Table of Contents Introduction
Territorial expansion of Islam
Introduction No faith in the modern society is as feared and controversial as Islam. It covers the common opinion as an extreme religion that has elements of terrorism, authoritarian leadership, gender imbalance, and civil war.
However, Islamic religion appears to be complex than we assume. This essay explores the role of Islam in society, its political position, military affairs, and territorial expansion with reference to the period of Prophet Muhammad.
Religion History puts it that Islamic faith has evolved from the periods of Prophet Muhammad into present times. The word Islam means submission to God’s will. This definition suggests that everything must obey the rules and the will of Allah or the law of nature.
The faith teaches that God’s power came to humanity through Quran to Muhammad. Subsequently, Muslims believe that God is all-powerful and know-it-all. Besides, God has no social measures, equals, peers, beginning, or end. The Medina Charter declared Muhammad as the solely prophet of God.
Islamic religion asserts that the Quran came through a messenger or prophet of God, and Muhammad was the final of such messengers (Goldschmidt 12).
The fundamental belief of the Islamic religion as expressed by Muhammad is the judgment day, which no one can flee. Muslims believe that everyone will face judgment before the heavenly throne (Goldschmidt, 34).
The religion observes right actions, rules, and laws. There are five vital pillars of Islamic faith guiding believers. The first pillar is witness (Shuhuduh). This rule stresses that there is only one God and Muhammad is God’s messenger. The second pillar is the worship (salat) or ritual prayer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fasting (Saturn) is the third pillar of Islam that Muslims observe during the holy month of Ramadan. The fourth pillar talks about giving of tithe (zakat) or alms. The final pillar talks about pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca. There are also other duties and prohibitions such as jihad to guide believers.
They also fight those who forbid God or his prophets, and others who reject allegiance to the true until they pay tribute to Islam. Jihad has many meanings depending on situations and contexts.
It can mean fighting Jews, Christians, or pagans. Some modern Muslims claim that jihad is an act of defending Islam against attack from external aggressors through verbal or military attack.
Politics During the development of Islamic religion, the religion experienced divisions among the Shiites, Sufis, and Sunnis. We can attribute these divisions to the fact that religious leaders of the time experienced worldly changes, which consumed them just like politicians.
Further, scholars note that this power struggle is an abuse of a sacred ideology since religion is not about supremacy. Studies show that the faith of Islam main duty is to create a just society where all members experience equal treatment and respect.
The subsequent history had negative effects on Islamic faith. Muslim religion had its own rituals, philosophy, laws, mysticism, laws, shrine, and sacred writings just like any other religion.
Islamic political development has evolved through various phases. First, we have the traditional or republican phase, which mainly occurred during earlier periods of establishing Islamic religion among pagans, traders, and nomads. This was the period of Muhammad (Trifkovic 102).
We will write a custom Essay on Islam as Most Feared and Controversial Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second phase was the liberal phases in which Muslims attempted to incorporate many non-Muslims. The final phase is the repressive phase whereby Muslim rulers established complete autocratic systems.
This happened after Islam became hardened religion among the converts and conquered (Karsh 18).
Some Islam states also favor secularism. This implies that the state and society have secular belief systems and have separated the public life from Islam. In the Islamic context, secularism ideologies promote secular political and social views and not Islamic principles.
Therefore, there is a clear distinction between religious life and affairs of the state. As a result, strong followers of Islam have condemned secularism in states with such political ideologies and social values.
They believe that public issues should not come before religion. In fact, they feel that religion should influence every aspect of state and public matters. However, we have to note that religion cannot guide diverse interests of people in a state.
Some Islamic states have practiced secularism for many centuries. As a result, such states have low cases of human rights abuse. Some historians have concluded that secularism is the best way to run Muslim states.
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im asserts, “enforcing (Sharia) through coercive power of the state negates its religious nature, because Muslims would be observing the law of the state and not freely performing their religious obligation as Muslims” (An-Na’im 3).
In some cases, Muslims governments have retained secular approach to governance. However, Sharia laws guide aspects of citizens’ lives in situations of disputes. At the same time, the roles of Sharia laws in these countries differ.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Islam as Most Feared and Controversial Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tolerances of secular political and social ideologies have created tensions in many secular states. Opponents believe that such ideologies promote anti-Islamic beliefs, Western supremacy, and imperialism.
Military affairs We can understand military affairs from the teachings of Muhammad and contents of Quran under the pillar of jihad. Muslims believe that jihad is a struggle based on the ways of God. Muhammad first proclaimed jihad among his followers and urged them to fight for God.
Based on Jihad, Muslims exert their power over others they consider as inappropriate for their belief system. In this sense, a number of interpretations focus on what jihad is. It can be a devil, an enemy, non-Muslim, or aggressor, both from within or outside the territory.
These multiple meanings have brought confusions to the appropriate usage of the term jihad with reference to war. Some scholars have claimed that the use of jihad without any supporting term simply translates to warfare or military issues (Brockopp 99).
At the same time, jihad also reflects Muslims endeavor to attain highest possible spiritual morality. On this morality question, there are differences between ‘greater jihad’ and ‘lesser jihad’. The first one mainly concentrates on spiritual growth. Conversely, the latter focuses on warfare and radical solutions to issues.
Muslims states consider jihad as the use of military force to acquire new territories or protect the existing ones against enemies. In this sense, jihad becomes the guiding principle of military affairs. Currently, the exact aim of jihad remains unclear.
For instance, some believers consider jihad as a holy war for protecting their faith and territories without any offensive aims. On the other hand, others argue that jihad is an attempt by Muslims to conquer the world, just as Muhammad used it to extend Islamic territories.
The Islamic law allows jihad under certain conditions. For instance, Muslims can declare jihad against their enemies, terrorists, non-Muslims, pagans, and rulers who attempt to stop proselytizing aims of Islam or suppress Muslims.
However, many Muslims believe that jihad is only for defensive purposes. Different Islamic states (states that use Islamic laws) have various definitions of what conforms to Islamic justice system. This suggests that the use jihad is not uniform among different states of Muslims, which use jihad.
In most cases, we have noticed that Muslims engage in jihad as groups. This implies that jihad is a collective responsibility of Muslims and their leaders. In fact, Muslims who have power over society must make jihad a personal responsibility, and they must mobilize their followers to support the course.
Based on the current acts of Muslims, we cannot draw a conclusion on what jihad supports or limits of jihad. This is because Muslim fundamentalists have used jihad to terrorize and punish offenders under what the international community refers to as abuse of human rights or criminal activities.
In some cases, world leaders and some Islamic states have condemned such acts. Western media have constantly depicted the brutal and radical form of Islam (fundamentalism) as entirely as a creation Islamic religion.
Nevertheless, fundamentalism is a world affair, which all leading religions have experienced in reaction to issues of modernity. Therefore, fundamentalism does not take place accidentally and only takes its root when elements of modernity have advanced in stage.
Afterwards, religious leaders attempt to combine the two, but if they fail, some believers turn to radical actions, which result into fundamentalism movement. Fundamentalism ideologies highlight some of the botched promises of modernity and fear among opponents.
As a result, the movement sees secular ways as threats to religion and state. Such believers fight to restore the conventional and established ways. Muslim radicals differ with other Muslims who positively embrace modernity or Western political ideologies.
Besides, Muslim radicals maintain that they fight to survive and protect their religion. Under the guidance of such mindsets, some Muslims opt for terrorism while others try to reinstate their religion by legitimate ways.
Islam has provisions for military officials. For instance, Umar did not want his soldiers to get into contact with cities because of potential harmful influences like wealth and luxuries.
As a result, soldiers stayed in isolated encampments. This also prevented them for participating in power struggle with locals.
Territorial expansion of Islam Scholars who have studied territorial expansion of Islam noted that it originated from actions of Muhammad. Muhammad used different methods, such as force, persuasion, and diplomacy in order to expand Islam.
Soon after the death of Muhammad, Caliphs took control of Islam and continued with aggressive tendencies of Muhammad in order to get new converts (Hitti and Khalidi 195).
In North Africa, Muslim conquerors met resistance from the Byzantines who ruled the region. This slowed down the pace of territorial expansion. Berber of Northwest Africa exerted much resistance and several fights against Muslims.
However, Muslims defeated Berber in the subsequent fights and took control of the city. They also destroyed Carthage to punish Byzantine Emperor for resistance.
After conquering North Africa, Muslims turned their attention to Europe in which they easily captured Spain. However, in 733 AD, Franks stopped Muslims at the Battle of Tours. This marked the end of territorial acquisition in Europe. As a result, the region remained under Christianity up-to-date.
Territorial expansion of Islam remained a significant achievement for Muslim in during the expansion period. The religion used force to put all Arab nations under Islamic laws. It then proceeded to claim Spain and some parts of Afghanistan.
This made some of the Caliphs the most powerful in the world. Under such a rapid expansion into Christian territories, Muslims and Christians had to struggle for control of some areas like the Mediterranean region.
Scholars have analyzed conditions, which led to struggle and expansion of Islam. Such territorial acquisitions led to the establishment of Muslim rules around the world. Muslims led several incursions in most areas of the world.
This suggests that the current territories remained the permanent ones after settlements. At the same time, there were places where Muslims faced continued resistance. In some parts of the world like the Indian Ocean region, Islam used trade to acquire new converts.
From history, we have to dispel any idea that Muhammad, subsequent Caliphs, and their followers used any peaceful means for territorial expansion. At the same time, we have to acknowledge that jihad was not defensive in any way. Therefore, all territorial acquisitions of Islam took place by forceful means.
Islamic conquerors assumed that all conquered territories were exclusively Arab states and established Islamic laws in such areas. Based on the teachings of Muhammad, conquerors forced the captured people to convert to Islam. This was the focus of the Arab rulers because they wanted to convert many territories to Islam.
It also of interest to note that Islam spread to other areas through trade, migration of Muslims, and wishes of urban dwellers to convert.
However, this did not stop some rulers from using Islamic principle of jihad to capture new territories. Generally, Islamic religion attracted many nomads and other primitive populations. However, the conquered majorities did not fully embrace the religion.
We know that it takes time for people to embrace new ideologies fully. This was the case of Christianity in the past. However, this was not the case of Islam. Captured people were aware of the consequences of not complying with the demands of rulers based on the violence nature of territorial expansions.
This coercion provided the needed advantage to convert many people to Islam. Therefore, Islamic religion lacked the peaceful means that Christianity used to be a dominant religion in the world today. Besides, such violence nature of the religion did not appeal to educated and civilized groups.
Conclusion Islam has existed in criticism since its inception. Some of the earliest critics consisted of Christians who considered Islam as heresy. Later, some criticism emerged from other Muslims and Jewish scholars. Critics considered both the public and private life of Prophet Muhammad in their criticisms.
These are mainly morality issues. Some critics also focus on some teachings of Quran in order to debate controversial moral aspects of the religion.
Still, other scholars have also turned to issues of human rights in the modern society. At the same time, they also explore positions of women in Islamic nations.
Studies show that Islam has been a binding religion among faithful. However, some elements of fundamentalism and treatments of non-Muslims or offenders have brought concerns to different groups. As such, Islam continues to draw criticism from its roles and influences on military affairs, politics, and religious practices.
Works Cited An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. The Future of Sharia: Secularism from an Islamic Perspective. Atlanta, GA: Emory School of Law, 2007. Print.
Brockopp, Jonathan. Islamic Ethics of Life: abortion, war and euthanasia. South Carolina: University of South Carolina press, 2003. Print.
Goldschmidt, Arthur. A Concise History of the Middle East 7th ed. Colorado: Westview Press, 2002. Print.
Hitti, Philip and Walid Khalidi. History of the Arabs 10th ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Print.
Karsh, Efraim. Islamic Imperialism: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. Print.
Trifkovic, Serge. The Sword of the Prophet. Salisbury, MA: Regina Orthodox Press, 2007. Print.
Food Motif in Bartleby the Scrivener Term Paper essay help online free
Herman Melville contributed to several works of literature over the course of his career. One of these is “Bartleby the Scrivener”. A Wall Street lawyer who hires a man named Bartleby to work for him as a scrivener narrates this story. The narrator’s office has three other employees.
This short story is often considered as one of the more complicated works by the author. Although the story’s plot seems simple, it is difficult to interpret the themes and motifs in this story. This fact makes this story an interesting work of literature.
One of the most prominent motifs in this story is food. The author makes several food references throughout the story. This makes food one of the more obvious motifs in this story.
This paper will explore the use and significance of this motif. In addition, the paper will explain how this motif contributes towards the development of the story’s plot and themes.
The first statement the narrator utters when he discovers Bartleby is dead is that no one can live without dining. This assertion highlights the narrator’s concern over Bartleby’s refusal to consume food. Several of Bartleby’s behaviours perplex the narrator but his refusal to eat disturbs him the most.
The author uses this motif to portray that cannibalism is essential for survival of human beings. “Cannibals” dominated the Wall Street of the time. Bartleby seems to be protesting this trend but the results are tragic. There are two aspects of cannibalism, the diner, and the meal. Bartleby refused to be either of the two.
The food motif is also manifested in the naming of other characters in the story. Turkey and Ginger Nut are nicknames given to two of the employees in the narrator’s office. The narrator says that Turkey’s clothes smelt of eating-houses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Ginger Nut is named after the most common snack in the lawyer’s office. The fact that an employee is named after a food item shows the significance food has in this office. The use of food nicknames implies that the employees are just fodder for this business.
The narrator’s business feeds on them for it to survive. Therefore, even though the employees are under the impression that they are consuming from the business, they are indeed being consumed.
The narrator vividly describes the appetite levels of his employees. Turkey and Nippers have a voracious longing for cakes and apples. To satisfy this need, the two are constantly sending Ginger Nut to fetch these items. This is why it is possible for the lawyer to assign these workers food related nicknames.
However, when Bartleby joins the team, the lawyer finds it difficult to compare him to his appetite because he does not seem to have any. He wonders how Bartleby survives because he does not even go to the diner. Bartleby’s lack of a prominent appetite makes it difficult for the narrator to understand him.
Consequently, this highlights the narrator’s appetite for understanding people according to their likings for certain foods. For instance, he argues that Bartley never went out to eat or drank beer like Turkey.
The food motif is very prominent in this story. The author seems to imply that people can be understood through their food consumption habits. The motif is also used to explain the cannibalistic nature of human beings. The effectiveness of this motif is unmistakable throughout the story.
Supporting of Marijuana Legalization Among the Adult Population Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Recently, there has been a debate on legalization of marijuana among the adult population in many states. In particular, the states of Oregon and Colorado have grappled with the issue for the last few months. Before last year’s vote on the issue, the states had made illegal the usage of marijuana for recreational purposes.
That notwithstanding, the same question has been pertinent in other states. While the proponents argue that legalization of marijuana is long overdue, opponents argue that legalizing pot could undermine the gains made in the fight against hard drugs especially among young people.
This argumentative essay seeks to support legalization of marijuana among the adult population. The rationale is that marijuana usage has been rampant despite its illegal status in many states. Thus, insignificant achievement has been made to reduce the uptake of the drug despite its illegality.
Legalize Marijuana At the outset, it is important to highlight that prohibition of marijuana has yielded far more negative results than good. Barbour asserts that the use and accessibility of marijuana have remained unaffected over the last few decades despite the authorities directing huge amount of resources towards its prevention (56).
Specifically, it is estimated that the state of Colorado spends around $12 million every year in an attempt to combat the ever-rising use of marijuana in the population (Green 12). Such amount of financial resources could be directed towards more serious criminal activities and crimes.
Without a doubt, the efforts by the government to criminalize and prevent usage of marijuana have dramatically failed overtime. By legalizing marijuana therefore, Barbour says, “…the government spending on prevention and war against marijuana will reduce significantly and save huge amounts of taxpayers’ dollars…” (6).
In addition, the government stands to gain from tax revenues from the drug when it gains legal status. The reason is that the government will enact tax legislations on the drug and ensure that all sellers and the buyers pay a premium tax leading to increased tax revenues for the government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, Reinarman, Cohen and Kaal assert that marijuana has far less negative effects on health of the user when compared to other drugs such as tobacco and alcohol (836). Moreover, pot smoking has shown to have minimal effects on the surrounding community.
That notwithstanding, tobacco and alcoholic drinks are higher in toxicity than marijuana. They lead to increased chances of addiction and are harmful to the body of the users and those around them but they remain to be legal (Reinarman et al. 59).
In a book that compares marijuana and other legal drugs, Green says, “… tobacco is forty folds harmful to the health of an individual than marijuana…” (123). She says that a user of alcohol is more likely to become violent than pot smokers.
This is notwithstanding the addictive effect of tobacco and alcohol that can highly overcome the addiction caused by marijuana. To that end, it is important to regulate and decriminalize usage of marijuana, as is the case with other ‘common’ drugs.
Further, marijuana does not lead to cancer, as many opponents would like to show. In fact, victims of cancer have used marijuana since time immemorial.
Although there exists no conclusive qualitative or quantitative study that marijuana has a positive link to cancer, a recent study by American Psychological Association has concluded that there is no evidence to say that marijuana use could lead to lung cancer (Green 24).
To the surprise of the opponents, the research also revealed that there were insignificantly low incidences of marijuana users suffering from cancer (Barbour 9). In fact, there is no evidence to show that use of marijuana has been a direct causative factor of death among its users According to Svrakic et al,
We will write a custom Essay on Supporting of Marijuana Legalization Among the Adult Population specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “…smoking cannabis provides relaxation and pleasure, enhances the sense of well being, contributes to stress-relief, and helps to deal with hard reality…” (94).
While this is the case, alcohol and tobacco use can lead to development of chronic illnesses such as cancer. Undoubtedly, criminalization of marijuana is therefore an application of double standards to specific types of narcotic drugs.
Nonetheless, opponents have raised issues with the attempts to decriminalize and legalize marijuana. They argue that the state will have failed by legalizing marijuana (Svrakic et al. 91). They entrench their rationale to the notion that legalization will lead to an increase in uptake of the drug among the young population (Svrakic et al. 91).
They also pinpoint that such exposure to marijuana will create an entry to hard drugs for the same category of the population. Additionally, Svrakic et al. argues that,
“… legalization of marijuana will undermine the war against drug trafficking especially in the Mexican border where many drug cartels flourish by selling illegal narcotics such as marijuana…” (95).
Although the latter argument is important to consider, it is imperative for the opponents to dedicate more studies on the subject to demystify the myths and misconceptions that have marred marijuana.
Conclusion In conclusion, the public debate surrounding legalization of marijuana has been inconclusive and emotive. Proponents argue that legalization of marijuana will lead to increased revenues for the government amid economic challenges.
Legalizing marijuana will not lead to cancer and deaths but will spark the debate for apparent effects of other conventional drugs that are legal.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Supporting of Marijuana Legalization Among the Adult Population by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, opponents say that the process will lead to increase in uptake of the drug and undermine the war against drugs and traffickers.
Works Cited Barbour, Scott. Should Marijuana Be Legalized? New Jersey: Prentice Hall Publishers, 2010. Print.
Green, Chelsea. Marijuana is Safer: So Why Are You Driving People to Drink? New York: McGraw Hill Publishers, 2009. Print.
Reinarman,Criag, Cohen, Peter and Kaal, Hendrien, “The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy: Cannabis in Amsterdam and in San Francisco,” American Journal of Public Health, 94.1(Dec. 2002): 836-42.Print.
Svrakic, Dragan, Lustman, Patrick, Mallya, Ashok, Lynn, Andrea, Finney, Rhonda and Svrakic, Neda. “Legalization, Decriminalization and Medicinal Use of Cannabis: A scientific and Public Health Perspective” Missouri Medicine, 109.2 (Mar. 2002): 90-97. Print.
Religious ethnic factions of Syrian civil war Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Alawite Muslims, a struggle for the status quo
Arab-Sunni Muslims, a fight for change
Kurds, a fight for recognition
In a coup d’état of 1970 Hafez el-Assad gained control over the Baath party and declared himself president up to his death in 2000 after which his son, Bashar Al-Assad took over. For the length of both regimes until 2012, did not support a multi-party democracy.
Declaring that it was at war with Israel, Syria was under emergency rule. This allowed for sweeping presidential powers and arrests without grounds among other human rights abuses, in the effort to quell discontent against existing regime.
The results of this political stance include the Hama massacre of 1982, which left between ten to forty thousand Syria Sunni Muslims dead.
Before the Arab Spring, unemployment was widespread among large portions of the youth because of non-productive economic policies.
In addition to this, Syria experienced a drought of astonishing proportions in 2008 especially in the northern regions; with effects including seventy percent of livestock and eighty percent of people living in these regions moving below the poverty line.
On January 4, 2011, death of Mohammed Bouazizi of Tunisia set of the beginning of Tunisian revolution and by March 15, 2011 protests against the incumbent leadership of Syria had begun.
The Syrian government clashed with protestors on the cusp of Syrian revolt. The excessive use of force by government agents led to soldiers defecting, who joined civilians in the process of arming themselves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Syrian movement has continued over a long time, unlike other revolutions of the Arab spring, where over 70,000 Syrians have met their premature deaths.
Alawite Muslims, a struggle for the status quo Defense Minister Hazer al–Assad declared himself president of the country in 1970. Assad was an Alawite muslim, a Shiite sect that makes twelve percent of the Syrian population. Therefore, to protect himself from a rebellion, fellow Alawites were chosento populate the military.
This army make up has been a prime source of discord among Sunni masses and as a concession: Sunnis to joined the army, but only in the junior army ranks.
The dream of an all-inclusive democracy rose after the death of President Hazer al –Assad in 2000; that his son who became the next president at a relative age of 34 years, would herald a new era of democratic and financial freedom. At the time, he was quite powerful considering his wife being a British born and educated Sunni.
A relative phase of democratic space where people carried out political discussions within their homes with friends spread within the country. Furthermore, early on in his presidency, President Bashar Al-Assad announced moving changes to his government.
This did not see the light of day; reform implementation did not happen. Further disturbing Syrians President Bashar Al-Assad want to follow his father’s regime undemocratic policies.
Apart from maintaining undemocratic status quo, top military ranks went to his relatives such as, commands of an elite military unit to his brother and Deputy Undersecretary of Defense to his brother In law.
We will write a custom Essay on Religious ethnic factions of Syrian civil war specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Given that military action in the Syrian Revolution had a targeted unrest in Syrian population with the exception of Alawite minority, defections within the military force by other ethnic groups has led to a predominantly Alawite military.
Arab-Sunni Muslims, a fight for change Comprise sixty percent of Syrians, and have faced the greatest effect of the Assad family leadership. Hama massacre of 1982 in pre-dominantly Sunni, Hama town is a pointer to this fact, where over forty thousand Syrians died.
In addition to this, with the exception of some wealthy Sunni families that benefited from President Bashar Al-Assad economic policies, majority of Arab-Sunni Muslims have remained poor.
Revolt among youth, frustration with unemployment and lack of democracy in Sunni poor rural areas and city districts in comparison to the rest of Syria was greater. It is specifically these areas, which were early targets by Syrian army in the initial stages of the revolt.
Arab-Sunni Muslims build a large portion of the Free Syrian Army (FSA). This is a radical opposition faction comprised of close to forty thousand militants. It comprises of army defectors and civilians trained under the defectors.
The Free Syrian Army is a Sunni led military group fighting for the rights of Syrian population. Turkey apart from providing ammunition for the free Syrian army additionally allowed them to establish their military power headquarters in Turkey’s Hatay province.
In reality, the Syrian struggle is a quasi regional conflict between pro-Sunni and the pro-Alawite Assad government with Syria being the battleground.
The opposition movement, led by primarily by Arab-Sunni Muslims receives funds from Turkey and Saudi Arabia, pro-Sunni states; the Alawite led government receives supports from Qatar, on the other hand. Escalation of this Sunni-Alawite war has also spread to other neighboring states such as Lebanon.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious ethnic factions of Syrian civil war by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kurds, a fight for recognition Kurds is an ethnic minority in Syria with a population of close to nine percent. This is a relative small population in comparison to Sunni numbers. It was an obstacle from receiving concessions from the Alawite Assad government prior to Arab Spring.
The reduced status of this minority group led to human right injustices such as discrimination, cultural and language rights denial.
Due to their classification as foreigners, Kurdish Syrians did not receive Syrian citizenship. With no protection by law, human rights violation by police or army could not be held under the law of the court. To appease the Kurds in the nature of Arab revolts, close to two hundred Kurds received citizenship.
In addition to this, Kurds were under-represented in Syrian National Council; hence, Kurdish Syrians didn’t classify themselves with fellow Syrian revolutionaries, settling for almost a truce with Assad government until cities with high Kurdish people joined the revolution.
Kurdish political parties coalesced to form the Kurdish National Council and together with the Kurdish national party they fought for the rights of Kurds in post revolution Syria. This involved use of militia in securing northern regions where Kurds free from government control.
From the start of the Syrian civil war, Kurds did not align with either Assad government or Arab revolutionaries of northern regions instead they sought for autonomy within a decentralized Syria.
It was a cause of disagreement among other Syrian revolutionaries; a betrayal of the struggle against Assad. This was until February 2013 when they entered into a peace agreement with northern Arab revolutionaries.
Effects of Media Reporting on History: The Senkaku Islands Dispute Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In the contemporary world, the media has become an important tool not only in communication, but also in the development of human history. Historiography is currently a product of media influence.
This implies that historiography is an ongoing process that incorporates both facts and viewpoints of the media. Since the media has become the most important tool in providing information to the public, it equally adds some meaning relevant to the validity of a historical event.
Although the theoretical purpose of the media is to present an event or fact “as it is”, the ways in which the media presents an event or fact has a strong influence on how the audience perceive and interpret. The feelings and interests of those who cover and present often induce biases.
Most of the biases induced on news normally occur due to the interest of the media. The origin of the media, for instance, plays a significant role in giving “meaning” to a historical event. In this discussion, four newspapers have been analyzed.
They report about the recent dispute between China and Japan over the ownership of Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands. Newspapers from the United Kingdom, Australia, China and Japan are examples of media channels that induce different meanings on the same historical event.
Analysis The ‘Japan Times’, a daily newspaper printed in Tokyo, reported that the conflict between the two nations over Senkaku Islands is a major pointer to the aggressiveness of the Chinese Communist regime.
In the story “No winners in a conflict over Senkaku Islands”, author Michael Richardson’s interest is to describe the innocence of Japan (Richardson The Japan times 14). At the same time, it points to the aggression that China’s government has employed as a tactic to show its rising influence in the Far East and the world in general.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author introduces the story with a clear but brief description of the conflict. Here, the author’s interest appears to be largely inclined towards the political and economic significance of the conflict to the three nations.
Throughout the article, it is clear that the paper’s interest is to describe China as being on the wrong, while Japan and America on the right. For instance, the article argues “…China, an increasingly assertive and militarily powerful nation, is currently challenging the rights of other countries in the region to occupy reefs and atolls…” (Richardson The Japan times 14).
By including the term “challenging the rights of other nations”, the article is clearly biased because it seems to support Japan in the conflict by displaying China as an aggressive nation that does not respect the rights of its neighbors. The article goes on to claim that Beijing is considering enforcing controls on fishing and banning energy development in south China seas without its approval.
Evidently, the article does not touch on the issues China has raised, especially in terms of long-term Japanese presence in the Sea and its exploitation of fish and other resources though the sea is not a part of her territory.
Secondly, the article reports that Japan has done everything possible to contain the conflict, including suggesting a negotiation summit with China.
However, the article further reports that the Japanese government, being the rightful owner of Senkaku Islands, has stated clearly that there will be no negotiations over the ownership of the island. It also argues that China, aware of the fact that its claims are false, insists on negotiations.
In this case, the article seems to make the reader perceive Japan as the rightful owner of Senkaku and China as an intruder challenging the rights of her neighbors.
We will write a custom Essay on Effects of Media Reporting on History: The Senkaku Islands Dispute specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the article argues that China is basing its military strategies and conflicts with other nations in the region as a way of protecting its core interests.
The article argues that the Chinese definition of “defending its core interests” could possibly include the use of force in expanding its territory, something the author links to the recent quelling of independent movements in Tibet as well as annexation of Taiwan by Chinese forces.
The author concludes by arguing that Japan must be supported by America in any way, including military aid. This shows that the article assumes that Japan is the rightful owner of the Islands and as such, the international community must provide support.
‘The Guardian’, a British newspaper, carried a story on Monday 21 January that seems to take a more neutral position than the articles by the Japanese, Chinese and Australian newspapers reviewed here. Titled “China rebukes US over ‘ignorant’ comments on island dispute with Japan”, the Guardian reports on Chinese critic of the position taken by the United Sates in regards to the dispute over Senkaku Islands (Branigan and McCurry 18).
The Guardian first reports on the progress in the dispute, citing the recent return of the Chinese military ships to the waters around the islands and the Japanese threat of using warning shots to deter the Chinese military and private planes that had been flying near the islands. The guardian argues that such a step by Japan would possible raise stakes.
In addition, the article reports that a few days earlier, the Chinese military had scrambled a number of fighter jets to “tail” Japanese fighters that were thought to be shadowing a surveillance plane owned by the Chinese military (Branigan and McCurry 18).
In this case, the guardian attempts to show how serious the situation is, possible pointing towards a possible war between the two nations over the islands, which could also involve other allies of Japan such as the USA. Although the article has attempted to take a neutral position, it is evident that it stresses much on “a possible military conflict”.
For instance, it argues that Chinese neighbors are anxious of her increasing power and aggression, while China is anxious of the involvement of the US in trying to contain Chinese powers and influence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Media Reporting on History: The Senkaku Islands Dispute by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the article reports that Chinese government considers the American stand as “ignorant of the facts on the ground and indiscriminate of rights and wrongs” (Branigan and McCurry 18). China claims that America’s involvement in the region is interference.
Throughout the article, there is evidence that the newspaper tries to convince the audience that the conflict is tense and could cause a regional war or better still, a world conflict. For instance, it argues that the tension is great to an extent that a mistake or accidental pulling of ‘single trigger’ could make things go out of control.
In the ‘China Daily’, a Beijing-based daily newspaper, the actions of Japan and the US in the conflict have greatly been criticized.
In an article titled “Ishihara’s dangerous dream”, the newspaper begins by convincing the reader that some Japanese politicians are out to provoke a conflict between their country and China and then involve the US (Zhaokui 7). The article argues that this move is a strategy to ensure that Japan regains her glory as the regional military and political power.
In particular, the article argues that the former Governor of Tokyo, Mr. Shintaro Ishihara, is one of the most significant politicians involved in triggering the conflict between the two nations over the islands.
Throughout the article, the author argues that Ishihara, in his campaigns for Japanese premiership, criticized his opponent for trying to involve China in a negotiation about the sovereignty of Senkaku (Diaoyu) islands because he believed the islands were within the territories of Japan.
The article goes further to argue that China and Japan have strong relationships in trade and regional cooperation, but the remarks and moves by politicians like Ishihara are out to cause a military conflict. In fact, the newspaper blames Japanese politicians such as Ishihara as being the perpetrators of the conflict.
This article appears to divert the public from believing that China is aggressive. For example, the article cites a comment made by Ishihara, where he argues that he would “purchase” the Senkaku from the US and if China attempts to oppose this move, it would be “declaring war” on Japan (Zhaokui 7).
The article further argues that Japanese politicians believed that a war on China was one of America’s top agenda and as such, by provoking China, America would automatically join Japan.
From this article, it is clear that the presentation of news and facts is full of bias because the Chinese newspaper wants the public to believe that the source and progress of the conflict lies within the circles of the Japanese politicians.
In addition, the article attempts to show that China is innocent, while Japanese politicians are not only aggressive, but also seeking any way possible to trigger a military conflict that would involve the US against China.
The ‘Canberra Times’, an Australian newspaper, has taken a critical and analytical approach to the events surrounding the conflict. In general, the article “Troubling signs of the rise of Chinese ultra-nationalists” tends to argue that the main problem is the rise of China as an economic power, which has in turn made the country outdo Japan as the military power in the region and second in the world after the US (Richardson The Canberra times 23).
Just like the ‘Guardian’, the ‘Canberra Times’ has presented the news in an analytical manner that show the possibility of a war between China on one side, and Japan and America on the other. However, this paper attempts to show that Chinese aggressiveness in terms of military technologies and power is the main cause of the conflict.
In addition, the newspaper attempts to show that the conflict over the Senkaku Islands is just one of the examples of areas that China is using as a point of conflict with its neighbors.
This article attempts to convince the reader that the people of China do not approve the stand that China is taking; rather it is the role of the military wing of the Communist Party.
In addition, this Australian newspaper attempts to make the reader believe that Japan, an ally of Australia, is innocent and the rightful owner of the islands, which therefore means that Tokyo has the right to use military intervention and include her allies such as the US.
Conclusion By looking at the four articles in the four different papers, it is evident that the media influence history. Each paper portrays a bias, especially as they seek to make the reader believe in one side of the story. It is evident that the stand taken by the author or the owner of the newspaper develops bias in reporting by favoring one side of the story.
Works Cited Branigan, Tania and Justin McCurry. “China rebukes US over ‘ignorant’ comments on island dispute with Japan.” The Guardian 21 Jan. 2013: 18. Print.
Richardson, Michael. “No winners in a conflict over Senkaku Islands.” The Japan Times 5 Feb. 2013: 14. Print.
“Troubling signs of the rise of Chinese ultra-nationalists.” The Canberra Times 13 Feb. 2013: 23. Print.
Zhaokui, Feng. “Ishihara’s dangerous dream.” China Daily 30 Jan. 2013: 7. Print.
Law Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Procedure the Trial Court Used to Make Judgment The trial court relied upon two procedures. First, there was Chouinard v. New Hampshire Speedway where the defendant owned a racetrack and the plaintiff was supposed to attend a race. She purchased a ticket, which was not immediately available.
Hence, she was to pick it on an appointed date from the racetrack’s booth. After a concerted effort to park her car on the side of the road the booth was located, she could not find a parking spot. She parked on the other side and when crossing the road she was hit by motor vehicle.
The court also relied on the principle that a carrier does not bear responsibility of a passenger once she exits and an innkeeper bears no legal responsibility for a client once she is outside the innkeeper’s premises.
Judgment of the Trial Court The trial court ruled that the owner of the motel bore no legal responsibility to the client. This is because the motel owner had no control over the premises on which the accident occurred. Additionally, the motel owner had no control over the instrument (motor vehicle), which caused the accident.
Hence, the defendant was not liable for the accident that befell the client. The court observed that the client was not within the care of the motel when he was crossing the road.
Reasoning Of the Trial Court The trial court heavily depended upon the foresee-ability concept. Depending on a number of cases (Banks v. Hyatt Corp.), Warrington v. Bird, Gunlock v. Gill Hotels Co. Inc., Mulraney v. Auletto’s Catering), the Trial Court reasoned that the occurrence of the accident could not be anticipated.
It was the responsibility of the clients to ensure that they crossed the road safely to the other side of the motel.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the court reasoned, it was not the responsibility of the motel owner to operate the movement of vehicles on the highway. Hence, the defendant could not be held liable for any accidents on the highway in as much as they involved her clients.
Argument of the Plaintiff on Appeal The plaintiff lodged a complaint with the Trial Court on the basis that the defendant was fully aware of the dangers imminent when crossing the highway on Sundays owing to the fact that many Jewish families were clients of the motel and the motel owner had a religious section on the opposite side of the motel where clients were allowed to attend Sunday Mass.
Since many families would cross the road at once after attending mass, it was incumbent upon the innkeeper to take necessary steps to ensure each client crossed safely. It is also crucial to note that the innkeeper operated the motel on both sides of the road, which added onto the fact that it was her responsibility.
Argument of the Defendant on Appeal On appeal, the defendant held on to the argument she had in the Trial Court. First, she argued that the instrument culpable in the accident was not within her control. Additionally, she argued that the premise on which the accident occurred was not within her control. Second, she argued that she could not foresee the accident.
According to the defendant, the fact that the two factors mentioned above were not within her control added to the fact that she could not foresee the accident. Lastly, the defendant argued that the clients were not within her care once they were outside her premises.
General Rule of Land Ownership Generally, with respect to landowners, as outlined in Ouellette v. Blanchard, judges have not ruled in any case before that in the event an injury is witnessed at a place far from one’s property, an owner cannot be regarded as liable.
This would greatly inhibit and violate negligence law enshrined in classic cases, such as Palsgraf and Ouellette. Hence, all landowners and occupiers of such land should maintain reasonable care in the operations and maintenance of such property.
We will write a custom Essay on Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Issue or Legal Question in this Case The legal question in this case was whether the defendant was liable for the accident that befell the plaintiff’s son. This was considered in light of the question whether the premises and the instrumentality involved in the accident were within the control of the defendant.
Additionally, it was a serious question to determine if the occurrence of the accident was foreseeable from the defendant’s point of view since she operated the motel from either side of the highway and allowed clients to attend Sunday Mass, which would require them to cross the road.
Reasonably Foreseeable Facts One of the facts was the foresee-ability of the occurrence of the accident from the defendant’s angle. Secondly, it was foreseeable that the Sunday Mass triggered many people crossing the road after its completion. It was also clear that the motel owner subjected the clients to the danger of crossing the road knowing quite well it was her responsibility to protect them from harm.
Important Factual Differences The factual differences were the gist of the determination of this case in both the Trial Court and opinion of the Appeals Court. First, the defendant operated the motel from either side of the highway. Second, she allowed her clients to attend Sunday Mass on the other side of the road, which essentially required them to cross.
Third, after the Sunday Mass many clients would cross the road at once sometimes with their families. In the Chouinard v. New Hampshire Speedway case the above facts did not exists. For example, the clients were clearly out of the care of a host once outside the premises.
Action Taken by Court Of Appeals The court of appeal reversed and remanded the trial court’s decision and demanded fresh proceedings consistent with the opinion it offered. The Trial Court ruling, which absolved the defendant from any responsibility, as a matter of law, regarding the accident to the plaintiff, was thereby reversed.
The action was consistent with the facts of the case which were clearly different from the cases relied upon by the Trial Court. It was clear that there was a foreseeable possibility of occurrence of accident because of the crossing of the road on Sundays in droves.
Additionally, the motel was located on either side of the highway. It was an omission by the motel owner not to take necessary precautions to protect her clients from harm.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The plaintiff had a case because the client was crossing the road to access facilities offered by the motel. Hence, the court offered an opinion on which the Trial Court was to rethink its earlier premise.
International Business Machine Essay essay help free
Introduction International Business Machine [IBM] is a public limited company, which operates within the global Information Technology industry. The firm deals with the provision of diverse information technology products and services.
Some of the services that the firm offers include outsourcing, integrated technology and business transformation outsourcing, and consulting services. In an effort to maximise profits, IBM has incorporated the concept of internationalisation.
This move has enabled the firm to venture in different markets. One of the markets that IBM has ventured into is Australia. The firm has managed to attain an optimal market position in Australia despite the intense competition.
However, the lucrative nature of the Australian IT industry is attracting numerous entrants and thus it has become critical for IBM to improve its competitiveness. The objective of this paper is to conduct an internal and external environmental analysis of IBM.
In analysing the firm’s external environment, the paper takes into account two models, which include the PEST and porter’s five forces. On the other hand, the SWOT analysis and value chain model are used to evaluate the internal environment.
Findings of the analysis reveal that IBM is faced by various threats emanating from the external environment despite it internal strengths. Therefore, to develop its competitive advantage in its Australian market, the paper recommends that IBM should consider improving its competitive strategies.
One of the ways through which the firm can achieve this goal is by investing in new market segments and creating increased market awareness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the macro-external environment Pest analysis
In their operation, a wide range of external factors affects businesses. Some of these factors emanate from the political, social, economic, and social environments.
Businesses face a wide range of threats and opportunities emanating from the political environment. However, the degree of threats and opportunities is relatively high for multinational companies such as IBM due to political differences across the different countries of operation (Mouncey 2007).
In the face of the present global economic challenges, governments are increasingly considering improving their political environment in an effort to promote businesses in different economic sectors. The political environment in Australia has been relatively stable.
A report by the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2010 ranked Australia fourth with regard to political stability during the last decade.
The political stability in Australia has significantly improved the country’s rating as an investment destination. Given the political stability in the region, IBM has managed to operate successfully in Australia.
The Australian government has also implemented well-developed Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) such as copyright laws and patents, which aim at protecting business innovations and trade secrets. Therefore, Australia has managed to promote international investment successfully.
In an effort to promote international trade for companies within its borders, the Australian government entered the Australian-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement. This move has significantly ameliorated trade relations between Australia and New Zealand.
We will write a custom Essay on International Business Machine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic environment
The occurrence of the 2008/2009 economic recession adversely affected the global ICT industry. Most consumers changed their consumption patterns by shifting their spending to necessities. Consequently, there was a significant decline in consumption of Information Communication Technology products (Williams 2008).
Findings of a study conducted by a renowned research firm, IDC, reveal that there is a high probability of the Australian economy experiencing another recession.
In the event that Australia slides into another recession, IBM’s revenue might decline given that consumers will definitely cut down their consumption of IT products.
Currently, the social environment is undergoing a significant transformation. One of the most notable transformations hinges on the fact that consumers, organisations, and individuals are increasingly adopting computer technology in their operations and consumptions (Neeraja 2003).
The growth in the Australian population has resulted in an increment in demand for ICT products, such as hardware and software.
A study conducted by Nielsen reveals an increment in demand for devices supporting mobility. Most Australian consumers are currently accessing the Internet through personal computers and mobile phones (Perry
Toyotas E-marketing Strategy Report essay help online free: essay help online free
Toyota and the Australian market Like other major Players in the Australian automotive industry, Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Limited is foreign-owned. It is a subsidiary wholly owned by the Japanese Toyota Motor Corporation.
The firm is headquartered in Alton, Victoria, while the sales and marketing operations are based in Sydney (Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Limited, 2008). In general, the company is a global leader in the automotive manufacture, assembly as well as distribution.
The backbone of the company’s good performance is a very effective management style that it uses. There are numerous other outstanding factors that have contributed to the achievement of the leading position including research and development activities.
Differentiation strategy supported by innovation has enabled the company to produce different varieties of vehicles ranging from trucks to cars exhibiting technological savvy of a high degree.
The market structure Toyota operates in cannot be definitely described. For some, it might appear as a monopoly. The reason is that the firm is a dominant player in both the local market and international market.
Indeed, the differentiation strategy embraced has made it enjoy nearly a monopolistic presence in some developed nations as well as developing nations.
Then again, the market structure might appear as an oligopoly to some people. The reason is that there are other major players like Ford Motors, General Motors and Volkswagen who are peer competitors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Specifically, the Australia market has three major competitors which include GM Holden Limited, Ford Motor Company of Australia Limited and Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Limited (Federal Chamber of Automotive Industry, 2008).
There are also other foreign-owned and local companies, although their significance is low when compared to the three. The fact is that each of these competitors is in the race to increase the market share at both local and international levels. One of the marketing areas they are focusing on is the digital marketing or e-marketing which has proved to be most effective as noted by Kasavana (2001).
Toyota is therefore keen to observe what its competitors are doing and ensuring that it reacts to their activities in a manner that promise its market leadership.
Toyota’s current marketing strategies Madhani (2012) is of the opinion that an effective marketing strategy originates from three elements: segmentation, targeting and positioning. In fact, these three elements define the marketing strategy as either direct or indirect in nature.
Indirect marketing is an effort by all departments starting from R
Policy Planning for a Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality Industry Case Study online essay help
Executive Summary The benefits of tourism can only be sustained if efforts are put in place to manage the environmental aspects that are involved. Several annual sporting events are held in Australia which attract huge numbers of tourists, both from international circles and locally, to witness the events.
Sustainability programmes are required to be implemented in order to take good care of the welfare of these events and their fans in the future. This will also ensure safety and security for the players who participate in the events.
Sustainability measures in this regard include programmes aimed at mitigating on the effects of environmental pollution and degradation, which mainly increase during the event duration.
Fans living within cities where these events are hosted travel to and from event venues using aircrafts, trains, vehicles, and motorcycles, all of which pollute the air through the emission of carbon dioxide. Increased volumes of waste dumping are also witnessed during such events, which is also hazardous to the environment.
Examples of such sporting events with huge interest and following from the world include the Australian Open tennis championships held in Melbourne, and the Australian Grand Prix Formula One championships held at the Albert Park, also in Melbourne.
The respective event organisers should introduce programs which address these effects, like devising alternative transport ways that will have limited effects. Other pollution effects caused by noise and waste material, including waste bottles, also need to be properly managed.
Policy Planning for a Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality Industry Introduction
There have been concerted efforts in the recent past for proper management of the environment which supports mankind’s daily life and activities. Efforts have also been put into place to create public awareness on the significance of understanding and incorporating sustainability measures in order to limit on the effects of environmental degradation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Big international sporting events have particularly been the focus of these efforts as they generate significant amounts of waste, both solid and gaseous, which are potentially harmful to the event goers and the communities living around event venues.
This paper makes reference to two major sporting events which grace the international calendar, and which are both hosted in Australia.
The Australian Open Tennis Championship which is held every year in the month of January at the Melbourne Park in Australia, and the Australian Grand Prix Formula One Championships which are also held in Melbourne at the Albert Park during the month of March1.
Sustainability refers to the adoption of strategies as well as activities which target to fulfill the enterprise’s need effectively, together with that of its stakeholders. The sustainability further protects and enhances natural and human resources needed in the future, to further maintain the resources even into the future.
Part of the sustainability effort in as far as the tennis competition is involved includes managing the environment such that aspects like water, air pollution, and waste management can be catered for effectively.
The Australian Open Tennis Championship
The Australian Open tennis championship is an annual event that is hosted at the Melbourne Park in Australia during the month of January. The event is listed among the four Grand Slam events of the sport, and it brings together hundreds of leading global tennis personalities and tens of thousands of tennis fans from around the world.
We will write a custom Case Study on Policy Planning for a Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As one of the leading Grand Slams event in the whole world, the Australian Open is the second biggest in magnitude after the US Open. Given its global magnitude, the event has a huge impact in terms of financial contribution to the Australian economy, as well as other social and cultural impacts.
There are several environmental effects that result from the Australian Open event. More regions in Australia are continuously experiencing drought situations mainly due to the irregular climate changes and the increasing population size in the country2.
In pursuing to conserve water, efforts should also be harnessed to address the resultant climate change impact that occur as a result of the pumping, treatment of the water, as well as delivery of the water for consumption purposes.
These activities require a considerable amount of energy which in turn also emits greenhouse gas, GHG. To address some of the raised issues, the organisers of the Australian Open Tennis competition need to recognise how critical water is in the initial planning stages of the tournament.
Two big drains of storm water run underneath the Melbourne Park. Underground tanks have been installed to tap into this source to harvest water for use at the premises. Rainwater is harvested for consumption on the site with the possibility of netting in a total of 23 mega litres from the entire rooftop area and space covering the facilities3.
The venue has been fitted with waterless urinals, low flow toilets, and flow showerheads as an effort to conserve water. Temporary sinks in bathroom stalls are supposed to be equipped with push buttons in order to minimise water leakage.
Event sponsors and vendors constructing water features like ponds and fountains in their displays are required to buy recycled water from a local company dealing in recycled water4.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Policy Planning for a Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More All aboveground sprinklers at the park have retrofitted underground irrigation system to reduce consumption of water and evaporation related losses. Plexicushion Prestige System has been used to replace the Rebound Ace surface on all the courts since 2008. This minimises water used to maintain the surface due to its property of retaining less heat5.
The event organisers have teamed up with other partners, Melbourne and Olympic Parks Trust, MOPT, and Delaware North Australia, among others to operate a recycling system for all the waste bottles realised6.
The latest waste recycling practices are being used in order to limit the negative implications of the waste recycling process impacting on the environment.
The event organisers, sponsors and other partners have implemented waste recycling that intends to clean products which are non toxic as well as those that are biodegradable7.
Fans travel in their hundreds of thousands in vehicles, locomotives, and aircrafts to come and witness the event live, creating significant air pollution in the long run. The consequent release of Carbon Dioxide gas into the atmosphere causes global warming, which also ends up affecting climate patterns in general.
The event organisers have partly sought to address these implications by offering free transport for all ticket holders for the entire two weeks. This reduces pollution because fans can leave their individual vehicles and opt for public transport systems which carry large numbers of people.
The traffic grid lock that would result from event goers attempting to reach the venue of the tournament in their vehicles would, in turn, cause considerably large amounts of carbon dioxide emissions. The graph below indicates the overall attendance numbers into tennis events in Australia between 2009 and 2010.
Source: ABS data
Australian Grand Prix
The Australian Grand Prix is an annual event hosted at the Albert Park in Melbourne. The circuit forms part of the World Championship calendar organised by the Federation of International Autosport, FIA, for Formula One.
Source: The Guardian
The Australian Grand Prix contributes a significant volume of carbon emission into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion of the fossil fuels. The event organizers, The Australian Formula 1 ING Grand Prix Corporation, AGCP, have undertaken measures to reduce the amount of carbon emitted during the race.
The AGCP works in collaboration with Cleavenent, an organisation which specialises in waste recycling and environmental packaging, to limit the effects of the carbon emissions. The two bodies plant trees in Victoria for the main purposes of absorbing the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere8.
Water and Waste Management
The Australian Grand Prix event causes immense pollution to water every year the event is hosted in the Albert Park. The event organisers, the AGPC, have also harnessed efforts in order to conserve the water and reduce the resultant negative effects.
Working together with Cleanevent body, the AGPC conserves water through recycling which is then used for track surrounds.
Sorted waste within and around the Albert Park is also collected and later on-processed in order that they may be effectively recycled into raw materials that can be reused.
The noise created during the event is enormous and consequently creates a lot of disruptions to the residents. Hosting of the Grand Prix calls for the erection and dismantling of infrastructure, a move that necessitates regulations and thus are perceived to infringe upon the civil liberties of Melbourne residents
The event is also comparatively expensive to attend for all motor sport fans who would wish to take part. Thus, many local residents in Melbourne feel they have been denied the opportunity to enjoy an event that is hosted in their own backyard. Most residents are in agreement that the funds used to organise and host the event needs to be channelled elsewhere9.
The Albert Park can be fit with noise proof materials within the entire facility so as to limit the effects of noise that created by fans while cheering their teams. Winning the local resident’s faith regarding the event could also be significant in sustaining it into the future.
Ticket sales can be lowered and public awareness created among event goers to enlighten them on the benefits of participating in sustainable management programmes10.
Tourism Victoria has initiated programmes and strategies which aim at preparing and dispatching guidance notes to both event organisers on how to effectively manage and utilise resources.
Additionally, the dispatches to the event organisers also elaborate on efficient ways through which carbon footprints can be measured with a view of putting checks and balances in place. The State Government funding programmes open to the events organisers are also targeted at encouraging more sustainability through sustainability criteria.
Tourism Victoria has also introduced sustainability programmes specially referred to as ‘Carbon Down’ and ‘Grow Me the Money’ which generally seek to incorporate information on tourism practices and activities that focus on sustainability.
The information is availed to the AGPC body through Tourism Victoria’s Tourism Excellence Program to enhance its overall performance and initiative in as far as sustainability is involved.
In 2010, Tourism Victoria initiated yet another initiative on sustainability which sought to incorporate all sustainable tourism practices, including those adopted by the Australian Grand Prix organisers, so as to be featured in a new framework for tourism accreditation.
The new system was specially referred to as the Tourism Accreditation Framework and aimed at evaluating initiatives by event organisers, including AGPC, for purposes of enhancing overall performance and optimising on the benefits11.
Conclusion and Recommendation The major sporting events in the world have their numerous benefits to societies and communities which, in one way or the other, get involved in the events. These benefits come mainly in the form of financial and economic benefits.
However, such events also have their negative impacts which require elaborate sustainability programmes in order to provide hope for the future health and continuity of the events. The Australian Open tennis championship and the Australian Grand Prix are two major examples of such sporting events.
The Australian Open Tennis championship is hosted in Melbourne Park, Australia, each year and attracts huge numbers of interested fans and event goers. The Grand Prix is an international motor race championship hosted at the Albert Park in Melbourne, Australia and equally attracts large numbers of fans and event goers.
Both events are responsible for environmental degradation, including air pollution through excessive combustion of fossil fuels, noise pollution mainly from fans’ cheering, as well as excessive dumping of waste materials.
The event organisers have put in place measures to curb the menace, including conserving water through harnessing and harvesting of rainfall, water recycling, and use of highly-efficient water conservation methods.
These measures may not be effective in some other instances, particularly with the Grand Prix event where the communities feel the noise pollution is too much. There is need for the event organisers to optimise on their sustainability efforts in order to ensure a healthy event in the future for the fans and participants.
The Grand Prix event organisers need to create harmony with the neighbouring societies and community by lowering their ticket values to affordable rates, as well as involve each of the residents in the sustainability efforts and programmes.
Bibliography Australian Bureau of Statistics, A Serve of All Things Tennis Wimbledon, 2011. Web.
Australian Open Tournament Information 2009, Melbourne, Tennis Australia, 2009
Davey, B., Personal communication, Formal interview, Site Operations Manager, Tennis Australia, Melbourne, Australia, 2010
Fredline, L., Deery, M.,
The ontological argument attempts to prove God’s existence Essay argumentative essay help
Thomas Aquinas, also known as Aquino, was a prominent philosopher of 1200s who attempted to argue God’s existence through criticizing other philosophers’- such as Anselm- arguments. In his argument, Aquinas states that the existence of God is a self-evident because God appears to be something known by everything alive.
According to Aquinas (207), “everything in the nature is aware of God’s existence.” He says that whenever people know the meaning of the term “God”, God becomes self-evident. He further argues that if for instance a person does not believe in God, this would not be self-evident. For example, there have been reported cases of children been raised by wild animals such as monkeys or wolves.
Nevertheless, these children are still human with human intelligence but they are not able to know God or even know that he even exists. Even though they have human intelligence or potential for it, they will never know God hence it would not be self-evident.
According to Aquinas (90), a thing can be self-evident in itself and to us. In a nutshell, whenever a whole phrase such as “the universe is round” is known to everyone, the self-evident is to all. However, if either one element or all in the phrase is unknown to all, the self-evident is considered to be in itself as it is absence to those who the phrase element is not clear.
As a result, according to Aquinas (473), “there are some mental concepts that are self-evidence only to the learned, as those incorporeal substances are not in space.” I tend to view this explanation as a fact since the preposition “God exists,” is self-evident in itself since the predicate and the subject are same thing.
God is his own existence. This means that since the real meaning of God is not known to us, the preposition is self-evident in itself, thus calling for demonstration of things that are known to us in a more clear way even if they are less known in their nature.
Anselm, a renowned philosopher, used ontological arguments to explain the existence of God. Anselm believed that nothing greater than God can be conceived and if other things do exist, then God must exist. According to Anselm (88) “it is ridiculous if God does not exist, because there would be a possibility of conceiving of ‘a Being which would be greater than the one who no other greater can be conceived.’ In his argument, at least one empirical premise is used in an attempt to prove God’s existence.”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this empirical premise, it is normally deduced that there could have not been life if certain essential things existing in the universe were to hold a different appearance, no matter how minimal, from what they are. His ontological argument further emphasizes that from the very definition of term “God”, it is possible to prove that he exists.
However, as Aquinas (78) states out, it is important to note that conceptual claims do not bring about existential claims. In order to prove that a certain thing does exist, for instance bacteria, one needs to understand that more than concept reflection is crucial. Instead, more solid facts from empirical research from the field are needed to explain the existence of such a thing.
From his much concern of nature of being, Anselm (365) came up with ontological argument through distinguishing contingent being from necessary being in four philosophical statements. First, he stated that if the Being he was imagining about was the greatest imaginable, it meant that he was not greater.
Secondly, if it was not true in imagining that he was not greater, it was then not true that he was imagining of the Greatest Being imaginable. Thirdly, “Being is greater than not being”, and fourthly, if the being he was imagining does not exist, then it was not true that he was imagining the Greatest Being imaginable. According to Anselm (49), “This meant that if whatever he was thinking was of the Greatest Being Thinkable, it was therefore true that that being exists.”
In trying to emphasis on the existence of God, Anselm (23) explains that even a foolish person will understand when he hears of a being which is greater than anything else that can be conceived. Anselm (8) further explains that “whatever a person understands will be according to his understanding, in which it assuredly understands alone, is not enough to conceive that, than which nothing greater can be conceived.”
This according to Anselm (110), means that, “supposing it exists in understanding alone: then it can be conceived to exist in reality; which is greater and therefore if that, which nothing is greater can be conceived, exists in the understanding alone, the very being, than which nothing greater can be conceived, is one, than which a greater can be conceived.” However, this is not possible. Therefore, Anselm (9) argues that a being greater than anything thinkable do exist not only in understanding but also in reality.
The argument brings out God as the ‘being which is greater than any other imaginable being’ and that He exists in people’s mind in form of an idea. Also, Anselm (63) argues that “if all other things are considered to be equal, it implies that that beings that exist in peoples mind in form of an idea as well as in reality is greater than any being existing only in people’s mind as an idea.”
We will write a custom Essay on The ontological argument attempts to prove God’s existence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This shows that if God was to exist in peoples mind as an idea, there could be another thing greater than God. However, it is a fact that we cannot think of anything that is greater than God, since “it is impossible to think of something greater than the greatest possible being that can be imagined” Anselm (309). Thus, God exists.
According to Anselm (109) “if the existence of a being is necessary, then, ‘that being is greater than one which existence is not necessary’.” This is another way of saying that if God only exist in people’s imaginations without existing in reality, there could be another being perceived, greater than God.
However, because God is the only greater being thinkable existing, he necessary exist in reality. This shows that necessary existence is a property. For example, if “m” necessarily exists, it means that its existence is independent and does not rely on any other being’s existence.
Moreover, if a being is considered to necessarily exist, it means that it exists eternally in the world logically. According to Anselm (127), “such a being is not just, so to speak, indestructible in this world, but indestructible in every logically possible world- and this does seem, at first blush, to be a great-making property.” This is a true nature of God. His indestructibility in this world shows that His existence is eternally.
Aquinas however argues that God’s existence is self evident. Aquinas brings out an argument that God’s existence is self-evidence. Aquinas opposes the idea that claims regarding the God’s concept can be used to deduce His existence. According Aquinas (26), “not everyone who hears this word ‘God’ understands it to signify ‘a being that which nothing greater can be imagined,’ seeing that some have believed God to be a body.”
For this idea to be practical, it requires conviction of people to perceiving God’s definition similarly. Nevertheless, despite the criticism, the ontological argument can be explained without using the term ‘God’, by replacing the term with “A being than which none greater can be conceived.” However, ‘a being than which none greater can be conceived’ will be another form of a statement referring naturally to the name of God.
In addition, according to Aquinas (39), even if it was possible for everybody to hold the same picture of God as ‘a being than which none greater can be imagined,’ “it does not prove that a person understands what the word signifies, rather, this shows that it only exists mentally.”
Aquinas (41) argues that though we can understand the phrase “a being than which none greater can be imagined” we do not have a clue what this series of words really denotes. This view according to Aquinas (74) indicates that, “God is unlikely than any other reality known to us; while we can easily understand concepts of finite things, the concept of an infinitely great being dwarfs finite human understanding.”
Not sure if you can write a paper on The ontological argument attempts to prove God’s existence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More No matter how appropriately we can try to intertwine the phrase “a being than which none greater can be conceived” with a finite concepts that we are aware of, it is clear that an appropriate description of God is nowhere near these finite concepts. This simply means that they do not provide us with clear information of Gods existence.
All in all, the effectiveness of the argument does not require us to have a complete knowledge of the concept of “a natural thing which none greater can be conceived.” This is so because even if we do not know what is meant by this concept, we will still understand the thing in an appropriate way which can enable us to know such a thing does or does not exist.
Therefore according to Aquinas, the success of Anselm’s argument does not rely on how well one understands the concept. Instead, if the concept is logical even mere understanding of it is enough in making the argument successful.
One of the Aquinas’ proofs of God’s existence, which brings out the difference with Anselm approaches, is the aspect of “things that move things.” In his explanation, he argues that each motion has something that causes it to move. He also explains that there is in the very first thing that causes motion to everything including the universe.
He considers this to be God. Through this proof, Aquinas shows that to understand the existence of God, He is to be understood. Unlike Anselm who argues that every person will understand the presence of God through internal understanding of existence of a being which no other imaginable being is greater than, Aquinas’s approach indicates that it is through understanding the meaning of the term ‘God’ that brings out his existence through self-evident.
Nevertheless, it is evidential that Aquinas approach constitutes an improvement over Anselm’s. Despite the argument that understanding God’s existence requires one understanding of the term itself, Aquinas (34) approach revolves around the phrase “God is a being which none greater can be imagined.”
Through understanding God in a self-evident perspective, it requires this knowledge to exist in that persons mind as an idea from what the person knows, an argument initiated by Anselm. Further understanding of God’s existence through evidences such as motion of things, order efficient causes, nature of being and not being in things, gradation in things and world governance, is an integrated way of Anselm’s (96) argument of “a being that exists as an idea in mind as well as in reality.”
This is because these are thing that requires supernatural power to control hence bringing the controller as being the greatest. Furthermore, the argument that ‘the existence of God is self-evidence’ is a fact that brings out Gods great nature as seen by people, a completion of Anselm’s argument of ‘a God greater than any other imaginable thing.’
This is because to understand God is to understand his mighty doings. However, there is evidence of originality in Aquinas argument on the “effect of a person not believing in God” in proving the ‘self-evident’ argument. This is so because if a person is not exposed into an environment which will provide him with the meaning of God, his human intelligence will not give him understanding pertaining God and his existence.
Works Cited Anselm Saint. The major works. London: Oxford University press. 1998. Print
Aquinas Thomas. Theologian of the Christian life. London: Ashgate Publishing 2003. Print
Software testing activities Coursework essay help online free: essay help online free
The consultant will ensure system implementation strategy covering organizational business requirement for a HR system integrated in a single application. A project plan will consist of tasks, resource requirements, project schedule, and the project budget. The implementation plan will cover software testing activities, software installation activities, and training considerations.
System behavior Testing system behavior will answer questions about human resource recruitment indicated on the flow charts. The expected outcome, on entering data about detailed job description and submitting the data for processing with the options of temporary or regular hire, will be to identify suitable candidates.
Applicants whose resumes meet the set criteria are further booked for an interview. After interview questions have been formulated and administered, candidates who qualify for the job are selected and appropriate compensation offered. If the candidate accepts the pay, an employment offer is made upon which the candidate is hired if the offer is accepted (Chillarege, n.d).
Software testing activities Software testing will provide a system validation and verification document detailing system compliance to technical, business, and operational objectives. Tests on data integrity, system recovery in the event of system failure, system up time and backups, and consistent system availability in the HR organization are documented.
Other testing activities will cover application functionalities to provide a clear perspective of product quality. In addition to that, these activities will include reviewing and inspecting the application to provide information about system entry and exit strategies in view of the entered data. Multiplatform compatibility tests and automated tests are done as a cost benefit strategy (Chillarege, n.d).
Another activity will be user oriented testing, covering all business system features, which will reflect organizational usage and software reliability. A test document is created to capture user scenario methods and to determine software quality (Chillarege, n.d).
Another test activity is application usability. This will detail application user experience, product behavior in addition to user interaction on human Computer Interface (HRI) and system robustness. Stress and mutation test are also done.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Software Installation Activities Software installation activities will cover software release activities, application assembly activities, and resource requirements for organizational deployment and use. Executable components of the application will be installed and activated before adapting the application to the HR environment which is then updated to HR organizational requirements. The consultant must integrate version tracking capabilities to ensure continuous system updates without any potential risk to the organization.
To successfully install the software and integrate this to the HR system to support the organization’s objectives, the consultant will identify pre-installation activities, installation activities, and post installation activities.
The consultant will design installation activities consisting of identifying server needs and requirements in the context of the organization’s HR system requirements, verifying the application, verifying disk space and disk partitions, server backup strategies, and ensuring media is clean up is done if an existing system is to be replaced.
A pre-installation plan will cover all server preparation requirements, software agreements, server configuration agreements, and server configuration settings will be saved. Hardware requirements will be documented at this stage.
The installation process
The installation strategy will either be attended or automatic. The installation process will cover the hardware, the operating system, the licensed application, image capturing strategies, and database installation strategies. The document will cover installation strategies of the licensed software, and the loading of the application with user test data (Chillarege, n.d). The test data will be the job description details.
Post installation activities
Post installation activities will cover system customization activities, installation of other service applications and saving server configuration.
The installation plan will document all software installation devices including optical devices for software distribution media, virtual optical devices covering application validation devices, and installation and recovery devices.
We will write a custom Coursework on Software testing activities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The installation plan will detail strategies for creating adequate address spaces, creating resource class to ensure authorization checking mechanisms and structures are consistent with data structures and requirements. These resource classes will be uniquely identified with system commands, client server specifications, and connection privileges on the database server. The Authorization library is also added.
The server will be configured with due regard to the physical environment, secure server cabling, server manipulation strategies, and system configurations through the control panel. The database architecture, database administration, commitment control, performance optimization, database information finder are documented in the process for training purposes and for future use.
Training Considerations Training will be pegged on the training policies of the HR organization. The policies incorporate trainings on security policies which define access privileges for users, making users aware of potential threats from the internet, hacking, sources of malware programs, dangerous Email attachments, Email viruses and SPAM, Hoaxes such as phishing, passwords policies and password authentication and verification mechanisms, and firewalls.
Others include asset control policies, application implementation policies, and system lockdown policies. Security policies will secure balanced and fair access to system resources, minimize potential security risks, and will cover procedures, consequences of failure, and levels where such policies apply.
The policy document will also cover the scope, organizational policy enforcement and auditing. This document will also cover organizational approaches to comprehensive information systems security enforcements.
Training Methodologies An organizational plan detailing training objectives and methodologies will be developed. Effective training methodologies will lead to improved productivity and minimal training time depending on software complexities. End user needs are identified in the process and user skills are identified in the training plan. Training will either be focused step-by-step method for beginners or advanced training for well skilled users (Murdick
Result of the First Nations Contact with Europeans in Canada Essay writing essay help
Introduction The initial contact of Europeans with North America can to a large extent be credited to the 15th century explorer, Christopher Columbus. He discovered the North American continent and reported his findings to the king and Queen of Spain. His depiction of the land as possessing many riches and habouring a timid people no doubt contributed to the enthusiasm with which future voyages to these lands were made.
Over the course of the next four centuries beginning from the 15th century, many European nations were involved in widespread exploration of The North American continent. These expeditions resulted in significant changes in the local traditions as the new arrivals settled and traded with the natives.
This new relationship between the North American natives and the Europeans led to an offsetting of the balance that had once existed among the people with far reaching consequences over the years. Brown and Sides note that this contact which began amicably as a trade relationship ended up with the destruction of the once powerful tribes of the Pequot, Narragansett, Mohicans and many other Native Northern American Tribes (1).
Monumental changes occurred to the lives of the First nations of Canada as a result of their contact with Europeans. This paper shall set out to give a detailed description of the significant changes that arose as a result of this contact. This paper shall also investigate the means by which the traditions and cultures of the First Nations managed to survive despite the assault on them by the Europeans.
The significance of a lack of writing traditions by the First Nations to the preservation of their history shall also be explored. It is hoped that this discussions shall lead to a greater understanding of the First Nations people and especially the significance of their encounter with the Europeans.
First Nations Encounter with Europeans The Ojibway Historic Organization notes that the Ojibway and Lakota people are a part of a large linguistically related group of Native Americans and First Nation people who are collectively referred to as the “Algonquin” which loosely translates to “Family” (Ojibway Organization).
These natives occupied the parts of Canada extending from Saskatchewan to Southern Ontario. The land was viewed by the First Nations as a gift form the Great Spirit and as such, the land belonged to every member of the tribe. The native inhabitants of the Northern American land came to be called “Indians” mostly as a result of the misclassification by the Spanish explorer, Christopher Columbus on his discovery of the New World.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first Europeans to venture into the land of the Ojibway were the French explorers and missionaries. Schell documents that the French explorers and missionaries were the only Europeans acquainted with the wild regions of North America as many considered the land too wild and dreary at all seasons to be made a permanent home by the civilized men (162).
This explorers and missionaries sent home reports of the huge great lone land that they had encountered. Due emphasis was placed on the abundance of a great variety of fur-bearing animals such as the bear, wolf and lynx. The great rivers and lakes which formed a natural highway into the more remote parts of the continent also made it easy for the early explorers, missionaries and traders alike to venture deeper into the American Indians native land (Schell 163).
Result of First Nations Contact with Europeans Increased trade was one of the major outcomes of the interaction between the First Nation and the Europeans. The native tribes of the far north were a peaceful people and they were friendly towards the white traders with home they cane into contact with. The commercial relationship that was proposed was accepted wholeheartedly since it was perceived to be advantageous to the First Nation.
The primary good that was desired by the Europeans was fur and to this end, fur companies were established by the Europeans which operated throughout the vast territory of North America. Schell records that the Hudson’s Bay Company based in London and the North West Fur Company of Montreal were the first European agencies established to exploit the trading opportunities afforded by the American continent.
The new trade relationship between the Europeans and the First Nation people led to a reliance on foreign commodities by the Natives. More time was therefore dedicated to the securing of fur and its subsequent preparation for the new trade. This led to an erosion of other activities such as pottery making, basket weaving and embroidery practices which had been an inherent part of life of the Ojibway and Lakota people (Ojebwe Organization)
Inevitably, as the trade advanced, there arose a greater demand for the fur products by the Native tribes. On the other hand, the European traders who were made up of mostly French, Dutch and British nationals wished to have a greater share of the products from the Natives.
The Europeans formed great companies to further their trade interests and ventured deeper into the Ojibway and Lakota people’s land as their sought trade commodities. The developing trade rivalries among the Europeans led to European groups allying themselves with different Indian groups so as to safeguard their business interests.
We will write a custom Essay on Result of the First Nations Contact with Europeans in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Europeans pressured their business “allies” to venture into new hunting territories so as to provide a steady supply of fur. This led to war among tribes as they competed for the dwindling fur-bearing animals. The European allies not only encouraged these wars but they also equipped their native friends with weapons to given them an advantage in the confrontations.
As has been stated in this paper, among the early European visitors were missionaries. As was the norm, the primary objective of the missionaries was to spread the white man’s religion, Christianity, to the heathen natives. In the pre-contact years, the Indians did not practice any one major religion as a people.
However, this did not mean that the people were godless as they believed in a creator and had their creation stories. Owing to the perception of the Native Indians as heathens, the Europeans set out to convert them into their Christian faith. This was to be followed by an initiation into the ways of the Europeans which was considered to be civilized as opposed to the barbaric ways of the Natives.
Missionaries engaged in the preaching of the gospel which resulted in the conversion of a significant number of the Native Americans (Schell 118). While conversion into Christianity did give the Natives some measure of dignity in the face of the Europeans, it did not lead to their being treated as equals as they were still exploited and their land taken over.
From the very onset of the contact with the Europeans, the Natives of America were abducted and taken off to the lands of the Europeans as “specimen”. Columbus in his famous expeditions is said to have “kidnapped ten of his friendly Taino hosts and carried them off to Spain” (Brown and Sides 1). Here, it was hoped that the natives would be taught of the white man’s ways and especially his religion since they were observed to be a heathen tribe.
While the initial contact with Europeans was a peaceful process, it gradually degenerated to untold violence as the Europeans demanded more from the First Nations. Of all the European nations that made contact with the First Nation, the Spaniards left an especially murderous legacy. The Spanish in their quest for gold and gems undertook indiscriminate raiding and plundering of the native’s villages. This led to the natives putting up fights for survival against the White man.
Most of this fights turned out fatal for the First Nation as their weaponry was outmatched by the European guns. Brown and Sides suggest that the slow speed of communication between the Native tribes in North America was partly responsible for the ill effects of the encounter with Europeans since news of the barbarities of the Europeans did not reach other tribes from their neighbors’ in time (2).
As a result of this lack of communication, thousands of villages were destroyed and villagers exterminated. Their sites of worship were plundered and burnt and the people enslaved. To give a feeling of the effect that the confrontation in battle between the Europeans and the Native Americans, Brown and Sides cite Tecumseh who laments:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Result of the First Nations Contact with Europeans in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Where today are the Pequot? Where are the Narragansett, the Mohican, the Pokanoket, and many other once powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the avarice and the oppression of the White Man, as snow before a summer sun. (1)
Slavery was one of the darkest realities of the European contact. While slavery was operational among the Native Indians in the pre-contact years, it became rampant after the arrival of Europeans. In the pre-contact era, Slaves were mostly made up of captives taken in attacks upon enemies whereby the captives were brought to the home villages and used as laborers.
The Indian slave trade increased enormously with the European presence as Europeans undertook slave hunting expeditions or encouraged the Indians to raid their enemy tribes for captives. These captives would then be exchanged for goods such as whiskey, guns and clothes (Rodriguez 37).
An increase in slavery had the effect of not only lowering the population of the Natives but also bringing about mistrust and fighting amongst natives, most of whom had coexisted peacefully before the contact with Europeans. This is because most tribes set out to arm themselves and later on conduct raids on their neighbors so as to sell them off to the Europeans.
Despite the contact with Europeans leading to the raising of the standards of living for the North American natives in the initial years, this contact also led to large number of deaths due to diseases.
These diseases were brought by the Europeans who surprisingly enough did not seem to succumb to the diseases as easily as the Natives did. As such, European infectious diseases such as measles, mumps and smallpox continued to take their toll on the Native Americans leading to large number of deaths (Francis 218). Thornton notes that:
In any event, Native Americans lacked prior exposure to disease from Europe and Africa such as smallpox and measles which typically confer lifelong immunity on anyone who recovers from them. (21)
It is theorized that these diseases were some of the factors that led to the relatively easy invasion of the First Nations by the Europeans since the disease led to a significant reduction of the Native population as well as the weakening of the spirit of the Natives leading to a resignation to their fate in the hands of the Europeans.
Another feature that came about as a result of contact with the European is that the Aboriginal people of North America were deprived off their land. Oommen notes that the earliest settlers of the Northern America were gradually displaced from most of their ancestral territory and bundled off to reserves (95).
The First Nations resented this and put up spirited fights to try and defend their land. However, their efforts did not succeed since the Europeans were better armed. In the end, the Natives were striped off citizenry to their land and it was not until the early 20th century, approximately 500 years after contact, that the Aboriginals were granted citizenship in Canada and the USA.
Survival of the First Nations Traditions and Culture In the pre-contact years, the First Nation people lived in relative isolation from one another over the great stretch of the land. Numerous bands undertook independent hunting expeditions and fishing trips since the land was peaceful. However, as a result of contact with the Europeans, large groups of Indian people grouped together and formed unions so as so strengthen their positions.
In 1579, the Ojibway and Dokata people made an alliance so as to strengthen their position against the other Eastern tribes which were becoming powerful as a result of the guns and knives obtained from their trade with the Europeans. This change in the communal structure aided the survival of the First Nation and therefore the survival of their traditions and cultures which they continued to practice through the years.
Another factor that has contributed to the preservation of the culture of the Ojibway and Lakota is the spirit of oneness that is engendered by the Aboriginal people. This view is best articulated by Thornton who suggests that “kinship might even be the essence of individual identity for Native Americans” (134).
This kinship which places great emphasis on family and community is the bound that has held the Native Americans together through the years of turmoil in the hands of the Europeans. The First Nation tribes were kin to preserve their traditional ways of life even as the Europeans sought to convert them into their alleged civilized ways of life.
The role that oral history and tradition has played in the preservation of the traditions and culture of the First Nations cannot be overstated. Since the First nation lacked the means to record their history, it is plausible that their culture and tradition would have been completely lost as they were uprooted from their Native homelands by the Europeans and forced to abandon their ways for the ways of the white man.
However, despite these occurrences, the Natives continued to pass on the stories of their traditions to their children through generations. Crowshoe and Eagle who are modern day Native Americans confirm the power of oral tradition in preserving their culture by stating that “as we listen to our stories, speak our language, sing our songs, and participate in our traditional societies, we gain insight and extract the understanding we need to live well and keep our ways alive”. (Four Directions Teachings)
Effects of Lack of Written Traditions by the First Nations The First Nations who form the Aboriginal groups within North America did not have a symbolic system of writing up until recent centuries. This implies that they had no method of documenting and preserving their own cultural history. The history of the Ojibway and Lakota was contained in their oral and traditional history.
Oral history is made up of stories of significant events such as migration, wars and epidemics while oral tradition represents folklore that makes reference to legends, myths and stories held sacred by a people. Wilson notes that the Ojibway and Lakota history was contained both in the oral history and oral tradition (27). She further expounds that there was a clear understanding among the people of what passes for folklore and what was considered a historic truth.
As a result of the lack of symbolic writing system by the First Nations, most of what is learned today about this people has been written by anthropologists. The lack of a written history by the First Nations has affected the level of knowledge that exists today. This is because most of the accounts given about the First Nations were from outsiders who did not understand the culture of the people and normally took events out of context or viewed them with bias.
For example, there exist scattered references in historical records on the role of women in the Ojibway economy. Nichols notes that due to the frequency with which women engaged in hard and heavy work, some observes began to fashion an image of the Ojibway woman as a burden bearer and in essence a slave to men who were engaged in hunting, chiefhood and other flamboyant roles (30).
While the assertions about the economic role of the women of the First Nations was right, the historical recording greatly distorts the status of women in the traditional culture. This was because the writer’s ideal of women stemmed from the privileged classes of Europe who were frail dependent people in need of male protection.
Comparison between the content of this course and the Elder’s teachings The Four Direction Teachings is a website that is dedicated to the celebration of “indigenous oral traditions by honoring the process of listening with intent as each elder shares a teaching from their perspective” (Four Directions Teachings). This website places great emphasis on the oral traditions of the Aboriginals and tries to emulate the manner in which information was passed by the First nation.
This course on Native-American Studies on the other hand places a greater emphasis on the work of anthropologists and historians who have documented the history of the Aboriginal people through the centuries. Owing to the differing bias between the teachings at the fourdirectionsteachings.com website and this course, there are similarities as well as differences from the content of the two.
The Four Directions Teachings demonstrated that the Ojibway and Lakota people had an instructional approach for teaching their children through storytelling which encompassed methods of observation and direct involvement (Wilson 27).
This is evident from the manner in which the narrator personalizes the story by using terms like “I’ve been told ever since I was a young girl by my parents…” (Four Directions Teachings).The stories would therefore be expected to have differing versions depending on the teller. This is in contrast to the contents of this course which have been written in an objective manner. There is no personalization of events as each is told in a clearly objective manner.
Another significant difference arises from the reasons that the teachings were given by the Aboriginal people. From the content of the stories, it is clear that a major role of the narratives was to enable people to attain and retain a good moral value that would then be passed on to subsequent generations.
This is contrary to the contents of this course which are not aimed at propagating any moral teachings. Contrary to this, the contents of this course are aimed at providing a historically accurate depiction of the First Nations and their way of life. As such, the content of this course are devoid of any moral overtones that are the major characteristic of the stories that are present in the teachings of the elder’s website.
For all their differences, there exist similarities between the elder’s teachings and this course’s contents. The fact that the Native Indians were a peaceful people who believed in the equality of all people and the spirit of brotherhood is a concept that is shared by both the content of this course and the Four Directions Teachings.
This is contrasted with the European’s philosophy which emphasized the dominion of the white man over the world. As such, both sources record how the Indians welcomed the Europeans with hospitality as they would their own brothers.
Conclusion This paper set out to give a detailed account of what resulted from the First Nations of Canada’s contact with the European. The paper began by giving a brief overview of the First nation tribes so as to shed light to their ways of life in the pre-contact years. From the discussions presented herein, it is clear that the immediate result of contact between the Europeans and the First Nations was increased trade activities which resulted in abandoning of the First Nations previous ways of lives.
However, it has been demonstrated that the results of this contact were mostly negative to the First Nations who not only lost their land but were also sold into slavery and exposed to diseases which led to the rapid decrease in their population. As a result of lack of a writing tradition by the Natives, the paper has highlighted how the history of their traditions has at times been misrepresented as a result of ignorance by the European historians.
Despite the great atrocities that the Native Indians were subjected to, this paper has discussed the means by which the First Nations people were able to preserve their culture and tradition to the present times. Today, these traditions and cultural ways remain unknown to most of the descendants of the great Native tribes of North America.
However, their preservation has meant that the history of this people will never disappear as it would have if the Natives had failed to ensure its survival in the earlier years. While it cannot be disputed that most of the contact with the Europeans led to great wrongs against the First Nation, it was this interaction that led to the formation of the formation of the great North American nations of Canada and the USA.
Works Cited Brown Dee and Sides Hampton. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: The Illustrated Edition: An Indian History of the American West. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2009.
Four Directions Teachings. Aboriginal Online Teaching and Resource Center. 2006. Web. http://fourdirectionsteachings.com/transcripts.html
Francis, R. et al. Journeys: A History of Canada. Cengage Learning, 2009.
Nicholas, Rogers. The American Indian: past and present. VNR AG, 1986.
Ojebwe Organization. More Ojibwe History. 2010. Web. http://www.ojibwe.org/home/pdf/More_Ojibwe_History_Summary.pdf
Oommen, T. Citizenship, Nationality, and Ethnicity: Reconciling Competing Identities. Wiley-Blackwell, 1997.
Schell, J. In the Ojibway Country: A Story of Early Missions on the Minnesota Frontier. Read Books, 2008.
Thornton, Russell. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1998.
Wilson, W. Remember This! Dakota Decolonization and the Eli Taylor Narratives. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2005.
Democracy strategy for the Middle East countries Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
As much as there is no universally accepted definition of democracy, this system of government should have at least four elements if it is to be embraced in the Middle East.1 First, this political form of government should provide the citizens with an opportunity to choose their leaders through free and fair elections; therefore, the people are considered as the highest form of political authority. Second, democracy guarantees the active participation of the citizens in the affairs of the country.
Third, in a democratic regime, the people have certain basic rights that the government cannot infringe upon. Lastly, the political system upholds the rule of law, which protects the rights of the citizens. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S., calls for reform in Middle East reverberated across the globe. The Arab Human Development Report issued in July 2002 chronicled the long-standing political, economic, and social ills of the Arab world. Therefore, for Middle East to be recognized as democratic, it must follow these four tenets.
Ensuring that the Middle East region is democratic has been a major objective of most renowned world leaders. In fact, the U.S-led 2003 invasion of Iraq was intended to make the country a model for democracy in the region. The state of Israel has been recognized as the only free electoral democracy on the region.
Whether democracy can be achieved in the Middle East or not is a hot topic since different theories exist on the subject. Some argue that it is impossible, while others argue that is a necessity, especially in this century.
A number of theories have postulated that there is a problem with promoting democracy in the Middle East. “Today, the Middle East lacks the conditions, such as a democratic political history, high standards of living, and high literacy rates, which stimulated democratic change in, for example, central Europe and East Asia.”2
Paradoxically, authoritarian leaders, who embrace liberalism even more than the people they lead, govern many nations in the region. The most fundamental principle of human existence is that no one likes to be regarded as inferior; therefore, when the Arabs are infringed upon by foreign ideologies it will inevitably lead to the rise of Islamic-controlled regimes hostile to the U.S.
As much as it is true that the number of democratic countries is increasing, the belief that the U.S. can accelerate this process is ill advised. This is because it is the same fatal conceit that led to the demise of the Soviet empire. Therefore, foreign governments cannot dictate noble ends for other countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the 1990s, the U.S. spent a lot of money in promoting democracy in Middle East, which did not bear much fruit. The U.S. failed to recognize that the success of freedom depends on the readiness of the free people to sacrifice; therefore, the people of the region, not the American people, must make these sacrifices. Today, the events in Iraq have proved that forcing democratic programs in the region is a futile exercise.
To promote democracy in the Middle East, the Free World should lead by principled example. Attempts to impose the principles by military conquest, as history has shown, are fruitless. Since democracy upholds equality and freedom, use of forces only risks undermining these principles from within.
The U.S. and its affiliates should not try to erode their own foundations for democracy even as they attempt to impose it on other nations overseas. It is important to note that the ingredients for successful democratic regimes are derived from the domestic political kitchens; therefore, the states in the Middle East should be allowed to prepare this dish for themselves without undue outside interference.
The attempt to promote democracy in Middle East is not compatible with Islamic culture and values. This is because there is no clear-cut distinction between religion and the state, which makes democratic principles unattainable in the Arab world.3 There is a clash between democratic principles of the western world with those of the Arab world, which can be authenticated by the historical differences between the Western culture and the Middle Eastern culture.
In essence, the Arab world flourished in times when the western world was still in the ‘dark ages.’ This made the Arabs to have prejudice against the ‘backward’ westerners. Therefore, when the west was developing through Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment, the Arabs never let go of their attitude of superiority.
This same attitude is why religion has held the region back. Therefore, their belief in superiority is incompatible with the democratic principles of the western world. That is why promoting democracy in the region may be a futile attempt.
On the other hand, some say that forging democratic principles in the Middle East is a necessity that the world must seek to address. Several theories exist that support the promotion of democratic reform in the region in this decade. It is of essence to note, “Both the United States and Europe have identified the absence of political and economic freedoms in the Middle East as a primary source of instability and a threat to international security.” 4
We will write a custom Research Paper on Democracy strategy for the Middle East countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though supporting democratic principles in the Middle East involves certain inherent risks, the denial of freedom to the Arab people would increase the number of problems in the long run. If the Middle Easterners can have the opportunity to put across their complaints freely and peacefully, they will be less prone to turn to violent ways of addressing their problems.
In such a situation, they will uphold democratic principles in their political system. Consequently, more open and prosperous societies will come up. Moreover, both the government and the people will respect human rights as well as the rule of law.
The long-term advantages of enacting democratic principles in the Arab world prevail over the potential difficulties that can be encountered in the short term. There are at least four benefits of Arab democracy. To begin with, regardless of the fact that some extremist organizations will still be present, principles of moderation and tolerance will give people the opportunity of amicably solving their grievances.
This will be possible due to the more open political environment present. Second, “political, economic, and social reform will likely, over time, reduce the reservoir of recruits to extremist organizations such as al-Qaeda and others that target the United States and the Americans”.5
Moreover, some arguments have supported the “democratic peace theory.” The position of this theory is that it is impossible for democracies to engage in conflicts with each other. Therefore, peace, in the long run, can be achieved in the region. Finally, encouraging political change, economic restructuring, and social reform in the Middle East will increase the region’s interactions with the rest of the world.
For years, the Islamic extremists have enjoyed support in societies that are typified by brutal, autocratic leadership. They have held the belief that they can thrive best in societies where teenagers have no hope for a better future. To fail to enact democratic principles in the Middle East, by whatever means, is perpetuating the status quo that has existed for decades.
Currently, in the Middle East, many Arab civil societies have sprung up to challenge their oppressive regimes. The majority of the population in the Arab world is dejected with their ruling autocrats. Instead of delivering their promises, they have given the people dust and tyranny.
Therefore, there is nothing unique or intrinsic about the Islamic faith that prevents the region from embracing democratic ideals. Like their counterparts in other parts of the world, the Middle Easterners are still struggling for freedom. However, with the support of the West, especially the U.S., great success can be accomplished in the region.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Democracy strategy for the Middle East countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Having looked at both sides of the debate, I will proceed by arguing that implementing democracy in the Middle East is easier said than done.
The proponents of democracy in the Middle East suggest that it will be a milestone improvement in the War on Terror. However, it has been proved that democracy cannot end terrorism. Sageman, who worked as a CIA official, argue that the sections of the societies that do not have authoritarianism are the ones that are likely to promote the growth of terrorist organizations.6
For example, al-Qaeda, the terror group that threatens the U.S., is composed of learned men who have lived in societies, which have advanced social, economic, cultural, and political systems. Someone like Mohammed Khan, the architect of the July 7, 2005 London bombings, did not have the opportunity to grow in an authoritarian backwater, but in the center of the democratic England.
Even if the countries in the region embraced democratic ideals, the new Islamic governments produced would not work together with the international community. Apart from assisting the international community in fighting against terrorism, they would be less likely to cooperate on some essential policy objectives.
These include, but not limited to, pressing forward the Arab-Israeli peace process, addressing the security issues in the Persian Gulf, and making sure that the supply of oil is not distracted. There is no one who knows the course that a new democracy will take if it is embraced in the region. Trying to impose it in the region is gambling with history.
Based on public opinion and the history of recent elections in countries like Egypt, Iraq, and Palestine, the advent of freedom in the region can bring more problems than earlier anticipated. Free elections in the region would not lead to a democratic and a peace loving regimes in the Western sense. However, it would inevitably bring supporters of radical Islamism to power. This situation was evident in the Palestinian National Authority and previously in Algeria.
Democracy has several aspects, but it must uphold self-rule. Democratic principles should be a reflection of the will of the people in one way or the other. For example, it is not appropriate to say that in the U.S., democracy entails exercising the will of the U.S. citizens, and in Saudi Arabia or Syria, democracy must also entail exercising the will of the U.S. citizens.
That is not how thinks work! What if the will of the citizens of a certain nation in the Middle East want to have a political system and laws that the Free world consider to be very “undemocratic?” In the U.S., the laws of the country prohibit polygamy. Practicing polyandry or polygamy cannot be considered inherently undemocratic, but that is how the U.S. instituted its regulations.
In the U.S., government regulations prohibit the financial support of stem cell research because of some religious considerations. In Iran, for example, funding of such a research is lawful because a different religion is practiced there. In this situation, what can be considered more “democratic?” Which country is more “liberal?”
On September 5, 2005, for the first time in the history of Egypt, a democratic election was done. The reelection of President Hosni Mubarak was thought to be the success of the Bush administration because of its persistent promotion of democracy in the Arab world. It was thought that the country had ended almost fifty years of authoritarian regime. However, a thorough check on the country’s system reveals that its democratic principles are ailing.
Political movements in the country seem to be wearing out. The Mubarak’s government is still determined to stay in power. Most of the Egyptians hold the belief that democracy is a luxury that is not still applicable to their situation. One Egyptian was reported saying, “The last thing people here are talking about is democracy… Maybe the rich and educated care about it, but around here we don’t.” 7
The Egyptian government pretends to be supporting democratic principles, but it oppresses its people. Police brutality, lack of media freedom, and outlawing of street demonstrations are some of the evils practiced by the authoritarian regime. More so, the dictatorial government manipulates the country’s judicial system instead of allowing it to be independent. Corruption incidences are rampant in the country.
The Muslim Brotherhood, the country’s only opposition group, has not been spared either by the Mubarak regime. Many of its members and supporters have been arrested and their assets have been frozen simply because of their active participation in public life. Is this democracy, or it is still “democracy” in the Egyptian language? The Freedom House gives an evaluation of the levels of democracy in various countries after every year based on political rights, civil liberties, and the status of the government.
Based on Freedom House analysis, despite having a parliament, a president, and regularly held elections, Egypt is still categorized as “Not Free” in terms of democracy.
To this end, it is clear that liberal democracy cannot still be implemented in the Middle East states. Most people in the Arab world still view this political system as a form of Western political hegemony and domination, which serves the purpose of intervening in the Arab/Muslim internal affairs in order to divide and conquer.
As depicted by the current situation in Egypt, Middle East is not prepared enough to embrace the basic tenets of modernism and democracy. In the Islamic world, leadership is still the privilege of the ruling elite and it is patrimonial, coercive, and dictatorial. The basic elements in a democracy have not been able to do up until now, or they will be achieved slowly. Let us wait and see.
Bibliography Basham, Patrick and Preble Christopher. “The trouble with Democracy in the Middle East.” CATO Institute, November 30, 2003. Web.
Held, David. Models of democracy. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2006.
Korbel, Madeleine Albright, Weber Vin and Cook Steven A. In support of Arab democracy: report of an independent task force, New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2005.
Lewis, Bernard. What Went Wrong?: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East. London: Weidenfeld
Cultural diversity in the organisation Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
In a business world, there has been always a competition between different organisations and this is the reason why companies always formulate strategies so that they can eliminate their opponents out of the business (Kamp, 2004, p.15). Over the years, companies have relied on competitive advantage to ensure that they have long-term survival and making of profit.
The resources available, market strategy and its size are the major factors that determine competitive advantage in the organisation. One of the major sources of v competitive advantage has been incorporation of cultural diversity at the work force of companies. The cultural diversity has brought about to the companies innovation, creation of new ideas and input.
The classification of cultural diversities is based on race, religions, gender, morals, practices, and taboos of different kinds of people. Here we are establishing the impact of cultural diversity to competitive advantage and also e-ethical leadership and its practice.
Cultural diversity has played a major role at the realisation of competitive advantage. It is has evidenced in all the companies that have diversified their production in terms of cultures have been able to get a greater share of market globally (McCarthy, 2009, p.1),. Combination of different cultures will yield better results due to the incorporation of new and better ideas thus efficiency in organisations operation.
Some companies that have extended their operation from home to other nations have shown a tremendous growth. This has been because of people’s favourable structural organisation and beliefs. For instance in countries where communist culture is practised the labour is likely to be cheaper in comparison with capitalist societies. Therefore, culture diversity will enable the company to expand rapidly.
Companies through the management have effectively been making the use of cultural diversities and similarities in their success. Culture diversity in practice can be realised through harmonising different cultures through the creation of a corporate culture that all employees of that organisation will use.
For instance, a company can design a mode of dressing that is appreciative by all religions and all the generations. This corporate culture will shift thoughts of individuals form ethnic point of view to organisations point of view in all the matters that concerns that company. Company cultures should address their belief via mission and the vision statements. These statements will give clear stand of those companies’ in terms their business. Also through training different people will know how to embrace each other’s culture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There have been many difficulties involved in management of cultural diversity in companies. These difficulties are due to the differences in beliefs and the practices of employees in organisations that tend to cause conflict between them. For instance, in a situation where there are two groups of people who profess different religions where one cannot consume certain food while the other does, introduction of such food will affect the group that does not consume it.
Another difficulty in management of cultural diversity is adaptation period whereby a movement from one nation to another creates confusion to both individuals and organisation as a whole. The confusion based on the cultural diversity makes organisations take much longer time to get used to the new environment (Palumbo, 2000, p.2).
These difficulties have a bad impact on the performance of the company. Due to the companies, expansion of their operations at the global level cross-cultural management has played a major role in the companies’ success. Leadership in cross-cultural context has proved to be difficult due to the different views and practises of the people involved (Douglas, 2001, p.23).
E-ethical leadership has played a bigger role in managing different cultures. Using electronic Medias has passed massages to different individuals for instance; websites have been able to give out a wide range of information that suits different kinds of people depending on the taste of each individual.
On the other side leaders at the organisations should also embrace concepts of e-ethical leadership at their place of work and ensure that those concepts favour both the organisations and employees at large. These concepts may include first, e-ethical leaders working towards the success of the institution while personal gains and ego being only a minor factor to them. Secondly, another concept of e ethical leadership is the creation of the environment where all matters concerning the welfare of stakeholders are taken care by the management.
The concepts of e-ethical management are only successful if only applied efficiently. In the case of cross-cultural management, putting every ones interests into the table is not a simple task as already proven.
Therefore, it is advisable to device a way on how to average the interests of people in an organisation for instance anything that brings conflict have to be avoided at the corporate culture while anything that widely accepted should be embraced. Once the organisation has put on its concepts, it must put up mechanisms of guiding the values so that they will not be obsolete. Therefore, there is a need of applying concepts efficiently
We will write a custom Assessment on Cultural diversity in the organisation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is quite clear that cultural diversity has played an important role in the organisations competitive advantage therefore ignorance will cause a disaster. Besides e-ethical leadership has also been a key success to the management of cultural diversities thus its consideration is very important.
Bibliography Douglas, M. (2001). Multicultural Management. U.K. McMillan Publishers. Kamp, A. (2004). Diversity Management in a Danish Context. Journal of Management.
McCarthy, S. (2009). Managing cultural issues in HR strategy. Web.
Palumbo, F. (2000). The Multicultural context of brand loyalty. Web.
Supplier Network impacts on Supply Chain Report college essay help online
Table of Contents Capacity planning
The supplier network impacts on the value of products, their availability, and when best to push them in the market (Lambert, 2008). One is thus able to identify suppliers with whom they can develop long-term relationships. These associations enable organizations to formulate further product innovations which will lead to achievement of objectives.
The chain is comprised of a series of activities, entities, cultures, clients and objectives which depend on the most basic interactions (Samson and Simpson, 2008). These relationships significantly rely on the objectives of the two parties at that time. Price is the main negotiating point among the purchaser and the retailer. The size of the business against the supplier provides a substantial influence on their price interactions (Hines, 2004).
Examples of best practices in supply chain efficiency areas include:
Supplier searches and progress reporting. It is necessary to identify alternative suppliers by utilizing the institution’s accessible set of connections along with trade catalogues.
Supplier-customer relationships. Maintaining relationships with a small number of preferred suppliers over long contracts provide valuable advantages. It saves time in supplier searches and guarantees a stable price for products.
IT tools. Having a central database enables easy access of information.
Capacity planning Capacity planning is a premeditated trade decision which involves determining the amount of capability that is required for future production. Changes happening in the market require rapid and effective response. This reaction depends on how deep the organization understands its supply chain and the available technology.
It is indispensable to recognize and understand the limits of capacity. For example, an organization may have only one department producing one product. In instances where more of the product is needed than the branch can produce, the organization can either increase the size of the department, or try to reduce the demand for capacity.
An organization with more products demands a more vigorous capacity planning process. It is required to offload work to alternative departments or put in more working hours. (Stahl
Public relations and sales promotion Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Sales promotion is a type of product marketing strategy aimed at boosting sales through attracting traffic, introducing a new product and influencing the purchase of a product. Public relations serve to enhance the image of the company to the public i.e., the community.
The objective of this assignment is to investigate how different industries incorporate public relations and sales promotion into their activities (Tench
Compensation System of State Farm Insurance Research Paper best essay help
Every business organization has its own philosophy, which drives it towards big success. The same is true for insurance companies that offer different types of insurance covers. Usually, the founders of any organization architect the philosophy under which it will operate.
The inception of State Farm Insurance Company dates back to 1922 when one farmer, George Mercherle opted to work as an insurance agent because his health conditions could not allow him to continue farming. He turned out to be one of the best sales representatives for an insurance company he was working with.
However, at one point, Mercherle was not happy with the company’s insurance policy to farmers. According to him, the company oppresses farmers through low insurance rates and poor business practices. Farmers paid high premiums despite the fact that they incurred less compensation incidents and drove less kilometers that those staying in urban areas.
Over time, Mercherle recommended new policies that detailed new modalities of selling insurance to farmers and city folks. Nonetheless, the employers turned down the offer and instead, told him to go and start his own insurance company. Driven by desire to offer better insurance, Mercherle and other people with same views started State Farm Insurance Company.
The policyholders became the owners of this automobile insurance company and in 1928, the company started to decentralize starting from an area office in Berkeley, California. By the year 2000, State Farm had grown into a great insurance empire with over 27 regional offices and 1000 service centers all over United States and Canada. (Rhonda, 2010, p.1).
The philosophy of State Farm Insurance lies in offering insurance coverage at an affordable price in tandem with flaxen claim resolution. This philosophy has been the driving gear of State Farm Insurance Company and today, with 76,500 workers and over 16,000 insuring agents, the company posses with 67 million policies and an asset base of US$ 25 billion-making it the biggest fiscal institution in United States.
The current philosophy of “Good Neighbor” is a reckoning force behind State Farm success. This philosophy has remained vital in establishing different insurance covers at affordable price to consumers. For example, under home insurance cover, State Farm insurers all types of houses ranging from single homes to condominium leasing houses. Perhaps what State Farm ought to do is to insure letting houses against burglary, defacement or conflagration in line with the philosophy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Where fire has destroyed houses, State Farm through their Good Neighbor philosophy, should provide alternate accommodation while awaiting repair of destroyed property. However, through this philosophy, State Farm covers all expenses arising from such disasters. (State Farm Corporate Website, 2010, p.1).
Most insurance companies offer general life insurance, which does not include health. However, State Farm offers general health insurance in addition to disability and long term care insurance coverage. The philosophy of Good Neighbor that is, offering affordable insurance to consumers has seen many American homeowners receive health care insurance at a time when they need medical services most.
The introduction of long term care is so far one of the best insurance coverage targeting the old, persons with disabilities, and the injured. In the current global economic downturn, underprivileged people can access health care services or health care insurance premiums at a cheaper price thanks to “Good Neighbor” philosophy from State Farm. (Case Study: State Farm, 2010, pp. 1-5).
As a mode of enhancing this philosophy, State Farm should target Young Adults aged between 18 and 25. This is because there are over 33 million uninsured persons in America falling in this age gap. With the philosophy, State Farm should provide insurance brands to students and young adults falling in this age gap in order to detach them from other insurance and make them independent.
Additionally, since State Farm prefers business model (use of agents) rather than insurer model (use of call centers and internet), there is high probability that in the current information technology age, many persons falling in this age do not have an elusive insurance coverage. Business model has its advantages that include job creation among other things.
However, the Good Neighbor philosophy of State Farm can reach young adults easily now that many of them are prone to internet than attending call centers. Many young adults perceive State Farm as conservative and one that clings to traditional ways of doing business. However, with the Good Neighbor philosophy, which targets all people the adoption of insurer model through call centers and internet, will see young adults seek insurance brands from State Farm. (State Farm Plans Book Ucla 2010, 2010. p.1).
State Farm is a mutual insurance company belonging to many policyholders. The first capital of starting State Farm came from policy holders who until now remain owners. Although currently comprising of shareholders, the company does not pay form of dividends to shareholders. Instead, all dividends including profits and status belong to policyholders.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Compensation System of State Farm Insurance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the reason why State Farm continues to expand as policyholders choose to use their financial earnings to expand the company. Additionally, the structure protects the company’s finances in that, even if share prices drop or shareholders stage demonstrations, the company will still move on smoothly as this appears no issue. Current statistics indicate that State Farm is the most successful insurance company in United States especially as car and home insurer.
This is because of its Good Neighbor philosophy that includes affordability and ability to handle claims fairly and squarely. The mission statement of State Farm is to assist people to deal with arising risks, recuperate from misfortunes and attain their objectives. In order to exhibit good neighbor philosophy, State Farm embarks in market partnership with insurance consumers build on shared values such as financial empowerment, honesty, mutual trust and eminent insurance services. (Case Study: State Farm, 2010, pp. 8-10).
Reference List Case Study: State Farm. (2010). Web.
Rhonda, C. (2010). State Farm Mutual Insurance Company. Web.
State Farm Corporate Website. State Farm Insurance Company. (2010). Web.
State Farm Plans Book Ucla. (2010). Web.
Economics: Official Cash Rate Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Official cash rate (OCR)
Effects of decreased interest rate
Influence of expansionary monetary policy on credit creation
Official cash rate (OCR) The official cash rate (OCR) is defined as the market interest rate for overnight borrowing and lending (King et al. 2011). King et al (2011) define it as the rate that banks charge to lend funds from other financial institutions on an overnight unsecured basis.
This rate is a means of implementing a monetary policy by the Reserve Bank of Australia. According to King et al (2011), the cash rate strongly influences other interest rates thereby determining the level of short term interest rates for the macro economy. Consequently, RBA can influence the aggregate economy by adjusting the official cash rate.
The market interest rate (nominal interest rate) is defined by Arnold (2010) as the interest rate actually charged in the market. It can be expressed as the sum of the real interest rate and the expected inflation rate.
Market interest rate is a consequence of the action of the law of demand and supply on loanable funds. If there is a surplus of loanable funds, the market interest rates fall (Arnold 2010).
The RBA controls this through cash-fund-add and cash-fund-drain transactions. By controlling the exchange settlement funds that the commercial banks hold through the official cash rate, the RBA can influence the nominal interest rate.
To influence the cash rate, the RBA carries out open market operations in the financial markets to influence the supply of primary liquidity available to the financial institutions. This control is achieved by the RBA buying and selling Commonwealth Government Securities from the banks for cash. Consequently, this action influences the bank’s liquidity thereby altering the short term interest rates in the financial markets (Layton, Robinson
“How Asian Teachers Polish Each Lesson to Perfection” by Stigler and Stevenson Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of the Article
Introduction The educational system of a society is fundamental to the development and ultimate advancement of the entire community. Educators and governments all over the world have acknowledged that teaching practices can have a significant effect on the education of the population leading to significant impact on economic and social outcomes of their citizens. For this reason, high educational achievements have been seen as favorable for a nation’s well being.
However, over the last few decades, it has been noted that the Asian children have had higher educational achievements than their American counterparts. This paper shall conduct a review of the article “How Asian Teachers Polish Each Lesson to Perfection” by Stigler and Stevenson. This shall be in a bid to highlight the differences between the Asian and American teaching methods. The significance of this particular article to me shall also be articulated and the reasons why I chose it discussed.
Summary of the Article The article by Stigler and Stevenson aims at explaining why there is poor performance by American students in mathematics while their Asian counterparts seem to excel. The onset of this problem is from a study conducted in America, China and Japan among the first and fifth graders.
The data obtained from the studies highlights the poor performances of American children in mathematics as compared to their Asian counterparts. While the obvious answer would be that there is a difference in the intelligence levels of the children of these two different ethnicities, Stigler and Stevenson assert that there is no overall difference in intelligence and as such, the cause for the staggering differences in mathematical achievements must be as a result of other factors.
A closer look reveals that there is a difference in how mathematics is taught in the different cultures. The first major difference observed was that in Japan and China, the role of the teacher was that of a knowledgeable guide who constantly relied on students as sources of information.
This is in contrast to the American practice where the teacher was the prime information dispenser. The article illustrates that as a result of the Asian teacher’s role as a guide, children were active participants in the learning process as opposed to being passive automatons as was the case amongst the American children. The article also reveals how Asian teachers utilize carefully crafted examples to guide their children to discover and eventually remember important mathematical concepts.
Stigler and Stevenson observe that Asian teachers focus on interpreting and relating a real-world problem to a mathematical one. As such, a lesson may begin by giving and solving a real world problem and the mathematical concepts of the same are only given at the end.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The American teachers on the other hand begin by introducing abstract mathematical concepts and solving them before giving their real world implications. This two difference approaches have significant implications since young children are more likely to understand mathematical representations from meaningful experiences (real -world) than the other way round.
In their article, Stigler and Stevenson note that while both Asian and American teachers utilize objects to act as concrete representations of mathematical concepts, there is a greater consistency in the Asian classrooms.
While this is attributed to the differing resource ability between the groups (with the American classrooms having more financial resources), the Asian teachers affirm that using a variety of representational materials may confuse the children. Another factor is that American teachers do away with the use of concrete objects much sooner than their Asian counterparts.
The commonly held misconception of Asian teachers as “authoritarian purveyors of information” is dispelled in the article. Stigler and Stevenson assert that “Chinese and Japanese teachers rely on students to generate ideas and evaluate the correctness of the ideas”. In other words, the teachers play the role of guide as the children engage in arguments and proof.
The article illustrates that in some scenarios, the students are called upon to state their own solutions and evaluate the results of the other students. This leads to the engagement of students in the lesson as they perceive themselves as the active participants in the problem solving activity. In addition to this, this scheme results in the argument of mathematical ideas by the Asian children. The article notes that these are skills that most American children never get to learn.
Another important concept that the article reveals is the use of errors in the respective culture. The authors acknowledge that the manner and perception of errors is different between Asian and American classrooms. In the American classroom, errors are equivalent to failure on the part of the student. In the Asian classrooms, errors are used by the teacher to dispel commonly held misperceptions about given mathematical concepts. This constructive use of errors leads to a more enhanced learning experience by the students.
Conclusion This paper set out to give a detailed review of the article by Stigler and Stevenson. A summary of the article has been given and the significance of this article to me illustrated. From the discussion presented in this paper, it is clear that there is a marked difference between the American and the Asian styles of teaching.
We will write a custom Essay on “How Asian Teachers Polish Each Lesson to Perfection” by Stigler and Stevenson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Asian teachers place greater emphasis on the input of the students while the American teachers do not. Considering the numerous benefits that have been attributed the to the Asian mode of teaching, it would be prudent for American teachers to emulate some of this methods to as to ensure that American students have educational achievements that are at par with the Asian students.
References Stigler, J. W.
Deepwater Horizon Blowout Report essay help
Introduction Background information. The Deepwater Horizon is a rig that blew out on April 20, 2010 and caused 11 deaths. Environmental consequences as well as financial, economical, and political concerns have become the major topic for discussion by companies involved in the issue as stated in the article (PE Magazine Archive, 2010).
The contingency plan was established for this large project, as reported by Goldenberg (2010). In this respect, the BP officials had to observe certain rules established for all unexpected situations that may rise in the rig. In other words, it is unclear whether the plan had been established after the incident or it was not followed by the employees. However, the workers should have known about the plan that could have saved their lives.
Moreover, numerous consequences of the oil spill should be eliminated in order to avoid environment disasters and different economic, financial, and political consequences. As the British Petroleum is the major producer of oil in the world, the incident has resulted in the petroleum price changes and influenced the location of rigs previously located in the Gulf of Mexico (PE Magazine Archive, 2010).
Executive summary. The current report is aimed at identifying the major economic consequences of the incident, detecting financial and political changes, and analyzing the influence of the oil spill on all parties concerned. The blowout happened on April 20, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico and caused many unexpected changes in the financial and political concerns.
The tragedy killed 11 employees that were working on the rig; the contingencies plan was ignored, whereas the National Incident Commander Thad Allen calls on the British Petroleum officials to provide the contingencies plan that was supposed to be followed on the rig (Offshore staff, 2010).
Thus, it is necessary to overview the possible consequences of the explosion that can affect the parties concerned, especially the joint venture companies and partners of BP as well as the government. Environment of the ocean and coast territories is sure to be influenced as well; for instance, the marine life such as fisheries and the wide life habitats have suffered hence damaging the tourism industry which is major source of income in the country (Coimbra, 2010).
Deepwater Horizon blowout. It is obvious that the reasons for that incident that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico should be identified. However, the major issue to be solved at the moment concerns the numerous consequences of the tragedy that happened on April 20, 2010 and took the lives of 11 people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major problem of the Deepwater Horizon is that most sectors of human activity turned out to be involved in the explosion and adjustment of visible and implicit consequences.
Companies that provided supplies and carried out technical operations, joint venture partners of the British Petroleum as well as rig owners, government services, and environmentalists and those companies that try to eliminate the natural consequences of the oil spill. Regarding this, the problem of the explosion includes long-lasting consequences rather than short-term reasons and minor changes adopted in the contingency plan.
Results of the oil spill. As stated by most officials that took part in the elimination of the consequences related to the contamination of the ocean together with its inhabitants and measures taken to plug the leaking well. Barak Obama, the President of the United States of America, claimed that the oil spill is a “massive and potentially unprecedented environmental disaster” (Heinberg, 2010).
Due to this fact, the US Administration agreed on $20 billion to be paid during several years by the BP Company as a compensation for the oil spill. Consequently, BP party have accepted the responsibility but still holds that it was not due to their fault but the accident was caused by the rig run by Transocean personnel (Memoli
Organizational Environment and Behavior of Singapore Airlines Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Abstract Environmental and behavioral analysis of a company forms an intrinsic examination of the key aspects that determine an organization’s ability to effectively operate both from internal internally and externally.
Effective understanding of the environment at Singapore airlines has been necessary towards improving management standards at the company. In addition, it has enhanced higher customer value in services delivery besides increasing levels of productivity and profitability.
Its leadership has remained steady and quite efficient since the establishment of the airline. This is due to the fact that the company has emphasized on the need for effective planning, technological development and shrewd leadership that provides the necessary focus for the company to achieve its objectives and strategies.
Introduction Environmental and behavioral analysis of a company forms an intrinsic examination of the key aspects that determine an organization’s ability so that it can effectively. It is worth noting that an airline can hardly evade challenges in its operations just like other businesses units.
However, the effectiveness of daily operations is subject to other related and different business applications. Moreover, effective understanding of the environment and behaviour of an organization is necessary in enhancing better management in a company, higher customer value in services delivery, and increased levels of productivity and profitability.
In order to effectively bring out the behaviour of Singapore Airlines, the paper employs theoretical frameworks to explain both the environmental and strategic analyses. When Singapore Airlines came into being, that is in 1972, it enrolled 6000 members of staff.
It had 10 aircrafts while it operated in 18 countries within their cities. It has done exemplary well since then. It is currently operating in about 40 countries having a network of 90 destinations (Huselid, Jackson
Has Globalisation Led To Economic Growth? Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Globalization is the increased interdependence of nations due to increased integration of individuals, finance and trade (Ritzer 2011, pp. 2). It is characterized by increased integration and interaction of individuals, governments and companies (Scholte 2005, pp. 2).
International trade and investment are the key factors that drive globalization. These two elements are the essential components of globalization. Additionally, advances in information technology allow the process of globalization to occur.
Globalization affects the environment, political systems, culture and the economy. This paper seeks to determine whether globalization has resulted into economic growth in various countries.
The process of globalization began after the end of World War 2. However, in the 1980s, technological developments and liberalization of the capital markets and trade accelerated the process of globalization.
Improvements in technology resulted into a reduction in transportation, computation and communication costs. The reduction in these costs enabled firms to undertake different phases of the production processes in different countries.
Liberalization of trade has made many governments not to offer protection to their domestic industries. Therefore, industries in such countries face foreign competition.
Hence, firms must produce high quality goods and services to be able to compete globally (Anwar 2002, pp. 411). This promotes economic growth of different countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Globalization increases the market that a country’s producers can access. Notably, countries that participate in globalization benefit from unrestricted trade with other countries (Phelps 2007, pp. 371). Producers in a country are able to market their produce worldwide.
In addition, a country’s economy can benefit from global division of labour. International division of labour makes domestic producers specialize in lines of production. This results into efficiency in the production processes.
The result of efficiency, specialization and international competition is increased variety of products in the domestic market due to domestic and foreign production (Gup 2005, pp. 155).
Additionally, consumers in a country that participates in globalization enjoy goods and services of high quality at lower prices. This is likely to result into economic growth of that country.
Furthermore, countries that trade internationally due to globalization benefit from technological developments that occur in other countries. A country can benefit through acquisition of knowledge used in the manufacture of imported products (Breckenridge
Creative Ways of Teaching the Grammar Essay college essay help
Grammar entails learning rules which dictate how best to apply language and is a segment of the wide-ranging verbal communication studies known as linguistic. In order to develop a good writing skill, it requires one to appreciate the grammar set of laws though several students find it uninteresting, difficult and tedious to learn these rules.
Nevertheless, there are many ways which can be employed to different students of different ages to make it interesting and fun to study grammar. All these ways have to do with presentation that is how the subject is brought up to the students.
One of these ways is teaching grammar through use of ‘fun learning games. This is a strategy that can best be employed to students in an ESL classroom. When for instance teaching a topic on punctuation signs, a teacher may use this strategy by grouping the class into two, and take one group at a time for presentation.
Using a written sentence, the teacher will give every student in that group a particular word including all punctuation marks from that sentence which he/she should write down on a card. Then each and every student will line up with their cards in the proper order of the sentence. Subsequently the students holding the punctuation symbols will fit themselves within the sentence to fill in the punctuations appropriately.
To make this effective, the group that fits the sentence correctly will be get ten points and so on. If there is a mistake in sentence punctuation, the teacher will ask the other group to identify and correct them. If one student wrongly identifies the punctuation problem, he/she gets out for the group and the other group gets one point.
However, if he/she correctly identifies the problem, the group will be awarded two points. The process goes on till every mistake is identified or there is no one else from the opposite group who remains to give an answer or they fail to detect the mistakes.
At this point, the teach calls it “the end” of the first round, helps the students to identify the remaining mistakes if any and call for the second group which will be assigned a new sentence to present. After the competition, the group with the highest number of points will be termed as the winner which will be awarded through applauding or any other gift.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Use of rhymes and songs is another creative way of coaching grammar. Songs are useful in enhancing remembrance of learned grammar. Most importantly, they create a chance of routine classroom activities where every student gets involved in learning.
A song that holds the rule of punctuation, such as “period comes at the end of every sentence”, “comma establishes a pause”, “question mark comes after a question statement” among other verses or musicale verses will make it easier for the student to recall which punctuation mark falls where.
Use of games in grammar teaching can be considered as the best communicative activity in ESL class. This is because, the use of game helps the students to gain both knowledge as well as skills to apply and use this knowledge. Games also create an environment which encourages students to practice and internalize structure, grammar and vocabulary comprehensively.
One reason for success in this strategy is that students are more interested in playing than sitting on desks to study. In addition games do capture the attention of the students and enable them to concentrate on the subject which enables them to absorb the language, grammar and punctuations (grammar rules) subconsciously.
Through use of familiar songs to the students, teachers can eliminate their challenges in classroom. Apart from being memorable, songs are as well motivating. They will motivate students to practice more as they identify with what they like, which includes the songs they are familiar with.
Through introduction of punctuation marks within a song, and practically performing it, students will always remember the usage of these marks when they come across statements similar to one they know.
More importantly, songs are essential in development of student’s ability in verbal communication, writing, paying attention and interpretation. Songs in ESL classrooms are significant tools in encouragement of extensive and intensive listening, and inspire use of imagination and creativity in a student when it comes to writing or speaking.
We will write a custom Essay on Creative Ways of Teaching the Grammar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
‘Globalizing Volkswagen: Creating Excellence on all Fronts’ Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Assessment of Piech’s Management Style
Concerns for Piech’s Successor
Introduction In today’s competitive business environment, it is especially important for organizations to develop and implement strategies that enhance their competitive advantage in the marketplace. Organizational sustainability through the development of core competencies and reassessment of management strategies must rank high on the agenda of management to achieve performance improvement and success in the business arena.
Through a critical analysis of the article ‘Globalizing Volkswagen: Creating Excellence on All Fronts,’ this paper purposes to demonstrate how transformation in VWs organizational structure, systems, HR policies, and corporate culture ensured successful implementation of its strategies.
Organizational Structure From the article, it is clear that one of the reasons why Volkswagen (VW) financial performance was deteriorating prior to the arrival in 1993 of Ferdinand Piech was an organizational structure that was unresponsive to the needs of competitive business environment. For instance, although VW manufactured 30 vehicle models on 16 platforms, there was minimal integration among the brands, resulting in wastage of human and physical resources (Radler 6).
VW Group had acquired other brand names, including Skoda, Seat, Bentley, and Bugatti, and owned a minority stake in Scania (Radler 7). In total, the Group ran seven brand names, which was rather complicated than previously thought. Piech structured the Group’s operations in such a way that Board members were put in charge of particular brand names, and it worked (Radler 16) Piech saw opportunities in such an expansive organizational structure.
Despite the challenges occasioned by the economies of scale, VW emphasized on keeping the brand names distinct to have the capacity to serve all important car markets with outstanding brands (Radler 11). In essence, the ‘full product range’ approach bore fruits for VW in terms of successful implementation of its strategies.
In the 1990s, VW embraced physical differentiation of its range of products due to the twin reasons of increased price differentiation between products and increased fragmentation of markets (Radler 12).
Again, VW’s huge organizational structure allowed an enabling environment for the physical differentiation, especially in its VW and Audi dealerships, inarguably placing the Group ahead of competition. The differentiation, more than anything else, assisted in arranging and formalizing the many components that existed to provide organizational efficiency and effectiveness (Erickson, 2005). This arrangement ensured successful implementation of VW’s strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organizational systems In simple terms, a system can be defined as a collection of parts that are purposely integrated together to accomplish an overall objective (McNamara para. 1). To return to profitability, VW had to transform and rationalize its car production systems to cut back on costly duplication of investment (Radler 8).
The Group adapted the platform approach to car production, leading to shorter design and development times, lower production outlays, and economies of scale. The platform approach made it possible for VW to assume a global manufacturing system which enabled the motor vehicle giant to optimally utilize all of its facilities worldwide and minimize wastage of resources.
The similarity of the platforms was of particular importance to VW since, not only did it allow for shorter lead times in plants, thereby improving flexibility, but it also allowed underutilized plants to request for work from other plants (Radler 9).
All components in a system must be interrelated and work in harmony to achieve the desired outcomes. In this spirit, VW, under the leadership of Piech, undertook to align production and sales (Radler 10). The previous system of production was not viable since it required cars to be produced and stocked for months before they could enter the market in peak season, thereby constraining the much needed working capital.
Under the new system, employees were obliged to work for up to 48 hours weekly during the peak season, and appreciably less during other times. This system paid dividends in terms of increased flexibility, reduced costs, and efficiency of production. The Group also embarked on an ambitious project of enhancing its global sales, especially in North America, Asia, and Europe realizing that manufacturing excellence alone could not drive its business agenda in the competitive automobile industry (Radler 11).
The addition of the financial services arm brought increased business in car financing and diversification of services in other areas beyond car financing. Specifically, VW came up with financial packages aimed to benefit specific groups sharing unique needs such as retail customers, fleet customers, dealer services, and banking services, thereby increasing its profit margins manifold (Radler 14). This venture ensured successful implementation of VW’s strategies.
HR Policies When Piech assumed the leadership of VW, the Group had an excess 30,000 employees. According to Radler, “…rather than laying them off and sending whole regions in an economic freefall, he [Piech] decided to introduce a four-day workweek…workers had their annual work-time reduced by 20% and received 16% less salary” (15).
We will write a custom Essay on ‘Globalizing Volkswagen: Creating Excellence on all Fronts’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It could be said that VW HR policies were favorable to employees and thereby gave them the urge to give their best. When other companies were fighting against employee unions, VW, through the intervention of Piech, advocated for the formation of a global employee council. This proactive approach towards employee interests must have contributed towards the success of VW.
Corporate Culture Personal responsibility for decisions taken was what transformed VW’s corporate culture. Before the entry of Piech as the Group’s CEO, nobody was assuming responsibility of the failures and dismal financial performance witnessed (Radler 17). To ensure successful implementation of VW’s strategies, such a protectionist approach had to be overhauled and individual brands were required to assume responsibility for their actions.
Second, all top managers were required to convene once a month in secret locations to test their products and exchange ideas, concepts, and new technology trends. It can be said that VW employed an open corporate culture, enabling brand managers to meet and exchange ideas on what worked best and how (Radler 17)1.
According to Rhodes et al (2004), such a corporate culture encourages creativity and innovativeness – much needed assets in the automobile industry. In addition, it is well known that businesses thrive on new concepts and ideas. VW’s open corporate culture ensured communication of ideas, concepts, and visions in an accurate and objective manner which is critical in ensuring successful implementation of its strategies.
Assessment of Piech’s Management Style Although he has been called a firebrand CEO, Piech’s management style reflects of someone who is in touch with what is happening on the ground. He is responsive to the needs of employees as long as they deliver to expectations, and is always ready to question, probe and ask for clarity at the plant level. His can be called participative management style as it involves sharing critical information with employees, including involving them in important decision making processes (Buzzle.com para. 2).
At the management level, Piech’s management style can be termed open, precise, and often assertive. He introduced glass offices for managers and board members in an attempt to encourage open communication, and sacked managers who were adamant to respond to his management style (Radler 15). Such managerial authority is needed to streamline the objectives of the organization and ensure that the executives entrusted to champion the company’s growth agenda are pulling in the same direction.
Concerns for Piech’s Successor The immediate concerns for Piech’s successor would be to consolidate the impressive growth patterns already achieved by engaging cost-cutting measures and entering into new markets. He should also be concerned about building brand teams, processes, and networks of relationships that will be resilient enough to maintain and expand growth. This can only be achieved through developing and implementing processes that the will enable the Group to reap maximum benefits from its core competencies.
Works Cited Buzzle.com. Participative Management Style. 2010. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on ‘Globalizing Volkswagen: Creating Excellence on all Fronts’ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Erickson, R. The Importance of Structure in an Organization. 2005. Web.
McNamara, C. Thinking about Organizations as Systems. (n.d.). Web.
Radler, G. Globalizing Volkswagen: Creating Excellence on all Fronts. International Institute for Management. 2003.
Rhodes, J.T., Pitts, S.T.,
Comparative Analysis of Operations Management Strategies at Merck argumentative essay help
Executive summary With the advent of innovative technologies and recent shifts in the consumers’ culture, more and more companies realize the importance of effective operations management.
Due to the present day realities of intense competition in the pharmaceutical arena, the leading companies cannot afford to put emphasis on only one aspect of quality improvement. Underestimating the significance of any of the company’s many sectors may result in decrease in the company’s revenues and lack of customers’ trust in the brand.
Taylor (1998) noted that in the case of private-sector companies, the mission of the operations function is usually expressed in terms of profits, growth and competitiveness; in public and voluntary organisations, it is often expressed in terms of providing value for money (p. 74).
The mission of pharmaceutical companies such as Merck
The new product development process Dissertation a level english language essay help
Organizations today are constantly facing increasing global competition in the marketplace that demands more frequent innovation of goods and services that are of a high quality. The challenge such organizations face is to be more customer focused, responsive to their needs and provide goods and services that are cost effective.
This can be achieved by value delivery and creation where value delivery entails order fulfilment by ensuring the flow of materials, products and services through production and distribution while value creation entails new product or service development activities that identify the customer’s needs in the form of new products or services (Handfield, et al. 2000).
The new product development process is a series of interdependent and often overlapping stages during which a new product or service is brought from the idea generation stage, business or technical assessment, product or service conceptualization, product engineering and design, to the readiness stage for production or manufacturing.
As the product or service concept moves through these various stages, the idea is refined and evaluated for business and technical feasibility where the design is fine tuned and prototypes are developed for testing. The design is then finalized and preparations are made for the full scale production of the product or service (Handfield et al, 2000).
The new service development process which is derived from new product development is mostly concerned with the development and marketing of services instead of goods. A service is an act carried out to a customer that is intangible, inseparable and heterogeneous (Luteberget, 2005).
Customer Involvement in New Product/Service Development Customer involvement in the product or service development process is the interaction or collaboration between the users of the product or service and the employees of a company during the period of product development to actualize it into a commercial product. The customer’s involvement in the development process entails an active engagement in the process with the developing company (Pinegar, 2000).
As Pinegar (2000) states, the customers role in the product or service development process is viewed in terms of their expressed wants and desires, the satisfaction that the good or service offered to them, their relationship with the developing organization and their response to previous product and/or service innovations. The customer is seen to be critical in the product or service development process because he/she is viewed as an integral component in the business strategies of an organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role of customers in new product development has recently been the subject of discussion and study by researchers in the product development field. According to Pinegar (2000) the role of a customer can be classified into four categories which are coaching, partnering, reporting and advising. These classifications are used to explain the user involvement in the different stages of the product or service process.
Coaching involves the identification of product problems and opportunities in the market place and generating ideas that will be used in the product development process by conducting customer surveys to find out whether the current products meet the changing needs of consumers.
The partnering category involves the evaluation and analysis of alternative methods of product implementation while exploring the possible applications of the product other than those it was designed for. A business analysis is conducted where the customer partners with employees of the company to see whether the product or service will be viable in the market place.
The analysis of new innovation ideas will involve methods such as attribute analysis which has three approaches that can be used in generating new product or service ideas. The determinant gap analysis approach entails considering the attributes of the marketplace in determining which product or service innovation a company should undertake. These attributes can be the competitor’s products/services or previous products and services the company has produced (Anandan, 2009).
Perceptual gap analysis is used to analyze ideas when the attributes of the products or services in the marketplace are unknown. The similarity and dissimilarity analysis involves the evaluation of previous products/services by analyzing their similarity or dissimilarity to each other based on product/service attributes. Similarity analysis evaluates products on the same set of attributes while dissimilarity analysis focuses on the different attributes of the product/service (Anandan, 2009).
After the idea has passed through the business analysis stage successfully, the next step will involve the actual development of the product and prototype testing. During this stage the idea is translated into more concrete and tangible terms with regards to a product while for a service it is translated into a doable act.
This stage involves the consideration of customer satisfaction and technical feasibility by analyzing customer surveys and researching of the market to find out whether the product is satisfying their needs (Avlonitis and Papastathopoulou, 2006).
We will write a custom Dissertation on The new product development process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The advice category involves the use of product development specialists to identify product or service problems and opportunities by monitoring the trends in the market place and also the activities of their competitors. This stage is useful in the idea generation stage and also in the product testing stage of the product/service development. The product is tested in-house by the design team, a process known as alpha testing or by providing a sample to the intended market users a process referred to as Beta testing.
The alpha and beta testing methods are mostly used by developers of computer software who provide beta versions of their software for testing to computer experts. Gillette Company is well known for its ability to successfully launch new products into the market and meet its consumer’s needs. This is largely due to their continued use of the alpha and beta testing methods (Avlonitis and Papastathopoulou, 2006).
Focus groups are also used in this stage to test product samples by looking at what other applications the product can be used for. The last phase is the product launching phase into the market. During this stage, company finalizes and implements the production or service operations plan and also the marketing plan.
The customer’s involvement in this stage will be to purchase, use and provide feedback about the product. The reporting category is useful to the company as it enables the users of the product or service to provide feedback on the tests conducted on the new innovation by carrying out customer surveys, market research and customer visits (Pinegar, 2000).
Managing Customer Involvement in the Product Design Process The early stages of the product design process are sometimes characterised by uncertainty when it comes to identifying product concepts that will lead to the development of a successful product that will be acceptable by the market.
Poor management of customer involvement knowledge in these early stages might lead to problems involving customer acceptance and product design in the final stages of the development process which might prove to be expensive to reverse. Because customers are the final stakeholders of the product, involving customers during the first stages of the development process will reduce uncertainty that is usually associated the process (Bogue and Sorenson, 2006).
In order to manage customer involvement effectively and efficiently, Bogue and Sorenson note that market orientation should be considered by companies that are pursuing new product innovations. Companies that have market orientation are viewed to be more proficient in gathering and analyzing information collected from consumers in the market. Customers are viewed by these market oriented organizations to be significant designers because they make important contributions to the product design.
Market oriented companies are expected to have a clear understanding of the needs of the customer which will allow them to manage the customer’s involvement and the knowledge they provide in developing the product which will in turn enable them to develop products or commodities that are of a superior quality to meet the customers needs resulting in a positive influence on the innovation activities of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The new product development process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Customer involvement management can be done by carrying out facilitation in the concept development stage by using techniques such as focus groups, sensory analysis and conjoint analysis methods. These market oriented techniques can help the company to determine the feasibility of the product design and its acceptance to the market (Bogue and Sorenson, 2006).
User-led innovations The user led innovation concept was developed by Von Hippel in 1986; He defined the concept of lead users as people who had strong needs that would become prominent in the marketplace in the future. According to Hippel, lead users were viewed to be ahead when it came to trends in the marketplace.
They often faced needs that could not be met by the available products or services, a situation which saw them filling this gap by modifying the available products to their own liking. This created the user led innovations which were common in the technology industry of software and information technology. User led innovations mostly relied on localized information that was already in the users possession (Burmann and Arnhold, 2008).
Von Hippel described the process of user led innovations as involving the first stage where the users innovate the product. After innovation, they would join communities that were driven by the common need of collective innovation after which the user manufacturers would implement the idea using low cost capital production techniques.
The innovations made by the users served the purpose of not only creating new product concepts that would be used in forecasting the needs of the current market but they would also be used by companies to commercialise the innovations into products that would be acceptable and usable to a large mass of consumers.
To enhance the commercialization process, the manufacturer of the product would look for lead users, evaluate their innovations and then incorporate the users into the development process of new products (Burmann and Arnhold, 2008).
Hippel’s user led innovation concept has recently undergone some modifications by researchers such as Berthon, Pitt and McCarthy who introduced the concept of creative consumers to further explain lead users. They defined creative consumers as individuals or groups of people who adapted, modified and transformed a product concept to meet their individual needs.
Research on New Product/ Service Development Understanding the customer’s preference is a basic part of any product development system. The traditional product development process incorporated the use of tools such as market data, focus groups and surveys to collect important information about market trends and the customer’s perceptions of the company’s goods and/or services. Recent research on new product development has provided some valuable insights into the relationship between the user’s involvement in product development and their satisfaction.
Gruner and Homburg in their 2000 research based their findings on the German machine industry by studying the relationship between the intensity of the customer’s involvement during the different stages of product development, the characteristics portrayed by the involved customers and the success of the product their discoveries indicated that the involvement of the customer through certain phases of the process had a good impact on the products success.
Their empirical studies showed that the customer’s involvement in the early stages of the development process gave a higher success rate than when they were involved in the mid and last stages of the product development process which yielded a lower success rate. This shows that when the users were involved in the idea generation stage, there was a higher chance the product innovation was going to be successful in the market than when the consumer was involved in the testing stage (Gruner and Homburg, 2000).
Alam (2002) conducted research on how a customer’s involvement contributes in the new service development process by concentrating in the B2B industry.
He divided his work into four research areas which were; the objective or purpose of involving the customer, the stages of involvement, intensity of the involvement and the mode of involvement. The results of his study showed that there was only one purpose of involving users in service development which was to achieve the successful development of a service that achieved the desired purpose of the customer.
According to Alam’s research, customers are involved in all the stages of the product or service development process but where there involvement was most important was in the idea generation stage, the product or service design stage and the product testing or pilot rum stage.
The intensity of the user was divided into four levels one of them being the passive acquisition of input where the users took the initiative to provide input in the developing of the product or service. The second level involved the providing of feedback on specific issues where the developers of the product approached service users to obtain information on specific issues at the various stages of the development process.
The third level involved extensive consultation with the users or customers where the service or product developers invited the users to share their knowledge about what they want in the new product and also provide their own inputs into the process. The final stage involved the incorporation of customers into the development team to see how the product will be developed and whether it has met the specifications and desires of the design team and the user (Alam, 2002).
Examples of New Product/ Service Development in Companies: Volvo and Skype Skype, the global free telephony Company that is rapidly expanding in its operations around the world involves customers in its new service development process. In Skype’s service development, customers are allowed to co-produce the directory by downloading Skype software and then registering as users of the software.
The customers can then expand the directory by recommending Skype to their colleagues, family and friends. As their friends register, they can also download the same software and expand their directories in the same way.
Skype does not need any mainframes since it incorporates the unused capacity in its registered users. This means that it is the users who facilitate the creation of value in Skype’s services by sharing and developing in Skype’s services. The customers also have the opportunity to run the help desk (Edvardsson, et al. 2006)
In its product and service development process, Volvo uses the program Concept Lab Volvo to inform its customers and users of its products and services about its design principles and also about emerging car design concepts. The users are allowed to provide feedback on these car designs and they can also have one on one chat sessions with the developers and design team. The developers use this information in their ongoing design work.
Volvo also uses target groups in its idea sourcing stage where people in trend sensitive markets and areas with a high design capability are invited to design parts or components of the whole car. An example of this target group is the Your Concept Car which was designed by eight women (Edvardsson et al, 2006).
Success and Failure of New Product Development Sampson (as cited by Luterberget, 2005) in his 1970 studies described a new product or service to be successful by looking at whether it has satisfied the needs, wants or desires of customers. He also described a successful new product as possessing outstanding performance when compared to other products that were designed for the same purpose.
Products which undergo minor or major changes might fail to meet the classification of successful new product innovations. A major source of successful competitive advantage for organizations in the future will be the consistent and successful development of new and modified products and services. However the product life cycles are reducing as the product variety increases because of niche market penetration.
In the case of a group of consumer products introduced in the 1920s, the average time from the introduction to the peak production of the product was approximated to be 28 years. For a group of similar products introduced in the 1960s-70s the approximate time for peak production was estimated to reduce to 10 years. This trend is seen to continue and will pose a threat to the product development process (Barclay, et al. 2000).
In a 1987 case study of 149 UK engineering based companies, surveys conducted found that the average product life cycle was 12 years and the average development of a new product was 22 months. The same surveys were conducted again in 1996 and they showed that the product life cycle had now become eight years while the development of a new product would now take 15 months.
Such estimations show that the number of new products introduced into the market in the next five years would be twice that of the last five years (Barclay et al, 2000). When research evidence on the success and failure of product or service development is examined, the failure rates have remained at 30% for the last 60 years. This evidence shows that companies are not improving in their product development activities and that they are also becoming more expert and critical in the approaches to new product or service development.
An example of a product design that failed in the past is the Premier Safe Cigarette which was seen to be one of the biggest design failures of all time. The basic idea behind this cigarette was to have an inner cardboard tube with holes along its length which would hold the tobacco.
At the end of the tube was some charcoal which when lit released nicotine. The nicotine passed through the holes in the tube which reduced the chances of smoke and tar. After seven years of development, test marketing was conducted which showed that the cigarette was difficult to light and it had a terrible taste.
The failure of the cigarette cost the developing company, RJR Nabisco $500 million, a result which was partly attributed to the break up of the company. A service design that failed in the recent past was the Internet University (UkeU) which was launched in September 2003.
The program was abandoned after 900 of the expected 5,600 students enrolled for courses that cost £44,000. The failure was due to that fact no previous market research had been conducted to determine if there was any demand for e-learning. The losses incurred amounted to £50 million (Hollins and Shinkins, 2006, p.131-132).
Conclusion and Recommendation The ability to produce a steady flow of successful new products or services consistently is one of the key factors that lead to an organizations success. The role of a customer in product and service development is a fairly new concept that is yet to fully catch on with most companies when it comes to developing new innovations.
However the general feeling about incorporating the user’s views while developing the products/services is optimistic and good. Researchers have also shown involving customers in the development process increases the success of the goods or services in the market in terms of launching and sales.
Customer involvement will also lead to improved quality in company products or services with customer value being taken into consideration. The performance of the product in the market can also be monitored by looking at how involved the customer was in the development process. Organizations should therefore view customer involvement in the development process as vital since the success or failure of a product or service will depend on whether it meets the needs and desires of its target market.
Companies should ensure there is user involvement in their new innovations as this ensures that the needs in the target market have been met, satisfied and incorporated into the new product or service. Companies should also have a clear view of what they want to achieve by customer involvement in their product and service innovations.
References Alam, I. (2002) An exploratory investigation of user involvement in new service development. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.30 p.250-261.
Anandan, C. (2009) Product management. 2nd Edition. New Delhi : Tata McGraw-Hill.
Avlonitis, G.J. and Papastathopoulou, P. (2006) Product and services management. London: Sage Publications
Barclay, I., Dann, Z. and Holroyd, P. (2000) New product development: a practical workbook for improving performance. Great Britain: Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd
Bogue, J., and Sorenson, D. (2006) Managing customer knowledge during the concept development stage of the new food product development process: Department of Food Business and Development. Ireland: University College Cork
Burmann, C., and Arnhold, U. (2008) User generated branding: state of the art research. Berlin, Germany: Transaction Publishers
Edvardsson, Gustafsson, Kristensson and Magnusson (Eds) (2006) Involving customers in new service development. London: Imperial College Press
Gruner, K.E and Homburg, C. (2000) Does Customer Interaction Enhance new product success. Journal of Business Research, Vol 49, p.1-14.
Handfield, R.B., Monczka, R.M., Ragatz, G.L. and Frayer, D.J. (2000) New product development; strategies for supplier integration. Milwaukee, US: American Society for Quality press
Hollins, B., and Shinkins, S. (2006) Managing service operations: design and implementation. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Pp. 131- 132
Luteberget, A. (2005) Customer involvement in new service development: how does customer involvement enhance new service success? Master’s Thesis in Information and Communication Technology. Agder University College: Faculty of Engineering and Science, Vol (2) 12-16
Pinegar, J.S. (2000) Customer involvement in industrial product development: creating superior products. Power point presentation [online]. Web.
Mergers, Acquisition And International Strategies Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Walmart’s Merger with Massmart
D. R. Horton Domestic operations and Proposed Merger
Walmart’s International Business and Corporate Level Strategies
D. R. Horton’s Business and Corporate Level Strategies
Mergers and acquisitions have become very common in contemporary business environment. This is because of the increased appetite of corporations to expand their operations into the international markets in order to take advantage of the growing profit potential.
In addition, firms are experiencing increased competition in their respective markets, thus finding it more prudent to engage in mergers or acquisitions as a strategy of gaining competitive advantage.
This paper will discuss two companies, where one (Walmart) has entered into a merger and diversified internationally, and the other company (D. R. Horton) has concentrated on domestic market without engaging in a merger.
Walmart’s Merger with Massmart The contemporary Business environment has become very competitive, forcing many companies to invest in strategies that will make them gain competitive advantage. Most of the large companies are opting for mergers, acquisitions, or internationalization strategies as means of enhancing their operations.
One company that has embraced the importance of mergers and acquisitions is Walmart, as it enhances its business penetration across the globe. Walmart is one of the largest retail chains in the world, thanks to its low-price business model.
This approach has shown sensitivity to the needs of consumers, leading to the phenomenal growth of the company since its inception in 1962, and forcing the company to spread to foreign markers.
Today, Walmart is present in all continents of the world. However, Walmart’s global success has been facilitated by its strategy of merging with retail chains in the destination countries and blending its business model with the cultures of those markets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the most high profile mergers that Walmart has been involved in is that of Massmart South Africa (Roberts
History of Netflix Company Essay college essay help
Competitive advantage As soon as Netflix was founded in 1997, it employed a unique strategy of renting out DVDs at a fixed monthly rate. This outstanding strategy enabled the company to win many customers. The subscribers enjoyed the convenience brought about by the unlimited access to DVDs.
They could access the movies of their choice from anywhere, and this reduced the shipping expenses and DVD handling inconveniences. The online movie service enabled Netflix to obtain the “first to market” competitive advantage. Since then, Netflix has dominated in the online movie service providers, and it employs competitive strategies to maintain its customers.
Blockbuster, Wal-Mart and Comcast are the main competitors of Netflix. The healthy competition between the three companies has greatly benefited the customers. Before blockbuster could wake up and recognize the online subscription technique, Netflix had already domineered in the market. Wal-Mart and Blockbuster are very rich companies and they immediately launched services similar to those of Netflix.
However, since Netflix had already won the “first to market” competitive advantage, the two competitors experienced uninspiring sales and pulled back. This marked yet another advantage to Netflix, and its online subscription business boomed. Further, the company employed service differentiation strategies to retain customers and obtain new ones.
Netflix realized that maintaining its competitive advantage needed a reevaluation and embracement of the technological transformations. Immediately after the introduction of the smart phones, the company offered a mobile application for the Apple iPad and iPhone.
To crown it all, Barnes and Noble bookstore giants were impressed by Netflix’s efforts, and they signed a deal with the company to pre-install Netflix’s apps on their tablets.
The company’s managers are alert; they check out on new technologies and offer their apps. With this working spirit, the future of the company is bright, and its competitive advantage will prevail for a long time. Netflix competitors will have to work extra hard to beat the highly esteemed company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Netflix’s other competitive advantage against its competitors is its response to customer needs. With the evolving world, customers want to purchase things using the most reliable method. Netflix have made it very convenient for customers to purchase movies through their smart phones and tablets.
The company offers titles of the newest movies at considerably reduced prices. For those who prefer to have the DVDs, the company has an online delivery program that enables customer to receive DVD’s of their choice without leaving their homes.
The home delivery service meets the needs of the aged and ailing persons who would like to obtain entertainment at the comfort of their home. Netflix also takes care of the needs of the children. Recently, the company introduced the “just for kids” segment in the iPad apps. This application offers movies and shows for children under the age of 12.
While many competitors would think that lowering price is what would attract customers, Netflix focuses on maintain high quality services. Having won the First-To-Market competitive advantage, the company aims at maintaining its customers by providing worthwhile services.
Although Netflix’s prices are higher as compared to the competitors’ prices, its royal customers purchase movies from them because they obtain value for their money.
The discussions imply that Netflix stands at a very high competitive advantage over its competitors. It holds at least 33% of the online video downstream market. Netflix has done a lot of research to identify its strengths, and weaknesses. The “first to market” competitive advantage is the greatest strength that the company has struggled to maintain all through.
It has managed to retain old customers, gain new customers, and most importantly, sustain its competitive advantage without necessarily competing on price. The highly esteemed business strategies create a natural entry barrier and businesses shy off to compete with Netflix.
We will write a custom Essay on History of Netflix Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Value chain analysis Value chain analysis is a strategy that seeks to increase customer satisfaction, and have an effective control of costs. Netflix has employed various strategies that enable it to run its activities smoothly and meet the customers’ needs. Their strategies range from inbound logistics, strategic operations, marketing strategies, and esteemed customer care services.
Inbound logistics: Netflix has maintained enough DVD stock for the most popular movies. Therefore, customers have a high reliability trust on Netflix because they know that they will always get what they want whenever they want it. The company ensures it is among the first companies to receive and distribute new movie titles to meet the need of the new generation.
Strategic operations: Netflix works towards ensuring that whatever they sell is of high quality. The operations involve manufacturing and testing of the DVDs to ensure they are in good working conditions. The company ensures that they offer excellent movie titles and excellent customer services to have return customers.
Marketing: Netflix have upgraded their website to contain all the needs of their subscribers. The home page displays the available DVDs and the accompanying recommendation for each of the DVD.
The site is personalized such that subscribers can access DVDs of the same series or theme. Research indicates that majority of the Netflix’s subscribers were recommended by friends who had experienced the company’s excellent services.
Internal organization: Internal organization is a very important aspect that portrays the true image of the company. With the help of a control system, the internal employees are highly organized to attend to the various needs of the customers. Office workers organize and determine the DVDs that need distribution and re-stocking.
The human resource takes the core responsibility of recruiting new staff and training existing ones when need arises. The finance officers ensure transparency of all operations, and the accountants account for every amount of money that passes through the finance office. The internal service providers work tirelessly to maintain Netflix’s competitive advantage.
Customer support: Netflix communicates with its customers through the internet. The number of subscribers and DVD titles are infinite. The customer service supporters are always present to respond to the needs of the customers. The design of the Netflix website is created in a manner that strengthens the relationship between the service provider and the customer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Netflix Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The recommendation feature makes the company’s services unique and smart as compared to competitors’ services. Further, the customer service providers are readily available to respond promptly to the customer queries. Service providers have developed a way to study the customers and maneuver the operating decisions.
Research and development: Netflix managers are always alert to identify the newest technological advancements that can help in improving their business. With the help of the procurement department, the Netflix managers can easily identify the needs of their customers and address them accordingly. The value chain analysis implies that the company has immense control of its internal and external activities, and this has contributed to its success to having a competitive advantage above its competitors.
SWOT Analysis of Amazon Report best essay help: best essay help
Amazon Incorporation is a leading American online retailing company. Amazon operates different subsidiaries in 11 nations globally. The corporation offers a wide range of services and products to its customers.
Amazon’s online presence and logistical operations have made its business competitive and successful (Mennen 27). The SWOT Analysis below offers a detailed description of Amazon’s position and performance as a leading online marketer.
SWOT Analysis Strengths
Amazon is a “great name” among its consumers in 11 countries. The company’s brand is known for its ability to fulfill the needs and expectations of many people globally. Amazon’s brand equity has made the company a leading company.
Presence of Big Selection
Amazon is definitely a giant search engine. It offers cloud computing to other companies and businesses thus making its strategy successful. Amazon is a leading search platform alongside Google and eBay.
Digital and Hardware Ecosystem
Kindle devices have made Amazon successful. The current sales of Kindle products are making it easier for Amazon to sell e-books thus improving its business. Amazon continues to add more media content and digital products thus emerging successful in the industry.
Superior Services and Products
Amazon’s consumers admire the products and services because they address their needs. This has made the company a leading competitor in the industry.
Appropriate Distribution Channels
Amazon operates its business in different countries across the world. To make this process successful, Amazon has developed an efficient logistics and supply chain (Mennen 13).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weaknesses
Taking on Competition
Amazon has tried to dominate new sectors and compete with existing giants (Mennen 13). This has resulted in losses that making the business less profitable. This means that Amazon should concentrate mainly on its core business.
Reduced Margin Businesses
Amazon records high volumes of sales that translate into low profits. The company has a huge market share but earns very little from the increased level of sales. Amazon’s profits are minimal in comparison to those of other retailers.
Although the company’s online presence is a major strength, it becomes a weakness because it is the only platform for marketing its products. This explains why the company is unable to market its products globally (Mennen 64).
More people are using the internet today. Amazon stands a chance to benefit from this new development. The company can utilize the current use of the internet to advertise and market its products to the global consumer.
In the recent past, Amazon began to market different grocery products using ‘mail space’. People are presently consuming such products than ever before (Damsch 29). This explains why Amazon will continue promoting a profitable business.
Amazon is presently operating in many countries. The company has numerous opportunities to expand its business. The company can build its unique presence in different countries such as India, China, South Africa, and Brazil.
Online Payment System
The world is becoming digital. More people are using online payment methods to execute different transactions. Amazon can strengthen its business from this opportunity because more customers can pay instantly (Damsch 38).
We will write a custom Report on SWOT Analysis of Amazon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Threats
Cybercrime and phishing have become common than ever before. Such online crimes target the companies like Amazon that operate their businesses online (Mennen 103). Hackers can attack the company’s website thus affecting its business.
Amazon continues to face numerous legal challenges and lawsuits from different competitors and customers. Such lawsuits continue to affect Amazon’s performance.
In the recent past, different companies have formed alliances to compete with Amazon. This means that Amazon should realign its business strategy in order to remain competitive and profitable in the online retailing industry (Mennen 13).
The online industry continues to attract more companies and marketers than ever before. Smaller corporations like “Groupon Corporation” continue to dominate the industry (Damsch 64). This explains why Amazon might lose its business.
Implications for Amazon’s Business Performance It is notable that Amazon is a leading online marketer despite the current threats and weaknesses. However, if the company is to remain competitive, it is necessary to consider some of the best business models in order to improve its business (Damsch 74). For example, the SWOT Analysis indicates that Amazon should focus on its core businesses.
As well, the company needs to advertise widely and invest in new markets. The company should design the most secure online systems and security measures to deal with hackers. With these considerations, the company will continue using its current strengths and opportunities to promote its business.
Works Cited Damsch, Manfred. Amazon Marketing Strategy. New York: Longman, 2011. Print.
Mennen, Miriam. Global Corporate Strategy: A Critical Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2010. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SWOT Analysis of Amazon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Making His Way to the Top: The Orphan Who Works His Way to the Top Essay essay help: essay help
One of Eliot’s most influential works, Middlemarch is literally packed with characters that, nevertheless, turn out to be fully developed and have unique personalities. Obviously unwilling to resort to creating stereotypes, Eliot managed to create unique story arches for each and every one of them – and, naturally, they all leave an impression.
One of the major characters to the plot, Lydgate is a mixture between a positive and a negative character, who, on the one hand, fights stereotypes and, on the other hand, reinforces them, which, combined with his passion for science and complete disregard of the everyday world, makes him one of the most memorable characters in the book.
One of the most fascinating things about Lydgate’s character is that it cannot be classified as either the positive or the negative character in the context of the II and the II parts of the book. True, he does make a few mistakes, yet his intents are never malicious, and he clearly means no harm. His naivety and self-absorbedness, however, clearly shows that he is far from being perfect, therefore, adding a touch of humanity to him and making him more relatable.
To start with, his dreams are completely unrealistic; like a stereotypical mad scientist, he craves to cognize the entire world, whence his major flaws, like self-assurance, stem from: “From that hour Lydgate felt the growth of an intellectual passion” (Eliot).
In his pursuit of what he considers the essence of existence and the pinnacle of human thought, he leaves a number of important elements of a social life, like interactions with the people around him, out. In addition, he has an interesting yet tragic history of relationship: “Lydgate was in love with this actress, as a man is in love with a woman whom he never expects to speak to” (Eliot).
However, with all these flaws and strange traits of character, Lydgate is never portrayed weird to the point where he becomes unlikable or unrelatable. Tertius Lydgate is one of those characters that prefer acting instead of sympathizing; he would check the patient’s pulse rather than listen to his/her tedious stories of feeling unbearably bad.
Hence, it could be argued that, though being seemingly cold-hearted, he helped much better than those who spent their time listening to others’ stories with compassion, yet did little to no effort to help people out.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In many ways, Lydgate’s attitude towards the rest of the humankind is vastly predetermined by his profession; condescending and benevolent, he is concerned much more with the results of his actions than with the process of interacting with other people: “I have seen him. He gave me his vote. I must call to thank him. He seems a very bright pleasant little fellow. And I understand he is a naturalist” (Eliot).
Although Lydgate might seem a comparatively unsophisticated element of Eliot’s story, as the character evolves, one may notice that he is actually very nuanced and complex. Instead of portraying him as a traditional anti-social researcher, Eliot decides to breathe a new life into a worn-out character stereotype and create a compelling personality out of it.
Miraculously enough, she succeeds – one of the few appealing male characters in the book, Lydgate finally comes out of the shell that he was originally confined to due to the stereotype of a scientist engrossed in researches. While making him somewhat socially awkward, the author adds him unique charm, thus, creating an original and truly memorable character.
Works Cited Eliot, George. Middlemarch. 1871. Web. .
Trifles Essay online essay help
Susan Glaspell’s play “Trifles” dates back to 1916. The play was written in a period of great strife in both social and literary fronts. Glaspell’s play is based on real life events that she witnessed when working as a reporter. The play is based on the playwright’s observations as opposed to real life events.
“Trifles” features a scarce character pool of main characters. There are three women and three men in the play. All the characters in this play a vital role to the play’s development. Some of Glaspell’s characters in this play are flat while the others are more rounded. This essay explores the roundness or flatness of the characters in “Trifles” and their conformity to stereotypes.
The main difference between flat and round characters is that flat characters do not change as much as round characters do. Rounded characters seem more interesting because they develop in the course of the story. Round characters are also more believable because their complexity resonates with the audience.
On the other hand, flat characters remain static in the course of the play. In “Trifles”, the women characters are rounded as opposed to the men characters who are more flat. Glaspell uses a unique methodology of character development in her one-act play.
The main conflict in the play is the murder of John Wright. Although the murder is not solved in the course of the play, some characters are able to develop. The men characters are obviously flat characters. Mr. Hale and the sheriff are both middle-aged men who come to Mr. Wright’s house to investigate his murder.
Mr. Hale is a neighbor to the Wright family. His character does not undergo any major changes or transformations. Hale only provides information to the audience. We learn about details of the murder from Hale. All of Hale’s statements are static from the beginning to the end.
The sheriff’s character does not provide much input to the story. The only thing we know is that the sheriff is here on official duty. Most of his dialogue is used to reveal what is happening on the stage. Both the sheriff and Mr. Hale are not interesting characters and their input to the play’s plot is negligible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The county attorney George Henderson came to Mr. Wright’s house in his capacity as an investigator. It is also probable that his job will also include prosecuting Mrs. Wright in case she is tried for her husband’s murder. He is portrayed as a young professional who looks down upon women. His initial feeling is that Mrs. Wright is guilty for the murder of her husband and she should be charged in court for it.
His conviction does not change throughout the story and his distaste for Mrs. Wright is evident. For instance, at one time he criticizes her house keeping skills. All the men in the play conform to stereotypes in several ways. First, they are quick to dismiss any ideas that come from the women even though they are crucial to the investigation (Glaspell 1095). The men believe that women cannot be of any help to the investigation.
However, in the end it is the women who find a possible motive to the murder. Moreover, the men expect the women to obey them and that is why the attorney does not bother to check them for any concealed evidence when it is time to leave the Wright’s house.
Both Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale are well-rounded characters and their character growth is evident throughout the play. Their characters’ development is verified through their feelings, emotions, and feelings. Mrs. Peters is the wife to the sheriff. She defends the men in the room by claiming that their actions are justified because they are only doing their jobs.
She does not seem very opinionated and tends to believe what the men-folk say. However, she is the first to discover that the birdcage is empty. She reckons that bullies are very hurtful and they too deserve to feel the pain they inflict on others. She moves from being a follower to being Mrs. Hale’s co-conspirator. She acts against the attorney’s wishes when she colludes with Mrs. Hale and they hide the evidence.
Mrs. Hale is the most rounded character in the play. In the beginning of the play, she is standing in a corner with Mrs. Peters until the men beckon them to get closer to the stove to seek warmth. Mrs. Hale was acquainted with Mrs. Wright even before she was married. After a few recollections, she starts feeling guilty for having neglected Mrs. Wright (Glaspell 1048).
She genuinely feels sorry for Mrs. Wright and jumps at the opportunity to help her by hiding the dead bird. The women in the play do not abide to any common stereotypes.
We will write a custom Essay on Trifles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the attorney assumes that Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Wright are friends just because they are neighbors. This assumption is based on the stereotype that all women are social beings. The women also defy stereotypes by keeping the information they found in Mrs. Wright’s kitchen to themselves.
Works Cited Glaspell, Susan. Trifles-The Heath Anthology of American Literature Vol D. Ed. Paul Lauter, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. Print.
Sherry Turkle’s Alone Together Essay essay help: essay help
Book Review “Alone Together” is a book that was written in 2011 exploring the sociological and technological aspects that have become part of human lives. The author of this book Sherry Turkle has also written other books that explore the relationship between human beings and computers in a modern-world setting. Turkle’s body of work includes a trilogy of books that explore this subject.
“Alone Together” is not a mere rhetoric on the subject of human beings and computers but it also delves deeper into this subject. Turkle’s book is able to provide readers with both an internal and an external analysis of the ways in which new technology has changed basic human interaction. “Alone Together” is very resourceful to both those who agree with the author and those who do not agree with her.
The author of this book has over three years of experience when it comes to cataloguing the complicated relationship between man and computer. Prior to “Alone Together”, Turkle had written two other books on the same subject.
This particular book seeks to examine the activities of human beings in both virtual and real spaces. This mode of examination is in line with the assumption that human beings today exist in a largely technological platform. In Turkle’s words, it is important for us to know “how we got to this place and whether we are content to be here” (Turkle 121).
This book is guided by the author’s psychoanalytic perspective. The author is a trained psychologist and she employs her vocation in her analysis of the relationship between the inanimate computers and human beings. The skills employed by the author are sufficient enough to formulate a coherent and substantial argument.
The author is not only a trained psychologist but she also has worked at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) as a faculty member for over thirty years. Her tenure at the MIT has provided her with valuable insight into computer culture.
The author’s background provides her with the necessary authority on her subject of choice. The author is also able to maintain the necessary balance between technological and psychological aspects of her case study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The book begins by cataloguing “The Robotic Movement”. According to the author, modern children have unusual companionships with their robots. The author claims that children have ‘love-filled’ relationships with their robots. This claim might seem outrageous to most people. However, the author substantiates her claim by giving examples of various children-robot relationships.
For instance, the author gives an example of the genuine sadness that children display when their Tomagotchis die. The book also gives a vivid description of human beings’ habits when they are playing the computer game “Second Life”. The author is able to prove that people display similar emotions to their virtual companions as they do to real ones.
While the notion of human beings showing emotions to robots is outrageous at first, the author is able to give solid examples that prove her line of thinking. The book is able to offer prove that indeed human beings are beginning to treat digital objects as if they are both machines and creatures. The author is also able to predict that this development is bound to make human beings more vulnerable.
The methods employed by the author as part of her research are not only practical but they also provide a fascinating insight into the world of robot technology. In one instance, the book lists an incident in which Turkle was investigating how robots are being used as a remedy for loneliness.
This research takes her into a home for the elderly where robots have replaced human beings as sources of companionship. Among the interesting aspects of this particular study, is that the robots in the nursing home were initially meant to ‘cure’ loneliness among the elderly people who were living in the nursing home.
In addition, the robots were also supposed to assuage the regrets of those who had broken ties with their families (Turkle 124). However, the author wonders how suppressing one’s conscience amounts to a solution. Human beings are kept on a moral path by their conscience and suppressing that conscience is not a solution.
Most religions and moral codes that are taught around the world stand vehemently against ‘moral complacency’. According to Turkle, what the Japanese scientists are calling a solution might indeed be a problem. Another interesting observation that was made by the author in the course of this research is the irony of these healthcare robots.
We will write a custom Essay on Sherry Turkle’s Alone Together specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The healthcare robots project was initially meant to “heal our wounds and pull us back towards the physical real and thus each other” (Turkle 146). However, the robots achieve this connection by decreasing the rate of human interaction. The irony of the healthcare robots is one of the highlights of Turkle’s book.
It makes the concept of human beings trying to alienate their loneliness through robots seem circular in nature.
According to the author, the over-dependence on robots is bound to cause problems eventually. The reason she gives for her conviction is that robots are styled to capitalize on human instincts. The book offers several examples of the gullibility of human instincts. One example is when children play with the robotic pet Tomagotchi.
It takes a very short time for children to express humanistic interests towards the inanimate Tomagotchis. The author reckons that even adults tend to show sympathy towards robots. This assertion may be true considering the amount of resources that are usually put towards developing robots. It shows that there is a hunger for supplementary human connection.
For example, the author gives an example of a pricy sex doll that costs more than three thousand dollars. Considering that the cost of actual human connection would be much less than the three thousand dollars, it is easy to see things from the author’s perspective.
Human beings are desperate to substitute human interactions for robotic attachments. This unhealthy attachment is bound to cause problems because eventually the human-to-human connection might seem untenable.
Most of the claims made in “Alone Together” are one-sided. The author does not delve into the opposing side’s argument but instead stays in her path against human-technological attachments. While there are thousands of stories about the failures of human-technological attachments, there are tens of thousands of stories about the successes of these attachments.
There is a school of thought that argues that humans turn to technology to compliment their existing social relationships and not to substitute them. This pokes holes into Turkle’s one-sided hypothesis that human beings turn to technology as an alternative to human connections.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sherry Turkle’s Alone Together by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, a study that was conducted to gauge the impact of online social networking on human beings revealed that it improves psychological health. In addition, interactions on the internet were found to improve the self-esteem of individuals suffering from low self-esteem.
Another study that was conducted at Michigan State University revealed that the individuals who regularly used Facebook had more social capital than the individuals who were not Facebook users. All these studies show that the author’s claims might be exaggerated to some point and they are not necessarily accurate.
While the book provides a lot of new insight into how humans relate to technology, it does not provide any new concerns to its readers. For instance, from the time the internet was invented, several office workers have had to contend with extended working hours.
Therefore, the book only provides new aspects of a problem that has been in existence for a few decades now. However, the intensity of the author’s research is able to overshadow this shortcoming and deliver a convincing argument. For example, the interviews with children are a fresh input to books that explore impacts of technology on humans.
Sherry Turkle’s book has a broad target-audience that includes communication scholars, sociologists, psychologists, and researchers. Apart from this target audience, the book can also provide an interesting perspective to anyone who might be interested in understanding the nature of human beings.
The author has bestowed appropriate and relevant bibliographical notes upon her readers throughout the book. “Alone Together” purposefully offers a one sided argument on the dangers of human-technological interaction.
The author chose to dwell on the negative aspects of this interaction in order to persuade readers to notice what the quest for connectedness can yield. The research used in making this book is impressive to both scholars and other curious readers. Overall, the book provides a rich source of new information pertaining to human-technological connectivity.
Works Cited Turkle, Sherry. Alone Together: Why We Expect More From Technology and Less From Each Other, New York, NY: Basic Books, 2011. Print.
Nucleon, Inc.: Recommendations and Justifications of Phases I, II, and III Case Study best college essay help
In the first phase, Nucleon undertook to build a pilot facility to produce the Cell Regulating Protein 1 (CRP-1). It was noted that the company did not have immediate personnel to sustain the functionality of the facility, such as quality assurance, logistics and repairs. This is despite the fact that the company worked with scholars in the field that the facility would serve.
The other risk was that if the clinical trial failed, the plant would not generate the other products immediately. This manufacturing facility was not yet ready to engage in most of the products (Roy 8). It is recommended that the company carries out a gap analysis on the goal, facility and implementation of its projects (International Facility Management Association 6).
This will enable the company to plan for the possibilities of failed trials or technical mishaps in its projected functions. A gap analysis would reveal the capacity of Nucleon Inc. in terms of human resources and the means of developing on-job skills. The analysis will determine the difference between the actual potential of the company and its ideal potential (International Facility Management Association 6).
It is also recommended that Nucleon determines the time that it would require to set up the facility, in addition to the time required to recruit and train the personnel of the designated responsibilities (International Facility Management Association 6).
This would require working with the existing experts in a different facility and using strategic simulations. After all, the contract option would require a company with such expertise and personnel (Roy 9).
In contraction, Nucleon should have a selective approach by agreeing with the potential contractor on the level of information disclosure. It should be recommended that for every level of information disclosure, the prospective contractor should make a corresponding commitment to the program (Kirk 202).
It is also recommended that the company considers the limits within which it may engage in legal battles, in case of a breach of contract. The other costs may arise in form of monitoring and evaluation and transactional fees (Kirk 202).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third phase of the CRP-1 project would involve licensing the product to another company. Roy observes that Nucleon would have numerous benefits in form of money, reduced costs of production, and marketing (Roy 10). It is recommended that Nucleon should license the product to another company. This would allow the company to concentrate on strengthening its technology and thus, promoting innovation (Friedman 285).
However, Nucleon Inc. must put in place measures to ensure that the licensed company operates within the agreement. Licensing would also allow the company to prepare for more complex and capital demanding projects.
The pilot facility would cost Nucleon about $7.394 million and the estimated cost of the clinical trial was $4.795 million. The estimated gross sales would be $53.7 million, $99.5 million, $125 million, $130 million, and $150 million in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 respectively (Roy 15).
To determine the net value of the project, the company and its stakeholders must establish the monetary costs in the three phases. Some of the parameters to include are the cost of approval, the costs of material and facility, and the costs of training personnel. The non-monetary costs may include the costs of improving the technology, environmental factors and the average time of preparation and piloting (Stewart 7-8).
The value of the project increases with the approval of each phase. This should be determined over time in phase 1, 2 and 3 (Stewart 11). Although the valuation is done per stage, it is vital to factor in the risks of the project. The risk-adjusted cash flow is explained in an empirical formulation or in qualitative parameters of various operations (Stewart 10).
Works Cited Friedman, Yale, Intellectual property and biotechnology innovation: To protect or not to protect 15.4: 285-286. 2009. Print.
International Facility Management Association, Strategic Facility Planning: A white paper. Houston, TX: IFMA. 2009. Print.
We will write a custom Case Study on Nucleon, Inc.: Recommendations and Justifications of Phases I, II, and III specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kirk, Dorothy, Selecting University technology Transfer Modes: An examination of Biotechnology Firms’ Entrepreneurial Orientation. Journal of technology management and innovation 8.2: 189-208. 2013. Print.
Roy, Raja “Nucleon, Inc.” Harvard Business School 692.41 (1994): 1-16. Print.
Stewart, Jeffrey, Biotechnology valuations for the 21st Century, Milkens Institute 17.2: 1- 12. 2002. Print.
The Ethical and Legal Standards of Capital Punishment Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Death penalty and deterrence of crime
The economic costs of death penalty
Capital punishment and retribution
Introduction The use of death penalty has been debated by many legislators and policy-makers who find the most optimal solutions to different social problems. Various professionals attempt to determine whether capital punishment is an effective policy or a costly mistake.
This is the main issue that should be discussed in this paper. Overall, it is possible to argue that this policy should be abolished because it is not an effective method of crime prevention. This is the main thesis that should be illustrated. In particular, one can say that this policy does not deter people from committing felonies, especially homicides.
There is no relationship between such variables as capital punishment and the level violence in the society. Secondly, this form of punishment can pose a threat to innocent people who may be falsely convicted. Furthermore, the economic costs of this policy should not be overlooked because in many cases they are excessive.
Yet, one should consider the arguments of people who support capital punishment. Much attention should be paid to the claim according to which death penalty is the only possible punishment for some crimes such as genocide or mass killings. These are the main questions that should be discussed more closely.
Death penalty and deterrence of crime The supporters of death penalty argue that this policy can be viewed an effective deterrent of violent crime. To some degree, this argument is based on the premise that individuals always evaluate the positive and negative consequences of their decisions. Therefore, a person is less likely to commit a felony if he/she knows that this action may lead to his/her death.
The validity of this argument has been examined by many scholars. First, they note that many homicides do not entail capital punishment (Fagan, Zimring,
Improving Tech-Shield’s brand visibility Proposal college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Tech-Shield’s proposed branding strategy
Proposed marketing channels
Objectives of social media in Tech-Shield
Marketing strategy is essential before actualizing projections of a marketing plan blue print. As a matter of fact, this plan functions on the margins of informed decision making after comprehensive research on viability and sustainability of a new product or a modified product (Stokes 25).
In the overcrowded industry where Tech-Shield operates in, product positioning is directly linked to the success in the short and long term especially for a new product. In order to achieve the desired goals, positioning ensures clear difference of the new product from the existing products. This paper explores different marketing and branding strategies that the Tech-Shield Company needs to adapt to remain competitive.
Adopting a First-Mover Strategy, Tech-Shield will position its products as the first of its kind in the Wal-Mart market. Through a defined delivery channel and strong media marketing, the company will revolve on quality maintenance to support the leading marketer status (Weiss 34).
In the process, focus will be directed to the most competitive price and what the customers are able and willing to pay. In order to cut a unique niche, the right audience will be captivated by the affordable prices for the company’s products.
Despite the crowded market, the product will be marketed as first of its kind in the UK market. In order to achieve this aim, demographic differentiation will be based on income supported by strategic packaging and series of relevant marketing campaigns as the best approach towards commanding a price premium.
As a result, the fair pricing mechanism among other factors will skew competitive advantage positively. In addition, the company intends to recruit distribution agencies across the market regions and well trained marketers for these products.
Tech-Shield’s proposed branding strategy In order to diversify market operations, Tech-Shield should create multiple products from the same product with different coloration, sizes, and packaging (Stokes 31). This will create an environment of own competition and block other competitors from encroaching into the company’s market (Weiss 29).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These sub-products will be differentiated by features, prices, and difference in quality. As forecasted in the market research, this strategy will be successful towards dominance as it offers variety of options to consumers, while at the same time, maximizing benefits of economies of scale (Stokes 27).
Since technology based market has low entry barriers, Tech-Shield is likely to reap from the experimenting consumers as the product may appeal to the young male generation who are often willing to try new products. The high and the low end varieties will target the high and low income earning consumers.
With the high end and low end varieties in the market, little room will be available for competitors to create a third product based on quality (Weiss 25). Thus, when properly implemented, the company will reap major returns on the upper and lower ends of the UK market.
Proposed marketing channels The internet offers a wide range of communication tools that ride on the social dimension of the online experience. The communicative power of the internet has essentially replaced much of the traditional tools particularly in the world of traditional advertising in print and broadcast media (Cheverton 21).
Marketing a product via a website requires different strategies that will ensure that clients get the products within reasonable satisfaction level. Properly designed online marketing and product distribution management facilitated the success and sustainability in online marketing for Tech-Shield since it operates within stipulated business laws.
Social media, especially Facebook and Twitter, have gained popularity among the users of Tech-Shield’s products. In e marketing industry, social media has penetrated the communication environment and currently commands a large following among the users. Reflectively, Facebook and Tweeter are ideal tools foe branding and community following building for the company’s products.
Digital technology will help the company to reach their customers by skipping or by-passing the traditional gatekeepers, such as written magazines publishers, and placing them online so that customers can get them directly (Stokes 51).
We will write a custom Proposal on Improving Tech-Shield’s brand visibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Objectives of social media in Tech-Shield The objectives of social media is building a strong a brand and following. Through likes and tweets, the customer base for the company will expand substantially over a short period of time. Social media focuses on e-marketing which involves building friendly partnership and working relationship with a market segment without necessarily having physical contact with it.
Properly designed online marketing and product distribution management facilitate the success and sustainability in online marketing. To increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the current bomb internet channels of reaching the consumers should be tailored to encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate a healthy and lifetime relationship between the business and its clients.
Among the new development elements that the Tech-Shield should incorporate include passing accurate information to target audience. Creation of content is extremely essential when dealing with internet marketing communication within the online marketing industry (Stokes 41).
It is necessary to determine the online behavior of the target market before selecting the best channel for internet marketing for the company to minimize the issue of changed consumer preference. Essentially, success of brand and product management depends on a proper alignment of a functional idea into the creation of flexible, involuntary, and quantifiable measurement of perception among the target audience.
Thus, through advertising campaigns and promotional strategy that is defined by the nature of the market, the size of the market, and the preferences of its customers, the company should carry out a link reference promotion where the website user with the highest number of referral links is rewarded with free products. This will create a long term loyalty among clients (Weiss 42).
Customer relationship management is the first step towards customer relationship and to expand the distribution channels that attract near markets.
Reflectively, the concept will revolve around a comprehensive review of ‘push and pull’ factors which determine functionality of the company to offer an alternative strong marketing tool in the quest for quality, reliability, and trust among clients. A properly designed mud mapping plan will be crucial in presenting brand knowledge, awareness, penetration strategy and passing information to target audience (Cheverton 34).
Conclusion Mass media services are mainly concern with generation of modern cultures. Cultural values normally influence whatever values that are generated by mass media. Cultural values normally dictate what consumers would purchase; in fact, people buy certain signs when they are driven by the implication conveyed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Improving Tech-Shield’s brand visibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, semiotics plays a significant role in the ads because it inspects signs and implication that are conveyed and thus alerts the users about the relevance of the product. Semiotic is the process in which things are identified as signs. Therefore, marketing strategy as part of consumer behavior analysis for this company will be aligned to the ideal as perceived by consumers.
Works Cited Cheverton,Philip. Key marketing skills: strategies, tools, and techniques for marketing success, London, UK: Kogan Page, 2004. Print.
Stokes, Raymond. eMarketing: The essential guide to digital marketing, London, UK: Quirk eMarketing (Pty) Ltd, 2011. Print.
Weiss, Joseph. Business Ethics: A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, Mason, OH: Cengage, 2008. Print.
Science and the use of non-renewable energy resources Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help
It is indeed true that the knowledge behind science can be used to answer several questions on non-renewable energy. For instance, should we use non-renewable energy resources? How can the non-renewable energy resources be used? This part of the essay will explore these questions using oil in the Middle East as an example.
To begin with, physical science has a rich knowledge on non-renewable energy resources. A dominant example of non-renewable resource is oil. It cannot be renewed because once the oil fields have been depleted; it is not possible to carry out additional mining activities (Zycher, 2011).
For example, even though the Middle East region is rich in oil as a natural resource, the wells will eventually dry up if mining activities continue over an extended length of time.
It is scientific knowledge that the use of fossil fuels such as oil leads to the pollution of the environment. When fossil fuels undergo the process of combustion, the hydrocarbons are transformed into carbon-dioxide and water molecules. There are some traces of fossil fuels that also emit poisonous gases when subjected to heat. For example, hydrogen sulfide is one such toxic gas.
This implies that the use of oils or fossil fuels poses unique environmental challenges. Carbon dioxide is largely responsible for greenhouse effect when emitted into the environment. It is a major greenhouse gas that has been responsible for the warming effect in the atmosphere (Ryley
The Role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in Tourism Marketing Essay essay help: essay help
Tourism involves the travelling of people from one country to another country or within a country. The connection between tourism and indigenous is that the tourism industry must include traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) because it will help to enhance their tourism products and increase benefits to the local community.
However, failure to incorporate TEK will lead to lack of leaping maximum benefits. Moreover, ignoring TEK and the local practices and resource management will continue the dispossession pattern and displacement mainly linked with external tourism development.
Tourism marketing can incorporate the indigenous people and their practices. The tourism products can be developed around the indigenous people’s culture and practices. Tourists then will come and experience the culture of the people in the raw form because it will be appealing to them.
Besides, the indigenous people’s activities may attract people that love the outdoors. The visitors will come, and visit the community especially if the locals are involved as they will welcome them and share their culture hence it will be a win- win for all the stakeholders. Therefore, marketers should incorporate the environmental practices of the indigenous communities to expand the tourism scope.
More importantly, ecotourism should be guided by market demand so that the products created do not become short lived and disappear. Furthermore, indigenous tourism will be appealing if the artifacts tourists buy are authentic because they will shun fake ones although some will buy them as souvenirs.
On the contrary, the image the marketers portray to the tourists in their indigenous tourism products may not be the actual picture on the ground, and it may lead to disappointments. However, it is important to have a positive image of the indigenous locations to attract the tourists. The marketers should provide appropriate images of the indigenous communities to avoid distortion and stereotyping.
Besides, indigenous tourism provides added value for tourists involved in mainstream tourism and with proper links, tourists will be able to experience the indigenous communities. The links will provide information and contact with the indigenous communities and enable the tourists to experience indigenous tourism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The links also help the marketers to determine the value of goods and services and identify potential markets and the seasonal trends. The information they gather from the links help in their marketing campaigns to tourists.
More importantly, tourism should involve the indigenous community. They should take part in decision making so that they can also own the tourism, and they will embrace it instead of seeing the tourists as intruders, and an interruption of their way of life.
Through the involvement of the locals they will help to conserve the environment and hence tourism will go on for a long time because they will take part in their own way and terms.
Finally, indigenous tourism can open up more opportunities for the local communities to make money by opening up their environment to tourists. They offer an experience that is not found in any other place. If the environment is sustained through cooperation of the locals and the tourism industry such attractions will be sought for long.
On the other hand, indigenous tourism has challenges such as stereotype and such problems can be overcome through proper integration of all the stakeholders to increase the marketability of indigenous tourist locations. Indigenous tourism is bound to remain a very relevant part of tourism and will provide income and empower many communities.
Demonstrative Communication Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Demonstrative (nonverbal) language refers to the practice of communicating by means of wordless signals (Hargie, 2012). This form of communication comprises all non-worded messages that are employed in everyday communication.
When communicating orally these non-worded messages are conveyed through accentuation, tonal variation, pauses during speech, the posture of the body during conversation, gestures, and changes in facial expressions. Nonverbal messages play a significant part in our day-to-day communication and makes up more than 90 percent of our total communication.
Therefore, effective communication demands that one understands the different signals applied in nonverbal communication and the different ways of decoding these signals. This paper looks at the various forms of nonverbal communication as well as their effectiveness to the sender as well as to the receiver.
Various Forms of Nonverbal Communication From the time a child is born, he uses signs like crying to pass messages. Most people attach meaning to body gesture and nonverbal signals depending on their social conditioning. The following section looks at some of the commonly used forms of nonverbal communication.
Body Posture This refers to the orientation of the narrator’s body. The posture of the body should not be confused with body gesture. Unlike gestures that change considerably during conversation, posture is a steady state. The positioning of the body is often meant to serve a certain objective. It can also be due to the expectations in a certain setting.
For example, the body posture expected in a classroom or office is different from the posture at home or in a social gathering. Certain postures such as leaning or slumping denote relaxation and ease. However, such postures can send a negative signal of the speaker’s attitude about the topic. The listener’s posture is also important as it reflects his attentiveness or feelings towards the issue being discussed.
Intonation Intonation refers to alterations in a person’s voice during speech. It is through intonation that we establish whether a person is asking a question or making a statement. In case the sender asks a question, the pitch is raised at the end of the sentence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the tone usually falls towards the end of the sentence if the sender makes a statement. Intonation can also be used to indicate punctuation in speech such as commas and exclamation marks. Intonation also aids in putting emphasis on certain words that the listener is supposed to observe.
Tone of Voice The voice tone should not be confused with intonation. The tone of voice refers to the way the speaker’s attitude about the issue being discussed is reflected in speech. It is the speaker’s way of seeking a response from the listener.
The tone of the voice varies considerably based on the place of discussion as well as the topic being discussed. In a heated debate, for example, the tone is often upbeat while when reporting facts on a weather channel, the tone is factual and plain. Other scenarios may witness varying degrees of change in voice tones such as hostile, critical, friendly or excited.
Body Gestures These are actions made using parts of the body like the hands or the head to stress, denote, approve, state, or support an orator’s message or attitude. It usually accompanies oral communication, but can also be used when talking to a deaf person.
Body acts that do not require verbal supplement are usually referred to as emblems. For instance, ‘high five’ or waving when saying goodbye contains explicit meaning on its own without the addition of verbal messages.
Facial Expressions and other Forms of Nonverbal Communication Facial expressions are a good way of telling the emotions of the speaker or the receiver about a certain issue since the face is often seen as the main source of sensations. The expressions vary considerably throughout the interaction and can transition from a smile to a frown or sneer based on the sender’s emotions on the topic.
Other forms of nonverbal communication include long or short pauses in the middle of a conversation. Such pauses have significant impact on the communication process depending on their timing and length.
We will write a custom Essay on Demonstrative Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Impact of Nonverbal Communication Not only is nonverbal communication important in a face-to-face communication setting, but it also plays a significant role in mediated scenarios such as interpretations where the listener cannot visualize the speaker (Thompson, 2002).
For instance, using the wrong tone can send the wrong message to the receiver and can distort the intended meaning. The sender must, therefore, understand the meaning of what he wishes to pass on and the context of the conversation to avoid such misunderstanding.
The main challenge of nonverbal communication lies in the interpretation or misinterpretation of certain signals. Signals are construed differently based on one’s culture and socialization. Another problem arises when the receiver does not understand the context of the message.
For instance, a formal message delivered in an informal or friendly tone may not be taken seriously. Gestures can also be misinterpreted. The interpretation of such a message by the listener is also vital to the way he understands the message.
Conclusion Since culture plays a vital role in the interpretation of nonverbal messages, it is important for the receiver to understand the culture of those around him and take nonverbal cues in their cultural context. This is because some messages mean different things when taken outside their cultural context. The sender must also try to ensure that he does not send the wrong signal especially in professional settings such as during interviews.
References Hargie, O. (2012). The handbook of communication skills. New York: Routledge.
Thompson, S. (2002). Communicate in the workplace. Sydney, Australia: Max Johnson.
Home Depot, Inc. Research Paper essay help online free
Introduction Home Depot, Inc. is one of the largest retail stores that deal with home improvement. The home Depot retail store was first launched in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, and since then, it has grown and opened branches in various locations. The retail store aims at being the largest retailer of home improvement (Bianchi, 2009). The retailer shop has therefore employed various strategies to obtain the largest market share.
It has worked tirelessly to meet the demands of its customers across all the regions in which it operates. The home Depot retail store employs a corporate strategy that provides it with the right direction towards its success. This paper gives a stringent analysis of the core competencies, corporate structure, corporate culture, and various strategies employed by Home Depot, Inc.
Core competencies of Home Depot, Inc Home Depot, Inc. is a one-stop shop that provides excellent products and customer services (Bianchi, 2009). The customers’ bargaining power is reduced because of the variety of products and services offered by the retail store.
Products exist in different prices and quantities and customers can choose the products according to their purchasing power. In addition to the high quality products, Home Depot, Inc. has unique strategies that value what customers purchase. It offers discounts for bulk purchases and workshop demonstrations of how to use its products.
For many years, Home Depot, Inc. had been the pacesetter of the required customer care standards for the home improvement industry. Home Depot expresses a lot of professionalism in the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) market.
Home Depot, Inc. has incorporated the latest technologies to upgrade its internal and external environment, and gain a competitive advantage by attracting professional buyers. To outdo the rest of its competitors, Home Depot employs the product differentiation strategy that enables it to supply a wide range of products and services.
Due to its massive size, Home Depot, Inc. enjoys the privileges associated with a large economy of scale. It obtains bulk discounts from the suppliers, and thus, the retail store has been in a position to share the associated advantages to its customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Home Depot, Inc. sells its products at considerably low prices. It is also noteworthy that Home Depot, Inc. deals with highly essential products, whether there is a recession or not, because people must buy their products to upgrade and fix their households.
Therefore, while other markets are greatly affected during tough economic conditions, Home Depot, Inc. will always enjoy massive profits because of the immense range of products it sells.
VRIO analysis In carrying out a VRIO analysis for Home Depot, Inc., there is a need to speculate about the products and services offered at the Home Depot, and identify if they really have a competitive advantage. The VRIO analysis considers the Value, Rarity, Imitation, and Organization.
Value: Home Depot is one of the largest sellers of products and services in home improvement. Its products are highly valued and demanded even in times of difficult economic conditions.
Rarity: Home Depot is one of the many retail stores that deal with home improvement products and services. Its products are not rare as they are available in other home improvement stores. However, its rarity occurs in its price differentiation strategy as well as the esteemed customer care services.
Imitation: Home Depot obtains its products from entrusted suppliers, and its products are always original. While there could be cases of fraud due to imitated products, it is a rare occurrence. Fraudsters can imitate the products, but they cannot fake the seals. Moreover, potential customers will always purchase their products from entrusted retail stores like the Home Depot.
Organization: Home Depot, Inc. has a staunch organization and corporate culture that insists on value, rarity, and originality. It would be very difficult and very expensive for an organization to imitate the products, services, and standard of the Home Depot, Inc.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Home Depot, Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Business model Home Depot, Inc. has employed the Environment-Strategy-Structure-Operations (ESSO) business model as shown below.
Environment: Home Depot, Inc.’s management team takes a stringent analysis of the external environment of business to identify the possible threats, as well as business opportunities. Since the competitors present the threats, the retail store has developed various differentiation strategies to have a competitive advantage over its competitors.
Business developers of Home Depot, Inc. have always worked towards ensuring that they identify new business opportunities. Moreover, the marketers have always worked tirelessly to ensure that they obtain new customers, as well as maintain the old ones.
Strategy: After accessing the external environment, Home Depot, Inc.’s managers respond by employing different strategies to respond to the identified loopholes. In case there is a market opportunity, the managers would consider making the necessary arrangements to open up new stores. If there is a customer satisfaction issue, a strategy is employed to address it accordingly.
The Home Depot retailers continuously employ the product and price differentiation strategies to maintain its customers and gain new ones. The home improvement retailer always works towards ensuring that it maintains the government standard requirements to safeguard its reputation.
Structure: Home Depot retail store has a hierarchical organizational structure, where employees have an immediate boss to address their queries. Each of the retail stores has a manager in charge that takes care of all the business activities within the store. Daily reports are sent to the central management team that monitors the progress of the various stores.
Operations: The operations department of Home Depot, Inc. takes care of all the key activities, resources, competitors, suppliers, and most importantly, the customers. The department keeps a record of all activities, identifies areas of weakness, and provides the way forward to address the issues that may arise.
Knowledge of management: The ESSO business model in Home Depot, Inc. works collectively to bring out the required knowledge of management.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Home Depot, Inc. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Value chain As discussed, Home Depot, Inc. is a retail store that deals with a wide range of products. The retail store experiences stiff competition from its competitors. However, the supporting quality customer-care service is what adds value to Home Depot products and services. The skilled and knowledgeable employees who are willing to serve customers to their satisfaction add value to the products of Home Depot, Inc.
In addition, Home Depot, Inc. employs the most innovative technologies that enhance the customer care services. The technology helps in reducing the common queues in the purchasing process.
An enhanced self-checkout system further hastens the purchasing process, especially when a customer purchases some enormous shopping. The discounts for bulk purchases and after-sales services are other factors that add value to customers who purchase products at Home Depot, Inc.
Corporate structure Home Depot, Inc. is one of the largest home improvement retailers, which has many stores. To enable the effective management of the stores, Home Depot CEO has employed three main structures, the simple, multidivisional, and functional structures (Bianchi, 2009). The simple structure operates in the small business units, which has a company head and various employees.
The various employees take orders from the company manager who makes most of the decisions. The small businesses are located across several divisions and their heads report to the multidivisional structure managers. The multidivisional corporate officers monitor and compare the performance of the small business units.
Based on reports from the simple structure managers, the multidivisional corporate officers advise the functional managers accordingly. The functional structure of Home Depot, Inc. is located in the head office. The functional structure comprises of a central CEO, small corporate staff and various organizational managers as shown in the chart below.
Corporate culture The culture that guides Home Depot, Inc. encourages its employees to have the passion to serve customers with the utmost respect (Bianchi, 2009). Home Depot culture insists on the following aspects.
Excellent customer care services: The employees are obliged to offer their customers with excellent value and knowledge of the products and services offered at the Home Depot.
Social Corporate Responsibility (CSR): Home Depot, Inc. strives to take care of the environment and the people in it. Home Depot contributes to social projects that help in the growth and development of the community.
Building strong relationships with customers, suppliers, and all stakeholders based on honesty, respect, and integrity.
Doing the right thing and accepting responsibility of all their actions.
Appreciating the time, talent, and energy invested by employees. Home Depot, Inc. does this by giving incentives and diversified employee benefits.
Corporate resource Home Depot, Inc. has seen its resources transform into capabilities. The various efforts in marketing, incorporation of technology, research, and development are some of the factors that have resulted in the growing capital of Home Depot, Inc. over the years. The various corporate resource strategies are discussed below.
Marketing: Home Depot, Inc. has invested heavily in marketing. The heavy investments in advertisements have enabled the retail shop to gain a lot of popularity. This has enabled the company to obtain new customers as well as maintain the loyalty of the old customers.
Finance: Home Depot, Inc. has maintained a good relationship with all its shareholders who help in financing the whole project. Over the years, Home Depot, Inc. has maintained growing profit inventories, and this factor has encouraged the shareholders to freely buy shares and provide funds whenever the business needs to expand.
Research and development: Research plays a very great role in enabling a business to know exactly where it heads. Home Depot, Inc. has been able to identify its main competitors through research and identified the way forward to deal with the competition (Bianchi, 2009). Through research, Home Depot, Inc. identified its strengths and weakness, and employed various strategies to improve on its weak areas.
Operations and logistics: Home Depot employs logistics to ensure that there is a strong internal network structure among the employees. Moreover, the employees are entitled to considerably high wages and benefits. The satisfied employees deliver the best services that add value to Home Depot, Inc. products and services.
Human resource: The human resource department ensures that employees are satisfied with the positions they hold in the organization. Recruitment is done whenever a new store opens, and the existing employees are promoted depending on their experience level. Everything in the human resource department is done openly to everybody’s satisfaction.
Employees who qualify to be on the management team are highly skilled and experienced because they are chosen on merit. The board of directors comprises of very competent individuals who guide the company towards the right direction. The human resource department works exclusively to bring utmost value to its employees by giving them decent wages, investing in their training, and helping their families.
Information system: One of the greatest features that place Home Depot, Inc. at its high standards is the highly upgraded information system. Home Depot, Inc. has an Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) technology that enables the employees to serve thousands of customers within the shortest time possible. The highly esteemed technologies in Home Depot, Inc. enable the retail store to track inventory records, keep accuracy, and prevent fraud cases.
IFAS table Home Depot, Inc. keeps a stringent analysis of its internal factors as shown in the table below.
Internal factors Weight Rating Weight score Comments Strengths Technological advances Improved logistics operations Process oriented R
“Hana-b” a Crime Drama Film by Takeshi Kitano Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
This paper is aimed at discussing the last scene from the film Hana-bi. It depicts Nishi and Miyuki who stand near the sea and look at the girl playing with a kite. This clip is immediately followed by the suicide of the main characters.
One can say that this clip perfectly fits the climax of this movie because it shows that the protagonists are deeply attached to one another. However, at the same time, these people understand that they spend their last moments. This clip can throw light on formal elements and themes of this movie. This is one of the main aspects that can be distinguished.
There are several formal elements in this clip. First of all, the film-makers rely mostly on medium shots which enable them to capture the non-verbal behavior of Nishi and Miyuki. The viewers can see that these people lean on one another in a very relaxed manner.
These shots may last for more than ten seconds, but they are interrupted by images of a girl who flies a kite (Hana-bi). To a great extent, these shots are necessary because the authors want to portray the ideal family that Nishi and Miyuki could have if misfortunes had not struck them.
Apart from that, the images of nature play an important role in this sequence because they reflect the calm and reconciliation achieved by the main characters. Secondly, much attention should be paid to the role which music plays in this clip. It produces the impression of serenity on the viewers. However, one should also speak about the sound of two shots, and this element suggests that these people eventually commit suicide.
Furthermore, it is important to speak about the thematic elements of this clip. First of all, the film-makers focus on suicide which plays an important role in Japanese literature, art and cinematography (Davis 71). The authors show that the main characters choose to take their lives because in this way they can escape their suffering. Additionally, this choice enables them to capture a brief moment of happiness.
This is one of the main aspects that can be distinguished. Additionally, it is important to speak about the moral strength of both characters. These people are able to enjoy the last moments together, although they understand that very soon their lives will end.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This sequence is related to the film both formally and thematically. As it has been said before, the authors pair Nishi and Miyuki with the help of medium shots. However, the authors pair Nishi with other characters such as Horibe (Gerow 142). Moreover, this film explores some of the qualities that are valued in Japanese culture.
In particular, one should speak about people’s ability to bear hardships (Gerow 146). Thus, this clip can be viewed as an inseparable part of the film.
Moreover, this movie is related to some of the main principles on which Japanese cinematography is based. In particular, Japanese film-makers prefer not to describe certain tragic events. More likely, they want viewers to form their own conclusion about the decisions of the main characters or plot development (Richie 162).
Similarly, in this movie, the film-makers only indicate that Nishi and Miyuki could take their lives, but one cannot say for sure. Therefore, one can say that this clip can throw light on the techniques used by Japanese directors. This is why it is worth attention.
Works Cited Davis, Darell. “Reigniting Japanese Tradition with Hana-Bi.” Cinema Journal 40.4 (2001): 55-80. Print.
Gerow, Aaron. Kitano Takeshi, London: British Film Institute, 2007. Print.
Hana-bi. Ex. Prod. Masayuki Mori. Tokyo: Nippon Herald Films. 1997. DVD.
We will write a custom Essay on “Hana-b” a Crime Drama Film by Takeshi Kitano specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Richie, Donald. A Lateral View: Essays on Culture and Style in Contemporary Japan, New York: Stone Bridge Press, 1988. Print.
‘Double Suicide’ – By Shinoda Masahiro Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Character of Shinoda
The art of puppet theatre in Double Suicide
Introduction Movies, akin to any other form of art, have been part of our lives since first black and white movie appeared on the big screen. The Chinese and Japanese actors have been strongly engaged in acting for a long time, with their movies carrying important facets of social, cultural, political and even economic concepts these movies reflect important problems in the lives of people (Shirane, 233).
Apart from the themes presented by dramas and movies, the form and style of art have also been important parts of movies. Among the common traditional art elements that the Chinese and Japanese movies and plays demonstrate is the art of chanting in the puppet theatre (Shirane, 233).
This form of puppet art dominated Japanese and Chinese acting styles throughout the history. Double Suicide is a 1969’s movie that Shinoda Masahiro produced specifically to demonstrate the 1721’st puppet play. Central to exploring the issue of the puppet art, this essay makes a movie analysis of the Double Suicide to provide a comprehensive insight into the art of the Japanese puppet theatre.
The Character of Shinoda Shinoda Masahiro, with the help of Chikamatsu Monzaemon, developed this movie purposely to demonstrate the elements of 1721 puppet play, popularly described as Bunraku in Japanese art. Double Suicide is one of the unique Japanese films whose stylization across all levels of the actions remains exquisitely persistent (Rutherford, par. 1).
Double Suicide puts more emphasis on the aspects of artifice or stage tricks where the Bunraku puppet theatre dominates throughout the play from the first scene. Following the pre-modern Japanese style developed by Monzaemon Chikamatsu, Double suicide is a film based solely because on the puppet theater styles.
According to Rutherford, “Double Suicide adopts the conventions and style of these almost life-size wooden puppets, with their visible, black-clad, hooded puppeteers, into the form of the film.” (par.3). The most dominant and emphatic self-importance aspect of Double Suicide is the Kurogo, who present themselves as puppeteers covered and unmasked.
Shinoda’s Double suicide film tends to transform the Japanese form of acting from the traditional puppet theatre style to the modern cinematographic design (Ebrey, 295).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main characteristic argument distinguished in the movie that surrounds Bunraku theatre is the presence of disagreement involving social commitments within the Japanese societies, also known as giri and the ninjo that describes personal desires.
As demonstrated by Rutherford, “Shinoda uses the theatrical impulse here to stage a drama of the overwhelming, excessive power of eroticism to rupture the stultifying, quotidian demands of social convention.” (par. 6).
The techniques of using reflections of the wooden puppets and hooded puppeteers and replacing them with the human actors demonstrate crucial transformation from the traditional performance techniques to the contemporary cinematic practices of the modern Japanese art (Cornyetz, 102).
By only replacing the traditional wooden puppets with human beings, and ensuring that the movie follows that pre-modern Japanese drama style initiated by Chikamatsu, the movie only changed the style but remained thematically significant.
Being one of the four foremost innovative Japanese directors of the modern wave of movie and film stylization developed between the 1950s and 1960s, Shinoda maintained the major concepts of the story to ensure that the latest transformations of the movie does not contradict the initial storyline of the film (Shirane, 236).
Shinoda only employed few techniques in stylization and transformation of the traditional aesthetics into the modern art, leaving the major components of the story in its original foundational story.
The story came right during the advent of political transformations in Japan that involved using cinemas as new tools or weapons to condemn political repressions (Ebrey, 295).
We will write a custom Essay on ‘Double Suicide’ – By Shinoda Masahiro specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The connection of the new wave film to the political situation in the country resulted in the ranking this movie as one of the political-aesthetical Japanese films. Using humans to represent mere puppeteers and linkage of the story directly to the important political issues gave the viewers and the film fans a better view of the story.
The art of puppet theatre in Double Suicide Double suicide is a film that can provide an understanding of the traditional Japanese performance arts of the late 1960s and the aesthetics that indicated the ironical quotations (Cornyetz, 106). The initial form of the Japanese performance involved deviations between the character’s speech and the original film script.
The art of using the wooden puppets and the hooded puppeteers in the film really creates an enthusiasm in this Bunraku puppet drama where the black masqueraded actors appear dressed in black clothes (Rutherford, par. 4). Throughout the movie, Bunraku, the relentless focus of the film, dominates all the critical scenes of the movie.
The Kurogo was the figurative element in the story, who acted as the main character that constantly assisted the live performances. The Kurogo play an important role as they represent the ghostly images commonly described as the hands of fate that direct the two lovers to their death fate.
Using the puppet theatre (Bunraku), where Kurogo images appeared in several scenes, presents a great reflection to the film’s storyline (Ebrey, 295). Double Suicide presents the story of a rich mercantile named Jihei who was not capable of paying his lover’s arrears.
There is also a Koharu, who is the person responsible for leading the two lovers to making a suicide decision known as the Shinju, with the notion is that these lovers will finally meet in the next life. With the designed Kurogo in the movie, Shinoda was able to demonstrate the story of the film (Rutherford, par. 4).
Despite the fact that the Kurogo only applied best in theatrical demonstrations, but not in real films, they represented almost true human images that caused anxiety, fear, and enthusiasm that really overwhelmed the viewers (Cornyetz, 106). The stagehands role of the Kurogo showed the disruptive power that demonstrated their role as the fate deciders who manipulated almost all the performances in the film.
Conclusion Double Suicide is one of the earliest Japanese movies, which can best describe the evolution of the theatrical performances in the Japanese acting practice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on ‘Double Suicide’ – By Shinoda Masahiro by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dubbed as the new wave of movie production that emerged during the 1950s and 1960s, Shinoda artistically managed to make significant transformation of characters in the movie, replacing the traditional wooden puppets, black attired, covered puppeteers with the real human actors.
Adopted from the traditional Japanese drama, the movie emphasizes on Japanese stage deception that used the Bunraku puppet theaters in acting. Despite re-inventing modern means of presenting the movie, Shinoda ensures that several original facets of the film remain untouched and presents the intended theme.
The transformation of the movie comes when the transformations in the acting realm were receiving substantial attention. In essence, the film transformed when the Japanese cinemas were becoming increasingly important tools of political struggle, thus, remaining classified as the political-aesthetical films.
Works Cited Cornyetz, Nina. “Gazing Disinterestedly: Politicized Poetics in Double Suicide.” A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 12.3 (2001):101-127. Print.
Ebrey, Patricia. Pre-Modern East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Rutherford, Anne. Double Suicide and the fetishism of space. Web.12 Nov. 2013. http://sensesofcinema.com/2011/cteq/double-suicide-and-the-fetishism-of-space/
Shirane, Haruo. Early Modern Japanese Literature, New York: Columbia University Press, 2013. Print.
Dubai Aluminum: Operation on Decision Making. Company Analysis Case Study college essay help
Introduction and Company Description: Mission, Vision and Staff Being a full-fledged company, which has entered the world market efficiently, DUBAL has a mission and vision of its own. Focusing, understandably enough, on providing the end user with the services and products of the best quality possible, the company’s vision does not differ much from a gazillion of other statements uttered by the rest of the UAE companies.
While DUBAL’s vision is rather predictable and focuses on future growth, the company’s mission deserves being mentioned as a very progressive one – not because of the goals that the company defines as compulsory, but because of the pace that it sets. As the recent report says, DUBAL aims at “to be the best aluminium company in production, markets, people and results” by 2020” (Growing stronger together, 2009, p. 3).
The given statement shows that the company is able to change its mission based on the requirements of the target audience. Consequently, the company hires only professional and properly trained staff.
Description of Operations: The Key Stages of Company’s Performance Like any other company, DUBAL splits its performance into several key stages, which allows for controlling the production process better and, thus, helps deliver the goods of the finest quality.
As the company describes the production process, it consists of three basic stages, i.e., bauxite refining, alumina smelting and obtaining aluminum; in the course of the process, 4 tons of bauxite are transformed into 1 ton of aluminum. Therefore, the production process can be depicted in the following way:
Diagram 1. DUBAL Key Production Process Operations
It should be mentioned, though, that the performance process is not restricted to the process of aluminum smelting, though the latter definitely plays the pivoting role in the company’s efficacy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On a larger scale, DUBAL’s performance can be viewed as a process that starts with searching for the companies providing the raw material to the promotion campaign, which is supposed to attract even more customers and, therefore, allow the company for conquering the foreign market, apart from the one within the UAE boundaries.
Therefore, the operations that take place within DUBAL can be depicted in the following manner:
Diagram 2. DUBAL Key Operations
As the chart above shows, the key inputs listed in the raw materials column also represent the stages of raw material processing. Thus, alumina, which is the actual raw material, is transformed in the Bayer process into alumina fluoride, with Calcined petroleum coke and liquid coal tar pitch being used as catalysts.
Supply Chain and the Associated Decisions: Logistics at Its Best Perhaps, one of the strongest links in the overall strong chain of the DUBAL Company’s solutions, the supply chain management revolves around the idea of responsibility and the maintenance of environmentally friendly policy. The latter takes the form of choosing the transportation method that is considered the most environmentally safe one.
It is remarkable that the DUBAL Company was awarded for the efficient supply management system adopted by the company. As Media Desk announced in 2012, the company won three key awards in supply chain management. More to the point, the company was described as an innovator, whose example is worth being taken as a pattern for the rest of the UAE companies to adopt:
Delighted at the accolade, Masood Taleb Al Ali (Vice President: Supply) says DUBAL that entered three categories in the CIPS Middle East 2012 Awards, namely 1) Procurement Team of the Year; 2) Most Improved Purchasing Operation; and 3) Best Contribution to the Reputation of the Procurement Profession. (DUBAL takes top honors in 2012 CIPS Middle East awards, 2012).
We will write a custom Case Study on Dubai Aluminum: Operation on Decision Making. Company Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It could be argued, though, that the current supply chain management in general and the company’s logistic in particular could be improved a notch once the company’s outbound logistics strategy is reconsidered.
At present, the company clearly puts the emphasis on the speed of the transportation, which often comes at a price for the quality of the supplied goods. Therefore, it will be more reasonable for the company to focus on the transportation issues in the future. To demonstrate the company’s supply chain management, the following diagram should be used:
Diagram 3. DUBAL Supply Management Structure
Operational Decisions: Facing Difficult Dilemmas Being one of the UAE leading companies, DUBALhas to face a number of operational decisions on which its status of the state’s highest grossing organization depends. One of these operational decisions concerns the suppliers. Indeed, the choice between the availability, price and quality is not easy.
It goes without saying that, to provide the services of the finest quality, a company must use the services of the best suppliers and the best transportation companies. However, to upgrade their services, a company sometimes has to resort to mediocre services regarding the supplies for other aspects of its performance.
For instance, DUBAL has recently faced a problem concerning the efficacy of the desalination procedure, which triggered the purchase of more up-to-date equipment and the need to reconsider the company’s pricing policies (Facing the future in partnership, 2008).
Productivity: When Performance Rates Speak for Themselves Like any other company of the similar scale, the DUBAL Company has its own method of measuring its productivity. Apart from defining its efficacy by calculating the number of goods produced and sold on a daily basis, DUBAL also manages to measure its productivity in accordance with two major parameters.
The first one concerns the customers’ satisfaction and can be measured in the number of positive reviews that grateful customers send to the company. It should be noted, though, that the given productivity factor is rather unpredictable and, therefore, should not be trusted completely. To start with, there is the personal factor, i.e., the fact that every customer has his/her own idea of what a high-quality product is.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dubai Aluminum: Operation on Decision Making. Company Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, as the opinion poll held among the employees of the DUBAL Company has shown, customers rarely leave notes of gratitude even when they are satisfied with the product; quite on the contrary, people prefer to voice their opinion when the services do not meet the company’s quality standards.
As for the second parameter, in accordance with which the company’s performance is evaluated, the compliance with the company’s development plan should be named (Professional working environment, n. d.).
Conclusion: There Is Yet Much to Strive for It seems that at present, the company is doing relatively well. True, DUBAL has been facing several issues recently, which has led to several major complexities; however, the latter have been efficiently dealt with. After all, it is not the absence of problems, but the ability to solve them that defines a company’s success.
With that in mind, one must admit that the Dubai Aluminum Company remains one of the most promising companies in the UAE and is clearly going to grow in order to expand into the world market.
It is desirable, though, that DUBAL managers should pay more attention to the company’s logistics strategy, especially when it comes to designing the transportation routes for the raw material and the final product.
Once choosing the fastest, the safest and least time-consuming method of transportation, the organization will be able to improve other aspects of its operation, including the production process and information management.
Reference List DUBAL takes top honors in 2012 CIPS Middle East awards (2012). Web.
Facing the future in partnership (2008). Web.
Growing stronger together (2009). Web.
Professional working environment (n. d.). Web.
Internal and External Factors Weight and Rate Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction and Overview BMS is one of those companies that managed to climb to the top of the economical Olympus solely by providing high-quality services and promoting them the right way. However, when taking a closer look at the company’s structure and assets, one might notice that certain improvements can be made.
By defining the rate of a particular aspect of a company’s performance, one can spot the source of the company’s current problems, whereas the analysis of the weight of the issues in question will help one get the priorities straight and figure out what is important for BMS at present.
Missions, Goals and Current Strategies As the company’s mission statement says, BMS was founded to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines. BMS keeps the focus on the medical nees that have been unmet and are considered unattainable by other companies that supply pharmaceutical products.
According to the information provided by the company’s managers, BMS aims at pending genericization of some of the drugs that are currently demanded, therefore, contributing to the improvement of people’s health worldwide. The company’s strategy seems pretty simple: it produces high-quality products and distributes them fast.
BMS seems to have been amazingly efficient over the past few years; as the recent records say, in March, 2011, the FDA board approved of the new oncology drug that was developed by the company. BMS’s strategy, therefore, can be defined as introducing innovations into the market.
Internal Analysis Management
Unfortunately, management seems to be the weakest link in the company’s overall strong set of internal factors. Classified as laissez-faire, the given management type does not allow for efficient cooperation between the affiliates and the heart of the company. The weight is rather weak (0.05), the rate is, therefore, 2.1. This is a company’s major weakness.
According to the recent statistical data, due to its close partnership with the USA companies, the BMS Corporation managed to hit the top 11 of the most successful pharmaceutical companies in the U.S. The given data shows that financial strategy is one of the BMS ‘s key assets. Being of a relatively strong weight (0.13), company’s finance strategy has a 2.7 rate. Finance is the company’s major strength.
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According to what the case study says, the company has turned Plavix into its major selling point. While other types of medicine are also promoted efficiently, Plavix seems to be the product that the BMS is pushing as its brand – and, to be honest, succeeds in the given task. Thus, marketing and service section deserves a strong weight of 0.11 and a rate of 2.6 and is the company’s major strength.
Production and Operations
As it has been stressed, the company deals with a number of pharmaceutical products, starting from the basic ones like Aspirin to less known and more expensive. Plavix, the company’s top product, brings BMS around $6,500 annually, which means that the company is quite successful. Weighting 0.14 and rated at 2.7, the company’s production and operations are nearly exemplary and, thus, are a major strength.
Human Resource Management
The company seems to lack insight in choosing its staff, which gets BMS a weight of 0.05 and a rate of 2.1, being a major weakness.
Research and Development
BMS has the potential for conducting pharmaceutical researches, yet never uses this potential, which brings its weight to 0.07 and a rate to 2.2 and makes it a major weakness.
The company is equipped with modern devices, which results in weight of 0.11 and a rate of 2.6. This is the company’s minor strength.
Logistics and Transportation
BMS seems to spend too much on transportation, since the goods are very fragile. Therefore, logistics and transaction weight 0.6 and are rated as 2.0 and is the company’s major weakness.
Depending on the leadership strategy chosen by the company leader, BMS may either remain afloat, or eventually sink. In the given situation, laissez-faire leadership approach is most reasonable seeing how the company has been split into several affiliates. Therefore, it has a weight of 0.8 and a rate of 2.1 and is the company’s minor weakness.
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A crucial factor in the company’s development, organizational behavior does not seem to be an issue in the BMS. The weight and rate are correspondingly 0.11 and 2.6, which makes it the company’s minor strength
External Analysis Competition and Industry
Though technically considered a one of a kind company, BMS faces considerable competition. As a result, the given aspect cannot be considered the strongest of the external factors. Weight and rate deserve 0.09 and 2.4 correspondingly and can be considered a minor opportunity.
BMS uses current economic trends wisely, which results in a 0.12 weight and a rate of 3.4, being is the company’s major opportunity.
Social and Cultural
Unfortunately, diversity seems to slip from the BMS Company’s radar. Therefore, it deserves 0.8 weight and 2.3 rate and is a minor opportunity.
BMS’s customers are typically middle-class middle aged people. BMS’s strategy on demographics can be rated as 2.5 and has a weight of 0.10, which can be classified as a minor opportunity.
BMS uses up-to-date equipment, which brings it the weight of 0.14 and the rate of 3.8, which is a major opportunity.
There is no need to stress the fact that people need medicine as long as they have health issues. Therefore, the less disease-ridden the area becomes, the more losses the company is going to take. With a rate of 2.5 and a weight of 0.10 (a minor opportunity), BMS is doing relatively fine.
In case of BMS, ethics lays huge restrictions on the company’s operations, seeing how human lives are at stake. Therefore, ethics can be regarded as a major factor, seeing how BMS commits to their customers by claiming to provide only efficient medicine that in no way harms people’s health. Therefore, a weight of 0.06 and a rate of 2.0 can be given to the company’s ethics (minor threat).
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BMX uses foreign partners for long-term investments, therefore, having a 0.11 weight and a 2.6 rate (major opportunity).
Legal Issues (Liabilities)
Pharmaceutical industry presupposes that no harm should be done to the end customer, which is why the tort liability is included into the list of the key external factors. As the records show, the company has a major debt, which is why the given field cannot be considered as the company’s asset, with weight being 0.09, and the rate rising to 2.1 (minor threat).
There is no actual time limit in providing the target audience with medicine; no matter the season, there will always be demand for medicine among the general audience. Weight and rate are correspondingly 0.08 and 2.1, which is the company’s minor threat.
Conclusion BMS has a number of issues to deal with, research and management, HRM in particular, being its key weaknesses. Therefore, it will be necessary to choose a more appropriate leadership strategy, preferably a transformational one, and adopt a more reasonable approach in human resource management, as well as encourage research in the organization.
However, BMS has a number of assets as well, the major ones being its finance and marketing. By reinforcing marketing strategies, the company will be able to spend more time thinking its management strategy through.
The Importance of Development, Communication, and Learning in Teams Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of Team Development
Effective Training Principles for Teams
Stages in Team Development
Communication in Teams
Introduction The recent changes in the way organizations conduct business has pushed managers to figure out how to organize employees around teams. However, the development, communication and learning within teams must be efficient enough to facilitate the desired changes.
For organizations to grow, the development, communication, and learning within teams must be well designed and managed. The importance of the above thesis statement springs from the fact that development in organizations does not just happen. Rather, it is a result of concerted efforts by different individuals who work together in a team setup.
This report proceeds by discussing the importance of team development, effective training principles for teams, stages in team development, communication in teams, and team learning. Finally, it concludes by providing a brief summary.
Importance of Team Development The concept of teams is important right from birth as we are first socialized in our immediate families. As time goes by, we become members of many other teams and this continues for as long as we alive (Cannon
Operational Decision Making Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Company Description
Description of Operations
Supply Chain Decisions
Company Description Rotana Jet Aviation, also known as Rotana Airways, is one of the leading domestic airlines in the United Arab Emirates. This airline company has its main operating base in Al‐Bateen Airport, which is about 10 kilometers from Abu Dhabi City. The company offers travel services to both the domestic and international passengers.
The company has been keen to offer quality services to its customers. This is reflected in its mission statement that says, “To offer quality travel services to domestic and international travelers at reasonable costs.” The company has been experiencing growth in the market, especially after adding new international routes to the previously existing routes.
Description of Operations It is important to understand the operational activities of Rotana Jet, and the means through which it turns its inputs into output. As stated above, this firm offers travel services to its clients in the market. One of the main inputs of this firm is the planes used to deliver the service.
The firm purchases the planes (input) which it uses to offer the travel services (output) to the clients from one location to another. Another important input that the firm has been using is the entertainment facilities, especially the music system fitted in the seats.
This input is used to offer entertainment services to its clients. The firm uses coffee, water, and sugar as inputs, to make coffee as the product for its clients while on board their planes. As Bruce (40) observes, the current competitive market in the airline industry is forcing the airline companies to offer better quality products in order to attract a pool of loyal customer.
This explains why Rotana Jet is keen on offering their clients drinks and entertainment services. Another important input that this firm uses in its operations is the human labor, which includes pilots and cabin crew. The pilots work to ensure that clients are flown from one location to another, while other cabin crews work as a team to ensure that the journey is more enjoyable for the customers.
Supply Chain Decisions In the current competitive market, firms are keen to ensure that they employ the best strategy in their supply chain management. This is because they are under pressure to ensure that they are efficient in their operations. Sauter (73) observes that there is need to ensure that acquisition of raw materials, their movement to the firm, and distribution strategies used by a firm are very efficient in order to increase profitability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rotana Jets has been keen to ensure that its supply chain is managed appropriately to deliver the desired results in the market. The diagram below shows some of the most important activities that the operations manager will be concerned with in supply chain management.
The products, especially the jets will be coming directly from the manufacturer to the firm. Once this is received, the firm will use the input to offer travel services to the customer. Operations manager will always need to make a decision of whether to make such orders through well-established agents in the market, or to contact the manufacturer directly. This decision will always be guided by the associated costs.
One of the main strategies that this firm has been using in the market to increase its productivity is cost leadership. This means that Rotana Jet’s operations manager would determine the options available in the supply chain, and determine the associated costs at each stage in the activities identified above. The firm would then make a decision on the option that is most efficient and cost effective.
According to Sauter (51), in supply chain management, firms are always concerned of the best approach to use in order to ensure that they get inputs in time and at the most desirable plans so that a chain of other activities can begin.
Given the cost leadership strategy that this firm has been using, it is important for the operational manager to ensure that the decision on the approach to take in acquiring the inputs is conscious of these factors. The management should ensure that the product is always ready whenever the customers need them.
Operational Decisions Understanding critical operational decisions within a firm is one of the ways through which a firm can gain competitive advantage in the market (Mahadevan 81). One of the most important critical operational decisions is the choice of product design. Rotana Jet must devise a way to design its products in a manner that will give it an advantage in the market.
It is a fact that all airlines offer travel services to their customers. However, Rotana must design its products in a unique manner that will help differentiate its services in the market. The management should make a decision to design unique seats, customized entertainment services, high quality customer care, and other unique qualities to its products.
We will write a custom Assessment on Operational Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These decisions would have a direct contribution to the overall strategy of the firm. The identified decision areas focus on improving quality of services of this firm in the market. They are directly concerned of how Rotana Jet will offer positively unique service to its customers.
This means that the operations manager must consider making these decisions out of the desire to offer quality service to its customers at reasonable prices. For this to be achieved, the management must ensure that costs of production are maintained as low as possible.
Productivity According to Anderson (56), a firm should have a clear way of measuring productivity. This will help it when determining the sustainability of its operations. At Rotana Jets, the need to measure productivity is very strong. This is because of the increasing competition in this market, and the rising costs of production.
The main approach of measuring productivity in this firm is through determining the output that is made of the operational activities. The output will be measured through sales made after a given trading period. The firm would then determine the associated costs during that period. The productivity would then be determined by deducting the costs from sales to find the profits.
The profits will help in understanding the productivity of the firm. The profits generated should be reasonable enough to sustain operational activities of this company, and be able to foster development. To improve productivity of this company, the operational manager should expand the scope of the firm’s internet marketing to include social media marketing.
This is because social media such as Facebook and Tweeter are used by a large number of people who can form part of the customer base of this firm. This strategy will also help this firm create viral marketing in the internet.
Works Cited Anderson, David. An Introduction to Management Science: Quantitative Approaches to Decision Making. Mason: South-Western, 2008. Print.
Bruce, Peter. Understanding Decision-Making Processes in Airline. New York: Cengage, 2012. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Operational Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mahadevan, Bernard. Operations Management: Theory and Practice. Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2010. Print.
Sauter, Vicki. Decision Support Systems for Business Intelligence. Hoboken: John Wiley
Antitrust (monopolization) case between the U.S. (Plaintiff) and the E. I. DuPont (Defendant) Case Study essay help: essay help
DuPont was sued for allegedly monopolizing the interstate commerce, thus giving other companies in the same sector hardships in reaching out to the prospective markets and customers. The available markets became flooded with goods from one business entity. This was a strategy of making sure that none of the new companies had the means of matching the competition DuPont presented.
Although the suit before the court was a challenge evaluating the violation of the antitrust law, it was clear that there were economic impacts that were brought about by the monopoly that was created by the company. All the companies should be put on the same footing in terms of having the means to market their products in order to have an organized way of generating income.
The established companies should not be allowed to sell their products at lower prices because the new entrants in the market can lack a place in the growing market. It is an impediment to the expansion of the markets when there is only one nature of products that are sold at a very low price.
The decision was what the court felt was right given the circumstances. The decision was made with the intention of deterring other companies. It is this reasoning that saw a lot of mistakes in the economic sense being condoned. It was in this instance that the court applied the Sherman Act without taking into account some of the economic effects of the decision.
The consumers were following the guideline of a case that was held in total disregard for the economic principles that govern the running of free markets. It was at this point that the courts found it useful to hold the judgment in favor of the plaintiff, while the decision itself could not stand the test of economic advancement.
It is imperative to note the effects of the decisions to be reached by the court on the market in a case whereby the parties to the case are not both parties in the running of the market. A monopoly enjoyed by one party may be out of sheer handwork without any proof of mischief on the part of the company.
There were other companies in the case that were entrusted with the mandate of ensuring that the licensed patents were not used against the set out agreements. The patent rights of designing the Cellophane were meant to market the product in other parts of the world. This was made possible through licensing of the product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company engaged in the search for cheap employment, while strictly guarding its rights to make Cellophane. The popularity of the company went up, with customers having a great liking for their products. At the same time, the company ensured that the products were equally competitive. This was a major boost for the company.
The company was placed in a better position through its efforts and the virtue of having a wide base of customers. It was the quality of the goods that ensured that there was an immense liking for the company’s products. There was monopoly and unfair competition. There was no link between the allegation and the evidence offered, although the court held in favor of the plaintiff.
The market for DuPoint’s products, both in the United States and other parts of the world, became commendable. There was a need to reduce the prices of many of their products given the high percentage of market share. This was a gesture that enabled the company to compete against most of its competitors.
There was no evidence to indicate that there was any form of manipulation used by the company. The prices were set according to the economic dynamics of supply and demand. It was the dictates of supply that placed the company in a better place compared to its rivals.
In the given circumstances, the decision by the court rendered a stringent measure on the company. This made the market less competitive. The court’s decision was largely an interference with the functioning of the market. In that case, it was appropriate to ensure that the impacts of the decision were assessed by the court making the ruling. It was a major violation of the economic initiatives and the rules that govern competition.
It is evident that DuPont was not taking part in any form of manipulation of prices. This means that the prices in the market were left in the hands of the consumers. The consumers in this case were willing to buy the products of DuPont depending on their quality. The decision by the court in the antitrust case was a major interference with the rules of advertising.
Therefore, it is true to observe that the decision was a clear centralization of the market. It was a clear move to strengthen the weak companies by weakening the strong ones. This was made with complete disregard for the principles of supply and demand in every free market.
We will write a custom Case Study on Antitrust (monopolization) case between the U.S. (Plaintiff) and the E. I. DuPont (Defendant) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The salient features of a free market were greatly interfered with. In some countries, the government takes the role of regulating the markets, but in this case it was the court that took over the role. Courts can only interpret the law in favor of economic activities if they consider the effects of the decision.
Edward Cullen Essay college essay help near me
Introduction From a certain perspective, it can be stated that various characters within the Twilight series represent the social groups that exist within the high schools that teenage girls go to. This is one of the reasons why the Twilight series has become so popular given the manner in which the target readers (i.e. teenage girls) see so much of their own lives in the characters they read about.
What is interesting though is how the vampires seemingly characterize the way people behave in society wherein they use fake outer personalities to blend in. The character of Edward Cullen in particular can be considered as a representation of the obsession of society with presenting a façade of who they are in order to properly blend in with their social groups.
Understanding the Representations of Characters in the Novel The main characters in Twilight are meant to represent high school stereotypes as seen in the way they look and act. Writers such as Fleur Diamond delve too deeply and add more dimensions than needed to what are basically one dimensional characters that are easily understood.
In her work, Diamond states that
Bella Swan quests for a sexuality that is not fully available to her within the dominant codes of both gender and heterosexuality in her culture. Meyer’s heroine is seeking a frank ownership of desire and sexual agency that is conventionally reserved for men and which, when present in women, is regarded with suspicion (Diamond 2).
Such an interpretation, while interesting, adds more depth and dimension to a character that is simply unwarranted.
The character of Bella and the perspective of “claiming a carnality and sexual subjectivity for its heroine” are simply at odds with one another when you look at the way in which the main characters are meant to represent high school “cliques” (Diamond 8). They embody stereotypical teenage definitions for various group categories that are the norm in most high schools in the U.S. (Diamond 1-8).
Fleur Diamond is mistaken in interpreting Twilight as a form of “transgressive female desire” characterized by Bella Swan. The Twilight series is merely a means of representing the common “cliques” in a high school in a way that utilizes fantasy as a setting to show a girl’s growth into womanhood.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is one of the primary reasons why the series is so popular with teenage girls since they are able to relate to what the characters experience since they are going through it themselves.
What Does Edward Cullen Represent? If the characters in the Twilight series represent various stereotypes that exist within a high school setting, then the character of Edward Cullen can thus be considered as a representation of “the popular guy” stereotype.
This individual is normally well off financially (Edward is quite rich), has good looks (same characteristic seen in Edward), has a charming yet mysterious personality (same characteristic shown within the books), yet has a loving and endearing quality (exactly the same set of personality traits exhibited by Edward Cullen).
When examining the personality traits that an idealized guy would have that would appeal to a teenage girl (or any girl for that matter), it can be seen that Edward represents many of these apparent traits thus making him the much sought after “ideal guy” that teenage girls want in a boyfriend.
Other similar representations that are not immediately apparent at the onset of the novel are the ways Edward also represents the concept of the “ideal man” in present day society. In particular, he is a highly educated, physically attractive, white male that has access to large amounts of personal wealth (Mutch 75-90).
From a certain perspective, it can even be interpreted that Edward reinforces the present day stereotypes within society by his very nature. For example, in the book “New Moon” there is the possibility that Bella would choose Jacob over Edward, however, in the end she still chooses to go for Edward.
This can be interpreted as a representation of women in society choosing mates who, through societal preconceptions, are considered to be the most perfect to go for (in this case white males) (Mutch 75-90).
We will write a custom Essay on Edward Cullen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It should also be noted that the representation of main characters of “colored” descent (Native Americans in this case) show a certain level of racism. This is due to the manner in which they lived (i.e. in shacks in the wilderness), low economic means, the manner in which they dressed (lacking in style and class) and being generally “wild” and aggressive in terms of behavioral traits.
This contrasts sharply with the relatively classy, suave and “cool” manner in which Edward Cullen and the other main vampire characters behave (Silver 121-130). This shows how character representations within the Twilight series follow the same boundaries, predilections and racist views that are common in the present day society.
The concept of “identity” that is utilized within Twilight is neither complex nor hard to understand, it is merely a reflection of present day society told in a fantasy like setting (Wilson 126-130).
Though it is stated in the novel that the vampires are far from human in their traits and characteristics, this is far from the truth given that the very nature of their characters are representations of how people are viewed and characterized within most social environments.
Context of the Character of Edward in Present day Society When going over the character of Edward Cullen, it can be noted that there is a certain duality to his representation. Initially, he represents the idealized version of a man that most women would like to have in their lives. On the other hand, he also has a much darker side to his personality that is represented by him being a vampire.
Such a duality can actually be considered a representation of how people act within the society at the present wherein there is the “projected image” which is meant to appeal to social groups that one interacts with on a daily basis, while there is the “hidden image” which is who a person really is. This image is hidden from the view of society due to possible ramifications of revealing such a side to others.
The following is one of the more interesting statements from the work of Herbert (2004) that echo such a viewpoint when he stated that:
Thus the evil one is recognized by his refusal to self-reflect, or confront anything which he does not wish to confront about himself. Since the persona Dracula wants to present to the world is a facade and a lie, it does not reflect in the mirror of Truth. The vampire abhors the mirror, for the lack of reflection confronts him with the fact that his self-image has no reality (Herbert 63).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Edward Cullen by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such a statement is actually quite close to how Edward Cullen and in fact, most males in society act wherein they at times refuse to confront who they are and instead focus on the creation of a façade through the use of a surface image to fool the general public.
What must be understood is that the concept of a persona can also refer to the way in which a person portrays themselves in public. As a matter of fact, it is considered a method in which a person presents an “image” to people that they are attempting to communicate and associate with on a daily basis (Herbert 62-70).
This particular “image” refers to a person’s “character” that they are attempting to project. People treat them in a particular manner based on their inherent projected image. This is not limited to their physical appearance, rather, it extends also to the manner in which a person acts, speaks and generally portrays themselves in public.
In the case of the Twilight novels, this takes the form of the vampires creating a particular image for themselves, namely, as individuals that may look beautiful, ethereal, otherworldly and mysterious but in the end still human at the core. It is this portrayal on the basis of a projected image that is a cause for concern.
The way we react to people based on a projected image means that we are in effect reacting to something that, for all intents and purposes, is a false representation of who that person is in reality.
For example, a person may argue for the righteousness of a cause on the basis of their knowledge of the event. Yet this attempt at persuasion may in itself be self-serving for the person that is attempting to persuade other individuals.
In the case of a projected image, what must be understood is that it is “artifice”, meaning that is created, manufactured, made, constructed etc. It can be considered a type of surface image which may in fact have an entirely fictitious relationship to what is actually true.
For instance, a teacher could show up in class one day wearing cowboy boots, a ten gallon hat and long sleeved t-shirt with a large image of a cactus on the front while the next day he can wear an average suit and tie.
The reason this is mentioned is due to the fact that despite the different outfits, the person and the ideas that are being presented have not changed at all. However, what is changed is the perception of the audience regarding the idea being presented.
The same can be said for image projection in the present day society wherein the method in which a person is “packaged” drastically changes the perception of the audience towards accepting the person or the validity of their statements. Thus, in the case of Edward Cullen, he represents how the idealized image that appeals to girls may in fact be hiding a personality that is completely different.
Works Cited Diamond, Fleur. “Beauty and the Beautiful Beast.” Australian Feminist Studies 26.67 (2011): 41. MasterFILE Premier. Web.
Herbert, Steven C. “Dracula As Metaphor For Human Evil.” Journal Of Religion
What are the differences between human resource management and personal management? Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The difference between personnel management and HR management
The personnel management process
Training and development
Introduction This paper presents answers to randomly selected human resource questions. The questions are as follows: what are the differences between human resource management and personal management? What are the processes for the selected personnel management activities? (Workforce planning, recruitment, training and development, and performance appraisal).
The difference between personnel management and HR management Personnel management is a management function performed by a specialist. The function is not directly involved with formulation of business strategies. It is simply a collection of people related activities. The activities involved are:
Formulation of policies that regulate employee relationship.
Formulation of job description and management of the appraisal process.
Ensuring that policy that governs personnel conduct is fully followed.
Providing and retaining personnel, implementing layoff programs and aiding self-development of employees.
Human resource management, on the other hand, is a planned and consistent approach to the management of an organization’s most treasured asset. The individuals who collectively contribute to the success of an organization are the most valued assets.
The human resource management aims at harmonizing personnel issues with an organization’s strategy. Therefore, it is the process of managing employees in order to achieve the principal goals and objectives of an organization.
The personnel management process Workforce planning is the long-term planning of the workforce requirements of an organization by considering both the internal and external forces of change. Workforce planning begins with conducting job analysis, which is the systematic gathering and recording of information about jobs in an organization.
It involves assessment of job requirements in terms of specific tasks and responsibilities. It should also provide information on skills, knowledge, experience and potentials that can be developed within a job. A complete job analysis consists of job description (the duties, tools and conditions of a job), and the job specification (statement of the qualifications required for an applicant to be considered).
The second step in workforce planning is the forecasting of demand and supply of labor. This process involves estimation of the future number and qualifications of employees an organization needs to base on its long-term plans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The last step in workforce planning involves assessing whether an organization’s labor supply matches with the demand. It also involves formulations of plans to hire or lay off employees if demand exceeds supply and supply exceeds demand respectively.
Recruitment is a process induced by an organization’s need for more personnel. Recruitment encompasses a set of activities used by organizations to make themselves the center of attention for job applicants. Recruitment can be divided into two categories, that is, specific and general.
Specific recruitment is majorly for such high positions as managerial ones, as they require a high level of skills and expertise. On the other hand, general recruitment is mainly for lower positions that frequently open up. The sources of recruitment can either be external (other organizations or the public) or internal (within an organization).
Training and development Training programs in organizations are intended at improving the performance of the tasks, while development programs are intended for building the future skills and expertise. Training programs are majorly concerned with the technical features of an organization’s tasks.
Therefore, they are suitable for employees in the lower positions in an organization. Development programs, on the other hand, are intended for individuals occupying managerial positions.
Training. The intensity of training varies with an organization’s structure and the potential of employees. Training programs can be affected by the type of the approach used. There are two approaches that can be used, that is, the internal and the external approaches. The internal approaches are programs carried out within an organization.
They are the following: orientation – it is the process of familiarizing new employees with the organizational policies and their main task. Development by level – it is the provision of training programs for employees as they are promoted from one position to another. Job rotation – this method requires employees to be familiar with task in all key departments of an organization.
We will write a custom Case Study on What are the differences between human resource management and personal management? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An employee will, therefore, work in every department on a rotational basis for a specific period. Apprenticeship training – this method involves making a new employee work under a professional’s supervision and at the same time learn specific tasks before he is left to work without any inspection.
Coaching is a method that involves a person-to-person coaching and counseling. Acting capacity: applying this method supposes that a trainee is assigned a responsibility of another absent senior staff member. Assistant position: a trainee is expected to work under a close monitor by a senior staff member.
The method is recommended if the superior has good mentoring skills. Committee and junior boards – this method requires that a trainee be appointed to a committee comprising both senior and junior members of an organization. The trainee is therefore expected to interact with more experienced staff members and in the process, acquire some knowledge.
The external approaches are used to enhance internal programs. They are conducted by professional bodies such as the universities and consultants. The programs are conducted through seminars, lectures and conferences. The approach is used when a highly specialized expertise is required.
Performance appraisal It is another step in the staffing process. It is a procedure used to identify, evaluate and develop human performance in an organization. Most managers judge performance appraisal as a difficult task because it is not easy to evaluate an employee’s performance accurately. Another difficult part of the task is delivering the result of the performance-appraisal exercise to an employee.
The process may be either formal or informal. Informal performance evaluation is a continuous process of assessing an employee’s performance standards while formal appraisal is conducted after a given period, for example, after every three months.
The main aim of the process is to identify employees who should be promoted and those who require further training. The following are the major reasons for conducting performance evaluation:
To provide employees with the feedback on the quality levels of their performance. The feedback is important because it helps the employees to identify their areas of weaknesses and strengths. The information also helps employees to formulate individual performance improvement plans.
Performance assessment facilitates personnel decision-making, for example, employee promotion. These decisions are critical for both employees and the organization, therefore, should base on adequate information.
Performance assessment is fundamental to an organization’s reward and remuneration system particularly a compensation plan based on employee merit.
The evaluation indicates job areas, in which training and development are needed. Therefore, training programs could be developed upon identification of an area of low performance.
In conclusion, all the personnel and human resource management activities are intended at harmonizing personnel issues with the organization’s goals and objectives to ensure their achievement.
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Facebook and Nielsen Company Case Study essay help online free
Facts of the case As the need for brand visibility increases in the Arab World, Facebook and Nielsen Company have established a working partnership to assist marketers on the best approaches of online product development and sales. For instance, the Nielsen’ ‘BrandLift’ product allows marketers to make use of streaming Facebook polls on product reception and perception.
Since Facebook allows a potential client to stream in live response, companies are in a position to modify their products to suit customer preference. The Sarmady Communication Company is presented as the visible beneficiary of the Facebook-Nielsen ‘BrandLift’ product.
As a result of embracing this product, Sarmady has been able to double its online sales returns in addition to the customer base. The Facebook-Nielsen alliance targets to have control of the $9 billion marketing industry in the Arab world.
Problem statement Over the years, there has been a need to develop an online platform for companies within the Arab world to increase their product visibility. Specifically, online marketing has grown substantially and the current statistics indicate that social and entertainment websites were the most visited in the Arab world.
The actual data captured a 48% visits as compared to other sites with a total of 34% search engine growth. The survey further indicated that 28% of the participants admitted online purchase of their products.
Thus, it is necessary for the Facebook-Nielsen alliance to establish strategies that will increase their presence in the online marketing segment of the Arab eMarketing industry. This alliance may have to revise its strategy to benefit from the expansive and under-exploited Arab world online marketing industry.
Objectives of the case study The objective of the case study is to explore the significance of online marketing in the expansive Arab world marketing industry. The case study aimed at quantifying the underlying variables that positively and negatively interact to achieve the above objective. Basically, the case study endeavored to establish the scope of operation of the online marketing industry from the practical and quantifiable perspectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Areas of consideration The main areas of consideration were the methods of data collection and sensitivity of the data because the Arab world online marketing industry is dynamic. Besides, the scope of the study was expansive, hence, there was a need to balance observable and testable variables of research analysis.
The case study considered different business partnership models in penetrating the expansive industry. The proposed products were positioned to increase product visibility and modify the perception of the clients as desired by the Facebook-Nielsen alliance.
Alternative courses of action The incorporation of uniqueness of products and improved online platform
The incorporation of uniqueness of products and improvement of the online platforms is necessary as an alternative to successful merging of the consumer preference and increased traffic as a result of more sales.
Modifying the purchasing process through poll feedbacks
The buying process normally begins with the need for a particular product or good as indicated in the Kotler’s models of intention, adoption, and continuance on the process of online consumer purchasers. The need that was created prompted the consumers search for available information concerning the good or service that can satisfy that need.
Evaluation of the courses of action The incorporation of uniqueness of products and improved online platform
The incorporation of uniqueness of products and improvement of the online platforms is necessary to allow easy integration of the market along with customer preferences. This model is an integration of two models of consumer behaviors, Kotler’s expectation-confirmation model and Ira’s attitudinal theoretical model.
The attitudinal theoretical model is used in examining the variables informing consumer purchasing intention and adoption. This model is used in explaining consumer satisfaction with a service or good through their repeat purchases.
Modifying the purchasing process through poll feedbacks
Personal innovativeness of individual consumers is key personality characteristic that gives an explanation of consumer online behavior. Consumers’ trust on the internet is a significant determinant of online shopping. E-commerce is non-discriminate on the size of business since even retail chains are in a position to trade online. Moreover, this model of business operation functions exclusively online.
We will write a custom Case Study on Facebook and Nielsen Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion From the above research, markets are provided with a rich knowledge of consumer behavior as dependent on the degree of perceived positive and negative beliefs on a brand. Therefore, through improved advertising, balanced prices, and quality, markets will be in a position to monitor emotions and motivations which serve as the emerging forces within consumers that activate certain behaviors.
Recommendations It is important for small, medium, and large business to embrace technology in order to remain competitive in the expansive Arab world online marketing environment by using the Facebook-Nielsen platform. Every aspect of life is actively influenced by the revolutionary technological orientation and customers would gladly go for convenient purchasing tools.
Central to the theories of consumer behavior is the conviction that different consumers go through markedly complex decision making process that is influenced at different stages by a number of possible variables.
Management Lessons Perceptions are unique ways through which consumers internalize and interpret information about a product. Consumer engagement is essential towards winning and maintaining a client especially in a competitive market setting where the best offer carries the day.
The offer could be in the form of price, quality, and quantity. When information on perception is verifiable, it is easy for a company to execute a well researched plan within allocated resources.