorically illustrated Christ’s teaching. Thus, shades of those wretched souls had to roll weights with their chests (Dante 1473). Dante created an illustrative allegory.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He depicted souls of misers who tried to obtain as much gold as possible during their lifetime. The weight of their earthly treasures could not let them go to heaven. Admittedly, it is simply impossible to reach the sky with such a heavy burden. Therefore, they were punished for their sins. Dante decided to make the sinners ‘feel’ their mistake. The misers had to feel the burden of their earthly treasures. More so, the souls had to compete.
There was a race. Dante depicted the race which was similar to the earthly one. People would always try to have more treasures than other people do. The competition never ended for sinners. At least in Dante’s hell, the sinners had to compete wearing their heavy burdens. Interestingly, Dante stressed that clergymen often sinned just like any other people. Irrespective of their ‘service’ to God, they were still punished in accordance with the great rules.
Dante depicted one more group of sinners. Those people were preoccupied with gold more than with their souls’ treasures. Those were usurers. The punishment was quite harsh. The hell flames and “burning sands” caused a lot of sufferings to those shades who were sitting near “empty space” (Dante 1482). Again, the punishment was very symbolic.
The usurers lent money and took money from different people. They caused a lot of sorrows for many people during their lifetime. What is more, they ruined their own souls. The usurers ignored one of Christ’s teachings concerning gold. Despite the fact that Christ taught that people could not serve mammon, the usurers served that ‘deity’.
The usurer forgot about treasures of their souls and they had to pay for that in hell. It is quite interesting to note that Dante provided a name of a noble man who also lent money. Again, Dante stressed that all people (peasants or noblemen (or even clergymen)), would be punished for their sins after their death.
One of the most interesting categories depicted by Dante can be also a good illustration of Christ’s teachings. Dante introduced such group of people as Simoniacs, i.e. people who tried to “adulterate” holy things into “gold and silver” (Dante 1484). These people also forgot The Sermon on the Mount as they tried to serve two masters.
They tried to buy holy things. They thought that they could buy their ‘ticket’ to heaven. Those people wanted to pass St. Peter’s gates as if they were saints and holy people. Of course, Dante made up a symbolic punishment for them as well. Thus, the great author depicted their sufferings in detail. Those wretched souls had to remain motionless while their feet were burning. Dante decided to make their feet burn to show that no sinner could tread in heaven.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Similarities in The Sermon on the Mount and The Divine Comedy: Dante’s references to Christ’s Teachings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Grafters
Finally, Dante depicted one more group of sinners who praised gold more than their souls’ treasures. Grafters who would “change no to yes for cash” were also punished in hell (Dante 1486). Those people had very sinful lives. They did not care about their life after death.
They wanted to get as much gold as possible. It goes without saying that those people could never pass St. Peter’s gate. They had to dive in sticky waters of flames in hell. They wanted to be surrounded by treasures during their earthly lives, but instead they were surrounded by flames of hell. They did not follow Christ’s rules of rightful behavior. They were preoccupied with earthly treasures. That is why Dante placed them in his hell.
Purgatorio and Paradiso Interestingly, Dante described a place where sinners could purge (Dante 1501). They could atone for their sins. Dante described all the major sins mentioned in Inferno. Notably, the author did not simply provided examples of sins. He considered the nature of the sin. He also mentioned some motives. Admittedly, this part is also quite illustrative.
It also refers to The Sermon on the Mount. Dante did not only reveal the punishment for sinners. He also claimed that people could still rethink their behavior. It was never late to start thinking of treasures of heaven. More so, Christ said that people could be forgiven (even if they sinned). Therefore, even those who only thought of earthly wealth could atone for their sinful actions. Of course, it was important to start a new better life. Dante gave people hope to save their souls.
Finally, Dante also portrayed paradise. He revealed the beauty of paradise and real treasures of heavenly life (Dante 1535). This part of The Divine Comedy should be regarded as an allegorical illustration of The Sermon on the Mount. Christ was talking about treasures of heaven.
Dante depicted the life of righteous people. Admittedly, peaceful life of joy is the greatest treasure. Dante mentioned people who led rightful lives. Their rightful lives continued in heaven. Admittedly, the description of paradise could be regarded as a great stimulus to act in a rightful way. Dante showed what the real treasure was.
Dante’s illustrations Therefore, it is possible to find several allegorical illustrations for The Sermon on the Mount in The Divine Comedy. Of course, it was hardly Dante’s aim to illustrate the sermon. Nonetheless, he managed to create really exact examples of what Christ was talking in his teachings.
Dante paid a lot of attention to people’s greediness, their chase for earthly treasures. It is possible to state that this is one of the central themes in Dante’s work. He stressed that people had to act rightfully; otherwise they would be punished after their death. Therefore, Dante portrayed sufferings of sinful people, people who cherished gold.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Similarities in The Sermon on the Mount and The Divine Comedy: Dante’s references to Christ’s Teachings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worse mentioning that the author depicted fair punishment. He ‘punished’ people to make them understand their guilt. Thus, those who took and lent money had to expose their hands to flames. Those who spent their lives in chase for earthly treasures had to race with other sinners carrying their burdens.
The guilt of each person was obvious. Each sinner could remember about his sins when suffering in hell. The sinners could never forget what they did wrong as their punishment was the best reminder. Notably, the majority of the sinners depicted admitted that their earthly treasures were not worth all those sufferings they had to endure.
The major similarities To sum up, it is possible to claim that The Sermon on the Mount and The Divine Comedy has quite many similarities as Dante used Christ’s teachings in his work. It is also possible to note that Dante pays special attention to people’s chase for gold and earthly welfare. Christ also mentions that people should think of treasures of heavenly life. He claims that people cannot serve two masters (God and gold). Dante places such sinners into several circles of his hell.
He also puts them in his purgatory. Of course, Dante also describes other sinners and their sins. However, the shades that are punished for their love for gold and other earthly treasures are really numerous. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that Dante’s work suggests that thinking of earthly life rather than preparing for heavenly life is one of the deadliest sins. This idea can be also traced in The Sermon on the Mount.
Works Cited James, Heather, et al. “Dante Alighieri.” The Norton Anthology- Western Literature. Volume 1. Ed. Heather James, et al. New York, NY: W. W. Norton
Modern Approaches to Creating of the Artwork Essay online essay help: online essay help
The world around us is constantly changing. It is really unique in its beauty. Every aspect of our reality can arouse certain emotions and feelings. The variety of our emotions and variants of their expression is great. Artists have a wonderful opportunity to express all their passions and feelings with the help of depicting and demonstrating them in different works of art.
Today the possibilities of artists and designers in illustrating of the peculiarities of their inner world and feelings are almost limitless. There are a lot of artists who choose extraordinary approaches to realize their original intentions and to draw the public’s attention to their works. Modern tendencies in the development of art result in wide using of media, visual, computer and interactive technologies for creating of the art masterpieces.
Jonathan Harris, Sep Kamvar, Miwa Matreyek, Toni Dove, Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz work in various styles, and they use different technologies and varied approaches to creating of their unique installations. However, all of them are masters of expressing of their certain feelings and of appealing to the audience’s emotional reaction.
What aspect of our inner world can help us be unique personalities? It is our dreams. Toni Dove with the help of her Artificial Changelings created the world of illusions in which dreamers can experience themselves in the company of two interesting women and can learn their thoughts and dreams. Artificial Changelings project is “a romance thriller about shopping” which is presented in the form of the installation “in which one person at a time uses body movement to interact with sound and images” (“Artificial Changelings”).
The technological peculiarities of the installation are characterized by the fact that the author uses a projection screen and a room with four specific zones for producing of the effect of interacting with the characters of the film (“Artificial Changelings”). “As an audience member you step into a pool of light in front of the screen and enter the interactive zones” (“Artificial Changelings”). All these possibilities became available for the viewers after the author’s introducing of these two women.
Arathusa and Zilith live in different centuries, but they can be considered as similar in their characters and aspirations and even as one person embodied in different periods of time. Arathusa lives in Paris of the 19th century, and she is portrayed as “a kleptomaniac and an ecstatic dreamer who suffers the constraints of Victorian society” (“Artificial Changelings”). She also dreams about Zilith, a woman of the future.
Their worlds are full of romantic feelings and emotions, and they are passionate in their relations with men and relations with the things which can be stolen. Viewers of the ‘thriller’ became the participants of this highly affecting story when they move. “Within the zones movement causes changes in the behavior of video and sound” (“Artificial Changelings”).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, viewers have the opportunity to interact with the images in their futuristic world and to identify their emotions and passions. “The characters become like marionettes with unpredictable reactions based on the movement of the viewer in front of the screen” (“Artificial Changelings”).
It is interesting that the main idea of Artificial Changelings is depicting of the phenomenon of “how consumer economy from the Industrial Revolution to the present” can influence the public’s minds (“Artificial Changelings”).
Artificial Changelings project gives a chance to act in the virtual interactive reality and to move “back and forth between two centuries as if they were parallel realities suspended in the universe where time has no linear direction” (“Artificial Changelings”). Artificial Changelings project is the part of the author’s imaginative trilogy in which the viewers can be easily involved.
The public’s reactions to the artists’ work and their responsiveness are necessary for the authors who develop their objects in order to get a certain response. They need to see and feel the audience’s reactions and emotions. Moreover, artists have the opportunity to unite viewers and to present them the chance to look inside the artwork and also to feel each other as co-authors who can successfully participate in its creating.
If Toni Dove offered the prospect to interact with the characters of her installation, Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz allowed the viewers to create the installation with the help of their real communication, interaction and emotional interchange between those people who lived in Los Angeles and New York in 1980.
“Hole in Space is described by its creators as a Public Communication Sculpture” (“Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz”). Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz had the idea to organize spontaneous communication between people in Los Angeles and New York who could happen to take part in the project. They could see each other and to interact during three evenings for 2 hours. It was possible because of using of specific TV transmission technology.
The further results of the project were given in the form of a documentary film and presented on two large screens in which the participants of the process of communication in the project were shown. This installation was first exposed at The Long Beach Museum of Art in 1980 (“Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz”).
We will write a custom Essay on Modern Approaches to Creating of the Artwork specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the possibilities of creating of this art object with using of media and TV transmission technologies can be considered as wider than those of any interactive technology. However, the results of this project do not give the opportunity to participate in it immediately, while examining it by the viewers.
Nevertheless, the concept of the installation can be described as the intention to depict the necessity of real communication between those people who can live in different nooks of the country. “It was important to the artists that the work was not announced through the art press; they wanted an unexpected audience of passers-by” (Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz).
The work by Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz involved the audience in the process of creating it and then presented the results of the project in order to get the responses and reactions. Thus, it is possible to say that the audience’s emotions and feelings were drawn in the project twice. In contrast, Miwa Matreyek prefers to produce solo performances and installations with the help of which she can see the public’s reaction to her personal involvement into the presentation of the work.
Miwa Matreyek uses the interactive possibilities of multimedia technologies. Dream of Lucid Living is a unique installation which presents the definite features of a solo performance. “This piece is executed with computer generated images projected on a screen with the addition of Matreyek acting out scenes behind a screen that produces her shadow to be incorporated with the digital animations” (Jethoo).
Thus, Matreyek uses multimedia and computer technologies in order to reflect a special fantastical world in which images are connected with animations, and in which she incorporates herself physically (Jethoo).
Miwa Matreyek demonstrates her own vision of the reality combining it with peculiar shadow images and animation. However, the effect of poetic illusion is removed by Matreyek’s personal participating in the performance.
Thus, the installation also has the theatrical features. “It is remarkable how precise her body movements are with the images on screen; how each action made corresponds with the animations” (Jethoo). This show combines music, videos, animations and acting in the whole one which can exist and act as a inimitable world with the help of multimedia technologies and effects.
However, real feelings and emotions are presented with the help of the author’s acting. Moreover, the main peculiarity of this kind of installation is in the fact that Miwa Matreyek has the opportunity to observe the viewers’ reaction immediately. Thus, the contact of the author and the audience is direct, and this fact distinguishes this type of installations among the others which are based on the interactive communication or immediate communication between the author and his audience.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern Approaches to Creating of the Artwork by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In We Feel Fine Jonathan Harris and Sep Kamvar offered their own vision of the possibility of the relations between the artist and his viewer. We Feel Fine is an extremely unique art project which involved a lot of people in its working out even without their awareness of the fact. Moreover, the results of the artwork concentrate on the people’s emotions, as we can see it from the name of the project, and it also appeals to the audience’s certain reaction.
We Feel Fine is an astonishing work which combines the possibilities of using of the Internet databases and their analyzing and the possibilities of the online project. Moreover, the results can be presented in the form of special illustrations, graphs and tables given in the printed book. Thus, We Feel Fine can be considered as a dynamic interactive project and as a great static artwork by Jonathan Harris and Sep Kamvar (Sample).
In 2006 Jonathan Harris, a media artist, and Sep Kamvar, a computer scientist, worked out the program which could make the research in thousands of blogs and determine definite blog posts and then collect the sentences with such phrases as ‘I feel’ and ‘I am feeling’.
The results of the research of different kinds of expressions of people’s emotions were realized in the form of “the multifaceted interface that has six so-called “movements” – six ways of visualizing the data collected by We Feel Fine’s crawler” (Sample).
All the sentences were organized in colorful circles and squares depending on the character of the information which they contained. The site which was created by Jonathan Harris and Sep Kamvar became the real sensation in the world of the modern art because of its creativity and artistic significance.
This great work was also presented in the book version in 2009. Jonathan Harris and Sep Kamvar examined real emotions of people which they expressed in a number of blogs every day, and which reflected the real situation in the society. These peculiarities of the inner world of the people were depicted in their own words.
That is why the audience had the opportunity to participate in creating of the project and to react to its everyday results. Thus, the method of visualization is presented in the project with the help of modern computer technologies. That is why the message of the work can be considered as depicting of people’s emotions which they feel every day and their further visual presenting.
Modern artists use quite unique techniques and different interactive and multimedia technologies to involve their audience in the imaginative world of their artworks. Their approaches are various, but their main intentions are to attract the public’s attention to their works to receive the emotional feedback.
Works Cited “Artificial Changelings”. tonidove.com. n.d. Web.
Jethoo, Deevanie. “Miwa Matreyek: Dream of Lucid Living”. deevanie.files.wordpress.com. n.d. Web.
“Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz”. crumbweb.org. n.d. Web.
Sample, Mark. “The Poetics of Metadata and the Potential of Paradata”. samplereality.com. 22 March 2011. Web.
Augean Plc Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents The company summary
Augean management structure
Macro-environment analysis using PEST
The company summary Augean plc is a United Kingdom based limited company specialising in waste and resource management. The company was founded in 2004 and registered under the Public Limited Company Act in the same year to become a fully fledged public company. The firm was originally formed to act as an acquisition company to buy and develop entreprises in the UK waste based sector.
The firm later developed into a renowned corporation that undertakes production, processing and management of waste resources when it was registered as a public limited liability company. The business concentrates in providing wide-ranging services particularly to the hazardous waste area. The corporation management service area covers a complete solution to the ultimate dumping of the most unsafe and problematic waste streams (Augean plc, 2010, p.1).
Augean management structure Chief Executive Officer Augean management structure is divided into a two tier hierarchy. Basically, the board of directors is elected by the shareholders of the company and the senior management team are appointed or elected by the board of directors.
The role of the board of directors is to manage the daily operations of the company. In essence, the directors ensure that the interest of the shareholders is well served (Schell, 1999, p.550). Augean operates through a management team that consists of seven board members or directors as shown in the diagram below.
The senior management team comprises of the chief executive who is the senior most board member and deputised by the group finance director, sales director, technical director, development director, project director and the operations director. Each of these directors has their executive management teams appointed by each director.
The executive management teams have the responsibility of implementing and evaluating the business strategies as approved by the senior directors, and undertakes core corporate activities and projects (Jelinek, 2010, p.116). Besides, they help provide the internal prospective for the board members. For instance, under the operations director is the chief operation officer (COO) whose mandate encompasses all the operations in the company.
The officer looks after sales, production, marketing and personnel. In other words, the officer looks after the daily activities and reports to the operations director (Fritz, 1996, p.274). Further, under the chief finance director is the finance manager whose main role is to revise and analyse the financial data, prepare budgets, report the company financial performance as well as monitor income and expenditure. Usually the financial manager routinely monitors the financial health and integrity of the corporation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Macro-environment analysis using PEST Numerous macro-environment factors that affect the daily operations of the business do exist. Indeed these factors not only affect the business operations but also the decisions that are made by the managers. The macro-environmental factors are external to the organisations and in most cases the organisation has little influence over them (Berger, 2011, p.2). These factors include constant tax changes, barriers in trade, legal provisions, demographic changes and the government policy.
Augean is operating in environment that is very competitive and highly regulated with several legislations determining its operations. The waste sector is very volatile and sensitive to the environmental factors and changes that are continuously experienced globally (Augean plc, 2010, p.4).
That means the company must work and collaborate with the external environment to achieve its goals. For instance, the communities that particularly live around its sites, the employees who risk their lives to ensure it delivers on its duties and environmental lobbies that must ensure safety standards are met (Hedemann-Robinson, 2007, p.543).
Political factors Political factors refer to the government policies and how they determine the business environment. Economic policies that include both fiscal and monetary policies that have been put in place to regulate economic production are amongst the political factors that affect the businesses.
Moreover, the type of services the government offers to the businesses, how the government intends to subsidise the businesses and the government priorities in supporting the businesses are all examples of political factors (Koontz
Strategic Recommendation for AOL Time Warner Report essay help free: essay help free
AOL Time Warner represents two industries; this organization is an Internet service provider (ISP) and media company at the same time. It is possible to apply Porter’s model of Five Forces to this organization. First, the threat of new entrants is quite significant, especially if we take into account the growing number of small ISPs in the US and Europe.
On the other hand, as a media company, AOL Time Warner operates in a very consolidated industry in which start-up costs are very high. So, from this point of view, the threat of new entrants is low. The second issue is the bargaining power of customers. Overall, it is very strong because the ISP market is full of various companies trying to create new offerings to the clients. These companies can compete in terms of price and variety of services.
The third aspect is the threat of substitute products. The management of this organization should pay its attention free ISPs which offer customers access to such resources like chat rooms, newsgroups, and so forth. However, this threat is not significant. In turn, media products offered by AOL Time Warner can hardly be substituted because they are highly differentiated.
It is also important to discuss the bargaining power of suppliers, namely music recording companies, film studios, magazines, newspapers, etc. One can argue that their power is quite limited because many of them are incorporated into the structure of AOL Time Warner.
The final aspect of Porter’s Model is the intensity of competition. As it has been said before, there are two types of rivals, Internet service providers and media companies. These organizations attempt to gain advantage by means of price differentiation and innovation. Overall, competition in these two industries is very intense.
Among the main strengths of AOL Time Warner one can single out a large base of subscribers and potential customers, international media presence of this organization, and most importantly, the diversity of multimedia products that they can market to the customers. For instance, they can offer music, television programs, films, press, and so forth.
Yet, this merger also has some significant weaknesses, namely the differences between organizational cultures of two companies as well as leadership styles. Besides, the size of this company can make it very difficult for them to react quickly to the changes in the industry and economy. In order to establish a new culture that can fit both AOL and Time Warner, the management will have to spend years. Additionally, we need to speak about the opportunities that AOL Time Warner has.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it is possible to mention the increasing popularity of online subscriptions to magazines or other type of media and growing number of Internet users throughout the world. There are also some threats which cannot be overlooked, namely the increasing number of free Internet service providers (ISP). Yet, the most significant problem is the absence of mechanisms which can protect media content on the Internet.
At this point, the management of this organization has to develop methods of marketing their products to the subscribers. The main problem is that modern Internet users have an opportunity for content-sharing and it is rather difficult to prohibit such practices. To resolve this issue the company should take several steps.
First, they need to create a single platform that will allow the subscribers to purchase media products of AOL Time Warner at a reasonable price. To some extent, this platform may resemble a Web-based store that will sell music, films, television programs, magazines, and so forth. The second step is to make sure that there is no illegal distribution of these products on the Internet. This strategy will result in significant marketing costs, but it will also ensure a constant source of revenue for this corporation.
The 19th Century Civilization of East Asia: How its Strengths became Liabilities in the Face of Western Challenge Essay college admissions essay help
One of the greatest mysteries of world history is Western European countries’ namely Spain, Portugal, England and France’s ability to dominate the richer, more powerful and more advanced East Asian countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The question remains on whatever happened that resulted into such occurrences.
This paper aims to present a detailed analysis of the East Asian civilization, citing Japan as the primary example, its conditions and fundamental strengths during the 19th and early beginnings of the 20th century. These advantages will be examined as to how they became liabilities and obstacles in East Asia’s responses to Western advancements and challenges.
Throughout history, the Asian continents were popularly known for its abundance in natural resources and military power. Foreigners from the west often travelled to the east especially to Asian countries to engage in the barter of goods and services. The primary reason for European nations in the previous centuries for colonizing Asian countries was that they wanted to gain access to raw materials such as food, spices and minerals to sustain the conditions of western cities and civilization.
During the 19th century the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Holy Roman and Mughal kingdoms collapsed giving way to the growing influence of the British, German, American and Japanese empires. The new set of new empires spurred military conflicts, but at the same time advancements in science and technology and the widespread of the idea of exploration became prominent during the 19th century.
Europe flourished during this time with the British Empire becoming a superpower, controlling the massive amount of the world’s population and owning one-fifth of the total land area. The era of invention and discovery, the 19th century contributed to the significant developments in different fields of studies namely mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity and metallurgy.
Through the improvements of education and its systems during the 19th century, technological advancements and science in general in the 20th century was produced. The Industrial Revolution begun in Europe later spreading to Asia when the Japanese saw the rapid growth in the west they also implemented modernization policies during the Meiji Restoration era so as not to be left behind. Population grew swiftly during the industrial revolution with innovations and discoveries in medicine.
The knowledge of the human anatomy, which paved way to practices in disease prevention contributed to the massive growth of Europe’s population. Technological advancements in land transportation changed the way people lived and obtained goods with the introduction of railroads which also lead urbanization movements globally.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The industrialization of the west saw the shift of power in world history with western culture and civilization becoming prominently known as superior to those in the east. Although East Asia was richer, more powerful and more advanced than Europe in the previous centuries namely during the 15th century, the course of power changed during the 19th century when the west industrialized.
Examining the western culture it is worth noting that with religious beliefs such as Catholicism and Protestantism and the growing popularity and practice of democracy and free trade in the political and economic realm gave way to revolutionary thinkers that spearhead the industrial revolution of European countries. Europe’s situation on being dependent of the east’s raw material led to creative and innovative thinking from noble people of different classes.
The abolition of slavery and the constant promotion of free will and free speech gave rise to radical ideas constituting of scientists, philosophers, physicians and novelist who gave the population of Europe technological advancements and inspiration for innovative thinking.
In contracts, East Asia, with its stable source of raw materials and strong military discipline became stubborn to new changes. Japan, for example, during the first half of the 19th century was in its Edo period where shoguns of the Tokugawa family ruled the country. During this era Japan closed its doors to the world by limiting its interactions with the west.
Foreigners are only permitted to visit the Japanese territory for commercial purposes only and were restricted to the Dejima port in Nagasaki. European merchants and travellers who land on Japanese shores were killed without trial. Also during this time the shogunate perceived Catholic Christianity as a destabilizing factor thus Catholicism was persecuted. Although during the early part of the Tokugawa era Japan flourished economically and politically it became stable with the nation unified.
The limited interaction of Japan to the world contributed to it being left behind in terms of technological advancement and sciences and eventually the shogunate rule fell apart with the occurrence of natural disasters, famine and uprisings against officials in the 19th century. Advisers of the shogunate era relied on traditional solutions in addressing problems of the country.
Solutions concluded were stricter restrictions of foreign trade, rangaku practice must be suppressed, literatures must be censored and luxury goods and services should be eliminated in the government and samurai classes. The Tokugawa shogunate’s policy in isolating Japan from the rest of the world was aimed to remove all colonial and religious influenced by western countries such as Spain and Portugal. They perceived western influence as a threat to the peace and stability of the archipelago.
We will write a custom Essay on The 19th Century Civilization of East Asia: How its Strengths became Liabilities in the Face of Western Challenge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The leaders of Japan were alert in this sense because of fear that their land will be under the control of westerners. The suppression of the rangaku, which served as Japanese knowledge of western scientific and technological revolution in machinery, military and medicine slowed down Japanese the modernization during the Meiji restoration period after the Tokugawa era.
Upon the collapse of the Tokugawa rule in 1867, the Japanese opted to modify its political and economic system with the country’s opening to foreign trade. The rangaku served in helping the country build a theoretical and technological scientific base for industrialization and modernization. The Meiji restoration occurred with Japanese knowledge of being behind from the rest of the world.
Upon the arrival of Matthew Perry in the bay of Edo the Japanese realized they were weak in the presence of westerners when they saw the American warships. Europe was more powerful than East Asia, namely Japan during the 19th and early 20th century despite the latter being richer, more powerful and more advance in the earlier centuries because Japan in its nationalistic approach to protect itself from foreign invasion and colonization closed its doors to the world.
It prohibited information and influences from the west in entering Japanese soil thus it lagged behind in terms of technology innovation and sciences. The Tokugawa era eradicated Christianity and prohibited Japanese nationals from travelling outside the country at the same time restricted foreign visits to Nagasaki for commercial purposes only. The Japanese closed-door policy from foreigners contributed to the challenges faced by East Asian countries towards western power in the 19th and early 20th century.