Issues Of The Public Policy Essay Essay Help Online

Government and household budgets Generally, a budget is a statement of expenditures and income within a specified period. At government level, a budget states the sources of government revenue and ways the government intends to spend over a given fiscal year. Conversely, household budget spells out the income and expenditure of a household normally within a short period of time, either on a monthly basis or daily basis. Although these budgets share similar principles, they only differ in complexity and time.

The National Immigration Policy There were few restrictions on the number of immigrants entering the US before the 1920s except the 1892 Chinese exclusion Act that forbidden Chinese immigrants. This led to the enactment of 1924 immigration Act that imposed the immigration entry quarters primarily based on the country of origin (Lee, 2008). However, the current immigration policy is founded on the quarter-system established under the 1965 Hart-Cellar immigration bill.

The bill amended the original quarter system based on the national origin and replaced it with family reunification as a basis for US admissions. The 1990 immigration Act put a flexible cap for lawful admissions comprising of family based, employment based and diversity immigrants. The legislations that succeeded the 1990 immigration Act created another category of impermanent entry of professional-workers from Mexico and Canada under NAFTA.

Immigration increases the country GDP. This has always been the argument in favor of immigration. Through expansion of labor pool, immigrants help in efficient resource, capital and technology utilization (Lee, 2008). Nevertheless, the gains countries get from immigration is not equally distributed. In fact, labor inflows are inclined to decrease the employees’ wages. Since most immigrants are unskilled, they depress wages for unskilled residential workers.

Cap and trade This is an environmental policy tool aimed at delivering results using compulsory cap on emissions and is equally flexible on the ways of complicity. The most successful cap and trade policies have rewards for efficiency, innovation and prompt mitigation. The program provide for stringent environmental regulations and accountability without hampering the normal growth of the economy (Andrea, 1994). The main goal for cap and trade is to considerably reduce emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in a cost effective way.

Regulatory system for protecting the U.S. environment The first legislative law in 1970 was NEPA. It created and established EPA and OSHA. This law made it necessary for all federal administrative agencies to take environmental responsibility by preparing environmental impact statement in advance before major actions could pose serious impact on environment (Kubasek

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Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994)

The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference

Opinion on the ruling

Works Cited

Globally, the demand for human and civil rights by all people has intensified with time. Most social groups in society have moved to emphasize on the need to ensure that their demands are neither undermined nor overlooked as a major icon in enhancing acceptability and cohesion in the society. Sexual harassment in prisons today has been a major distressing issue that has caused massive suffering to victims and also great social disharmony.

Olsen posits that sexual harassment is a problem that affects individuals in a community as well as in prisons (199). However, deliberate indifference plays a critical role in disregarding the safety and health of inmates in prison. The latter goes against the provisions of the Eighth Amendment. This paper takes a critical look at the issue of deliberate indifference as ruled by the Supreme Court in the Farmer v. Brennan case of 1994.

Gardner posits that deliberate indifference constitutes a conscious and reckless disregard of the possible effects of an individual’s omissions or actions which can cause harm to another person (429). This lack of disregard goes beyond mere negligence. Over the years, deliberate indifference standards have been applied by law court to determine the knowledge of professionals concerning risks and their negligence of actions performed by others which may cause safety or health issues to inmates.

Gardner continues to argue that it is difficult to determine what constitutes deliberate indifference, but quickly adds that courts have identified ways like factual scenarios which they use to establish deliberate indifference (430). Some of those ways include lack of effective response to an inmate’s complaints and delaying or deliberately not supplying medical care to an injured inmate.

A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994) The above case concerned a male-to-female transsexual by the name Dee Farmer who having been charged with credit card fraud, was incarcerated in a prison with a general male population.

This led to Farmer going through repeated rapes and serious beatings from inmates. The consequences of the events were not only bodily harm, but also health problems as she eventually acquired HIV. In the court, Farmer made it clear that the prison administration neglected the fact that they were exposing her to the danger of sexual violence having put her among men.

The Supreme Court actually agreed by majority that the responsibility was on the prison administration terming their action as a deliberate indifference, an act that violated the Eighth Amendment. However, the prison administration was not automatically held liable to what happened to Farmer since the prison officials might not have known what was happening and abated it through reasonable measures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference The case of Farmer v. Brennan speaks of the need for prison guards to assume the duty of protecting inmates from harm by other prisoners. However, the ruling by the Supreme Court done by Justice Scalia on the objective components that the conditions of confinement of Farmer were fair and that the deprivations of her rights were not sufficiently serious was in reality a denial of justice.

Zangwill indicates the ruling by the court that there was no sexual harassment after the knowledge that Farmer, having a feminine appearance and preoperative transsexual was left at the mercy of male inmates to be beaten and raped clearly incarcerates transsexuals as targets for sexual harassment in prisons (100).

Olsen however differs with Zangwill on the point that the court was fair in its ruling since Farmer had not informed the prison administration that he was not safe. This could have seen prison officials either segregating her from others or securing better protection (199). Deliberate indifference could have therefore arisen if the prison staff had actual knowledge of the threat Farmer faced and refused to take reasonable measures.

Opinion on the ruling The ruling by the Supreme Court on the case of Farmer was indeed unfair and I strongly disagree with it based on the fact that prison officials and professionals were well aware of the fact that sexual harassment is common in prisons.

Putting Farmer in a prison dominated by men without considering her sexual nature and appearance was a clear indication of their negligence of the harm that would befall Farmer. Reporting a threat to prison officials without a clear indication or proof of a threat does not always guarantee an inmate of security. The ruling by the court on the ground that Farmer had not reported the threat was a sure way of protecting the administration from liability.

It is common practice among many inmates not to report sexual harassment for fear that they would be called snitches. Deliberate indifferences in similar cases to that of Farmer v. Brunner will be cited in conscious negligence of prison officials in the status of an inmate. Details of inmates, physical and emotional are normally supplied to prison official, a factor that provides them with information on the various rights of an inmate that needs to be protected.

Ignorance of those details and dependence on a prisoner to report threats to violation of those rights is a deliberate indifference on the part of prison officials. It is the duty of prison officials to ensure the safety of prisoners at all times with or without reporting. Having the background of widespread sexual harassments in prisons, it is upon prisons administration to establish measures that will curb any incidences of rape and sexual assaults.

We will write a custom Essay on Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gardner, Martin. “Rethinking Robinson V. California in the wake of Jones V. Los Angeles: the “Demise of the Criminal Law” by attending to “punishment”.” Journal of Criminal Law

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The raise of Taxes at the United States Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Discussion

Taxation and work incentives

Taxation and the pattern of demand

Taxation and investment decisions

The Rich Should Pay More

Conclusion

References

Abstract This essay will look at the effect of a change in tax rate in an economy. Based on the current economic and financial crisis relationships with be established on taxation with work incentives, labor productivity, investment decisions, budget and the rich so as to make informed opinion.

When an economy is facing a crisis, it adjusts its tax system as policy to rectify the deficit in the economy. For instance, United States has been hardly hit by the economic crisis and is contemplating on increasing taxes for the rich. The change in taxation has both positive and negative effects.

Introduction The current economic and financial crisis has adversely affected all the countries in the world. Those that have been hard hit by the crisis include the United States of America and European countries. Other countries, especially developing countries are suffering from the spill over effects. In United States, the effects of this crisis have been evident in various sectors of the economy.

The country has been hit by high rates of employment with nearly ten million people registering for the unemployment benefits. The number of people registering in job search centers has increased, with fresh graduates taking the highest percentage. The economy has failed to create new jobs, with jobs lay off mounting by the day. Most industries are streaming their workforce since they cannot adequately meet their needs, such as paying salaries and other benefits.

The situation has rendered a high percent of the populace jobless, with most of them having difficulties in paying their bills. Those who are unable to meet their bills have resorted to pegging in streets so at least to get something to sustain them. The suffering of most Americans has not gone unnoticed, with the President Barack Obama constantly giving an account of government progress on how the crisis is being handled. The most recent announcement by the President is an increase in the rate of tax for the rich.

The tax raise among the rich will lead to an increase in national revenue that can then be used to create jobs at national levels. This move has elicited controversy, with some supporting while others attack the move as inappropriate. It is like taking from those who are rich and distributing it to those who are poor. Despite raising taxes for the rich, taxes for foreign people should be lowered.

Discussion Taxation is a fiscal policy tool that government can use in order to have a balanced fiscal budget. The government to attain certain objectives like full employment, price stability and economic growth normally uses fiscal policy. Other policy tools that can be used include printing of money, sell of fixed assets, internal or external borrowing as well as consumption of fiscal reserves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When a government is facing huge deficits, tax revenue can be raised by increasing the tax rates. Taxation is a tool that can be used to rescue an economy facing difficult times. Proper design of a tax policy can be a panacea to the prevailing economic hard times such as unemployment. United State has sought to follow Germany’s way to rescue its economic from adverse effects of its current debt position.

Economist asserts that the only way in which an economy can reverse a crisis is using an expansionary fiscal policy. This will solve the issue of fiscal budget imbalance, unemployment and ‘crowding out’ effect.

Conversely, high taxes will look out private companies from investing in the country because of the cost of production which will translates to higher commodity prices. It will be hard for businesses to carry out business in countries with high tax rates. This is because it will render most establishments less competitive in the global market.

To encourage foreign investment tax rates should be reduced for them and sometimes coupled with tax havens, allowances and subsidies, this will encourage them to take up their new investment in the economy (Kivel, 2002).

Taxation and work incentives When there is an increase in the rate of income tax, the effect will be that the post-tax income of individuals will reduce. This is because the net income resulting from each hour of work will be lower. The move might encourage workers to increase their number of working hours to meet their target income. On the other hand, an increase in tax might be used as a disincentive to promote less work. The government normally sets a lower income tax rate for low-income employees.

This will act as an incentive for workers to do their job for long hours and earn more money. Low taxes on low-income earners serve as a tool of reducing ‘poverty trap’ risks where individuals will get high net financial benefits from their work. When tax reforms are favorable, it leads to an increase in supply of labor thus a reduction in unemployment equilibrium rate hence, the growth rate will increase.

Taxation and the pattern of demand Demand patterns for goods and services vary as indirect taxes are changed. When value added taxes (VAT) on commodities such as alcohol and cigarettes increase, it is aimed at causing a low consumption among consumers or a substitution effect. The result will be a low demand for such commodities. Indirect taxation can be applicable where there is a total market failure, as well as when the government wants to ensure equitable distribution of resources such as health care.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The raise of Taxes at the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taxation and investment decisions When the rates of business taxes and corporate tax are low, this can stimulate a business to increase its spending in fixed capital investment. An increase in investment will mean that the capital stock of a nation has increased thus an increase in capital stock of every worker employed (Mankiw, 2011).

Government can use incentives such as tax allowances to boost research and development and in encouraging new business developments. A tax regime that is favorable will attract increased inflow of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). This will be a stimulus that will benefit an economy’s aggregate supply and aggregate demand. Low rates of corporation tax will attract huge amounts of private investment.

Tax changes act as a stimulus of investment in capital assets, social infrastructure, and labor force skills as well as in technology. A good tax system will ensure an improvement in infrastructure, which is essential for economic growth through increased production and competitiveness. Government spending can be terms of development of an education system that is skills oriented and technology focused. This will ensure a steady long-term supply of human resources (Dye, 2011).

Company’s risk attitude and corporate income tax are the main factors that are considered by an organization before making an investment decisions, this is because this factors can affect the rate of return on investment. Amount of corporate tax to be paid is an important factor that is taken into consideration before making a financial investment decision. This is because low taxes will mean lower prices for goods and higher revenue generated.

The Rich Should Pay More For equal sacrifice and fairness among citizens, those individuals who benefited from favorable economic times such as boom, rescue packages among others should find it necessary to shoulder the costs that arise from a crisis. There willingness will save the economy from suffering the worst effects of a crisis that a time may spill over to drain resources of the rich. This argument looks at increasing government revenue through an increase in income as well as an increase in capital gains tax.

This was illustrated by Germany’s case after the World War II where legislation was passed which mandated financial compensation to gather for loses that arises during the war. This lead to a creation of tax on property and capital, this law was applicable to individuals who still possess substantial assets after the war. The law required them to pay half of their asset worth to a compensation fund over a period of thirty years.

In case of United States, an increase in tax has no chance any time soon. The reason being the required budget consolidation should occur on the expenditure part. This will imply a reduction in government expenditure and this will have adverse effects on the economy. On the other hand, an increase in income tax disproportionately has an effect on higher earners. The impact of high tax on the rich is minimal because large proportions of their income go to savings while minimal amounts are spent (Blinder

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Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the essay help online free: essay help online free

Today the problem of solid waste management is current for developed and developing countries because the hazardous effects of the ineffective solution of the question can lead to influencing the state of the environment and changing the ecological situation at the polluted territories. There are many models and programs developed at local, regional, and governmental levels in the USA and the European countries which are worked out for providing the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management.

To overcome the issue of solid waste management, the USA and the European countries practice the collection, transportation, recycling of the waste at the local and regional levels, with focusing on the competitiveness of the industry, with involving the other countries’ landfills, or with concentrating on the inter-municipal cooperation.

It is necessary to develop the economically advantageous project of the industry’s modernization according to which the spending costs should become lower and results higher. The inter-municipal cooperation can be considered as the most economically effective solution to the problem.

The problem of solid waste is one of the most controversial for the urban territories with the constant growth of industries which provide the highest percentage of the solid waste. Moreover, the problem of municipal domestic waste is also current. Today it is more typical for the USA to use landfills and the system of recycling as the main methods of solid waste management.

Nevertheless, different states focus on various ways of waste management with paying attention to the regional and local programs (Bel et al.). However, the main problem which can limit the effectiveness of solid waste management remains unsolved. It is the problem of the local and governmental costs spent for the management. That is why the most effective solution to the problem must be also effective from the point of its financing.

The discussion on the effectiveness of this or that solution to the problem of solid waste management is still open. If it is possible to accentuate the successfulness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in such European countries as Spain and the Netherlands and in the USA, it is also possible to focus on the regional programs typical for the US counties with involving the citizen information programs, recycling, and depending on waste-to-energy plants, and on the cooperation between two countries (Canada and the USA) because they are used with following the standards of technology and provide definite environmental benefits.

Thus, the example of the realization of the regional program associated with solid waste management in the US counties is the system of waste management in Cheshire County. The main characteristics of the system are the usage of the citizen information programs, the waste stream reduction and recycling, the development of the network which connect the territories with the centrally located county landfill.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To support the system, many counties can use public and private partnership with the local transport companies. All these factors accentuate the fact that “municipalities are paying too much for solid waste disposal” (Monahan 7). That is why it is necessary to find the more economically effective solution to the problem.

The idea to use the landfills of the neighbor countries, for instance Canada and the USA, for realizing waste management programs can be considered as effective from the point of economy. However, it is important only for those territories which are located close to the countries’ borders. Moreover, there are many aspects connected with the problems of crossing the borders (transportation) and locating the waste in the landfills (Schaefer). That is why this solution also cannot be considered as the most successful one.

To realize the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management in the USA, it is significant to use the principles of the inter-municipal cooperation which also can involve the definite aspects of the public-private mixed policy. This system is more appropriate for the USA because of the high level of the local fragmentation in the country.

Moreover, it can be also discussed as the more developed one in comparison with the typical local and regional programs. Thus, “in the US, inter-municipal cooperation is usually not compatible with private production, although it is seen as a form of contracting out” (Bel et al. 5).

The inter-municipal cooperation allows decreasing the amount of the costs used for the collection, transportation, effective disposal, and recycling of the solid waste with sharing the responsibility for providing the necessary management. Thus, the effective inter-municipal cooperation can solve the challenges of funding and social costs. Moreover, such form of cooperation between the local authorities contributes to solving the environmental issue which is rather difficult to discuss at local levels independently.

Nevertheless, why is the inter-municipal cooperation more effective than, for instance, regional county programs? It is important to note that modern programs used in counties are predominantly based on the successful aspects of the inter-municipal cooperation which is economically beneficial.

The inter-municipal cooperation provides the opportunities to concentrate on the technological modernization of the processes, development of the transport system, to rationalize the division of the budget and involve all the necessary means with increasing the managerial capacity (Wilson and Scheinberg).

We will write a custom Essay on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inter-municipal cooperation as the solution to the problem of solid waste management is based on the efficient economy balance between the country’s territories and provides the effective developed system (Bel et al.).

In spite of the fact there are many programs which are used in the world for solving the problem of solid waste management, one the most economically effective systems is the inter-municipal cooperation which can be successfully realized in the USA.

Summary Discussing possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management, Matthew Schaefer in his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” pays attention to the relations between the USA and Canada, their integration in overcoming the issue of the solid waste with the help of the landfills abroad; Germa Bel and the group of researchers in their work “Similar Problems, Different solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain” focus on comparison the effectiveness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands; in their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”

David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg concentrate on the necessity of finding the easiest variant for solving the problem which can also be appropriate for implementing in cities and countries with low incomes; Matt Monahan in his “Municipal Solid Waste Study” develops the recommendations for using regional programs in US counties.

In his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?”, Matthew Schaefer discusses the peculiarities of the transportation of the waste between Canada and the USA. The author states that such practice has advantages for the economy of the both countries, but it also requires the solution to the question of the open borders and the creation of definite transnational standards for reducing the waste.

Germa Bel, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda, and Raymond Gradus developed the work in which they analyzed the peculiarities of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands with references to the experience of Great Britain and the USA. It is the most beneficial program from the point of economy for countries with the high level of the local fragmentation.

In their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”, David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg discuss the findings of their prolong research which was conducted on the problem of finding the most effective and less expensive way to cope with the issue of solid waste management which could contribute to the requirements of the developed countries and developing countries.

They focus on the difference in approaches to solving the problem in big cities and low-income cities. The necessary technological modernization of the process should be supported by the authorities and political commitment. Nevertheless, it is also important to pay attention to the modernization of the economically advantageous recycling system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his “Municipal Solid Waste Study”, Matt Monahan analyzes the features of waste management in the counties of the USA and concludes that the current system is not effective in relation to the level of expensiveness and requires the further development. It is necessary to implement the constant system with basing on the cooperative work of municipalities in order to monitor the process of collection, transportation, and recycling the solid waste form the territory.

The articles are similar in providing the analysis of the effectiveness of this or that program depending on the economic factor with the focus on the examination of the benefits resulted from the usage of the mixed (public and private) policy.

These examined articles are different in providing the possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management which depend on various criteria (the involvement of municipalities, governments, integration with the neighbor countries).

Works Cited Bel, Germa, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda and Raymond Gradus 2006, Similar Problems, Different Solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain. PDF file. Web.

Monahan, Matt 2004, Municipal Solid Waste Study. Web.

Schaefer, Matthew. “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” Canada-United States Law Journal 28.103 (2002): 103-114. Web.

Wilson, David and Anne Scheinberg. “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?” Waste Management

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Econ of development Essay a level english language essay help

Many global investors have poured their resources in emerging market economies because of the returns accrued, which is higher compared to investments in advanced market economies. The returns are not necessarily high for the emerging market economies. External financing is always accompanied by high social costs to the countries with emerging market economies.

Moreover, volatile external financing may reduce economic growth of such countries because of some uncertainties involved. It is for this reason that government should intervene and place controls on this economic aspect. Too much intervention by the government is not productive because side effects will also arise, e.g., if a government imposes a limit to the amount of cash that can be ploughed into a country for investment, the investor may be limited to a strict budget.

This may deprive the country from gaining other benefits, e.g. infrastructure. Investors sometimes build roads and bridges for easy access and transportation of goods to the locations of investment. These remain the assets of the host country. It is very critical that the government limit their restrictions by formulating favorable policies.

Governments should issue contracts to all investors. These contracts should explain in detail the length of time that the investors will stay. In addition to this, the contracts should restrict pulling out of the investors until a certain stage in the process of market liberalization is reached.

This is better than having no contracts, and allowing investors to emerge markets at will. In so doing, the government plays an important role; they ensure that there is a constant and continuous accumulation of capital within the country. Without contracts specifying the stay of investors in a country, they may decide to pull out their resources and capital as they wish.

This is very dangerous to the economy of any country because the assets in that country may become less valued. The main reason why investors may decide to pull out of a country in the course of their stay is loss of faith in that country’s economy. Since the economic stability of most developing countries is uncertain, it is wise for them to give contracts (specifying the duration of stay, and the time to pull out) to investors.

Capital flight occurs when the capital injected by investors rapidly flows out of the country. This takes place when investors lose faith in the project or when their confidence on the economy of that country is gone. This is mostly associated with the fall in the exchange rate in the deserted country’s currency. One major way of dealing with capital flight is changing of the exchange rates of a country to values more favorable to the direct foreign investors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The investors should not lose a lot of money while converting their currencies and vice versa. There are other ways of dealing with capital flight other than adjusting the exchange rate. These methods are equally important in dealing with capital flight. One of them involves reducing the taxation rates on capital. When the government reduces the amount of tax imposed on capital, investors are more likely to stay.

This is because they end up retaining money that would have otherwise have been used as tax. Other than the two examples given, any initiative by the government in strengthening the economy of a country will ensure that investors always remain in that country. In general, it is correct to conclude that maintaining the stability of a country’s economy will win the confidence of investors thereby making them stay.

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