Introduction Corporate culture is defined as rules, values, beliefs, and norms, which are shared by all stakeholders of the firm. Norms influence the individual’s preferences and behaviour in the organisation. Culture is present in every organisation and it develops as company grows (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 319). It determines the conduct of workers in an organisation coupled with how a firm conducts its business.
Numerous researches on corporate culture have been carried out and the findings indicate that the nature of corporate culture can influence business’ performance either positively or negatively (Kubo and Saka 271). Experts have proposed certain factors that a corporate culture should embody in order to improve economic performance of the company.
A good corporate culture should be based on the needs of all stakeholders, employees, customers, and investors (Batyko 17). The culture should be tested for its fitness in the business environment in addition to being flexible to accommodate changes.
Flexibility of corporate culture is significant as the business environment keeps on changing and such changes should be reflected in the culture if a company has to flourish in a competitive market (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 727). Corporate culture becomes obsolete with time, and thus it should be revised regularly.
A corporate culture might lead to success of a business for a given period after which diminishing results are observed. Research indicates that a strong corporate culture, which is compatible with the business environment, will lead to increased profits for the firm (Lund 219). Corporate culture is thus an important aspect of business and it cannot be ignored in the contemporary business world.
The Japanese corporate culture is based on the values that were laid down by Konosuke Matsushita – one of the most famous ancient entrepreneurs in Japan (Batyko 18). The entrepreneur identified customers and employees’ needs as the major components of corporate culture. However, corporate culture should be consistent with the environment within which the business operates.
The entrepreneur also emphasised on the need for good relationship among employees, as well as their inclusion in major decision-making process. This essay will analyse the nature of corporate culture in Japan, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and determine whether it helps or hinders companies’ performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this paper, the corporate culture in Japan will be analysed thoroughly and a conclusion will be made on whether it promotes the success of companies in the country. Analysing the corporate culture in Japan, the essay will classify the companies into two: the large and small companies
General overview of the Japanese corporate culture The Japanese culture of management stands out clearly in large corporations. Management is obliged to create a culture that supports the inclusion of workers in every undertaking (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 726). The aim of inclusions of employees in every undertaking is to maintain a culture of harmony among the stakeholders of the company.
The management of the companies are expected to treat their workers with due respect and provide the best incentives to ensure that employees remain committed to delivering quality services.
Most companies in Japan are focused on attaining the best quality of products to satisfy the needs of the customers. In a bid to achieve this goal, they recruit the best employees and offer them competitive salaries to maintain them and win their loyalty.
In additional to inclusion of workers in the decision-making process, proper communication is embraced. Any problem arising in the course of carrying out business is resolved immediately (Cooper-Chen and Tanaka 98). Communication between workers and the management is maintained all the year round and is characterised by frequent feedbacks. For a corporate culture to be effective, the employees’ needs should be addressed.
Communication creates a venue through which employees can air their grievances to the management. Communication further creates a good relationship between the managers and employees, which is essential if the company is to achieve its goals.
The customers’ needs should be considered when formulating a corporate culture. Customers require high quality goods, which retail at reasonable prices. In other words, customers will remain loyal to firms that give value to their money.
We will write a custom Essay on Japanese Corporate Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees’ incentives and work environment The employees’ working conditions in Japanese companies heavily depend on the size and nature of the firm (Lee and Yu 357). Employees in large companies enjoy better working conditions than those working in smaller ones. The large companies are more efficient than the small ones due to the motivation created through the provision of favourable working conditions to workers (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 725).
Employees work for more hours in large companies than in small companies. This aspect means that the output in large companies is higher than in small companies. In addition to the basic salary, workers are compensated for the overtime hours worked (Kubo and Saka 266). This aspect creates a further incentive for workers in large companies to work for additional hours to earn extra income.
In the process of devoting more time to work, the output increases, thus leading to extra profits for the companies. Statistics show that the working hours in large and medium sized companies in Japan are more than 12 hours a day (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 329).
Some employees are in support of the long working hours, while others are reluctant to embrace it. Those opposing the long working hour-schemes assert that subjecting workers to long working hours is tantamount to exploitation, and it is against the workers’ rights (Lund 219).
Some scholars claim that companies will initially receive brilliant results for the additional time devoted by workers in the short run, but it will have diminishing results in the end due to fatigue (Batyko 19).
Companies offer incentives for workers seeking for permanent jobs by availing higher salaries to the permanent employees as compared to casual labourers. Many employees will thus sign agreements for permanent jobs with the companies.
The corporate culture in Japan’s large companies tends to exhibit certain similarities. The Japanese job market is based on the “simultaneous recruitment” and “lifetime employment” models. Most large companies in the country subject their employees to long working hours in a bid to improve performance (Kubo and Saka 270).
On the other hand, the employees enjoy numerous employment benefits from the companies in order to remain motivated. Job security is guaranteed under the lifetime employment model and an employee may only leave the company at his or her own discretion.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Japanese Corporate Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Job placement is based on skills and educational background and only the best employees are selected to occupy vacant positions (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 728). Each employee has the responsibility of working industriously and demonstrate loyalty to the employer. The companies have an appealing incentive scheme for employees and graduates.
Firstly, the companies pay their employees competitive salaries coupled with giving job security guarantee. Additional benefits that accrue from employment include housing benefits, life insurance, bonuses, pensions, and recreational facilities among others (Cooper-Chen and Tanaka 104). Secondly, the best workers receive promotions, which come with increased salaries and additional benefits.
The benefits given to workers ensure that companies retain the best workers, thus increasing efficiency, which results in greater profits and increased chances of success. Bonuses are also afforded twice per year, viz. in the mid-year and at the end of the year.
The culture of subjecting workers to long working hours came into existence in the 1920s when it was noted that human labour is an important factor of production in large companies (Batyko 12). However, the scheme has faced opposition from labour unions, thus forcing the companies to reduce the working hours for their employees.
Corporate culture in small firms differs greatly from that of large firms. In smaller companies, new employees are recruited as unskilled workers and put under a senior skilled supervisor to teach them (Batyko 13). Such employees spend long periods learning from the experienced supervisors. They are exposed to deep learning of concepts in specific areas as opposed to shallow, but broad coverage seen in large companies.
Employees in smaller companies use smaller tools to accomplish their tasks and due to repetition and specialisation, they may produce high quality goods using simple tools (Batyko 17). In most cases, the small companies’ products are used as raw materials in large companies and they rarely sell them directly to the consumer.
Labour unions Despite the workers being free to join labour unions, there is a link between companies and the labour unions (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 329). Unions are denied the right to exist as separate entities, and thus companies and labour unions are two inseparable set ups (Kubo and Saka 266). The independence of the labour unions is thus compromised and they cannot achieve a lot.
The corporate culture in Japan is successful in eliminating labour strikes, and thus it is rare for employees to go on strikes especially due to the connection between companies and the labour unions (Makino and Roehl 40). In addition, employees are committed to the company they work for, and thus they may not be willing to harm the economic wellbeing of the firm.
Management corporate culture Another aspect that defines corporate culture in Japan is the aspect of management (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 722). Companies in Japan recruit managers who have the right skills to manage a workforce for the success of the business. The majority of companies in the country have adopted an all-inclusive leadership style (Lund 225).
In other words, managers exercise a democratic leadership style that accommodates the inputs of workers in the decision-making process. Decisions are based on a consensus, and thus it is not a one person’s mandate. The inclusion of workers in the decision-making process instils a sense of inclusion and recognition among employees.
Workers also feel motivated working on targets that they have created. Employees also tend to compete in terms of performance in various departments in a bid to please their employers in order to win promotions. In addition, the inclusion of workers in decision-making brings employees together, thus creating a culture of harmony and teamwork, which may go a long way in improving performance.
In addition, managers show concern over the employees’ personal lives; hence, they do not just issue orders to workers (Kubo and Saka 264). This scenario creates a good relationship between the management and employees promoting motivation and understanding. In a recap, the leadership of major companies in Japan plays a key role in the success of their businesses.
Proposed changes to Japanese corporate culture Researchers have proposed various changes to the Japanese corporate culture. Among those changes is the mobility of labour (Kubo and Saka 270). The nature of employment in the country is based on a lifetime employment. Employees remain in a given company for the entire live until they are incapacitated and they cannot deliver.
This aspect is a great barrier to labour mobility; hence, new ideas believed to come with mobility of labour are excluded in the workplace. Another proposed change is the structure of management. The representatives of management of companies in Japan are reluctant to take new risks, as they are opposed to changes in the organisation structures (Lee and Yu 351).
They are reluctant to recruit foreign workers into their firms and they cannot risk mergers and acquisition (Lund 219). The management should create a reward system for employees for their hard work, innovation, and inventions (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 720). They should create a committee within organisations to scrutinise new investment opportunities.
In addition, there should be sufficient incentives for managers to take risks. The proposals for changes in corporate culture started over three decades ago.
In the 1980s, some large companies were convinced of the need for change in the corporate structure and they laid off some of their workers only to replace them with other modern methods of increasing production such as promotions, which they believed would boost their sales even when the quality was not high.
Inward attitude nature The Japanese corporate structure somehow does not provide room for merge and acquisition (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 307), due to the emphasis made on the inward outlook of companies. The Japanese companies insist on individual success, and thus they overlook the benefits that may accrue from restructuring. The problem is further compounded by the view that the tax rates for some forms of businesses are prohibitive.
The tax levied on partnership businesses is high, thus preventing businesses from merging to create such forms of businesses and pool resources together (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 718). Japanese investors also rarely welcome outside investors into their businesses due to the inward attitude that exists.
They insist on quality of goods and services in a bid to ensure customer satisfaction and improve the working conditions for their workers, thus overlooking the importance of businesses coming together for some common purpose through mergers and acquisition, which would go a long way in mobilising resources and lowering costs of operation (Kubo and Saka 265).
Therefore, the Japanese corporate culture should embrace diversity as it allows organisations to maximise on disparate ideas of people coming from different regions across the world.
Critics The corporate culture in Japan has been criticised for its inflexible nature. Critics argue that the nature of the Japanese corporate culture today is a major hindrance to the development of small and medium size companies. The culture is inflexible, as it does not allow major business developments such as merger and acquisitions.
On the issue of merger and acquisition, the corporate culture is not compatible with such restructuring undertakings, which characterise the contemporary businesses across the world. The Japanese corporate culture emphasises the inward outlook, vertical integration, and provision of quality products for customers. It ignores outsourcing where certain services can be sourced from outside the organisation (Lee and Yu 349).
The other critic is the overreliance on the academic community (Lee and Yu 341). The culture only believes that major invention and innovations can only be achieved through employment of academic principles (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 309). This idea is contrary to other ideas in other countries like the US whereby innovation and invention are believed to come from industrial experiments (Lund 223).
The Japanese corporate culture also faces criticism due to its emphasis on long job tenures in an attempt to maintain the original workforce (Lee and Yu 348). This aspect is a great barrier to labour mobility, which according to critics leads to the introduction of new ideas in an organisation coupled with increasing competitive intensity (Kubo and Saka 269).
Critics also argue that the number of women in leadership in Japan is less than required under the current corporate culture.
Research based on the leadership trait theory indicates that women leaders possess up to five out of nine traits that are important to leadership, and thus barring them from attaining leadership positions is a factor that contributes to failure of Japanese companies. The alleged five traits are said to be inborn in female leaders, and thus they are believed to deliver more in leadership positions as compared to men.
Communication and decision-making In the Japanese corporate culture, the term “ringi” is used to refer to the process of acquiring inputs from stakeholders before making a decision (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 299). The term is made up of two parts, viz. “rin”, which refers to the act of submitting a proposal to the authorities or those higher in the hierarchy, and “gi”, which refers to the process of discussions and deliberations (Lee and Yu 343).
In the Japanese corporate culture, a decision must be reached through consensus and not by one person. Employees make proposals to their supervisors on certain key issues through a document referred to as “ringisho”, which is similar to a circular and it is circulated to all the stakeholders (Kubo and Saka 267).
The proposal is peer-reviewed and those involved show support or rejection of the idea by appending a seal on the document. The document finally reaches the top management and the proposal is either upheld or rejected. The originator of the idea must be notified of its acceptance or rejection. If rejected, one is given the opportunity to make changes to the document and repeat the procedure.
This aspect ensures that everyone in the company is involved in the making of key decisions. This involvement is healthy since everyone will work on a decision he/she has made. The corporate culture in Japan thus includes the interest of its employees, which is necessary for an inclusive corporate culture.
Comparison with other countries One of the factors that makes the Japanese corporate structure unique is the decision-making process. In Japan, consultations have to be made with all stakeholders, and thus a lot of time, which could be used in production, is wasted (Lee and Yu 347). This aspect comes out as both strength and weakness. It becomes strength since decisions are made carefully and the probability of achieving the set target increases.
This aspect is in contrast with the decision-making process in other countries whereby the process is executed under the watch of those in management, and thus less time is wasted and quick decisions are made (Lund 223). However, in instances where such decisions are quickly made, chances are that slight mistakes may occur, thus leading to less achievement.
Contrary to corporate cultures in other countries, the work life in Japan is more essential than personal life (Kubo and Saka 268). In Japan, a series of meetings is held even during out of duty hours to deliberate on certain issues concerning the company.
An example of such an after-work meeting is the Nomikai party held occasionally to bring together the management and employees to discuss the way forward for companies (Lee and Yu 341).
This scenario is different from other countries, where there is a balance between work and personal life and few after-work meetings are held. Additionally, Japanese employees are encouraged to remain in a company through monetary rewards and promotions (Kubo and Saka 262). The more a worker stays in a specific company, the more his/her salary is.
The Japanese managerial style is different from companies in other countries. The nature of management in Japanese companies emphasises a bottom up flow of information as opposed to a top- down flow, which is evident in most other countries (Lund 219). The Japanese corporate culture allows employees to formulate policies for companies.
Managers cultivate good relationship with their subordinates in a bid to create a culture of harmony in companies. The harmony created is healthy for companies for when workers work in teams efficiency is boosted, which in most cases results in huge profits. The role of decision-making is given to subordinates who place their suggestions to the top managers for consideration in making key decisions.
Conclusion Corporate culture determines the success or failure of a business. Therefore, businesses should adopt a corporate culture that best favours the organisational operations. A good corporate culture should include the interest of all stakeholders coupled with being compatible with the business environment.
Compatibility of the corporate culture with the environment is a major determinant of the businesses’ success and research indicates that a weak, but compatible corporate culture can outdo a strong corporate culture that is incompatible with the operational environment (Lund 219). The corporate culture in Japan differs greatly from corporate cultures in other countries.
In Japan, workers are retained for lifetime as long as they can deliver effectively. In a bid to keep employees, competitive salaries and other fringe benefits are availed.
However, the system of corporate governance in Japan is criticised for its shortfalls, which include management style that does not encourage innovation and invention. It has also been criticised for its inflexible nature that does not provide room for changes. Overall, the Japanese corporate culture promotes organisational performance, because its merits overrule its demerits.
Works Cited Batyko, Richard. “The Impact of Corporate Culture on Public Relations in Japan: A Case Study Examining Tokyo Electric Powerand Toyota.” Public Relations Journal 6.3 (2012): 1-19. Print.
Cooper-Chen, Ann, and Michiyo Tanaka. “Public relations in Japan: The cultural roots of Kouhou.” Journal of Public Relations Research 20.1 (2008): 95-114. Print.
Kubo, Izumi, and Ayse Saka. “An inquiry into the motivations of knowledge workers in the Japanese financial industry.” Journal of Knowledge Management 6.3 (2002): 262-271. Print.
Lee, Kim, and Kelvin Yu. “Corporate culture and organisational performance.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 19.4 (2004): 340-359. Print.
Lund, Daulatram. “Organisational culture and job satisfaction.” Journal of business
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Epicondylitis at the Workplace Research Paper essay help
Abstract Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Epicondylitis are some of the most pronounced workplace injuries that limit the efficiency of workers. This paper offers a consummate discourse regarding the concept of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Epicondylitis at the workplace.
It addresses the prevalence of the conditions at the workplace and their management as a way of enhancing efficiency at the workplace. The paper finds that the disastrous effects of the two injuries can be greatly reduced through application of ergonomic principles.
Introduction Achieving Workplace Efficiency through the Practice of Ergonomics
Effectiveness of the human resource in an organization is a factor of the organizational success. Healthy personnel in an organization contribute immensely to the success of an organization. Moreover, health of the employees is a subset of the work conditions of the workers.
Health defines the quality and the quantity of the work input by the workers. In this regard, an organization’s primary obligation is to institute measures of ensuring workers are at their optimal health. Therefore, principles of ergonomics in the workplace should be invariably observed (Konz, 2011).
Literature Review Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome hinders the efficiency at the workplace. The condition affects the palm area of the hand leading to numbness. The defect impairs the coordination of the muscle movement in the palm of the hand thereby causing intense pain.
Because of the vitiated coordination in the palm region, grasping of objects becomes a grueling affair. Poor muscle coordination also leads to impaired movement of the hands. The fact that the hand achieves 99% of the workplace chores makes the condition a severe affair that must be controlled (Karwowski
“Dating and the single parent” by Deal, R Critical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Summary of the Book
Dating is a vital practice since it allows people to know and love each other in a bid to make a happy life. Deal (2012) presented various pertinent arguments regarding dating and paid particular attention to a single parent.
This book titled as Dating and the Single Parents has a discussion about dating from how it commences to how a stable relationship is established. Author points out that dating of single parents begins with the willingness and readiness to prepare the children for it. When this vital decision is made, a single parent starts to look for a dating partner with whom he or she dates.
A successful dating process should end up in a marital commitment and the preparation of a stepfamily. The individuals reengage and become a part of a new family. Essentially, the single parents might decide to live together and marry. Whereas Deal presents these ideas and their appropriate directions, he not only provides advice for people involved in dating, but also makes substantive basis to affirm his argument.
Intent of the Book
Deal’s suggestions were tactful as they addressed the issues of single parents seeking new relationships that may lead to marriage.
It addresses what divorce incorporates and how it influences the life of single parents. Its preliminary section indicates the self-evaluation of the single parents and their own life. Furthermore, it provides the guidelines of evaluating and coming up with pertinent knowledge about their readiness to get into another relationship.
Deal discusses some of the attributes to consider when dating such as its purpose, how to groom, and challenges that can be experienced in the process. He elaborates on how dating would affect a person’s spiritual life. Furthermore, the author provides real-life situations and testimonies from experiences of other single parents and children.
Precisely, Deal has also brought out some scenarios where single parents and their children experience challenges as this love progresses. Moreover, he considers how partners match their characters in order to live together successfully. Deal uses the symbolic Yellow, Red, and Green lights as the checklists to locate a partner.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fate of the children is addressed as exemplified in the case where he gives precise life experiences on love that occurs between the individual parents. This love that leads to marriage between single parents has been identified as risky unless a person finds a partner who is committed in fulfilling his or her roles in a new family, especially those related to the kids.
In a bid to wrap-up the whole idea in the book, the author gives life advices that concern marriage. He advises on the devotion involving marriage life, and the credible preparatory measures as an individual enters into a new family seeking to bring up the step-children. He recommends a clear understanding between the members of the separate families coming together and supports the treatments suited for them.
Conclusively, Deal brings out the expected aspects while considering re-marrying after divorce, which raises the concept of the combined families. Furthermore, he provides proper advices defended by justified bible quotes to support his arguments.
Use of the Book for Christian Premarital Couples
The premarital couples are in an essential stage that requires proper counseling from the pastors. Therefore, the pastors require appropriate principles to assist them in offering clear and non-misleading guidance for the couples.
There are four types of premarital couples namely harmonized couples, conflicted couples, traditional couples and vitalized couples. In this light, the proper literature based on the church teachings is used by the pastors when preparing these prenuptial couples.
In consideration of all the features argued by Deal (2012), great teachings for the premarital couples have been provided. It presents some of the important learning experiences for both counselors and the counselees.
The features involved in any premarital counseling include steps to bring the couples together, issues that entail the roles of the couples, occurrences of grounding the religious marriages, and the resources helping pastors during counseling. Therefore, the book bears a great potential for changing the lives of the prenuptial couples in different perspectives.
We will write a custom Book Review on “Dating and the single parent” by Deal, R specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When assessing the steps to bring couples together in church, the single parents provide most important information that involves blending of the divorced parents. The pastors would apply the illustrations argued by Deal to counsel the couples. He also provides some of the values to incorporate during dating and the expectations from a promising partner.
The premarital couples interested in learning their characters properly before accepting marriage commitments would find the evaluation guidelines in this book very helpful. Deal (2012) argues that dating forms a crucial step in understanding the partner even though the personal characters are not revealed fully by the activities performed while dating.
Deal provides Christian perspectives that are prominent among premarital couples. For instance, he argues how God is forgiving which implies that couples should emulate such aspect in their entire marriage life. The warnings that he pronounces against the lies in dating, the challenges in raising up step-children, and the risks involved in re-marriages are very helpful during the evaluation and while choosing the best remarriage partner.
Furthermore, he argues that since different religions have varying perception on marrying, dating would play a vital role in evaluating how such issues can be resolved. In essence, Deal reviews the differences that exist especially when considering different beliefs from different churches. The interpretations of the scriptures divide people along their beliefs in marriage and dating.
In regard to Deal’s arguments on the best place to meet a promising marriage partner, Christians find the book useful as they read the key steps involving the red light, the green light, and the yellow light (Deal, 2012). The blending concept is also important to the Christian premarital couples who share diverse backgrounds such as single parents raising their own kids.
Critique of the Book
The ideas postulated by Deal (2012) have been critiqued under this title, which based on theological perspectives. This critique is based on the fact that marriage, dating, and relationships form essential parts of the society.
Although the author tries to bring out the different aspects entailed in remarriage between single parents tirelessly, there are various features that have not been justified. However, most of the issues addressed are true and justified. The following issues and critiques have come out clearly in the book.
The Evident Lies in Dating among Christian Pre-couples
Deal (2012) postulates that most couples who are considered did not like their marital status, which is attributed to their dating lives. However, this does not imply that it is the usual occurrence for most dates since they allow people to know and identify their most suited life partners.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Dating and the single parent” by Deal, R by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, it is through dating that people are able to learn secrets about their partners (Brady, 2011). Deal (2012) argues that most people show their best characters making it hard to determine the real personalities even when suitors try to select a partner.
However, some of the little camouflage that most people employ while dating is essential. Since it is advisable to spend a longer time while dating before a person decides to be/get married, Deal (2012) shows the dating period as shorter to an extent of preventing the identification of the real characters. It is common to have a proper dating method.
According to theological point of view, it is uncommon to encounter dating partners who lie to each other (Brady, 2011). This is in respect to the church teachings about being faithful and the acknowledgement that lies are not expected among dating Christians. This contrasts what Deal claims to be prevalent among Christian dating couples.
Developing creative dating ideas can facilitate the understanding of the partner’s character as bad and good. Similarly, Christians can undergo an artistic dating process that can lead them easily into knowing the true characters of their partners (Harper
Managing Risk Appetite of a Financial Institution Essay best college essay help
Retail banking in the UAE
Retail banking concerns the transaction of banks with consumers without relying on corporate intermediaries. Here, the services on offer include savings or transacting accounts, loans, credit and debit cards, and mobile or internet banking facilities. A common thing about retail banking in the UAE is that all banks offer Islamic banking.
As a result, many of their loans to consumers are interest free and the banks provide a variety of instruments that help small businesses to grow. When loaning out money to retail clients, banks rely on the relationship they have with the client, the financial statement of the client, and the credit score. Banks exist mainly because of their credit offering business.
As banks lend out money, they run the risk of not getting it back because they do not control the circumstances that face the borrower. The UAE banking sector has 23 domestic banks and 28 foreign banks serving both the retail and corporate markets (Moukahal 2011).
The central bank of the UAE took over the operations of the Currency Board through the enactment of Federal Law 10, which gave it the mandate to advice government on monetary and financial issues (Hashmi 2007). The central bank also deals with currency issuing, credit policy formulation, and maintenance of foreign and gold currency reserves (Hashmi 2007).
Under the role of monitoring and formulating a credit policy, the central bank also acts as the supervisor for the entire financial sector. It licenses banks and obliges them to use International Accounting Standards (IAS).
Hashmi (2007) explains that banks need UAE nationals as their majority shareholders and they must have vivid corporate structures. In addition, they must be shareholding companies and maintain a risk weighted asset ratio of at least 10% (Moukahal 2011).
Bank risk appetite
Risk appetite concerns the exposure to potential adverse effects that could arise from an event to which the particular organization expressing the appetite is willing to accept. Consequently, after meeting its risk appetite threshold, a bank will proceed to initiate and implement risk management procedures and business control measures so that it lowers the exposure to accepted and manageable levels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A number of reasons can affect a bank’s risk appetite. They include the demand for favourable returns by equity investors, the desire of rating agencies and consultants to minimize risk as a default, the demands by regulators and consumers on an uninterrupted service, and the need for the bank to offer a predictable and steady return for shareholders.
Pursuing opportunities that have potential high rewards forces banks to take on high risks. When setting the risk level that could be accepted, a bank will seek to balance its loss potential with its profit potential. In this regard, banks will concern their business activities with the allocation of time and resources to activities that minimize risk exposure.
They will consider whether they need to take any immediate action concerning their risk exposure and rely on their formal response strategies to erode the impact of the risk event. Finally, banks will rely on the history of the bank itself or the industry in the country and throughout the world to evaluate options for reducing effects of risk events.
When banks have a high-risk appetite, they advance more loans to borrowers. Therefore, the indicators of a favourable economy for lending will also work as indicators for increased risk appetite for banks. A growing economy provides citizens with a variety of ways to earn money and pay back loans from banks.
In return, banks find it increasingly profitable to increase their loan offerings because there are many people capable of repaying them back. When the favourable environment for lending changes and banks realize that the credit worthiness of its clients is plummeting, they reduce their lending activities.
However, the transition period could be hectic and the bank could end up with a large amount of non-performing loans on its asset books. Writing off the loans would then expose the bank to losses and they could lead to collapse of the bank when they are too much.
In the UAE, bank risk appetite follows the performance of the economy as indicated by the rate of economic growth, the level of consumer confidence, and the level of risk aversion in the financial industry. Banks can borrow money for subsequent lending and their ability to borrow will affect their lending ambitions.
We will write a custom Essay on Managing Risk Appetite of a Financial Institution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, when they are evaluating their risk appetite, banks will also include their capital base and shock-absorption capacity. As the regulator of banks, the central bank compels the banks to disclose their credit exposures periodically and maintain a considerable amount of their assets within the central bank deposit facility.
The move ensures that an individual bank’s high-risk appetite does not jeopardise the stability of the entire banking industry and, in extension, the economy when a risk event occurs (Hull 2007).
General overview of a bank ALCO Assets and Liability Management committee
A bank will usually have Asset/Liabilities Committees (ALCO), which is a risk-management unit in the bank that works to evaluate, monitor, and approve risk related practices. Banks need a considerable amount of liquid assets for them to handle expected and unexpected financial balance sheet fluctuations.
A bank will be in a favourable liquidity option when it is able to obtain needed funds promptly and at reasonable costs (van Greuning
Cold War Paranoia in “Captain America” and “Batman” Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The prevalent mood across the United States after the Second World War was rife with optimism and unparalleled success. The middle class “rapidly expanded, unemployment was low, and the United States (the only country with a nuclear bomb) became the most powerful country on earth” (Burr par.14).
Unfortunately, this mood lasted for a short period of about four years before the Soviet Union started stockpiling nuclear bombs in 1949. Given that the United States was the only state with nuclear weapons by then, the Soviet’s decision to test its first nuclear weapons openly in 1949 caused tensions in the US.
The hitherto mood of success turned somber and Americans became paranoid due to the fears of a nuclear bomb being dropped from the Soviet Union. Americans started preparing for nuclear bomb attacks. The political environment was awash with speculations and conspiracy theories, with some politicians claiming that Soviet spies had infiltrated the American government.
The film industry thus sought to highlight the changing mood across the United States with film directors coming up with movies to underscore the situation.
Some of the outstanding superhero movies that underscored the Cold War paranoia include Captain America directed by Albert Pyun in 1990 and Batman, which was released in 1966. This paper explores these two superhero movies and their correlation with Cold War paranoia in terms of characters and the plotlines.
Batman (1966) This movie is commonly referred to as Batman: The Movie and it is an adaptation of the Batman Television Series, with emphasis on the character, Batman, who featured extensively in DC Comics (Garcia 55). The movie’s plotline elicits fear, apprehension, and confusion, which characterized the Cold War paranoia.
When Batman tries to rescue Schmidlapp from a yacht, the vessel disappears and he comes out with his leg in a shark’s mouth (Batman). This form of unexpected events underscores the uncertainty that surrounded the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Americans did not know what to expect if either of the warring sides launched a nuclear attack against the other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Batman and Robin later realize that the call claiming that Schmidlapp had been kidnapped was a set up by the United Underworld, which sought to eliminate Batman. This aspect underscores the many conspiracy theories that surrounded the Cold War. As the movie progresses, the plot exposes the view that everyone loses in a war.
Batman and Robin fail in their attempt to protect the kidnapping of the United World Organization’s Council, while the United Underground loses its missiles and submarines in the war. Similarly, both the United States and the Soviet Union lost substantially during the Cold War. Innocent civilians died as collateral damage on top of property destruction coupled with the death of thousands of soldiers involved in the war.
On the choice of characters, Batman represents the kind of a superhero that Americans wanted to be assured of safety from the threats of nuclear bombs from the Soviet Union.
Americans knew that the government could not protect them sufficiently if a nuclear war broke out because in a nuclear war, there are no winners as everyone loses (Burr par. 16). In addition, the use of Catwoman, under the disguise of Miss Kitka – a Soviet journalist, highlights the allegations of communist sympathizers within the United States at the time.
Captain America This movie is an adaptation of the Marvel’s Comics Superhero. In the movie, the need to come up with a superhero to protect Americans from the threat of a nuclear attack from the Soviet Union stands out. Even though the plot oscillates between Italy and the United States, fear and unpredictability come out clearly.
The Italian government eliminates Tadzio’s family before kidnapping him for experimental purposes as it seeks to make a fascist superhero (Captain America). However, one of the project masterminds, Dr. Vaselli, cannot stand the thought of using an innocent boy as a guinea pig and so she escapes to the United States where she kick starts a similar project. She successfully transforms one of the soldiers, Steve Rogers, into a superhero.
Even though the director of this movie does not mention the Soviet Union directly, the themes used point to the Cold War paranoia at the time. The idea of coming up with a superhero being was born out of the uncertainty surrounding the possibility of using nuclear bombs during the Cold War (Snellings par. 17).
We will write a custom Essay on Cold War Paranoia in “Captain America” and “Batman” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The cloning of a superhero in Italy and the replication of the same in the United States can be taken to imply the making of a nuclear bomb in the US and the subsequent replication of the same by the Soviet Union. On the use of characters, the script follows that of Batman with superhero characters taking the center stage.
Conclusion Fear, apprehension, and uncertainty characterized the Cold War era. Americans lived in ‘nuclear war preparedness’ as the Soviet Union was allegedly planning to drop a nuclear bomb anywhere in the US. Moviemakers sought to make films highlighting this feeling of uncertainty.
In addition, Americans wanted a form of protection, which could only come from a superhero as opposed to relying on government forces. Therefore, filmmakers used superheroes in their movies to meet the society’s expectations at the time, as shown in the movies, Batman and Captain America.
Works Cited Batman. Dir. Leslie Martinson. Century City, LA: Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, 1966. Film.
Burr, William. Nobody Wins a Nuclear War” But “Success” is Possible Mixed Message of 1950s Air Force Film on a U.S.-Soviet Conflict, 2011. Web.
Captain America. Dir. Albert Pyun. New York: Marvel Entertainment, LLC, 1990. Film.
Garcia, Bob. “Batman: Making the Original Movie.” Cinefantastique 24.25 (1994): 55-58. Print.
Snellings, April. Captain America Trades World War II Action for Cold War Paranoia in ‘The Winter Soldier, 2014. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cold War Paranoia in “Captain America” and “Batman” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Clinical Analysis: Conflicted Couple Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Identification of the key areas
Introduction This paper is aimed at discussing the problems encountered by a conflicted couple. In particular, it is necessary to focus on the experiences of Walter and Pam. This analysis will include three sections. At first, one should identify the strengths and weaknesses of their relations. Secondly, much attention should be paid to the personalities of both partners, especially the way in which their character traits affect their interactions.
Finally, it is critical to develop a strategy for supporting this couple. Overall, the methods, which can help these people, should reduce the impact of differences in their character traits; moreover, they should improve the conflict resolution techniques of this couple. Much attention should be paid to empathetic listening and the use of the Bible because these approaches can make Walter and Pam more resilient to various stressors.
Identification of the key areas One should first note that background of these people does not throw much light on the nature of their problems. For instance, both of them come from Protestant families with many children. Additionally, these belong to the same age group.
Certainly, there are some differences in the income level. Walter earns twice as much as Pam. This is one of the issues that may contribute to the inequality of partners, and this risk should not be overlooked. Nevertheless, this issue is not one of the top concerns for this couple.
It is possible to identify several strengths in the relationship between Walter and Pam. One of the main positive aspects is the high level of commitment to the marriage. Both partners believe that this marriage will be their last one, and they want to preserve these relations. Moreover, they are ready to take steps in order to improve them. Thus, it is possible to say that both partners may be willing to accept the suggestions of a counselor.
Moreover, they will be ready to change some aspects of their behavior in order to address potential problems. Furthermore, Walter and Pam are not afraid of expressing their feelings to each other. Moreover, they can do even at the time, when they have some significant disagreements.
Both of them describe each other as good listeners and this skill is critical for conflict resolution (Darling
Spinner Pet Sitters Coursework college admissions essay help
The current report presents a balanced scorecard for Spinner Pet Sitters. Based on the balanced scorecard and the company’s performance, the report also provides recommendations for Shelly to improve its performance in the coming years.
Balanced Scorecard for Spinner Pet Sitters A balanced scorecard is a strategic management tool, which is used to align a business’ performance and activities with its mission, vision, and objectives. Based on the information provided in the case study, the following balanced scorecard is developed for Spinner Pet Sitters:
Perspective Objectives Measures Organizational Goal Actual Performance Gap Financial Perspective Increase quarterly profits to $ 5,000
Increase return on capital employed (ROCE) to $ 4,000
Profit results for the quarter
Return on capital employed (ROCE) for the quarter
Profit for the quarter = $ 5,000
Return on capital employed (ROCE) for the quarter = $ 4,000
Profit for the quarter = $ 6,000
Return on capital employed (ROCE) for the quarter = $ 1,500
Customer Perspective Increase customer satisfaction to 95 percent
Increase customer recommendation rate to 80 percent
Customer satisfaction rate
Customer recommendation rate
Customer satisfaction rate = 95 percent
Customer recommendation rate = 80 percent
Customer satisfaction rate = 95 percent
Customer recommendation rate = 100 percent
Internal Processes To reduce duplication of activities in relation to different functions in the organization
To reduce bottlenecks in the processes
Percentage of completed activities which are duplicated in other functions
Percentage of bottlenecks in an average run cycle
Percentage of completed activities which are duplicated in other functions = 25 percent
Percentage of bottlenecks in an average run cycle = 15 percent
Percentage of completed activities which are duplicated in other functions = 20 percent
Percentage of bottlenecks in an average run cycle = 15 percent
People / Innovation / Growth Assets To reduce turnover of employees
To increase job satisfaction among employees
Employees’ turnover rate
Employees’ job satisfaction rate
Employees’ turnover rate = 25 percent
Employees’ job satisfaction rate = 90 percent
Employees’ turnover rate = 0 percent
Employees’ job satisfaction rate = 50 percent
Recommendations for Spinner Pet Sitters Keeping in view the planned and actual performance of Spinner Pet Sitters and the gaps identified in the balanced scorecard presented above, following recommendations have been put forward for Spinner Pet Sitters to improving its performance.
The quarterly profits were reported to be above the targeted level, which is a positive sign for the company. However, in order to maintain the continuous growth in profits, the company needs to achieve higher efficiency in its operations. On the other hand, the return on capital employed was considerably lower than expected. In the coming periods, this could be improved by investing additional capital resources for enhancing the operational efficiency of the business.
As far as the customer satisfaction rate and customer recommendation rate are concerned, the actual results show that all expectations were met during the quarter. However, it is recommended that the business should keep its focus on delivering high quality and practicing effective customer care to ensure sustainability.
The efficiency level in the company’s processes should be improved in order to reduce the duplication of activities.
Jobs should be enriched and job designs should be reconsidered to improve the overall job satisfaction level of employees.
Reference List Balanced Scorecard Institute. (2013). Balanced Scorecard Basics. Retrieved from https://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSC-Basics/About-the-Balanced-Scorecard
Kaplan, R. S.,
Saudi Arabia Commercial Law Expository Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
The main contradiction between the UPICC and the Saudi Arabia commercial law is based on the fact that the Saudi Arabia law is largely Sharia law. The parties in commercial contracts have the freedom to contract, but the scope of the remedies and other modes of enforcing the contract are regulated by the Islamic law.
The issue has raised several issues of conflict that may pose a considerable danger to the parties entering into the contract if they are motivated by the UPICC remedies. With the UPICC, the contracts are supposed to be uniform from the making process to the enforcement stages. The uniform nature of the contracts has continuously guided state-to-state commercial contracts.
With distinct countries agreeing to enter into international commercial contracts, it has become easier to enforce the contracts. The Saudi Arabia commercial law is largely formulated on the basis of Islamic law, thus there are a lot of contractual differences that are evident.1 The remedies are mainly formulated to correspond with the guidelines of the Sharia law.
The greater portion of the Sharia law is characteristically different between Sharia law and the UPICC. The differences are based on the principles guiding the contracts, as well as the enforcement of the commercial contracts when a breach occurs. This essay will discuss the theoretical differences between UPICC principle and Saudi commercial law in the light of Islamic law.
The first essential point of consideration is the principle of commercial law in the light of Sharia law. Sharia law principles sharply contradict the principles of the international commercial law. Thus, the four schools of Saudi jurisprudence are contrary to the principles imposed by the UPICC. The most important point to note is that when the conflict occurs, the Saudi Islamic law should prevail over other laws.2
This implies that the Sharia law in Saudi Arabia takes pre-eminence over any other statute. In some situations, the enforcement of any right emanating from any other law will be subject to the decision of the court.3 Though there are rules and regulations used to supplement Sharia law, there is a prevailing element of Sharia law if there is any conflict between the rules and Sharia law.
The contradiction between the Islamic law and the international commercial laws is based on the fact that some of the transactions are not enforceable in Sharia law. For instance, any payment in form of receipts and other modes of payments are not enforceable if there is interest imposed on one party.4
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is emphasis on the use of fairness when entering into contracts. The Islamic law highly protects the consumer at the expense of other parties in the contract. The Islamic law is guided on equitable remedies, while it is clear that majority of the commercial contracts are based on the principle of rights and remedies between the parties. The rights and remedies cut across common law and other laws.5 T
here is unnecessary scrutiny of contracts under Islamic law to ascertain that the parties in the contract have not enriched themselves unjustly, yet Islamic law discourages unjust enrichment. If it is evident that a party is enriching themselves justly, then the courts declare the contract void.
The international commercial law is not based on the equitable principles of unjust enrichment, but on the fact that both parties in the transaction engage in a fair bargain; in other words, the parties have the freedom to contract or not.
Once the above principle is evident, any right derived from the contract is enforceable. Commercial transaction regulations do not require proof that the contract does not lead to unjust enrichment, unlike the Sharia law.6
The international commercial laws are aimed at providing remedies where the parties have agreed on the terms of the contracts. Despite the fact that the Islamic law allows the parties in a contract to agree on the conditions of the contract, any contract that is prohibited in the Sharia law does not enjoy this right.7 The Islamic law has provided a strict mechanism of rejecting an award for damages.
This is specifically where the damages represent a loss, either direct or indirect. Any contract that seeks liquidated damages is also classified in this category. The reason why the Islamic law still commands great respect is based on the fact that it serves the majority in the country.
The utility of the law in the given environment ensures that it prevails over other legal principles.8 The utilitarian principle provides that the greater good should be the impetus when deciding whether to incorporate a given principle in the scope of operation.
We will write a custom Essay on Saudi Arabia Commercial Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Islamic population in Saudi Arabia allows the enforcement of Sharia law. It should be noted that the law does not allow the enforcement of foreign judgments in Saudi Arabia. Some of the foreign commercial judgments are issued in foreign countries, which means that if the judgment is being enforced against a party in Saudi Arabia, then such a party will escape liability.9
The commitment of Saudi Arabia to enforce the laws to conform to the requirements of some of the treaties that the country has entered is of great benefit to the contracting parties. However, the commercial contracts are subject to the Islamic law, thus a party seeking to rely on the provisions of a given commercial judgment will be barred from doing so.
The courts and other bodies of law in Saudi Arabia have a way of ensuring that there are commitments to be met under the provisions in the Islamic law. The Islamic law provides a strict position that does not allow the operation of other laws.
Commercial transactions made in other countries have to be weighed against the provisions of Islamic law. Any of the distinct provisions will not be allowed to take effect if they are not structured according to the provisions of the existing Islamic law.10
Conclusion The provision of Islamic law imposes strict guidelines that are to be used if parties desire to enter into a contract that is to be interpreted according to the principles of the international commercial law. If the contract is to be enforceable in Saudi Arabia, then parties are required to ensure that the rights and remedies provided in the contract are enforceable under the provisions of the Islamic law.
The courts have a strict tendency of imposing a regulatory framework where they fail to enforce foreign judgments. The duty of the Saudi Arabia government under the treaty law is to ensure that parties to the treaty are protected by the law. However, such protection must conform to the principles of Islamic law.
Bibliography Glenn, H. Patrick, Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable Diversity in Law (Oxford University Press 2014).
IBP USA, Middle East and Arabic Countries Company Law Handbook (Intl Business Pubns USA, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Saudi Arabia Commercial Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Luttrell, Sam, Bias Challenges in International Commercial Arbitration: The Need for a ‘real Danger’ Test (Wolters Kluwer Law
Global Warming Refugees Essay argumentative essay help
Global warming was a bogeyman story in the first part of the twentieth century but it has become a reality for people of the twenty-first century. People have acknowledged changes which have been taking place and are trying to react accordingly. Thus, it has become estimated that 150-200 million people will become refugees due to climate warming (Afifi and Jäger 101).
It is noteworthy that researchers stress that the number of forced migrants is quite rough as further research is required. Nonetheless, it is clear that a lot of people will have to leave their homelands trying to escape from unfavorable climate conditions. It is necessary to understand particular causes of migration to be able to develop efficient measures to help people.
In the first place it is necessary to note that climate change is associated with extreme weathers. Numerous tornadoes, storms, floods, droughts and so on damage vast areas and make them uninhabitable: people’s dwellings are destroyed, ecosystems are damaged, lands turn into marshes, cultivated land deteriorates and so on (Miller and Spoolman 513).
It is especially true for coastal areas which are affected by these natural disasters as well as ocean rise. Global warming often damages farming and vast areas become unsuitable for cultivation. This leads to famine. Clearly, urban areas are also becoming less comfortable. Global warming leads to spread of numerous diseases which were not common or were typical of African or Asian areas.
Higher temperatures also speed up a variety of chemical reactions producing dangerous chemicals “in photochemical smog in urban areas” (Miller and Spoolman 513). Finally, people also predict numerous wars for resources such as water, food, oil, wood, and so on.
Obviously, all these events will force millions of people leave their homelands as this is already happening since refugees from African countries are trying to escape to European or other developed countries.
Admittedly, the most effective way to diminish the effect of global warming is to reduce climate change or, at least, slow it down. However, people are yet to find the solution to this problem. Meanwhile, they have to start developing strategies to avoid events mentioned above. Of course, the most effective way to solve this problem would be creation of a global government which would distribute natural resources among people of the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will require construction of systems which could transport resources across countries. It may seem a costly project but it will be cost-effective compared to numerous programs to tackle issues concerning refugees.
However, the global government is unlikely to exist as national interests often (or rather always) overweigh. Though, it is clear that governments of developing countries will not try to solve such issues as famine due to lack of funds and monetary assistance from other countries is not enough.
Therefore, it is clear that people are unlikely to come up with an efficient solution and lots of people will become forced migrants. Of course, it is hard to predict the number of people who will leave their homelands but it is apparent that the number will be large.
Scientists as well as all stakeholders seem unable to forget about personal/national interests and really focus on issues concerning global warming. However, it is still necessary to discuss the issue and raise awareness among people. This will draw more attention to the problem and may contribute to development of the effective solution.
Works Cited Afifi, Tamer, and Jill Jäger. Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability. New York, NY: Springer Science
Natural Catastrophes and Environmental Justice Essay writing essay help
Although natural catastrophes cannot be avoided, it is still possible to effectively manage the negative effects associated with such calamities in order to minimize human suffering and promote environmental justice. When all people are meaningfully involved and fairly treated in regards to catastrophes that impact the environment, it amounts to environmental justice.
The development of any nation or state should not merely focus on the educational level of individuals, national origin, income, ethnicity, or race.
To a large extent, every individual can proactively add value to environmental protection. In other words, the existing policies, regulations and environmental laws can be swiftly enforced and implemented when both citizens and non-citizens are indiscriminately involved in the process (Bardsley and Sweeney 1133).
Disempowerment in terms of policy or economic wellbeing might lead to unfair treatment of the undeserving population. Hence, the disadvantaged segment of the population may eventually bear the immense burden of dealing with negative repercussion of pollution to the environment. Environmental pollution emanates from the skewed and tribal policies executed by the local, state and federal authorities.
Commercial operations as well as municipal and industrial wastes also contribute towards degradation of the immediate environment. As it stands now, most natural catastrophes are being aggravated by human activities that pollute the environment. For instance, there is an increased build-up of aerosols and Green House Gases in the atmosphere to an extent that the shortwave radiation from the sun cannot be radiated back.
Consequently, the earth has become warmer than it used to be some decades ago. The latter has significantly contributed to global warming and the much-taunted climate change. In any case, the extreme weather events (drought, floods) have been occasioned by human population to the immediate environment. Unless human management of the environment is improved, environmental justice will hardly be realized.
A robust environmental justice framework should be put in place in order to minimize the negative impacts of natural catastrophes to certain segments of the population. Exposure to harmful wastes alongside natural calamities can be reduced if appropriate justice is awarded to the environment (Bardsley and Sweeney 1130).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of underlying assumptions that have continually generated various unequal protections and exposure to natural disasters that are also man-made. Environmental justice cannot be attained unless certain political and ethical queries are asked. Needless to say, every individual has a basic right of protection from the harmful effects of natural calamities.
When we degrade our environment, we fail to execute any justice to it. However, protection should still be granted to the vulnerable populations by the concerned government authorities owing to poor legislative or environmental protection agenda in place.
The negative impacts posed to populations by natural catastrophes such as hurricanes may be eliminated if not reduced when proper environmental justice is exercised (Brown 112). This form of justice should be a priority area not just in regions prone to natural disasters. It should be a bi-partisan engagement between the public and policy makers.
Environmental polluters should also be held accountable for their actions as part and parcel of environmental justice. Pollution of the environment is definitely a major cause of concern in the 21st century. Since climate change is closely associated with drastic alteration of weather parameters, there is urgent need for a strong public voice and environmental protection advocacy programs against pollution (Brown 109).
Works Cited Bardsley, Douglas and Susan, Sweeney. “Guiding Climate Change Adaptation within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems.” Environmental management 45.5 (2010): 1127-1141. Print.
Brown, Katrina. “Global Environmental Change I: A Social Turn for Resilience?” Progress in Human Geography 38.1 (2014): 107-117. Print.
The Kyoto Protocol Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Formation of the Kyoto Protocol
The Objective of the Kyoto Protocol
The Role of the United States of America in the Kyoto Protocol
Introduction Today, one of the major threats to humanity is global warming. This has been attributed to the increased emission of greenhouse gases into the earth’s atmosphere. The industrialized countries of the West are mainly responsible for the current high levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Therefore, “the Kyoto Protocol was formulated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in order to set binding obligations on industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions”. Currently, a number of the industrialized countries have signed and ratified the Protocol. This paper examines the Kyoto Protocol as well as the role of the United States of America in it.
Formation of the Kyoto Protocol A number of international conferences on climate change laid the foundation for the formation of the Kyoto Protocol. For instance, in 1992, the United Nations held a conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, which led to various outcomes. One of the major outcomes of the conference was the formation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The mandate of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was to reduce any form of human activities that would threaten international climate. In 1995, parties to the Convention met in Berlin in order to develop specific targets that would reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
This marked the beginning of major negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol. Consequently, the negotiations on the Protocol were concluded on December 11, 1997. “Due to a complex ratification process, the Protocol entered into force on February 16, 2005”.
The Objective of the Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol was formed in order to stabilize the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by the developed countries. It is based on the principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Thus, it seeks to operationalize the principles of the Convention. The Protocol has set binding obligations on the developed countries because they are the major emitters of greenhouse gases.
Therefore, the developing countries are not bound by its obligations. However, “countries that are bound by the Protocol are those that have approved it”. In its first commitment period, 35 developed countries signed and ratified it. This target aimed at reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by five percent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Role of the United States of America in the Kyoto Protocol The United States of America is partly responsible for the increased levels of greenhouse gases. It accounts for twenty five percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. It is also one of the countries, which participated in the negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol.
Thus, during President Clinton’s administration, the United States signed the Protocol. However, “President Clinton did not submit it to the Senate for advice and consent”. His major concern was that the Protocol exempted the developing countries from its binding obligations. Consequently, in 2001, the United States withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol.
Conclusion The Kyoto Protocol is one of the major international strategies that seek to curb climate change by stabilizing the greenhouse effect. However, its success highly depends on the cooperation among developed and developing countries. Furthermore, the withdrawal of major states like the United States of America may jeopardize its future effectiveness.
Works Cited Saundry, Peter. The Kyoto Protocol and the United States. 25 December 2006. Web. .
UNFCCC. An Introduction to the Kyoto Protocal. 10 June 2011. Web.
Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Report a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Human Resources and Job Design
Introduction Management is an important part of any organization. All successful organizations employ successful management procedures in all their functions. The application of operations management in the areas of quality control, human resource, and supply chain is an important practice in management.
According to Mentzer, the control of quality in an organization is influenced by the existing structures that are intended at serving these functions (9). The quality of products and services produced in an organization dictates the success that the organization enjoys in comparison with its competitors.
Areas such as human resource and job design management constitute other aspects of an organization that determine the level of organizational success. Human resource management ensures that an organization has employees who are devoted to the aims of the organization. Such employees have the skills that are necessary for operating in the respective industry (Mentzer 21).
The third area of management that contributes significantly in determining success in an organization is supply chain management. The distribution of goods and services to and from organizations should be managed efficiently.
One of the organizations that enjoy success in management of the above areas is the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). This essay looks at the operations management in the areas of managing quality, human resources and job design, and the supply chain.
Managing Quality Management of quality contributes to the output of organizations. The output is only significant when the quality control and management are utilized. ADNOC is located in the mining and distribution industry of petroleum in Abu Dhabi. It is considered one of the global leaders in the petroleum technology.
This company is a leader in the provision of petroleum services, with quality control being key in its operations. According to Gitlow, quality control entails putting in place measures that are aimed at enhancing the output in organizations (23). This process begins with setting up a department that is charged with the mandate of overseeing the success of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ADNOC has a quality control department whose objective involves the provision of standard petroleum products and/or the provision of services along these lines. ADNOC has branches and subsidiaries in different parts of the country.
The ancillaries keep the necessary quality control procedures written in the policy statement of the company. After its establishment in 1971, ADNOC set out to establish many companies, affiliates, and subsidiaries, all of which have quality control departments.
ADNOC has branches in the oil industry. These branches stretch in the areas of exploration, refining, gas production, and transportation of products. The company also distributes crude oil, gas, and refined products to overseas markets, with local distribution forming a significant part in its operations.
The management of quality in production, distribution, and storage of products from this organization requires a dedicated workforce with the ability to handle quality control functions of this organization.
Quality control in the production of the organization’s chief products is indicated by the organization’s position on the global and local markets. This organization is among the most successful of its kind. ADNOC has a quality control representative in each of its subsidiaries, including the main company.
The quality control representative is in charge of the quality control program in each of these subsidiaries. The quality control representative who is responsible for control of the company’s output coordinates activities under the quality control department.
Aside from the management of these activities directly in the organization, ADNOC’s quality control representatives and departments have additional functions.
We will write a custom Report on Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization requires the quality control and management department to provide information on the latest requirements for suppliers, relevant government affiliates, investors, and other organizational affiliates. The other function of quality control representatives is the provision of modifications in the processes in ADNOC to ensure that the outputs are according to the international standards.
Top managers and quality control bosses hold frequent meetings to ensure that the department is operating as it should in terms of making the right decisions. The quality control department is required to provide its findings to the senior management, which makes its adjustments to the organization as deemed possible.
Gitlow states that quality control should be focused on ensuring that the output is above or equivalent to the global standards (24). Organizations should seek not only to achieve quality control targets but also to set targets for other organizations in the industry. This function of quality control departments is one that ADNOC has carried out over the last few years.
Employees in the organization are part of the quality control management process. Therefore, the organization has developed and implemented training and education programs for its employees who are required to provide feedback to the different departments of the organization.
This information contributes to the development of standards in the organization. Quality control managers and representatives in this organization also follow up with the findings of quality control department in the organization.
Aside from the quality control department in the organization, ADNOC outsources quality control services from third parties. The program in the organization is successful with the combination of internal and external quality control parties.
The work of quality check programs in ADNOC is to ensure that the output is acceptable and up to the necessary standards. ADNOC has a dedicated management team that takes value as an important part of the production process.
The mining part of the company is an important one. The quality assurance role in this area includes the promotion of safe mining activities. The company has engaged on a campaign to reduce pollution along the process of oil drilling and mining and in the transfer of this product to the local and international markets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization has a crisis and emergency division that is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the activities that the organization undertakes are safe for the local environment. An oil spill is one of the major disasters that the organizations can face. The prevention of this disaster is a priority of its crisis and emergency management team.
The other activity in the management of quality at ADNOC is the frequent surveys that the organization undertakes. According to Ayish, organizations should participate in feedback activities that allow them improve on their service provision or quality of goods and services (33). ADNOC participates in the provision of feedback to promote the provision of better products and services.
Surveys are sent to the other companies that interact with the organization. Individuals and organizations that are affiliated to the origination add to the employee feedback, which is used to improve the quality of goods and services in the organization.
Gitlow states that employees are important in quality assurance and that organizations should ensure that they participate in the process (29). Some of the ways that organizations may improve the quality of their goods and services is through the promotion of better terms for their employees in terms of providing motivational activities and/or offering the best financial terms.
ADNOC has thousands of employees in the many subsidiaries and groups of companies that it operates. These workers are guaranteed good employment terms. This plan has led to the high quality of output.
The reduction of flaring on the organization is another achievement that adequate quality control has implemented. Flaring is a big contributor to environmental pollution. Initially, the organization had a significant flaring, which led to significant pollution.
Measures to reduce pollution that is related to flaring have been effective for this business and its affiliated organizations. Gitlow states that environmental protection for major organizations is an important part in the assessment of their quality control measures (29). Therefore, ADNOC is well placed to achieve quality control and management targets that make it an international company.
Human Resources and Job Design Human resource management is an important part of organizations. Many institutions are dedicated to the provision of adequate human resource management practices. According to Mentzer, an organization is as good as the human resource that it recruits and manages (19).
The job design for any organization should correspond to the needs of the employees. Job design management in an organization consists of a team of employees and managers who are dedicated to the fulfillment of organizational goals in terms of production.
Human resource management entails the recruitment, training, motivation remuneration, and other services that are related to employees. Organizations that recognize their employees as the most important stakeholders often have significant levels of success.
These organizations also have significant levels of competitiveness. Organizations that wish to succeed in their respective industries should have a human resource department that has human resource managers who are charged with the assurance of employee needs and rights.
ADNOC has a human resource sector in place that takes charge of employee needs in this organization. The department plays the role of recruitment of employees, training, motivation, and promotion of employee rights. The organization recruits employees that are highly trained and experienced.
These workers proceed with training while still at the organization. ADNOC offers training for internship students who wish to join the organization in pursuit of employment. Some of these students are absorbed into the organization where they get a chance to bring their experience and training to the organization.
Experienced individuals who include human resource managers should run human resource management. ADNOC is one of the organizations with an experienced team of human resource managers who serve different functions in this department. The senior human resource manager is involved in policy formulation, including the determination of individuals who the organization can recruit and employ.
Employee remuneration is a significant part of human resource management. It ensures motivation within an organization (Mentzer 17). ADNOC offers competitive remuneration for its employees, with this strategies being one of the reasons for its success in the respective industry.
The human resource department within the organization or its subsidiaries is charged with the promotion of employee rights and the provision of services. The department ensures that the employees constantly get their remuneration, which has been reviewed in their favor.
An organization with the desire to succeed in its respective industry should respect the rights of its employees whilst ensuring that their salaries are competitive in the industry (Ermida 271). The organization with the best employee policies usually enjoys success in the industry and market within which it is located.
ADNOC is located in an industry that is considered risky for any employee. Job design in this organization ensures employee safety. The company considers fatality of one of its employees an urgent matter that needs attention. The company has previously had accidents at its places of work, with seven employees dying in 2009 because of work-related accidents.
The company investigated these incidents as a way of assuring its employees of future safety at the organization and its affiliate companies. The measures put in place at the organization have ensured that no accident is reported since the death of these employees.
ADNOC considers its employees one of their important stakeholders alongside its customers, government organizations, suppliers, and the public. These stakeholders enjoy a variety of engagements with the organization.
Employees get team meetings where they contribute to the development of the organization. As a result, they feel motivated. According to Mentzer, these team meetings are important in communicating the organization’s goals and objectives whilst motivating employees towards the achievement of these goals and targets (19).
The other way that ADNOC engages its employees is in employee appraisals. The organization carries out frequent employee appraisals that are aimed at improving the performance of these employees in the various areas of work.
Employee appraisal is important in the determination of employee output. It works through the improvement of their terms and services. The company also has a suggestion scheme in place for its employees, with this plan helping them attain organizational goals. The scheme is run in all affiliate companies of the organization. The intention is to improve the services of the employees and their total output.
An organization that embraces technology in its human resource management is often successful in its venture (Mentzer 12). ADNOC is one of the organizations with extensive use of technology in its human resource management. The organization runs online surveys for its employees.
It has personalized e-mail accounts for workers (Mentzer 13). Aside from the personalized email services, this organization has an intranet that ensures that the digital platform is fully utilized and exploited in the organization.
Employees have access to newsletters and company magazines that it produces. These resources contain the description of the job design of the organization. The newsletters provide information to employees on how they should run different parts of the organization.
According to Mentzer, organizations should provide continuous education and training for their employees to ensure that they give their best to the business (14). ADNOC has training programs in place for its employees. The human resource department in the organization coordinates these programs. The training is carried out in the form of seminars and workshops alongside other training activities.
The other aspect of human resource management that is prominent in ADNOC is the promotion of social and environmental activities. The organization is located in an industry that interacts heavily with the environment in the process of mining. Industries in the mining industry particularly have their employees participate in the environmental sustainability and protection.
Job design in this organization entails ensuring the most output with the least destruction of the environment. The promotion of social and environmental activities in the workforce ensures that they maintain a safe operating environment and protection of the environment in general.
ADNOC is a key player in environmental protection, which leads to its prevention of environmental degradation. Some of the risks include the spillage of oil, which may lead to destruction of marine life.
Job design management in the organization is a function of the executive management. It entails a description of the various jobs and slots in the organization. The human resource department also plays part in the job design management, which determines employee numbers and their respective areas.
Mentzer states that the job design determines the success that organizations enjoy in their respective industries (17). Organizations that have effective job design management have a better output. ADNOC is a leader in its respective industry, with the products and services in their output being the best in its class.
Supply Chain Supply chain management is another vital part of an organization. Companies are currently recognizing the need for this new aspect of competitive advantage (Mentzer 72). Supply chain management consists of processes and activities that contribute towards the provision of the products to the end users (Mentzer 72).
The most vital area in supply chain management includes purchasing, manufacturing, transportation, distribution, and warehousing (Mentzer 78). Supply chain is an aggregate of all these functions that lead to the provision of products and services to the end user. The management of all processes in the supply chain is what encompasses supply chain management.
Supply chain management at ADNOC is carried out in a professional manner, with the main method used being the fragmentation of the different functions. The different organizations that constitute ADNOC operate at different levels in the supply chain of the organization.
The organization is involved in mining oil and gas in the many oil and gas fields in Abu Dhabi while these products are transported to the refineries by a different section of the organization. The company is involved in the management of processes that occur upstream and downstream in the industry.
ADNOC has separate groups of companies within it in addition to a host of independent operators that run different parts of its supply chain. This form of supply chain management has worked towards the organization’s advantage, thus ensuring that it distributes petroleum and gas to the readily available markets.
Companies that are mainly involved in the exploration and production include the Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO), Abu Dhabi Gas Development Company Ltd, Abu Dhabi Gas Liquefaction Company Ltd. (ADGAS), Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMA-OPCO), Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO), and ELIXIER.
The other constituent companies that are involved in mining and exploration include the National Drilling Company (NDC) and the Zakum Development Company (ZADCO).
The other part of ADNOC’s supply chain that is also managed by constituent companies and affiliates is the marketing and refining part.
Companies that are involved in the marketing and refining of petroleum products for ADNOC include ADNOC Distribution, Distribution, the Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company (TAKREER), and the Abu Dhabi National Tanker Company and National Gas Shipping Company (ADNATCO-NGSCO) (Mezher, Dawelbait, and Abbas 319). These companies are involved in the refining of oil from the oil fields.
Companies in the UAE and other parts of the world run the petrochemical directorate at ADNOC. They include companies such as Borouge whose affiliate businesses include Petrochemicals Abu Dhabi Polymers Company Ltd and Borouge PTE Ltd.
The other company in the petrochemical directorate is the Ruwais Fertilizer Industry (FERTIL). Apart from the mining and distribution of petrochemicals, other companies such as ESNAAD and the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Operating Company (IRSHAD) are involved in the shared services directorate.
Some companies have teamed up with ADNOC in its supply chain. These companies are found at different areas in the supply chain. Examples of these independent operators that are affiliated to ADNOC include Abu Dhabi Oil Company (Japan) Ltd. (ADOC), BUNDUQ, and Total Abu Al Bukhoosh (TOTAL ABK).
The above institutions are involved in the supply chain for ADNOC. The organization also runs training services through the numerous academic institutions that it has established or is involved in their support.
The presence of different companies along ADNOC’s supply chain ensures that the company’s functions are carried out in an effective manner. According to Mentzer, diversification of the supply chain may be achieved through the involvement of many companies in the process (72). The supply chain with different players often requires efficient management to ensure that they interact in a positive manner.
The existence of many organizations as intermediaries in the supply chain often results in reduced efficiency. If unchecked, it may lead to a reduction in the organization’s output (Morsi and Key 23). There is a loss of time and resources in the increased number of intermediaries.
Hence, organizations should target to reduce the number of intermediaries. ADNOC is successful in its supply chain management because all organizations within this supply chain are affiliates or part of the larger organization.
Automation is another part of the supply chain that contributes to the evident success in organizations. Organizations that apply technology in their supply chain often end up being successful (Abdelal 31). ADNOC has extensively applied technology in its supply chain, with transportation of petroleum products and crude oil being carried out through advanced methods.
The company has extensive use of modernized fleets in the transportation of its products to their markets, especially in the shipping of oil to the international markets. The management of any supply chain requires a dedicated workforce and the utilization of all cadres of employees. These measures are practiced in the ADNOC’s supply chain management.
The other aspect of the supply chain management in relation to ADNOC is the cost of managing this supply chain. ADNOC is one of the global organizations that invest significantly in their supply chain management.
According to Mentzer, supply chain management should be an integral part of any organization, with adequate funding to ensure a swift flow of goods and services from suppliers to the end consumers (72). ADNOC has a board in place to manage the supply chain. This committee is charged with the investment into the right measures for the maintenance of an intact supply chain.
The global market for ADNOC’s products has a number of competitors, with branches in different parts of the world including Abu Dhabi and the UAE. To ensure that the company is competitive enough, the supply chain management practices include control of pricing and amount of the produced petroleum products. ADNOC is an example of an organization that has effective supply chain management.
Employees in the organization and its affiliate companies are trained on how to manage the supply chain whilst maintaining a constant flow of products produced by this organization. A fully-fledged department is charged with the management of ADNOC’s supply chain. The manager does reporting to the board of the organization.
Conclusion In conclusion, the success of any organization is determined by factors such as the management of human resource, supply chain, and the quality of their output. The paper has confirmed that these areas are crucial in terms of determining whether an organization achieves its goals and objectives. This paper has also looked at one of the most successful companies in the UAE and on the global front.
It has highlighted how it has managed its human resource, quality, and supply chain. ADNOC is one of the most successful energy companies in the world. It has recorded profits in the range of billions of dollars each year. The company has efficient quality control methods in use. Examples include the use of technology and recruitment of experienced and highly trained employees.
The human resource management at ADNOC is run by the human resource department, which ensures that the right employees are selected for the right work. The supply chain is run in a fragmented manner, with a variety of organizations being involved in different parts of the chain. The organization has effective management practices in all areas as discussed in the paper.
Works Cited Abdelal, Rawi. “Sovereign Wealth In Abu Dhabi.” Geopolitics 14.2(2009): 317-327. Print.
Ayish, Muhammad. “Virtual Public Relations In The United Arab Emirates: A Case Study Of 20 UAE Organizations’ Use Of The Internet.” Public Relations Review 31.3(2005): 381-388. Print.
Ermida, Graça. “Analysis: Strategic Decisions Of International Oil Companies: Arctic Versus Other Regions.” Energy Strategy Reviews 2.Sustainable Energy System Changes 1.1(2014): 265-272. Print.
Gitlow, Howard. Quality management. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005. Print.
Mentzer, John. Supply chain management. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2001. Print.
Mezher, Toufic, Gihan Dawelbait, and Zeina Abbas. “Renewable Energy Policy Options For Abu Dhabi: Drivers And Barriers.” Energy Policy 42.2(2012): 315-328. Print.
Morsi, Mozzart, and Antonio Key. “Rehabilitation Of Gas Pipelines: The Experience Of ADNOC In Abu Dhabi.” Corros. Prev. Control 1.1(1994): 5. Print.
Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights Analytical Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction The common law canon of land law known as the principle of Aboriginal title is what is referred to as the doctrine of native title in Australia.1 Under this doctrine, the land law of Australia appreciates the fact that there does exist indigenous people in the country who have rights, as well as interests to the country’s land that emanates from history, traditions, and customs.
The concept provides that the indigenous Australians are the original owners of the land because they are the natives of Australia. Consequently, they should benefit from the land and any interest accruing from the land. In addition, the titles issued by the Crown when Australia was granted independence did not take away the Aboriginals rights to the land.2
There has been a protracted struggle for the recognition of these rights and the respect for these interests on land in the legal front since the inception of independence in 1788. The struggle has subsisted up to this day, in spite of the fact that there has been a lasting period exceeding two hundred years of deprivation and displacement.
This shows how the issue of land rights in Australia is of importance, more so to the Aborigines. Over the years, the indigenous citizens of Australia have been at the forefront calling upon successful governments, as well as the wider Australian community to come to terms with their unique status as the native, bonafide, historical, and rightful owners of land in Australia.3
However, this issue has taken different angels over the years, cutting across political divide and the justice system. This essay focuses on the land rights of this indigenous group of people, as well as its effect on the non-indigenous peoples’ land rights.
The Mabo case This is a case that acted as the basis for acknowledging the natives of Australia as the rightful land owners. The case was termed as the Mabo v Queensland case.4
This case saw the plaintiff, Eddie Mabo gain an unexpected level of popularity, especially from persons who believed that they enjoyed native rights over land, when he decided to take initiative to claim the ownership of the native title of Meriam, amongst a couple of other individuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case was essentially seeking for recognition of the scattered homelands in the Torres Strait region of the country as native land that enabled the locals enjoy unlimited rights over the land as the bonafide landowners. The main reason for this was that the residents of Torres Strait had been annexed from Queensland in 1879. Consequently, they sued the governing authority of Queensland as the defendant to the suit.
The annexation had created a state of uncertainty in terms of the required proper system of land ownership by the plaintiffs and necessitated the suit. The suit against the state of Queensland was to last a total of ten years in the courts before the determining factors were settled. In delivery of the ruling to support the native land rights, Chief Justice Brennan said:
“The fiction by which the rights and interests of indigenous inhabitants of land were treated as non-existent was justified by a policy which has no place in the contemporary law of this country” Mabo v Queensland.5
This effectively settled the matter that had been through a long court battle period. The case overturned the earlier principle of terra nullius that had been set in the case of Milirrpum v Nabalco6, also known as the “Gove land rights case”.
In the Milirrpum case matter that had been brought before the Supreme Court, Justice Richard Blackburn unambiguously rejected the idea of the existence of native title, pronouncing against the plaintiffs on various issues on law and fact. Nonetheless, he rejected the principle of aboriginal title in place of terra nullius, which propounded that land was not owned by anyone at the time of British settlement.
The instant case of Mabo, thus, came to recognize the people of Meriam in the Murray Island in Torres as the native title owners in regard to a section of their traditionally owned land.7
The court ruled that the Crown had no right to the land as earlier granted to the colonialists of European origin when they migrated to Australia. The ruling was based on the fact that the principle of terra nullius lost its significance and could not exist parallel with the right of the Crown to hold title deeds.
We will write a custom Essay on Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, the fact that the instant case of Mabo granted inherent rights of land ownership to the natives consequently meant that the terra nullius principle in the case of Milirrpum8 could not stand, as the land rights that were ruled to be rightly possessed by the natives could not simultaneously be possessed by the Crown.9
It is to be well understood that the declaration of the presence of native land rights in the land in Australia in no way acted to oust the proprietary rights of the non-indigenous groups.10 The court pronouncement was never a suggestion that title to land was to henceforth shift from the non-indigenous groups to the indigenous ones.
As a matter of fact, this would create anarchy and unending conflict as the non-indigenous groups resist being chased from their proprietary owned land. Rather, the court ruling merely meant to provide guidance with respect to the search for truth and justice on a historical perspective.
The court’s declaration in this case was meant in a way to “settle the scores” in as far as discourse concerning the rightful owners of land was concerned.11 Additionally, the judgment meant to be a mere declaration of the place that the native communities of Australia have in regard to ownership of the country, in effect destroying the argument that colonizers were the rightful owners of the nation at the time of colonization.
In effect, the recognition of the rights of these native groups on the land was meant to have no effect on the land rights of non-indigenous groups.
Enactment of the Native Title Act, 1993 A year after the court recognized the native title in the above discussed case, the Keating led government in 1993 acted to formalize the new legal principle by enactment of a piece of legislation that would codify the native entitlement to land, the Native Title Act, 1993.
The Act gave recognition, respect, and protection to the Aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islander inhabitants and their land because the statute set it straight as to the particular rights that the natives were to enjoy, including the possessed interests and the manner of appropriation.12
This, therefore, meant that the residents of Torres Strait whose interests in the land was shaky before the enactment of this law could now be assured of their interests and use the land to grow themselves economically through the acquisition of credit.13
Not sure if you can write a paper on Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Act further attempted to bring a clarification on the legitimate position of the process required to bring land under the native ownership under the national land laws, thereby allowing for their claim of title, protection, and recognition through the national courts. By doing this, the court aimed at bringing about precision on the required procedures to acquire title for the land.
Pursuant to this, the Act created the National Native Title Tribunal. The tribunal was tasked with the huge responsibility of deciphering claims to title on native land by finding out the historical ownership of the land, parties that hold interests to the land, the opinion of the elders and neighbours, amongst other things, to decide the allocations of title to the proper owners of the land.14
It is to be well observed that the land that was affected by the new process of acquiring title was land that had been declared as native land and affected the natives and indigenous land owners, rather than the non-indigenous landowners.15
In other words, the enactment of this piece of legislation further proves and points to the fact that the recognition of indigenous land in Australia basically had nothing to do with the non-indigenous land owners, as the laws on the native land, such as the instant statute, did not affect the operations of the non-indigenous land in any way.16
All institutions created by the statute concern, solely, the indigenous land, rather than the non-indigenous one, thereby further proving the point that the recognition of indigenous land rights was totally disassociated from non-indigenous proprietary rights over land.
The landmark case In 1996, there arose a new form of uncertainty over native claims on pastoral areas. In clarification of the issue, the case of Wik Peoples v Queensland17 provided a better understanding. In this case, the High Court, by a slim majority, ruled that native title would not necessarily be extinguished by reason of the pre-existing leases on the pastoral areas.
The leases over these pastoral areas had been granted by the Crown and consequently ran for a long period of time. As a result, the court established that it was possible to have the Aborigines and the lease holders possess rights to the land without conflict.
This case further proved that indigenous land rights from the natives did not affect the rights of the proprietary non-indigenous land holders because of the possibility of co-existence of the separate rights to the land.18
For instance, there is a possibility that land owned under a sub-lease by a non-indigenous holder of such land could consequently be owned by a different person under a native ownership with the sharing of interests and rights thereto. Essentially, this demonstrates the lack of conflict between indigenous ownership of land and non-indigenous ownership.
In line with the above case, the Native Title Amendment, 1998 was passed with the objective of resolving all claims of the native land. The government of Howard also sought to provide security of tenure to the non-Aboriginals for any land that they claimed as provided by the Native Title Act, 1993.
This amendment was basically aimed at bringing statutory law in consonance with case law that had been passed, which allowed contemporaneous possession of interests on land.19
A “bundle of rights” The native rights to land were declared as a “bundle of rights” during a 2002 ruling in the case of Western Australia v Ward20. It was further ruled that the native rights did not violate any other rights.
Although this decision came under major criticism not only from the native owners of land in various parts of Australia, but also from civil society, as well as the legal practitioners, the case clearly identified the place of native land rights in relation to the other existent rights, such as those of non-indigenous Australians.
The case places the rights of native land rights owners juxtaposed with the rights enjoyed by the non-indigenous owners of land, albeit placed at a lower level.
This explains that the rights of indigenous land owners do not affect the rights enjoyed by non-indigenous owners, such as the lessees of land.21 The fact that it was possible for the claimants to walk around the land owned by the native owners showed that the native rights were not entirely exclusive of possession.
In the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia22, a precedent was set in the matter of the existence of native rights over land in a capital city. Justice Wilcox J was of the opinion that native title was still effective in the Perth region, even if it was an urban area.
Urban settings are characteristically owned by a myriad of regimes of land ownership, such as leases, freehold, and so on. Capital cities are strictly managed by local and national authorities, more so in the area of land ownership to reap taxes as benefits.23 Nevertheless, this authority appears to allow native rights to land to be enjoyed in such situations.
This, therefore, points to the contention that native title subsists in various situations that do not act to limit the rights enjoyed in land. Indigenous land rights in Australia, thus, have nothing to do with non-indigenous land rights.24
Conclusion Native land rights exist independent of the other land rights on any land. It is a special form of land ownership as it appears to dig into the facts of the past and establish the proper and bonafide ownership of land, rather than looking at the possession of title to the land.25 The system recognizes past injustices on land and seeks to avert them by creating a better and equitable system of ownership.
In this essay, the focus has been on the effect of indigenous land rights over the non-indigenous ones. As seen in the text, the case of Mabo gave the recognition of indigenous rights to land as the basic formation. The clarity has, however, provided that the intention of this was never meant to oust the rights of others, but to share the interests.
The enactment of the Native Act of 1993 closely followed the delivering of the judgment and the new growth of jurisprudence to codify the principles set thereto. Subsequent amendments since then have helped develop the understanding, working, and implementation of the provisions of the Act to enable a smoother and easier operation.
Therefore, it may generally be said that indigenous rights over land do not clash, nor have any effect over the non-indigenous rights, as the demarcation between the two is clear. As a matter of fact, the law creates a co-existence of the rights shared between the two set of rights.
Hughes Helen, and Warin Jenness, A New Deal for Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in Remote Communities (Centre for Independent Studies, 2005).
Hughes Helen, Lands of Shame: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander” Homelands” in Transition (Centre for Independent Studies, 2007).
Jackson Sue, Michael Storrs, and Joe Morrison, ‘Recognition of Aboriginal rights, interests and values in river research and management: Perspectives from northern Australia’ (2005) 6 Ecological Management
Strategic Development of Apple Corporation Term Paper essay help: essay help
Executive Summary This paper dwells upon strategic development of Apple and contains certain recommendation on implementation of the most appropriate strategy. The company is famous for its innovative approach and high quality of products and services provided.
However, the corporation holds quite a small market share and some researchers note that the company should expand. Researchers refer to growth of such markets as South America and Asia. It is stressed that Apple could benefit from producing products for millions of potential customers at lower prices to make Apple products more available.
Nonetheless, this approach is unlikely to be effective as it may lead to loss of the market share Apple has now. Appearance of Apple in the market of low-priced consumer electronics will make it develop new strategies to remain competitive in the market where Asian (Chinese and Indian) companies produce very cheap products. Therefore, the company has to focus on innovations.
The present evaluation is based on secondary research. Works on Apple’s strategic development are analyzed and certain recommendations on how to improve the strategy used are provided. The present research may lack for data on the company’s expenditures but available information on Apple’s revenues illustrates effectiveness of the strategy employed..
Recommendations provided include the following. The new strategy should be comprehensive and involve research, innovation, quality and social responsibility. The company has to produce really innovative products which would shape and redefine the market. The use of green technology and contributing to development of communities will enable the company maintain its favorable image among its customers.
Introduction Apple is one of the most successful companies and it is famous for its effective strategic development. The corporation managed to remain one of the leading producers of consumer electronics and software even after the recession and financial crisis of 2008. It is necessary to note that the company has to operate in one of the most competitive markets, the market of consumer electronics.
This industry is booming and companies all over the world are trying to enter it and occupy certain niche. It is noteworthy that Apple is facing hard competition on the part of Asian companies that produce cheaper devices with similar options. At present, Apple again has to choose an appropriate strategy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, before going into detail on the strategic development, it is important to mention major peculiarities of the company, its history and market. Apple announced that its revenue for second quarter of 2014 (ended in March) was $45.6 billion (Apple reports, 2014). The company is growing and its profits are increasing accordingly.
Apple is famous for its “impressive” products: iPad, iPod nano, iPhone, Apple TV, iPod touch, MacBook, MacMini and so on (Hitt, Ireland
The Theory of Connectivism Dissertation college application essay help
Educational theory Learning is a crucial activity in the lives of humans and its forms the basis of the educational process (Isman (2011). Consequently, a lot of attention has been paid to the understanding of how learning takes place, leading to the formulation of numerous theories of learning and instruction. These theories have evolved over the years as developments in other areas of education continue to happen.
There is no one theory that can be described as the perfect theory that fits in all learning situations. This means that different theories are applied to different learning situations. The various theories of education and learning describe how learning occurs, the factors that shape learning, the importance of memory in learning, and how knowledge is transferred (Ravenscroft (2011).
Behaviorism is one of well known learning theories. The theory posits that human beings receive a stimulus in the process of learning, which they respond to. According to Isman (2011), this mode of learning is best promoted by task-based learning. Learning under behaviorism is also influenced by the rewards that are obtained from learning, as well as punishment.
Repeated experiences end up establishing memory. Cognitivism is the other theory of learning, which posits that learning occurs in a structured way. Yilmaz (2011) argues that knowledge is transferred by duplicating the knowledge of the instructor in cognitive learning. Consequently, problem solving type of learning highly promotes this mode of learning.
The third most common learning theory is constructivism, which is a theory that proposes that knowledge is passed through socialization. Social and cultural factors seem to influence learning under this theory.
A more recent theory of learning is the connectivism theory, which posits that knowledge is transferred by connecting to the source if knowledge. According to Ravenscroft (2011), connectivism is a complex learning mode where learning is distributed in a web and it is enhanced by technological advancement.
Connectivism According to Thomas (2010), the emergence and development of diverse communication tools and the subsequent deployment of these tools in the discharge of education has resulted in the alteration of the learning environment. What is meant here is that there is a lot of change in the way education is discharged.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This comes from the fact that education is changing from the traditional perspective where it was delivered in specific learning environments that were largely confined in nature to the development of a virtual learning environment where content is not only guided by the teachers, but is also discharged by students who use technology to advance learning between and among themselves.
This literature review contains the discussion of how the theory of connectivism has been applied in the field of education. Siemens (2011) argues that information technology has transformed the traditional learning environment in a significant way that necessitates a new learning theory.
One rationale for the creation of a new theory of learning is that in the digital age, most learning environments are intertwined, technological, and social in nature (Kaufman
Social Media and Its Impacts on Society Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introductory Essay
Criminal Impacts of Social Media
Social Impacts of the Social Media
Effects of Social Media on Economies
Introductory Essay Social media is a communication medium, through which people in different geographical locations can interact freely via the Internet. In the contemporary world, communication technology has grown tremendously with the fast development of the high-speed Internet, high quality mobile phones, and computers that enable people to access the Internet from various parts of the world.
In 2010, the Google search engine registered over one trillion different URLs, which is an indication of the tremendous growth of the global Internet community. By December 2013, Facebook had over 1.11 billion users with active accounts and the number has increased ever since.
People carry out different forms of communications ranging from social interactions to business transactions over the social media. Social media has provided all necessary forms of communication including video conferencing for distance learning and corporate meetings. This development has emerged from the fast growth of communication technology, which transverses different economic levels across the world.
The rise of social media has been facilitated by the emergence of the Internet, which came into existence with the development of the first electronic computer in the 1950s. However, the first computers were designed to serve large corporations, governments, and the military.
Remarkable growth of the Internet was achieved in the early 1970s when email was invented coupled with a social network that linked the Duke University and the University of North Carolina in 1979. However, the growth of social media heightened in the early 21st century with the invention of Facebook, YouTube, Google, and other social media platforms (Boyd
Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management Report argumentative essay help
Executive Summary The Institute for Information Management has been committed to achieving its vision of becoming the leading provider of information to various companies within Australia. However, its system is falling apart because of its inability to address some of the strategic issues affecting various industries.
Not only is it losing the companies that were formerly its members, but also the volunteers who now consider it ineffective in addressing their career development needs. In order to address this problem, the institute will need to apply the concept of knowledge management system.
Introduction Knowledge management system has become very important for organisations in an environment where information is an important tool in achieving success. Both profitable and non-profitable organisations experience some form of challenges that force them to improve their service delivery in order to remain efficient in their operations.
To achieve the desired success, they need to have a proper knowledge management system that will allow all the departments to share relevant information within the shortest period possible. Lambe (2011, p. 185) defines knowledge management system as “A system that helps the organisations in creation, capture, processing, storage, and dissemination of information.”
The system enables organisations to improve their efficiency in processing relevant information and transmitting it to the relevant departments and individuals so that it may define their decisions as a way of improving their efficiency.
Wilson (2002, p. 86) says, “The idea of a knowledge management system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organisation’s documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions.” This way, they will always make informed choices based on the information in the system. It also eliminates bureaucracy that exists in some organisations that limits information sharing.
The Institute for Information Management has remained committed to its aim of becoming the leading source of information management for companies in Australia. However, it has been faced with numerous challenges which make this vision to be elusive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This research seeks to find ways though which this institute can use the knowledge management system to promote engagement and collaboration among its members in order to improve its service delivery and attract more volunteers.
The Case Study The Institute for Information Management has worked tirelessly to gain relevance as one of the leading organisations that brings together users of information management systems and the providers of the enabling technologies in a forum where they can share relevant information in this field.
It has massively contributed to the effective development of information management system in this country by disseminating information management industry trends, opportunities, and accomplishments. However, this organisation is currently facing a problem in an industry that it expected to achieve success.
The number of volunteers to the organisation is drastically dropping, and so is the number of those who are regularly using its services. It means that something is wrong with this organisation in terms of the approach it takes in managing its processes.
It must have failed to appeal to the volunteers, and this explains why their number at this organisation has been declining over the years.
This has largely been blamed on its fundamental model of membership. This organisation needs a model that will enable it to engage its members with the view of promoting collaboration when addressing various tasks. It is necessary to find the best ways of applying knowledge management system in order to address this problem.
Knowledge System behind Micro-Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management According to Serenko and Bontis (2013, p. 310), over 6 million Australians always volunteer to work in different sectors as a way of making a difference in this country. Some people offer to volunteer as a way of meeting new people or trying something new, while others do it as way of improving their careers. Irrespective of the reasons why people volunteer to work in various organisations, the fact is that they always want something new.
We will write a custom Report on Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They want a working environment that would add a difference to their life. This is what is lacking at this institute, making its membership to decline. The Institute for Information Management must realise that its members need a system that will make them aware of the changing industry trends, and other relevant issues that may make them be informed about their respective industries.
The first step that it should take in addressing its current process is to develop a model that will improve its efficiency in collecting data about the changing trends in the relevant industries it has chosen. This will enable it to become a superior platform through which users of information management systems and the providers of the assistive technologies can interact and achieve their respective goals.
According to Dalkir (2011, p. 59), this can be done by developing a knowledge management model that will be beneficial to all the stakeholders. The knowledge management cycle below is one of the most appropriate models that this firm should consider using.
Knowledge Management Cycle
Source: (Walsham 2001, p. 610).
The model will be able to capture, organise and make accessible all the relevant information about various fields for the benefit of the stakeholders. It will also enable the stakeholders use the information to learn through creation and sharing of the relevant data on various fields.
This institute must realise that most of the volunteers’ aim is to improve their capacity to understand the changing trends in various fields so that they can make a positive difference in their companies at a later date. They must feel that this institution is offering them the opportunity to be well informed.
Interventions designed to improve the situation It is clear that the Institute for Information Management needs to find ways of improving its system, especially its capacity to capture the changing trends in various fields in order to attract volunteers and other stakeholders. The users of information need an organisation that has the right information about different industries in which they operate.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They also need to know about various knowledge management products, their superiority over the other existing systems, and the most reliable vendors. The vendors are interested in institutions that can sell them to the information users and give the right knowledge about the products they offer.
The volunteers need to be assured that for the time they will be with the organisation, they will always have the first hand information about the changing trends in the market in their respective industries.
This means that the management at this institution needs to have a top notch system that can enable it to collect, synthesises, and disseminate information to its members within the shortest period possible. The following knowledge management pyramid shows the steps that should be followed.
Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group Research Paper writing essay help
Introduction Insurance Marketing Group [IMG] is a private limited company that specializes in marketing health and life insurance policies. The company mainly targets independent agents distributed in different parts of the United States. The firm’s strategic management practices are undertaken by a qualified management team, which has experience of over 60 years with regard to life and health insurance.
IMG has managed to foster strong and influential relationships over the years, as evidenced by its past success and steady growth. The firm provides agents within the senior and individual health market segments with high quality and competitive products (Insurance Marketing Group, 2014).
The firm’s success and growth are associated with the implementation of effective strategic management practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the organization’s performance with specific reference to organizational behavior.
The paper assesses how the organization’s behavior has been influenced by different components, which include the organization’s culture, internal communication, motivational techniques, nature of authority, areas of emotional quotient embraced by the organization, and the virtual elements adopted by the firm.
Analysis Type of organizational culture; salad bowl culture
IMG has established its operations in different parts of the United States. The firm recognizes the importance of employees in achieving long-term success. Therefore, the firm has integrated the concept of diversity in its operations (Magala, 2006). The organization’s culture can be defined as being a ‘salad bowl’ culture. This status has been achieved by employing workers from different cultural backgrounds.
The firm does not discriminate employees based on their gender, age, race, nationality, and sexual orientation amongst other demographic variables. The development of this culture has arisen from the recognition of diversity as a source of additional knowledge and experience.
Subsequently, the firm’s employees share diverse information based on their cultural backgrounds, which has led to the development of cross-cultural competence. Its adoption of cultural diversity has improved IMG’s attractiveness in the labor market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm has also succeeded in developing good working relationships amongst its employees. The firm’s employees share a small office space with no conflicts, which has led to the development of a friendly working environment. In an effort to foster strong working relationship, IMG has adopted a flat organizational structure, which has been motivated by the need to promote communication amongst employees.
Consequently, the firm’s employees in different levels of management are provided with an opportunity to participate in the firm’s decision-making process. Therefore, the firm has been effective in promoting a collaborative working environment, thus minimizing the rate of employee turnover.
Collaboration amongst employees has led to the development of teamwork culture. This aspect has led to the elimination of negative competition amongst employees. On the contrary, employees support each other in executing their duties, which has led to the development of effective organizational norms and shared values.
The incorporation of cultural diversity has played an essential role in promoting the effectiveness with which IMG markets its health and insurance products to different customer groups in diverse parts of the US considering the country’s multicultural characteristics.
Moreover, the adoption of the ‘salad bowl’ culture has significantly increased the firm’s ability to operate ethically. Ferrell and Fraedrich (2009) are of the opinion that organizational culture is the foundation of ethical business operations.
Mode of communication
Effective internal communication is a critical element in an organization’s efforts to achieve business excellence. The various departments in an organization are supposed to operate as a unit in order to achieve synergy. However, the desired synergy can only be achieved if effective coordination is promoted. Internal communication influences the level of coordination amongst employees in different departments.
IMG appreciates the importance of effective communication. Subsequently, the organization has implemented an open internal communication system. The firm utilizes both verbal and written channels of communication. Written communication is undertaken through digital mediums such as emails, the company’s website, and social media.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Using digital mediums has improved significantly the effectiveness and efficiency with which the firm communicates to employees because they can easily access information on their wireless devices. Moreover, IMG has also established an intra-net system that provides employees with an opportunity to share information.
On the other hand, the firm also undertakes internal communication through print mediums such as internal memos. The memos are strategically located in the company’s notice board in order to ensure that all employees access the intended message.
Considering the small size of the organization, IMG also utilizes verbal communication. The effectiveness of verbal communication is enhanced by the short chain of command within the organization. Consequently, the intended information is not distorted.
In its quest to promote collaboration between IMG’s management team and the lower level employees, the organization has incorporated both top-bottom and bottom-top communication strategies. One of the ways through which this goal is achieved is by conducting regular internal informal meetings and events. This aspect has led to the development of an organizational culture that advocates constant meetings.
During the informal meetings, the lower level employees are in a position to interact with the top management and communicate any issue with ease. This scenario has played a vital role in eliminating bureaucracy in the organization’s communication process. Verbal communication also provides the top management team with an opportunity to assess the firm’s performance.
The effective interaction between the top and lower levels of management has improved learning quotient greatly within the firm. Additionally, the firm’s top management team is in a position to gain intelligence that can be utilized in the strategic management practices.
Employee motivation is a fundamental element in an organization’s pursuit for business excellence. Motivated employees are productive and focused in undertaking their roles and responsibilities. IMG is committed to ensuring that its employees are motivated continuously in executing their duties.
The firm’s commitment to promoting a high degree of employee motivation arises from the need to nurture a high degree of organizational identification. Furthermore, the firm recognizes that motivated employees are less likely to leave it. Despite the cultural diversity in the firm, IMG has managed to sustain the employees’ level of satisfaction.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More IMG has incorporated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational techniques. The extrinsic techniques entail providing employees with monetary benefits. The firm ensures that employees are compensated equitably and fairly. IMG has formulated a comprehensive employees’ remuneration package.
The firm has adopted job description as the basis of the employees’ remuneration. Subsequently, employees are remunerated based on their skills, level of education, and experience. The employees are awarded bonus compensation for their efforts.
In addition to monetary compensation, IMG has also integrated intrinsic motivational techniques by incorporating non-monetary forms of compensation. Some of the intrinsic methods of compensation adopted include recognizing employees who depict exemplary performance. Recognition is a vital component in ensuring that employees are motivated psychologically.
Furthermore, the firm has adopted the concept of teamwork, which provides the top management team with an opportunity to delegate certain tasks to the lower level employees. Therefore, employees have an opportunity to undertake challenging job tasks, hence providing them with the chance to progress through their career path.
Nature of authority
IMG has adopted a flat organizational structure, which has reduced bureaucracy significantly within the organization. Furthermore, the chain of command amongst employees has been reduced remarkably. IMG is focused at achieving business excellence in its operation. In order to achieve this goal, IMG has integrated teamwork as one of its operational practices.
The top management team delegates tasks to employees in different operational levels. This aspect provides employees with the freedom to make decisions on how the assigned tasks will be executed. Therefore, employees gain an opportunity to explore new dimensions on how to complete the task assigned, which improves their skills.
Subsequently, task delegation has empowered the firm’s employees, and thus they have become highly productive in executing their duties.
Furthermore, delegating tasks to the lower level employees has enabled the firm to reduce task monotony amongst workers. However, the top’s management team has developed a culture whereby the lower level employees are required to be accountable for the assigned tasks (Lussier
Bob Knowlton Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Key Issue or the Major Problem
Sub-Issues and Problems
Bases of Power
Knowlton’s Leadership Style
The Managerial Profile of Bob Knowlton
Effective leadership is an important aspect to speak about the progress of modern organisations. However, there are often cases when weak leaders lose their opportunities to contribute to the organisational development in order to create the effective workplace environment and achieve set goals and objectives. Bob Knowlton was appointed to be the project head in the Si-Tech Laboratories.
Knowlton demonstrated the perfect understanding of the principles of the project development, he could work with the team to achieve the high results, and he was oriented to using the traditional methods in order to reach the set goals. From this perspective, the introduction of Jack Remington as a new leader to work in the project team made Knowlton fear about his position and leadership.
Remington demonstrated the unique approach to solving the project problems in contrast to Knowlton’s traditional approach. Being unable to compete with Remington, Knowlton chose to leave the project and his position in the Si-Tech Laboratories.
As a result, the situation revealed such a problem experienced by Knowlton as the inability to accept his weaknesses and fears and transform the leadership strategy in order to achieve the higher results while leading the team.
Key Issue or the Major Problem Thus, the key issue associated with Knowlton’s case is his ineffective leadership which can be discussed as the leader’s inability to accept the undesirable situation, to face challenges, to work at overcoming the problem and improving the leadership style.
Knowlton did not accept the drawbacks of his leadership style which were revealed to him with references to Remington’s approach. Instead, the leader chose to hide his real attitude to Remington and his concerns associated with the newcomer’s approaches and the whole work of the team.
Sub-Issues and Problems Knowlton chose the ineffective strategy of hiding his real concerns and fears associated with Remington’s introduction to the team. As a result, Knowlton’s behaviour resulted in revealing such additional problems as the following ones:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Knowlton failed to communicate openly to Dr. Jerrold about the leader’s concerns because of the fear to demonstrate his incertitude;
Knowlton focused on his fear to be discussed as a weak leader in comparison with Remington instead of addressing the issue directly;
The leader was not able to set the strict rules on the behaviour at meetings, on the order of presenting the ideas, and on the procedure of discussing the changes in the project as the rules could help him to avoid night calls and ineffective discussions during the meetings;
Knowlton became afraid of opposing Remington and admitted his leadership in spite of the team’s attitude and without any discussions of the issue;
Knowlton chose to leave his leadership position to Remington instead of reforming work in the team and stating his leadership as the project head;
The leader became involved in thinking about his fears and his leadership status in spite of communicating to the team.
Ego-Defence Mechanism Knowlton could not cope with the challenges he faced because the leader chose to focus on such an ego-defence mechanism as regression.
Having understood that Remington demonstrates another style of leadership and this approach can seem to be effective for the team, Knowlton chose to hide his ineffectiveness as a leader and leave the position of the project head instead of facing the possible challenge openly or organising the work in order to use Remington’s potential for the benefits of the team.
Bases of Power In spite of the fact that Knowlton could use the legitimate base of power because of his project head position and the expert power because of promoting the development of the photon correlator, the leader failed to draw upon on the referent and reward powers when Remington was introduced to the team.
Knowlton admitted that he cannot be respected in spite of the fact that he is the legitimate leader and failed to use the referent power. Furthermore, Knowlton rejected his expert power while focusing on Remington’s innovative approach to solving problems. The leader also ignored the advantages of the reward power important while working with the team.
Knowlton’s Leadership Style Knowlton’s leadership style can be discussed as democratic at the first stages of working with the team because of the necessity to build and stabilize an effective team. Furthermore, Knowlton has the features of a supporting and delegating leader who can not only support the team members’ positions but also delegate a range of responsibilities to them.
In addition, Knowlton can be discussed as the traditional leader instead of being a transformational leader. That is why, it was rather difficult for Knowlton to accept Remington’s unique approach to discussing the problems of the project.
The Managerial Profile of Bob Knowlton Knowlton’s strengths are the focus on the team members’ opinions and the focus on collaboration. Furthermore, Knowlton can build the effective team which can work to achieve the long-term goals. As a manager, Knowlton is interested in seeking the approval of the team members and Dr. Jerrold.
We will write a custom Case Study on Bob Knowlton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is why, Knowlton can be oriented to achieving the results which address the whole team’s expectations. From this point, Knowlton’s leadership style and approach are effective to work at the long-term projects.
However, there are also weaknesses in Knowlton’s approach which led him to losing his status of the leader. Knowlton is characterised by the low self-esteem which makes him seek the approval of all the co-workers in spite of their status. Furthermore, Knowlton’s self-confidence is also low because the leader became to doubt about his potential after Remington had joined the team.
Knowlton depends on the opinion and respect of other persons. In addition, the leader cannot communicate openly to the team members.
To address the weaknesses, it is important to help Knowlton to understand that his appointment as the project head is not a chance, but the real appreciation of the leader’s skills and competency. Knowlton should be trained to accept the situation and its consequences without focusing on the ineffective ego-defence mechanism.
Knowlton can be discussed as a good leader to work in a small team who respects his potential and perceives him as an expert. However, Knowlton failed to use the opportunity to demonstrate his leadership potential while facing the challenge of introducing a new leadership style into the team.
Thus, Knowlton did not state his leadership position. Bing characterised by the low self-esteem, Knowlton chose to accept the development of events which was not beneficial for him. Furthermore, understanding the team’s dissatisfaction associated with Remington’s leadership style, Knowlton ignored the opportunities to change the situation for better and to state his position of the leader.
Marketing Management: Building Brand Equity Report college essay help
Introduction Male Coffee Shop is one of the many coffee shops in the city of Male that has been in the market for the last eight years. This firm, just like many other coffee shops in this city, has been largely depending on the booming tourism industry in this city to support its operations.
With a total of twenty permanent employees, Male Coffee Shop is one of the leading coffee outlets that have successfully attracted a pool of customers who visit this city regularly. It is worrying that this firm, just like its market rivals, is operating without any a clear brand that can make it stand out as a unique firm.
Other than the name, this firm has made no effort to build a strong brand equity that may help it increase its competitiveness in the market. Brand equity is important for any firm that is operating in a competitive market environment (Keller 2003, p. 28).
Fisher and Vallaster (2008, p. 57) defines brand equity as “A brand’s power derived from the goodwill and name recognition that it has earned over time, which translates into higher sales volume and higher profit margins against competing brands.”
According to this definition, it is clear that brand equity is earned over a period of time, and it gives a firm power to earn higher profit margins over its competitors in case the brand is stronger in the market. In this report, the researcher seeks to develop an appropriate way through which Male Coffee Shop can develop strong brand equity.
Analysis According to Kotler and Keller (2012), it is important to understand the relevance of a brand in the market in order to realize the importance of building one within a particular industry. Male is one of the tourists’ destination cities in this region. Coffee is very popular among the tourists, and for this reason, several coffee shops have sprung up.
The problem that most of these shops face when it comes to attracting and retaining customers is lack of strong brands that can distinguish their products from one another. At the coffee shop where the researcher works, this problem has been persistent, and has limited the ability of the firm to outsmart its competitors despite its superior products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The only solution for this problem will be the development of a superior brand that will make the products of this firm distinguishable from those of other market rivals. The following are some of the general steps that can be followed when developing brand equity.
Choosing brand elements Brand elements refer to trademark devises which are used for the purpose of identification and differentiation of a brand in the market. These elements serve vital role in identifying a given brand in the market in a way that would enable customers to differentiate the existing brands in the market. Brand name is the first element of a brand (Parameswaran, 2006).
It is one of the most important elements of a brand because customers will rely on it when talking about superior brands in the market. The current name used by this firm can appropriately support its branding efforts. This name would help the marketing team of this firm to emphasize to the customers their unique capacity to prepare high quality coffee.
The brand symbol is another important element of brand that should be used to differentiate a firm’s brand from those of competing firms (Bergh
Primark’s Entry into the Brazilian Market Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Brief Synopsis of the Issue This proposal is informed by the expressed need for Primark, a British-owned, Irish clothing retailer, to enter into the Brazilian market as part of the firm’s internalisation orientation.
The strategic proactive decision to compete in the Brazilian market arises out of the firm’s deliberate policy to exploit foreign market potential and growth, diversify markets through opportunistic global market development, and follow customers abroad to entrench customer satisfaction (Agergaard 2010).
Primark stands to gain competitively and strategically through the application of this market entry proposal to market its products in Brazil.
Recommendations Primark should develop and implement a strong brand image to successfully compete with other established apparel stores operating in Brazil, such as Zara and Mango;
Primark should use the vast knowledge and experience gained in expanding its operations into markets considered as physically close (European markets) to successfully internationalise its operations in Brazil;
Primark should consider establishing an apparel factory in Brazil to cut down on logistics costs involved in transporting products from far-away Asian countries into the Brazilian market; and
Primark should enter into the Brazilian market by establishing a wholly owned subsidiary through the acquisition of already existing firms.
Background Although Primark’s main headquarters are in Dublin, Ireland, it is evident that the firm’s entry into other European markets (e.g., Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Netherlands and the United Kingdom) has successfully positioned it as a reputable seller of fashionable clothes at the low cost end of the market.
In all these markets, the entry mode has always been through acquisitions or direct foreign investments. However, the Brazilian market presents new challenges that warrant comprehensive analysis, particularly in light of the market’s geographic proximity, cultural and social issues in Brazil, as well as political and regulatory frameworks.
Extant literature demonstrates that although Brazil has one of the largest commodity stocks and a high population with a quickly mounting purchasing power for consumer products and services, it nevertheless has a high tax regime and a bureaucracy that necessitates much patience on the part of firms wishing to enter the country’s markets (Agergaard 2010).
It is important to note that this is Primark’s second attempt to enter international markets outside of the confines of the European Union after successfully entering the United States market, hence the need for careful analysis and evaluation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The remainder of this market entry proposal is organised as follows: first, a concise analysis of market opportunities (country-level analysis) is provided. An analysis of Brazil’s attractiveness (risks, costs, benefits) is then provided, followed by a concise situation analysis of Primark using the SWOT analysis framework. In the following section, an analysis of the firm’s readiness to enter the Brazilian market is undertaken.
Afterwards, issues of global sourcing, production and logistics are assessed, followed by a critical analysis of the firm’s market entry strategy, along with a discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed entry mode.
In the final section, a step-by-step approach to the implementation of the proposed strategy is discussed, followed by an analysis of the benefits and potential barriers to successful implementation and evaluation of the market entry strategy.
Analysis of Market Opportunities in Brazil (Country-Level Analysis) The choice of which country to enter is of immense importance to the internalising firm, and requires considerable deliberation and analysis on the market opportunities existing in the country and if such opportunities will lead to a firm’s competitive advantage (Douglas
Tourism in Shanghai Dissertation writing essay help: writing essay help
Abstract Tourism is one of the largest and major industries in the world. The sector has become a major source of income for numerous economies. Its significance is growing by the day. China, as the most populous country in the world, is projected to become a major market for both inbound and outbound tourists.
Consequently, Chinese authorities in the various provinces are promoting tourism in their regimes to attract both local and foreign visitors. Recently, the number of European tourists travelling to China has increased. The proposed study is an exploration of Shanghai to create a tourism experience for the European traveller.
Various factors leading to this experience are analysed in the study. In addition, the factors that can facilitate more European tourists visiting Shanghai are explored.
Introduction Background Information
One of the major industries in the world today, and which is exhibiting considerable growth in importance, is that of tourism. The industry is a substantial source of income and employment in numerous economies worldwide. In addition, it is of social importance to many people. China currently boasts of the world’s largest population.
It is predicted that the country is going to become a major source of global tourists in the 21st century. On the other hand, the country is also becoming a major tourist attraction. China’s opening up to the world in the last few decades has greatly enhanced its image as a popular tourist destination.
Various Chinese cities are competing to become number one foreign tourist destinations. To this end, these cities are coming up with measures to woo more tourists. Some of these popular destinations include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Chengdu.
In the recent past, diplomatic relations between the European states (EU) and China have improved. For instance, more than 50 dialogues are currently taking place between the two sides through annual summits (Pantucci 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The dialogues focus on three major pillars. The three are economic and sectoral, strategic, and people-to-people relations between the two economies (Pantucci 2012). Tourism between the two regions falls under the people-to-people diplomatic concerns. China is undertaking considerable measures to make its cities major tourist destinations for the Europeans.
Shanghai, as one of the large metropolitans in China, is a very popular tourist destination for both locals and foreigners. The various sites of attraction in the city create a unique tourism experience, giving the metropolis a major ranking globally. The authorities are putting in place measures to woo large numbers of tourists from Europe.
According to Bayes (2004), Shanghai is a Chinese city with an allure of its own. It is characterised by a combination of western and local cultures. The city is sophisticated and cultured. In addition, it is emerging as a major economic powerhouse in China. Western visitors are usually amazed by its air of mystery.
Some recent developments, however, threaten to jeopardise the standing of this region on the global tourist market. For example, in the recent past, China had not been very open to the world, and especially to the western countries.
According to Lew and Yu (1995), before the 1970’s economic reforms, the country shunned external relations with other countries. Instead, the country focused on domestic industries, suppressing major economic relations with foreigners, including tourism engagements.
The post 1978 economic reforms in China led to an open door policy, which has been a significant driver to the rapid development in the country. For instance, China has made considerable progress in foreign investments. The country has invested in more than 5973 enterprises outside its territories, with tourism being one of them (Lew 2001; Zhang 1995).
Prior to the reforms, the country had very restrictive policies determining who entered as a tourist (Gareth
“Why I Don’t Do Crossfit” by Erin Simmons Analytical Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Fallacy of Hasty Generalization
Issue of Insufficient Logical Connection
Fallacy of Appealing to Ignorance
Introduction The article “Why I Don’t Do Crossfit” by Erin Simmons, the author writes about her perception regarding the training regimen associated with Crossfit (a popular fitness craze in the U.S.) and how it is supposedly a bad form of exercise to do.
Fallacy of Hasty Generalization One of the first indicators that this is a bad argument is the hasty generalization the author makes regarding Crossfit. She states that the high rates of injury along with bad form and flawed exercise routines are a constant throughout all Crossfit gyms. This is a hasty generalization since the author herself has not attended every single Crossfit gym and underwent their various training regimens.
Thus, attributing the problems associated with some of the gyms to all of the gyms is a fallacy since there is no direct evidence to support that all Crossfit gyms have the same negligent practices.
This is not to say though that Crossfit is not to blame due to the lack of sufficient oversight regarding the training practices its various gyms employ, however, when taking into consideration the fact some gyms actually have competent trainers shows how what applies to a few gyms does not necessarily apply to all of them.
Issue of Insufficient Logical Connection The second indicator of the argument showcasing a flawed position is its analysis of the injury rate of Crossfit and how it immediately equates into the activity being bad for you. Utilizing logical thinking to analyze such a position, it initially seems that the author does have a good point. Getting injured does not contribute towards a person’s well being, as such, Crossfit must be bad then.
However, when delving deeper into logical reasoning, you must take into consideration the fact that there are other forms of physical activity that people enjoy that also cause them to be injured. Sports such as football, soccer, basketball, skateboarding and bike riding also have prodigious amounts of injuries associated with them.
Do note though that even if these activities do have their share of injuries, people do not immediately stop doing them. The same logical conclusion can also be applied to Crossfit wherein just because people are getting injured does not mean that this form of physical activity is detrimental or dangerous when other physical activities have similar or even higher rates of injury.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fallacy of Appealing to Ignorance The third indicator of why this is a bad argument is how the author is guilty of a second fallacy (appealing to ignorance) wherein they connote their personal experience as applying to what other people must also be experiencing. In the article, the author states that as an athlete, they have experienced a plethora of training regimens that focused on developing them into a better, stronger and faster competitor.
The intensely vetted and scientific process behind each and every single range of motion exercise she went through was done in order to limit injury and maximize strength. She then concludes that based on her own personal experience and her observations regarding the differences in the Crossfit routines from what she did; Crossfit from her own perspective must be bad.
The main issue with this type of argument is that it ignores the fact that what applies to one person may not necessarily apply to another.
While her training regimen was effective for her, it may not apply to someone who is not as athletically gifted as her or on the other end of the spectrum would be insufficient for a person that is more athletically gifted. Not only that, the training regimen she underwent when she tested Crossfit could be far different than what is given to other people at different Crossfit affiliates.
Conclusion Overall, while the author does present a good case as to why a person should not join a Crossfit gym, there are numerous problems with her given argument that detract from the viability of her statements.
Organisational Change at HBSC Report best essay help: best essay help
Abstract HSBC recognises the capacity of an organisation to achieve the needs of its owners and other interest groups depending on their ability to maintain a competitive advantage. Human resource comprises one of the important resources at the disposal of the organisation, which while utilised appropriately, help in terms of maintaining and increasing the organisation’s competitive advantage.
The organisation faced a situation, which prompted the adoption of change to enhance its effectiveness in executing its HR functions. It implemented an organisational change plan that led to moving all HR-related employee queries into online web-based systems.
Previously all employees addressed their queries directly to the HR department. The current paper analyses this change situation and its implementation in the context of literature in organisational change management.
Introduction Organisations that endeavour to acquire long-term success keep on changing their ways of executing business. The most appropriate changes ensure that organisations become more profitable. Geopolitical, demographic, and technological changes in conjunction with the intense pressure on physical environments pose the need for organisational change.
Such changes also need to be combined with various security concerns and governance issues that help generate pressures that drive organisational change (Burke 2014).
Development of consciousness for scientific, opinionated, sociological, and financial characteristics of the exterior operational atmosphere of an organisation is crucial in the effort to drive strategic initiatives for its success. Change may involve proactive and reactive approaches.
While change in most cases is adopted when a new way of serving clients or a need in the market arises, it may also be adopted when a crisis occurs. Indeed, organisations, which have the capacity to identify the need for change before factors that prompt its necessity interfere negatively with their operations, stand better competitive advantage compared to those that adopt reactive approaches to implement change (Burke 2014).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Change that is implemented upon the occurrence of crisis translates to high organisational costs and a lower probability recovery from the lost competitive advantage. As revealed in the paper, this situation was avoided in case of HSBC Bank Middle East Limited.
Background to the Case of HSBC Bank Middle East Limited HSBC bank Middle East Limited has its headquarters situated in Jersey. It comprises the biggest bank that operates in the Middle East region and in more than 70 others places across the globe. This stretch makes HSBC a global and regional product that is managed through several networks across the Middle East.
In particular, the bank has operations in Lebanon, Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan (HSBC 2014). The size of an organisation correlates with its ability to employ a large number of people from diverse backgrounds, and hence the higher the number of employees that the HR arm has to handle.
In the effort to create a culture that encourages work-life balance for employees, the speed and efficiency in the expedition of strategies for addressing employee human resource-related issues became an important problem that HSBC Bank Middle East Limited needed to address.
Corporations across different industries are interested in maintaining their levels of competitiveness for continued delivery of value to their owners or shareholders. In fact, Van de and Poole (2005, p.395) reckon, ‘any organisation in today’s fast moving environment that is looking for the pace of change to slow is likely to be sorely disappointed’.
This claim suggests that organisations must welcome and embrace change that will increase their performance. Zhou and Tse (2006) support this line of argument by claiming that organisations, which reluctantly embrace change risk losing their competitive edge. Therefore, they suffer the capacity to realise the need of their clients.
HSBC Bank Middle East Limited understood that while operating in an environment of technological change, increasing its speed of expedition of the employee human resource-related issue was the key to resolving challenges, which may result in with employee conflict.
We will write a custom Report on Organisational Change at HBSC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of waiting for crisis to occur, the management resolved to implement online web-based system to resolve employee HR-related queries. The next sections analyse this situation from the paradigm of organisational theories of change.
Diagnosing and Planning Change HSBC Bank Middle East Limited sought to implement HRIS (Human Resource Information System) to facilitate the execution of its HR activities electronically. The system provided several applications, including payroll management application, recruitment management application, and leave attendance and performance management application among others.
Via the system, employees could also have access to any information on their employment status, including changes in rewards system among other information of individual interest.
Web 2.0 technologies were utilised to provide employee accessibility to the system through internet at all times. It had a capability of producing customised information. This flexibility solved many of the problems as it made it easy for employees to acquire individualised responses from the HR.
The organisation’s move to adopt the change was to boost the ability of resolution of employee issues via two-way online-based communication mechanisms. This change was to enable the organisation raise its interactive capability with a large number of employees to minimise the probability of occurrence of organisational conflicts. HSBC Bank Middle East implemented the system before any conflicts were registered.
In this extent, the change that was implemented at the organisation was passive in nature. Change management theory suggests that organisations incredibly benefit by implementing a change that leads to the creation of new mechanisms of addressing customer needs (Oxtoby, McGuiness
Role of Organizational Culture Research Paper college essay help near me
Role of Organizational Culture in Change management The role of organizational culture as a factor influencing successful change in organization becomes apparent when two organizations with different culture or organizations from two different national cultures are merged together. Organizational culture influences various phases of change and most importantly the implementation process of change.
Culture becomes an important factor that influences change when organizational, rather than individual, change is brought into effect. However, in the 1980s emphasis was laid on the importance of culture as a change management agent, but recently researchers have branded culture as an obsolete tool for change management.
This paper will discuss literature that demonstrates the role of organizational or corporate culture on the change management. The literature review is divided into sections dealing with theories of organizational culture, the impact of culture on change management, how culture can be an impediment to change, and the recent literatures that shows the effect culture has on change management.
Organizational culture and Adaptability Culture has been a strong influence in the functioning of the social organization. Social scientists have often produced annals of work relating the relative effectiveness of culture on the functioning of organization. Denison and Mishra (1995) studied organizational culture and demonstrated the organizational effectiveness of culture.
Organizational culture is defined as a “clan” that can effectively motivate the functioning of the organization (Denison