People always want good leadership and on the other hand, leaders want people to lead. What is however, of great concern in this form of leader-subject relationship is which party should have the power to choose.
Whether the subject should choose their leaders or whether the leaders should choose the style of leadership that they wish to impose on their people remains a thing of concern. From this issue of choice it is a fact that one form of leadership will fit a certain group of people where another form of leadership will not fit and vice versa.
Post war Japan as most historians look at it can be termed as a complete representation of fascism. This paper therefore begins by looking at fascism as a concept; the paper will however focus on Japanese fascism through its differences and similarities with other forms of international fascism. The paper finally looks at the role played by the Japanese culture in the support of the fascist ideology.
To some society, the nation or the country is greater than an individual is and in the same societies, there is no one particular time that the two will ever be equal. This is the origin of fascism and the same approach provides the basis on which a fascism leadership is build.
Fascism can be looked from both a concept and an ideology point of view and the later is the most dominant. Fascism can therefore be described as an extreme ideology that celebrates a nation or a race above all other form of loyalties.
The concept therefore calls for revolution among the people in order to counter the threats of moral decay that comes in the form of materialism and individualism. This revolution also seeks to unite the people against the common enemy that threatens the nation.
It goes without saying that there is safety in numbers and that all together it is difficult to get a victory then being in a fight alone facing something or somebody that is meaningfully bigger and stronger. To start with, the ideology focuses on the internal enemy before stretching its hands on the external enemy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leaders always have a way of maintaining authority over the people; some will divide the people in order to rule them while on the other hand the fascists will create a common enemy for the people to impose their unity and submissiveness towards their leaders.
Skirbekk (2011) emphasized on this by stating that “fascism was meant to strengthen and unite the people through emotional ties, such as willingness to make sacrifices and submit to discipline, so that the fascist leader could create order.”
Myths and religions always go alongside the governments and leaderships and this is observable from all forms of governments that have existed in the ancient and the modern world. As concept fascism celebrates masculinity, the youths and their power alongside this factor is the power of violence that is also celebrated.
Closely related to these facts are the aspects of doctrine and racial superiority and they all have a place in fascism. In order for fascist leaders to achieve, their leadership ambitions then they use the innocence of the people to promote imperialists expansion, doctrine superiority and ethnicity.
It is also important to note that the ruling class has limited control over a fascist authority but the society has the most control. Although fascism promotes capitalism, some of its agenda do not fit well in capitalist ideology. The two ideologies however contradict and convince in their agenda.
“Fascism is the dictatorship of monopoly capital drawn by its internal contradictions into policies of oppressions at home and expansion abroad” (Duss and Okimoto, 1997). This feature characterized post war Japan in the 1930s and this led most historians to describe experiences in this period as fascist (Olick, 1964).
Capitalism was facing the Japanese’s authority and they perceived it as a threat. This threat is the main cause of the measures that the authority took; fascism emerged as the main or the key policy that the government of Japan adopted.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Japanese Fascism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fascism in Japan finds a lot of similarity to other forms of fascism that were taking place in other parts of the world such as Italy and Germany. However, there are some outstanding differences between the different forms of fascism.
To begin with, opposition to communism, virulent nationalism, authoritarian form of government and aggression characterized Japanese fascism. These aspects are shared with other forms of fascism that took place in Germany and Italy at the same historic period.
The concept of fascism remains a controversial issue among historians and political scientists and for this reason, they have failed to reach consensus on the validity of fascism that was in Japan. In particular, the two groups have failed to agree on whether fascism is a revolutionary or a conservative issue.
They have also failed to reach consensus as to whether fascism is a modern or a traditional issue. The other issue that is of concern is whether the concept is a direct consequence of the First World War. In addition, socio economic and agricultural modernization has a close link to fascism and this is another source of controversy among most scholars.
Above all scholars have failed to reach consensus on the role of fascism as a form of ultra nationalism and as a means of restoring a country’s status. These controversies not only arise in Japanese fascism but it is also a common phenomenon in German and Italian fascism.
The events that took place from the time of industrial revolution to World War 1 had a close link to fascism although there is no clear-cut reason as to which event led to the rise of fascism. It is also important to note that all the above countries were directly influenced by these historical events and therefore the form of fascism present in these countries had many similarities.
When it comes to taking control over people with their entire mind and might leaders emerges as the best. In a fascist authority, the issue of taking control over the people is of great significance and fascist leaders know that for them to control the naivety of the people well then they have to be affiliated to the religion and traditions of the people.
The national culture and religion was of great importance to fascist (Payne, 1999). Both in Japan and in Italy fascism was characterized by religion affiliation where in Japan, for example the fascist leadership existed in the umbrella of Buddhism while in Italy fascism was affiliated to the orthodox faith.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Japanese Fascism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Authority in the past has applied fascism to define the structures of their authorities or government although fascism in itself is not a fully defined political system (Duss and Okimoto, 1997). This fact gives the concept or ideology of fascism the ability to exist in different forms.
However, it is important to note that these different forms are not easily distinguishable and as noted by (Sims, 2011) different categories of fascism cannot be distinguished and this applies even in Italy and Germany. In the same article (Sims, 2011) continues to argue that if the issue is perceived from that particular perspective then fascism in Japan did not begin with the invention of the word.
In Japan, bureaucrats promoted a radical, authoritarian form of technocracy, referred to as “techno-fascism” (Mimura, 2011). This claim proves the point that fascism manifests in various forms, some can easily be noted while other cannot and this is a major similarity between the fascism in Japan and fascism in Germany, Italy and other European countries.
Fascism lacks theoretical definition that is acceptable across border and across the different academic fields. In studying the concept of Japanese fascism, looking at the similarities and the differences that existed between Japanese fascism and the other fascism therefore remains the key element that is applicable.
To begin with, unlike in Germany and Italy fascism brought economic destabilization in Japan. By the year 1930 the Japanese was doing far much better and it was closer to Italy and Germany economy more than the Spanish economy (Sims 2011). The Japanese industrial and agricultural sector was also doing much better.
However, fascism brought about economic stagnation, which caused dissatisfaction among the people. Fascism also led to massive unemployment. In particular “disputes involving labor unions did indeed rise from 393 in 1928 to 998 in 1931 and the number of strikes exceeded 80,000” (Sims 2011).
Disputes among tenants and property owners also characterized the fascist era in Japan. The dissatisfaction among the Japanese people did not end with the labor union strike because in 1918, a major food crisis that led to the increase in rice prices led to massive demonstrations among the Japanese people.
Another thing that was easily notable in Japan during this period is the support that was given to the society movements that were behind the demonstrations by top leaders in the government. All these activities that followed fascism point to one major thing, which is national destabilization.
This destabilization is actually, what followed the adoption of this most anticipated ideology of fascism. This is however very different to what happened in fascist Italy and Germany. “In this respect the situation in Japan, though less critical, was not unlike that in post-first world war Italy” (Sims, 2011).
The young people always have a major role to play for an ideology to achieve its objective. In most cases, most of these ideologies take advantage of the youth’s innocence to work while the benefits go to the older generation.
This leads to dissatisfaction among the young people and if this situation arises, the main consequence is destabilization of the economy. Unlike in fascist Germany and Italy the Japanese youths were dissatisfied with their government.
The young people also form the majority of the lower class and therefore in Japan the disconnection between the middle and the lower class was a direct consequence of fascism (Siniawer 2008). In particular, expansion of Zaibastu had great effect in young and small-scale entrepreneurs and this continued to create the differences between the two classes of people.
The issue of unemployment especially among the youths also continued to widen the gap between the middle and the lower class. Although the ideology of fascism had contributed to the rise of the number of colleges and universities in Japan, most of these graduates remained unemployed even after completing their studies.
Following this massive unemployment in Japan, the Japanese university students were left with no option than to join radical student’s movements and these movements such as the brotherhood movement band that was responsible for the 1932 assassinations (Reynolds 2004).
So, fascism did not leave any choices to people in the countries that were reckoned to be democratic. These consequences of fascism in Japan create a major difference between Japan and other countries that underwent fascism. Contrary to Japan, fascism in Italy brought about the reduction of the gap between the rich and the poor. The ideology was also meant to reduce the differences of economic classes that existed in Europe before that.
World War 1 played a major role in shaping the direction taken by the history of most states. To the Japanese’s people world war, one was the source of solidarity and this is what formed the basis for the fascism ideology. This however is different from what happened to postwar Germany and Italy.
In these and most of the other European countries world war one had little or no effect on strengthening solidarity among the people. The war created a common enemy that the Japanese people had to fight and this is what strengthened their solidarity.
From this solidarity, Japan emerges as a hostile country whereby most of its hostility was directed towards stakes that were against the national integration and solidarity. The approach that Japan was taking led to the deterioration in its international relations and caused its economic decline. A combination of these factors gives a clear reason as to why Japan favored a military leader over a democratic leader.
Culture determines the people although most of the times people have claimed the opposite holds. Japanese are people who hold their culture to high esteem and therefore the culture of the people was a major determining factor in the success of fascism.
The main issue between culture of the Japanese people and fascism is how the Japanese’s culture was able to adapt to fascism. Culture is mostly about how people dress, eat and behave and they are all subject to fascism influence.
We are interested on how Japanese fascism operated in artifacts and texts and therefore the connection between it and real life is of concern (Tansman, 1960). From this statement, it is a fact that for Japanese culture and fascism to co-exist, then one had to submit to the other and this is the root of the culture adopting fascism.
Violence characterized fascism and the Japanese people had to adopt violence as part of their culture. Violence however was part of the Japanese religion and in particular, the Japanese people had a god of war. As stated by Tasman (1960) the gods of war made real the connection between culture as a rhetoric and violence as a reality in life.
This directly leads to the idea of heroism, which became a necessity in the culture of fascism. Young people hoped to live as national heroes and therefore they dedicated their lives to serve for the benefit of the Japanese empire (Duus
Types of Thinking Styles Report (Assessment) writing essay help
Thinking Styles: Optimistic, Pessimistic, and Emotional One of the key avenues of concern in critical and creative thinking is the recognition, acknowledgement, and appreciation of the influence of human factor to the thought process of each individual. A broad spectrum of factors, therefore, exists bearing a mark on the manner in which human beings think.
Examples of such factors are culture, emotion, stress, ego, among others. The discipline of critical and creative thinking strives to direct the attention of each person on the invaluable role played by these factors in making of decisions. This paper analyses, and compares and contrasts optimistic thinking, pessimistic thinking, and emotional thinking.
Optimistic thinking is the type of thinking in which a person chooses to align his/her thoughts on the positive side of life regardless of how gloomy things look. People who have optimistic thoughts normally reassure themselves that all is well in any condition they find themselves.
This, of course, has its advantages and disadvantages. Pessimistic thinking is the opposite of optimistic thinking. It refers to a style of thinking in which an individual sees the negative side of situations. In good and bad situations, such a person will always have something to get him/her worried.
This obviously has its advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages is that such a person will be able to anticipate challenges, and plan on how to overcome them. Emotional thinking is the style of thinking that is driven by what a person feels at a particular point in time (Martin, 2010, p. 1). For instance, if a person is feeling depressed, this style of thinking will attract thoughts of hopelessness and other related thoughts.
The three thinking styles are largely similar. One of their similarities is the fact that the three thinking styles stem from the disposition of the particular individual with whom they are associated. For instance, an emotional person is likely to have an emotional thinking style; a pessimistic person is likely to have a pessimistic thinking style while an optimistic person is likely to have an optimistic thinking style (Pritchett, 2007, p. 1).
In addition to this, emotional and pessimistic thinking styles are likely to have more negative influences on an individual than the optimistic thinking style. This is because the thinking style of a person is a key determinant of the appropriateness and success of actions that he/she takes in order to make a situation better.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The way a person perceives and thinks after succeeding in a certain thing is also a determinant factor of future success. A person with an emotional thinking style may for example over-celebrate an instance of success leading to future failures.
It is however important to note that despite the fact that the optimistic thinking style is generally better as compared to the other two, it has its weaknesses. A person with an optimistic thinking style may take things for granted while assuming that all will be well.
This may lead to a failure that will take him/her by surprise. After repeated failures, such a person may even develop a negative disposition like being emotional. This may make him/her an emotional thinker (Martin, 2010, p. 1). It is, therefore, important to note that dispositions are not static. Therefore, a person may have more than one of the three thinking styles during his/her lifetime.
Reference List Martin, P. (2010). Explanatory Style – Optimism/Pessimism. Retrieved from http://stresscourse.tripod.com/id103.html [November 4, 2011]
Pritchett, P. (2007). How pessimism can add value to our work, Hard Optimism. Retrieved from http://inhome.rediff.com/money/2007/aug/28book.htm [November 4, 2011]
Netcare Company’s Success Case Study essay help free: essay help free
Netcare was founded back in 1994 and later in December 1996, it got a listing on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. At the time, Netcare comprised of six hospitals. After the listing, Netcare acquired a number of small and autonomous hospital holdings in South Africa including Excel Medical Limited and Clinic Holdings.
It later acquired Medicross, which had a network of 75 dental and medical centers athwart South Africa in 2001. Medicross acquired another holding, Prime Cure in 2006 that had 25 medical centers and a 130,000-customer base.
Reasons for Netcare’s success in South Africa From its history, one of the main reasons behind Netcare’s success is its series of acquisitions. After its listing in the Stock Exchange, it acquired very organized holdings with large networks in South Africa’s health system. These acquisitions enabled Netcare gain customers and control many clinics.
This was coupled with organizational growth that saw Netcare expand the existing hospitals as well as building new hospitals in which four were completed in 2006. It also earned huge contracts for its 911 emergency along with the ambulance service.
It also took advantage of budding markets by offering high volume and low cost service to the private patients who were unable to pay for conventional private hospital contribution previously. Netcare’s record growth was so strong that by the year 2007, it boasted of 18,877 employees.
In the same period, its capacity had grown to 9,546 beds in 56 hospitals with 86 hospital and retail pharmacies and 358 operating theaters in a private hospital that offered trauma services. Its 911 emergency service comprised over 7.5 million members with 246 ambulances and response vehicles, as well as 3 helicopters over and above 2 fixed-wing ambulances.
Another reason for success is the operational excellence by driving efficiencies and controlling costs by means that could not compromise quality. It also implemented a system of Systems Application and Products (SAP), the endorsement of the entire hospitals in addition to an effort to put into practice shared-service centers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Netcare focused on creating and maintaining traditions of excellence at all levels of operations. This has also been achieved through heavy investments made in facilities, technology as well as doctor and nursing training. After this move, Netcare attracted extra 162 medical experts in 2007.
This was further enhanced by the entry of a new CEO who brought many changes in terms of administration and governance. Friedland appreciated the government as a key stakeholder in the health industry and government’s regulations greatly affect profit making. He therefore, meant efforts to enhance relationships with the government.
Netcare derived a lot of success from looking into foreign markets through international expansion. Netcare did not hesitate to look at markets outside South Africa and create the brand in these nations. A case in study is Netcare’s entry into the UK market in which Netcare has repatriated many benefits.
This portrayed Netcare as a company that was keen to take advantage of any opportunities that it saw in the international market. It used its proficient skills developed back in South Africa as an upper hand to secure tenders in the UK with the NHS.
These contracts have been very instrumental in increasing the net worth of Netcare as it had offered reputable and quality health-care to over 10,000 patients by 2006. This Netcare’s success could be attributed to innovativeness and risk taking ability.
They were daring to initiate ophthalmic units that were mobile and could operate from different locations and offer services like surgery, post, and pre-operative care. It has also displayed its innovativeness in developing factory services to obtain economies of scale by setting up a huge number of related operations jointly.
Netcare undoubtedly built a name in terms of best and safe healthcare. It also boasted of passionate professionals who were friendly to the patients. Netcare human resource was a strategy that they well utilized to attract many customers.
We will write a custom Case Study on Netcare Company’s Success specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As other hospitals in South Africa were keen hunting doctors who had fled through brain drain, Netcare strategized itself as the employer of choice. It embarked on attracting and retaining skilled nurses as well as, training workers and nursing students to avert shortage of skills.
It initiated a clinical governance plan that well described clinical pathways that ensured safety of patient care. It also had its guidelines that looked into infection control, trauma, and ICU. Consequently, it had the lowest infection in South African hospitals. This saw an outburst in clients, for example, between 2006 and 2007 their admissions increased by one million (5.9%) and primary care visits by 3.6 million (9.4%).
Type(s) of competitive advantage that Netcare had in South Africa Netcare has various types of competitive advantage in South Africa. One of them is cost leadership or lower costs with benefit. Netcare has managed to improve the quality of healthcare without compromising on the quality. It has also enabled many private patients to gain access to traditional private hospital which they could not afford before.
Another comparative advantage comes from strategic relationships. This has been acquired through good relations with the government and its major acquisitions with independent hospital groups since 2005. This has gained more customers and attracted reputable doctors reducing the effect of brain drain.
Netcare has also gained quality and first mover position as one of the comparative advantages. It offers quality services, largest and efficient 911 emergency services, and ancillary health-care with logistical infrastructure. It has also gained very high ratings on BEE commitment.
Delivery advantage is another comparative advantage gained by Netcare. This is in both speed and reliability of the services offered. It has well equipped ICU and the largest emergency service, so customers are assured of speed in service delivery. It also has a large number of nurses, doctors, and paramedics who are well trained. Its services are reputable and timely. Netcare also boasts of skilled and friendly staffs that make customers very comfortable.
Differentiation advantage is another type of comparative advantage gained by Netcare since it has specialized in various medical conditions. Netcare is well proficient in various fields like trauma, pediatric trauma, neo-natal, oncology, eye operations, and various types of surgeries. This has also enhanced cost advantages as many operations can be done under the same unit. On the same note, the 55 private hospitals have well entrenched its impact in the market.
Competencies that Netcare acquired in South Africa transferable to other markets Netcare has acquired a number of competencies that can be effectively transferred to other markets. One of the key competencies is organizational growth that has seen Netcare utilize the expertise in the market to break through both the private and the public health markets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Netcare Company’s Success by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has quickly asserted its force in the market by expanding the acquired hospitals and constructing new ones, as well as expanding its emergency service to be the leader. Notably this has been done at low cost, high volume and quality service.
Another competence that can be transferred to other markets is the provision of excellent care using the most sophisticated and modern technology and hospital networks. Netcare has established several centers of excellence with modern facilities, which are offering quality health-care. Through these facilities, it has created one of the most efficient trauma services in the world. It also has very sophisticated facilities for dealing with breast cancer particularly at Milpark hospital.
Netcare has gained competence in operation at low cost but maintaining the quality of health-care service. Operational excellence tops their list. It has succeeded in training nurses and doctors, as well as investing in facilities and technology. Netcare has a reputation of practicing the safest and best health-care.
It has a clinical governance line up that describes clinical pathways. It has also stipulated its private guidelines on ICU, trauma, and infection control. It has the lowest infection rates in South Africa. Additionally, it has also improved its policies and new standards in their position to maintain the best private healthcare.
To cap it all, one of the most remarkable competencies is quality. This is maintained in terms of skills and knowledge of the medical experts, facilities, and safety, hygiene, and health outcomes. Netcare has built a name in the world in terms of trauma services, breast cancer, emergency services, neo-natal, oncology and general patient care.
A lot of investment has been directed towards acquiring the newest technology to treat various diseases for example electrophysiology system and the “stereotactic Niobe electrophysiology catherisation laboratory”. After all, Netcare’s aim is to provide quality healthcare all over the world.
Pros and cons Netcare had for expanding internationally or exploiting opportunities at home In 2008, Netcare had the options of expanding internationally or exploiting opportunities in South Africa, which have both advantages and disadvantages. Expanding internationally provides good opportunities for Netcare as it presents infrastructure, purchasing power, an efficient management team, property and facilities, local connections and most importantly enable Netcare build its brand on an excellence podium outside south Africa.
Netcare’s entry into UK market through GHG was marked by success and global recognition. Netcare has also had opportunities to invest in other African countries. However, the nature of these economies poses a big challenge.
The insured population and government’s participation in healthcare are key considerations. Netcare must also overcome many challenges in order to gain competitive advantage that will enable to penetrate and succeed in emerging markets.
There is also a likelihood of straining resources when Netcare wants to be present in every continent. International expansion is more likely to be looked at as lack of commitment to provide quality health-care back home and exposure to foreign debt.
Expanding opportunities available in South Africa is also a good option since Netcare brand is well established in South Africa. It has created brand loyalty and Netcare knows the market’s strengths and weaknesses.
However, the market does not offer more opportunities for growth. For instance, Netcare has to content with the shortage of medical skills that have griped South Africa for the longest time. Another challenge that faces Netcare’s if it chooses to exploit opportunities at home alone is the recent legislation by the parliament that could greatly affect its strategy. More acquisitions in South Africa will be subject to rigorous examination from competition regulators.
Housing Problem in Canada Research Paper essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Historical Development
The Growing Gap
Introduction The idea of public housing in Canada can be traced as far back as 1938 when the national housing Act was passed. Public housing is a government subsidized program for the low income and the un-housed individuals and their families.
A total of 5% of the Canadian households live on the social housing program, representing the smallest social housing sector in any developed country with the exception of the United States of America (Hombs 2011 120).
The Canadian housing system is unique compared to other developed countries in the world. Unlike other developed countries, it solely relies on the market mechanism for allocation, provision and maintenance of the housing. That is why the public housing has presented a big problem to all the players. A housing system based on the market forces is not responsive to the social needs (Hulchanski 2009 98).
The federal government has defined affordable housing as any rent or housing cost that is 80% of gross market rent or less. Many have argued that the definition should be based on household income and not the market rent.
Most of the poor people live in housing that is either over crowded, substandard or unaffordable to them. The poor housing in Canada as defined on the level of affordability or the people’s ability to find affordable and quality housing is very important as far as their health is concerned and it is a measure of the country’s states of social infrastructure (Quarter, Mook and Armstrong 2009 85-102).
Mary Hombs. Modern Homelessness: A Reference Handbook. (Washington, DC. ABC-CLIO). 2011) 120.
David J. Hulchanski 2009. Finding Home: Policy Options for Addressing Homelessness in Canada. (New York. The homeless Hub Publishers. 2009) 98. Experts say affordable housing should not exceed 30% of the household income.
Jack Quarter, Laurie Mook and Ann Armstrong. Understanding the Social Economy: A Canadian Perspective.( Toronto. University of Toronto Press. 2009) 102.
Lack of access to adequate and affordable housing is a serious problem which leads to poor health for many, and contributes to the invasive but avoidable health inequalities among the citizens (Hulchanski 2009 104).
The Historical Development The mortgage and the insurance institutions were created by the federal and provincial governments many decades ago. The Municipal governments provided the land service and the zoning regulations that give permission to construction of relatively cheap housing subdivisions.
From as early as 1970, there has been a steady rise in house purchase assistance programs which have maintained Canada’s house ownership at a rate of approximately two-thirds. In 1963, the federal government introduced the joint provincial and funding program (Hombs 2011 129).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Later in the 1970s, this program was replaced with the centralized and community based program, almost 200,000 housing units had been built, about 2% of Canada’s present housing stock. This was a modest housing program because of its objective policy which was broad in nature was to leave the housing system to the market dynamics as much as possible.
The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation CMHC which was founded in 1946 mainly focused on making the mortgage market to work for the house buyers and for the private investors in the rental housing.
David J. Hulchanski. Finding Home: Policy Options for Addressing Homelessness in Canada. (New York. The homeless Hub Publishers. 2009) 104.
Mary Hombs. 2011. Modern Homelessness: A Reference Handbook. (Washington, DC. ABC-CLIO 2011) 129.
In 1954 it saw the creation of the federal Mortgage Insurance Fund; this was to encourage banks to enter into the risky market of mortgage lending. One of the CMHC‘s major functions has been to manage this funds.
The history of the role of Government’s housing policy in Canada has been an effort aimed at the ownership of the housing. All along these policies has been seen as one sided, only aimed at assisting the homeowners and not the renters, and there was no policy of tenure neutrality (Hombs 2011 137).
To own a house is a long term investment plan that helps to maintain a certain standard of living over the life of an individual. Over half of the Canadian owners who have paid off their mortgages spend about 11% of their income on housing, implying that they have more disposable income.
Besides, a large and expensive house can also be traded in for a small house which is less expensive and some money could be freed up or even a negotiation of a reverse mortgage that will provide a regular annuity payment to the owner (Sewll 1994 107).
The present Canadian housing system has been the way it is because of the history of the government’s activity and the ongoing role of different levels of government in supporting the Canada’s market oriented approach to supplying, allocating and maintaining the stock of national housing plan. The home ownership in Canada’s housing system has also benefited the well financed and the sympathetic to politicians and the bureaucrats.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Housing Problem in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More John Sewll. Houses and Homes: Housing for Canadians. (Toronto. James Lorimer
The economy of Asian countries Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Assessing the economy of Asian countries that have marked the greatest improvement in terms of economic performance in the past decade, it is clear that the rapid pace at which the economy has grown is closely linked to their strong export orientation.
Economic growth within these East Asian economies followed the change of economic activity from being based on the customary importation substitution towards activities and policies that are more focused on exporting goods to other countries.
The result of such policies was immediate net annual growth of twenty percent and this extended over a long time period (Balassa, 590). The aim of this paper will analyze the similarities and differences between economic developments in Asian countries.
Emphasis will be laid on the difference and similarities between first and second wave. Under the first wave, we will discuss in detail, three cases, namely Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Under the second wave, we will also discuss three cases i.e. China, India and Thailand.
First Wave of Economic Revolution Japan
The achievement of export trade has always been closely linked to the general growth of Japan’s economic development. Volume trade averaged seventeen percent up to the year 1973. The net effect of export trade to Japan was not only limited to the provision of much needed foreign currency for the purchase of raw goods, but it also benefited the country through developing its industry so as to take advantage of the economies of scale that could not have succeeded if it was to rely solely on its domestic market.
It is also through export trade that firms realized the threat of competition and the need to be innovative and efficient (Buckley, 45).
So what are the catalysts for Japan’s success? The country’s industrial policy has always fostered a culture of innovation and support for local firms. Local firms are encouraged from the outset to aim for export of their products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All this is done in order to ensure that the country is able to compete with the West when it comes to global trade. The industrial policies of Japan are aimed at offering not only financial support but also technical support that includes advisory services and arranging trade fairs all around the globe (Buckley, 67).
Export trade in South Korea has mainly been catalyzed by two important key policies that were instituted by the Government. The first was land control: Land was redistributed so as to accommodate the rising population. At the time, there was a pending population crisis as immigrants flocked from the North.
A family was only restricted to three hectares. The second policy that assisted the country was education policy. The government realized at the time that the country needed qualified persons in order to run its industries, thus it placed emphasis on good and quality education for its citizens Thus the government can be attributed as one of the biggest enablers of the export trade and economic development of the country.
Policies regarding export trade were drafted and based on phases. For example, the plan applied all through the 3 decades can be divided into phases. Throughout the first and second financial year phases, the country was involved with export of any goods.
There was a generalization on the types of goods to be exported. The 3rd and 4th year was characterized by exports of heavy industrial machines while the phase after 1980 was characterized by export of high tech machines. This led to a steady and strong growth in South Korea’s economy (Balassa, 570).
Of all the three countries discussed under the first wave, Taiwan was relatively at a relatively better position to advance its export trade as it had acquired an already established infrastructure from its Japanese colonizers.
There was no shortage of skilled labor as Chinese immigrants from the mainland came in droves. Land and education polices had already been established and financial aid from America fuelled the development in the country.
We will write a custom Essay on The economy of Asian countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This enabled the country to concentrate on the development of firms that could export products of international standards. Government policies are also largely responsible for the booming export trade as they allowed the private sector to thrive and provide the needed momentum for economic growth.
In addition, the Government has promoted a secure macroeconomic environment. It has also ensured strived to support local investments, industrial expansions that will drive up export volumes
The similarity between all the three cases is that the Government is hugely responsible for establishing crucial policies that have led to the growth of export trade in the countries.
Second Wave of Economic Revolution At a common point, it can be said that commerce and manufacturing guiding principles of the Economies that made up the 2nd wave i.e. China, Thailand and India, were similar to those of countries that made up the first wave. I.e. Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.
After a phase where the countries implemented import substitution and where China’s policy was more focused on central planning, all the economic policies evolved to become more export oriented. This change in policies led to a further increase in trade (export and import) of goods. This had a net resultant effect of higher GDP growth (Chang, 136).
Critics have argued that where economic growth of the “first wave” countries was largely attributed to abnormally positive global trade environment, countries involved in the second wave had to endure a more complex environment that was plagued by increased and selective trade protectionism among trade partners witnessed from the fifties and sixties.
Despite of all the complexities, these economies have emerged as the leading lights of Asia’s economic growth. Another key difference between the two waves was that where export promotion was utilized by Japan, South Korea and Taiwan to encourage their local industries, countries in the second wave have not comprehensively utilized this tool and have instead used their exchange rate policies to stabilize their domestic macroeconomic environment rather than for export competitiveness.
In the case of China, economic growth has been realized despite the inherent political risk that the country faces. China being a one party state faces a political risk for local and foreign businessmen and investors (Chang, 142).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The economy of Asian countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In summary from the above understanding of export policies in Asia, it is apparent that success that did not happen overnight due to supply and demand. Instead the economic boom was attributed to government intervention and participation in the development of local enterprise.
Most notably, stages of booming growth and expansion were distinguished by public policies enabling a steady fiscal environment with a diverse range of incentives for the private sector. Incentives also included the promotion the addition of both human and physical resources.
Works Cited Balassa, Ben (1964), “The Purchasing Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal”, Journal of Political Economy, 1964. Vol. 72, 584-596.
Buckley, Roy. (1998), Japan Today, Cambridge University Press, New York and Melbourne, 2007.
Chang , Hinn.(1993), “The Political Economy of Industrial Policy in Korea”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 2003. Vol. 17 (2), 131-157.
Legal issues facing TaskRabbit Company Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Cutting-edge technology
Likely legal implications
TaskRabbit is a company that offers online solutions for individuals seeking to recruit other persons to carry out their duties and errands. Apparently, the idea seems simple but with the flexibility of the Internet, it is highly effective. For those that have dirty lawns or room, but feeling tired or committed elsewhere and not seeking a continuous employer-employee commitment, TaskRabbit is the viable option.
The unique online services are immensely vital for people planning to relocate to a new estate or home, or just a long trip, but are unwilling to beg nearby store managers for their subject’s services to help with the readying of luggage. Task Rabbit offers the solutions of temporary services.
All one needs to do is sign up with TaskRabbit, and start to enjoy the efficient services of dedicated people in search of odd jobs. TaskRabbit cuts the niche of an online hub that provides exceptionally common services, and it is probable, many iOS subscribers have yet to notice the immense opportunities and legal challenges that the medium offers.
Cutting-edge technology According to Edgar (2010), TaskRabbit supports the exploration of its services by users through applications such as Facebook Connect, which offers users effective navigation options without necessarily filling the sign up form online. The online tool leans more on setting up employment opportunities that seeking a service, a development that is normally facilitated by cutting-edge technology.
Owing to the TaskRabbit application that is apparently intended to establish tasks more than employment opportunities especially of the company workforce, legal regulations guiding employment agencies could catch up with it, internally as a result of employee court cases or externally following civil cases filed by regulatory bodies that oversee employment issues.
Meanwhile, if one has a task that needs accomplishing, he or she picks a group from the default options provided on the site, such as washing, shopping or transporting food, after which the ‘employer’ keys in his or her details.
According to Figueroa (2010), task details an inputted by the service beneficiary may include exact location for easy delivery of goods and services; a timeframe within which the task should be carried out and the service fee that the buyer of a service is comfortable to pay.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For users who are not comfortable with the entry of their true identity, and commodity specification, perhaps due to time constraints, an audio file or pictures that illustrate the nature of the job are welcome. Nonetheless, this could open floodgates to fictitious persons into the business.
Meanwhile, one can either configure the application to routinely choose a TaskRabbit or just employ manual assignment of the task after reviewing the options available. TaskRabbit delivery agents undergo rigorous vetting process, an initiative executed by the company to assure job submitters of security and convenience.
The company executives must have learnt the weaknesses of the online medium which carries genuine users and criminals, and that a haphazard method of selecting task runners might be a fertile ground for recruiting individuals of uncalled for character, who may prove costly to the company if a victim sues for reparation of a criminal act targeted at him or her (Edgar, 2010).
If an individual is interested in finding out the kind of jobs that are awaiting workers in a given locality, the “browse tasks” button offers the solution. It displays available tasks and their exact location on a chart of an enquired region. TaskRabbit services have been extended from San Francisco to Chicago, Boston, Orange County, Calif, Los Angeles, and New York (Figueroa, 2010).
Although, the task that TaskRabbit capitalizes on from its base in San Francisco is to help link committed persons with a jobless individuals who are capable of executing the job, the expansion of the job giver-task seeker across states is likely to raise lots of legal issues in different states that could hamper its operations.
For now, the company is one of several outsourcing websites that rely on social networks for wider outreach and appeal to clients.
Likely legal implications Gerzema (2011) suggests that from the look of things, TaskRabbit seems to be establishing a provisional employer-employee association when the task posted on the site matches the capacity of a task performer. For a limited number of assignments, the ‘employee’ could be classified as a worker under contract basis and should be entitled to tax waivers that regular employees are not subjected to.
We will write a custom Essay on Legal issues facing TaskRabbit Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonetheless, in case a Runner enjoys an extensive and continuous relationship with job submitters, for example through several related tasks with TaskRabbit, particularly for more than 12 months, this could be noticed by respective State Employment organizations in the regions where the company is operating.
Generally, Edgar (2010) believes one of the primary determining factors which dictate employer-employee-contract working relationships is who calls the shots with regard to the various aspects of the job, such as the actual working location, the best time to execute a given task and what it takes to call a job well done, conditions which are fulfilled by both the company and task clients.
Further, if those issues are ironed out through negotiations between the job poster and the individual seeking the job, then the two parties may be referred to as the employee and employer who enjoy the bond that is present in any other formal job agreement.
If that is the situation, TaskRabbit may arguably just take the form of the facilitator and does not play the role of an employment agency. Nonetheless, it is arguable that if TaskRabbit were reduced to a mere third party, playing the role of a facilitator, it would not go the extra mile of vetting likely runners and paying the runners on behalf of the ‘real’ employer (Figueroa, 2010).
Additionally, analysis of TaskRabbit reveals that the company is in fact tendering financial reports regarding Runner payments to the IRS through 1099.
The company also reaffirms that employees are actually self-determining parties, without any solid contractual commitment with the company, thus there is no need to fulfill legal obligations that is required of employers.
Indeed, as stipulated in the TaskRabbit rules of the game, they appear to drop the legal gauntlet of employment tax remission at the Runners’ doors. Conversely, Gerzema (2011) believes this endangers the operations of the Runners, many of who may be uninformed of the storm that they are fermenting through their actions.
Legal hurdle that the Runners might face revolve around their bidding measures of job acquisition, while not being abreast with the likelihood of their substantial reduction of wages if the tax man descended on them. Worse still, failure to remit the taxes willingly, could expose the Runners to huge legal fines and possible prosecution for evading tax.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Legal issues facing TaskRabbit Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In general, companies that rely on online social networking sites have been accused of violating user privacy, and relying on some level of unverified information posted by users. TaskRabbit may not escape the condemnation either.
The TaskRabbit of allowing users to post the kind of task they need accomplished and the cost they are ready to pay could be disastrous in terms of under-valuing or overvaluing of the Runner tasks. The company’s unwillingness to take insurance cover for its operations could prove legally devastating to the operations in case of a problem realized during operations.
It may not be easy to trace a Runner that did not disclose his or her true identity, but disappears with the property of a job submitter. Worse still, the company may come under a barrage of legal tussles in case the Runners fail to deliver whole items to the clients, because of day to day accidents such as breakages during delivery process.
The company should therefore set up safeguarding measures to protect the privacy of users, insure its operations and hammer out a solid employment deal with the Runners to avoid any possible legal challenges.
References Edgar, L. (2010). Now You Can Auction Off Your Coffee Run. Bloomberg Businessweek, (4204), 46-47.
Figueroa, A. (8/5/2010). “TaskRabbit: new part-time work for people without jobs.” Christian Science Monitor. Print.
Gerzema, J. (2011). The Joblet Recovery. Inc., 33(8), 38.
Angel Investing Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Benefits of angel investors
Introduction Entrepreneurship is all about setting up and successfully running a business venture for growth and prosperity. This noble undertaking involves a host of decisions that the entrepreneur has to make. After conceiving a business idea, necessary steps are taken to ensure that the business idea is fully implemented.
Business planning plays a major role in developing the business. During business planning the entrepreneur will take a great deal of time to make projections about the financial needs of the business as well as the possible sources of finances to be pursued in realizing the business dreams.
Angel investing is increasingly becoming one of the viable options for funding business ventures and as such many businesses have benefited from the huge amounts of venture capital those angel investors are able to contribute in running businesses.
This paper will discuss the critical role that angel investors play in the establishment and development of business ventures. It will also analyze the pros and cons of using angel investments as an alternative source of business finance.
Discussion Implementation of a viable business idea will normally require a great deal of capital and the ability of the entrepreneur to raise the necessary capital, the higher the chances of business success. Start ups are businesses at the initial stages and hence there are very limited sources of funds available to such businesses due to uncertainties surrounding their success.
Start ups will therefore depend largely on the owner’s capital and contribution from friends. Credit facilities from financial institutions and other lenders will normally require collaterals and this limits the chances of new business owners to secure such findings.
In recent times however, the entrepreneurs across the world have been able to get a lot of reprieve from venture capitalist that are willing to support a business idea to its implementation stages. A venture capital is a specialized form of funding that targets high risk high return investments with potential growth in the future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The capital is commonly provided to business start ups that cannot acquire funding from the conventional credit and capital markets. Venture capitalists are unique in the sense that they provide both financial and managerial expertise to the business that improves the chances of success.
Venture capital comes from various sources that may include wealthy individuals with investment appetite in the targeted area of business and institutions such as investment banks and corporate orgaisations.The venture capitalist therefore assumes a significant level of control in the business through the share of capital and as well as decision making processes.
Although venture capital assumes different forms as mentioned above, wealthy individuals have come handy in the recent past to support new businesses and has formed a greater part of angel investors.
This form of investment has played a major role in the development of start ups as a larger percentage of venture capital has comprised of the angel investment options. This paper will discuss the pros and cons of angel investments as a source of venture capital.
Angel investors Angel investments have become the new trend in the management of start ups and hence this form of venture capital has the potential of ensuring high levels of business developments and economic growth in any country. Angel investors allow small and medium scale entrepreneurs to acquire the necessary capital and hands on management expertise to run a successful business venture.
Preston (2007) defines angel investments as a mutual partnership between entrepreneurs and wealthy individuals who seek to benefit from the early synergies created by a new business idea and make substantial amount of profit as they assist the entrepreneur achieve his r her dream in a specific business.
The angel investors will benefit from the high levels of profit as well as capital appreciation while the entrepreneurs will be able to acquire cheap sources of capital and also get managerial expertise. This mutual relationship has led to high levels of success in start ups.
We will write a custom Essay on Angel Investing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Benefits of angel investors The question as to whether small and medium entrepreneurs should opt for angel investors or not comes from the key benefits one is able to get from these sources of venture capital. The increased use of angel investments as an alternative source of funding is attributed to the following benefits that they provide to both the investor and the entrepreneur:
Angel investments have been found to appropriately suit the entrepreneurs who intend to start up new business ventures and as such no other source of funding is convenient to businesses like the angel investments. During the initial stages of the business a lot of resources will be required.
They range from financial, managerial expertise and technical skills. Angel investments are able to provide all these resources at a lower cost hence it has the best combination of resources that can allow a start up to grow.
Angel investors are normally spread across a financial district of any country more so in areas that have adopted new technologies. This makes the source of finance to be the most available.
Angel investors are normally driven by success in the business and hence they are keen to mobilize their resources to ensure that the business idea succeeds. They are however flexible and allows for alternative plans.
This is the best approach for any entrepreneur who starts a new business since success is not normally guaranteed. In this regards, the angel investors allows for flexible terms of engagement as opposed to the conventional lenders who demand for strict investment in the agreed type of business venture (Benjamin
Exiting Strategy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Businesses are entities that are likely to undergo changes in the course of operation. It is important to note that businesses go through phases and each phase has got its special requirements.
For instance when business is starting there is need to ensure that the legal documents are put in place, there is sufficient capital and there are available parties to run the business. Evaluations should be carried out against the stage of business development as well as the prevailing circumstances at that point.
As an entrepreneur, one of the main goals of establishing and running a business are to make profit and make the business a success. This implies that in cases where this reason and any other reason are not met then there is need to bring the business to an end.
Among many other reasons entrepreneurs bring the business to a close in light of the following reasons, boredom and burnout, lack of operating and growth capital, no heirs to leave the business to, desire for liquidity, aging and health problems and the desire to pursue other interests.
In such cases, a strategy is developed by the entrepreneur to enable him or her to gain maximum benefits while ending the particular enterprise.
The strategy which is utilized when one is changing or shifting from one enterprise to another is known as an exit strategy. The exit strategy can be defined as a component of a business plan where an entrepreneur describes a method which investors realize tangible return on their investment.
Investors will always want to convert their share of the investment into a more “liquid” form, known as liquidity event which refers to the position of the venture for the realization of a cash return for the owners and the investors. This “event” is most often achieved through an initial public offering or a complete sale of the venture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In essence, many entrepreneurs seek to gain or acquire capital through the public markets. This is done through the initial public offering which is used to represent the registered public offering of a company’s securities for the first time.
It is important to note that through a capital increase associated with an IPO against cash contributions or through the issuance of shares to private and institutional investors, the company’s capital adequacy is improved all over sudden.
With a well planned and professionally structured IPO the company will receive significant cash inflow. In contrast to a credit financing that is subject to regular interest and principal payments, whereby these are of course determined independent of the success results of the company.
A case in point is the acquisition of Paypal by eBay. Paypal is a company which is based in America which specializes in e-commerce. It allows payments and money transfers to be made through the internet. This offers the customers alternative ways of transacting money from the traditional methods such as the checks and other paper methods.
Paypal had been a service provider of choice until October 3, 2002 when eBay acquired stakes in it. This acquisition cost eBay $1.5 billion. eBay is a San Jose based company which offers its services across the world.
This took place when Paypal went public through the initial public offer. Through this acquisition, eBay was able to control the electronic payment service. Analysts state that due to the stiff competition which Paypal had with eBay, it was easier for eBay to buyout Paypal than to beat it.
Among the means by which entrepreneurs and investors can exit their venture, the one that receives most attention by the press and has been studies most extensively is the IPO. Essentially, an IPO is the sale of the portion of the company to the public through a stock offering, and is considered by many to be the preferred choice of exiting a firm.
We will write a custom Essay on Exiting Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Successful initial public offerings enable businesses to gain higher valuation for the stockholders who are in existence thus leading to generation of cash from interested investors. This is often due to the increased legitimacy and visibility of the venture and increased liquidity of the company’s equity, making it a less risky and more accessible investment.
The drawback of the initial public offering is normally contributed by the nature of the process. An IPO is an expensive and lengthy process. This implies that it is a process which requires a significant amount of time, effort, and financial resources to complete the legal steps which are required by the legislation.
Furthermore, the IPO requires the company to exhibit much greater transparency to the public and to regulators. An IPO is a point of transition from the private to the public domain.
Although firms preparing for an IPO often attract investors’ attention, the attention sometimes does not result in investment because IPO firms lack a publicly available record for their stock price and because IPO firms are riskier than larger more established firms.
During the Paypal initial public offering there were certain aspects which had an impact on Paypal’s later performances. Essentially, Paypal did not set a price tag this implied that there were no specific limits about the amount which was expected to be raised.
Furthermore, it offered an IPO when the markets were struggling. Initially, the Paypal stocks soared unexpectedly in the market during its debut, but that did not last long. This drop was attributed to market conditions which were prevailing at that particular time.
In addition, the announcement from eBay about the stake acquisition of 35%also had a major blow of the way the stock shares behaved in the following days. This was a major blow because the majority of eBay users had been using the Paypal service.
Thus this led the investors to interpret the acquisition as an indication that eBay would be more aggressive in the promotion of services which were similar to Paypal. During this time, Paypal suffered another blow when a customer filed a law suit against it because of claims regarding freezing of their accounts without sufficient reason.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Exiting Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company could not make any statements due to the restrictions regarding the company weeks before and after the stock offering. This tainted a big blow to the image of the company.
There are several ways that this situation could be averted. First, it was important to establish the timing and ensure that the market trends do not harm the prospects of the organization. As a company which is listing is going public, the management should be careful not to bring out contradictory information or inflammatory remarks which can taint the image of the company.
Thus, it is fundamental to note the establishing the rules of going public is not just a public relations affair, it entails bringing on board a diverse team of experts who should advice on the best move possible as well as inform the management team on any looming pitfalls during and after this period.
Lastly, entrepreneurs are generally risk takers. This is because they attempt things that have never been attempted before and they go ahead and execute with precision. However, it is not always the case that the outcome will be positive. This notwithstanding, information and insight into any venture is crucial for business.
References Kuratko, D. F.,
Global Financial Crisis of the United States Mortgage Industry Essay college essay help near me
In 2008, the world suffered global financial crisis that led to world’s economic retardation, it was believed to have originated from the United States mortgage industry. The crisis led to economic down falls of companies, governments, countries, and institutions; during the period, majority of nations recorded a negative economic growth rate.
Although the exact cause of the crisis is complex and intertwined, it is believed that, two major American mortgage companies called Freddie Mac and Fannie Mac were responsible for the crisis; by the end of 2007 the two corporations had owned and guaranteed over 50% of the United States mortgage market. The amount of loans they owned was beyond their control leading to increased costs as the market and price of houses went down (Shaw, 1996).
The main sector that was affected by the crisis was the financial and insurance sectors as they were directly involved in the financing and insuring for the homes. With the crisis, the firms were getting loss of revenue as people were not able to finance their facilities and at the same time insurances were finding it hard to compensate all the claims that were made by either the financier or the customer.
The deterioration of economies called for government to take fast and immediate measures to rescue their nations; the United Nations for instance had to make policies that protected its local industry from the adverse effects of the crisis.
The country made indirect and direct methods to protect their local industry from competitions of outside world (Park, cona
External/Internal Case Analysis for HNA Group Case Study a level english language essay help
As a new airline company with high development in the China civil aviation, Hainan Airlines (HNA) group is facing both internal and international competition in the economic globalism. It is thus very vital for HNA group to assess its environment so as to draw up a development strategic plan that will enable it to strengthen its competitive ability.
In this paper I will: discuss one factor from the general environment that is relevant to the case; make an assessment of HNA group competitive environment using Porter’s five forces model; discuss the strategy of the firm; explore HNA group competitive advantages over its main competitors; assess the company core competency; identify the main alternatives for HNA group and give the pros and cons of each alternative; and conclude with an opinionated recommendation.
External Environment One factor from the general environment that is relevant to the case of HNA group is political influence. China’s State Council, in 2008, approved that the domestic civil aviation industry was among the most strategic corporations in the state and that it would retain a more sheer control over nation-owned industries.
Some of the impacts that this regulation may have on HNA group being a privately administered venture include: restrictions in terms of flight rates, routes of entry and pricing; ability to form alliances; and strong rivalry with home carriers.
An Assessment of HNA Group Competitive Environment Porter’s five forces model of competition enlarges the ground for competitive analysis and takes in the threat of novel entrants, the negotiating power of buyers, the negotiating power of suppliers, the risk of alternate products and the power of competition among rivals.
The key rivals of HNA group are: Air China, China Southern Airline and China Eastern Airline. Some substitutes for HNA group include: Shenzhen Airline and Shanghai Airline. Shanghai Airline was the earliest limited liability airline in China which was instituted in 1985.
Originally, it functioned out of both Shanghai Hongqiao and Shanghai Pudong, before extending its routes to incorporate cities in South East Asia, Northeast Asia and Europe.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, Shenzhen Airline was instituted in 1995 and its airline focused chiefly on home passengers’ routes with a number of flights to Southeast Asia and North East Asia together with a few global freight operations. Furthermore, there are new entrants who joined the market in 2005, after the liberalization of the industry.
United Eagle, located in Chengdu, Okay Airways, located in Tianjin, and Spring Air located in Shanghai were the earliest to enter the market in this group. These have further hardened the rivalry. There is also a threat of entry by increased foreign careers, especially with the signing of the open skies agreement which is projected to come into effect by 2020.
The bargaining power of suppliers is temperate as HNA group is a vertically incorporated corporation. Alternate products are commodities from exterior industries that carries out analogous or the same function with products from the company.
Also, in the air travel business, the bargaining power of buyers is a vital feature. HNA group subsidizes its prices by offering discounts to its customers. To create its own competitive advantage, the group has efficiently extended its business value chain.
The Strategy of the Firm The key Strategies of HNA group include: the low cost strategy, expansion and formation of alliances. China did not have low cost carriers pending 2005. Nevertheless, Hainan Airlines was instituted in January 1993 and commenced its activities on 2nd May 1993. Its surfacing is thought to have had the outcome of lowering air transport.
With the intention of becoming a public stalk airline, Hainan has taken each chance since then to enlarge. After attaining Shanxi Airline in Taiyuan and Chang‘an Airline in Xian ten years ago, Hainan was in a position to expand bases in northwestern towns, which were components of China Northwest‘s and afterwards China Eastern regions after the two airlines surfaced.
All at once, Hainan obtained the Tianjin-based Xinhua and Beijing airlines, enabling it to get admission to Tianjing Airport and the neighbouring Beijing Airport. In 1990s, Hainan organized a number of aircrafts at Ningbo, an adjacent city to Shanghai, to create a home center in the East China region.
We will write a custom Case Study on External/Internal Case Analysis for HNA Group specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, a sequence of takeovers has enabled Hainan to have freights move to and from Xian and Taiyuan in the northwest, Hainan Island in the South, Ningbo in the east and Beijing and Tianjing in the north, which granted it the status of the fourth leading airline in China by the last part of 2002, in regard to routes travelled and destinations serviced.
In the course of the execution of its expansion strategy, price rivalry was an efficient and regularly-used means of obtaining market share, and as a result the existence of Hainan on a path may have had an analogous result to that of a low cost carrier by building pressure on the key carriers, and hence a model variable representing the existence of Hainan Airlines is integrated as a sign of price rivalry whenever a city- duo is supplied by this airline.
The bigger pressure on China Southern pricing may have originated from the verity that Hainan Airline‘s early base, Hainan county, is as well a center for China Southern Hainan division, and Hainan county is next to China Southern main hubbing airstrip, Guangzhou. While Hainan is not a low cost hauler, it seems to have forced prices in the areas in which it functioned.
Formation of alliances is another strategy of HNA Group.The Company formed an alliance with H
Employee Resistance in the Workplace Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for employees’ resistance
Effects of resistance
Introduction Although employee resistance and managerial control are core processes at the workplace, their operation tends to be by and large concealed and as such, it is quite hard to observe (Prasad
Steve Jobs’ greatest product: Apple II Report custom essay help
Steve Jobs’ death has devastated great masses of Apple products consumers as well as the business community itself.
According to Jackson’s article, Jobs had made an unprecedented impact on world’s electronic consumer market where his string of successful products like iPhone, iPad tablet and iPod have changed the whole arena of the PC world, electronics and the digital media industries thus he is one of the greatest CEOs of all time (Jackson, 2011, p. 1).
According to Jackson (2011), as many across the globe associate Jobs with his recent iDevices, Canadian consumers have had a different perception when it comes to prioritizing some of Jobs greatest Apple products. They consider Apple II to be Jobs greatest achievement to their world of computing.
A third of the Canadian consumer society credits the Apple II personal computer as having the greatest impact in their personal computer lives. Though the Canadians do appreciate Jobs’ mobile devices that helped register a new wave on the mobile device functionalities which blended its personal computer capabilities, they still take the Apple II to be the best device ever.
This means the Canadians’ priority of Apple II is at the essence of their classical approach from personal computers to iDevices thus their emphasis still remain gripped within their first experience with the Jobs Apple II innovation.
There is much that needs to be considered before analyzing any poll results especially in the consumer markets. For instance, there is need to evaluate the age groups (demographics) of the voters/respondents.
There is also the need to look at the experience of the voters or respondents with different gadgets (Apple product opinion poll – Asking Canadians). These are some of the many considerations that need to be in check before coming up with a candid conclusion on the research/poll findings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jackson’s article on the most preferred Apple product among the Canadian consumers which claims that Apple II personal computer is Jobs best product among the Canadians, can be said to be biased because he does not enlist the criterion chosen when determining the participants in the poll.
Additionally, the 1034 respondents (Jackson, 2011, p. 1) of the poll may not be a good enough representative number of technological consumers which is presumed to be over two thousand.
In the recent wave of Apple’s products, the iPhone 4s seems to have a lot of interest among the Canadian consumers and with such a surmountable interest, it may be among the best favored Apple products in the Canadian technological consumer segment in terms of experience and functionalities (Clandestine, 2011, p. 1) which in return, can surpass the Apple II preference.
Jackson’s conclusion on Apple II as the most preferred gadget in Canada is limited in view because it did not consider the changing retail market structures, the increasing use of technological stores (Apple Stores), the internet and the consumer market place, the growing presence of social networking as the new advertisement, consumer front and the changing trends in the tastes and preferences among consumers (Digital Life, 2011, p.1).
With the above variations in mind, it is clear that with time, the consumer perceptions change especially with new gadget experiences as well as diversified innovations on the same. Thus, the young generation may be more compelled to use the iDevices and this may be their first experience with Jobs products.
Reference List Clandestine, B. (2011). The N E W iPhone 5 / iPhone 4S. Hub-pages. Web.
Digital Life. (2011). iPhone 4S pre-orders record-setting 1 million in first day. Communication Technology – Blog. Web.
We will write a custom Report on Steve Jobs’ greatest product: Apple II specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jackson, B. (2011). Steve Jobs’ greatest product the Apple II, Canadians say. IT Business Canada – Blog. Web.
Human Impact on the Environment Research Paper essay help: essay help
Human interaction with the natural environment has imposed diverse impacts on the natural resources, which has resulted to degradation and depletion of the biophysical surroundings, biodiversity and natural resources.
This poses the need for the implementation of effective policy regulations in order to address the negative influences that human activities impose on the natural resources such as water, air, soil and forests (Fimbel and Robinson 45).
Forests are a vital component of the ecosystem, and any human activity that results to its degradation imposes significant impacts on the overall functioning of the larger ecosystem. Recently, there have been increased concerns relating to the impacts of logging on the viability and sustainability of forest resources.
Illegal forest activities such as logging have imposed destructive influences of forests, and have resulted to noteworthy ecological and socio-economic impacts in countries where forests are a major natural resource.
Tropical forests are one of the most valuable ecosystems in the world; they are on the verge of their degradation and depletion due to human activities such as encroachment and logging (Turyahabwe 147). Biodiversity, plants and animals are most affected by the degradation of the forest resources.
In addition, forest degradation also imposes significant impacts on other natural resources such as soil and water. For instance, forest degradation results to increased soil erosion and degeneration, which in turn results to sedimentation in the water bodies, thus increasing the vulnerability of extinction of the water bodies.
From a global perspective, forest degradation imposes significant effects on the trends of changes in the global climate. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impacts of logging on the forest resources in Uganda and offer recommendations that can be used to mitigate and manage the identified impacts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Logging in Uganda. Overview
Since 1990, the forest cover of Uganda has declined by 33 percent because of the increased need for farmlands, increasing human population and urbanization, which translates to an increased need for the forest resources such as timber and charcoal. An implication of this is that effective intervention strategies are needed to address the impacts of logging on the forest cover within Uganda.
According to a report released in 2009 by the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Uganda had at least 5 million hectares under forest cover during 1990, and by 2005, there were only 3.5 million hectares of forest cover remaining in the country.
This means that the forest resources in Uganda are declining at a rate of 2% per annum, which is currently the highest in the globe. According to estimates by NEMA, if deforestation in Uganda goes on at the present rate, the forests in the country will be completely depleted by 2050 (UNEP 148).
The primary reason for the forest depletion in Uganda is due to unchecked logging. The present forest coverage in Uganda is shown in the following figure 1
Figure 1: The present Forest Coverage in Uganda
Source: UNEP. Dead Planet, Living Planet: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable… Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme, 2010.
Logging in Uganda can be divided into selective logging and clear-cut logging. Selecting logging mainly involves the harvesting of high-valued and commercial trees, leaving the trees that are of low value and not suitable for development of valuable forest products (UNEP 178).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Human Impact on the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Clear-cut logging on the other hand involves harvesting all the trees without selection of trees basing on their commercial value. In most cases, clear-cut logging is conducted for the main purpose of agricultural farming and land use. A common trend of logging in the context of Uganda is illegal logging, which is a booming trade in most parts of the country.
Illegal logging in Uganda has been facilitated by the personnel who have the convenience of doing so (Fimbel and Robinson 148). The case of illegal logging in Uganda is worsened by the fact that National Forest Authority creates a perception it lacks the capacity to address the challenges of forest destruction imposed by illegal logging.
In some documented areas, the NFA has disbursed licenses for logging to individual traders who have played a great deal in clearing forests for farm purposes. The following diagram shows the decline in forest area in Uganda and future projections.
Figure 2: Forest Area Per Capita in Uganda and future projections
Source: Turyahabwe, Tweheyo. “Does Forest Tenure Influence Forest Vegetation Characteristics? A Comparative Analysis of Private, Local and Central Government Forest Reserves in Central Ugandano access.” International Forestry Review (2010).
Socio-economic and biophysical impacts of logging on forest resources in Uganda
A significant proportion of the Ugandan population relies on forests and trees to different extents. In the country, it is estimated that timber saw logs are consumed at a rate of approximately 750,000 m3 per annum and a sustainable production rate of between 250,000 and 300,000 m3 (Turyahabwe 123).
The construction industry in Uganda, which has an annual growth rate of 10 %, is the main driver for the demand of logging. A significant percentage of timber logs access the market illegally, and this explains why Uganda has the highest rate of deforestation on a global perspective (Fimbel and Robinson 148).
Illegal logging also imposes significant ecological impacts in Uganda. The forest resource in the country hosts a wide range of biodiversity and forest tree species. The NFA reports that the forest in Uganda hosts about 315 mammal species, at least 1000 birds species and 1200 butterfly species.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Impact on the Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In comparison from a global perspective, the Uganda forests hosts 11percent of the bird species and 7 percent of mammal species in the world. This implies a rich biodiversity that translates to increased tourist activity and economic value.
In addition, forests protect the water catchment areas, shores of water bodies and stability of steep slopes. This implies that logging imposes negative influences towards the sustainability of the ecosystem and other natural resources such as water, soil and air (UNEP 202). The following figure shows a map of Uganda depicting the dry land areas associated with logging.
Figure 3: a map of Uganda showing the location of dry land areas due to deforestation
Source: UNEP. Dead Planet, Living Planet: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable… Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme, 2010.
Evaluation of Policies
Illegal logging in Uganda can be significantly attributed to poor forest governance practices in the country. Cases associated with an increase in illegal logging in Uganda is caused by high levels of corruption within the country’s forestry sector, political interference within the administration and management of forest resources, increased population urbanization and the changing viewpoints of the government regarding forestry (UNEP 147).
A weak interagency cooperation, insecurity and lack of sufficient capacity also play a role in increasing the extent of illegal clear-cut logging within the country. This section evaluates the effectiveness of the policies used by Uganda to address the problem associated with illegal logging (Turyahabwe 122).
Uganda has implemented laws that govern the aspect of land ownership and access to various natural resources. The Uganda’s forest policy was implemented with the main objective of enhancing governance and management of the forestry sector using partnerships that encourage transparency, efficiency and accountability within the stakeholders of the forestry sector.
The government policies for reducing mass destruction of forests allocate the responsibilities of forest management basing on responsibility (Turyahabwe 120). Generally, the forest policy has a goal of attaining sustainable socio-economic benefits from the forest resource in the country.
A provision of the forest policy in the country is the National Forestry and Tree Planting Act of 2003, which proposes a collaborative effort between the government and the public sector in forest management. In addition, the act serves to regulate forest activities associated with unchecked illegal logging and encroachment within the forest reserve.
The ineffectiveness of the forestry policy is Uganda can be attributed to policy inconsistencies, which is evident in the different positions of the government with regard to forestation in the country (UNEP 150). For instance, there is no precise law that governs the deployment of chain saws during the milling of timber, resulting into wastefulness.
In addition, the government is seeking to reform its functionalities with the principal objectives of addressing the national needs and enhance effective governance that results to rationalization (Derek and Nathaniel 1260). From a theoretical framework, this represent significant shifts regarding the role that the government has in the management and conservation of forest, lays emphasis on a facilitation role.
In practice however, the government responsibility in forest management has been distributed to the various government institutions that have conflicting interests and mandates. An outcome of this is a conflict between the institutions relating to the sectoral policies and the changing position of the government with regard to the forestry sector (Puts 1001).
The government also uses monitoring systems to address the issue of illegal logging. The country has established a timber monitoring system that keeps track of the timber from the forest to the vendor (Turyahabwe 121).
Forest products that are in transit should be from a documented source accompanied with the papers representing the legal requirements for such forest activities. Despite the refinement of the system to meet international standards, it has been effective in addressing cases of illegal logging due to the policy constraints and interference from the authorities that are supposed to regulate forest activities.
Alternative solutions and recommendations
The problems associated illegal logging in Uganda can be mainly attributed to ineffective policies with respect to forestry administration and management. In order to enhance the effectiveness of the policies, political support is needed in order to eliminate issues associated with political manipulation during policy implementation.
It is recommended that the government should offer an open and strong political support to the institutions associated with forest management and law enforcement. It is also recommended that a strong interagency cooperation and partnership can be helpful in combating illegal logging and ensuring that there are no cases associated with illegal logging in Uganda (UNEP 147).
Another potential solution to illegal logging in Uganda is to encourage private forestry. This can be initiated by encouraging tree planting on both private and public lands in order to reduce the pressure imposed on the natural forests. This is helpful in restoring degraded forests in the country (UNEP 151).
Conclusion Illegal forest activities such as logging have imposed destructive influences of forests, and resulted to significant ecological and socio-economic impacts in countries where forests are a main natural resource.
Tropical rainforests are one of the most valuable ecosystems in the world; they are on the verge of their degradation and depletion due to human activities such as encroachment and logging. Illegal logging in Uganda can be considerably attributed to poor forest governance practices in the country.
Cases associated with an increase in illegal logging in Uganda is caused by increased corruption within the country’s forestry sector, political interference within the administration and management of forest resources, increased population urbanization and the changing viewpoints of the government regarding forestry.
A weak interagency cooperation, insecurity and lack of sufficient capacity also play a role in increasing the extent of illegal clear-cut logging within the country.
Works Cited Derek, Pomeroy and Seavy Nathaniel. “An Overview of History and Development of Forest Policy and Legislation in Ugandano access.” International Forestry Review (2008): 1259-1269. Print.
Fimbel, Robert and John Robinson. The cutting edge: conserving wildlife in logged tropical forest. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2001. Print.
Puts, Sist. “Reduced-impact logging: Challenges and Opportunities.” Forest Ecology
AIDS: From the Perspective of Sociology Expository Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Impact on Mankind
Highly Communicable Disease
The Stigma surrounding AIDS
A Social Problem
The importance of sociology in the fight against AIDS has been mentioned several times by prominent researchers. Macionis and Plummer wrote: “The social implications of AIDS are so many that it becomes almost a test case for the relevance of sociology to health” (2008).
Macionis and Plummer are correct in the sense that AIDS is a disease which infection rate is strongly correlated to interpersonal relationships, such as sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and intravenous drug use. Furthermore, in the beginning of its evolution, the disease was associated with homosexuals.
Therefore, there is a need to incorporate insights regarding interpersonal relationships when it comes to the design of prevention programs. AIDS is a perfect example of the close link between health and sociology.
Impact on Mankind The importance of sociology in the study of AIDS is based on its unique attributes. There are many deadly forms of diseases that claim many lives. For instance, medical conditions like cancer, diabetes, and heart disease claim hundreds of thousands of lives.
But AIDS/HIV is the only highly communicable disease that has no known cure and, at the same time, can infect a person without developing any type of symptoms. This characteristic is the primary reason why AIDS has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the globe.
Consider, for instance, social impact of the infected person engaging in sexual relations with wife and other people. The virus is passed on from one person to the next without their knowledge. A prostitute can unknowingly pass the disease to her clients before the virus ends her life.
The infected wife continues to bear children infected with the virus without the family’s knowledge of impending doom. There is, therefore, the need to access sophisticated medical intervention processes in order to detect HIV/AIDS. But in poor countries the lack of technology is just half of the problem. People are even unaware of what AIDS means.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The inability to combat AIDS at the early stage is a sociological problem because the lack of education and the lack of medical facilities enhance the power of the disease. Paul Farmer in his book Infections and Inequalities: the Modern Plagues lamented the fact that people die not because there is no means to fight the disease, but simply because they have no access to decent healthcare.
However, mankind must not succumb to despair. It would be best to follow the suggested course of action of a man who saw the collision of sociology and medical science and he said: “One learns, I would hope to discover what is right, what needs to be righted – through work, through action” (Farmer, 1999, p. 18).
The first step is to acknowledge that medical science must work in tandem with the social science to develop strategies to combat HIV/AIDS.
Highly Communicable Disease The ability to stop the spread of the HIV virus should not be ignored by medical professionals. It is understandable that it is their primary duty to unlock the mystery of the AIDS virus; nevertheless, it is the job of social workers and social scientists to help people understand the disease on their own terms and through a language that they can comprehend.
For example, if the prevention strategy centres on abstaining from casual sex, than the social workers must be able to explain the logic behind the infection period. In other diseases, the infection period usually lasts for a short time, or a few months for some highly contagious diseases (Middleberg, 2003).
But in the case of HIV, the infectious period can last from 8 to 12 years (Middleberg, 2003). They have to understand the implication that HIV carriers can infect others during this time period without a clue that they have the virus.
The Stigma surrounding AIDS Aside from the need to explain the unique attributes of the AIDS virus, sociology also plays a major role when it comes to coping with the disease. It has to be reiterated that the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS is rooted in its mode of transmission from one infected person to another human being.
We will write a custom Essay on AIDS: From the Perspective of Sociology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It may be a contagious disease, but a person sitting next to an HIV carrier does not get infected. Furthermore, scientists were able to determine that the virus cannot survive in the open air or in the water – it is not an airborne or a waterborne disease (Piot
Critical Analysis of Avahan – the India AIDS Initiative Case Study scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Avahan AIDS Initiative
Introduction Since the discovery of AIDS a few decades ago, there have been numerous scientific breakthroughs when it comes to understanding the virus and its devastating medical consequences (Nelson
International Business Law Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
International law is normally a set of rules which are generally regarded and agreed upon as binding in relations that exists between nations (Brownlie, 2008). They are conventional and may often require the national legal systems to be in line with the provisions of the international rules.
They are mainly instituted by covenants, customs, resolutions, treaties as well as general principles of law. Other sources of international law include declarations of international organizations as well as writings of judges. The scope of international law also includes relations between individuals as well as international organizations.
The international law is facilitated by several international organizations. One such organization is the United Nations (UN) whose corporate social responsibility is to facilitate cooperation in international law. It ensures social progress of nations, human rights as well as achievement of world peace.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is another international organization that facilitates international law. Its corporate social responsibility is to supervise as well as to liberalize international law.
Thus, it regulates trade between member countries; provides platform for dispute resolution process in international trade conflicts between member nations; provides framework for formalizing trade agreements as well as negotiating trade agreements.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is another international organization under the UN that facilities international law.
Its corporate social responsibility is to ensure the protection of intellectual property among member states. It facilitates the transfer of technology such as industrial property especially to the developing countries so as to promote economic, social as well as cultural development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International Labour Organization (ILO) is a UN specialised agency whose corporate social responsibility is to promote social justice. It also promotes internationally recognized human rights as well as labour rights.
Basic concepts of international law include property, status, tort as well as obligation. Tort as is defined in international law refers to civil wrongs which are recognized by laws, both national and organizational, as basis for lawsuits.
Wrongs as defined in the tort law are injury or harm which constitute the grounds for making claims. The main aim of this law is to ensure that the wronged party is compensated for the damages incurred as well as to discourage others from engaging in similar crime. Tort law covers defamation, invasion of privacy as well as other economic crimes.
Multilateral obligation on the other hand refers to a legal duty whose bearer, which is normally a state or organization, becomes accountable to the international community (Amnesty International, 2011). Under international law, countries are expected to hand over suspected criminals to international courts or courts in other countries should they be requested to do so.
Property refers to any valuable thing that one possesses such as land and things attached to it. These are governed by property law. It also includes any movable object that a person owns; both tangible and intangible. The use of personal property is regulated by intellectual property laws.
Status is a concept used in international law to refer to different types of protection accorded to different categories of individuals as defined by the law (Cerone, 2002). Depending on the nationality, crime committed or the situation one finds him/herself in during a conflict, he or she must be accorded protection as is defined in international law.
International law has general principles which guide its operations. According to Dubay (2011) the principles of the international law have been derived from the law of merchant (lex mercatoria) which is a body of international trading principles.
We will write a custom Essay on International Business Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These principles are applied in solving international commercial disputes. Principles of international law are built on the concept of standard international trading rules aimed at facilitating foreign commerce by steering clear of conflicts that could arise from the different local customs laws.
The general principles applied in international law therefore include obligation of conducting trade in good faith, non-discrimination of traders from different regions, reciprocity of obligations, as well as, negotiated dispute settlement.
The principles of international law govern international business, which again has several components. Trade, which is a basic component of international business, refers to exchange of goods, services as well as capital across territories which include international borders.
International business also comprises of risks which have to be dealt with. Managing risks refers to putting in place strategies and measures that enable multinational companies, businesses or countries leverage uncertainties or risks such as political risks and therefore protect their investments while taking advantage of opportunities in those areas.
Licensing agreements form basic components of international business. They generally refer to authorization by one party that allows the other (licensee) to use the licensed property. In most cases, the party in need of the license acquires it from authorities to allow for operation of an activity in an area.
Intellectual property rights on the other hand refers to legal rights which includes patents, trademarks, copyrights as well as other rights such as trade secrets or industrial design rights which are entitled to an individual, organization or institution due to intellectual activity in a specific field which may include literary, artistic or industrial field (Adler, Ostrow, Pisacreta
Microsoft Company and Competition Law Report essay help online
Summary of the Case In May 1998, the Department of Justice, 20 states’ Attorneys, and the District of Columbia sued Microsoft for anti-competitive and exclusionary tactics (Economides, 2001, p.1). They claimed that, Microsoft schemed to control the personal computer operating systems market.
The company had sought to extend control to the Internet browsing software. To attain this monopoly status, Microsoft engaged in acts that violated the antitrust law (Economides, 2001, p.2). The cases focused on claims presented mainly by Netscape Communications Corporation.
Netscape alleged that Microsoft had excluded its Navigator Web Browser from fair competition in the market. Moreover, Netscape moaned that Microsoft used its dominance windows to hamper Netscape’s entry into the Internet explorer browser market (Klein, 1999, p. 218).
Events and Arguments
The government’s arguments were that Microsoft had engaged in a number of anticompetitive acts to remain a dominant player in the Operating System business. They were-
Microsoft monopolized the market for the PC operating system and used anticompetitive acts to dominate and own the market illegitimately (Brinkley,
Concept of Downsizing Strategy in Business Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Abstract
Downsizing and the Effects at the Individual Level
Downsizing and the Impact at the Organizational Level
The Effects of Downsizing at the Group Level
Analyses of the Effects on Downsizing in an organization
Abstract Most research studies on the effects of downsizing in an organization have focused on various levels and organizational aspects. Downsizing is defined as a move geared at improving productivity, competitiveness, and efficiency via the reduction of the labor force. Despite that this strategy is geared at enhancing effectiveness and competitiveness, many organizations implementing this strategy face the risk of a reduction in the innovation ability coupled with other consequences on the organization’s reputation.
This paper illustrates the impacts of downsizing at the organizational, group, and individual level. The purpose of this research is to provide a clear illustration of the impacts of downsizing on the three levels of an organization. Existing theories have been used to demonstrate the impacts of downsizing at these three levels. In particular, the paper focuses more on the impact of downsizing on the level of creativity and innovation in an organization.
This is because organizational development is measured by the implicated level of innovation and creativity, which has an impact on the reputation of the organization. In this regard, the paper illustrates the impact of downsizing on the individual creativity, the organization’s knowledge capacity, and the group’s knowledge creativity.
The implicated reputation of the organization with regard to the state of these three aspects equally will be examined. Previous studies equally have indicated the role of these three components in shaping innovation alongside various other components in an organization.
Introduction Faced with increased competition, many organizations are adopting strategies to earn a competitive advantage and at the same time improve efficiency. Initially, organizations would adopt strategies that would result into adaptive changes with minimal consequences. At the moment, most of the available strategies are characterized by negative consequences for the organization and the implicated individuals. Downsizing is apparently a preferred strategy for restructuring organizations.
This strategy is radical and at the same time of significant impact on the individual, group, and entire organization. The shift toward the use of this strategy is shown to have increased in the nineties where it featured among blue-collar employees. At the moment, many organizations are using this strategy when dealing with their workforce at various skill levels (West 113).
This strategy can be achieved via the use of different forms geared at reducing the number of employees. With the current economic struggles, this strategy has had consequences on the affected employees and the downsizing organization. The reasons in favour of this strategy are that many organizations are faced with stiff competition, high costs, technological demands, and strategic issues like outsourcing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While examining the impacts of this strategy on an organization, many studies have not shown an increase in organizational performance following the adoption of downsizing. Many of such studies have examined the effects of downsizing on an organization’s intangible assets. Similar studies have shown that this strategy has various negative impacts on the implicated assets in an organization (Wagner 1).
For instance, most studies have indicated that a shift toward downsizing results into a reduced organizational knowledge capacity and social capital. Only a few of such studies have examined the impacts of this strategy on the corporate reputation and innovation. These two aspects are very important because they determine an organization’s competitive advantage in a corporate world.
At the moment most research studies seem to focus on the direct and indirect impacts of downsizing on an organization. Most indirect studies examine the effects of this strategy on the innovation and reputation of the organization through other factors in an organization (Stelios 1). A majority of the direct studies examine the effects of this strategy on the reputation and innovation in an organization when other factors are held constant.
Most indirect studies have indicated that if downsizing results into a positive effect on the firm’s financial performance there will be a positive impact on both the innovativeness and reputation of the organization. Empirical evidence clearly has indicated that downsizing does not improve performance at the individual and group level, which basically implies that this strategy has a negative impact on the innovation and reputation of an organization.
Literature Review Most researchers have indicated that downsizing is a reactive measure in response to organizational crisis. This measure is taken for the organization to achieve corporate renewal, especially with regard to the corporate reputation and innovation. Other studies indicate that downsizing is a proactive measure as opposed to a reactive measure. A particular study done in the 90s established that a large percentage of firms that adopted this strategy earned profitable gains in their operations.
The later may indicate that downsizing is both a reactive and proactive organizational measure geared at reducing various resources but mainly affecting human resources. This measure is taken for the purpose of reducing costs, improving profits, and organization competitiveness. Other benefits of using this strategy include better communication, empowerment of employees, and improved decision making.
Downsizing and the Effects at the Individual Level The effects of this strategy occur at the organizational, individual, and group, or team level. However, the most severe consequences of this strategy occur at the individual level. With regard to the later, the most affected individuals are those meant to leave. Downsizing basically puts their welfare at stake. A majority of the individuals leaving the organization cause an increase in the struggle for the availability resources in the community.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Concept of Downsizing Strategy in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The entire process results into a drop in the income levels of the community making it hard for individuals to obtain their basic needs. For individuals who survive the exercise, various responses are expected. Research studies on individuals who survive a downsizing exercise indicate that a majority of these individuals experience a reduction in their motivation and general performance (Spreitzer and Mishra 767).
The effects of downsizing equally may affect the project leader when focus changes from the goals and objectives of the project to achieving financial gains (Wagner 3). The power to take risky measures subsequently may decline as the leaders of the project resist change. Further studies equally have indicated that downsizing may result into a disappearance of valuable skills, which has a negative impact on the problem-solving ability in an organization. The entire process equally may have negative impacts on the development of team building skills in an organization.
Further studies indicate that majority of those who survive the exercise experience feelings of job insecurity and anger. These effects amount into a reduction in loyalty feared to increase employee absenteeism, which may lower productivity. Downsizing may result into a need to adopt new procedures and processes alongside taking up new responsibilities for the surviving members (Spreitzer and Mishra 769).
This results into changes in relationships as the surviving members struggle to take up responsibilities initially held by those who left the organization following downsizing. Some of the responsibilities may require different skills, which may result in a reduction of the education levels of the surviving employees. The later is feared to result into a decrease in the level of specialization among the surviving individuals.
Because of these negative effects, the wellbeing of surviving individuals equally is affected as they struggle to handle the emerging stressing conditions. These aspects have a negative impact on the organization’s efforts geared at enhancing innovation and attaining a corporate reputation. This is because the implicated negative effects of downsizing equally will affect individual creativity.
Downsizing and the Impact at the Organizational Level For an organization, measures geared at downsizing are mainly related to the factors driving the need to downsize and how to approach the exercise. Although some studies have indicated that some firms have attained profits following downsizing, many organizations have reported numerous negative impacts following the adoption of this strategy. This has led many researchers into concluding that downsizing has more negative impacts as opposed to the positive impacts.
Innovation is key to the development of a firm’s reputation, which is credited for influencing the competitive advantage (Mirabal and De Young 23). The relationship between an organization’s level of innovation and its reputation in relation to the implicated competitive advantage has been examined in various fields in business literature. The implicated innovation in an organization is a shared responsibility that cuts across the senior management, the individual worker, and the group.
The main aspect of an organization likely to suffer major consequences following downsizing is the management. Because downsizing affects the organization’s workforce, the management is subsequently affected, especially at the middle level where a large percentage of the workforce is thought to be involved. A majority of the individuals laid off may hold vital management skills that determine the success of the organization (West 34).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Downsizing Strategy in Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Following a downsizing exercise, an organization is compelled to work with a minimal stock of competency, which subsequently may have a negative impact of the quality of the management. It is also expected of an organization with a lower stock of competency to rely upon line managers and staff at the operating level to handle corporate functions of the members of staff. Such an organization faces equally the risk of reduced links in communication, which is feared to slow the response to change (Wagner 5).
The organization’s senior management directly determines how individuals will work on their own and in respective teams. The management equally can influence the efficiency of the product concept despite that the individual worker and the team have a greater influence on the product concept (Stelios 3). The management in an organization is held with a key role of ensuring and supporting innovation.
The type of support offered by the senior management in an organization is directly related to the implicated level of innovativeness and the organization’s reputation. The employees in an organization working at an individual and group level receive financial and political support from the senior management to enable them achieve the goals and objectives of the firm. The management in an organization equally is held with the responsibility of appointing team leaders and setting goals for the organization.
The role of an organization’s senior management in spearheading innovation and the reputation of the firm is diverse. If the management deviates from the expected role, the organization is feared to experience a reduction in team performance. Extensive involvement of the senior management with formal controls lowers the autonomy and at the same time wastes product development time.
Downsizing has been shown to have various negative consequences on the reputation and innovativeness of an organization. A study that examined the effect of downsizing on corporate social responsibility indicated that there exists a negative relationship between downsizing and an organization’s social performance.
The later aspect is a measure of the existing reputation index of an organization. It is expected for firms that exhibit constant downsizing to exhibit minimal social responsibility. Such firms equally are characterized by a reduced reputation index. Similar studies have indicated that downsizing has a negative impact on the corporate responsibility of an organization.
The Effects of Downsizing at the Group Level At the project level where individuals work as a group or team, downsizing has been shown to have various negative impacts, especially on the team spirit. The existence of a group of individuals in an organization working together as a team has been shown to result into improved efficiency and information diversity. In addition, individuals working in a team or as a group equally increase the opportunities for learning.
This is because most teams will have individuals with different abilities, which provides an opportunity for learning from one another. The later is highly credited for improving the numbers of informal contacts within an organization. With the existence of a large diversity of information, an organization will highly benefit from the implicated diversity in information, which is a guarantee for improved problem-solving skills.
Downsizing is a threat to the benefits of working at a group level because it reduces the capacity of information and equally deprives the group of skills held by the leaving members (Mirabal and De Young 27). The impacts of downsizing on a group are mainly measured by a reduction in the level of creativity and general work performance. Downsizing results equally in a reduction in effective communication in the organization, which is feared to have negative impacts on the process of attaining the goals of an organization.
Downsizing in particular is responsible for breaking informal relationships in an organization. As a result of a break in communication networks following downsizing, most organizations exhibit reduced innovativeness because of an inevitable reduction in effective communication. Because very few individuals are likely to survive the exercise of downsizing, the ability to shift from one point to the other equally may be affected.
Because downsizing reduces the size of the group, few individuals are left to work on the same task, which makes it hard for the organization to attain the same performance efficiency. In addition, the process of downsizing has been shown to result into a drop in the organization’s stock of knowledge.
Analyses of the Effects on Downsizing in an organization In understanding the effects on downsizing on an organization, retrospective analysis of studies done in the past was used. These studies provide literature on the effects of downsizing on an organization with regard to the organizational level, the individual level, and the group. A model was created in which knowledge was a key organizing variable.
This is because knowledge is a vital component of the process of innovation, which has an impact on the reputation of an organization (Mirabal and De Young 31). It is held that innovation is a product of the combination of various forms of knowledge in an organization. In this model, it is presumed that downsizing has impacts on innovation and the reputation of an organization via its direct impacts on the level of knowledge.
The implicated model is illustrated in the figure below. The model is made up of the major components that affect innovation in an organization and subsequently contributes to the emerging reputation. In this model, the effects of downsizing to an organization are examined with regard to the organization’s stock of knowledge (Mirabal and De Young 40).
At the individual level, the effects of downsizing are examined with regard to the individual’s creativity, which determines the individual output in task performance. At the group level, the effects of downsizing are examined with regard to the knowledge creation process, which is determined by the contribution of the existing and new knowledge held by the members of a group in an organization.
In the literature examined, an organization’s stock of knowledge refers to the collection of competencies held by the workforce in an organization. This collection is also made up of the formal and informal relationships that occur among individuals in an organization.
Because of the difficulties associated with observing the flow of knowledge, the uniqueness of an organization is determined by the type of knowledge that exists within its premises. This aspect makes it hard to determine the expected impacts of downsizing on the reputation and innovativeness of an organization. This is because every organization is characterized by a unique stock of knowledge (Richner 1).
According to a majority of the theories and content presented in the studies examined, downsizing in an organization has been shown to result into an obvious risk of the reduction in the level of the stock of knowledge (Pinsonneault and Kraemer 191).
The departure of employees from an organization following a downsizing exercise has negative impacts on customer relationships and operations in an organization. For an organization made of groups of individuals characterized by minimal levels of knowledge, a downsizing exercise is likely to slow down the process of product development.
Because of the breakdown of informal relationship vital for developing innovative experiences, downsizing is feared to affect the intangible resources that promote innovation in an organization (Richner 18).
As the importance of the stock of knowledge in an organization increases, it becomes important for organizations to balance between the transfer of knowledge, the innovation, and reputation of their firm. Downsizing is basically a transfer of knowledge from an organization to the external environment, which implies a decrease in the organization’s stock of knowledge.
An efficient way of handling knowledge transfer within an organization is likely to be the transfer of knowledge within the organization as opposed to an external transfer of knowledge as in the case of downsizing (Pinsonneault and Kraemer 208). To attain a competitive advantage, a proper management of the stock of knowledge in an organization is very important.
Most competitive organizations are out to build on their stock of knowledge to sustain a competitive advantage. This implies that a majority of such organizations are characterized by strategies geared at empowering their stock of knowledge by maintaining the current workforce and outsourcing for more talents. In this meta- analysis, the literature examined proposes that downsizing has negative impacts on an organization’s stock of knowledge.
With regard to the individual creativity, a majority of the theories and literature presented indicate that both innovation and the reputation of an organization are highly determined by the creativity of the employees. According to the studies examined, the creativity of individual employees in an organization is key to the development of ideas in an organization (Stelios 18).
Innovation and the reputation of an organization are the main organizational aspects that are affected by a drop in individual creativity following a downsizing exercise. One particular study indicated that downsizing is responsible for the existence of poor risk takers in an organization.
This is because the surviving employees experience feelings of fear and job insecurity that affects their ability to make fast and effective decisions. Most of the surviving employees will have the fear of being victimized on the basis of their decisions. A majority of these employees will therefore not voice their opinions even in the event of a problem that requires urgent solving skills.
The individuals who survive a downsizing exercise are most likely to exhibit a greater amount of fear, which reduces their ability to communicate and act in a professional manner in the event of a problem (Pinsonneault and Kraemer 202). Downsizing equally is responsible for decreasing the motivation to work among the individuals who survive the exercise.
Among the organizational aspects greatly affected by downsizing is creativity. At the individual level, creativity is directly related to the level of innovation. Most of the literature examined for this purpose indicates that the innovativeness of an organization is highly threatened by a decrease in individual creativity.
This literature proposes that downsizing has a negative impact of individual creativity, which in turn affects the innovativeness of an organization and further threatens the organization’s reputation (Richner 19).
With regard to the process of knowledge creation at the group level, the literature examined indicates that knowledge creation is central to the process of innovation (Spreitzer and Mishra 777). According to this literature, the goods, and services offered by an organization are highly determined by the organization’s knowledge creation process. The process of knowledge creation is vital for connecting the other components of the model illustrated in this study.
The studies examined indicate that employees in an organization make use of their creativity to enhance the organization’s stock of knowledge. At the same, individuals make use of their creativity to develop the goods and services in a firm. The later is of impact on the reputation of an organization because the nature of goods and services common to an organization determine its market share and competitive advantage.
The process of knowledge creation is described as the ability to transfer knowledge within an organization and this process has been shown to occur in a continuous process. Effective transfer of knowledge highly depends of socialization. Because the process of downsizing limits the socialization of individuals in an organization, this process affects equally the transfer of knowledge.
The effective sharing of vital experiences is affected by the process of downsizing and the literature examined in this regard clearly proposes that downsizing has a negative impact on the process of knowledge creation (Caruana, Cohen, and Krenter 429).
Conclusion Despite that many organizations adopt downsizing as a strategy of improving efficiency and reducing costs, the model used in this study indicates that downsizing has more negative effects than the positive gains. The impacts of this strategy are more severe on the innovativeness of an organization and the reputation. Previous studies indicate the existence of a negative relationship between downsizing and the innovativeness of an organization.
However, only a few of such studies have examined the negative effects of this strategy on both innovation and the reputation of an organization. This explains why it was important to establish the relationship between downsizing and the reputation and innovativeness of an organization in this study while focusing at the three levels. The model used in this study was drawn from the existing theory on the management of innovation, the organization’s reputation, and knowledge management.
Previous research had indicated that these three components suffer the bulk of consequences following a downsizing exercise. The model used here is conceptual and may require further research for validation. The innovativeness and reputation of an organization are important tangible assets of an organization.
These two aspects are an organization’s source of a long-term competitive advantage. Downsizing has been shown to threaten these two intangible assets and is feared to have a negative impact on employees and other stakeholders in the organization. In this paper, the literature depicted and the model used in the analysis provide an indication of the various ways in which downsizing affects an organization at the individual, group, and organizational level.
Works Cited Caruana, Albert, Charlene Cohen and Kathleen Krenter. “Corporate reputation and shareholders intention: An Attitudinal perspective.” Brand Management 13.6 (2006): 429-440. Print.
Mirabal, Neil and Robert De Young. “Downsizing as a Strategic Intervention.” The Journal of American Academy of Business 1.1 (2005): 23-47. Print.
Pinsonneault, Alain, and Kenneth Kraemer. “Exploring the Role of Information Technology in Organizational Downsizing: A Tale of Two American Cities.” Organization Science 3.2 (2002): 191-208. Print.
Richner, Anders. “Organizational Downsizing and Innovation.” Journal of Business Administration 1.1 (2006):1-22. Print.
Spreitzer, Gretchen and Aneil Mishra. “To Stay or to Go: Voluntary Survivor Turnover Following an Organizational Downsizing.” Journal of Organizational Behaviour 23.8 (2002): 767-779. Print.
Stelios, Zyglidopoulos: “The Impact of Downsizing on Corporate Reputation.” British Journal of Management 16.1 (2005):1-30. Print.
Wagner, Jerry. “Downsizing Effects on Organizational Development Capabilities at an Electric Utility.” Journal of Industrial Technology 6.3 (2008):1-7. Print.
West, Gladys. The Effects of Downsizing on Survivors: a Meta-Analysis. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2000. Print.
Characters Analysis: “What You Pawn I Will Redeem” Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
One character that is flat
One character that is round
One character that is Dynamic
Abstract “What you pawn I will redeem” is a short story about an Indian who shows extra ordinary strength in a tough time. Jackson the main character in the story is a homeless Indian who is on a quest to get back his grandmother’s regalia. This story has many interesting characters that collectively make the story an intriguing one. (Porter, 2006)
Been a homeless Indian in Seattle is enough problems but when you are faced with the task of raising nearly one thousand dollars in 24 hours it compounds a person’s problems. Jackson the central character was determined to get back his grandmother’s stolen regalia at the pawn shop but his care free friends always led him astray.
In the course of the story, the narrator tell how he spent any money he got on alcohol with his friends. Though he got the regalia at the end of the story but that was due to the sympathy of the pawnbroker who felt he had been through enough trouble. In this essay, we would be identifying and analyzing the various characters in the story.
One character that is flat Jackson’s friends in the story can be described as the flat and rigid characters throughout the entire story. Jackson was on the quest to save his grandmother’s regalia at the pawn shop and he indulged in different ventures to get the money the pawnbroker had requested.
But rather than be encouraged and motivated by his friends, they instead led him astray. (Porter, 2006) The friends are described as been rigid because all the wanted throughout the course of the story was to have fun at the expense Jackson’s happiness.
Perhaps if Jackson’s friends were not included in the story there would have been no humor in the story. He would have simply saved and paid the pawnbroker. Jackson’s friends as characters added humor to the entire story. There carefree attitude made the story hilarious. (Porter, 2006)
One character that is round The pawnbroker can be described as a round character in this story due to his complex attitude. The pawnbroker had initially insisted that Jackson had to come up with the sum of $999 before lunch time. This had prompted Jackson to plot different ways of coming up with the money. (Porter, 2006) However, Jackson spent whatever he was able to raise on food and drinks for his friends.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the end, the same pawnbroker who had insisted that Jackson came up with the money within a stipulated time frame changed his mind. This character enhances this story in a very positive way.
If the pawnbroker had not given Jackson a time frame, he would have possibly been relaxed. The entire story is about showing strength in the face of adversaries and the pawnbroker made Jackson realize his potential. (Porter, 2006)
One character that is Dynamic Jackson can be defined as the dynamic character in the story due to various reasons. His youthful exuberance and carefree attitude even in tough situations go a long way to show his type of person. At the beginning of the story, Jackson went to the pawn shop with his two friends where he saw the regalia he believed belonged to his grandmother.
He wanted the regalia back in the family but the pawnbroker asked him to get $999 within a short time frame. (Porter, 2006) This prompted him to devise ways to get the money rather than work for it. But after going through all that, he ends up spending the money on food and drinks. This change in character makes Jackson a very dynamic character.
Jackson’s attitude was meaningful and believable. His character is meaningful because he went extra miles trying to get his grandmother’s regalia back. It is also believable for a person to squander money he/she saved for something. Jackson squandered the money due to the influence of his friends. (Porter, 2006)
Reference Porter, S. (2006) 30/30: Thirty American stories from the Last Thirty years. Purdue University: Longman
Fear Appeals in Advertising Term Paper custom essay help
Advertisers use fear appeals in their commercials to emphasize negative results that can happen unless the consumer changes an attitude or behavior. The use of fear appeals is widespread.
Advertisers use fear appeals to encourage social policy issues such change to healthier habits, stopping smoking, engaging in regular exercise, using contraception, eating a balanced diet and drinking without driving (Pope 2). Commercials also use fear appeals to influence social risks associated with one’s success and opposite sex, career and others (Solomon 334).
Fear appeals work when advertisers present a moderate amount of fear and a solution to the problem is present in the advertisement. Too much amount of fear does not result into change since the audience tends to deny the existence of such threats as a way to rationalize the danger.
A thorough elaboration of fear may interfere with the communication of the intended change behavior to the audience. The audience may think that the advertisement is not for him or her and pays less attention to it. Use of fear works better when the sources are highly credible.
A weak threat is equally ineffective. This can occur has a result of insufficient demonstration of the risky consequences of involving in the behavior.
For instance, the use of scary methods in getting teens to stop their consumptions of alcohol or drugs is not that effective. Teenagers simply tune out the message or deny the relevancy of the message. The use of social threat is a more effective strategy in adolescent than use of scary strategy (Baron 21).
Fear appeals should not be confusing to the audience. The message and emotional response should be consistent. Greater fear may not necessarily results into greater persuasion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different people react distinctively to the same amount of fear. Advertisers know that strongest threats have less effect on their perceived audience than moderated fear. Therefore, a more concrete approach to fear appeals is necessary before advertisers make a definite conclusion concerning the effects of fear appeals on consumer behavior.
In the YouTube video advertisement, Do not Drink and Drive, uploaded by Torn Sue in October 17th 2009, the advertisement is shocking but gets the point home. The advertisement is using fear appeal to highlight effects of drinking and driving, and subsequently to make drunk drivers change their habit.
Drinking and driving is a social issue. The advertiser uses kids playing to show the negative effects of drinking and driving. Even the kids are not so secure from drunk-drivers. People commended the commercial for its effective delivery of the message to the target audience.
However, not everyone appreciated the commercial advertisement. Some critics argued that the message is vague since the advertisement failed to show the driver drunk. The fact that the driver looked sideways and was humming along the radio failed to convince the audience.
They argued that many people do this and get accidents even if they are sober. Therefore, drinking was not a factor to a resulting accident. They also criticized the exaggeration the commercial used to show a car flipping over a fence simply by hitting another car. To them, it is simply being reckless.
The magazine Women
Occupational Health and Safety Procedures at Swinburne University of Technology Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The welfare and safety of employees should be taken seriously as they are key contributors towards an organization’s achievement of its goals. Occupational health and safety is a discipline concerned with ensuring the health, safety, and wellbeing of employees (International Labour Organization 2011).
It not only protects the safety of employees but also that of employers, family members, co-workers, suppliers, customers, and the members of the public likely to be affected by the organization’s work environment (Barnett-Schuster 2008).
Background Information Swinburne University of Technology is an educational institution founded in 1908 by Honourable George Swinburne. It is one of the dual sector institutions.
The university offers higher education and Training and Further Education qualifications. It is located in Melbourne, Australia and has over 14.000 students enrolled in Training and Further Education and over 16,000 in higher education. The university has five campuses in Australia and one in Malaysia.
Interview Questions The following questions were posed during the workplace observation in order to determine the institutions compliance with occupational health and safety procedures.
Does Swinburne University of Technology have any policies and procedures to safeguard the employees’ health and safety?
Are the policies and procedures readily accessible by all the employees?
What hazards are the Swinburne University of Technology employees and students exposed to in the daily conduct of their duties?
What preventive measures has the institution put in place to eliminate or reduce the risks that the employees and students are exposed to?
Are there occupational health and safety training programs at Swinburne University of Technology?
Are there occupational health and safety representatives at Swinburne University of Technology? If there are, do they effectively perform their functions?
What practices do the employees follow in order to ensure their safety while working at the institution?
What laws should the University’s employers, supervisors and employees adhere to in the daily conduct of their business?
Potential Hazards Swinburne University of Technology hires several contractors to do tasks like maintenance and repair on both long term and short term basis. These contractors and students are exposed to various heath hazards while performing their duties.
Firstly, the contractors face the risk of back injury while lifting heavy loads. They lift construction and repair materials. Workers can also get injuries from machines used in performing various tasks.
These machines can injure a person by cutting off body parts because they move very fast. The students can also get accidents if they walk near construction sites in the institution, for instance, building blocks can fall on them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees and students also face the risk of slipping and falling because of wet floors. Some falls can cause very serious injuries to the employees. Others can even be fatal.
During repair and maintenance, a lot of noise is produced. Therefore the employees are exposed to high levels of noise everyday as they work. This is not healthy as it can negatively affect their hearing ability.
Fork lifts that are mainly used in lifting loads can cause health hazards to employees if not properly driven. They can injure the employees working nearby or students walking around the compound if the people using them are not cautious.
Students face the risk of getting injuries or inhaling poisonous substances when performing various experiments in the laboratory.
Recommended solutions to the hazards The contractors should undergo proper training before performing any tasks to ensure both their safety and that of the students. (Swinburne University of Technology 2011).
The equipment used should be properly licensed and in good working condition to avoid causing accidents. Construction sites should be out of bounds for students and other people who are not involved in the construction process. This is to prevent hazards like objects falling on them and injuring them.
The problem of back injuries can be minimized through training the employees on safe working procedures, for instance having the correct posture when lifting heavy loads.
We will write a custom Assessment on Occupational Health and Safety Procedures at Swinburne University of Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Enhancements can also be applied. This involves using equipment like cranes to lift heavy loads. Job rotation can also help to reduce the length of time that the employees are exposed to the risk of back injuries. (Gilles 2003).
Employee contact with the machines can be prevented through machine guarding. This means that the machines must have covers to prevent them from injuring the workers. (Hughes and Ferret 2010).
To mitigate the hazard of falling because of wet floors, the working sites should have proper drainage to avoid having any liquid on the floor. The contractors should also wear shoes with slip-resistant soles to prevent them from slipping and falling. In addition, moist areas should be dried before any work begins to reduce the risks of falling and getting injured in the process. (Dalton 1998).
The students should not carry out any experiments in the absence of a trained lecturer to guide them. This will prevent unnecessary accidents from occurring in the laboratories. They should also be trained on the action to take in case of a leakage of poisonous gases.
Respirators should be made available for use in case of a leakage. Laboratories should be properly ventilated to avoid cases of accumulation of poisonous gases which can endanger the lives of students. (Parlar and Greim 2009).
The company should make hearing protection devices available to the employees and strict rules should be put in place to ensure that those devices are worn by all the employees working in areas with high noise levels. In addition, the employees should undergo medical checkups regularly to test their hearing.
The institution should also come up with ways to reduce the noise levels in working areas. Furthermore, employees should be educated on the effects of exposure to high levels of noise and how to protect themselves. (Erickson 1996).
Forklift operators should have proper driving skills and knowledge about the principles of safety while driving them. Unqualified fork lift drivers can injure students and other employees walking in the compound by running them down.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Occupational Health and Safety Procedures at Swinburne University of Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, the forklifts should be checked before use to ensure that they are in a good working condition and that the safety equipment is operational. Faulty forklifts should be reported so that the condition can be corrected before use.
On the other hand, forklifts that produce carbon monoxide should have their engines toned according to the instructions of the manufacturer to reduce production of the gas (United States Bureau of Labour Statistics and United States Veterans Administration 1982).
Occupational Health and Safety Policies and Procedures At Swinburne university employees are a valuable resource in contributing to the success of the institution. Therefore the institution is committed to providing a safe working environment for them.
Both the students and the employees need to be protected from any occupational risks. The university has a comprehensive and formalized occupational health and safety policy and procedures to ensure the safety of the employees and students.
The institution conforms to occupational health and safety principles.Swinburne University has an occupational health and safety policy that ensures the fulfilment of legislative requirements of the institution.
The policy also ensures the protection of employees and students from environmental pollution caused by noise, air pollution and improper storage and disposal of dangerous substances.
The policy also defines the responsibilities of every member of the institution in ensuring the adoption of proper occupational health and safety procedures.
Swinburne University has put in place several procedures to ensure the safety and health of employees and students. The institution promotes safe work practices and closely monitors the health and safety performance to ensure positive progress.
Furthermore, the institution undertakes procedures of detecting hazards and takes steps to eradicate them. The students, staff and management are expected to conduct their respective health and safety responsibilities. The institution assesses the safety and risks of each job opportunity and this directs the institution in mitigating the risks that come with each role. Therefore the safety and health of all the members of the institution is safeguarded.
All newly hired contractors receive rigorous safety training relevant to their roles so that they can carry out their duties safely. They are also informed about the safety and health policies of the institution.
Students are also trained in order to go about their studies in a safe environment. The occupational health and safety policy and procedures are accessible to every employee at the Policy and Procedures Directory of the institution.
Health and safety performance is reviewed and monitored regularly to ensure conformity with the heath and safety regulations by all the employees and students. The effectiveness of the Occupational Health and Safety system is also monitored.
Occupational Health and Safety Representative Swinburne University has six campuses and each of them has a health and safety employee representative. These represent all employees in formal committee meetings.
They meet every week to discuss various health and safety concerns and then notify the management of any arising matters. They assist in the process of monitoring and advising on occupational health and safety procedures to the employees.
Employee Specialized Practices The employees are supposed to avoid causing any hazards by seeking advice before undertaking any unfamiliar task or experiments. In addition, all accidents must be promptly reported to the seniors.
They should also make sure that they use the available safety and protective equipment when carrying out tasks that require this. They should also ensure that they know the proper procedures to follow in case of an accident in order to ensure their safety.
Legal Responsibilities of Employers, Supervisors and Employees The legal responsibilities of employers at Swinburne University include, ensuring a safe working environment for the employees, ensuring that employees are not exposed to any risks during the work processes, providing training and the information necessary to do the job and providing enough facilities for the welfare of employees.
Employers should also meet minimum requirements of employees’ leave. On top of that, they should conduct proper hiring practices by avoiding malpractices like racial and gender discrimination. (The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010).
The legal responsibilities of supervisors include training employees, encouraging positive behaviour, investigating accidents, and avoiding employee harassment and discrimination of any kind at the work place. Employees should feel safe and healthy to ensure that they are productive and meet their targets.
The legal responsibilities of employees include taking care of their safety and health, avoiding putting other employees or members of the public at risk during work operations, cooperation with the employer and following safety and health policies.
The Company’s Occupational Health and Safety System Features Swinburne University‘s occupational health and safety system has unique features as it integrates quality, environment, loss prevention and occupational health and safety. It ensures the management of risks in the institution’s activities by setting operational controls which are in line with international standards.
In addition the system outlines the occupational health and safety responsibilities of the management, staff and students. Each member of the institution is expected to take a personal initiative to ensure the safety of every member of the university in conducting their duties.
Conclusion Swinburne University is committed to ensuring the safety and good working conditions for their employees and students. From the workplace observation, it is evident that there are comprehensive occupational health and safety policies and procedures to safeguard the health of the employees and students in the institution.
The institution therefore adheres to the legal, ethical and moral obligations by ensuring the employees work in a safe and healthy environment. The employees and students therefore enjoy a safe and healthy environment that is convenient and conducive for productive learning to take place.
Reference List Barnett-Schuster, P., 2008. Fundamentals of International Occupational Health and Safety Law. New York, Aberdeen University Press.
Dalton, A. J. P., 1998. Safety, Health and Environmental Hazards At The Workplace. Great Britain, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Erickson, P.A., 1996. Practical Guide to Occupational Health and Safety. USA, Elsevier.
Gilles, T. 2003. Automotive service: Inspection, Maintenance, Repair. Great Britain, Cengage Learning.
Hughes, P., and Ferrett, E. 2010. Introduction to International Health and Safety at Work: The Handbook for the NEBOSH International General Certificate. Great Britain: Routledge.
International Labour Organization. 2011. Your health and safety at work. Introduction to occupational health and safety Web.
Parlar, H. and Greim, H., 2009. The MAK-Collection for Occupational Health and Safety: Part III: Air Monitoring Methods. Germany, Wiley-VCH.
Swinburne University of Technology. 2011. Information for Contractors. Web.
The Institution of Engineering and Technology. 2010. Legal Responsibilities and Penalties Web.
United States Bureau of Labour Statistics and United States Veterans Administration. 1982. Occupational Outlook Handbook. USA, The Bureau.
Appendix: Interview questions Does Swinburne University of Technology have any policies and procedures to safeguard the employees’ health and safety?
Yes. The company has comprehensive and formalized occupational health and safety policy, procedures and emergency response procedures to ensure the safety of the employees.
Are the policies and procedures readily accessible by all the employees?
The occupational health and safety policy and procedures are accessible to every employee at the Policy and Procedures Directory of the institution.
What hazards are the Swinburne University of Technology employees and students exposed to in the daily conduct of their duties?
The employees are exposed to the risks of back injuries due to lifting, injuries from machines like conveyors and beverage fillers, the risk of slipping and falling in filling rooms because of wet floors, exposure to gases like carbon dioxide, and high levels of noise during the bottling process.
What preventive measures has the institution put in place to eliminate or reduce the risks that the employees are exposed to?
Health and safety performance is reviewed regularly. The institution offers safety and protective devices to protect the employees and students from risks while performing some tasks. The institution also promotes safe work practices and closely monitors the health and safety performance of the employees to ensure positive progress.
Are there occupational health and safety training programs at Swinburne University of Technology?
All newly hired employees receive rigorous safety training relevant to their roles. They are also briefed about the safety and health policies of the institution.
Are there occupational health and safety representatives at Swinburne University of Technology? If there are, do they effectively perform their functions?
There are Occupational health and safety representatives who meet regularly to discuss various health and safety concerns and notify the management of any arising matters. They monitor and advise employees on occupational health and safety procedures.
What practices do the employees and students follow in order to ensure their safety while working at the institution?
Employees should seeking advice before undertaking any unfamiliar task or experiments. In addition, all accidents must be promptly reported to the seniors. They should also make sure that they use the available safety and protective equipment when carrying out tasks that require this.
What laws should the University’s employers, supervisors and employees adhere to in the daily conduct of their business?
The institution should ensure a safe working environment for the employees. The employees should take care of their safety and that of other employees and members of the public during work.
The supervisors should train employees, encourage positive behaviour, and prevent harassment and discrimination of the employees. The employees should avoid putting themselves or their colleagues in danger.
Pantera Company’s Strategic Management Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help
Overview This essay examines the strategies adopted by Panera in growing its market share from a small firm to the current status it enjoys. Several strategies were implemented at Panera as outlined below:
The best strategy implemented by Panera was through its product offering. The company offers high quality meals that are produced on order. Its product differentiation separates it from other fast food restaurants which offer low grade burgers and fries. Its restaurants offer fresh bread, soups and salads which resonate easily with the customers’ dietary needs (York 25).
Panera owns several restaurants that are located in different strategic locations. Its restaurants’ location is an important strategy that ensures customers have easy access to these restaurants.
Franchising was vital in the growth of Panera in the USA; this is because the franchised stores helped in selling the Panera brand. Moreover, the company focused on increasing transactions per store/restaurant. The company’s main focus was getting more money per customer instead of getting more customers.
Panera invested a lot in offering in quality products and thus it changing itself as a high-end brand. The company’s products are pricey since the company believes in offering quality products at premium cost (Horovitz 1).
Panera core strategy lies with its customers in relation to serving the customers’ needs. Panera offers fast service and high quality food which contributed to its high customer growth numbers.
Global forces and Western European brewing Industry Essay essay help online free
PESTEL analysis of Western European Brewing Industry Political factors
Unfavorable attitude of European governments toward beer and alcoholic beverages, in general. These products are regarded as demerit goods which means that their consumption has to be restricted. This results in numerous legal regulations on the advertisement, marketing, and production of such products1.
The decrease in consumption of beer. In many European countries such as Belgium, Denmark, Norway, France, and the United Kingdom bear consumption level dropped significantly within the period between 2000 and 2007.
Merges in the industry due to global pressure of consolidation.
Economic recession in Europe and the United States2.
Growing concern about the dangers of alcohol consumption.
The changes in the buying behaviors of consumers, especially the growing popularity of wines3.
Increasing demand for alcohol-free beer.
Low birth rates in European countries4 and increase of population In Asian countries and India.
The development of new technologies which can facilitate the production and storage of beer. For instance, one can mention those technologies that improve beer recovery process or filtration5.
The demands to make brewing process more eco-friendly, for example, we can speak about the necessity to reduce the discharge of chemicals6.
The necessity to develop an alternative to conventional bottles or aluminum. cans. The main purpose is to make beer containers more recyclable. At the given moment, the influence of these environmental factors is not very strong but this issue can become much more urgent within the next two decades.
Stronger enforcement of laws prohibiting underage consumption of alcohol. For instance, one can mention such plan “Think 21” which is aimed at reducing the availability of alcoholic beverages to adolescents7. Similar laws and restrictions are imposed throughout Europe and the United States.
Tight governmental control over the production of beer.
Porter’s Five Forces The threat of new entrants
Currently entry barriers are very high because brewing industry becomes more consolidated, and the majority of the companies operating in this market are economies of scale.
According to the data, presented in the case study there are ten international brewing companies which control more than 30 percent of global market share8.
These corporations can pursue cost-leader policies, and new-comers will find it difficult to compete with them. Therefore, the threat of new entrants is not significant.
The threat of substitute products
Wine and some non-alcoholic beverages can be viewed as substitute products; however, drinking beer is rooted in the traditions of many countries and it is important from social point of view. This is why it is rather unlikely that this beverage will lose its popularity. Hence, the threat is more or less moderate.
The power of suppliers
The main suppliers of brewing companies are the packaging manufacturers and agricultural sector. Each of these industries is highly concentrated, for instance, there are only three can producers in the UK9, and breweries dictate their terms to them. The same thing can be said about the suppliers of barley or grains. Thus, the power of suppliers is relative strong.
The bargaining power of customers
The main buyers are supermarket chains such as Tesco or Carrefour. Brewing companies sell them approximately 67 percent of their products10. Thus, these customers are very important to breweries and they can make concessions to them, especially if we are speaking about the price. Thus, the power of customers is very strong and it can become even stronger.
The Intensity of competition
The industry is very concentrated and the competition between companies is very intense. In 2009, ten brewing companies produced more than 60 percent of global beer volume11. Under such circumstanced competitive advantages can be gained by introducing new products such as fruit-flavored beer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion PESTEL analysis and the study of Porter’s Five Forces indicate that brewing companies must be aware of the following challenges. Legal and social factors will produce the most adverse effects on this industry.
These companies should remember about changing lifestyles and increasing awareness about the dangers of alcohol consumption. The same thing can be said about legal restriction on the marketing of beer. This is why they need to emphasize the healthfulness of their products.
They must prove that beer should not be viewed by the governments as alcoholic beverage and a demerit good. In the future, they may have to increase the production of alcohol-free beer. Secondly, they should explore new markets for their products, especially in such countries as China or India.
The thing is that the consumption of beer in Europe can decline even more due to the decrease of population in this region. Finally, these companies should develop their own distribution networks in order to diminish their dependence on super or hypermarkets. At this point, they are the main customers of brewing companies.
The impacts of global forces on specific companies Anheuser- Busch InBev
The products of Anheuser- Busch InBev are well-positioned in the markets of different counties. This company possesses such famous brands as Stella Artois, Beck’s or Budweiser. Its main strengths are well-developed supply chain and close cooperation between various divisions 12.
This company ensures that the best practices are quickly shared across different breweries. However, it has some weaknesses as well. They have to manage more than 300 brands and this is quite a challenging task. Secondly, the legal status of this corporation is not secure since in many countries is viewed as monopoly.
The main strength of Greene King is that it has its distribution network. This company runs more than 200013 pubs across the UK. Hence, they are less dependent on hypermarkets. Moreover, many British customers feel strong affiliation to this brand. However, there are several significant weaknesses.
We will write a custom Essay on Global forces and Western European brewing Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, this company has not fully explored international markets and in the future they can suffer losses due to the decline of beer consumption in the UK. Additionally, in the recent year public image of this company suffered significantly, because it is accused of monopolizing the UK market and closing many local breweries.
The key strength of this company is that it is very well-posited in China, one of the largest markets in the world. Furthermore, this company has successfully entered European and American markets.
The main weaknesses of this organization are more related to its external environment. Tsingtao operates in a very regulated market and it can be controlled by the Chinese government. Finally, some of its brands are not familiar to European customers.
Reference List Blee M
Evolution of Childhood Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online: essay help online
True, conventional historians and official biographers have been writing about children over the years. Yet, the content of most of their work is practically fictional, devoid of any useful information and only contains distorted facts of childhood in the periods that they recount.
In Evolution of Childhood, Lloyd DeMause accuses most social historians, whose core work is to expose reality of social conditions in the past, of being apologists for brutal child abuse. He observes correctly and vindicates the fact that what constitutes infanticide, abandonment, swaddling and all other forms child abuse is a matter of objective fact.
Evolution of Childhood reviews the subject from a psycho-historical perspective by studying the psychological motivations surrounding the history of childhood. It introduces psychological principles and integrates insights of psychotherapy to understand the emotional origin of adult-child social behavior in the past. By so doing, DeMause attempts to provide an answer to the principal questions of comparative childhood history, which have been ignored for so long by conventional historians.
In his historical analysis of childhood, DeMause draws attention on those moments which often affect the psyche of the next generation. He explains the three possible adult reactions to a child’s needs: projective, reversal and empathic reactions, which ultimately go a long way to determine the way parents treat their children. The psycho-historian explains how historical change in human psyche has resulted in today’s more empathic parental care.
He brings out the concept of psycho-class or psychogenic modes, which provides an insightful periodic explanation of the influence of the society’s development on parent-child relation and style of childrearing.
DeMause describes six major psychogenic child-rearing modes in the most advanced countries. The psychogenic modes range from the time of antiquity to the mid twentieth century, and explain how parents began to develop the increasing capacity to empathize with their children.
Infanticide mode occurred between antiquity to the forth century A.D. Lloyd provides objective, factual information which shows that childrearing during this period was characterized by high infanticide rates, incest, rape, body mutilations, torture and rituals in which children were offered as sacrificial lambs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This period was closely followed by the Abandoning mode (forth to thirteenth century A.D) which was characterized by “swaddling, fosterage, apprenticeship”, and out side wet nursing (Dunlop 45). Ambivalent mode which occurred from the end of the Abandoning mode to seventeenth century saw the introduction of the very first child protection laws. Childrearing during this period, however, was still marked by shorter swaddling, enemas and child beating.
During the succeeding Intrusive mode in the eighteenth century, both parents were actively involved in childrearing. Most parents wanted the best for their children and gave them more attention. Yet, a handful of parents during this period were still keen on controlling the children’s behavior and minds. Though there were no more terror threats against the child, repression of a child’s sexuality and early toilet training was common place.
Parents during Socializing mode, in the twentieth century, enjoyed playing there role in child care. Though harsh physical discipline had stopped by this time, parents “still spanked there children and insisted on instilling parental goals” through psychological manipulation (Miller 38).
Childrearing in Helping Mode of modern day is characterized by more unconditional love and less psychological manipulation. In fact, children raised during this psychogenic mode are unarguably open-minded, physically fit, responsible and more sympathetic to others in the society. Compared to children in any other earlier generation, evidence shows that today’s child is gentler, strong-willed, never or less depressed and generally well bred.
Works Cited Dunlop, Jocelyn. English Apprenticeship and Child Labor, London: Allan Lane, 1912. Print.
Miller, Daniel. The changing American Parent: A study in Detroit Area, New York: Little Publishers, 1958. Print.
Small Medium Enterprise Report essay help online free
The definition of ‘Small Medium Enterprise’ is a complex issue and in most cases, it would vary from country to country, depending on certain variables. In most cases, it would depend on who is giving the definition and what they regard to be SME in their economical background. Generally, SME or Small Medium Enterprise refers to companies or businesses whose overall turnover is below certain levels or limits.
Some of the variables used in defining SMEs in most regions include things such as whether the enterprise is a service-based or goods-producing business, its size, and probably the number of workers they employ (Acs and Morck, 1997).
In Canada, for instance, Small business refers to businesses whose employees’ rate is below 100 in a goods-producing business or less than 50 employees for a business which is based on services. Anything beyond these cut-offs, but one that doesn’t exceed an employee rate of 500 would be classified under middle-sized enterprises.
Small-medium enterprises are observed to be more than large enterprises or businesses in most developed and developing economies world-wide (Fink, 1998). The most typical characteristics of Small Medium Enterprises in the whole world is determined by factors such as the size of business or its independent ownership; whether it’s a family enterprise or a group investment.
As it would be observed, there are many potential benefits that can be associated with SMEs and this explains the need for a vibrant small and medium-sized enterprise sector in any developing nation. One of the common key benefits of this type of enterprising is that they are important sources of employment in a country, especially for low-skilled labor.
Another outstanding benefit of SMEs is in their more flexibility capacity compared to large corporations and this makes them more sustainable. SMEs are also observed to have the significant advantage of being less mobile compared to large corporations; a feature which makes them more sustainable for development and advancements in emerging economies.
In countries such as the United States, various types of business administration would set different levels of businesses, based on ownership structure, industry type, revenue produced, and the number of employees (Asheim, 2007). As observed previously in this paper, there is hardly any universally accepted definition for SMEs and in that case, classifications of SMEs in the U.S. apply differently in various types of businesses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Basically, the United States International Trade Commission has defined SMEs as corporations that employ fewer than 500 employees, regardless of the context of the business (Chiao, 2007). In USA, SMEs are classified into two main classes known as the product SMEs and the service SMEs. Generally, both categories plays a crucial role to the development of the country’s economy and for that reason, the role of SMEs can never be underestimated at any value.
According to the U.S. International Trade Commission, SMEs contribute about one third of the total exports in merchandise products every year, with Canada being the largest destination for most of these exports (Man, 2007). SMEs have indeed proved to be a major source of employment in USA, by constituting for more than half of the private sector employment, thus leading to a constant growth of employment in the country.
More importantly, SMEs have always been significant contributors in matters of product, services, and processes innovations in the country. For these reasons, SMEs are highly regarded as promising initiatives that can effectively support the country towards a complete recovery from the longstanding effects of the 2007 financial crises, among other economical turbulences such as the current high rates of unemployment.
According to Qian (2002), the business environment in USA offers very slight challenges to the SMEs compared to large multinationals, and this provides the SMEs with a strong platform for sustainance.
A good example of an SME company in USA is Integrity Applications, Inc (IAI) established in the year 1998. This is a private engineering and software services company with a nationwide recognition across the states.
The business is categorized under ‘Consultant of Systems Engineering’ and is located in Chantilly, VA. Some of the company’s products and services include Space Systems engineering, Software Systems Engineering, Corporate Systems Engineering, Control Systems Engineering, and Enterprise Systems Engineering, among other services. Currently, it is estimated that the mid-sized company generates revenue of around $20 to 50 million in an annual basis.
The company has a workforce of approximately 100 to 250 staff, working on various segments of the organization. Integrity Applications Incorporated is arguably one of the fastest advancing consultant companies in the country in matters involving system engineering (Forth and Bewley, 2006).
We will write a custom Report on Small Medium Enterprise specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company was recently recognized as the second best medium-sized workplace in the ratings of the Best Small and Medium Workplaces in the U.S. More importantly, the company was also recognized as a key employer in the regions around San Diego and Washington, by the San Diego Business Journal and Washingtonian magazine, respectively. IAI has been in the forefront in steering the country ahead in innovative matters, through its qualified and highly-skilled professionals in software engineering.
References Acs, Z.J. and Morck, R. (1997). The internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises: A policy perspective. Small Business Economics, 9 (1), 7-20.
Asheim, B. (2003). Regional innovation policy for small-medium enterprises. United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Chiao, Y. (2006). Performance, internationalization, and firm-specific advantages of SMEs in a newly-industrialized economy. Small Business Economics, 26 (5),475-492.
Fink, D. (1998). Guidelines for the successful adoption of information technology in small and medium enterprises. International journal of information management, 18 (4), 243-253.
Forth, J. and Bewley, H. (2006). Small and medium-sized enterprises: findings from the 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey. New York: Department of Trade and Industry.
Man, T. (2007). The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises* 1: A conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies. Journal of Business Venturing, 17 (2), 123-142.
Qian, G. (2002). Multinationality, product diversification, and profitability of emerging US small-and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Business Venturing, 17 (6), 611-633.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Small Medium Enterprise by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
The Consumer Behavior in Hospitality Industry Report (Assessment) best college essay help
Introduction The business industry has recorded considerable growth in the recent past. Businesses in the local and global scene have expanded, with several investors being attracted to some common line of operations.
The increased number of players in the market for a particular product or service has led to the current high level of competition in the markets. In addition, consumers have a wide range of products and services from which to choose in order to satisfy their needs.
This has become a major challenge to business organizations. A business organization that is to survive in the contemporary market must be able to identify, understand, and respond to the needs of clients.
The firms should then develop products and services that are of high quality to meet the demands of customers. Nevertheless, the traditional business strategy of focusing on the maximization of the returns of the business organization no longer applies in the current market.
Despite a firm’s understanding of the needs of the clients, there is still a challenge in the final behavior of clients in buying and using the products and services. A firm may develop products and services that actually satisfy the needs of clients; however, other forces may influence the client who may end up buying and using alternative products in the market.
The customers often do not behave as predicted or as expected by the business organizations. For instance, a market research may show that customers are in need of a particular product and would be willing to buy the product if it is availed in the market.
An organization would then go ahead to avail much of the product into the market. Now, in certain instances, the customers may have other influences like extensive advertisement by a competitor after the market research. Such customers may end up buying the newly advertised product as opposed to the former product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first organization will then incur some losses due to this shift in attention. As such, apart from understanding the changing needs of clients and responding promptly to these needs, firms should have a thorough understanding of the buying behavior of the consumers.
Consumer behavior is the study of how customers (individuals or organizations) decide to buy a product, select and buy the product, use the product to satisfy their needs, and eventually dispose the product, and how this behavior affects the society (Perner, N.d).
A business organization will often succeed in its operation through effective customer satisfaction if it has a good understanding of buying behaviors of customers. This will enable organizations to channel their production towards products and services that meet these changing needs.
Moreover, this would involve developing completely new products, performing sales promotion and advertisements, offering competitive prices, or increasing the retail locations of a firm to serve several clients conveniently.
In general, sales and marketing managers in business organizations should carry out extensive researches to understand how information about a product is conveyed and processed by clients and eventually, how the clients make decisions to buy the products.
Several factors have been identified that affect the buying behavior of consumers. In relation to the factors, models have been developed that attempt to explain the likely behavior of consumers in respect to buying and using a given product or service.
However, these models have certain weaknesses. This paper focuses on some of the models used to explain the buying behavior of consumers with an insight on some of the weaknesses of each of the model. These models are considered in the context of hospitality industry.
We will write a custom Assessment on The Consumer Behavior in Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theoretical concept of Consumer Behavior It has been observed that it is very important for business organizations to consider why a section of the market consumers can have particular interests in their products. The firms need to understand how the clients make decisions on which products in the market to buy and where to obtain the products.
Several factors determine consumers’ final decision to buy a given product, and the firms have to identify and evaluate these factors.
This is the concern of consumer behavior, which involves a study of “how individuals, groups and organizations, select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and the society” (Perner, N.d). It is more than mere buying of products and services.
It is then evident that the concept of consumer behavior has certain aspects that should be of interest to the business organization. Firstly, the consumers here are considered as individuals, groups of individuals, or as organizations (Perner, N.d).
The buying behavior towards a given products can be influenced at these distinct levels. Several factors that are specific to an individual may determine his or her decision to buy a given product. Taste and preference, the financial status of an individual, the level of education, information about a particular product or service, or previous experience are some factors influencing buyer behavior at an individual level.
An individual may decide to buy a given product because he has knowledge and experience of the quality of the product. The buying behavior can also be influenced at a group level. The group with which an individual is associated will affect the individual’s use of a given product or service.
Peer group influence generally affects the social life of an individual and the subsequent products and services used by the individual. This is common in the hospitality industry. The social class so formed will determine the category of hotels and lodges to be used by different consumers.
The buying behavior of individuals can also be influenced in the organizational context. The management of an organization may decide in a particular product to be used by its employees, who are in turn influenced to buy the product.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Consumer Behavior in Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important to note that consumer behavior not only includes the products and services but ideas and information about these products as well. The way individuals receive and perceive information about a product or service, develop ideas about the products, and eventually how they make decisions are of key interest in studying the consumer behavior.
The environmental impact of a given product is of important consideration to a business organization. The effects of these products on the environment will contribute towards the position of the product in the market. The medium of disposal of a product after its use will determine the environmental impacts of the product.
Thus, the other significant aspect of consumer behavior is that it is not only concerned with the decision to buy a product but is also concerned with how the consumers use and dispose of the products (Perner, N.d). Most of the environmental problems are caused by poor disposal of waste products.
This provides a negative image to the product and the company dealing in the product. Knowledge of how a product is used by the consumers and the final method of disposal will enable the business organizations to position their products well in the market and attract more customers.
Another important aspect to consider is that the consumer behavior has significant impact on the society (Perner, N.d). The operations of an organization may have serious impacts on the economic, political, or social development in the society.
These effects are in turn influenced by the behavior of the consumers of the products of such an organization. A product may have harmful effects on the health of the individuals. However, the manufacturer of the product may engage in extensive advertisement and sales promotion for the product to win the interest of several consumers.
These individuals will end up using the products despite their negative consequences on the consumers’ health. Here, the poor consumer behavior has negative impacts on the society.
The ancient Decision-making models Various developments have been seen in the study of consumer behavior over the years. Different theories were developed to explain the decision-making processes by the consumer. One such theory is the Utility Theory that date backs to three centuries ago that was initially developed by Nicholas Bernoulli and extended by other economist.
The theory suggests that the decisions made by the consumers concerning a particular product or service are determined by the consumers’ expectations of the outcomes of the decision (Richarme, 2004). In other words, consumers will decide to buy a product or service when they expect the product to be of high quality and capable of meeting their needs.
This perspective portrayed the consumers as rational decision makers who able to foresee and quantify the possible outcomes of each of the alternatives that are available. The consumers would then settle on the alternative with a likely outcome that would best suit their needs.
This model had a weakness since the consumers are not that rational in decision-making and neither can they determine precisely the probabilities of these outcomes (Richarme, 2004). The consumers are often not aware of the forces that may affect the decision-making process (Bray, 2008, p.3).
As an alternative, another theory was developed that suggest that a consumer needs not to consider all the possible alternatives before making a decision as in the Utility theory (Richarme, 2004). Instead, he should go through the alternatives that are in close range and make a choice out of these alternatives.
This theory also had some shortcomings and other approaches were developed on these previous concepts. The issues of quality and value were later incorporated in the theories that explain the buyer’s behavior. Developments have continued in the approaches to the consumer decision-making models.
Decision-making models applied in the hospitality industry Unlike the other business organizations that deal in tangible products, the hospitality industry is mainly concerned with services. The consumers will be satisfied by the quality of the service provided as compared to the quality of the products in other business environment.
The quality of the service is in turn influenced by the interpersonal interaction as well as the human-environment interactions (Hui
Financial and Human Resource Management in Organizations Report essay help free: essay help free
Executive Summary This is a comprehensive paper which carries out a discussion on financial and human resource management as it applies to Rainbow Lighting Incorporated. The paper briefly highlights the company and the management problems that the company is facing. It further pinpoints the importance of applying the components or principles of the balanced scorecard in the management of the organization. This is contained in the introductory part of the paper.
The paper further carries a discussion on how different companies have applied the balanced scorecard to enhance efficiency in management of finances and employees. This is contained in the literature review section of the paper.
The paper develops a balanced scorecard for Rainbow Lighting Incorporated. The scorecard shows how the company should align its goals to the activities and operations in order to maximise on output. The paper explains the benefits that will come with the scorecard, and the change of operational behaviour as a result of applying the scorecard. However, this is after the scorecard for the company has been developed.
Lastly, the paper gives a conclusion on the working of the scorecard and the benefits of the scorecard. The paper gives a number of recommendations to Rainbow Lighting Company concerning the adoption of the scorecard in its management.
Introduction The Rainbow Lighting Incorporated is a wholesaler company that sales residential, light fixtures. These products are primarily sold to contractors, builders, home centres, lighting showrooms and hardware and electronic supply businesses. The management of the functions of the company seems not to be an easy exercise more so that the Rainbow Lighting performs more of sales activities.
The management of its employees who mostly engage in sales function has proven to be of big challenge that has led to a crush in the output of the company. The company has been facing stiff competition from other firms that deal in similar products.
It is very hard for many firms to achieve good performance when employees are not working in unison; or rather when the when employees are not working in response to a single source of coordination.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, many companies are opting to apply the principles of the balanced scorecard in the management of the employees and other functions of the companies (LaChance, 2006). The functions and activities of the company can be greatly improved if it adopts and utilizes the balanced scorecard in aligning its goals to the activities (Searcy, 2004).
Literature Review Spreitzer and Porath, 2012, observe that performance appraisal is an important tool that can be utilized in the management of employees of an organization. Organizations that have good performance appraisal systems in place have enjoyed good employee relations. Therefore, they have been able to maximize the input of workers and the resultant output of the firms.
Performance management combines many small elements of management that collectively ensure the successful management of employees of an organization. This is done to step up the performance of both groups and individuals within the organization. When it is being applied in organizations, performance management is seen in terms of a series of human resource management functions that focus on measuring the performance of employees.
These functions assess workers and give feedback response on the quality of work and assignments completed by the employees. It allows for open exchange of ideas and views that will help in streamlining programs that will ensure better performance in the future (Chari and David, 2012).
The recognition of the future potential of employees is a useful indicator of employee mobility and probable success in the career. Workers in organizations usually do have a big concern about evaluation of their work, which is carried out by their supervisors. Of the greatest concern is the outcome of the evaluations and their importance to the employees. Performance appraisal has no substantive meaning when it is not accompanied by reward.
Financial rewards are very much valued by the employees, thence, after carrying out a performance appraisal in the organization; best performers have to be given financial rewards as an appreciation for their remarkable performance. Most firms do carry out appraisals after the fiscal year has ended (Henderson, Raynor and Ahmed, 2012).
In performance management, the equal opportunities approach can be adopted. This approach centres on equality in pay and treatment of employees. Equality is based on legislation that comes from the human rights and human resource policies. Diversity management has been adopted due to the ineffectiveness of the equal opportunity approach.
We will write a custom Report on Financial and Human Resource Management in Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Diversity management covers all the variations in characters and qualification of employees and codes these factors in the performance and reward system of firms. Diversity management does not pay much attention to the legal and ethical theses of equality in organizations. It argues for a more objective look to diversity as it applies to the organizational business (McDougall, 1996).
The Balanced Scorecard Approach in Management Improving the performance of employees cannot be achieved in a day or a few days. It is a process that is conducted on a continuous basis. Management researchers have put forward a thesis, which implies that effective goal setting is critical in performance improvement within organizations. Effective goal setting cannot be used or based on as the major tool of achieving good performance. Many organizations do set very good goals.
However, the hardest task comes in the implementation process. Organizations fail to articulate the set goals and strategies leading to poor actions. When this happens, it becomes quite challenging to achieve the targets as laid down in the set goals. Therefore, performance can hardly be improved.
The problem of aligning organizational goals and focusing these goals towards the organizational programs has haunted organizations for a long time. The balance scorecard approach was developed in order to help mitigate this problem. This approach was developed in both the United States and Europe (Letza, 1996).
The balanced scorecard approach bases on measurable statistics. Metrics is utilized in the approach for the grouping of different though related organizational elements which are of importance to the success of the organization. The different categories of metrics do form a set of measures that assess performance.
This approach has been borrowed and applied in many organizations globally from the time it was developed. Organizations apply the approach differently though the basis of the concept still holds in all applications.
The concept has had good results in organizations where it has been utilized in management. By the year 2007, approximately one thousand top companies in the world had made use of the balanced scorecard approach in management (Chavan, M., 2009).
A balanced scorecard is composed of four major perspectives of management. These are customer, financial perspective of management, internal processes and learning and development in the organization. These four perspectives act as a basis in the formulation of the policies and targets of the organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Financial and Human Resource Management in Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most important thing to consider in the application of the balanced scorecard is the understanding of the interaction the four perspectives in the firm. Lack of clear understanding of the working of the four management components work leads to serious challenges in the application of the scorecard. The four perspectives interact as in the diagram below which was presented by Kaplan and Norton (Thompson and Mathys, 2008).
Figure 1.0: The interaction of elements in a balanced scorecard.
To further simplify the scoreboard, Kaplan and Norton later presented the scorecard in an aligned manner as it appears in the figure below.
Figure 1.1: The aligned balanced scorecard.
This eases the understanding and applicability of the scorecard for performance improvement.
Financial indicators were the main focus of the ancient methods of measuring performance of organizations. However, modern methods focus on both financial and many other indicators which include high quality services, skilled employees, intellectual capital, reliable and prompt services, and other intangible business processes and actions. The balanced scorecard captures both financial and non-financial attributes in management which touches on the betterment of employees.
In short, the balanced scorecard process entails clarity and translation of organizational vision into strategic and effective communication in linking the strategic objectives of the firm to the measures of attaining the objectives. The third stage involves planning, target setting and alignment of strategic initiatives. Lastly we have the enhancement of strategic feedback response and learning (Veltri, 2011).
The scorecard guides, controls, and channels the whole firm towards the realization of organizational goals. Also, it makes organizations establish a clear conception of its probable future. Standard Australia can be cited as a firm that has effectively borrowed into the principles of the balanced scorecard in its management. This is a non-profit organization and currently leads in the technical information and standards sector.
It serves as a representative of Australia on the International Standards Organization and the International Electro-technical Commission. The company has made use of integrated technology in the management of its workforce. Performance management technology allowed the management of the firm to carry out goal setting for individual employees, teams in the organization and goals for the whole organization.
Also, the management developed performance criteria, assesses the competencies of employees which helps it in the identification of weakness and strengths of the workforce and gives feedback. The challenges that face individual employees and groups are identified (Chavan, 2009). The approach links the output of individuals to the competencies on the platform of integrated human resource management. This helps in the streamlining of working patterns in the organization (Hoque and Adams, 2011).
The balanced scorecard can be utilized to increase competitiveness and enhance accountability in the academic departments or institutions. Two major problems do prevail in the academic accounting. The first one concerns the management of academic institutions. This is because the main source of academic leaders has for a long time remained to be individuals who failed to seek leadership roles.
These individuals enter the academia, or they lack the management experience outside the academic field. The second problem is presented by the rising pressure to foster implementation of change in managing the academic field. The pressures do come from the government as it puts a lot of funds into the academic programs. This is not replicated in the quality of graduates who come out of these institutions (Barndt, McGee and Cataldo, 2011).
The academic institutions need to govern by establishing goals and objectives of the institutions. This should be part of the components of the strategic plan. After this, the performance measures can then be developed on which the results will be evaluated. The collegiate form of management, which is an old form of management, is changing.
Basing on the scorecard the academic institutions have to set long-term goals and objectives. Resource management principles can guide academic departments in the academic institutions as it covers both assets and people in these departments. The collective efforts of the department are significantly valuable compared to individual efforts (Barndt, McGee and Cataldo, 2011).
Big companies apply performance measurement in the analysis of their programs, processes and their staffs. However, as a result of the weakness of this mode of management, the organizations are changing and adopting comprehensive performance evaluation which comprehensively covers almost all the components of management. This is well highlighted in the balance scorecard Ding and Beaulieu, 2011).
The learning and growth component of the balanced scorecard is inclusive of employee training and the corporate culture attitudes that relate to individuals and the improvement of the organization. The commonly cited measures of the balanced scorecard put more emphasis on the capabilities of workers, the availability of information systems in the organization, and motivation and empowerment of employees of the organization (Garengo and Biazzo, 2012).
Learning is not only based on training of employees but also includes the mentoring, easing of communication between and among workers and the utilization of technological tools. Metrics that base on internal business process enables managers of organizations to evaluate the running of the business.
They also assist in the evaluation of the level of conformity of the products and services to the needs or requirements of the customers. Such scorecards include coverage on processes of innovation, operational procedures, and services that accompany sales (Wu and Chang, 2012).
Method The application of the balanced scorecard has aided many organizations whether public or private in improving management thus making them improve their performance. Just like it has been applied in other firms, the Rainbow Lighting Incorporated can borrow into the four main tenets of the balanced scorecard and develop its balanced scorecard to boost the general performance of the firm.
Rainbow Lighting Company is a lean organization. It deals in large sales of products which do not have a lot of variations. Therefore, the four major areas that the company needs to improve in order to uplift the performance are the financial sector of the company, the customer relations of the company as it entirely depends on its customers for its operations.
If the company fails to make sales, it will loose grounds for operation resulting in a shutdown. The other two aspects that the company will focus on are employees of the company who conduct the most important functions of the company. Finally, the quality of products of the company will be addressed. All the four aspects must work in coordination and integration so that the organization can reach its objectives.
The general strategy of the organization will be at the centre of the four perspectives of management will be. The strategy of the organization includes the goals, aims and objectives of the firm. The major goal of the company is to improve finance and human resource management in the company.
Therefore, the four aspects will need to work in line with the strategy of the organization. Alignment of the four functions to the strategies of the firm will ensure that all plans of the firm are channelled towards organizational goals. In this case, it will be easy to achieve goals by way of eliminating malfunctions.
Considering the management challenges that are facing Rainbow Lighting, the company the strategy of the company will be revised to capture areas that will aid in the mitigating these drawbacks. These strategies include streamlining the management of the finances and assets of the company; improvement of the performance and delivery of employees of the organization; ensuring that the products of the company are of the quality that meets the needs of customers; and increasing the customer base of the organization.
Customer Focus The customers are attracted through the quality of products and services that a company deals in. the customer services will be bettered through adjustment of prices, quality check of the products, employee training on interaction with customers and the offering of customer services like discounts, gifts and after-sales service.
Employee Perspective The company will carry out performance management so as to attain a highly performing and productive workforce. The employees will be properly trained on various aspects of organizational functions and be rewarded for good performance after appraisal programmes have been run. Training will help the employees transferring their skills and abilities on the organizational duties.
Product perspective The company will ensure that the products that are sold to customers are of good quality. The procurement procedures of the company will be reset to ensure that the products form industries are properly assessed. In addition, the procedures will ensure that these products come from industries that are known to produce quality products.
Financial Perspective For the company to make profits, it has to ensure that it gets valuable output from the every financial resource that is used. This will be achieved through the improvement of accounting procedures.
Conclusion The challenge of management in this modern era of management of organizations has necessitated a change in the modes of management. Modern management focuses more on good management of organizational finances and the employees.
Performance appraisal is one of the management approaches that have been widely employed in human resource management. Also, the balance scorecard approach has been absorbed in management as it covers a wider scope of management of firms. Different organizations utilize the scorecard differently though the basis of the approach remains the same.
References List Barndt, RJ, McGee, CH and Cataldo, AJ 2011, Failure to Benchmark: An Out-of-Balance Scorecard at an Academic Institution. Management Accounting Quarterly, 12(2), 49-56.
Chari, MR, and David, P 2012, Sustaining superior performance in an emerging economy: an empirical test in the Indian context. Strategic Management Journal, 33(2), 217-229.
Chavan, M 2009, The balanced scorecard: a new challenge. Journal of Management Development, 28(5), 393-406.
Ding, S and Beaulieu, P 2011, The Role of Financial Incentives in Balanced Scorecard-Based Performance Evaluations: Correcting Mood Congruency Biases. Journal of Accounting Research, 49(5), 1223-1247.
Garengo, P and Biazzo, S 2012, Unveiling strategy in SMEs through balanced scorecard implementation: A circular methodology. Total Quality Management
Creation and Management of a New Venture Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Getting into business
Success factors for new ventures
Survival and growth of small business
Introduction For many years, entrepreneurs have played an important role in the global economy. They develop new business enterprises which create job opportunities, increase economic activities and steer innovation forward. Unfortunately, entrepreneurs remain an often ignored segment of the business context despite their positive influence on economic prosperity. In spite of decades of research into the segment, researchers have not come into consensus about the universal definition of entrepreneur.
Moreover, there is no common agreement about the exact characteristics and behaviors that describe entrepreneurs. Even though they operate across different sectors and environments, they still share important traits and behaviors. This paper investigates the wider context of the entrepreneur as the founder of business ventures.
There is a discussion of the founder including the traits and motivation to entrepreneurship. The factors that determine the success of a start-up business are investigated. The research is not complete without analyzing the transition from start-up to growing business and the two different situations.
The entrepreneur An entrepreneur can be defined as an innovator who establishes a new business enterprise offering new or existing goods and services in order to gain profit. A different definition is given by Mohanty (2005) as an individual who brings resources, materials, labor and other assets into an arrangement that increases their value and also introduces innovations, changes and new order (pp.1-2). Other definitions consider an entrepreneur as the person typically driven by some forces, the desires to achieve something, experiment, accomplish or escape the authority of others.
On a business perspective, he may either appear as an aggressive competitor or an ally who creates wealth for others and finds better ways of employing resource and generates jobs others are delighted to get (Wong et al., 2005). In almost all definitions, there is a general agreement that the behavior of an entrepreneur includes; initiative taking, resource planning and risk taking (Hisrich, Peters
Toyota Supply Chain Management Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Supply Chain Management is the management of activities (both up-stream and down-stream) involved in the production of goods and services for the ultimate consumption of the end-user. The management of these activities plays a very important role in the profitability and survival of an organization, to such an extent that its failure may mean the failure of the organization.
This is especially true in the present competitive business environment. Toyota motor industry has realized the importance of efficiently managing its supply chain in order to keep its costs and prices low and ultimately remain competitive in the overall motor vehicle industry from experience.
Toyota has achieved this so successfully that other organizations, even those outside the industry, have taken its measures and implemented them in their own production systems (Toyota, 2011).
History and Background of Toyota Japanese known as Kiichiro Toyoda started Toyota in 1937. The company first landed in America in 1957. Seven years later, it was already competing with the domestic manufactures quite fairly. Toyota has since grown to become the leading carmaker in the world, ahead of other giants in the industry, for instance, General Motors.
It has since started manufacturing plants in North American states such as Alabama, Indiana, Texas, Mississippi, Kentucky, California and West Virginia. Its growth has also seen the increase in the models of vehicles it produces for instance Prius, Corolla, Innova, landcruiser, Lexus, Camry, Fortuner and many more (Toyota, 2011).
To say the least, Toyota has redefined the motor vehicle manufacturing industry through low cost production, numerous models and the spread of its activities around the globe.
The Toyota Way/Toyota Production System has not only transformed the motor vehicle manufacturing industry but has been providing guidance on management issues for the past 5 decades or so. Other firms across all industries are increasingly adopting the principles provided in the Toyota Production System in their quest for managerial effectiveness and efficiency (Toyota, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Supply Chain in Toyota Toyota has a reputation world over for its unique Supply Chain Management system known as the Just-In-Time system or the Toyota Production System. Theirs is a method of obtaining raw materials at exact time of need and in exactly the amount required and producing finished products in exactly the right quantity.
This helps to avoid overproduction. Selling them at the right time to the right customer minimizes waste. This method identified wastes that otherwise go unnoticed as waste. However, its impact to the cost of production is tremendous.
They include; transportation, motion, wait, inventory, over production, over processing and defects. Its main goal involves avoiding these wastes. Kiichiro Toyoda first introduced this method and besides starting the Toyota Company, it is perhaps his greatest contribution.
In addition to the JIT system, Toyota applies the V4L principles in managing its supply chain. The V4L principles include the following (Toyota, 2011).
1. Variety in the products developed in order to meet a wide range of market demand therefore ensuring that Toyota has a large market share. Variety also ensures that all the stakeholders (suppliers included) are involved to ensure that the information provided clearly depicts the needs of the market.
As a result, Toyota is able to produce/manufacture vehicles that are suitable for use by different members of the population across the globe. This involvement of different stakeholders in the development of new products creates balance in the production system by helping to avoid waste and consequently reduces the cost of production (Halldorsson et al. 2007).
2. Velocity of the production flow is another key principle. Toyota uses a rate-based approach in enhancing the speed of production. Along with high levels of automation, this approach enables Toyota to mass produce vehicles and is therefore able to deliver its products, according to demand.
We will write a custom Essay on Toyota Supply Chain Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Toyota also has established distribution channels structured around its numerous manufacturing plants all around the globe and therefore ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in the distribution of its automobiles (Burt, Petcavage and Pinkerton, 2010).
3. Toyota is also very keen when it comes to the variability of deliveries and orders. It seeks to reduce variability and consequently reduce supply cost.
For instance, most of its vehicles spare parts. With this concept, the number of suppliers greatly reduces and the cost involved too. Visibility- this means that Toyota scientifically controls all processes to ensure that they are right and to enhance the process of learning from the processes (Burt, Petcavage and Pinkerton, 2010).
Development of New Products Toyota is among the leading investors in research and development with their research and development budget being billions of dollars in North America alone per year. However, this is not the only avenue that Toyota relies on when it comes to developing new products.
It relies heavily on the information that the various stakeholders collect from the market. With this information, Toyota is able to produce products that suit the diverse needs of its customers.
Supply Chain Management ensures quality in new products development through supplying quality raw materials, employing superior material handling methods to avoid damage, acquiring the services of reliable suppliers and providing feedback to enhance production (Toyota, 2011).
Purchase of Capital Equipment Toyota applies its lean system of Supply Chain Management in all its production area. Purchasing of capital equipment is amongst those areas. Toyota buys machines, plant and hires employees on a need-to basis.
This involves replacing the machines and hiring employees in a controlled manner to continue with optimum production immediately and at the same time avoid idle machines and labor. Toyota procures capital equipment mainly through tendering or using previous suppliers who have had a relationship with the company in the past.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Toyota Supply Chain Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Outsourcing Outsourcing has become a trend in today’s business environment and Toyota is no exception of the firms that are increasingly outsourcing goods and services.
It is not possible for the firm to produce every component that it requires in the production of its vehicles and even if it was possible to produce all this components it would be more expensive as it may mean having other all different plans and work set-ups (Halldorsson et al. 2007).
Outsourcing also allows the firm to concentrate on the core business of the firm and hence giving the firm room to be more efficient and effective in doing its core business.
It also allows the firm to gain access to higher-level expertise and experience. This may be unavailable within its staff or which is expensive to employ. Other benefits include legality of the process done on contractual basis, risk avoidance, tax benefit, commoditization and many more.
An example of components that the firm outsources includes wheels and oil. Toyota, a multi-national company, gets its suppliers all over the word as long as they provide what the company requires and for a reasonable price in accordance with the firm’s intentions (Liker, 2004).
Legal and Contract Issues Since Toyota is a multinational company, it has to be very carefully in the implications of the different legal climates on its activities. It also has to take caution so that its activities do not adversely affect any third party and the environment in which it operates.
Therefore, Toyota exercises careful measure such as signing of contracts between the firm and its customers before effecting transactions and bearing losses that may arise from the sale of erroneous vehicles.
To this effect, Toyota has severally recalled defective vehicles for repair consequently incurring the costs involved in order to avoid lawsuits (Halldorsson et al. 2007).
Toyota is also a heavy investor in the campaign on preserving the environment. It is in fact among the first automobile manufacturer to direct its efforts at manufacturing eco-friendly vehicles especially with the introduction of its Prius model.
Moreover, it has a very strong legal department, which irons out any legal issues that the firm may face. In addition, all of its transactions with outside parties are on contractual basis. This helps to seal any legal loopholes that may arise.
Production and Inventory Control Measures Toyota Production System requires great measure in controlling the inventory. This is because the firm operates at the least inventory level possible. If not well managed Toyota Production System could end achieving the exact opposite of what it was initially intended to achieve. This could be in form of very low inventory levels such that it leads to production paralysis.
This could lead to delayed delivery of finished goods to customers and therefore loss of market share and goodwill and ultimately the risk of having to stop operating altogether. Therefore, Toyota employs Toyota Production System carefully so that the firm does not risk falling out of business.
Moreover, the firm has to have trusted suppliers for it to implement the Toyota Production System successfully. This is because suppliers are an integral part of this type of supply chain in that they tend to interact with the firm on a more frequent basis unlike in other Supply Chain Management Systems (Toyota, 2011).
Scheduling involves deciding when to make a certain program and which staff and machines to use in the process of making the product. It is a very important function of a production process because it helps to reduce the costs of production and the time used in the production of a certain product.
This process perfectly fits into the Toyota Production System as it seeks to eliminate waste of both time and costs same as the Toyota Production System.
Toyota use both forward and backward scheduling, whereby it produce some vehicles based on the orders placed (backward scheduling) and others it produces based on resources availability (forward scheduling).
This ensures that it delivers the vehicle ordered on time and at the most efficient cost possible and at the same time produce other vehicles such as new unknown models to cater for those customers who have not placed orders.
However, with the increased demand for customization of vehicles and other goods for that matter, backward scheduling is better preferred to forward scheduling to achieve customer satisfaction (Halldorsson et al. 2007).
Product scheduling helps to increase efficiency in the production process by saving both time and resources. It also helps achieve customer satisfaction and hence loyalty by helping to fulfill the firm’s delivery dates immediately, this helps the firm to maintain its market share.
Proper scheduling also helps to keep inventory very low and as a result saves costs (Halldorsson et al. 2007).
The Toyota Production System operates on the principles of pull demand systems. This is where the firm seeks to find out what the consumer wants and then goes ahead to produce based on that information.
This is possible because of the fact that customers can place their orders and then wait for the manufacture of their vehicles. With the help of the internet and the efforts towards market research, Toyota has been able to operate in this type demand system to achieve its high sales.
However, Toyota also employs the push system of demand especially when selling new models and selling to those customers who have not placed their orders. The pull system’s intention is to avoid overproduction, which in itself is a waste.
Inventory Functions and Analysis
The Toyota Production System highly discourages keeping or holding any kind of inventory unless it is necessary to do so.
Along with transportation, motion, overproduction, over processing, defect and wait, inventory is seen as capital outlays that has not borne any profit or return to the firm and for this reason its highly discourage.
This system of production encourages the firm to keep minimal levels of inventory in order to avoid incurring inventory costs, which include keeping capital idle (Halldorsson et al. 2007).
However, it is almost impossible for a firm to operate with zero levels of inventory. At one particular time the firm will require more resources than it can deplete in a day and it will therefore hold the extra even if it’s just overnight.
Another time the firm will not complete it work on a product in one day and will therefore keep holding it until it has finished working on it. Normally when the firm has finished working on a product, the product does not go on sale immediately and as a result, the firm has to hold the product until it can sell it or send it to the distributors.
The above examples show that holding inventory is sometimes necessary and important. In addition, the firm holds inventory to cushion itself against any unforeseen demand change and avoid missing new markets.
Relationship between Supply, Demand, and Logistics in Toyota Part of the major roles of the Supply Chain Management Department is to be able to harmonize demand and supply of the products affecting the firm. In Toyota, it is not any different. The demand for vehicles has been rising exponentially over the past decades this has prompted Toyota to respond by increasing its supply of vehicles to the market.
Toyota opened plants in countries all over the world. In some countries, the company opens multiple plants. This development has seen Toyota rise to become the leading automobile producer in the world. This is mainly because of its efforts to manufacture vehicles even for low-income earners in economies across the globe (Hanson et al. 2011).
Logistics is the process of managing the flow of activities, goods and services that are involved in the production process. It involves transportation of the resources and people from one point to the other, holding and managing inventory, packaging and security.
The Toyota Production System discourages any unnecessary transportation either within or outside the plants. Therefore, it seeks to design work lay outs that minimize the amount of movement while a product is being worked on.
It has also built plants all over the globe nearer to the resources in order to avoid transporting the raw materials over long distances. This effort enables Toyota to keep its production costs at a very low level and with this in place; it is able to sell its vehicles at a reasonable lower price than most of its competitors (Hanson et al. 2011).
Conclusion Toyota Production System has really revolutionized the Supply Chain Management of the whole world.
It has led to companies avoiding waste, reducing the lead-time, improvements in quality assurance and greatly strengthened the relationships between firms, its suppliers and customers by providing an avenue for interactions. It has also helped reduce uncertainty as firms can now produce their products according to orders (Toyota, 2011).
Toyota Production System has many benefits to the organization in which it is applied. Firstly, it strengthens the relationship between the organization and its suppliers as the suppliers are busily involved in the development of the vehicles.
Secondly, it reduces waste (muda) involved in the production process, which may be in terms of inventory, motion, transportation et cetera.
Thirdly, it ensures maximum utilization of the available resources such as maximum employment of machines to ensure optimum production and having employees with multiple skills working at different sections of the production process allowing workers to work where they are required when they are required.
Lastly, Toyota Production System allows regular supply over the production process, this allows for modification of the supplies to suit the demand. It is therefore easier to customize the vehicles to meet customer demands (Toyota, 2011).
Toyota Production System advocates keeping very low or no inventory. This means that replenishing inventory should be continuous. However, uncertainty affects this process, which may lead to the interruption of the production process.
In addition to the interruptions, the constant buying of inventory may see varying prices of the inventory due to variations of demand, which occur almost daily. It is also not possible to clearly ascertain what to order, in what quantity and when in all the processes of supply chain.
This is because some products are not in Toyota’s control entirely. For instance, a farmer who deals with wheat cannot exactly determine the amount of wheat he is going to harvest in the next season because he depends on the rain to which he has no control.
Moreover, demand is highly uncertain and companies have to keep some level of inventory in order to cushion themselves from unforeseen changes in demand. Even with the Toyota Production System, Toyota has to hold inventory to some level. For instance, Toyota’s iron or steel mining is not possible for any particular order specification. However, mining and storage for future use is possible (Liker, 2004).
References Burt, D. N. Petcavage, S. D.
Effects of the Second World Essay (Book Review) online essay help: online essay help
Thesis statement: Canada participated fully in the Second World War until 1945. Although it emerged triumphant, many problems were witnessed later on. The main problem was cultural integration between immigrants and Canadian natives. This paper analyzes the effects of the Second World.
After participating in the in the Second World War, soldiers came back victorious in 1945 with a lot of optimism and apprehension. Canadian contribution in the war earned it respect from major world powers.
The great depression that came after the events of the Second World War left many people depressed and deprived economically. It took the country several years to adjust to the postwar state of affairs. The years between 1945 and 1950 were very important because they are the foundation of modern Canada.
The war affected Canadians in a number of ways especially in the economic front. The state changed its foreign policy mainly to strengthen diplomatic relations with one of the superpowers- the United States. This meant that previous ties with Britain had deteriorated.
Canadian population had increased mainly because of immigration. Other communities sought refuge to Canada because of its peaceful environment. During the Cold War, Canada was forced to participate fully since it was a supporter of capitalism. The Gouzenko Affair was a real test for Canadian authorities.
Canada was persuaded to arrest the agent after suspicion that he was involved in spying the government over nuclear technology. Between 1948 and 1957, Canada emerged as one of the influential states in the world politics. The period is popularly referred to as Golden Age.
Lester Pearson and Louis St. Laurent are the leaders associated with Canadian fame during the Golden Age. Pearson understood the importance of hegemonic powers in the world affairs since he was a distinguished historian. He later on became the country’s Prime Minister in 1963.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His rule strengthened Canada’s position in the international system (Chapnick 107). Pearson could influence the world powers such as the US and Britain to appreciate Canada’s contribution to the global affairs. For instance, he contributed in the establishment of North Atlantic Organization Treaty (NATO), which is a major political and military organization in the modern world. Canada has never been the same again since 1963.
The inconsistencies and conflicts in war torn British controlled regions influenced Canadian population. This is because many people migrated to Canada, which brought about changes in socio-cultural and economic development. Cho argues in her book that Chinese preferred a shift to Canada because they had relatives there.
The Second World War caused many social and economic problems in Canada. Soldiers came back with many children implying that the state was unable to provide quality life to all individuals. Cho examines that Chinese and other immigrants were forced to survive at the mercy of the bourgeoisie.
Wealthy Canadians mistreated immigrants and other low wage laborers because they had no alternative. Lily Cho elucidates that formation of classes and accumulation of resources worsened the conditions of foreigners in the state. Cultural values were not respected at all. Material accumulation was the priority of each individual meaning that capitalism had taken root in the country.
However, the Chinese advanced their culture through meals implying that they prepared rare banquets that distinguished them from other groups in society. Cho shows that Chinese efforts to bolster their culture through food did not prevent them from being oppressed by the powerful in society (Cho 86).
The Second World War caused more harm than good to Canadians. Population increased and subsequent struggle for scarce resources contributed to social evils such as crime and prostitution.
Cho’s findings are valuable and applicable to the understanding of Canadian history. The only problem with her postulations is that she presents Canadian society as having only a single conflict. Canadian history can be explained in a number of ways. Cho does not discuss the issue of women such as their struggle to freedom. She only focuses on the conflict between Chinese and colonialists.
We will write a custom Book Review on Effects of the Second World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Chapnick, Adam. The Middle Power Project: Canada and the Founding of the United Nations. McGill: University of British Columbia Press, 2005.
Cho, Lily. Eating Chinese: Culture on the Menu in Small Town Canada, cultural spaces. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
Louise Bourgeois’ Art Essay college admissions essay help
Bourgeois, a French woman, was a famous artist who died from a heart attack on at 98 years old. She had a painful childhood experience which became “the grist to her mill of artistic”. Her mother died when she was eight and this affected her psychologically.
Bourgeois started her career in art in the late 1940’s after moving to New York. Her art express the theme of loneliness, anxiety and betrayal. Most of her work was constructed from scrap metal and wood which she used to curve sculptures, in he fifties, she made transitions from metal and wood sculptures to marble, plaster and bronze (McCrae 1).
Her sculpture, Maman, is one of the largest and the most impressive sculptures in the world. It was first displayed outside the Tate museum in 2000. The idea of the sculpture comes from the strength of her mother which means “spinning, nurture, weaving and protection”. Maman is 30 feet tall and 9 meters female spider made from stainless steel.
Under its belly it carries 26 eggs, arguably for protection, which are pure white marble. The spider itself is black in color, and Louise made sure that the placements of the legs of the spider were strong so as to support it.
She gave it a mystical character because the eggs the spider holds give it a sense of vulnerability and it also brings out the sense of her protective nature. To some the sculpture is fantastic while to others it is scary and that its presence brings back painful memory to her (McCrae 1).
Source: McCrae, Trisha. Louise Bourgeois. Maman: From the Outside In. 15 April 2000. Web.
Bourgeois artwork is related closely to Wojick’s work. The ideas relating to overcoming personal struggle that I found present in Wojick’s pieces were even more apparent in Bourgeois’s work. The majority of Bourgeois’s work relates to her early childhood experiences and shows a sexual and dark side of art.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She believes that a key part of art is a about “expressing struggling, loneliness and pain.” Her sculptures of massive spiders take a phobia held by many and amplify it, by making a normally small creature in to a large and powerful creation.
Visual response Source: Wojick, Amanda. Amanda Wojick: Scuptures. 2009.Web.
A large part of her work takes sculptures of body parts intertwined that suggests a very sexual nature. This suggests Bourgeois was sexual abused at a young age and now deals with this pain by expressing it within her artwork. I found Bourgeois’s use of pain and struggling in her artwork interesting and decided to pursue it more.
Art sometimes amazes me, this spider looks like a real life giant spider dominating its surrounding with power and dignity. This was Bourgeois’s of showing her personal appreciation for her mother, and showing an intimate relationship she shared with her mother.
I agree with analysts that this spider is both metaphorical and symbolical that it “a gigantic spider acting as Bourgeois’s transitional space”. In a complicated way, Bourgeois had to choose a spider, a small but threatening creature.
This spider reminds me of a movie, “The Eight Legged Freaks” directed by Ellory Elkayem in 2002. Giant spiders developed to become “gigantic spiders” as a result of exposure to toxic waste. They become perfect killing machines.
I sense a lot of similarity because the movie was dedicated to the producer’s mother who died of cancer. Spiders are very protective and can become very poisonous and harmful. Coming closer to the spider’s legs, you can feel the safety and maternal presence felt by the huge white marble eggs. This is the same feeling you get when you read Bourgeois’ ode to her mother:
We will write a custom Essay on Louise Bourgeois’ Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Spider is an ode to my mother. She was my best friend. Like a spider, my mother was a weaver. My family was in the business of tapestry restoration, and my mother was in charge of the workshop. Like spiders, my mother was very clever.
Spiders are friendly presences that eat mosquitoes. We know that mosquitoes spread diseases and are therefore unwanted. So, spiders are helpful and protective, just like my mother (Findlay and Mallabar 2)
In her art, it’s evident that Bourgeois’s dependency on her past life is a significant source of her inspiration. Like a small child, she continuously relies on her mother to offer her “a shoulder to cry on”.
Works Cited Findlay, Ruth and Daisy Mallabar. Tate acquires Louise Bourgeois’s giant spider, Maman. 11 January 2008. Web.
McCrae, Trisha. Louise Bourgeois. Maman: From the Outside In. 15 April 2000. Web.
Wojick, Amanda. Amanda Wojick: Scuptures. 2009.Web.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis Term Paper essay help free: essay help free
Cystic Fibrosis is a hereditary disease that is passed from the parents to their children via the genes though it is not necessarily a must that the parents must be suffering from the disease for their kids to inherit it.
It is a disease that affects the breathing process in the respiratory mechanism and the breakdown and absorption of food in the digestive system of a human being (Ratjen, 2008). This occurs when the glands produce excessive mucus within the human body.
This mucus accumulates in the lungs and other passages responsible for the transport of air, thus limiting the amount of air inhaled. In some other cases, mucus may be deposited in the pancreas and this reduces the rate at which food is broken down and absorbed into the bloodstream. This mucus is generally bluish in color and very thick.
Mucus plays an important role in the human body because it covers specific body organs which are prone to infections especially when exposed. Such organs include the lungs and pancreas which are vital organs in the human body.
For instance, this mucus is found lining the nose tract which traps dust, smoke particles and the excess moisture in the air as it passes into the lungs. However, so much build-up of mucus causes Cystic fibrosis which is a life- long threatening disease to the human life.
Pancreas is responsible for the production of digestive enzymes. When this mucus accumulates more than it is useful, it blocks tubes in the pancreas which transport these enzymes down to the small intestines where digestion takes place.
As a result, food passes down undigested, a condition which leads to constipation and thus a swollen belly (Hyde and Gill, 2008). A lot of nutrients are taken out as waste and therefore the body does not benefit from the food.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to the reduction in the amount of food absorbed in the body, malnutrition and weight loss occurs and as a result, it becomes easy for other diseases to develop in the body of person who is undergoing through these problems.
If the parents of the affected kids were well-informed on how to provide a balanced diet for these kids, their bodies would develop immunity which would ease the effect of this disease and also get out of the danger of contracting other diseases.
Good health of the body of a person plays a major role in fighting diseases. An infant with ill-health experiences retarded growth both mentally and physically, but a healthy one develops fast and therefore no late maturity.
Cystic fibrosis also affects the reproductive system in men where this mucus clogs the sperm tubes and thus, the sperms stop flowing from the testes. This condition makes men infertile and at times, this blockage leads to death of the affected. To women, the condition alters ovulation cycles mostly the alteration of the ovulation cycle is very common to the underweight women. This condition results to infertility of the woman.
Cystic fibrosis has in the past claimed many lives mainly in the poor families who lack money to pay for its treatment. It is a disease that goes on getting complex as the infant ages and therefore, there is a need for early treatment.
Pregnant women should seek an assistance in maternity during labor. After birth, the weight of the child should be checked among other things where in case any abnormality is found, tests should be made and the necessary treatment done (Verkerk, Jeukens, Kok and Nollet, 2009).
If the treatment is delayed, lung and intestinal infections result where surgery and at other times organ transplant is the only way to save the victim. Before a person is claimed to be suffering from this disease, symptoms must be looked at after which tests and diagnosis are done. In the past, cystic fibrosis was not clearly understood and therefore, even the treatment was a challenge.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Diagnosis and Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With the current advancement in knowledge and technology in the previous years, it has been known that although cystic fibrosis has no cure, it can be managed. To manage this disease, people are encouraged to ensure that they take a good nutrition daily and be physically active.
Physical exercises are encouraged as they improve the energy formation and muscle buildup. Exercises such as walking, running and swimming make a person to cough and therefore, for the case of a cystic fibrosis’ victims, he/she will cough and thus remove sputum from the gastric tract making it easy to breathe.
Doing such exercises enables all the body organs remain functional thereby reducing the rate at which these organs decline on their function and therefore, an individual who is suffering from cystic fibrosis has higher chances to live a more healthy and longer life. If such methods of fighting this disease were known earlier, many lives that were lost would probably have been saved.
As a way to help the affected people, there is a need to offer education to the public about cystic fibrosis. It is clear to many people that most diseases are transmitted from one individual to another through different ways, one of which is through contact.
People may fear interacting with such victims but there is a need to understand that cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease. It can only be passed through genes from the parent to the child and for this to happen both parents must contribute a gene that is faulty.
Through such education, the cystic fibrosis’ victims will benefit through appreciation and acceptance in their families and the society at large. In this way, children will get an equal opportunity to learn as the others and to those who survive to adulthood; they will achieve their goals and will live a stress-free life.
These people with cystic fibrosis can cope up with the situation by talking openly to their loved ones and parents about how they feel and especially for the case of teenagers. In this way, victims will feel relieved and enjoy socializing with others.
Further, the parents of such children with the disorder need to take them to others with the same disorder to meet and talk since this will ease the feeling of emptiness and loneliness. For a child to develop effectively both physically and mentally regardless of his/her deformity, he/she requires understanding and assistance. Traditionally, children were treated harshly and at times were given duties that were hard for them to tackle (Richard, 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Diagnosis and Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This kind of life stresses a kid and alters his/her development. If ways of supporting these victims were known during the past years and put into practice, they would have an easy time and probably live a longer life, despite their condition. This is a clear indication that possessing of prior knowledge about the disease can help to improve the ability of the patient to cope (Hyde, Stephen, Gill and Deborah, 2008).
Symptoms of cystic fibrosis differ from one kid to another and also depend on the state of the disease; some may be clearly evident while others may be not. For instance, so much salty sweat may be an indication of this disease.
This salty sweat makes the kid lose a lot of water and this causes mineral imbalances in the body and may lead to health problems such as dehydration among others. Other signs of cystic fibrosis include wheezing and persistent coughs.
This shows that the gastric tract is blocked by mucus. Advanced researches on the possible cure for the disease have come up with such medications as antibiotics and steroids which help to loosen mucus produced (Bourdelais, Abraham and Baden, 2009). This helps reduce the effect of sticky mucus mostly in the lungs which causes breathing difficulties.
There is a great importance for the mothers and fathers to look back on their relatives to see whether there were some people who suffered from cystic fibrosis because they may be carrying these faulty genes. If both the wife and the husband have relatives who once suffered from this disease, there are high chances that they will bring up an infant with cystic fibrosis and therefore, they should take their kids for a medical checkup at an early age to avoid complications later on (Huang, Gottschalk, Pian and Dillon, 2007).
This will play a major part in reducing the number of infants who are aging into young adults with the disease having not been identified.
There is an extensive need to provide more education regarding cystic fibrosis to the public. Health extension officers have the duty to offer this education and matters regarding nutrition. Turning on to the parents, they should ensure that they seek for medical care in times of labor and also make sure that their infants are given all the vaccines in order to fight diseases.
Doctors should undertake all tests possible that would help to tell a kid suffering from cystic fibrosis in order to start proper medication to the kid to ensure proper growth. Co-curricular activities need to be emphasized in all institutions. The heart and lungs, which are the most organs subjected to the infection, are exercised and research has found that these exercises improve and prolong the working efficiency and lifetime of the organs.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that a possession of knowledge about the disease is of great relevance to the patient. Such patients can have better abilities in order to ensure that all precautionary measures are taken. Patients with adequate knowledge about their condition can use it in case of a crisis such that the effects of the disease are mitigated.
It is worth noting that understanding of this disease by the patients also helps them have better cognitive predisposition of their ability to cope. Knowledge leads to less resentments and any other form of misinformation that may characterize the behavior of the patients. Thus, a person with the required knowledge on the disease and its effects may manage it more effectively than a person who lacks the knowledge of the disease and its effects.
References Bourdelais, A. J., Abraham, W. M., and Baden, D. G. (2009). Polyether Brevetoxin Derivatives as a Treatment for Cystic Fibrosis, Mucociliary Dysfunction, and Pulmonary Diseases. Freepatentsonline. Retrieved from www.freepatentsonline.com
Huang, S. J., Gottschalk M., Pian M., and Dillon, L. (2007). Transition to Adult Care: Systematic Assessment of Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and their Medical Teams. Journal of Pediatrics 151 (1), 994-998.
Hyde, C. S., and Gill, R. D. (2008). Ignoring the nonsense: a phase II trial in cystic fibrosis. The Lancet 372(9640), 691-692.
Ratjen, F. (2008). Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. Human Gene Therapy 9 (2), 144- 148.
Richard, K. J. (2008). Crisis intervention strategies. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Verkerk, G., Jeukens, M., Kok, J., and Nollet., F. (2009). Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Improves Independency in Mobility at Preschool Age. Journal of Pediatrics 154(1), 933- 938.
Iphone Demand and Supply Theories Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Rise of Iphone
Factors Affecting Supply And Demand of The Iphone
Elasticity or Inelasticity of Demand of a Product
Introduction While bringing various commodities into the market, suppliers have to find a way to bring in a commodity of good quality in order to attract a good market but the most important knowledge to have is how to avoid losses at the same time satisfy the consumers of the product.
All this knowledge will have to be an application of the economics demand and supply theory. This means that the producer will have to satisfy the consumers’ demand for the product and at the same time producce the commodity at a price that he will be satisfied.
This period makes analysis of how it has been behaving in the market clear. An analysis of Iphones in the market for the past few years explains better how the theory of supply and demand works. This paper therefore, discusses the economics theory of demand and supply while applying the theory in how the production, demand and sale of Iphones have been in the last few years.
The Rise of Iphone Since the launch, of the Iphone, it is evident that the demand of the product has been increasing, and there is fear that the latter may be overlapping the supply of the product. According to the laws of demand and supply, this behavior can be seen as a positive demand shift.
In definition, it is a point where the demand of a product increases. Cases of increase in demand may occur during holiday seasons, or when a product becomes more popular in a market. The law of demand states that when the value of either a good or service is low, then the demand is high.
However, when the price of a commodity is high, then the demand of that product decreases. On the other hand, when the price of a commodity is high, then the supply of that commodity is high, and when the price is low, the supply is also low. This falls under the supply law.
When there is a shift in demand, either negatively or positively, there will be a definite need for change in price and quantity of thee product to have a balanced equilibrium point. In other words, when if the consumers for a particular product increase, there should be an increase in supply of that product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the same case, according to the demand and supply law, when there is a demand shift, there should be an increase in the equilibrium price as well as the equilibrium quantity of that product. In the case of the production of the Apple Iphone, it seems that the supply of the product has been having trouble meeting the increased demand for the product. According to reports last year, it has been a fear that due to increased demand that outruns the supply; Apple may lose its consumers to alternative phones1 (Deffree 45).
Factors Affecting Supply And Demand of The Iphone In economics, the increase or decrease of a commodity pricing can be caused by several factors. In the supply law, if the production of a commodity is low, then the pricing is low. Other causes of a commodity pricing decrease include the ability to produce the commodity with cheaper means.
In the case of the Apple firm, the pricing of the iphone has gone incredibly low. For instance, the Iphone 3G today coasts over $200 less than when it was launched. In addition, the phone is said to have better applications in terms of speed among others.
This slash of pricing has been caused by the improvement in technology in that there has the firm has found easier means to produce and even better quality product. Therefore, in the question of pricing of the Apple Iphone, the Firm might have followed the law of demand and supply.
With the popularity of the product, it has been evident that the demand for the product continues to increase, and therefore in a demand supply curve, there should be a demand shift on the right side of the graph. According to the demand supply law, with a shift in demand, the price as well as quantity of a product should increase.
If it fails to increase, the graph may suffer an in-equilibrium. This might be happening in the sale of the Iphone because there is a hiked demand for the product; yet, the supply has not met the former. In the case of the prices, Apple might be using a unique strategy in that the older version of Iphones continue to reduce in prices, but other better versions of the same phone are brought to the market, at a higher price.
For instance, the Iphone 3 has continued to be supplied only at a cheaper price. Better yet, Apple has recently launched its newest Iphone 4 at a higher price. Somehow, the firm seems to try balance the price equilibrium by introducing the newest make of the Iphone in a hiked price. However, the firm might still have a problem in governing the quantity equilibrium, and there might be an evident shortage in supply of the popular product.
We will write a custom Essay on Iphone Demand and Supply Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Elasticity or Inelasticity of Demand of a Product In the question of elasticity or inelasticity of demand of a product, Apple’s Iphone should be easy to analyze. In the first place, elasticity in demand of product relies on several factors which include, accessibility or availability of products that can substitute the basic commodity, income of the consumer which enables him to consume the good and time that a consumer may use to stop using a particular commodity.
In the case of Apple’s products, the Iphone is an elastic product on demand. This is because the product is in a competitive market whereby consumers may opt to use other smart phones with similar applications. So, if the price of the Iphone goes high beyond the consumer’s meet, then, it is very easy for them to look for substitute products. At the same time, if the supply of the product is low, then the sale of the product would not be successful because consumers may opt to look for alternative products.
According to the economics theory of pricing and revenue, it is only logical that if the prises of a product increase, then the revenue should increase. With the improvement in technology, Apple has been able to produce high quality product which have quite a show of demand.
Even though, the prices of the new products including the Iphone4 and the new Mac handbook are high, consumers seem to be quite interested in the product. The hiked prices of the new products should therefore, bring an impact in revenue during a particular period. According to the company’s reports, the revenue has risen from $99.9 billion to $108 billion as at the year20112 (Zielenzier 3).
Conclusion In my opinion, Apple may have success in increasing prices of some of its products ,which is an, eventual gain in the company. In the law of demand and supply, the company seeks to reach different markets with different products and at varied prices, which in my opinion, seem to stabilize the supply and demand equilibrium.
Works Cited Deffree, Suzanne. IPhone 4 supply and demand issues could hurt Apple brand. New York: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Zielenziger, David. “Apple’s Report: Annual Revenue Tops $108 Billion.” International Business Times. Ibtimes.com., 18 Oct. 2011. Web.
Footnotes 1 Deffree, Suzanne. iPhone 4 supply and demand issues could hurt Apple brand. New York: Cengage Learning, 2011.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Iphone Demand and Supply Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 2 Zielenziger, David. Apple’s Report: Annual Revenue Tops $108 Billion. 18th october 2011. Washington : International business times. 11th november 2011.
Strategic Management science or art Report scholarship essay help
Summary In the management domain, strategic management encompasses identification coupled with definition of strategies for everyday use. Usually, managers employ these strategies to strive for high performance as well as admirable competitive advantage for business establishments.
In addition to that, it includes decisions as well as acts managers establish, and which determine the outcome of the organizations’ performance. Incisively, a science is whatever skill that manifests detailed use of facts for a particular purpose.
Subsequently, an art is clearly characterized as skill critical for any human tasks. Not only a strategic management is a behavioral science, but also an art since its application in relative situations involves these two perspectives (Bingham and Eisenhardt 1437-1467).
Introduction Ordinarily, (Bingham and Eisenhardt 1437-1467) argues that the main function of strategic management is to integrate diverse functional components of an organization wholly, as well as to make sure these functional aspects are in agreement.
Basically, this involves application of scientific principles established in management, and execution of activities to meet desired goals. In brief, the base of strategic management as an art as well as a science are clear in today’s global business environment. In this respect, strategic management draws higher profitability if well planned and executed.
Literature review Strategic management as a science
Generally, a science is a taxonomic collection of knowledge about a particular field of study, with universal features which define remarkable development. It simply sets up a cause with accompanying effects links among two or more factors, and emphasizes the rationale of the relationship.
These principles spring up from scientific methods such as observation along with the verification by means of testing. Specifically, a number of features describe a science. One is cause with corresponding effect relationship. Indeed, principles of science institute reason and aftermath relationship amidst a number of variables.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With reference to strategic management, same principles exist. For instance, in cause and effect relationship, where there is little stability in authority besides responsibility ineffectiveness emerges. Second is examination of validity as well as predictability of the subject under consideration.
In essence, legality of scientific standards is proved at any convenience. It is important to note that each test will give similar result regardless of when it is done. Furthermore, scientific management principles are examined for validity by use of standards like unity of command through comparison of two persons (Gao 125-136).
Thirdly according to Gao (125-136), generally accepted principles involve scientific standards, which in one way or another signify basic truth of a specific area of enquiry. Chiefly, these principles are relevant in everyday operations. In brief, strategic management encompasses some cardinal principles, for instance, the principle of unity which are used worldwide.
Finally, experimentation together with observation is involved, this basically makes up thorough scientific look into a field under consideration. Similarly in strategic management, principles founded on scientific research accompanied with observations like in the principles are highlighted by Henry Fayol. A number of these principles are established by the way of experiments as well as practical encounters of managers (Pugh and Bourgeois, 173).
From above arguments, it is undeniable that strategic management like other sciences has a well arranged body of knowledge. Even though this vast body of knowledge is not like that of other physical sciences such as biology among others, ostensibly because strategic management deals with behavior of human beings, whose behavior is toilsome to foretell accurately. Given that strategic management is a social process, it is deemed as a social science, which is flexible by nature. The reason for flexibility is that theories as well as principles result in a range of results at different times, and hence it is a behavioral science (Gao 125-136).
Strategic management as an art
Conversely, an art connotes manipulation of knowledge together with a skill in tasks to attain desired results. In this perspective, an art is outlined as individualized application of theoretical formulas for attaining coveted results. For the most part, an art has to a large extent practical knowledge.
In this case, a manager needs to be well-rounded in academic qualifications and the practical part of management. In addition to that, a manager must have a personal skill. For one thing, each manager has a unique style of addressing strategic management, depending on knowledge level coupled with personality (Hodgkinson and Healey, 1510).
We will write a custom Report on Strategic Management science or art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, a great sense of creativity is critical in an art. In the case of strategic management, creativity is displayed in targeting to bring forth unique results via combination of cognition and imagination. Above all, it harmonizes human as well as non human endowments to accomplish the desired objectives (Leaptrott and McDonald, 35).
Again, continued practice leads to mastery of a given art. As an example, managers gain skills by way of trial and error in the earlier stages, yet daily application of strategic management principles over a long period makes them more competent in strategic management.
To sum up, an art is goal oriented, whereby in strategic management efforts are directed towards attainment of preset goals by utilizing available resources. Therefore, in a way strategic management is an art, which demands exercise of particular principles as it deals with shaping the attitudes as well as behaviors of people (Maranville 782-807).
All things considered, management is not only an art but a science as well. From above analysis, strategic management integrates scientific characteristics and artistic features. It is carefully weighed as a science since it is a coherent to a vast body of knowledge, which consists of acceptable universal truth.
It is termed as an art because strategic management necessitates accredited skills, which are particular to a given manager. Accordingly, science gives knowledge, while art handles application of acquired knowledge along with skills. It is recommended that for a manager to succeed, one needs to adopt scientific knowledge likewise the art of using it. Consequently, strategic management is a wise fuse of science as well as art, since it evidences the principles as well as the way these principles are applied (Maranville 782-807).
Conclusion Management as a science was earlier on determined by authors of scientific management especially Frederick Taylor, and remains today in a number of empirical researches on strategic management. On the other hand, Henry Mintzberg molded strategic management as an art, and is clear in heterogeneous theories of management.
Singularly, most scholars besides management practitioners blend art as well as science to more effectively cultivate managerial talent. Distinctly, this is the case in recent theories of management (Zhang and Rajagopalan, 28).
Works Cited Bingham, Christopher and Kathleen Eisenhardt. Rational heuristics: The simple rules that strategists learn from process experience. Strategic Management Journal. 32.13 (2011): 1437-1464. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Management science or art by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gao, Fei. Is management science or art? Systems Research and Behavioural Science. 25.1 (2008): p125-136. Print.
Hodgkinson, Gerrard and Mark, Healey. Psychological foundations of dynamic capabilities: reflexion and reflection in strategic management. Strategic Management Journal. John Wiley
The comparison between National Rifle Association and the American Association of Retired People in regard to power Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
The NRA, National Rifle Association, was formed in 1871 by Col. William C. Church and Gen. George Wingate. This followed a poor show of marksmanship by their troops. The main aim of forming the group was to encourage people to practice shooting as a sport or a form of entertainment.
AARP, American Association of Retired Persons, is a membership organization that is comprised of senior citizens who are 50 years and above.
It was founded by Dr. Ethel Percy Andrus to protect the social life interest of senior citizens ranging from job placement, money management, tax preparation and prescribed drug cost especially so negotiating for an affordable health insurance. Both NRA and AARP are prominent, but I find NRA being more powerful than AARP.
Between the two organizations AARP, has the larger membership of about 35.7 million as of February 2010 (NRA, 2011) which is almost ten times that of NRA which was estimated at 4.3 million(Opensecrets.Org, 2011). Over the years, changes occur in most interest groups that see their membership rise or fall.
Some of these reasons are as a result of members’ frustration due to lack of expected results or while membership surge occurs when the interest groups attains certain goals in such an incredible way.
In the year 2005, for example AARP was said to have a membership of about 39 million (Kaiser, 2005), this number has however dwindled over the years to the current 35.7 million. On the other hand, NRA membership has been growing through the years even though not at a very high rate. In many cases, growing numbers indicate growing faith if not trust and power.
With such a high number of members comes power, but that is not always automatic. Power is the ability to influence policy making in both the political arena and legal framework. Having a high number of members therefore puts an interest group in a better position for negotiation than its counterpart; however, power is sought rather than given on a silver platter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While AARP may have the numbers to be able to put so many candidates through to congress their influence on policymaking is minimal as compared to the influence made by the NRA.
With its 4 million members, NRA is able to reach out to the congressmen and influence the policies that they make in a way that favors and protects the interest of her members (AARP, 2011). In 1934 for instance, NRA formed legislative affairs division to counter attacks on the second amendment rights.
In 1975, NRA realized the importance of having a political defense to the second amendment and formed the Institute for Legislative Action, (Opensecrets.Org, 2011). In fact sometime this year NRA carried out a survey to establish the problems her members were facing in getting initial firearm certificates and even those renewing (Alger, 2011).
Basically, NRA opposes any attempt to restrict gun ownership including background check on those wishing to acquire firearms and worse still firearm registration. Unlike NRA members who exude confidence and gratitude, many members of AARP have ended up frustrated by this interest group due to what they consider poor lobbying of their rights.
In an article, Frank Kaiser claims that more than 14 million seniors under Medicare plan without drug coverage still struggle to buy medicine among other expenses (Kaiser, 2005). If healthcare was the main objective and idea behind the organization then the organization has failed its members. AARP then lacks the power to have the interest of her members catered for.
Over the years, AARP has severally been accused of furthering other interests other than those of its members. Frenk (2010) observed that more than 40 million people are still uninsured due to lack of affordable quality services.
While AARP is supposed to be a non-profit making organization some of her revenue has been attributed to proceeds that are made from selling insurance and other financial services to the members. In 2005, AARP was involved in a tag of war with the then administration of President Bush who wanted to introduce a scheme where social security would be privatized.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The comparison between National Rifle Association and the American Association of Retired People in regard to power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This opposition made some people to question the credibility and integrity of the organization. Indeed James K. Glassman an enterprise scholar is reported to have said that the idea suggested by Bush had fewer risks as compared to AARP’s selling of mutual funds (Gleckman et al, 2005).
This was a real show of distrust. AARP’s reputation suffered a major setback in the sense that it was clear to all that the organization put commercial interests before that of the members.
Controversy seems to have dogged AARP for a long time. In the year 1979, one of its founders Leonardo Davis was forced out of office in a most embarrassing way on claims of illegal business practices and representing the organization in fraudulent way (Jeanty, 2011).
In the year 2007 AARP made 497.6 million dollars from royalties and fees that the organization receives from the companies she endorses (Kaiser, 2007).
Reputation is a vital component of power or the route to get there. Once the reputation is dented power is lost. Since both NRA and AARP are interest groups and nonprofit making at that the one sure way of comparing the money they have is looking at the way they spend the money to get their way or to influence policy makers through lobby groups.
AARP have an upper hand in that their members are exclusively senior citizens who comprise nearly half of the voting citizens and therefore they can claim to have put most politicians to office.
NRA on the other hand is not as lucky. The only way for her to get access to power is through lobby groups. The NRA lobby machinery or group is so powerful that it has grip on both houses of congress. Actually in the year 2001 NRA replaced AARP as Washington’s most powerful lobbying group.
When it comes to organization, NRA has got it all right. In order to make their lobbying as effective as possible, NRA established Institute of Legislative Action (ILA). This arm of NRA serves also to mobilize and inform the public about various undertakings of the organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The comparison between National Rifle Association and the American Association of Retired People in regard to power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This makes members feel involved and part of the whole process. Apart from visiting universities and giving talks NRA has accounts on the social network such as twitter and facebook. Keeping in touch with her members makes them feel closer and important which is a vital factor in maintaining a good reputation and power.
AARP on the other hand seem to have slept on their job. Most of the lobbying and public relations are marketing related and most people feel that their needs are not being addressed or worse still the organization has lost focus of its mandate. Though AARP has attained some heights in the past, there is need to re-focus.
According to New York Times, “AARP has adopted a pragmatic, bipartisan approach over the last decade. Using its well-financed lobbying machine, the group was instrumental in obtaining Medicare prescription drug coverage in 2003, blocking George W. Bush’s efforts to privatize Social Security in 2005 and getting President Obama’s health care plan passed in 2010.” (Lynch, 2011).
The damage done to AARPs reputation is immense and their power to influence decision is little. If world ratings are anything to go by then good reputation is power according to my personal perspective. In his article Daniel Drezner shows how the perception of the US has changed across the globe.
He has done this by comparing the perception of the US by other countries when President Bush was in power and when President Obama took over. When several people, especially those that you wish to manipulate, think you are a good person, they also tend to believe that your policies are equally good.
That may not always be true but even then, you have more supporters and friends in your camp who are at your disposal. They can trust you they can work with you. When President Obama took over in 2008 the only thing that changed immediately is the reputation of the country. America won more friends and without a word gained back its former position in the world (Drezner, 2009).
References AARP. (2011). AARP history. Web.
Alger, L. (2011). Notes from the secretary general. National Rifle Association Journal, XC (2), 2.
Drezner, D. W. (2009). A hard measure of Obama’s soft power. Foreign Policy. Web.
Frenk, J. (2010).Globalization of health and health services. The Journal AARP International. Web.
Gleckman, H. et al. (2005). By raising its voice AARP raises questions. Bloomberg Businessweek. Web.
Jeanty, J. (2011). About the AARP Lobby. Web.
Kaiser, F. (2005). When will AARP grow some balls. Suddenly Senior. Web.
Lynch, F. R. (2011). How AARP Can Get Its Groove Back. New York Times. Web.
NRA. (2011). A brief history of the NRA. Web.
Opensecrets. (2011). National rifle Assn: Responsive politics. Web.
Baby Gap Company’s Expansion Strategy Case Study college admission essay help
Analysis of Baby Gap Baby Gap is the company which used to be rather popular among youth in 1990’s. Still, the wrong expansion strategy of the company turned it to suffer greatly. The company debt increased and to save the situation, Baby Gap spent less on the quality of the product. People noticed it immediately and the company sales were declined as well.
Since 1990’s up to 200’s the situation in the company was rather unstable, still, having expanded internationally and having invited a new designer, the company is planning to return its positions at the market.
The main competitors of the Baby Gap are the following family clothing industry performers, TJX Companies Inc., Ross Stores Inc., and Abercrombie
Effects of Animal Testing and Alternatives Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Validity of Animal Tests
Effects of Animal Testing
Animal Rights Movements
Introduction Before human beings utilize a substance as either a cosmetic or a drug, its effectiveness and efficiency is first tested. Such tests are usually performed in animals mainly because of their inferiority in society. Animals end up with permanent damages or prolonged sufferings due to effects of chemicals.
Proponents of animal testing argue that it is better to use animals because human life is more valuable than anything in the world could be. Opponents have stood firm to challenge the position by claiming that human beings should come up with other alternatives instead of using living creatures.
Hartung is one of the staunch opponents of animal testing who has overseen reduction of animal testing in Europe. Hartung argues that abolition of animal testing will probably lead to better science since the method was developed out of a crisis (Abbott, 2005).
This means that it is not accurate and can lead to more complications in human beings. Indeed, several tragedies have been reported in various parts of the world including the 1930s incident where a woman lost sight after using Lash-Lure to color her eyes.
Animal tests should be evaluated carefully because of a number of reasons. One reason is that chemicals can have diverse effects that cannot be determined by animal testing alone. For instance, animal skin is different from that of human beings hence the difference in effects.
Again, the policy should be reviewed to conform to environmental demands since some chemicals have been proved to have acute consequences to the environment. This paper analyzes the effects of animal testing and gives some alternatives that can be employed in testing chemicals. It further looks at the activities of animal rights groups and their achievements.
Validity of Animal Tests In many tests, only rats are used in studies implying that the sample size for researches is usually limited. Researchers cannot apprehend the full effects of a chemical since more advanced or higher animals are not used.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scholars attempt to research on primates using young animals, which make interpretation of data very hard. Chemicals manufactured after undergoing tests using juvenile primates are usually dangerous to human beings since their effects have no enough literature.
Furthermore, there is usually incongruity as regards to the age of species. Researchers approximate the age of animals and equate them to those of human beings.
This normally results to serious problems when not carefully considered because days are equated to years of human beings, for instance; a drug that is effective in rats at day two is believed to be functional to human beings at the age of two years (Baldrick, 2010). Chemicals and drugs do not apply uniformly in animals and human beings because environments are different.
Before a genuine study is ascertained, many animals are to be used. In the study involving rodents, various species are easily obtained and utilized in research but the case is different for higher animals.
It would take researchers a very long time to get species of the same offspring hence they use available ones, which result to insufficient evidence causing major problems afterwards. Scholars supporting this idea claim that getting monkeys with suitable gender is near to impossibility.
Another challenge to the proponents of animal testing is related to dosage and the time line for a study. A human being is not exactly equivalent to an animal that is why the quantity of a drug to be utilized is an issue. Researchers have not actually determined the exact dose for human beings in some chemicals, which have led to deaths or harms. Many individuals misuse chemicals since there are no clear guidelines on their usage.
Alternative Methods Creton (2010) gives various methods that scientists need to employ in their studies to avoid calamities. Such methods are necessary since they are ethically based and more effective. In fact, Creton argues that animal testing should be applied as a last resort and need to be highly controlled to produce accurate results.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of Animal Testing and Alternatives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The scholar further claims that a number of reasons are to be evaluated first before employing a testing method. One of the simplest ways of validating a chemical is calculating its toxicity in a mixture. This method evaluates the effects of mixtures of chemicals basing on the characteristics of each chemical element hence avoiding animal testing.
Environmental hazards of a chemical can determine its effects instead of exposing it to a living organism. This method is mostly recommended in determining the effectiveness or effects of a pesticide. The method employs a formula that calculates the lethal dose in an element.
The EU has already incorporated the method in its administrative system to determine the effects of industrial products, biocides and pesticides. Furthermore, the EU explains clearly to users that no further tests are to be conducted using animals because the substance is efficient.
Moreover, the internationally recognized body charged with the responsibility of classifying and labeling chemicals has integrated the method in its plans and further suggests that only methods that do not use animal tests are allowed. The global body (GHS) promises to avail data for complex elements, which would aid in their classification without using animal tests.
Another technique for identifying an element or testing its superiority is the read-across method. The method permits scholars to come up with structural, chemical and toxicological features of elements that further allow prediction of chemicals without relevant/enough data.
The technique definitely trims down the need for animal testing. The international regime (IRP) incorporated the method in its programs long time ago. Before utilizing the read-across method, the UK authorities have established a number of factors to be considered in order to attain good results.
These include comparison of the purity and impurity summary of substances, their physicochemical features, their expected lethal kinetics and finally the importance of reading across the outcomes acquired from obsolete test techniques.
QSAR is another non-animal testing method that can be employed in establishing the effects of elements, offering data for use in primacy situation, guiding the plan of a testing approach and offering first hand data.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Animal Testing and Alternatives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To fasten the utilization of QSAR, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has formulated the QSAR utility toolbox-software that offers a translucent and reproducible technique for assembling and assessing elements, as well as employing read-across.
The original version of the software has been availed as a free download from the OECD’s Web site. Besides, the OECD has formulated values and regulations on legalization of QSARs to augment the dogmatic recognition of QSAR sculpt for evaluating chemical wellbeing.
Effects of Animal Testing The circumstances under which animals are exposed to human testing have led to cancer in rats, although animal experiment outcomes were acknowledged as of little significance to humans. The only justification being presented for this pronouncement is that there are anatomical and physiological disparities between people and animals.
It is essential to note that even though animals are usually employed in cancer study, they do not contract the human type of cancer, which attacks membranes such as lungs. Approximately 9% of the sedated animals in the experiments pass on.
It is exciting to know that animals and people metabolize 83% of materials separately (Speit, 2008). Majority health specialists concur that information from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated securely to human beings.
In animal experimentation, poisonous chemicals to humans are safe whereas friendly chemicals to humans such as lemon juice are harmful. Genetically modified animals (GMA) will never be replicas for human sickness. In reality, drugs that are approved as harmless in animal experiments cause 88% of stillbirths in human beings.
Animal Rights Movements The idea of animal rights is not new in the world because it can be attributed to the earliest animal activists in the 6th century such as Pythagoras. The coming of scholars such as Aristotle and Plato relegated animals by placing them in a low status in society. Aristotle wrote much about politics while insisting that man was above everything in society and every creature belonged to man.
It was therefore upon man to decide what to do with such creatures. The works of Aristotle inspired the first Greek scientists to use animals for experiments. However, Aristotle’s writings were evaluated in the 19th century when British nationals questioned the rationale behind animal testing.
The opponents of animal testing quickly formed an organization and spread their ideas to other places such as the United States. Within no time, the organization had lobbied governments of various states to come up with legislative laws that would protect animals (Hills, 1993).
In 1890s, animal rights organizations seemed to progress well when Henry Salt published his first book. Even though Salt’s works were influential, it never attracted huge groups than the 1970s publications did. Scholars in 1970s questioned scientists about why they used living organisms in performing deadly experiments.
They claimed that animals are living things, which can feel pain just like human beings. Scholars observed that human beings are accorded fair treatment because of their reasoning capacities (Viren, Funrnham,
20th Century Socialism Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Socialism Socialism in USA can be traced to the days of the arrival of German immigrants and during the formation of Marxian Socialist Union. Socialism was considered as the belief and hope that men could be rescued from their helplessness and depression by use of government power. The Socialist Party in the USA was founded by Eugene Debs, and it thrived under his charismatic leadership. The party sought to tackle the American problems in an American manner (Socialism 1).
During his radical speeches, Debs acknowledged that there was only one general labor problem and there was no Negro problem. He expressed optimism that racial prejudice would evaporate. Consequently, in one of his articles, Debs mentioned that the socialist party had nothing special or specific to offer the Negroes, and that it was impossible to appease all the races.
According to Debs, the Socialist Party was to be the party of the working class irrespective of the race and color. The failure of the Socialist Party to deal with the Negro problem was due to its perspective of the racial prejudice problem and Debs acceptance of the racial supremacy notion in his political thoughts. Debs acknowledged that there was no Negro problem but general labor problem.
Philip Randolph was an American activist who served as the leader of both the Negro Civil Rights Movement and the Labor Movement in the USA. Randolph led a match to the Washington, which was aimed at pressurizing President Franklyn Roosevelt to desegregate all production plants dealing with military supplies during the World War II.
Consequently, Randolph inspired the freedom budget that sought to ameliorate the economic problems of the Negro in general and workers and the unemployed, in particular. Randolph was a vocal agitator and an advocate for the civil rights of the Afro-American community. His match to Washington was aimed at ending discrimination in factories.
It is through the efforts of Randolph that the President promulgated the Fair Employment Act as a measure to address the grievances of Randolph. Consequently, Randolph led a demonstration at the Madison Square to advocate for equal opportunities in all spheres of employment from the government, labor union and military to war industries.
This allowed the government to incorporate the Negroes into employment that was earlier preserved for the white employees. The renewed efforts of Randolph aimed at ending racial discrimination in the military led to the formation of a committee which was later dubbed Civil Disobedience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This forced the president of the USA Harry Truman to end racial segregation in the military by applying an executive order. Consequently, Randolph emerged as an advocate for ending immigration restrictions (Socialism 1).
During the new deal, the communists contributed more on matters job creation than the socialists and democrats. This is because the communists advocated for welfare capitalism which emasculated radicalism so such an extent that they could not be called socialists. Democrats estranged radicalism but they never win any support elsewhere (Laslett 40).
Philip Randolph was a black man and a founder of the magazine the messenger which was provocative and radical. He was described as the most dangerous Negro by President Woodrow Wilson. Besides organizing worker strikes, he joint hands with the progressives and the communists to form the National Negro Congress.
He considered socialism as the only way of uniting the blacks and he worked for the emancipation of the whites through Labor unions. He was instrumental in creating the consciousness which led to the establishment of the Civil Rights Movement (Randolph 7).
In the advent of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, there were various realignments and changes in party position. The Democratic Party embraced radical liberalism. The passage of civil rights acts during the period of 1960s enabled parties to switch positions on civil rights matters.
Democratic Party supported civil rights positions and this position was in consonant with that of the grassroots activists. This was after the New Deal coalition of southern democrats and the northern liberals which was considered to be a successful alignment.
Big Bill Haywood was an American radical who established and led the Industrial Workers of the World. Haywood was also an executive committee member of the Socialist Party of America. It was in his capacities in the above organizations that he organized various strikes and labor battles.
We will write a custom Research Paper on 20th Century Socialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Haywood was considered as an advocate of Industrial Unionism, which advocated for the organization of all industry workers into one umbrella union. It was because of his radicalism that he was arrested and prosecuted on several occasions.
Haywood was dismissed from the Socialist Party in 1912 due to his advocacy for direct action in contrast to a political tactic that was considered the position of the party. Haywood represented the interests of the working class in the labor struggles. He occupied the second top most position in the Women Federation of Miners.
The Wobblies or the Industrial Workers of the World was an international union that represented the interest of the workers and was formed by socialists. Wobblies promoted industrial unionism as opposed to craft unionism advocated by other unions.
The Wobblies broke out of the Socialist Party due to its policy stand since it argued for political action contrary to arbitration and political affiliation, which were the stand of the Socialist Party. The Wobblies advocated and appealed to the working-class and the Negroes. The government ultimately capitalized on the instabilities of the World War I to crush down on the activities of the Wobblies (Socialism 1).
Lack of socialism in USA implies advanced capitalist practices. U.S. lacks social-democratic presences with a working class that lack class consciousness. According to Lipset, there is no socialism in USA due to the nature of its society.
He argued that America is a new society which lacks class stratification as well as a feudal system. The ideological emphasis which stresses on equality, liberty and egalitarianism make it difficult to persuade the Americans to embrace socialism.
U.S. already believes in the principal of equal opportunity for all. Consequently, internal factors in US radicalism make it hard for socialism to thrive. These factors include diversity in cultures and languages and racial divide and strong economic growth.
The nature of America’s society prohibits the emergence of class based political ideologies, which subscribe to the European model. Class feeling that is typical of European societies is absent in America. The mass American politics and the American culture of consumption developed long before it happened in Europe.
Not sure if you can write a paper on 20th Century Socialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The prevalence of socialism in Europe is due to the fact that Europe was catching up with the stage that America was several years ago, and it was experiencing an economic and political process which had been already experienced in the USA. The presence of democratic parties in the United States of America has been considered as the best instruments for social-democratic movements (Foner 57).
The riddle of socialism in the USA had puzzled Marx and Engels. To them, capitalism was ripe in the USA, and also it was ripe for social revolutions, but they argued that it was the absence of an entrenched feudal system and tradition that hindered the development of socialism.
It is the varied definition of socialism that made it difficult to comprehend whether there was or no socialism in the USA. The absence of revolutionary or labor movement in the USA is one of the factors that explained the absence of socialism.
The USA does not have a large social-democratic party like the ones that exist in the European countries like the Labor Party in Britain or the Federalist Party in France or the Communist Party of Italy, which have the capacity to capitalize on mass socialism consciousness.
Consequently, it is explained that its nature of advanced capitalism and as a country that lacks strong social-democratic presence with social class that lacks class consciousness also explain the absence of socialism in the USA. It is worth mentioning that the three factors which are recipes for socialism are ideology, politics and class structure.
Consequently, people must be united by a common course in order to keep socialism alive since in ancient Europe it was the militancy in factories that was often reflected in the class politics of socialism. The American form of socialism was the only workplace oriented as opposed to creating their presence in the workplace and the rejuvenation of Labor and Socialist parties in the period of 1820 were short-lived because they ran out of ideologies, and they failed to create a presence between industrial relations and American political practice (Foner 58).
Socialism failed in the USA due to the class conflation and the features of the American society and politics which come with unfortunate consequences. The absence of a powerful social-democratic party can be used to explain why socialism could not thrive in US. The American society is also static.
This implies that their political ideology, limited mobility and limited understanding, and the tradition of American radicalism could not allow socialism to flourish. According to Hart, socialism is an inherited practice which is traced to the feudal past and from society with class stratification. He argued that minus feudal tradition and class oppression in society, socialism becomes dormant. Since socialism advocated for a classless society, America had already reached that kind of society.
Emigrants from Germany and France created the fear that the country was being occupied by a majority Catholic population, and they injected a new dimension into the slavery debate which they constantly opposed. Majority of them joined the Republican Party in 1860 elections due to the fact that the party advocated for an end to slavery and equality for all.
The Germany immigrants were running away after an unsuccessful revolution in 1848. They were pleased with the abolitionist policy of the Republican Party and the party’s policy of free soil. Germany’s support for Union during the American civil war also attracted the German immigrants to the Republican Party (Foner 69).
Red republicanism in the USA was rebranded to democratic republicanism, which was understood to combine democracy, which was the voice of the people and republicanism which was the spirit that unified the Americans as a state. The U.S. socialist party was similar to the ones formed in Europe since it was aimed at helping the peasant and the lower-class population.
Socialist parties emerged as instruments for advocacy and with the main task of destabilizing the status quo that only benefited the minority at the expense of the majority. Socialist parties were instrumental in shaping the modern-day politics. Socialism was instrumental in ameliorating the existent labor conditions all over the world.
Lincoln was a red Republican. He became the first present to be elected on the Republican ticket. Red Republican was the party which was formed to abolish all forms of slavery. Republican is considered a radical democratic party due to its positions on several issues.
This was imminent immediately after it assumed government; the party oversaw various radical changes, which were aimed at saving the union which included the abolition of slavery, and it advocated for equal rights of all men following the American civil war.
The radical picture of the red Republican was manifested in its support for capitalism and commerce where it pressed for an increase in wages and pension for veterans of the union. Red Republicans also supported the annexation of Hawaii. The party’s position against the US joining the League of Nations was by itself radical (Foner 75).
Works Cited Foner, Eric. “Why is there no Socialism in the United States?” History Workshop Journal 1.1 (n.d.): 57-80.
Randolph, Philip. Black Macho and black Feminism. Radical America 14.2 (1980):1-70. Print.
Laslett, John. Failure of a dream?: essays in the history of American socialism. 1984. University of California Press. Print.
Socialism. “Socialism in America.” U.S. History, n.d. Web. https://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1669.html
Coles and Innovations Report best essay help
Table of Contents Executive summary
Business elements and how they can be improved through e-tailing
Current business elements with the innovation
Consequences of the innovation not occurring
Executive summary The report is an expansion of an existing business. It entails the introduction of Asian foods in a large supermarket chain – Coles. The innovation will be enhanced through e-tailing of the commodities.
A number of business processes will be modified through the combination of these two strategies and they include: customer service, product receipt, order fulfilment, product selection and product search.
Introduction Coles is a successful Australian retailing company that has approximately 11 million customers. It needs to gain competitive advantage by expanding its market share. This report has identified a gap in its product range and market demographics.
The organisation does not sell Asian food, yet there are plenty of immigrants in Australia. Furthermore, this same group has recorded greater internet use than other minorities in the population. Therefore, this report suggests the introduction of Asian foods in Coles’ retail portfolio, and sale of the commodities through the internet or physical stores.
Business elements and how they can be improved through e-tailing The inputs involved at Coles are physical and conceptual (Jarvis 2005). The physical ones encompass materials, tools, and finance. The materials are the products that are sold in its shelves. This organisation sources its fresh foods from its own farms, and other partner farmers.
It gets manufactured goods directly from the concerned industries in huge quantities. This eliminates the need for intermediaries and other people who may inflate product prices. Currently, there is a challenge in the product choices because it does not cater to a certain group of people.
The company’s competitiveness can be improved if it incorporates this group of people. Asian food is missing from the company’s product offerings, yet this group has some of the most desirable characteristics. It has been shown that among the minorities in Australia, Asians happen to earn the highest amount of disposable income.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the proportion of persons who have completed higher education is greater than it is among other ethnic groups. Therefore, they have the financial resources needed to support a new portfolio of Asian foods at Coles. Their numbers have also been increasing tremendously in the country.
There is a need for product line expansion and customer base expansion targeting a new set of consumers. In terms of Coles’ physical inputs, the company normally uses part of its profits to reinvest back in the business. It would have more profits for its inputs if it changed its business processes slightly.
Most of its equipments centre on service automation, product movement or delivery, and transactions; it needs to change this. Business inputs can also be intangible. These encompass the information, ideas, data, values and beliefs of the stakeholders in this business.
Currently, the business needs to know more about its consumers or its market. Therefore, they require information gathering. They need to expand their business idea to include a new product-category and a new market segment. Employees’ social attitudes, abilities and expectations need to be altered so as to accommodate a new product type (Shaw 1999, p. 100).
The processes at Coles are currently focused on operational ones. Human and technical mechanisms are implemented in order to achieve business objectives. This is done through retail stores and online selling. Inputs are taken and then made available to consumers through these two major avenues.
Transportation of goods from manufacturers and farms is one such example. The company’s processes ought to be made more transformational. This can be achieved by using ideas as an input and transforming them into a new business element. In other words, this company is in need of a fresh innovation. The creative processes ought to be improved to increase market share.
Outputs at Coles are physical and conceptual. The physical ones are monetary (Coles happens to have high cash flows and profits that allow it to invest back into the business in order to keep generating more profits). The conceptual ones include influences and information.
We will write a custom Report on Coles and Innovations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Every sale or transaction made is an opportunity to learn more about the consumer. This acts as feedback that enables the company to provide better services to other consumers or to that same consumer. After-sale services can be improved at Coles, especially because the company sells a portion of its products online.
The purpose for creating this business was to offer convenience to the people living around Coles. The company wanted customers to get whatever they wanted at a cheap price and in one place.
The target consumers in this business are mainstream Australian consumers. In order to increase the company’s profitability, Coles will need to expand its customers’ demographics. Asian consumers can be specifically targeted for the new product.
Current business elements with the innovation This innovation consists of three main concepts; product expansion, market expansion and internet retailing. It will introduce Asian foods to the market through online selling and in-store selling.
The new products that will be on offer include: sals and bean sauce, which all contain beans as the main ingredient, strongly flavoured and authentic Asian noodles, rice crisps, rice crackers, pickles and legumes, Asian meal kits and Asian sauces. This product will cater for the Asian market in Australia.
It will also provide a potential area for growth among mainstream Australian customers. Many individuals are now developing a taste for Asian foods and strong flavours, so these products can be quite promising in the market (Promar International 2000, p. 5).
In order to carry out a systemic analysis of the new and improved business processes involved at Coles, it will be useful to use the consumer mercantile activities as suggested by Kalakota and Whinston (1997, p. 45). It is a model that was designed to evaluate how businesses could be enhanced through the internet.
These activities are eight, and they include: product service search, comparison shopping, product selection, negotiation of terms, order placement, payment, product receipt and customer service support.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Coles and Innovations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The product service search is one of the mercantile activities that will be altered through this innovation. Consumers who are interested in finding a product will usually look for it physically in stores or through catalogues and phone inquiries.
However, through the use of e-tailing, customers can use search engines in order to find Asian food. Coles will be one of the first organisations that will be found on search engines when customers are looking for Asian foods in Australia. The internet will aid product searches by giving information about the product even before putting it on the shelves.
Customers can prepare to purchase it online, or may choose to go and inspect it in the physical stores. If the latter case is true, they will be given information about the exact in-store locations of the Asian foods, so that they can save time on it.
Therefore, the internet will be useful for driving consumers to the online Coles store as well as the physical retail stores. They may also be told about the availability of the products; i.e., whether they are in stock or out of stock at that particular time. This way, consumers will get information more quickly and will respond to the provision of the services.
It has been shown that Asian consumers account for 37% of all internet use; 27% of all internet users are Europeans while 20% are North Americans (Turban et al. 2008, p. 33). This means that such individuals are likely to do product searches for their cuisines using the internet.
Product comparisons are usually done through an analysis of the attributes available for a particular product. Catalogues and review adverts have been the main method for Coles.
It has not used online avenues for this purpose. In this introduction of Asian foods, Coles will offer its shoppers mix-and-match options, so that they can select complementary dishes. For those who may not be too particular about the kind of Orient dishes they want, the online service will allow them to compare prices for various Oriental foods.
They may also compare attributes such as the use of certain spices or prevalence of particular ingredients like beans in the dishes selected. Customers will have a decision support system that will offer them alternatives if they can’t find the Asian dish they are looking for.
Product selection occurs when the concerned consumers select the product that meets their needs. As the customer selects his or her product online, he or she will be given information about the weight, ingredients and method of preparation of the dishes.
If a customer chooses to buy the commodity physically, he or she will find this information in the product package and additional tags. During this phase, customers will also be given additional information about other related foods that they may consider purchasing in the future (Otto
Campus Life Problem Motivation Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
Aerobic is a physical exercise, which helps people to keep their body fit. Some students may fail to attend aerobics class because they are not interested. Lack of interest may hinder students from attending class. Another reason is that the activities involved in aerobics may be difficult for students.
If students, do not expect to learn from aerobic class they will not attend. Students always like to attend classes that they will learn from the lecturer. Aerobic classes are recreational and so student may fail to attend, as it will not help in their course work. Because this course is not examinable, students may under look it.
Students’ attitude towards the lecturer may also determine whether they will attend the class. If students have a negative attitude towards the lecturer, they will not attend classes. The workload of student in course work may make him miss aerobic class in order to concentrate on course work .
Finally, students may fail to attend aerobic classes due to influence from other students. The number of students reduces dramatically as time goes. Those who drop continue influencing others to follow suit.
Motivation is the process that guides and maintains goal oriented behaviors. It involves biological, social and emotional cognitive forces that influence behavior. It causes people to act. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside the individual. They involve money, promotion, accolades, and social praise.
Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within an individual such as satisfaction with what he or she is doing. As an aerobic lecturer, one should maintain a positive attitude towards the students. Lecturers who are friendly and knowledgeable about students’ interests demonstrate personal qualities that motivate students.
Discipline is another significant factor in motivating students. It involves responding negatively to behaviors to deter future occurrences. Inform the student that they are making mistakes by not attending classes. Describe the behaviors and standards expected from the students and ask them to comply.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rewarding the students that attend aerobic class may also serve as a motivator. Extrinsic motivators in terms of reward can help students who lack intrinsic motivation . Reward may be in the form of participation certificate, praise or a gift. As a lecturer, allow students to participate in the activities.
Give some students time to guide others. This will help in boosting their self-esteem and consequently motivation increase. Caring about the student may also improve their morale. Show them that you care by sharing problems with them. Ask them the problems they face, their concerns and their goals. In doing this, the student will see the lecturer as an experienced person, and they will appreciate his class.
Most of the students will attend classes if they feel that their needs are satisfied. Making the students, understand the importance of the course is also crucial. Some students may not see the need for aerobic class. It is essential for the lecturer to explain to them the benefits of attending the lecture.
Allowing student to take control in class motivates them. Let the student choose the schedule and the time to have aerobic lectures. Students may be willing to attend lectures in the evening instead of morning. Ask them the appropriate time to hold aerobic class and negotiate with them. In this, they will feel motivated. Teamwork may also help in motivating the students. Working as a group or a team will motivate students, as they will enjoy what they are doing.
Works Cited Whetten, David and Cameron Kim. Developing Management Skills. New York: Prentice Hall, 2010.
Family Trend Changes Essay argumentative essay help
The hastening of our customs and the organization of the family as the leading structure has led to a new family trend. Although the family trend has conventionally paid attention to the protection of spatial borders, the rising transformations have meant that the family trend of temporality is taking its position next to the trend of territory.
As time becomes less and more precious, there develops more divergence between families, within families as well as the wider social order. This is dependent on responsibilities, time control and entitlements to behavior and genetics.
The thought that family trend is restricted within families is based on quite a number of assumptions. To begin with, in dissimilarity with our daily assumptions that family trend is continuous, linear, uniform and quantitative, trends are experienced with dissimilar connotations and vulnerable to diverse interpretation.
For instance, children and parents stand in a diverse association to family trends because of their distinctive history, biography as well as social status. In addition, time is an essential intermediate through which persons articulate their ideals. Therefore, time is prone to unstable levels of control because it is an entity of compromise.
As a result, family trends tend to adhere to changes in time and may also be affected by genetics and behavior of individuals. As illustrated in cases below, Diseases such as cancer, thyroid cancer, stomach cancer and diabetes fall under such family trends.
In the first case of cancer, the fist parent is aged fifty. His health condition was good until he had gastric cancer surgery about five years ago and had to remove of a part of his stomach. This led to a cancerous condition. Cancer is a chronic infection that gradually develops illness. It has non-specific indicators in its premature stages.
Stomach cancer is caused by long-term inflammation of the stomach, helicobacter pylori infection, poor diet, smoking and family history. It starts when stomach cells become anomalous and mature uncontrollably. These cells form a tissue growth known as a tumor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stomach cancer can occur in any stomach part, and can extend to close lymph nodes and other body areas such as the lungs, bones, liver and a woman’s ovaries. The first parent did not visit a doctor until he was an adult. This trend is related to behavior.
The second parent, aged forty five, was good until when he had thyroid cancer about the same year as the first parent. He had a surgery about four years ago and a thyroid was removed. Thyroid cancer is a chronic illness and can cause disability and fatality. The surgery was successful.
The risk factors linked to an augmented likelihood of developing thyroid cancer include race, radiation, inadequate iodine in the diet and family history. Women are more likely than men to get thyroid cancer. Parent two had a sporadic cancer checkup for an extensive time.
However, he has to take hormones for life. Aunt three was okay until she had thyroid cancer almost the same year as the second parent. She had a surgery about three years ago and a thyroid gland was removed. She has a similar condition just like the second parent.
Grandparent one, aged eighty one, was in good health until he was diagnosed with malignant neoplasm. He underwent a surgery and it was successful. He experiences similar conditions just like the fist parent. Nevertheless, he had a lot of the symptoms that characterized this cancer but he never sought for medication until it reached the third stage. This trend is kinked to an individual’s behavior and habits.
Grandparent three is fine and going for annual health checkups. However, he has type 2 diabetes. This form frequently occurs in adulthood. Nonetheless, young people are gradually being established to have this disease. In this state, the pancreas does not form sufficient insulin to maintain blood glucose levels normal. This is due to the body not responding well to insulin. It is a serious condition. It is escalating due to the rising obesity and failure to exercise.
Diabetes is a chronic disease similar to cancer. It is an inheritable disease but can be managed. Therefore, if grandparent three adheres to rules and maintain good habits, the disease can be managed. Risk factors for diabetes include heart disease, inactivity, obesity and some inheritable genes. Grandparent three gets sufficient checkups and follows prescriptions. He ought to eat well, exercise, and take medication. This trend is related to behavior.
We will write a custom Essay on Family Trend Changes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aunt one’s health control is very poor. She has diabetes type one. This type can occur at any age. Nonetheless, it is mainly diagnosed in adolescents, children, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone that is generated by specific cells known as beta cells, which are found in the pancreas. In type one diabetes, beta cells of the pancreases generate small or no insulin.
Due to insufficient insulin, glucose increases in the bloodstream rather than the cells. The body is not capable of utilizing this glucose for energy. This results to symptoms of type one diabetes. The precise cause of type one diabetes is unfamiliar. The symptoms include feeling hungry, being very thirsty, low blood sugar, stomach pain and flushed face.
This type is chronic and needs to be followed up. It is significant to adhere to rules and good habits to discover improved results. Her behavior is positive as she eats well, manages stress, and goes for annual checkups. Family trends illustrate the extent to which such diseases can be managed. Good trends lead to better results.
Reference Taylor, S. (2011). Health psychology. 8 ed. New York, NY: Mc-Graw Hill. Print