Is United Nations Organization Useful Or Not Useful Nowadays? Essay Writing Essay Help

Introduction/Thesis statement There can little doubt as to the fact that the foremost problem, confronting the Organization of United Nations (UN), is its operational ineffectiveness, which causes many political observers to suggest that UN’s continuous existence in its present form, does not make much of a sense.

Apparently, there are many good reasons to believe that, during the course of recent decades, UN has been undergoing a qualitative transformation from a peace-securing international organization into an essentially the ‘club of bureaucrats’, the only purpose of which existence is to provide an opportunity for its high-ranking affiliates to enjoy a luxurious lifestyle.

The validity of this statement can be well illustrated in relation to the fact that, for a duration of last thirty years, not a single UN Session has been conducted without its delegates spending a great amount of time, while discussing what can be done to eliminate hunger in world’s ‘developing’ countries. Yet, despite billions and billions of dollars having been poured into these countries’ economies, over the course of decades, the situation with ‘world’s hunger’ did not only improve but has grown much worse.

Even those who think that the continuous existence of UN is utterly vital for protecting a world’s peace, cannot avoid pointing out to the fact that the very principles of this organization’s functioning must be revised.

According to Gareis and Varwick: “It is impossible to overlook the fact that the UN in its present form is unable to play its role adequately as motor and agent of a comprehensive politics of world order” (3). Nevertheless, it would be inappropriate to think that UN’s current problems are essentially incidental and that this organization will continue to play the role of an international arbiter into eternity.

The reason for this is simple – the fact that, ever since early nineties, the world had ceased being bipolar (due to the collapse of Soviet Union), and the fact that the process of an ongoing Globalization results in rendering the very notion of nation outdated, creates objective preconditions for UN’s continuous existence to make very little sense. In other words, UN’s inefficiency, which throughout the course of last two decades has been grasping public’s attention on an exponential scale, appears dialectically predetermined.

As it was noted by Nanjundan: “The UN is in premature gerontocracy; the decline over the last 20 years due to bureaucratic inefficiency and corruption has been compounded by the post-cold war dominance of and dependence on the sole superpower, the US” (2731). In this paper, I will aim to substantiate an earlier articulated thesis at length and to provide readers with the insight onto the fact that the very realities of a post-industrial living predetermine UN’s uselessness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Motivation for research The reason that I think it is important to explore a subject matter, outlined in the Introduction, is that the current situation with the state of international affairs is far from being considered fully adequate.

Partially, this can be explained by the fact that, in recent times, UN has been consistently failing to live up to its actual purpose of existence – namely, ensuring that the dynamics on an international arena are being fully correlative with the most fundamental conventions of an international law.

For example, in 1999, UN fully supported NATO’s aggression against Yugoslavia, even though this aggression violated the basic provisions of international law in a most blatant manner.

During the course of a so-called 2008 ‘August War’ between Russia and Georgia, triggered by Russia’s intention to keep the part of Georgia occupied, UN has again shown itself acting on behalf of aggressors. For duration of seven days, after the beginning of hostilities, the members of UN Security Council have been persistently meeting up, without being able to come up with a resolution, which would address the issue.

At the time when people were being killed by hundreds on a daily basis, the UN bureaucrats were engaging each other in verbal duels on whether Russia’s invasion could be considered an act of war or not. While referring to Russia’s invasion of Georgia, which went unopposed by UN, King states: “The true significance of the latest crisis in the Caucasus is that there is a little faith in multilateral institutions, such as the UN Security Council” (5).

In other words, for duration of at least last twenty years, UN was not only not helping to make this world a safer place to live, but this organization’s very involvement in the settling of international disputes was resulting in these disputes’ prolongation. The example of an ongoing ‘low intensity’ war between Palestinians and Israelis, which despite UN’s efforts continues to result in the deaths of innocent civilians on both sides, exemplifies the validity of this statement.

Nevertheless, despite their inability to provide practical benefits to the countries that support them financially, UN’s bureaucrats continue to enjoy a luxurious living.

We will write a custom Essay on Is United Nations Organization Useful or not Useful Nowadays? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As of today, UN has been turned into nothing less of a ‘high society club’, which provides the representatives of state-members (and their bodyguards, secretaries, speechwriters, PR managers, etc.) with an opportunity to stay in seven-star hotels, to fly private jets and to drink collectible vines, while participating in UN-sponsored conferences on the ‘elimination of world’s thirst’, for example.

Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that, as time goes on, more and more people grow increasingly concerned about the fact that their tax-money goes to support the hordes of social parasites, which are being arrogant enough to seriously believe that their work for UN is being highly beneficial to humanity’s well-being. This is why; there is good reason to believe that the issue, which will be discussed in this paper, is important, because it does concern just about every individual on this planet.

Questions What has been said earlier provides us with a rationale for defining discursive questions, which will be addressed throughout the paper. These questions can be formulated as follows:

What represents a fundamental reason for UN to be growing progressively useless?

What contributes to the fact that, as of today, the classical guidelines for settling international disputes, endorsed by UN, may no longer be considered conceptually legitimate?

What accounts for UN’s operational inefficiency?

Analytical part Answer to question one

Nowadays, only very few people remember that UN has been founded as the instrument of enforcing the provisions of a so-called Peace of Westphalia on a global scale. According to the 1648 Peace Treaty of Westphalia, which was signed between the European countries that participated in the Thirty Years War, every country’s sovereign right to define its form of government and its state religion, without the involvement of a third party, represents the legal foundation of an international law.

As Philpott noted it: “Peace Treaty of Westphalia… set new standards for each of sovereignty’s three faces. It made the sovereign state the legitimate political unit” (360). Ever since the signing of an earlier mentioned Treaty, it became possible for the members of an international community to base their attitude towards the participants of just about every military conflict on a rationale-driven principle.

It is important to understand that the signing of the Peace Treaty of Westphalia was predetermined by the objective laws of history, concerned with the fact that the course of a continuous social, cultural and scientific progress necessarily results in transforming the conventions of politics. For example, prior to the beginning of 17th century, there were no ‘nations’ in Europe, in the contemporary sense of this word.

Back then, Europeans used to be classified along the lines of what happened to be the particulars of their class and religious affiliation. For example, there used to be so much more in common between the representatives of German and French aristocracy then between the representatives of French aristocracy and French peasantry, on the one hand, and the representatives of German aristocracy and German peasantry, on the other.

Nevertheless, the initial phase of an Industrial Revolution has brought about the emergence of a new social class – bourgeoisie. In its turn, the emergence of a bourgeoisie created objective preconditions for the legitimization of a ‘nation’, as a body politics’ actual agent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is United Nations Organization Useful or not Useful Nowadays? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In its turn, this explains why, until comparatively recent times, the very concept of statehood used to be thought of as being essentially synonymous to the concept of nation, because only the nations were believed to have the attributes of a political unit, as defined by 1933 Montevideo Convention: “The 1933 Montevideo Convention defined the criteria for statehood as having (a) a permanent population, (b) a defined territory, (c) government, and (d) the capacity to enter into relations with other state” (Borneman

[supanova_question]

Coca-Cola’s Nigeria and International Operations Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction Coca-Cola Company is a global corporation known worldwide for its diversified brand portfolio. The company mainly manufactures a variety of non-alcoholic soft drinks in different parts of the world. Soft drinks are usually non-alcoholic carbonated beverages that contain edible acids, a sugary agent as well as synthetic or natural flavors. Some of the common types of soft drinks include: flavored water, colas, iced water, sparkling water, sweet tea fruit punch and squash. Most of the Coca-Coal products bear regional names.

For example, typical names include: soda, coke, pop, tonic, bubbly water, fizzy drinks, cold drinks and circus water. In several parts of the United States, carbonated soft beverages are normally referred to as pop soda, coke, tonic or cola. In Australia, South Africa and Canada, they are known as soft drinks or fizzy drinks (Kumari, Bhat

[supanova_question]

Description of Johnny Got a Gun Essay (Book Review) essay help online free

Table of Contents Description of Storm of Steel

Analyzing the books as history (Book review)

Comparison of two books

References

Johnny Got a gun is a captivating anti-war book which is politically motivated and takes the role of educating the society on the adverse effects of war on human beings and the whole society. The book written by a U.S citizen, Dalton Trumbo in 1937 and was published by J.B Lippincott company on January 1st, 1939.

It is a hardcover book with a print media format and it is available in both hardcover and paperback book covers. The 309 page book was then filmed and produced in 1971. Dalton Trumbo was born in 1905 in Montrose, Colorado. He was the son to Maud and Orus Bonham Trumbo. Not much is said about Trumbo but his book Johnny Got a Gun is set from practical life experiences that feces the society at the time of his childhood.

In the anticipation for the world war I, the Americans foresaw its coming and some could see the devastating state that came with wars. In an attempt to evade it, the citizens elect President Woodrow Wilson hoping that he could help protect America from participating the World War I (Center of Military, 1919).

Just as any other president would have done, Woodrow supported the war without thinking of its repercussions. From the story, Joe accuses the Government leaders of false claims of propelling their countries to greater economic democracy or security without knowledge on how wars are injurious.

In this book, Trumbo unfolds the painful story on the effects of the World War I. It garnered the National Book Awards in 1940 as the best American bookseller. The book resurfaces as one of a kind book which scripted as a leading protest novel after the Vietnam War.

It is drafted using Joe Bonham portrayed as a helpless using a maimed soldier who looses both his hands, legs and the head is defaced (Trumbo, 2010, p. 100). Thought then begin flowing through his mind as he questions why he had to survive in such a state. He is determined to reestablish his contact with the outside world to be an evidence of effects of war and to talk to the leader about the value of peaceful coexistence and value for human life.

Description of Storm of Steel Storm of Steel is a book authored by a German Ernst Junger and it is the best newspaper journals he made during his time as a soldier in the World War I. It is a memoir is great astonishing savagery of power and ashen lyricism that reveals the horrors and fascinations of the World Wars (Sheehan, 1989, p.32). Storms of Steel sets off with the deployment of Junger into the battle field in 1915 and ends when he sustains severe injuries in 1918 and this also marks the end of his career as a soldier.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prior to being first published in 1920, Storms of Steel was revised several times before the actual date of its publication. The book is less personal and devoid of Junger’s personal life but it spans a series of experiences written in a chronological order, in an unattached, unemotional and with a repetitive style. Compared to other books motivated by the world war, the book takes a different look at war and Junger appears to be glorifying the war. He then excuses this as a novel of praise and for heroic masculinity.

Ernst Junger was born in 1895 in Heidelberg, Germany but was then moved to Hanover where he was raised. In 1914, he volunteered into the army and was deployed in France for the war in 1915. He was a brave fighter among the major battles he fought. By 1918, he was incorporated into a stronger storm trooper army which was a new type of army meant to infiltrate into the enemies hiding zones.

By the end of the war, Junger was promoted to lieutenant and received many major medals at the age of 23 years. He was shot by a bullet and was badly injured on the chest in 1918 and this marked the end of his career just some months before the end of the war.

The book produced was fashioned by the penguin classics producers with 320 pages available in both hardcover and paperback cover. It is categorized as a military and European history during the First World War (Ellis, 2007, p.65).

Analyzing the books as history (Book review) In our preview of the two books we begin with the critical analysis of the Storm of Steel where Junger, a Germany author and veteran bases his story on a journal entry he wrote during his time as a soldier in the German army.

Originally his work is structured and based on descriptive essay or novel which employs repetition as a style. From the readers point of view we observe that the author is more into describing historical events of which he is part. This makes the novel repetitive as the same activities such as attacks and counter attacks keep reoccurring over and over again.

Junger uses first person narration of the story where he creates a practical story about his experience during the two World Wars. The novel features no main characters, Junger takes the centre stage in explaining events of his time. The book therefore retains much of its form and originality as a journal article and not as a book because it features realistic and chronological events devoid of symbolism, imagery, sarcasm or irony which are common styles used in the scripting of novels and other pieces of literature to make them captivating.

We will write a custom Book Review on Description of Johnny Got a Gun specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is in the Storm of Steel that the author uses realistic and straightforward style to give account of his story where he preserves his values as a literary figure. He further detaches himself from the story he narrates by not giving opinioned view of events presenting them as blunt points awaiting the reader’s interpretation. We all see that the book is written at a time of war but it is expressed with a lot of simplicity by Junger’s description of pertinent events as a period of political romanticism marked with a pessimistic view of history.

Junger further describes the deterioration of the human conditions caused by the war as the measure of a countries muscle power. As it is clearly illustrated we find this piece of literature so unique with many unexpected twists and turns in events.

After the preview of the Storm of Steel, we contrast it with Trumbo’s got a gun basing our arguments on the styles used, the themes and the chronology of events during the times of war. Being that the two books have the same political set up and terror filled background, we get the style used by Trumbo to be very contrasting with Junger’s.

Johnny Got a Gun is an anti–war novel expressing events of oppression and protests against the organization and involvement of countries in the modern warfare. The author reveals the emergence of an upper class in society who entices the poor into war while they seize the opportunity to amass wealth. He describes the moneyed class as being mindful of themselves and ignoring those who go out to fight for what they call democracy.

Comparison of two books The two books are a clear contrast of each other. Looking at their theme exposition, the style and the number of characters the books are different. Trumbo brings to light the unequal bargains brought about by the World Wars and wishes that the world should remain a better place after every one and this is only possible when peace is given priority.

The author conveys Joe as a maimed soldier willing to be taken around the world as an evidence of the bad effects of war on human. On the contrast Junger does not lay emphasis on the adverse effects of modern war on human live. He shows contention for everything that life offers and has no time for complain.

The two books also employ different use of characterization. Johnny Got a Gun uses many characters to represent the many view and opinions that are faced in real life while the horrible experiences and consequences of the modern war are symbolized by Joe deformed and amputated body. On the contrast, the Storm of Steel which has the author taking the role of the main character to unveil the story while completely detaching it from emotions and criticism of the effects of modern war.

Looking at the two books from their performance on the market, Johnny Got the Gun has won awards for instance the American Bestsellers Awards while the Storm of Steel only exposed Junger into the limelight as a good writer. Trumbo was naturally a writer and took to writing as a way of earning a living while Junger is a German soldier who ventures into writing of journals one of which he modifies to become a novel.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Description of Johnny Got a Gun by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Center of Military. (1919). History of the United States Army in the World War. U.S. Army: Washington, D.C.

Ellis, E. (2007). Prentice Hall world history. Toronto: Prentice Hall publishers.

Sheehan, J. (1989). German history. Clarendon: Oxford publisher.

Trumbo, D. (2010). Komma: after Dalton Trumbo’s Johnny got his gun. Illinois: Fillip Editions publishers.

[supanova_question]

Bush Doctrine, Explanation of the Administration and War on Terror Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Bush Doctrine

Bush and the administration explanation of the Doctrine

The influence of Bush Doctrine on War on Terror

Conclusion

References

Introduction Leaders have become the main instruments for defining and executing world events. This is largely from a set of principles (doctrines) they initiate and pursue during their reign (Buckley and Singh, 2006).

Doctrines, in the American sense, reflect more on the country’s foreign policy strategy, which every president would want to pursue during his/her reign. George W. Bush (junior) is regarded as one of the US presidents to have mid-wife one of the most dramatic doctrines that greatly transformed America’s foreign relations policy. This was so after the events of 9/11, which President Bush translated as threat to the security of America and stability of the world.

Known as ‘Bush Doctrine’, the American president declared an immediate onslaught on rogue states that sympathize with terrorist and at same time, executed American military power to ‘cleanse’ off the world from terror activities and elements (Buckley and Singh, 2006).

As a result, Bush Doctrine was integrated into the National Security Strategy (NSS) in 2002, where the Doctrine rested on four critical pillars: necessity to maintain American military primacy, pursue of pre-emptive war as supplementary to tradition deterrence, war of terrorism, and democratization of rogue states (Buckley and Singh, 2006).

Bush Doctrine became the riding theme with which Bush and members of the administration explained to both Americans and International audience why it was necessary to implement in light of threat of terrorism.

Bush Doctrine During the Bush administration, America’s presence in Iraq and Afghanistan became inevitable, not for business purposes, but for sole and critical purpose of pursuing an ‘enemy’ posing threat to Americans and the world at large. After the events of 9/11, President Bush was convinced that America’s national security was threatened, while the world could not be guaranteed its serenity and tranquility of peace (Phillips, 2005).

Terrorists had shaken the nerve of American people and their security, and as a result, things would henceforth not be the same. In the perspective of President Bush, America had to respond to these threats speedily and comprehensively. In attaining national security by pursuing terrorists, President Bush also clarified the need to tackle ‘rogue’ states, especially in the Middle East to achieve genuine security (Phillips, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ‘rogue’ states were to be transformed into functional democracies, and through this, war on terror would be meaningful and far-reaching. In the views of President Bush, pursuing security needs should be accompanied by promotion of democracies in states that seem to lack transparency in governance, and attainment of this would lead to positive security gains.

Bush’s assertion represented new wave of neoconservatives who associates heightened terror activities to absence of freedom and democracy in some states of Middle East and as a result, President Bush became adept of the urgent need to promote democracy in the region while relentlessly fighting terrorism (Phillips, 2005).

Bush Doctrine, as compared to his predecessor’s was perceived to be of its own class; it was regarded as ‘revolution’ Doctrine when compared to earlier Doctrines, although some critics maintain that Bush’s Doctrine was not different but just continuation of America’s foreign ‘hostility’ policy implemented differently but with similar objectives.

Bush Doctrine was not that smooth affair especially among the world audience who largely expressed opposition to the Doctrine (Phillips, 2005). Moreover, the opposition was not only confined to the outer world, but also draws some levels of irk and opposition from Americans, especially with regard to tension the Doctrine exhibited in terms of creating tension between its transformational objectives and the subsequent employment of appropriate means to realize them (Buckley and Singh, 2006).

The overall assessment of Bush Doctrine has been concluded to be provocative, muscular, and pro-active in the American ‘exceptional’ era of international relations and in the fight against terrorism (Buckley and Singh, 2006).

Many people and analysts remain in dilemma as to whether Bush would have initiated and implemented this doctrine if the events of 9/11 had not occurred. As a result, the 9/11 events are regarded as historic spring-source for the Bush Doctrine that saw much transformation in America’s foreign policy and the issue of national security.

America intervened in Afghanistan and Iraq re-defined its military bases in Central Asia, while withdraw from Saudi Arabia, and Middle East became the centrality of America’s foreign policy (Phillips, 2005). Moreover, national security became a priority, where counter-terrorism could not be ignored anymore, while establishment of Department of Homeland Security became a prime idea as a result of 9/11 events (Phillips, 2005).

We will write a custom Essay on Bush Doctrine, Explanation of the Administration and War on Terror specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bush and the administration explanation of the Doctrine President Bush, together with the administration strategized on ways to communicate and convince the larger American and International audience why the Bush Doctrine was necessary to the national security of America. The understanding and position Bush and the administration took was that, 9/11 events posed great threat to the American security, and this was not a matter to ‘peacefully’ debate upon, but required immediate military actions to eliminate the ‘evildoers’ of the acts (Kaufman, 2007).

As a result, the national security of Americans was important and principle priority that no one could postpone through diplomacy. Bush and the administration were convinced that, the fight against terrorism was not an isolationist act, but required comprehensiveness and uttermost urgency. In this regard, preemptive war was needed to supplement the traditional deterrence strategy (Kaufman, 2007).

The premise and conviction of the President and the administration was that the terrorist elements were to be confronted with the necessary speed. In this canon pursue, the rogue states that provide safe haven to terrorists and other support were to be dealt equally like terrorist and as a result, warning directed to such states could no longer be the usual indirect channel of diplomacy interjected with ‘let talk’ aspect (Kaufman, 2007).

The public domicile dosage did not end with the issue of national security that Bush administration tried to highlight, but also calculatedly incorporated the need to bring about ‘total’ freedom and democracy in the states of Middle East.

The understanding of President Bush and the entire administration was that, Middle East was characterized by ‘culture of tyranny’, which constitutes the main avenue of aggression and subsequently inspires terrorist behaviors and actions (Kaufman, 2007). Middle East, in the eyes of President Bush, was home to aspects of fanatical, aggression, secular, and religious despotisms where ignorance directed to these aspects would further not kill the spirit of terrorism.

Middle East became a symbol of religious radicalism, and this posed grave danger to the security of America, since fertile ground for growth and nurture of terrorism could be found here. Therefore, in the ‘wise’ words of President Bush, regime change was necessary to implant suckers of democracy and freedom in this region for the wider security good of American people (Kaufman, 2007).

In expressing the urgent need for regime change in Middle East, President Bush did not forget the hard task that awaited Americans in this turmoil work. In the words of the President, this was an undertaking similar to one that the country undertook in Cold War, which was in essence a long struggle; but the country did not waiver until the chains of fascism and communism had been defeated and placed in their rightful place of history.

s a result, the president solicited cooperation for the long journey of defeating a new idea of totalitarian ideology (pervasion of proud religion), which was grounded in secular philosophy and remained a threat to national security of America (Kaufman, 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bush Doctrine, Explanation of the Administration and War on Terror by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Williams and Schmidt (2007) capture candidly the Bush’s administration explanation for the war on terror when the two authors observe that, the 9/11 events provided fertile ground for Bush to explain how rogue states and terrorists groups possessed wide array of weapons of mass destructions (WMS).

Indeed, this in itself made the American soil and world at large unsafe haven to reside. The terrorist in their capacity to shake World Trade Center and the Pentagon had sent a chilling message of how the terrorists were willing and ready to inflict large-scale destruction and death on the people of America.

As a result, President Bush, while commending on the 2002 National Security Strategy plan, retorted that, “we must be prepared to stop rogue states and their terrorist clients before they are able to threaten or use weapons of mass destruction against the United States and our allies and friends, hence we must deter and defend against the threat before it is unleashed” (William and Schmidt, 2007, p.5).

Further, Bush administration made it clear that the traditional methods of deterrence were no longer viable and effective, and this necessitated urgency for ‘preventive’ tactics to handle terrorists and rogue states effectively.

The influence of Bush Doctrine on War on Terror The war on terrorism became precise ground on which Bush Doctrine thrived and flourished. Bush intentions became clear and louder in that war on terrorism required global face in terms of cooperation from different states. In realizing and achieving success in war on terrorism, Bush Doctrine became the avenue to fight and defeat Al-Qaeda bases and sympathizers in Afghanistan and Iraq.

This ‘rogue’ states became the prime targets of Bush Doctrine, as the emphasis of fight against terrorism shifted from merely following the terrorists but also dismantling their channels and sources of resources, intelligence, operations, and logistics, which according to President Bush, rested with rogue states like Iraq and Afghanistan (Gurtov and Ness, 2005).

At the same time, Bush Doctrine emphasized the critical danger imposed by radical Islamism in Middle East. However, to fight and win war against terrorism, societies in Middle required transformation in terms of democracy and freedom. Hence, Bush emphasized on the great importance of eliminating and fighting radical Islamism (Gurtov and Ness, 2005).

Furthermore, the Bush Doctrine identified the potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed to the American security and the world at large, and as a result, there was an urgent need to ‘disarm’ and control spread of weapons among those nations perceived to be dangerous (Gurtov and Ness, 2005).

To achieve this, Bush administration saw the need to establish critical bases and alliances that would fight terrorism at all cost. In summary, Bush Doctrine influence on war against terrorism was built on global ideological crusade to see a peaceful world through democracy, freedom and elimination of terrorism, which ideologically was America’s ‘responsibility’ (Gurtov and Ness, 2005).

Conclusion President Bush ascended to power in 2001 with call for USA foreign policy to embrace ‘humility’. In this view, maybe Bush did not envision potential of terrorists to the security of America. Towards the end of that year, the unexpected took place, where there was twin bombing of Pentagon and WTC. President Bush, unsure of his earlier words made a dramatic turn and called for urgent and ‘realistic’ means to fighting terrorism.

In what became to be known as Bush Doctrine, which enjoyed less acceptance and widespread opposition in the world, the doctrines transformed the USA foreign policy nature. America adopted preemptive war methods as deterrence became somehow ‘ineffective’. Rogue states were to be dealt with and terrorist hot-points dismantled if genuine American security was to be achieved. In summary, Bush Doctrine changed the American foreign relations course, a fact that has and will impact on American society for a long time.

References Buckley, M.,

[supanova_question]

Executive Branch of Russian Government Qualitative Research Essay college essay help online

The first competitive and free elections which were held in March 1990 to elect the Congress of People’s Deputies led to the birth of the executive arm of the Russian government. The office of the president, who is the leader of the government, was created although the office had existed for a year after Gorbachev had created the same on his own in 1990 (Fish 56). When elections were held in June 1991, Boris Yeltsin became the first legitimate president (Sakwa 33).

Yeltsin guided the country throughout the four years despite the coup attempts by Gorbachev Soviet government. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian government had controlled the military while the Soviet government had control over the country’s budget as well as that of the Soviet Union. After the failed coup attempts in 1991, Yeltsin appointed a new government in which he also became the first prime minister in an acting capacity.

Under this arrangement, the president, Yeltsin, had the power to appoint ministers, administrators in the localities, presidential representatives, the prime minister, issue decrees among others (Eckert 33). However, a referendum that was held December 1993 led to the clear separation of legislative, executive as well as judicial branches as independent arms of the government.

The purpose of the study is to provide an understanding of the current executive arm of the Russian government by defining the elements of the executive branch of the government, their roles and responsibilities, and how they are coordinated.

The executive branch of the government is typically mandated to run the government and country and ensure the growth of democratic institutions. It is the executive arm of the government that manages the economy of the country. Russia has one of the best government structures particularly the executive arm and this has been the reason behind its stability and economic growth of above 7%. BTI 2010 rates the level of democracy in Russia at 5.25 within 1-10 status index (Bertelsmann Stiftung 1).

The statistics presented above are of real significance considering that Russia had been under the autocratic Soviet government and had no well-defined constitution of their own. Initially, the powers which were bestowed to the president could not allow him to steer economic growth. However, such situations changed, and Russia is now among the most democratic states in the Asian continent as well as globally.

It has also maintained a stable economic growth. It is these reasons that motivate me to study the executive arm of the Russian government. Therefore, to be able to understand how other countries, especially in the Asian, South American and African continents, can restructure their governance structure to expand their democracies, and institute effective systems for checks and balances, and as a result, improve their economic growths.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reasoning behind the continuing revolution in the Arab world that began in Tunisia means that there is the need for improvement in the governance structure particularly in the executive arm of such government as well as constitutional reform to guarantee citizens democracy, better leadership, and economic growth.

Russia is a federal presidential state with a dual executive and a vertical power structure where executive power is shared between the President and the Prime Minister, although the president s the key figure in the executive wing of the government.

The executive arm of the Russian government is headed by the president who exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The other members of the executive wing of the Russian government include the prime minister, two first deputy prime minister, seven deputy prime ministers, and seventeen ministers.

The president of the Russian Federation appoints the prime minister, who again has to be approved by the State Duma, which is the lower house. The current president is Dmitry Medvedev who came into power in 2008, while the prime minister is Vladimir Putin who had been the president for two consecutive terms beginning 2000 to early 2008. The prime minister is the Chairman of the government deputized by the deputy prime minister, who is also an appointee of the president.

The president is the Russian Chief of State and stays in office for six years as per the 2008 amendment that was done to the president’s term in office, which used to be four years. However, the current president will be in office for four years as per the original provisions in the constitution.

The president has no vice president meaning that it is the prime minister who gets into office should the office remain vacant due to impeachment, resignation, poor health or death of the president in acting capacity till the next elections are held, generally within three months (Caraway 1).

The president wields more executive powers as compared to the prime minister, who is his appointee ((Treisman 42). He or she determines the direction of the country’s domestic as well as foreign policy ((Treisman 42). The president also represents the state in foreign affairs as well as within the state.

We will write a custom Essay on Executive Branch of Russian Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, he or she conducts international talks and is mandated to sign international treaties. He or she is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces as well as the leader of the Security Council. The Russian Security Council ensures individual as well as state security. The Russian president also has the power to appoint the prime minister and the deputy prime minister with the approval of the State Duma. However, the constitution also permits the president to pass decrees without the permission of the lower house, State Duma.

Again, the president has the authority to dissolve the State Duma if repeatedly frustrates his efforts to appoint the prime minister and the deputy prime minister ((Treisman 42). The president also has the powers to appoint and dismiss the members of the cabinet which includes the deputy prime minister. Also, he or she chairs cabinet (government) meetings. He or she appoints Russia’s ambassadors after consultations with the legislature and may also recall the country’s foreign representatives.

Again, the president forwards the names of those proposed for the post of Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation to the State of Duma and may also ask the State of Duma to sack the chairman (Treisman 42). Besides, he or she forwards the names of the proposed candidates to be appointed as justices in Supreme Court, Prosecutor General, the Constitutional Court, as well as, the Superior Court of Arbitration to the Federation Council. The president is also empowered to appoint justices to work in the federal district courts.

As the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the president consents to defense doctrines. He or she has the power to appoint or dismiss commanders of the armed forces. Besides, the president has the authority to declare a state of emergency as well as regional states or national martial law although the Federation Council can reject or confirm the decree (Troxel 102).

Another critical issue as regards the executive branch of the Russian government is presidential elections. After the 2008 amendment on the term of office of the president, the president’s term in office is now six years, beginning in the next government which comes into office in 2012, and serves for a maximum of two consecutive terms (US Library of Congress 4). The minimum age for a presidential candidate is set at 35 years and must be a Russian citizen who has stayed in the country for the last ten years.

One unique feature of the elections of the president is the Law on Presidential Elections which requires a presidential candidate to acquire 1 million signatures from the electorates. A presidential candidate is not supposed to obtain more than 7% of the 1 million signatures from one federal jurisdiction. This rule is created to ensure that each presidential candidate proves that he or she is supported across territorial regions (US Library of Congress 4).

For presidential elections to be considered valid, a minimum of 50% of eligible voters must participate in the elections (US Library of Congress 4). Again, the Law on Presidential Elections states that for one to be declared the president of Russia, he or she must have garnered over 50% of all the votes casts.

However, should no presidential candidate receive the required more than 50% of the votes, the winner in the elections plus the runners up face off in a runoff election to determine the winner (US Library of Congress 4). The runoff must be conducted within fifteen days after the general elections. In that case, whoever wins between the two regardless of the percentage becomes the president.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Executive Branch of Russian Government by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Central Election Commission of Russia (CEC) reserves the right to ask the Supreme Court to ban a presidential candidate who proposes a violent transformation of the constitutional order (US Library of Congress 4). The CEC may also ask the Supreme Court to ban a presidential candidate who proposes a violent transformation of the Russian Federation.

Since the president is the appointing authority of the prime minister, the activities of the prime minister are highly influenced by the president. As the chairman of the government, the prime minister performs more of an administrative role. Since the president significantly influences the position, the prime minister performs his/her administrative functions in line with the presidential decrees as well as constitutional laws (US Library of Congress 5).

The prime minister nominates members to be appointed to the cabinet and also chairs the implementation of domestic policy. The prime minister is expected to forward the list of nominations of all the subordinate cabinet positions which includes the deputy prime ministers as well as the federal ministers within one week of his or her approval by the State Duma as prime minister.

Thus, he or she distributes duties in the cabinet, decides on the operating priorities of the office, organizes its work following the provisions of the law and presidential decrees, and informs the president on cabinet activities. The prime minister signs acts of the cabinet and suggests rewards as well as punishment for the office to the president. Finally, the prime minister represents the cabinet in foreign relation issues within the country.

As the chairman of the cabinet, the prime minister chairs the cabinet commission charged with the responsibility of monitoring foreign investment in the country, state border commission, as well as governmental commission on budget.

The cabinet, also known as the government, is a significant arm of the executive branch of the Russian government. It is made up of the prime minister who is also its chairman, first deputy prime ministers, deputy prime minister as well as federal ministers.

The cabinet’s roles include executing monetary and crediting policies as well as defense and foreign policies. It also performs state security functions and guarantees the rule of law. They ensure the protection of property, respect for civil as well as human rights. Also, the cabinet implements measures to fight crime.

The cabinet is also charged with the responsibility of formulating the state budget which is submitted to the State Duma (US Library of Congress 5). To accompany the report is an implementation plan for the budget. However, the State Duma may reject the budget, thus, forwarding it to the conciliation commission. It has to ensure the implementation of the budget. Also, it has to report on the progress of the implementation process.

It is also mandated to manage the federal property. Again, the cabinet has to ensure that state policies as regards to education, science, culture, ecology, social security as well as health protection are implemented uniformly across the country. However, if the cabinet issues implementing directives as well as decrees which are not in line with presidential decrees or the legislation, the president has the power to overturn them.

In Russia, the constitution allows several bodies to check the powers of the executive which makes the governance of the country to be democratic and more representative of the public’s wishes. One such authority is the State Duma.

The State Duma may force the president to dismiss the prime minister and the entire government especially if the government can not make important policy decisions (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 5). For the State Duma to force the president to dissolve the entire cabinet, it has to pass a censure motion against the cabinet twice in three months. However, if that only happens once, the president does not necessarily have to dismiss the cabinet as he may choose not to.

The president of Russia is empowered to dissolve the State Duma any time that the body frustrates his or her efforts especially if the body declines to consent to the nomination of the prime minister on three consecutive occasions.

Again, the president may also decide to dissolve the State Duma if the body passes a censure motion against the cabinet twice within three months (Remington and Smith 58). However, due to the constitutional role of the State Duma in the governance of the country, the president is not allowed to dissolve the body within twelve months from parliamentary elections (Remington and Smith 58).

This means that the president can not manipulate the appointment as well as dismissal of the Plenipotentiary for Human Rights, the Chairman of the Accounting Chamber plus its staff auditors, the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, within his or her last year of his or her term to for personal reasons (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 6). This means that the integrity of the bodies are maintained until the president leaves the office or the next government.

In countries where the constitution allows the president to dissolve the body charged with the responsibility of approving such appointments, the president takes advantage on the powers vested in his office to suspend the body and make appointments which suit his or her ambitions as has been the case in some autocratic governments.

Another body that checks the executive powers of the Russian president is the Federation Council, which is the upper chamber. Even though the president of Russia is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and is empowered to declare a state of emergency and to introduce martial law in the regional states or at the national level, he or she must notify both the upper and lower chambers (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 7).

The upper chamber, which is the Federation Council, has the authority to reject or confirm such declarations. Due to the weight of such decrees and martial laws on the country or state, their implementations are subject to the approval of the Federal Council.

Besides, the Federal Council is empowered to make decisions on the activities of the Russian Armed Forces outside the Russian territory (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 7). These provisions in Chapter 5 of the Russian constitution ensure that the president does not abuse the powers bestowed upon him or her while ensuring the security of the country and individuals.

The Federation Council also holds an important role as regards the appointments judges to the Supreme Court of Arbitration, the Supreme Court as well as the Constitutional Court. The body also has the power to appoint or remove the Prosecutor-General as well as the Deputy Chairman of the Accounting Chamber plus half its audit staff (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 7). In all these appointments, it is the president who submits candidates to be appointed for the above posts.

These powers of the bestowed upon the Federation Council ensure that the president’s appointments are approved by the upper chamber hence improving the integrity of the institutions as well as their legitimacy. This means that the president can not make an appointment which is not in line with the wishes of the majority and that the officeholders perform their constitutional mandate, failure to which the Federation Council can remove them. Thus, the checks and balances help improve transparency in the executive.

Unlike most countries where it is the president who declares the presidential election date, in Russia, the Federation Council has to call for presidential elections. This means that the president can not call for a snap election at a time when the country, and in particular, the opposition is not prepared, for his or her advantage. This promotes the spirit of democracy within the state.

Although the Russian executive branch has a dual executive with a vertical power structure, it has a governance structure which allows it to check the powers of the executive. The Federation Council and the State Duma provide checks on the powers of the president and approve most government undertakings which include the budget and its implementation, the activities of the Russian Armed Forces among others.

The two bodies approve important appointments which include major legislative offices, the prime minister, the Chairman of the Central Bank among other offices. These powers that have been granted to the Russian Federal Assembly ensure that the President does not abuse the powers bestowed upon him or her while governing the country. Thus, the Russian executive branch structure could be copied by other nations which wish to improve their governance structure, democracy, leadership, and transparency.

Works Cited Bertelsmann Stiftung, BTI 2010 — Russia Country Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2009. Print.

Bertelsmann Stiftung, BTI 2010 — Russia Country Report presents the country’s report on its transformation status. Of significant importance to the study are the index ratings on the country’s democracy as regards its stateness, political participation, the stability of democratic institutions, the rule of law as well as the social and political integration. Another significant aspect of the country’s transformation presented in this article is economic performance as well as the sustainability of Russia’s market economy.

Caraway, Bill. Russia: Land of Firebird Government. Journey to Assia, 2011. Web.

The article provides information on the three arms of the Russian government which includes the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. It presents a historical background of the Russian governance structure beginning early 1990s. It explains the composition of the executive branch of the government as well as the roles of each office, particularly that of the president.

Eckert, Mark and Shevtsova Liliia Fedorovna. The Problem of Executive Power in Russia. Journal of Democracy 11.1 (2000): 32-39. Print.

The journal “The Problem of Executive Power in Russia” discusses an executive power with an effective system of checks as well as balances in a democratic government. It explains that such a system would be significant for the operations of the Russian government. It presents the Russian transformation period since 1990 and continues to explain Yeltsin’s period in power in which the former president concentrated much power on the office of the president, thereby compromising the other political actors within the system.

Fish, Steven. Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.

“Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics” provides information on the Russian political system after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It compares the level of democracy in Russia at that time to that of other states to explain the democratic transition of the Russian political system since 1991.

Remington, Thomas and Smith Steven. The Politics of Institutional Choice: The Formation of the Russian State Duma. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. Print.

The book provides a background of the Russian Federation from the 1980s. It provides information on the political institutions of Russia which include the legislative institutions, the Russian electoral body, the State Duma among others. It provides incredible data on the Russian Duma as well as its composition which was very important for the study.

Sakwa, Richard. The Crisis of Russian Democracy: The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.

The book presents an interpretation of Russian politics by conducting an empirical analysis to explain the dynamics of the Russian political system. It reveals that Russia faces a democratic crisis due to the interference of the constitution by the administrative regime. It, therefore, proposes consolidation of the subjective authority of the administrative system.

The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Section One: Chapter 5. The Federal Assembly. Web.

The Constitution of the Russian Federation presents a section of the constitution which outlines the composition of the Russian Federal Assembly, which is the State Duma and Federation Council, their election into office, including the election requirements and procedures, their terms of office, defines their roles and jurisdictions, their compositions as well as their relation with the president.

Troxel, Tiffany. Parliamentary Power of Russia, 1994-2001: A New Era. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print.

“Parliamentary Power of Russia, 1994-2001: A New Era” traces the progress of the Russian parliament beginning 1994 up to 2004. It provides information on the authority of the Russian parliament particularly in the policy process and discusses the relationship between the parliament and the executive. The book proves the parliament checks Russia’s executive powers.

Treisman, Daniel. The Return: Russia’s Journey from Gorbachev to Medvedev. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 2011. Print.

“The Return: Russia’s Journey from Gorbachev to Medvedev” presents the evolution of Russia’s political system from Gorbachev’s reign to the period of the current president, Medvedev. It shows Russia’s maturity process into a more democratic political system with checks and balances on the executive.

US Library of Congress. The Constitution and the Government Structure. Web.

US Library of Congress, “The Constitution and the Government Structure” provides a rich source of information about the Russian executive branch including its transformation since 1990. It presents information on the composition of the executive branch, presidential powers, the cabinet, presidential elections, as well as, power centers plus the informal powers of the president.

[supanova_question]

Organizing function of management Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Organizing function of management

Conclusion

References

Introduction The success of an organization is dependent on the quality, timeliness, and responsiveness of decisions made by its leaders. When managers make effective decisions that respond to the prevailing challenges, their organization enjoy high competitiveness to their competitors.

According to Sanchez

[supanova_question]

Black Elk’s Vision: A Discussion of how it was Fulfilled Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Born to the Oglala Lakota Community in the decade of the 1860s, Nicholas Black Elk is undeniably among the best known of Native American Indian spiritual leaders (Wenger 734; DeMallie 595).

His fame, however, was scantly known to the outside world until 1932, when John Neihardt published an interpretive description of the holy man’s life in his book Black Elk Speaks. The flood of critical literature on Black Elk makes reference to the powerful vision this icon of native spirituality experienced at age nine, popularly known as the vision of two horses.

Although Black Elk, in old age, was portrayed as a frustrated man mourning the failure to realize the great vision given in his youth, hence the loss of his people’s way of life (Wenger 735), this paper purposes to argue from the perspective that Black Elk did indeed fulfill his childhood dream in totality through solidifying his Lakota religious tradition with Catholicism.

Various scholarly works demonstrate that Black Elk’s initial vision is rich in context and covers many pages, but can be summarized as a vision of togetherness, holiness and love of one another in a world that had already began to loose faith through pestilences, disease and wars, such as the 1891 massacre of the Wounded Knee (Copeland 161).

At the center of his vision, Black Elk stood on the peak of the highest mountain of them all and “…saw that the sacred hoop of [his] people was one of the many hoops that made one circle wide as daylight and as starlight, and in the center grew one mighty flowering tree to shelter all the children of one mother and one father. And [he] saw that was holy” (Copeland 161).

This great tree at the center of the mountains, according to scholars, symbolized fulfillment and the powerful web of life of the earth and of the Indian people (Copeland 159; Cajete 262).

In old age, Black Elk lamented that the center where the tree grew is no longer there, and the sacred tree is dead. However, various accounts of the holy man portray him both as a Lakota traditionalist and Catholic catechist. Indeed, the Jesuits of the Holy Rosary Mission portrayed him as one of their most faithful catechists, having converted to Catholicism in 1904 (Wenger 735).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other subsequent accounts demonstrate that Black Elk either “…understood Catholicism as a fulfillment of the Lakota tradition – a view consistent with the Catholic idea of enculturation but controversial elsewhere – or else that he interpreted each tradition through the lens of the other and saw no contradiction between them” (Wenger 735).

Either way, it can be argued that through his religious beliefs, both tradition and modern, the Oglala Lakota community came to enjoy oneness and togetherness in Christ and their traditional beliefs as they joined other communities to enjoy relative peace and tranquility through incorporating some elements of Christianity into their traditional belief systems (Hopfe 32).

Consequently, it can be concluded that Black Elk’s vision of “…seeing in a sacred manner the shapes of all things in spirit, and the shape of all things as they must live together as one…” (Copeland 161) was fulfilled.

Another symbolic portion of Black Elk’s vision was when he and another character named Tayo were carried on their horse carriers through worlds inhabited by horses of every imaginable color.

While Black Elk came to perceive that the visions and ceremonies had only made him a fissure through which power could be accessed by the two-legged, Tayo, on his part, learnt that the full vision can only come “…through the combined wisdom of birds, the creatures of the water, insects and reptiles, the very rocks of the earth as well as through the noble four-legged horse” (Copeland 162).

The above symbolic vision signified that human power could only function when employed in synchronization with both friend and enemy forces.

Although this synchronization may not have happened during Black Elk’s sunset years mainly due to the fact that many Native Americans still practiced traditionalist religions (Hopfe 32), his conversion to Catholicism in 1904, though still shrouded in controversy, may have set a precedence where the natives started perceiving the converts not as their enemies but as their brothers and sisters (Copeland 165).

We will write a custom Essay on Black Elk’s Vision: A Discussion of how it was Fulfilled specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, it has been suggested by some scholars that not only did Catholicism and Lakota tradition became united under Black Elk’s religious life (Wenger 736), but the Christian doctrine in Catholicism added new revelation and dynamism to what the local natives already believed (DeMallie 598). However, it should be noted that the Native Americans still maintained their way of perceiving things in the natural environment, such as rocks, streams, and trees, and relating them to their religious beliefs and deities.

For instance, though they may believe that there is only one supreme God as Christians do, most Native Americans still hold the view that rocks or trees are intelligent beings capable of not only communicating with humans but also guiding their daily lives (Hopfe 35). Consequently, this arrangement brought to fruition one of Black Elk’s symbolic aspects in his vision – that real human fulfillment can only function when employed in harmony with these other enemies of the witchery (Copeland 165).

Another captivating and symbolic portion of Black Elk’s vision was when he met the six Grandfathers, who ostensibly represented the powers of all corners of the world, in addition to the Sky and Earth. It is told in the scholarly works that Black Elk not only saw himself in the vision as representing the sixth Grandfather, hence the spirit of mankind, but was also bestowed great power to heal, destroy the enemy, and lead his people (Wenger 736).

This symbolic portion signifies the power that Black Elk assumed his vision would grant his people (Copeland 162), in addition to celebrating a warrior’s solution of using the powers of the unknown (spirits) to tackle the many challenges facing the Native American Indians, such as colonization by the white man, destruction of the Lakota territory, battles with intruders, and other social upheavals.

It is worthwhile to note that many Native Americans still believe in contacts with the spirit world (Hopfe 35), hence Black Elk’s vision came to fruition.

In his sunset years, Black Elk lamented that he was unable to prevent the massacre of his countrymen, women and children in the famous massacre of the Wounded Knee even after experiencing the vision (Wenger 735). Nonetheless, it can be argued that his vision came to pass in totality because many of these atrocities were stopped by the conversion of the Native Americans to Christianity – an action that was viewed to be of primary importance to the whites.

However, the power these native societies longed for still remained because research demonstrates that “…while none of the Native American religions have survived unchanged, many have incorporated elements of European culture and religion into native belief systems rather than giving up traditional ways entirely ( Hopfe 32). Indeed, Black Elk still enjoyed his pipe in the mornings and evenings while still being a catholic catechist (DeMallie 597).

To conclude, therefore, it can be argued that Black Elk did fulfill his vision in its entirety, though he may have suffered a great deal of anguish in his old age when he perceived that he bore the largest portion of the blame for not helping his people to realize the full human power and fulfillment of his vision (Copeland 163). He may have perceived this anguish either actively or passively, but it came to pass that “…the witchery cannot be conquered by those who use its weapons, for they become instead its allies” (Copeland 162).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Black Elk’s Vision: A Discussion of how it was Fulfilled by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through the religious efforts of Black Elk, a community was born where native traditionalists existed hand in hand with Christianity. At the end, Lakota religious traditions, thought to be polytheistic in nature but with a belief in one super deity (Hopfe 32), were solidified with Catholicism.

Works Cited Cajete, Gregory A. “Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux.” American Indian Quarterly 34.2 (2010): 262-262.

Copeland, Marion W. “Black Elk Speaks and Leslie Silko’s Ceremony: Two Visions of Horses.” Critique 24.3 (1983): 158-172

DeMallie, Raymond J. “Black Elk in the Twenty-First Century.” Ethnohistory 53.3 (2006): 595-601.

Hopfe, Lewis M. Religions of the world. 9th ed. Ed. Mark R. Woodward. New York, NY: Vargo Books. (n.d.).

Wenger, Tisa. “Nicholas Black Elk: Medicine Man, Missionary, Mystic.” Church History 79.3 (2010): 734-736.

[supanova_question]

The Biological Basis of Sleep Expository Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction Sleep is a mental and physical state in which one becomes inactive and unconscious of the environment around him or her (Borbély, 2003). In the real sense sleep is just a partial disconnection from the world in which outside stimuli are obstructed from the senses. Normal sleep is indentified by a general reduction in most of the body functions including blood pressure, temperature, and the breathing rate. This is contrast to the human brain that never reduces in activity.

The brain is always active whenever a person is a wake or a sleep (Berger, 2007). A normal human being sleeps for eight hours. These eight hours are divided into two equal parts. The first part is the rapid eye movement, and the second is the non-rapid eye movement. The two parts form a cycle (Ishimori, 2004). The intention of this paper is to look at the basis of sleep in relation to the biological mechanisms that cause people to sleep and stay awake.

History of Sleep The history of sleep is believed to have been introduced by a psychologist professor at the University of Nagoya in Japan about one hundred years ago (Bayliss, 2006). The psychologist proposed a theory that explains the concept of sleep regulation.

Kuniomi Ishimori and Heni Pieron neuroscientist state that, a hormonal chemical and not the neural network (Ishimori, 2004) cause sleep regulation. In earlier researches, researchers took some samples that were sterilized and dialyzed from dogs that had sleep then injected to the brains of the dogs that had no sleep. The dogs that received these samples fell after a short time.

The scientists went ahead and took samples from normal dogs that did not have any sleep then introduced into the brains of other normal dogs without any sleep (Berger, 2007). The response showed that the recipient dogs did not sleep. This research indicated that there are substances that cause sleep known as “endogenous sleep-promoting substances.” Although the contradiction fact is that the nature of the chemical substances that caused sleep was not identified.

Various research groups carried out their research and reported more than thirty endogenous sleep causing substances. In most cases, their physiological relevance was uncertain. Tokyo igakkai Zasshi from Japan published the first Ishimori’s paper entitled “true cause of sleep _ a hypogenic substance as evidenced in the brain of sleep deprived animals,” in the year 1909.

Ishimori made further suggestion that when a person continuously stays a wake, it may also cause accumulation of factors that cause sleep in the brain (Borbély, 2003). Currently this is referred to as homeostatic sleep regulation. Starling and Bayliss discovered “scretin” in 1902. This is in relation with the existence of blood-borne messengers. The new idea of hormonal control of the body functioning became quite fashionable and popular in those days.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hans Berger a Germany neurologist in Jena invented an electroencephalogram (EEG) that records brain waves in 1920s. The discovery facilitated the qualitative and quantitative analysis of sleep. Until then, sleep was regarded as an unapproachable phenomenon mainly because it could not be explained scientifically.

Kleitman and his coworkers discovered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in Chicago. This discovery took place in the year 1953 in human beings (Bayliss, 2006). Jouvet and his group in Lyon identified that sleep is never a uniform phenomenon, and it consists of two main different stages.

Sleep and wakefulness are the major complex, phenomena. Furthermore, sleep is divided into two parts: the REM and the non-REM sleep can easily be determined by examining the animal’s behavior (Berger, 2007). The authors suggest that it needs more accurate measurement of sleep and wake pattern by the use of the electrooculogram (EOG), the recording of the movement of the eye, EEG and (EMG) electromyogram, the recording of the tension of the muscles (Ishimori, 2004).

When a normal, healthy person goes to sleep at eleven, the first step in sleeping starts with the NREM and then followed by the REM sleep. This makes a cycle in the sleeping pattern. As in the example, it all begins with the NREM that which progressively becomes deeper.

It takes around four to five cycles in which one take about 90 minutes; arousal comes after the concluding REM sleep (Borbély, 2003). This principle has been in existence for a long time and yet the physiological regulatory mechanisms and the meaning have completely remained a mystery.

Alexander Borbely from the Zurich University in Switzerland came up with his two famous process model that show sleep regulation in 1982. He argues that homeostatic process is entirely controlled by sleep pressure or sleep propensity that build up during the wakefulness period. The process is related to the Ishimori’s thus the name Ishimori-Pieron type.

On the other hand, a biological or pacemaker clock that is independent of the prior waking and sleep determines the circadian process well known as the sleep-wake sequence during the night and day. This clock is found in the body of the animals. Researches indicate that Ultradian process can generate alternation of REM and NREM sleep (Piéon, 2003). From a scientific point of view, the molecular mechanisms that explain the sleep- wake regulation in all the processes have remained unknown.

We will write a custom Essay on The Biological Basis of Sleep specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sleep and Prostaglandin Prostaglandins (PGs) are the lipid mediators (Bayliss, 2006). There are more than thirty kinds of prostanoids, which are known worldwide. The compounds are distributed extensively in all mammalian organs and tissues.

They have a diverse and numerous biological effects on various pathological and physiological activities in the body, and that is why they are sometimes called local or tissue hormones. In 1980s, the scientists discovered the most common prostanoid in the mammalians and mostly the rats and human beings (Berger, 2007).

According to their findings, they suggest that PGD2 can be a distinctive component of the brain and might be having some essential function in the organ. They found out that when PGD2 cause sleep to rats when it is microinjected in the brains (Piéon, 2003). This was a notable achievement, and they decided to carry on with the study to the molecular mechanism and the physiological significance.

Inoue and Honda from Tokyo Japan first designed the bioassay analysis system for sleep. The analysis of the structure is as follows: through microinjection pump, the chemical PGD2 is injected gradually and constantly through a cannula which is chronically rooted in the 3rd ventricle of a rat . The stages that the rat undergoes to sleep are determined using polygraphic recording of EMG and EEG.

Other aspects like food intake, water intake and brain temperature, are monitored and the general behavior of the rat is recorded using a video recorder under infra-red light. The rats are nocturnal animals that sleep most of the daytime, and remain active during the night. The outcome of the research showed that when the PGD was constantly injected in the third ventricle of a rat, the REM and the NREM sleep improved significantly during injection time.

PGD2 caused the effect since the other PGs were ineffective (Borbély, 2003). The experiment mostly depended on the dose and the little picomolar quantity of PGD2 given to per minute it was enough to cause excess sleep to the rat. The quantity of the PGD2 that required causing sleep corresponded quite closely to the normal concentration inside the brain (Piéon, 2003).

The results indicated that pharmacologically high doses are not necessary, and it can imply that the difference in the concentrations of PGDs which ordinarily occur in the brain have the ability to control sleep under physiological circumstances (Berger, 2007).

The most important aspect is that the PGD2 stimulated sleep was the same as the physiological sleep just as shown by electrophysiological principle and conduct that involves power spectral data. Contrary to PGE2, the PGD2 is never pyrogenic, but in the real sense, it caused little amounts of reduction in temperature as seen to happen throughout the physiological sleep (Ishimori, 2004).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Biological Basis of Sleep by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Others experiments, that were carried out, in Japan with monkeys, Mocaca mulatta, indicated clearly that PGD2 could induce natural or physiological sleep (Bayliss, 2006). The sleeping pills and drugs cause quite different sleep from the physiological sleep or the natural one. This shows that PGD2 is a true sleep hormone.

Sleep-wake regulation The discoveries in the experiments above explain how sleep can be introduced to an animal from the beginning until it gets into a deep sleep. Then the next part is to identify if the same experiment can apply in the process of waking up the animal from the sleep explaining the wake sleep process.

Philos published the brief summary of the experiment in the year 2000. The article observes that the main enzyme that induces sleep is mainly found in the arachnoid membrane and the choroid plexus.

After this enzyme is generated, PGD2 is secreted into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and then flows inside the subarachnoid and ventricular spaces. The PDG receptors known as the DPRs are localized on the little area on the ventro-rostral plan of the basal forebrain. PGD2 that circulates in the CFS binds the receptors at the point where the sleep signal is generated (Piéon, 2003).

The signal passes through the parenchyma brain to the ventrolateral preoptic area VLPO), which is a centre for sleep, across the pia membrane (Ishimori, 2004). The process is mediated through adenosine by A2A adenosine receptor. VPLO cast to the tuberomammilary centre (TMN) (Berger, 2007).

The scientists, Oishi and coworkers, found out that adenosine from the TMN cause sleep by hindering the histamnergic structure via A1 receptor (Bayliss, 2006). This implies that PGD2 induce sleep by facilitating the functioning of sleep neurons (Borbély, 2003).

On the same point, wake materials like orexin or PGE2 thruogh the histamine mechanism support an organisms’ wakefulness. According to the scientists, it is their view that the work on wakefulness still requires great attention and it forms the basis of greater basis for more investigation.

Stages of sleep Sleep has four main stages. It starts from dozing and continuously progresses into a unusually deep sleep.

Stage one

The stage is can be termed as a doing stage. In this stage, five percent of the non-REM is spent. It is the transitional phase of the exact light sleep. The birthing rate, and the muscles start to relax and a person can be easily awakened (Berger, 2007). A person may feel a hypnic jerk during this period, the tendency to fall asleep and come back easily. After the rush of activities, the body starts to get into a slight slumber. The EEG at this stage is low, and the eye movements are slow. The eyes roll slowly as though closing and opening.

Stage two

This is the official onset of a consolidated sleep. A bout forty-five percent of the non-REM sleep is covered in this step (Piéon, 2003). The eye movement stops then the brain waves enlarge. There are two distinct brain waves in this stage, K-complexes and spindles (Borbély, 2003).

A sleep spindle is a design by which EEG waves that consist of a burst of eleven to fifteen hertz wave that last from five to fifteen seconds. A K complex has quite a high voltage of EEG activity. It consists of a sharp downward constituent then followed by a slow upward constituent. This pattern lasts for over five seconds.

Stage three

As the sleep advances deeper and deeper, it becomes extremely difficult to arouse someone at this stage. An individual may spend about twelve percent of the non-REM sleep in stage three. Real slow wave sleep starts with slow and large wave in amalgamate little, faster ones.

Stage four

This stage is normally characterized by extremely deep sleep. It mostly spends round seventy-five percent non-REM sleep, and thirteen percent of this part is spent in the last stage (Berger, 2007). An individual in the last two stages is more difficult to wake than an individual who is in the first two stages (Bayliss, 2006). People who wake up from sleep normally feel disoriented and groggy for some time.

REM sleep

This is the period that a person may experience dreams. During this time, there is an irregular breathing, periodic eye flattering, there is also an irregular heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. This makes a difference between non-REM and REM sleep stages (Ishimori, 2004).

In other words, the REM is referred to as paradoxical sleep since brain wave activities is almost similar to a wakened state. During this stage, the brain obstructs all signals towards the muscles and they remain immobile so that the dreams cannot be acted out (Piéon, 2003). Most adults spend a round twenty to twenty-five percent of their sleep in REM.

Conclusion The biological basis of sleep is dated back to more than one hundred years ago. Kuniomi Ishimori and Heni Pieron laid the foundation of sleep through their research done in Japan. The later physiologists identified that sleep can be classified into two main groups. These are the REM and the non-REM (Bayliss, 2006).

All the two parts come in different stages, that is beginning from stage one up to stage four, all the stages follow one another from the beginning of sleep to the time a person wakes up. There is still more room for other scientists to make the research and prove the sleep phenomenon.

References Top of page

Abstract

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

PROSTAGLANDIN (PG) AND SLEEP

PROSTAGLANDIN (PG) D SYNTHASE, THE KEY ENZYME IN SLEEP REGULATION

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF SLEEP–WAKE REGULATION BY PGD2 AND E2

ROLE OF PGD2 IN THE CIRCADIAN PROCESS

THE ROLE OF PGD2 IN THE HOMEOSTATIC PROCESS

HUMAN EXPERIMENTS

IN SUMMARY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

REFERENCES

Bayliss, W.M. (2006). Starling EH. The mechanism of pancreatic secretion. J. Physiol. Chicago: Harvard Publishers

Berger, H. (2007). Über das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen. J. Psychol. Neurol. Chicago: Harvard Publishers

Borbély, A.A. (2003). Two process model of sleep regulation. Hum. Neurobiol. New York: Macmillan Publishers

Ishimori, K. (2004). True cause of sleep – a hypnogenic substance as evidenced in the brain of sleep-deprived animals. Tokyo: Igakkai Zasshi.

Piéon, H. (2003). Le probléme physiologique du sommeil. Paris: Masson et cie.

[supanova_question]

New York or Boston, Which Place is Better to Live in? Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Abstract Choosing a place to live in can be a daunting task for everyone since a number of factors have to be considered in advance. Most decisions are influenced by personal preferences and conveniences. Whether one has a family or is still single determine to some extent on where the person would lice.

Cities with high population and a busy environment may attract more single people than those who want to stay with their family. America has so many places to choose from and is one has to conduct an extensive research in order to determine the best city or area to put up a home. This report explores the characteristics of two major places in the United States; New York and Boston. They are compared using the following criteria:

Size and population

Crime rates and statistics

Real estate value

Education system

Economy and employment opportunities

Climatic conditions

Society and culture

These are some of the major factors that should be considered while seeking for a place to live in. The report uses the block method of comparison to depict the similarities and differences between the two cities.

Introduction The task of choosing where to live is as demanding and important as choosing a spouse. This is because once a given place is chosen, one would be expected to spend a considerable period of time in it while working, studying, living with the family, or even in retirement (Greenfield 5). The United States of America has numerous places to live in where one can choose from.

However, making the most appropriate choice involves extensive comparison among the many cities and states. There are a number of factors that one may want to consider before deciding on the best place to live in (Rutherfurd 3). Most of the factors center around individual preferences as well as convenience especially if one is still single or has a family.

This task, therefore, calls for extensive research before the best choice is eventually made. This report details the characteristics of two major cities in America; New York and Boston. Each of these places will be analyzed in terms of size and population, crime rates and statistics, real estate value or housing cost, economy and job opportunities, education system, climatic conditions, as well as society and culture.

New York Size and Population

The population of a place that one would want to live in is a very important factor to consider. Some places are densely populated while others are relatively scarcely populated. According to U.S Bureau of Statistics, the City of New York remains to be the largest and most populated city in America as well as the world’s most populated metropolitan areas since 1790 (Greenfield 31). The land area of the city is 305 square miles which is equivalent to 790 km2.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 2010, the population of New York increased by 2.1% since 2000 and stood at 8, 175,133 making it America’s densely populated city. In the larger Metropolitan Area of the city, the population is about 18.9 million within an area of 6,720 square miles or 17,400 km2. It was estimated in 2006 by demographers that the population of New York will be between 9.2 and 9.5 million by the year 2030 (Rutherfurd 17).

Crime Rates and Statistics

The crime rates and statistics are the most critical factors to consider before deciding on where to live. A place associated with rampant cases of insecurity will automatically drive people away and discourage even more from moving in.

New York had significantly high rates of crime in the 1980s and early years of the last decade of the 20th century (Burns, Sanders, and Ades 9).

The rise in crime rate during this period was occasioned by the crack epidemic associated with massive drug abuse and deals. The City of New York was considered one of the most unsafe cities in the United States at the time.

However, this trend has notably changed over the past decade and the city has recorded the lowest rate of crime among the 25 largest American cities (Burns et al. 115). In 2002, New York was ranked among the safest cities in the United States with populations of more than 100,000 at position 197 out of the 216 cities in America (Greenfield 69). It had nearly the same crime rate as other well known safe cities which include Utah and Provo.

According to official statistics, the rate of violent crime in the City of New York went down by over 75% between 1993 and 2005 (Rutherfurd 73). The declining trend was recorded even when the national crime rate continued to increase. Over a period of about four decades, the homicide rate hit the lowest level in 2005 with an all time low of less than 500 homicides being recorded in 2007.

Blacks and Hispanics are the greatest victims of both murder and shooting incidences constituting over 95% of all reported cases (Burns et al. 257). Similarly, over 90% of the criminals involved in murder and shooting are black or Hispanic. This is largely due to their relatively higher number in New York City. Efforts to establish the cause of the drastic decline in crime rates and statistics in the city have been made.

We will write a custom Report on New York or Boston, Which Place is Better to Live in? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, both sociologists and criminologists are yet to come up with a common explanation of this notable trend. Some have argued that the strategy used by the security personnel in New York City have changed over time resulting in enhanced security provision. Demographic changes in the city as well as the bringing to an end of the crack epidemic have also been used to explain this situation of improved surety to city dwellers.

Reliable statistics on crime reveal that New York City has for a long period experienced the security risks posed by organized crime (Greenfield 82). This is especially at the beginning of 19th century and the late 20th century. The Mafia group was dominant in the 20th century and has remained to be one of the dreaded organized crime in New York.

The city has also seen the growth in the number of gangs some of which are prominent today. New York City was attacked on September 11, 2001 when terrorists executed their plan by hitting the South Tower of the former World Trade Center killing about 3,000 people (Rutherfurd 112). However, reconstruction of the site is underway and is aimed at restoring the status of the city by 2014.

Real Estate Value or Housing Cost

Acquiring a home is probably one of the greatest dreams that an individual can have and calls for serious investment. Before deciding on where to live, one ought to find out the current housing rates for different places since the price trends are in a constant flux. The cost of buying a home as well as the likely resale value has to be established before making the final decision on where to put up a home.

The real estate venture drives the economy in New York City due to its high value (Rutherfurd 162). The cost of buying and selling property in the city is quite high and holds the national record when it comes to property value. The cost of housing is generally high in the compared to other cities in the United States.

Education System

A good education sets the foundation for the children in preparation for their future endeavors. When choosing a place to live in, the kind of education offered is of paramount importance. The education system followed in the area as well as the general reputation and cost of schools within an area determines whether people would want to move in or not.

The New York City Development of Education is in charge of the public school system. The school system in this city is the largest in America with over 1,200 primary and secondary schools accommodating a total of about 1.1 million children (Greenfield 152).

There are a few schools which receive partial public funding. Nearly 1000 schools are under private management; secular and religious institutions. The city is home to over half-a-million university students, making it the largest student population in the cities in North America.

Not sure if you can write a paper on New York or Boston, Which Place is Better to Live in? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was established in 2005 that a majority of Manhattan residents had received some university education while 25% of them had acquired an advanced degree. These facts have ensured that a high proportion of the total population in the City of New York is educated making it America’s most educated population.

New York City has numerous private universities and one of the largest public universities in the United States. The city also has a number of community colleges and other specially operated institutions.

When it comes to scientific research, the City of New York is well known in medicine and various life sciences with the largest number of post-graduate degrees being awarded each year. It prides itself of over 40,000 registered physicians and over 100 Nobel laureates who studied in the local learning institutions (Greenfield 170). The City of New York has one of the best libraries on America.

Economy and Employment Opportunities

For a long period New York has been an international center for businesses and commerce and commands a fairly large share of world economy together with Tokyo and London. It is one of the major centers for banking and finance, world trade, tourism, retailing, new and traditional media, real estate, fashion, insurance, and theater in America (Greenfield 231).

In 2010, the larger New York had an estimated gross metropolitan product of $1.28 trillion. This made it the leading regional economy in the united states and ranked the second largest city economy globally controlling about 40% of the worldwide finances in 2008 (Rutherfurd 124). The city has remained to be the world’s leading financial center. New York City is home to both local and foreign corporations.

The New York Stock Exchange, the world’s largest stock exchange is located in the city. NASDAQ which is ranked second worldwide is also found in New York City. Statistics indicate that financial services in the city account for over 35% of the total employment income in New York (Burns et al. 421). These diverse economic ventures and fairly strong competitive advantage in the market make the city a rich destination for most of the employed people both in the United States and abroad.

Climatic Conditions

The climate of a place plays a critical role in determining its livability especially when it comes to extreme weather conditions. In America, seasons are experienced to varying degrees across the states. Finding a place with relatively climatic conditions enables one to feel comfortable while engaging in various day to day duties.

The City of New York has been classified as being in the region with humid subtropical climate. The city has got an average of about 234 days and some sunshine in the year. Cumulatively, New York City experiences a total of about 2,400 to 2,800 hours of sunshine annually (Rutherfurd 138).

The prevailing wind influences the impact of Atlantic Ocean on the weather during winter. The city is relatively warmer during winter compared to other inland cities at similar latitudes in the United States. This is due to the partial shielding of the Appalachians and the warm air blown over the Atlantic onto the land.

New York experiences cold weather at the beginning of the year with temperatures averaging 0.1o C (32.1oF). In extreme cases, temperatures may be as low as 10oF or -12oC and as high as 50oF or 10oC (Rutherfurd 142). The weather patterns during spring and autumn are generally difficult to predict and may vary from chilly to warm. These seasons are usually mild and less humid. New York City experiences summer and in July it is usually hot and high humidity with temperatures averaging 76.5oF (24.7oC).

During the night, the temperatures are usually high averaging 90oF (32oC) of 18 days during this season. In terms of rainfall, the city records 1,260 mm per year and is uniformly spread across the year. On average, the snowfall during winter since 1971 to 2000 stands at 22.4 inches (57 cm). New York City is not associated with hurricanes and fierce tropical storms although they are experienced on occasional basis (Burns et al. 446).

Society and Culture

There are about 800 different languages spoken in New York City creating the world’s most diverse city in terms of languages (Homberger 7). The total population in 2010 comprised of 33% white and 23% black who are non-Hispanic (Rutherfurd 97).

Asians constituted 13% while 29% were Hispanics of all races and Asians were found to be the rapidly increasing portion of the population over the last decade. New York City is composed of diverse ethnicities. This is largely due to the fact that the city has been a strategic entry point for most immigrants from Europe. According to estimates of birthplace 36% of the total population in the city was not born in New York (Rutherfurd 104).

Boston Size and Population

Just like any other critical consideration, population density of a given place is a factor to be considered when making decisions on where to live. According to the United States census released in 2010, the total population of Boston City was estimated at 617,594 (Taylor 8). This was a 4.8% increase compared to the population in 2000. About a decade ago, the population density of the city was estimated to be 12,166 people for every square mile.

The Greater Boston which is one of the largest metropolitan areas in America is home to over 4.5 million people. This huge number usually raises the population of Boston City to 1.2 million and even 2 million during the day as most people move to the city for education, healthcare services, work, and other occasions. The majority of city (35.8%) dwellers are young people aged between 25 and 44. In 2010, there were 239,528 households in Boston City with slightly over half (51.9%) of them being non-families (Taylor 17).

Crime Rates and Statistics

It is natural that none would want to live in a place associated with high crime rate. Before choosing an area to live in, one would be advised to conduct an extensive research on available crime statistics as far as crime rates are concerned (Vorhees 13). This would in turn assist in comparing the safety of a place and its neighborhood. Police stations and government bureaus offer the best opportunities for acquiring the necessary statistics and reports on crime and its prevalence in various cities.

Boston has witnessed a decline in violent crime rates over the past two decades. This notable decrease has been associated with the efforts by the Boston Police Department to involve members of the community in ensuring safety (Psaros and Psaros 35). There has been a strong collaborative relationship between the police and community groups and church organizations that has helped in reducing the number of youth involved in gang activities.

This spirit of cooperation has been promoted by the office of the US Attorney as well as the District Attorney. This move saw a ‘magical’ decline in crime rate in the city. In 1999, the number declined to 31 from 152 in 1990 with a rate of 5.26 for every 100,000 people (Harris 49). However, there was a notable fluctuation in the number of murder in the first ten years of the 21st century.

In 2002, a total 60 murders were reported in the city but the number reduced to 39 a year later. The annual downward trend then changed with 64 murders occurring in 2004 and 11 more in the following year. This unsteady trend in the rate of murder has been a cause for alarm among the residents of Boston. Boston Police Department has been reviewing its strategies of combating murder and related crimes in the city so as to ensure the safety of the residents.

Real Estate Value or Housing Cost

The cost of buying a home as well as the likely resale value has to be established before making the final decision on where to live. The cost of buying and selling property in Boston city is relatively affordable although it varies with location in the city as well as neighborhood (Harris 85). The cost of housing is generally affordable for all income levels when compared to other prominent cities in America.

Education System

Boston boasts of a number of colleges and universities within its territories. It has very high intellectual ratings due to its teaching and research activities in the learning institutions. Boston University located in the city is the fourth-largest provider of employment opportunities. There are fewer public colleges and universities in Boston (Vorhees 53). Boston has America’s oldest public school system with a capacity to enroll 57,000 students from preschool through grade 12.

Economy and Employment Opportunities

In terms of economic status, the larger Boston metropolitan comes sixth countrywide and world’s 12th-largest. The city’s economy is mainly driven by the large number of colleges and universities in the region. Students alone contribute up to $4.8 billion per year to the economy of Boston City (Psaros and Psaros 78). These schools and higher institutions of learning provide employment opportunities to many people. Most technology companies are to be found in Boston making it the country’s leading city in terms of life sciences.

Due to its advancement in biotechnology, Boston receives the country’s largest share of funding from the National Institute of Health each year. Furthermore, tourism contributes a significant share to the economy of Boston and is ranked among the top ten tourist destination cities in America (Hantover 9). Financial services and insurance also contribute significantly to the economy of the city with a number of prominent companies having their headquarters in Boston.

Climatic Conditions

The climate in Boston is classified as humid continental but is greatly influenced by maritime due to its location along the coast. During the summer season, the weather is warm, associated with rain, and with high humidity. Winters, on the other hand, are usually cold, windy, and snowy in nature. Spring and autumn conditions are mild but are determined by the direction of the prevailing wind with the wind blowing offshore affecting Boston and hence reducing the impact of Atlantic Ocean (Psaros and Psaros 94).

July is usually the hottest with average temperature of 73.9oF (23.3oC) while the month of January is the coldest with mean temperature of 29.3oF (-1.5oC). Extreme temperatures during winter and summer are not common but are occasionally experienced. Boston temperatures are moderated by virtue of its location along the North Atlantic coast. However, this locale exposes the city to weather systems that are associated with heavy rain and snow.

The annual rainfall in Boston is 1,080 mm on average and 41.8 inches (106 cm) of snowfall per annum. As one moves inland from the city, the amount of snowfall increases significantly as the warming effect of the season reduces especially during the months of December through March (Hantover 102).

Boston City is usually covered with fog during spring and the beginning of summer. The city also experience occasional tropical storms or hurricanes which pose a great risk to the inhabitants (Lodge 214). This is common during the onset of autumn. Located along the North Atlantic, Boston experiences sea breeze mostly during late spring.

Moderate thunderstorms are experienced between the month of May and September although sometimes they may be destructive since they are characterized by heavy downpours, strong winds, as well as large hail. Boston is usually one of those cities that receive tornado warnings although no major event of such kind has ever struck the downtown regions of the city (Lodge 228). However, other parts of the city have experienced destructive storms.

Society and Culture

From the mid to the end of the 20th century, the number of non-Hispanics has been on the decline. At the dawn of the 21st century, the non-Hispanic whites constituted about half the population in Boston (Vorhees 161). Whites have recently moved into the traditionally non-white territories with the number of blacks declining over the same period.

By 2006, statistics revealed that the proportion of non-Hispanic whites was on the increase once again (Vorhees 178). Five years later, the minority population has increased significantly partly occasioned by the housing crash. In general, Boston is made up of non-Hispanic Whites, Black or African-Americans, Asians, and Hispanics.

Boston language is distinguished by its unique English accent. There is a variety of seafood, salt, as well as dairy products in the city. The Irish Americans have greater influence on political and religious matters in the city. The city has also been known to be a major center for religious institutions especially the Roman Catholic and protestant faiths. Generally, Boston city has diverse cultural aspects that may cater for individual preferences.

New York and Boston Compared It is evident that before decides where to live, a number for factors have to be considered and extensive research done so as to make the best choice. The above discussions on some of the major factors give a picture of the two cities. In terms of size and population density, New York City is far much larger compared with Boston.

Crime rates and statistics for both cities have been on a significant decline especially on violent crimes. Despite being highly populated, New York City has become one of the safest cities in America. Organized crime, however, is still a major threat to security in the City of New York. On the real estate business, New York City leads Boston due to the high property value. Cost of housing, on the other hand, is much affordable in Boston than in New York.

On the education front, both cities have well developed systems with New York City schools serving a very population in America. Boston boasts of its advancement in biotechnology and other life sciences giving it a competitive edge in higher education on the international platform. Economically, New York City is superior to Boston due to its diverse sources of finances. The City of New York offers more employment opportunities than Boston.

Considering the general weather patterns in the two cities, it is evident that New York has the best climatic condition with less risk from hurricanes and storms. New York City is also a highly multicultural society with diverse languages in use. It offers an opportunity to understand the culture of other people. Although both cities have a number of interesting cultural practices and opportunities, New York is the most diverse due to the diversity of its huge population.

Conclusion The reported has highlighted some of the most important factors to consider before choosing a place to live. It has compared two American cities; New York City and Boston. The two places have been analyzed under the following factors: size and population, crime rates and statistics, real estate value and housing cost, education, economy and employment opportunities, climatic conditions, as well as society and culture.

The aspects of each city presented in the report may be used by an individual to make an appropriate choice depending on personal preferences. In general, it can be concluded that despite the relatively high cost of living, New York City has the best opportunities that one would want in a place to live in.

Works Cited Burns, Ric, Sanders, James, and Ades, Lisa. New York: an illustrated history. NY: Knopf, 2001.

Harris, Patricia. Understanding Boston (3rd ed.). California: Oakland, 2009.

Greenfield, Beth and Reid, Robert. New York City (4th ed.). UK: Lonely Planet, 2004.

Hantover, Jeffrey. City in time: Boston. NY: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2008.

Homberger, Eric. New York City: a cultural and literary companion. Oxford: Signal Books, 2002.

Lodge, Cabot H. Boston. Belmont: Levenger Company, 2004.

Psaros, Kevin and Psaros, Susan. Boston: a photographic portrait. Rockport: Twin Lights Publishers, 2004.

Taylor, Dorceta. Boston City: facts and figures. NC: Duke University Press, 2011.

Rutherfurd, Edward. New York. NY: Random House. 2011.

Vorhees, Mara. Boston: city guide. UK: Lonely Planet, 2009.

[supanova_question]

Social and Economic Inequality Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction The word is an extremely unequal place, and this is evidenced by the latest trends in social and economic inequality. Today, the richest part of the world’s population own approximately 40 percent of the total global assets, and this is just a top of the iceberg.

The richest 10 percent own more than 85 percent of the world’s wealth while the poorest 50 percent own just about 1 percent of the global wealth. This implies that the world’s top richest 150 persons possess more than what 50 percent of the world’s poorest, which are approximately 3.3 billion people, have.

The greatest source of this global inequality has been attributed to the huge gap among countries in levels of economic development. Disparities between developed and developing nations are enormous: the mean per capita income in developed nations is seven times more than it is in developed countries.

Growing levels of global economic inequality in the world has led to another form of inequality which is called social inequality. Today, societies and/or nations that are ranked low on economic aspects continue to face a number of social problems; millions of the world’s poorest people live without access to clean water, electricity, adequate housing, education and healthcare.

This implies that their ability to contribute productively to their nation/societies’ prosperity is limited. It worsens economic inequality among countries. Besides, social inequality has been linked with major political conflicts as it is seen in many countries, such as Sri Lanka, Uganda, the Congo Basin, and so on.

It is important to note that countries that rank low on economic indices also have the highest levels economic and social inequalities. Although nearly all the systems of moral belief challenge those of us who live in comfortable apartments to devote at least some resources to improve the conditions of those who live in poverty. Thus, economic and social inequality still remains high globally.

Although there is no universal accord on the causes of social and economic inequalities, many studies have pointed to societal structural changes as the main cause of the problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Loosely defined, structural changes refer to a long-term and extensive change of basic structures that have drastic effects on societal norms. Structural change can work to both reducing or increasing inequality levels as it is seen in the China and India case study. In 1981, nearly 64 percent of the Chinese population lived in absolute poverty, today, the figure has dropped to 15 percent.

In India, the drop was less significant, but still a noteworthy because the level reduced from 55 percent to 35 percent. Economic growth in China and India was the result of structural changes in the respective nations’ economies. China effected these changes by undertaking reforms in its economic policies to give greater power to market forces and the private sector.

The changes began in the agricultural sector more than 20 years ago and have been extended steadily to other sectors of the economy including service and industry sectors. These changes threw out price control mechanisms and gave more power to the private sectors. Today, China’s economic growth rate is averaged at 9.5 percent while national income has been doubling every 8 years due to these changes.

Although inequality still exists, similar to all the Western countries, China’s story of success and progress shows the extent to which structural changes can help in reducing inequality levels within its population and with other countries. Indeed, studies by the UN and other organizations show that there is a significant correlation between poverty and inequality.

While structural changes have reduced economic and social inequalities in some areas, the concept has led to a worsening of conditions in some countries. For instance, mechanization of agricultural processes has led to unemployment in some developing countries, increasing incomeinequality.

Although the structural change theory has gained widespread acceptance, a second theory that views inequality in the light of individualism has found application in some areas. For instance, Americans believe that the main cause of poverty (and hence inequality) is personal failure and moral turpitude of the poor.

This theory’s acceptance has caused an unnecessary strain between structural change and popular opinion in some areas since studies seem to suggest that both environmental and non-environmental factors including structural change affect a person’s likelihood of success in life. For instance, during the Communist control of China, the economy was regulated by a central power, and with concerted efforts to succeed, most citizens grew poor as state resources were controlled by the government.

We will write a custom Essay on Social and Economic Inequality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fall of the Communist government ushered in a new era that had seen the Chinese prosper and reduce of the inequality gap. Hence, the individualistic view of poverty and inequality does not effectively explain why some people live in poverty. The government and other structures must support its citizens so that prosperity at individual and national levels can be realized.

Social and economic inequality is likely to reduce in most countries in future. This forecast is based on current trends that show a drop in various types of inequalities in a number of nations. Besides, the world’s economy is becoming globalized, and in the future, the gap in income distribution will most likely reduce declining social and economic inequality.

[supanova_question]

The voice of Faulkner Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help

Introduction William Faulkner’s writing in three short stories (‘A Rose for Emily’, ‘Barn burning’, and ‘As l lay dying’) is highly emotional, complex, gothic and has an unconventional choice of narrators. These attributes denote two literary elements and they are: language and style. One can analyze those two elements in order to understand William Faulkner’s voice.

How Faulkner uses language and style in ‘A Rose for Emily’, ‘Barn burning’ and ‘As I lay dying’ Emotional and poetic language

Faulkner has the ability to be intensely emotional in most of his pieces without really sacrificing the story line or the strengths of his characters. In ‘Barn burning’, the author evokes emotions by compressing deep meaning in just a few lines. In one scenario, Sarty says ‘Father! Father!’ (Faulkner, As I lay dying 14)These might seem like simple words, but they are packed with meaning. The reader is able to feel a sense of loss, sadness, and a hint of relief as the speaker makes this statement. The author allows his phrases to possess some level of ambiguity in order to give his readers room to interpret or create their own meaning. In ‘As I lay dying’, the author uses one of his characters to convey literary or poetic language. Darl is extremely articulate and his language is quite innovative.

Gothic style

Faulkner has the ability to bring out elements of death, decay, destruction, isolation and darkness in a unique way. This component in his writings caused him to stand out from his contemporaries. In ‘A rose for Emily’, Faulkner creates an image of a woman who clearly does not belong to her world. She refuses to leave her house for years on end; she stops talking to everyone, has an affair with a disapproved male, and finally murders her lover.

Here was a woman who was trapped in the past, and had alienated herself from life. Emily had a lush and beautiful environment outside her house; she never bothered to look at it. She chose to live in darkness, both literally and metaphorically as she never drew her curtains. This depiction of deep darkness was something that Faulkner always focused on; it added a gothic element to his writings and made it distinctive.

In ‘As I lay dying’, the author selects a relatively poor family- the Bundrens. Although the group is ignorant and has a series of other weaknesses, the author still conveys their experiences with empathy and grace. The setting of the community in which the Bundrens live has an element of grotesqueness because it focuses on members of the lower class.

The death of Addie is also one of the dark and disturbing components of the narration. Additionally, Faulkner describes the destruction of Darl in such a tragic and dignified manner. One cannot help but feel the same devastation that surrounded that development. The gothic style in this narrative is therefore reflective of the author’s preference for dark tales.

In ‘Barn burning’, the author’s preference for the bizarre is seen through his choice of characters. This is a dysfunctional family whose head has a need to burn houses. He causes his children to participate in his wrongdoings by instructing them to help him out with a few things.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It only gets worse for Sarty when the Major chooses to kill his father before he can destroy his barn. Eventually, the young boy keeps running until midnight, when he stops to sit at the crest of a hill. This must be a dark moment in Sarty’s life because he did not have a father anymore, yet he also ran away from people who love him. These are all depressing issues that cause the reader to empathize deeply with Sarty.

Complex style

Faulkner had a complex style of writing owing to his treated of time, his use of long sentences and unconventional sentence structure, his preference for ambiguity, and his use of stream of unconsciousness.

One of the most interesting component’s of Faulkner’s style of writing was his complicated treatment of time. He achieves this by changing from narrator to narrator and from character to character. The lack of chronology in his pieces is the reason why some unseasoned readers find his work difficult to follow. In ‘A rose for Emily’, the story commences with the main character’s death. This is followed by many events that occurred in the modern age to the period just before the Civil war in the South.

The present is sometimes interrupted by events in the past and the past sometimes appears to be the present. One is able to deduce this interweaving of events through phrases such as: ‘thirty years before’ or ‘eight years later’ (Faulkner, A rose for Emily 17). It is almost as if Faulkner is giving his audience little pieces of a puzzle that must be put together in order to understand the whole narration.

The time movements have been achieved through the use of flashbacks and foreshadows. The end of the story illustrates that the entire piece has been a flashback since it talks about the discovery of the corpse of Homer in Emily’s house. Faulkner did not just choose this non linear approach in order to make his work interesting or to confuse readers; he did it in order to make his readers engage more with the text.

As one goes through the story, one is likely to be inspired to compare chronologies with other people so as to detect any possible misreading. In these discussions, one can then analyze the thematic repercussions of those chronologies. This unconventional style has a way of making readers more engrained in the narration, and hence more likely to admire his work.

The same thing occurs in ‘As I lay dying.’ Although the story spans through a couple of days, the author utilizes the perspectives of several voices in order to bring in a different dimension to the story. Faulkner manages to create a sense of wholeness despite the fragmentary nature of the story. The various sub plots that are added from time to time seem to add more strength to the story. The ambiguity of the narrators requires meticulous analysis of their descriptions because not all of them are credible.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The voice of Faulkner specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Complexity is also created in ‘Barn burning through the use of long sentences. This method has also been employed in ‘As I lay dying’. The long sentences can make it difficult to follow the narrative, if one does not pay close attention 9Faulkner, as I lay dying 65). He is fond of this style of writing because he wants to capture the action and emotions that his characters are going through.

When Sarty starts chasing after de Spain, the author describes this experience using very lengthy sentences. As one reads them, one gets lost in the events of the moment. One can feel the confusion and sense of loss that Sarty is going through using this technique. Faulkner therefore achieves his objective by causing readers to get carried away. Since there is no slowing down in the sentences, there is also no slowing down with the actions being described.

Unconventional choice of narrators as an element of style

In ‘A rose for Emily’, the writer uses the town as the main voice in the short story. As the story continues, one learns about the habits and values of the people in Emily’s hometown. This narrator does not pre-empt anything in the short story. He seems to discover new things along with the audience.

For instance, in one scenario, the narrator states that there was an awful smell from Emily’s house, and adds that it occurred as soon as her sweetheart died. He does not provide any correlation between these two components of the tale. It is only until the end of the story that the reader is able to know where the smell came from. The narrator, provides additional information, but still strives to maintain suspense in the story.

In ‘Barn burning’, the author picks an omniscient narrator who seems very close to Sarty. The purpose of selecting such a voice was to make the main character get closer to readers. At one point, one feels as though one has entered Sarty’s mind. Since he is someone who understands things through symbols, the writer presented or explained things through such a perspective.

For example, when Sarty went to court, he describes the crowd as having ‘a lane of grim faces’. Numerous metaphors have been used, that relate to a child’s perspective. In another instance, he describes his father’s voice as being harsh as tin and lacking heat as tin. However, the author manages to illustrate that Sarty was not in fact the real narrator when Sarty and his family are out camping and his father makes a small fire.

It is noted that Abner does not hesitate to create large fires when burning other people’s barns. The narrator muses that had Sarty been older, he would have asked himself why this was the case. The author therefore plays with reader’s minds by providing more than one possibility for the narration. This kind of style was fundamental in providing essential details to the story while providing a mechanism for understanding the main character’s actions.

Perhaps the most complicated choice of narrators occurred when the author wrote ‘As I lay dying’; there are fifteen narrators in the story and each of the descriptions is highly subjective. Each narrator has his own kind of language and tone. Some of the narrators re confessional and seemingly neutral, but they end up loosing credibility later on.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The voice of Faulkner by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, one of the first ones –Darl – is an immensely articulate individual who seems to know what he is talking about. However, he is treated negatively by his family members who eventually take him to an asylum when he goes mad. To Faulkner, truth is debatable and depends upon the individual under consideration. The purpose for choosing such a complex interplay of narrators was to create a platform for adding more information to the story.

Instead of depending upon one individual to describe everything, the author decides to use both real and interior monologues that the characters have with themselves and others in order to concretize the story. Objectivity is evasive in ‘As I lay dying’, and this causes readers to think a little bit more intensively about the developments in the story (Blotner 44).

Stream of consciousness is also an important part of Faulkner’s complex writing. In ‘As I lay dying’, a number of narrators think about the death of the main character and they do this through continuous internal reflections. The same thing occurs in ‘Barn burning’. Sarty often describes his experiences as if they are flowing right out of his mind. For example, when his father walks in, he first describes what his father is wearing before he realizes that his father is in the house.

Conclusion Faulkner was unsparing in his pieces; his words, plot and descriptions were intense and bold. His choice of characters and the lives they lived has grotesque or gothic inclinations. This author’s work was complex because of his sentence structures, his preference for ambiguity and his treatment of time. Lastly, the author’s choice of narrators was unconventional, but meaningful. Together, these components make Faulkner’s language and style exceptional in the literary world.

Works Cited Blotner, Joseph. Faulkner: A biography. NY: Random House, 1984

Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying: The corrected text. NY: Vintage publishers, 1991. Print

Faulkner, William. A rose for Emily. NY: Dramatic publishing, 1983. Print.

Faulkner, William. Barn burning. NY: Harper and brothers, 1939. Print.

[supanova_question]

‘Teach me How to Drive so that I can Protect Myself” by Saudi Women Leader Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Challenges That She Faced

Achievements

What makes her a leader?

Leadership style

References

Introduction In Saudi women can only drive at their own risk because the government has imposed a ban on women drivers. For this reason, it is illegal for any woman to drive. This ban has been in existence for quite some time.

Manal al-Sharif must have been very disturbed by this issue when she decided that she would fight for rights concerning women driving. Although al-Sharif had received her university education in computer science, she had a lot of interest in women activism. She had actually put a lot of effort in demonstrating or highlighting the lack of women’s rights in Saudi (New York Times, 2011).

She knew that the struggle was not easy and for this reason, she had to carry out her activism tactfully. To begin with, she started her first campaign on the social media that was calling on women to defy the ban on women drivers. ‘Teach me how to drive so that I can protect myself” is one of the campaigns that she had started on face book that required the authority to allow women the opportunity to drive. Al –Sharif also went on to upload videos of her driving on YouTube

Challenges That She Faced To begin with organizing Saudi women was not an easy task because the society is a male dominated society. The other reason that could have caused this problem is the fact that the Saudi women have been denied their rights for a long time to a point where they have compromised with the situation and that is why they under look themselves.

It was not easy for al-Sharif to convince the women that they could be successful in their struggle against the ban on driving. The attribution of this is mainly obedience to religion. As stated by Nazir and Tomppert (2005) “law in Saudi Arabia, however does not offer equality to women. The text of the Quran and Hadittf are often subject to individual interpretation that favors men position over women.”

The methods used by al-Sharif to mobilize her female counterparts in the realization of their rights to drive were not received well by the male dominated government of Saudi. On May 30, 2011, she was detained for the role she had played in the activism and later released before being rearrested. Therefore, imprisonment and detention without trial is one of the main challenges that she had to overcome.

Achievements Although al-Sharif’s activism did not end, the ban on driving in Saudi Arabia there is a lot that she achieved as a leader and as a person. To begin with, she proved that it was possible for women to stand up for their rights in Saudi Arabia and this created a foundation for future struggles. As a person, she gained international recognition for her determination and courage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What makes her a leader? Leadership involves standing up and fighting for truth on behalf of the people. This is actually, what al-Sharif did and that is why I consider her to be a leader. The ban on women driving is not legal. The reasons given by the authorities for this ban are also not in any way logical.

This is a problem that has been there for a long time. A true leader is a person who realizes that there is a problem in the society and proceeds to provide the people with a solution (Gardner, 1990). This is what she did, she realized that there was a problem in Saudi social system and she went forth to try to come up with a solution.

Leadership and sacrifice are dependent, which implies that to consider one as a leader then he or she must be ready to make sacrifices on behalf of the people. In fact, Henderson (2004) puts it better by stating that “sacrifice is part of leadership.” In all her struggle against the ban on driving in Saudi, al-Sharif sacrificed a lot.

To begin with, she took the risk of defying the authority, which according to the Muslim laws carries a severe penalty. She also sacrificed her freedom and went to the prison so that the Saudi women could have their rights back like any other woman in other parts of the world. For this reason, al-Sharif is a true leader.

Leadership and strategic planning supplements each other and the conclusion made is that successful leaders must be good planers. Al-Sharif was a good planner and she knew that in order to reach the people she must use the right channel. For this purpose, she applied and used the social media, which are popular in the modern days in order to reach the people. For one to be considered, as a leader then one has to lead by example and this is what she did by driving through Saudi streets and posting the video on YouTube.

Leadership style Majority of Saudi people believe or accept the fact that they should allow the women to drive. Al-Sharif’s leadership is therefore about the wish of the majority and therefore her leadership style is a participative or democratic form of leadership. Elements of social activism reinforce her leadership.

References Baldoni, J. (2003). Great Communication Secrets of Great Leaders: New York McGraw-Hill.

We will write a custom Research Paper on ‘Teach me How to Drive so that I can Protect Myself” by Saudi Women Leader specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gardner, J. W. (1990). Leadership. Michigan: Free Press.

Henderson, A. M. (2004). Building Effective Leadership from the Ground Up. Coral Springs: Llumina Press.

Mac Farquhar, Neil. (23 May 2011). Saudis Arrest Woman Leading Right-to-Drive Campaign. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/24/world/middleeast/24saudi.html Retrieved

Nazir, S. Tomppet, L. (2005). Women’s Right in the Middle East and North Africa: Citizenship and justice. Lanham: Rowman

[supanova_question]

Social and Economic Inequality Essay essay help free

Introduction The word is an extremely unequal place, and this is evidenced by the latest trends in social and economic inequality. Today, the richest part of the world’s population own approximately 40 percent of the total global assets, and this is just a top of the iceberg.

The richest 10 percent own more than 85 percent of the world’s wealth while the poorest 50 percent own just about 1 percent of the global wealth. This implies that the world’s top richest 150 persons possess more than what 50 percent of the world’s poorest, which are approximately 3.3 billion people, have.

The greatest source of this global inequality has been attributed to the huge gap among countries in levels of economic development. Disparities between developed and developing nations are enormous: the mean per capita income in developed nations is seven times more than it is in developed countries.

Growing levels of global economic inequality in the world has led to another form of inequality which is called social inequality. Today, societies and/or nations that are ranked low on economic aspects continue to face a number of social problems; millions of the world’s poorest people live without access to clean water, electricity, adequate housing, education and healthcare.

This implies that their ability to contribute productively to their nation/societies’ prosperity is limited. It worsens economic inequality among countries. Besides, social inequality has been linked with major political conflicts as it is seen in many countries, such as Sri Lanka, Uganda, the Congo Basin, and so on.

It is important to note that countries that rank low on economic indices also have the highest levels economic and social inequalities. Although nearly all the systems of moral belief challenge those of us who live in comfortable apartments to devote at least some resources to improve the conditions of those who live in poverty. Thus, economic and social inequality still remains high globally.

Although there is no universal accord on the causes of social and economic inequalities, many studies have pointed to societal structural changes as the main cause of the problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Loosely defined, structural changes refer to a long-term and extensive change of basic structures that have drastic effects on societal norms. Structural change can work to both reducing or increasing inequality levels as it is seen in the China and India case study. In 1981, nearly 64 percent of the Chinese population lived in absolute poverty, today, the figure has dropped to 15 percent.

In India, the drop was less significant, but still a noteworthy because the level reduced from 55 percent to 35 percent. Economic growth in China and India was the result of structural changes in the respective nations’ economies. China effected these changes by undertaking reforms in its economic policies to give greater power to market forces and the private sector.

The changes began in the agricultural sector more than 20 years ago and have been extended steadily to other sectors of the economy including service and industry sectors. These changes threw out price control mechanisms and gave more power to the private sectors. Today, China’s economic growth rate is averaged at 9.5 percent while national income has been doubling every 8 years due to these changes.

Although inequality still exists, similar to all the Western countries, China’s story of success and progress shows the extent to which structural changes can help in reducing inequality levels within its population and with other countries. Indeed, studies by the UN and other organizations show that there is a significant correlation between poverty and inequality.

While structural changes have reduced economic and social inequalities in some areas, the concept has led to a worsening of conditions in some countries. For instance, mechanization of agricultural processes has led to unemployment in some developing countries, increasing incomeinequality.

Although the structural change theory has gained widespread acceptance, a second theory that views inequality in the light of individualism has found application in some areas. For instance, Americans believe that the main cause of poverty (and hence inequality) is personal failure and moral turpitude of the poor.

This theory’s acceptance has caused an unnecessary strain between structural change and popular opinion in some areas since studies seem to suggest that both environmental and non-environmental factors including structural change affect a person’s likelihood of success in life. For instance, during the Communist control of China, the economy was regulated by a central power, and with concerted efforts to succeed, most citizens grew poor as state resources were controlled by the government.

We will write a custom Essay on Social and Economic Inequality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fall of the Communist government ushered in a new era that had seen the Chinese prosper and reduce of the inequality gap. Hence, the individualistic view of poverty and inequality does not effectively explain why some people live in poverty. The government and other structures must support its citizens so that prosperity at individual and national levels can be realized.

Social and economic inequality is likely to reduce in most countries in future. This forecast is based on current trends that show a drop in various types of inequalities in a number of nations. Besides, the world’s economy is becoming globalized, and in the future, the gap in income distribution will most likely reduce declining social and economic inequality.

[supanova_question]

Thinking and Writing about Art History Essay college admissions essay help

This essay will discuss the painting by Samuel Richards which is called Blissful Hours. It is necessary for us to focus on the artistic elements of this picture and its theme. The author completed it in Munich in 1885. Eight year later it was first exhibited in Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition. This is an oil picture, and its canvas is 39 1/2 x 57 1/4 inches.

According to Samuel Richards’s letter, this work depicts a village girl who works on her bridal dress (Tottis, 216). The artist has never explicitly stated the purpose of this work. Yet, one can deduce that he strives to portray the life of rural people in the nineteenth-century Europe. The main message of this picture can open to various interpretations, for instance, it can demonstrate how women of that period were dependant on marital status and how important wedlock was for them.

This picture has some elements of Romantic and Baroque painting. In particular, one can speak about the blurring of shapes and colors. The painter used this element of design in order to focus the viewer’s attention on the maiden rather than on some elements of decor like furniture.

Samuel Richards uses grey, white, and beige colors. In many cases, they merge into one another. Perhaps, in this way, he tried to emphasize the gentleness of this village girl. Again, this response can be explained by the fact that she is placed in the most illuminated part of the room and the viewers can see her tender face and hands. It is possible to say that she is the focal point of this painting.

This work fits into the career of this artist. One can draw parallels between this painting and some other works by Samuel Richards, for example, German Girl, or Head of a Peasant. Overall, rural life is an important theme in his works (Tottis, 216). Moreover, one should take into account that this artist grew up and often lived in such environment. Thus, this painting fits his career and life. While working on this painting the author relied primarily on visual rather than literary sources.

This work of art can tell us much about the social relations of that period. In particular, it can show that marriage was of the crucial importance for women of that period. It was one of the ways in which they could raise their social status.

Overall, this work was praised for its realistic portrayal of village life and household (Tottis, 217). In terms of themes, this work can be compared to other works done at the same time, for instance, the painting by Jean-Francois Millet which is called The Gleaners. This painting also depicts the life and labor of rural women.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As far as the process of this artistic piece is concerned, we can say that very little is known about it. Samuel Richard completed this painting in Munich and he was working in a village near this city. Yet, there are no preliminary sketches of this artistic work.

This artistic piece represents American painting of the nineteenth century. It can give us a glimpse in to the life of rural society of that period. Moreover, this artistic piece is significant from purely artistic standpoint. Samuel Richards’ use of color, his sense of unity and proportion can still be admired. One should take into account that the artist portrays not only one girl, but probable a whole generation of rural and peasant women. This is why one can say that this work is symbolic.

Works Cited Tottis, James. American paintings in the Detroit Institute of Arts: Forging a modern identity : masters of American painting born after 1847. Detroit: Giles in association with the Detroit Institute of Arts, 2005. Print.

[supanova_question]

Pro-Social and Anti-Social Behavior Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Anti-social behavior is the knowing or unknowing disregard for others, which leads to intent to damage lives or negligence. Persistently, this behavior leads to anti-social Personality Disorder. Pro-social behavior is the antonym for anti-social behavior. It refers to a comforting regard for other peoples’ welfare and consequently society. People with pro-social behavior volunteer more and are generous contributors to good causes.

Factors Influencing Pro-Social/Anti-Social Behavior Media

Media plays a critical role in developing social voluntary giving. Studies show that children, who watched children related channels and programs at an early age of less than five, develop a giving habit. They also volunteer more than kids who watch mainstream media.

Therefore, it is clear that TV content, which promotes violence and social misdeeds, fosters anti-social behavior. Internet is the newest source of all information. Social media is a mixture of people with different intentions. A child may get exposure to unwanted material easily. This is the same case with all other internet content. Too much focus on violence, killing and inhumane acts in blockbuster films is another factor that leads to anti-social behavior. All these are harmful to a child’s young mind (Helliwell and Putnam, 2004).

Family and Social Life

This is another critical area of interest. The role of individual members of the family and the birth-position are also critical factors. Firstborns are generally responsible for others compared to lastborns. However, lastborns from a family with a volunteer habit tend to copy and follow the same route. Social life, on the other hand, defines educational life from the onset. Psychologists argue that children who grow up in a generally philanthropic environment tend to volunteer as adults. This environment is only possible where children invite each other for birthdays, sleepovers and other social gatherings (Valsiner, 2007).

Others

Genetic factors can also influence social behavior. A person may be born with such tendencies. Secondly, environmental stressors may reduce a person’s regard for others and resort to bad behavior. For example, extreme poverty promotes selfishness. The child grows up knowing that he has too little to share. An upbringing with affluence, which suddenly changes confuses a child and could lead to anti-social behavior. A need to feel acceptable after a life of unacceptability in family is another factor (Helliwell and Putnam, 2004).

Findings and Suggestions Social media is a big contributor to behavior. Some people have an anti-social inclination, which is natural. However, this behavior grows. Therefore, media should lay a huge emphasis on ensuring that content does not advocate for or foster anti-social behavior. Governments should formulate policies geared towards making media responsible.

For example, filtration of certain content at times. The upbringing of a child should entail more than just parental passiveness. Involvement of both parents is a plus in this quest. Children who grow up with both parents exhibit more social behavior than those growing up in single parent families. It is important for the child’s social maturity that both parents are present during childhood. (Valsiner, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Helliwell, J.F

[supanova_question]

My Supportive Academic Environment Opinion Essay college admissions essay help

By definition, the term “environment” may refer either to actual physical surroundings or to social or cultural background factors. It is the aggregate of surrounding things, influences, or conditions that alter life of a person, or the population at large. By nature, all organisms respond to changes in the surrounding by evolutionary adaptations in their forms and behavior. Therefore, the environment in which a learner grows in contributes to his/her success or failure.

A Supportive Academic Environment is the kind of surrounding that gives all students in a class, or in any other place designated for learning, satisfaction and equal opportunities to achieve their best.

It is one that provides students with the opportunity to attend presentations, lectures, cultural events, group and individual work, discussions and presentations. In such kind of an environment, a person develops team spirit and courage to stand in front of people and express himself/herself. Communication skills are also well inculcated.

A good teacher is one with empathy and positive mental attitude. He is the one who is ready to provide new ideas, systems and approaches. He is a fine role model for many young people. The procedures that a teacher lays out in class are the key elements of a classroom management plan.

Much of the procedures really depend on the age group to be taught. These procedures can be broken up into three categories: Beginning of classes, Middle of classes and the End of classes. A teacher should prepare the schemes of work and a reasonable working lesson plan before going to a teaching session. This helps one manage the time well and avoid the last minute rush in a class, as this may affect the students.

At the beginning of the class, the tone of the whole session is established as the teacher walks into the classroom. Greet the students each day as this makes the tone of the class friendly and much more manageable throughout. Encourage the students to walk as they are coming to class. This helps avoid haste when the bell rings and time wasted is reduced. Ask students to get settled and avoid yelling before the class starts. Once the tone of the class has been established by a well-refined entry, much of the class time is spent on learning.

Good teaching is much about passion and reason (Marlowe

[supanova_question]

Justifiable Vengeance? Is La mere Savage act of burning four Prussian soldiers a first degree murder? Essay essay help: essay help

Justifiable Vengeance Justice is the problem which bothers people for many years. Does justice exist or people can punish those who deserve it, in their opinion? The problem is rather contestable and there is no specific opinion about it as in case of justice absence justifiable vengeance is a correct action which should be justified no matter which outcome of the revenge is. Using the example of Victoire Simon, La Savage and basing the discussion on Bentham’s aspects the problem of justifiable vengeance is going to be considered.

In “Mother Savage”, the author of the book Maupassant determines the plight of the woman Victoire Simon, La Savage. Her son who is 33 years old enlists in a war against the Prussians. Sometimes later, the Prussians arrive at Victoire’s country. The Prussian force which previously was at war with the French is integrated into the French society.

The four Prussian soldiers though at war with the French, treat the old woman kindly and gently. They do all the house hold chores sparing the old woman the fatigue that is brought by house work. La Mere Savage only prepares their soup in most cases according to the eye witnesses. The old woman acknowledges none of these as she only thinks of her son who is at war.

One morning, La mere savage receives news of her son’s death. This is the ultimate point in which she decides to vent her anger on the four Prussian soldiers. She tricks them into getting into a hay trap. She then sets the hay trap on fire when they are deeply asleep killing the four. Neither she neither regrets nor denies committing the murder. Kennedy, Dorothy and Sylvia in their critical analysis state that a woman seems to have derived a certain kind of satisfaction in avenging her son’s death (44).

Bentham starts the discussion in his essay with the statement that pain and pleasure are two central issues for identifying whether the action is moral or not. Right actions should refer more to pleasure than to pain, and vice versa, the actions which are wrong tend to create more pain than pleasure.

According to Bentham, four aspects of will (justice) exist, command, prohibition, non-command and non-prohibition. Bentham is sure that punishment is not a matter of intuition but rather a consequence of proven acts of wrong deeds (67). It is also imperative to consider the extent of the wrong deed and punish it accordingly without favoring the condition of an individual’s social status.

Dwelling upon Bentham’s four aspects, Parekh in his work says that command and prohibition are rather understood issues, while non-command and non-prohibition may confuse (273). Explaining the non-prohibition aspect, the following should be sated. Everything what is not prohibited directly is permitted, thus one is allowed to act. The non-command Bentham’s aspect prohibits the action until it is not allowed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mary’s case according to the Prussians may be considered as an equivalent to first degree murder and may be not. The question in focus is whether La Mere Savage is guilty of first degree murder or not. Corbett answers the issue by considering the appeal to the logos in his research of Bentham’s principles (35). Using this Bentham’s aspect a woman can be justified as she acted in accordance with the war laws. However, on the other hand, soldiers treated a woman kindly and her action may be considered as betrayal and first degree murder.

In conclusion, therefore, application of logic is a sure way of determining truth. It is also to a large extent determined by the parties mandated to administer judgment.

Works Cited Bentham, Jeremy. Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. New York: Prometheus Books, 1988. Print.

Corbett, Edward P. J. Classical rhetoric for the modern student. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Print.

Kennedy, Jim, Dorothy, Mickle, and A. Holladay Slyvia. The Bedford guide for college writers. New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2001. Print.

Maupassant, Guy de. Mother Savage. Literature: A Pocket Anthology. 4th ed. New York: Penguin, 2009. Print.

Parekh, Bhikhu C. Jeremy Bentham: critical assessments. London: Routledge, 1993. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Justifiable Vengeance? Is La mere Savage act of burning four Prussian soldiers a first degree murder? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

[supanova_question]

Gary Okihiro’s arguments regarding the writing of American history Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

In a considerate and inspiring participation in the existing argument as regards to the meaning of extensive culture and multiculturalism, Gary Okihiro investigates the importance of Asian Americans in history and civilization. In a few confrontational and charming articles, he scrutinizes the Asian American experience from the viewpoint of historical awareness, ethnicity, sex, societal rank and background.

The ongoing debate pertains to the concept of mainstream in relation to American history and tradition, as well as risks of moving away from original establishments that have made America a great nation. Okihiro argues that pluralism and multiplicity only exist to segregate and fracture the country.

The society uses Western civilization as a yardstick for measuring other cultures. The ongoing debate demands that the principle of “great books” should be regained and conserved and individuals on the margins, particularly the culturally marginalized, should be encouraged to join the majority.

In fact, Okihiro posits in his works ‘Margins and Mainstreams’ that the central principles and standards of the country in the modern society come not from the supposed majority but from the minorities that is, from amongst Asians, Africans, Latinos, Indians and probably women. These groups, in their efforts towards egalitarianism, have facilitated protection and advancement of the founders’ principles and have made America a more liberal place for each person to exercise his/her rights.

While unearthing extra meanings of Asian American public history, Okihiro digs deeper into the academic basics and postulations of the discipline of Asian American. Through analysis, the writer describes the supremacy of Euro centrism and other pecking orders in the key premises that enlighten the discipline. His writings compare the Asian American tribulations with those of African Americans, as well as Latinos.

Although Okihiro agrees that the major problem in America is discrimination against the black race, other aspects call for attention among history scholars. The Asian race has suffered a lot from stereotyping and labeling. The Chinese have frequently been termed as pirates because of producing reprints while Japanese are viewed as smugglers and gamblers.

This kind of treatment has caused sufferings to the victims but studies have not paid much attention on the issue. Latinos are accused of drug trafficking and engaging in illegal trades. Some laws have been passed to minimize the influence of Mexicans in America. The Arizona bill threw out most foreigners from Mexico.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Throughout history, women have never enjoyed civil liberties mainly because of male patriarchy. This has been a major issue but scholars have not considered it to be much serious than racism. Women are expected to take care of the home while men enjoy other important societal activities such as employment and freedom to associate. In this case, American character cannot involve only one thing, that is, struggle between white and black races. Americans are yet to appreciate the role of women in the contemporary society.

Another issue that describes American character is wealth. Resources are accumulated in the hands of the few while majority languish in poverty. The gap between the rich and the poor keeps on widening. Women and the black race own nothing. Women are not stable financially forcing them to rely on men for survival. The black race has nothing to offer apart from cheap labor. This is another issue that needs to be addressed through research and academic recommendation.

[supanova_question]

Outsourcing Food Services in the Business Community Essay college application essay help

In the recent past, outsourcing food services has continued to gain popularity in the business community. Several factors compel an organization to outsource food services. This paper explores the reasons why most business organizations outsource these services besides giving the advantages of food service outsourcing to a management contractor.

Food services are the most commonly outsourced in the business community because many business organizations lack most of the required facilities within their internal settings. To offer efficient and effective food services to its staff, an organization needs to have the required equipment as well as personnel, which is not only costly but also a difficult task in most organizations.

Owing to this, the organizations end up outsourcing food services from entities that have acquired the personnel and equipment necessary to offer high quality food services.

Another reason that has led to the increased outsourcing of food services among many organizations is the dynamic nature of the field. The dynamic technological advancements in the food service make it not only difficult but also expensive for an organization to keep in pace with the changes in the field.

To cut the costs associated with the technological advancements and ensure that the organization has access to up-to-date food services the organization ends up outsourcing food services. Consequently, it is able to receive excellent services while remaining economical and this boosts its reputation in the business world attracting other desirable services to the organization.

Provision of food services tends to be a complex task and this has contributed in making food services the most outsourced service in the business community. This involves all the processes involved from the acquisition of the raw materials, equipment and qualified personnel to the delivery of the end food product to the target group.

Most organizations choose to focus on their core competencies assigning food services’ provision, which is equally important to a third party. This also helps the business organizations to cut the costs involved in providing the complex food services and still gain access to efficient services through outsourcing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The phenomenon of outsourcing presents several benefits to the management contractor. Working with many clients facing similar challenges enables the management to tailor their services to meet the client’s specific needs. This enables the management to gain expertise in dealing with the specific needs of their clients. It increases the organization’s competitive advantage. Consequently, the contractor is able to acquire and maintain many clients leading to increased profitability of the business.

To the management contractor, every client interaction presents a chance to build the organization’s brand besides strengthening customer relationships. These two aspects help in increasing the demand of the contractor’s services thus increasing the organization’s profitability as well as productivity. The establishment and maximization of customer relationships also help the management contractor in cutting marketing costs thus reducing the operational costs of the organization.

Several aspects drive the advantages in the above discussion. Food service operations require expertise of the service provider, which is difficult for most business organizations to acquire internally. As aforementioned, the process of providing food services is rather complex putting into consideration the various processes involved from the acquisition of the raw materials to the delivery of the finished product.

Additionally, to offer high quality food services, one cannot avoid keeping in pace with the technological advancements at the various steps in the service delivery to ensure customer satisfaction. Moreover, provision of food services is a rather delicate matter, which needs expertise to make sure that the products do not present any risk to the consumers.

In conclusion, food services are the most commonly outsourced in the business community because of the need of expertise required in the field as well as the need to cut the costs associated to the complexity of the process. To the management contractor, outsourcing not only helps in sharpening food service skills but also enhances maximization of customer relationships, which increases the organization’s profitability.

[supanova_question]

St Augustine’s Philosophy Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

St Augustine has been viewed as one of the most notable political philosophers of his time. He was from a troubled background and his works on confessions closely and candidly brings out the thoughts of a troubled individual. It is therefore not surprising that his philosophical thought is complex, paradoxical, contradictory and very incisive.

Augustine strongly believed in the theory of individualism because he argues that human beings are descendants of Adam and Eve, although it does not place a burden on people. Individuals are determinants of their own destinies. Augustine further argues that all men are created in God’s image, the image of goodness (Condon 79).

It naturally follows that God controls human behavior so that human beings only perform that which is good. In this sense, God’s presence in an individual’s life is compared to light. A man is inspired by God’s command to act in an orderly manner and avoid evil. Augustine views women as impure and easily corrupted by the earthly. He views women as being members of the city of damned and being responsible for taking man away from God. Man must always strive to keep away from sin by doing God’s purpose.

He therefore looks at Eve and women in general as being descendants of the damned city since they sin not based on necessity but on their own selfish happiness. He views any individual who engages in sin (sex) purely for pleasure as belonging to the city of the damned.

Those who pursue earthly happiness characterize this city. Under this category, we have the circumcellions, the donatists and the heretics. Such individuals have no God’s light. On the other hand, there are those who may have sinned purely as an obligation. Such individuals are descendants of Adam. Adam had to obey Eve if he had to fulfill God’s purpose of regeneration (MacCulloch 37).

The sinning by Eve was not all negative for it is through sinning that Eve came to know much beyond goodness (light). Eve and man were able to know between evil and goodness, suffering and joy, and toiling and happiness. Augustine argues that the early stoics or the early Christians could be divided into two.

Some were much concerned about earthly possessions while others pursued Godly. The state should only protect individuals who pursue good (light), those who worship according to the prescribed form. This category of individuals is righteous because they have God’s light.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such are people who pay taxes, respect authorities, tolerate the views of others and lead a virtuous life. God’s presence in an individual enables him/her to achieve goals that are consistent with the provisions of the church. Such individuals know the truth meaning that they can differentiate between evil and good. They always tell the truth and live according to societal principles. God’s light or presence inspires an individual to know the truth while the truth in turn enables an individual to act or behave according to God’s will.

Augustine’s conceptualization of justice rests on the Roman maxim. He believes that those who worship other gods must be punished by the state. This punishment must rest on reciprocal justice that is, a knife for a knife and a tooth for a tooth. There are those according to Augustine who live contrary to the virtues postulated by Plato. For such, the pursuit of earthly pleasures receives precedence. These include the search for personal glory, earthly possessions among others.

They have elevated other men to positions of God. They belong to the city of the damned and are responsible for their actions. Such individuals have alienated themselves from the church and judgment has already been passed on them meaning that light is unchangeable. While such individuals sin, God will not stop them from sinning for it is believed judgment has already been passed even before one is born.

Through this, Augustine comes out as intolerant for he does not respect the rights of others particularly the pagans. His desire is to institutionalize the church. He appreciates that the church and the state must work together although he elevates the church to a higher position in hierarchy.

Plato’s works on the parable of the cave, particularly the sun, may help to elucidate Augustine’s arguments. Plato in the Republic employs the sun as an allegory for the source of light, perhaps logical enlightenment, which he believed to be the type of the Good. This is sometimes understood as Plato’s belief of God. Plato uses the sun to show how truth can be acquired (Sayers 21). Socrates is the orator of the ‘Republic’, although it is normally assumed that the views articulated therein are Plato’s.

The eyeball, Plato states, is strange among the intellect organs because it requires an intermediate, specifically light, to function. The well-built and greatest source of brightness is the sun. With the sun, things can be distinguished evidently. Plato postulates that it is similar to comprehensible things that is, the permanent and everlasting forms that are eventual objects of systematic and rational study.

Works Cited Condon, Matthew. “The Unnamed and the Defaced: The Limits of Rhetoric in Augustine’s Confessions”, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 69 (1), 2001.

We will write a custom Essay on St Augustine’s Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More MacCulloch, Diarmaid. The Reformation A History. London: Penguin Books, 2003.

Sayers, Sean. Plato’s Republic: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999.

[supanova_question]

Hotel Management of FAB Essay essay help online free

Outsourcing is whereby a company decides to purchase services or even products from outside suppliers instead of carrying out the same task within the company. The main reason why most companies outsource is to cut down on costs.

The decision to outsource is critical since it involve weighing between saving cost against losing control over the company’s services and products. However, research shows that it is always worth the risk especially if you outsource your company to an expert. This is because the company is likely to save more on cost and also gain profit due to excellent services which attracts customers.

Food services are one of the most common outsourced functions in the business community. This is because there are unique aspects of food service operations that usually add advantage to the industry when they outsource their services. The following illustrates why food services are the most commonly outsourced function in business community and the advantages gained through outsourcing food services to a manager contractor.

One of the reasons why food services are the most commonly outsourced function in business community is because they deal with direct production and distribution of goods. A lot of money is needed to offer good food services especially when it comes to labor costs and overhead costs.

This is why food service industry has turned to outsourcing services. Through outsourcing, they are able to generate products with minimal amount of capital; the company will be able to save on labor and overhead costs. Outsourcing is a tool that food services use to keep competitive advantage in the market.

They are able to efficiently meet subsidiary needs through outsourcing. However, despite outsourcing not being a cure to all the problems faced by food industry, it helps the manufacturers save money and also speed up production. Outsourcing enables food service providers to build viable services and also be able to predict variable costs and fixed costs.

Some of the advantages of outsourcing food services to manager contractor are to gain flexibility. Outsourcing the company to a manager contractor who produces food services under the brand of another company will enable the company to produce more services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because the contract manager has more capability to produce goods and services to the company. This is likely to increase production but at less cost making the company more profitable. Another advantage of hiring manager contractor is reduction in staffing needs and requirement.

Fewer labourers will be required to offer services. This means that there will be a reduction in spending. Temporary workers are always paid lower wages as compared to permanent workers who normally require allowances such as health benefit which increase cost. Outsourcing will enable the company to focus more on its resources, finances and human areas which increase profits and also revenue.

Outsourcing also reduces costs for manufacturing since increasing revenue while focusing on marketing and sales increase profit. Outsourcing help reduce management and continuity risks. This is because having a manager contractor brings substandard operation level to the company.

The company will continue to operate all the time because the manager will always be available to supervise progress of work in the company. Outsourcing also led to reduced overhead. Whenever a business grows, it normally requires more workers and managers; however, outsourcing will limit overhead demand. There will be no need to expand the restaurant to accommodate more staff members because one professional manager is enough to manage the big company.

[supanova_question]

The Hardboiled Qualities and Features in Detective Stories Essay college essay help

Hardboiled literary style in crime fiction writing is associated with detective stories. It is often distinguished by the cynical interpretation of sex and violence in the literature. Caroll John Daly is credited to be the pioneer of hardboiled crime fiction style writing in the mid 1920s with his “Knights of the Open Palm” published on June 1,1923 in Black Mask Magazine (Nolan, 273).

Hardboiled fiction writing was popularized by Dashiell Hammett with his character Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon, over the course of time in the late 1930s Raymond Chandler refined hardboiled writing through his Philip Marlowe in The Big Sheep ( Collins, 153 – 154).

This paper aims to illustrate the hardboiled qualities and features of detective stories in analysing the three most notable authors’ characters in their novels namely Sam Spade of Dashiell Hammett’s The Maltese Falcon, Philip Marlowe of Raymond Chandler’s The Big Sheep and Kinsey Millhone of Sue Grafton’s A for Alibi.

Dashiell Hammett started the hardboiled writing trend in detective stories through his character Sam Spade in his The Maltese Falcon novel. Hammett through his novel portrayed Spade as someone who has a cold detachment to the situation he is in and with the people he is with.

Spade, though he displays several similar features of other detectives such as his keen eye for details and unwavering determination to accomplish justice, the character’s hardboiled qualities is depicted in his selfish, bitter and sardonic personality. In The Maltese Falcon novel, Spade was having an affair with his partner Miles Archer’s wife, a portrayal of his antagonistic and self-centred nature.

His aloof personality together with his cold emotionless isolation from matters are displayed upon the discovery of several murders namely that of Archer and Thursby in which Spade was found to be one of the suspects. He lets everyone, including the police, the criminals, and other characters in the novel believe that he is indeed one of the law offenders while he single-mindedly works on solving the case on his own.

Though Sam Spade’s character was able to do the noble thing at the end of the novel, his actions depict him as someone who only does so because of self-interest. Hammett never showed his readers the characters inner thoughts in which what was said and done by the characters were already the factors that shape them thus Spade’s morality was questionable. In Spade’s case it was ambiguous if he really displayed the usual hardboiled characteristic of detectives who pose idealism underneath their hard cynical shells.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Big Sheep was Raymond Chandler’s first novel in his series about the adventures of Philip Marlowe. Chandler’s character, Philip Marlowe is indeed a true hardboiled character in which underneath his sceptical, hard drinking, tough persona Marlowe is thoughtful and idealistic. His character’s soft side is portrayed in his enjoyment of simple pleasures such as the playing of chess and his love of poetry. Marlowe’s contemplative nature surfaces when he sets scores through other means rather than violence.

In the novel, The Black Sheep a scene were Carmen Sherwood had a gun and shot Joe Brody but missed, Marlowe quickly confiscated the deadly weapon from Sternwood and told her to go home, this was a display of Marlowe’s evasion from hostility. He is careful in thinking things through before making a statement or stance. In terms of his morality, Philip Marlow is decent for he was stern in avoiding the tactics and temptations brought about by the femmes fatale of the novel, Vivian and Carmen Sternwood.

Both sisters tried to seduce Marlowe for instance when Vivian was saved by the detective from an apparent mugging, he drove her to the beach resulting to her advancing towards him, while Carmen found herself waiting for Marlowe to arrive home in his bed naked. In both instances Marlowe refused the ladies advancements.

Unlike the first two novels discussed above, Sue Grafton’s lead character in her novel, A for Alibi, is a woman in the form of Kinsey Millhone. Millhone fits the hardboiled qualities and features needed in detective stories through her lonesome nature developed as an orphaned child, her tough persona in her case dealings and her idealism underneath her hard shell of cynicism which is slowly revealed in her encounters with family members.

Grafton’s Kinsey Millhone is significant in the hardboiled detective world because gender equality is illustrated in the novel. The notion of equality among men and women is being tacked here in that what other male protagonist can do, Millhone, a female lead can also do.

Though the personality of Grafton’s character had been adjusted to fit that of a woman, her primary characteristics are similar to those of male protagonist in usual hardboiled fictions such her morality struggles in having her own “femmes fatale” in the form of Charlie Scorsoni whom Millhone was involved with even if he was still in her suspect list, her tough girl attitude sometimes associated by her being tomboyish but her idealistic side also surfaces when she secretly yearns for comfort of a loving relationship whether be that with her family or with a man.

Works Cited Collins, Max Allan. The Hard-Boiled Detective. Ed. William DeAndrea. Prentice Hall, 1994. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on The Hardboiled Qualities and Features in Detective Stories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nolan, William. The Black Mask Boys: Masters in the Hard-Boiled School of Detective Fiction. William Marrow and Company, 1985. Print.

[supanova_question]

How maglev trains work Definition Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Working principle of maglev trains

“Transrapid international” or Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS)

Indutrack models

Conclusion

List of References

Introduction Maglev trains or magnetic levitation trains were opened up for commercial transport in 1984 when they operated between Birmingham airport and the main railway. Britain was the first country to develop these trains, although other countries developed their sns and used them to transport mainly people.

Maglev trains are based on the principle of electromagnetism to be levitated and propelled. The car has no contact with the rail, an advantage that affords them to move without friction, and therefore move at very high speeds of almost 500 kilometers per hour. The cars have no engines or any moving parts, though they need a lot of electricity to create the desired powerful electromagnets on the tracks. The basic principle that is applied in maglev trains is that of the magnetic like poles which repel while opposites attract.

Working principle of maglev trains The trains have attached magnets that are very powerful to create a high density of magnetic field at the bottom. The tracks have electromagnetic magnetic field that repels this magnetic density on the bottom, and thus the car is propelled forward. These are the U-shaped guide way that has individual coils to which an alternating current is applied in order to create repulsion between magnets.

It is the force that is created to achieve both goals, to propel the car and levite it vertically at the same time. The gap between the train and the trucks is about 2 and 3 cm for Indatruck models, or 1 cm for Transrapid Internatioanal model. Meissner effect is used to create bearings without the train coming into contact with the trucks. Thus, the train can climb steep hills or even ice-covered trucks without losing speed considerably.

Efficiency is thus increased in this technology, although these trains tend to quite pricey compared to conventional trains (Blundell, 2009). Other developments introduced another set of coils in which alternating current passes to create electromagnets. Two sets of coils achieved the function of checking the lateral movement, while the other levitated the car. This is done by placing guidance magnets on the left side so that the train moves forward and does not hit the sides.

“Transrapid international” or Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) To create large magnetic fields, superconductors are used to produce stronger magnetic fields, although it was noted that these strong magnetic fields are produced by rare earth magnets, other than iron and ferrite. Neodymium-iron-boron is used to create the desired high magnetic field. The material used must be thick, have low resistivity and possess the ability to change fields quite fast. According to the author, the train is propelled forward after it is levitated by the repulsion of magnetic forces.

The truck has several coils which use alternating current to change polarity at a high frequency. The change of polarity by the coils makes them propel forward. Vertical magnetic forces that provide levitation make the car to balance in suspension and is stabilized by the horizontal magnetic forces so that the car is centered and does not drift to any side.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Gibilisco (2006), such an arrangement requires the acceleration and braking to be provided by linear motors and additional electromagnets to be in place in the track. Higher levitation speeds were achieved in the Japanese models by positioning upper and lower coils, such that they created field currents of figure of eight.

This arrangement is called Halbach array whose main purpose is concentration of magnetic field above the car. While the lower coils produced repulsive forces for levitating the train, the lower coils provided the “push-pull effect” together with linear motors in the tracks which propel the car forward at higher.

Indutrack models The train has other features that make it to be safe, given that some can reach high speeds of 522 km/h. Electric power is used to accelerate the train until full levitation is reached. The reason to use the superconductors, besides the high magnetic field potential, is that they can retain this field for some time even after power have failed. Power can fail, and modern maglev trains have auxiliary wheels that help them decelerate until they stop.

Source: http://www.hk-phy.org/energy/transport/trans_phy/images/ems_maglev.gif

Computers are used to monitor levitation distance to ensure the speeds and movements are safe so that in case of any anomaly, the train is automatically halted and corrective actions are taken. Some models have batteries for electricity back up in case power supply is interrupted.

Conclusion There is really little difference between the models of producing motion in the maglev trains, although depending on the arrangement of electromagnetic coils and force that is used to provide first acceleration, top speeds attainable can vary. For example, maglev trains that are based on Electrodynamic Suspension (EDS) use rubber wheels for the first 100 km/h after which coils are activated and move by levitation propulsion after which they can reach top speeds of 522 km/h.

List of References Gibilisco, S. (2006). Alternative energy demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.

We will write a custom Essay on How maglev trains work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

[supanova_question]

Global Warming: Causes, Effects, Solutions Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of global warming

Effects of global warming

Solutions

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Global warming can be defined as the increasing average temperature in the atmosphere. Generally, the increase in global temperatures leads to the rising of sea level, hence changing the pattern of precipitation (Houghton, et al 53). Global warming can also be caused by green house gasses in the atmosphere, which lead to rising temperatures. The earth’s atmosphere mainly comprises of about 78% of nitrogen and 21% of oxygen, with water vapor and some green gases also available (Farrar 8).

During the day, the green house gasses trap heat, and then radiate some of it to the earth, which soaks it up. However, the proportion of these green house gasses has increased with time, resulting to global warming. Burning of fossil fuels, petroleum, and natural gases contributes to global warming, which is harmful to the planet; however, it is a slow process, which results to massive repercussions.

Causes of global warming Carbon dioxide emission is a by-product of energy production, which is the largest among green house gasses that contribute to global warming. This gas emerges from combustion of fossil fuels, which include automobiles, industrial production such as metal production, coal, oil and gas from factories (World Bank 147). Due to the effects of carbon dioxide emissions on the climate, most countries, through the famous Kyoto protocol, agreed to reduce on carbon emissions by 20% by the year 2010.

Some of the main causes of carbon emissions are electricity generation, industrial processes and construction, fumes from vehicles, airplane fumes and domestic heating. Burning of fossil fuels such as gas, coal, and petroleum leads to the release of carbon dioxide. Deforestation can also contribute to the emission of carbon dioxide, since the carbon that is sequestered in trees is released to the atmosphere when trees are cut down.

In addition, transportation contributes to the highest level of carbon emissions, as this industry comprises of vehicles, trains, boats and planes among others, all of which produce carbon dioxide fumes. Moreover, human beings contribute to the production of carbon dioxide through the use of electricity in lighting, air conditioning and heating services; indeed, frequent generation of electricity contributes to high levels of carbon emissions.

When carbon dioxide emissions are released to the air, they remain in the atmosphere for over 100 years, and with time causing the temperature on the earth to increase, which results to global warming. Surprisingly, green house gasses are essential to the survival of the planet, as their absence would result to a very cold atmosphere; however, their rapid increase contributes to global warming.

Effects of global warming According to Leddy (139), global warming would result to the rapid melting of polar ice caps and mountain glaciers; hence, the level of coastal waters would rise, resulting to a change in pattern of droughts and rainfalls. This new patterns would result to extreme droughts and rainfalls, which would disrupt production of food in certain areas. Indeed, these increased temperatures change the habitats and disrupt the ecosystems, hence endangering animals (Farrar 11).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Global warming not only harms the environment, but it also contributes to insurance costs, which occur as a result of severe storms, floods and diseases, hence making health and natural disaster insurance more expensive. According to Stanford University (Para. 7), each increase of one degree Celsius of carbon dioxide is capable of causing up to 1000 deaths and respiratory complications such as asthma in human beings. These gasses in the atmosphere normally cause a greenhouse effect, which interferes with the earth’s temperature.

According to Kaczynski, et al, (2), global warming affects temperatures of a specific region, hence causing serious repercussions; for instance, the 2009 South-Eastern Australia heat wave was considered a result of global warming, where high temperatures were evident throughout the day and night, a situation that had never been experienced before.

This change in temperatures interfered with animal productivity, thus increasing mortality. Australia is one of the countries that were associated with high carbon emissions as a result of coal burning. The carbon emission in Australia was twice the growth rate for the entire world, hence the leading in carbon emissions among the developed nations.

Methane is also a green house gas that is harmful to the environment, since it traps heat in the atmosphere; mining of coal and oil produces methane. Methane is based in the ground, and since mining of coal requires digging, the process contributes to the escape of methane into the atmosphere.

Pollution is caused by fossil fuels, which are made of organic matter such as coal, thus when they are burnt, they produce carbon dioxide. Population is also a cause of global warming as more people require more food and means of transportation, resulting to burning of fossil fuels, for instance, use of gas burning cars.

In addition, most people own more that one car, hence contributing to the combustion of gasses in the atmosphere. A large population requires more food, and with some animals being a source of food, the manure emanating from such animals contributes to the release of methane gas into the atmosphere.

Human beings breathe out carbon dioxide, and continued cutting of trees, which convert carbon dioxide in to oxygen, to create more land for houses due to the growing population leads to global warming. However, these trees are not being replaced, while human beings are over-utilizing natural resources, and not giving anything in return.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Warming: Causes, Effects, Solutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Maslin (7), Global warming results to change in temperatures, which acts as a threat to the living species; for instance, the winter of 2001 in England was the wettest season in history, while the heat wave of 2003 resulted to the deaths of more that 35,000 people in Europe.

The IPCC report also indicates that there is a chance of the global temperatures to rise by 5.8 degrees Celsius, which is harmful to the environment and human beings. The continuous rising of carbon dioxide levels is a threat to the planet. Therefore, effective mechanisms have to be put in place in order to reduce global warming before it is too late for our planet.

Solutions To curb global warming, a number of initiatives must be put in place; the use of clean energy has proven to be advantageous, cheaper, and reliable than the rest. Though expensive initially, it is both safer for mankind and the environment. Unlike the combustion of fossil fuels that lead to huge emissions in the air which cause respiratory complications and increase the rate of mortality due to inhaling of such gasses, the clean energy is not harmful human beings at all. It is also not pollutant, thus creating a clean environment for all.

Burning of fossil fuels results to emission of green house gases that affect the atmosphere’s temperatures, leading to global warming; hence causing drought or heavy rains that could lead to floods. Renewable resources are advantageous, since they enhance diversity in energy supply and they also reduce the huge gas emissions. They also allow access of energy supplies to rural areas as well as creating new opportunities for employment. They utilize and conserve fossil fuels for future use and secure unlimited sources of energy.

The clean renewable energy includes solar power, water power and wind power. Renewable resources have attractive features that include enhancement of diversity in energy supply and reduction of huge gas emissions.

They also allow access of energy supplies to rural areas, create new opportunities for employment, and they utilize and conserve fossil fuels for future use, as well as securing unlimited sources of energy. Since burning of fossil fuels contributes towards global warming, it would be wise if countries switched to the use of natural energy that is cheap and less pollutant (Dell

[supanova_question]

University of Sharjah Parking Problems Problem Solution Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

University of Sharjah: Parking Problems Introduction. University of Sharjah has to resolve its parking problems. The research focuses on the causes of the school’s parking problems. The research focuses on finding solutions to the university’s increasing parking problems.

There are several ways to resolve the university’s parking problems. Nature of University of Sharjah’s parking problems. David Baker (2009) emphasized the American University of Sharjah is an academic institution. The academic institution is engaged is a nonprofit entity.

The University was established by Sharjah’s Highness, Sheikh Dr. Sultan bin Mahammed Al Qassimi. The school has over 3,500 undergraduate academic programs. The school was set up in 1997. There are more than 2,300 students enrolled in the university. Causes of University of Sharjah’s parking problems. In addition, Salam Damluji (2006) proposes there are several causes of the University Of Sharjah Parking problems.

First, the professors and other employees use the University parking lots and the leased parking spaces within the vicinity of the university. Second, the student population has increased; the increase in the student population precipitates to the increase in the need for parking areas within and near the University.

Consequently, the students have to spend more time searching for the nearest available parking slot. Research methods. In preparing the report, Donald McBurney (2009) theorized the University of Sharjah research method will be more effective if three research methods are used. First, the researcher gathered the related literature to support the researcher’s thesis statement. Second, the researcher observed the car park situation to determine the severity of the university’s parking problems.

The parking area pictures show strong evidences that the parking areas are normally filled with vehicles. In addition, personal observations show the parking lot users include students, teachers, other employees and visitors. The situation increases the demand for more parking areas. Third, the researcher conducted a survey to support the researcher’s thesis statement. More than 85 percent of the total survey respondents affirmed they are disgusted with the lack of parking areas within and near the University’s premises.

The students dishearteningly gave their negative comments on the current parking situation within and around the university’s saturated parking areas. Of the 50 students interviewed, 45 respondents voiced their disgust over the time-wasting search for the nearest available parking area. Resolution to the university’s parking problems. Gail Johnson (2009) insists there must be a solution to University of Sharjah’s parking problems. First, the school must increase the number of parking areas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The school must set up additional multi-level parking areas to augment the current demand for more parking areas. Second, the administration can revamp the class schedules. The revamp will shift the students to have class during less populated school periods. Third, the school administration can increase its bus service capacity. The increase in the students’ bus service schedules reduces the need for parking areas. Lastly, University of Sharjah officials must put into place the parking-related laws of the school.

The students are fined a certain amount for violating parking-related university policies. The strict implementation of the university policies, including parking fines, increases the school’s revenues. Consequently, the fines translate to an increase in the number of available parking areas. Personal reflection on the research methods course. The initial expectations of the research methods course indicate an effective resolution to University of Sharjah’s parking problems.

The course offers the tools needed to resolve the school’s current parking problems. The course pinpoints all possible research methods need to resolve the issues related to parking. The research methods course offers viable alternatives to lessen the university’s parking problems. Further, there are many learning points. The first learning point is the improvement of the researcher to find the relevant problem.

The second learning point is the enhancement of researcher’s expertise in gathering relevant data. The third learning point is the improvement of the researcher’s ability to analyze and interpret the gathered data. The fourth learning point is the improvement of the researcher’s capability to generate viable alternatives. Another learning point is the improvement of the researcher’s implementation of the best alternative.

Furthermore, there are several fruitful expectations from the course. First, the research methods course pinpoints to the right problem to resolve. Second, the course trains the researcher to gather the required data for decision making. Third, the course is expected to train the researcher to expertly analyze and interpreting of the data. Fourth, Robert Burns (Burns 2008) affirmed the course aids in helping the researcher produce the best conclusion.

Finally, the course helps the researcher craft the optimum recommendation to resolve the university’s parking problems. Some minor suggestions improve the delivery of the research methods course. First, the teachers must include the lessons in basic statistics in the research methods class. Statistics knowledge increases the researcher’s research expertise. Second, the research methods class must include a study of the standard research format used by the school.

The school format generates uniformity in the presentation of the research outputs. Lastly, the school must increase its hands –on teaching schedule to enhance the students’ research output quality. Conclusion. The University of Sharjah is beset with parking problems to fix. There are different causes of the school’s parking debacle. There are recommendations to overcome University of Sharjah’s escalating parking problems. Indeed, there are many ways to innovatively remedy University of Sharjah’s parking problems.

We will write a custom Essay on University of Sharjah Parking Problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Baker, D. (2009) Gender, Equality and Education from International and Comparative Perspectives. London, Emerald Press.

Burns, R. (2008) Business Research Mehtods and Statistics . London, Sage Press

Damluji, S. (2006) The Architecture of the United Arab Emirates. London, University Press.

Johnson, G. (2009) Research Methods for Public Administrators. London, Sharpe Press.

McBurney, D. (2009) Research Methods. London, Cengage Press.

[supanova_question]

Critical Research of Zora Neale Hurston’s “Drenched in light” and “Sweat” Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theme of strength in “Sweat”

Theme of strength in Drenched in Light

Comparing the theme of strength in the two works

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Zora Neale Hurston is among the renowned American folklorists, novelists and short-story writers. She is amongst the foremost American writers of “the Harlem Renaissance, a literary and artistic movement centered in Harlem, New York, which redefined African-American expression during the 1920s and 1930s” (Muraskin 76).

A careful scrutiny of her works, specifically Drenched in Light and Sweat, reveals the black Americans’ quest for power especially the women. This is clear following the women’s evident incredible concerns about mistreatments.

The society depicted by the two works suffers enormously from social problems affiliated to women. It also experiences additional problems portrayed through the existing relationships between male and female sexes. Consequently, Drenched in Light and Sweat serve as tools for addressing the “The economic, social and political subjection of women, the violence brought against them, and their confinement around the world” (Tate 28).

This perhaps makes these two works to be significant as part of American literature following the concerns of today’s feminists in matters of according women their due strength. The two works address the 1930s unjustified and uncivilized acts of mistreatment of women particularly in the institution of marriage.

The problem worsens following the existence of inflexible cultures and beliefs concerning the obligation of women in the community. Sadly, women had no capacity or rather ‘strength’ to rise against acts of mistreatment to advocate for a change of the oppressive cultures. Therefore, the paper introspects how Zora brings out the theme of strength in the two books, taking a step further to compare how she approaches the theme in the two masterpieces.

Theme of strength in “Sweat” Sweat is a must-read fascinating chef-d’oeuvre that presents the encounters of a woman who clearly has no strength in the society to make her own decision on how to control her destiny. Delia’s husband exposes her to acts of badger. Since she has no capacity to help herself get out of this marriage, she has no option other than enduring the miserable life she encounters.

In fact, her husband comments perhaps exemplify her deterioration of strength. He tells her, “Well, you better quit getting me riled up, else they’ll be totin’ you out sooner than you expect, Ah’m so tired of Ah don’t know whut to do” (Hurston “Sweat” 75). Arguably, women were more of a liability than an asset to men.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They had to depend solely on men for survival. Otherwise, they had no strength to get along with life alone. In fact, people expected them to remain at home doing domestic chores when their husbands went out to look for the daily bread. Delia’s husband tells her, “You quit grindin dirt into these clothes! How can Ah git through by Satday if Ah don’t start on Sunday” (Hurston “Sweat” 74).

Undervaluing them economically was not enough before the eyes of their male counterparts as they additionally required them to remain loyal to them while they(the husbands) went out to do what pleased themselves regardless of whether it was against their women or not. This reveals the lack of strength by women that Hurston devoted her life to address.

The men of then had powers to do away with the strength of any woman especially if she happened to be a black. Right from the onset of the story, the reader encounters a woman working tirelessly to execute her domestic work roles. This work was not just for her gain, but also for the entire community. Muraskin reckons, “Because she is a black woman, her line of work entails doing the laundry for the white people” (92).

Even if this job is not satisfactory, Delia and other classes of women whom she represented had to do it in an effort to put food on the table and manage to provide shelter. Davis posits, “Sykes who is unsympathetic to her needs refuses to work, leaving Delia with the financial responsibilities” (37). This perhaps depicts the men’s negligence during those times of carrying out their societal roles because women, who served them, had no strength to reiterate.

They only had to obey their men acting according to their will. As if not appreciative of the fact that his wife has done all that to him, he even goes to the level of instigating a fight with her. This makes Delia reciprocate claiming, “Ah been married to you for fifteen years and Ah been takin in washin for fifteen years. Sweat, sweat, sweat! Work and sweat, pray and sweat” (Hurston “Sweat” 75). This portrays Delia’s acceptance of the socially discriminative divisions of the house home chores as the status quo.

Evidently, through the description of the marriage life of Delia, the author brings out the theme of dwindled strength amongst women in the 1930’s. Indeed, Delia had an unending work experience that was abusive on her part. She gathered the strength deprived of her by her husband, thus, managing to talk about the abusive marriage and the awful acts of her husband.

Theme of strength in Drenched in Light Zora’s stories in Drenched in Light recounts the events that unfolded in the life of blacks in 1920’s, the time of Harlem renaissance. The story reflects the life of Isis watt. Zora presents a conflict entangling a young girl attempting to rise against her cultural norms. Unfortunately, she has no strength to do as she wishes.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Critical Research of Zora Neale Hurston’s “Drenched in light” and “Sweat” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Anata et al. reckons, “Isis is a child…filled with the joy of life and yearns for the horizon, while her grandmother urges her to stop dreaming and instead work around the house” (53). Her grandmother attempts to rise against the girl’s exuberance while her neighbors nickname her “Isis the blissful”.

Arguably, the two main characters of the short story, Isis and the grandmother, present two people with different ideologies about culture. The grandmother presents that strong tradition which gives no room to accommodate for flexibility. For instance, she says, “You’se too ‘oomanish jumpin’ up in everybody’s face that passes” (Hurston “Drenched in light” 173).

This expresses a strong statement against the likes of Isis. Isis likes dancing, singing and whistling as signified by the phrase “up, up went her spirits, her brown little feet doing all sorts of intricate things and her body in rhythm” (Hurston “Drenched in light” 171).

Isis has no room to do what she likes best. Culture prohibits her likes as the grandmother implies. Isis believes that, although she values her culture, some change is essential. These changes aim at coming up with art and literatures concerns that allow for sharing of dreams. “She tells them…about the trailing gowns, the gold shoes with blue bottoms, the white charger, and the time her Hercules and had slain numerous dragons and sundry giants” (Hurston “Drenched in light” 167).

Unfortunately, all these changes are no more than theoretical as compared to the practical ones since she has no capacity to accomplish them. The tradition symbolically represented by the grandmother is too rigid to give her the permit and the strength that she deserves to attain such an endeavor.

Comparing the theme of strength in the two works While Sweat addresses the theme of strength of a woman in the society from the perspective of their work and roles in the society, Drenched in light, on the other hand, approaches it from the cultural dimension.

The author creates an overall effect of bringing the problem of black Americans, especially women, into the attention of the society in all dimensions. While Delia has no strength to make individual decisions, and hence, not only abused by her husband Sykes, but also by the whites in terms of paying her poorly, Isis has no freedom to portray and build on her talents.

The two protagonists in the two different works perhaps symbolically represent the artist herself. Isis is creative and innovative. She utilizes lemon to serve the purpose of a perfume (Hurston “Drenched in light” 172).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical Research of Zora Neale Hurston’s “Drenched in light” and “Sweat” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, during the time of writing of these short stories, the blacks were fighting for equal recognition of their abilities, just like the whites. One of such ways would perhaps entail proving their innovative abilities, whether in theatre or any other sector. However, this was largely impossible without “shaving a grandma because she is too old and can’t do it herself” (Hurston “Drenched in light” 167).

She cannot change certain cultural beliefs. On the other hand, Delia’s attempts to fight for her strength, not only to endure the experiences of a unsatisfactory marriage where a husband dictates what his wife needs to do, but also endeavors to talk about such experiences. This is perhaps depictive of the rebirth of Harlem Renaissance in 1920’s and 1930’s to incorporate black women artists.

In fact, the rebirth of the Harlem Renaissance had gigantic significance in terms of providing women with the strength they deserved in an attempt to address, and where possible, correct certain wrongly perceived conceptions about their roles in the society (Stetson 45). This was perhaps accomplished through the talents tantamount to the ones possessed by Isis.

However, successful exploitation of such talents encountered impediments such as vague culturally constructed beliefs about the need of women to remain dormant with their talents. “You’se too ‘oomanish jumpin’ up in everybody’s face that passes” (Hurston “Drenched in light” 173). The strength sort in the two short stories is perhaps the capacity for women to get the opportunity to explore and adopt strategies subtle for the achievement of their dreams. This strength was evidently missing in the early eightieth century America.

Conclusion Zora Neale Hurston is a remembered figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Her contributions through literal works belonging to different genres in shaping the African American strength of freedom of expression are incredible. Through introspection and scrutiny of the theme of strength in the two short stories: Drenched in Light and Sweat, she profiles a society that she deems subtle for fostering and reshaping the women’s roles in the renewed American.

To her, this is perhaps possible through changing certain unnecessary traditions and focusing on according women more strength to thrive in the society competitively without gender or cultural prejudices. Drawing from this line of thought, the paper has substantially concentrated on the manner in which the theme of strength stands out in the two novels Drenched in light and Sweat. Otherwise, Hurston’s theme of strength in the two books is such an informative approach of addressing the rights of women in society.

Works Cited Anata, Esther, Carol Myers, and Theresa, Rush. Black Americans Writers Past and Present: A Bibliographical and Bibliographical Dictionary. New Jersey, NJ: Scarecrow, 1975.

Davis, Arthur. From the Dark Tower: Afro American Writers 1900 to 1960. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1974.

Hurston, Zora, Sweat. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978.

Hurston, Zora. Drenched in light. New York: The Feminist Press, 1979.

Muraskin, William. Alienated Elite: Short Stories In The Crises, 1910-1950. Journal of Black Studies 23.4(1970): 67-145. Print.

Stetson, Erlene. Black Sisters. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.

Tate, Claudia. Black Women at Work. New York: Continuum, 1983.

[supanova_question]

The aspects of human nature that George Orwell criticizes in his work 1984 compared to today’s world Research Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction 1984, is a novel written by George Orwell. The novel predicts a negative utopia of a totalitarian society, which makes use of terror and an authoritarian bureaucracy to exert power over its citizens. The novel has been widely used in academic institutions in an attempt to educate the youth on the dangers of totalitarian communism.

It was used during the Cold War to fight against communism and this has made Orwell to be commemorated by many people as an opponent of the Red Menace. The question on how Orwell’s1984 illuminates the social realities in today’s world has been posed repeatedly. This paper will discuss the aspects of human nature that George Orwell criticizes in his work 1984 compared to today’s world (Orwell, 2002).

Discussion The aspects of human nature that George Orwell criticizes in his work 1984 compared to today’s world

Orwell in the novel 1984 represents the modern society be it capitalist or communist. Just like the present world, the nation described in the novel had a police force and an administrative body. According to the novel, when a leader gains absolute control over a nation, he/she becomes corrupted and this is evident in today’s world (Orwell, 2002).

Orwell in the novel 1984 criticizes Stalinism as a form of state communism where the government controls all aspects of its citizen’s life. Orwell in the book criticizes Stalinism with the political leader of his predicted society being represented by Stalin and the nation’s enemy being represented by Trotsky.

The world of 1984 is an example of today’s world that is full of political tribunals, torture-extracted declarations of guilt, secret police force, and labor camps. Orwell criticizes this form of government by stating that it leads to lack of freedom, human rights, and social inequality which results to a depressing life with no diversity.

The community in 1984 is totalitarian with a federal party state that controls all aspects of the people’s life from labor, to customs, to thought, to verbal communication and finally sexuality. This is similar to today’s world whereby bureaucracy produces a tyrannical structure in which one group of persons, that is, the government dominates the others (Orwell, 2002).

Another aspect of human nature that Orwell criticizes in 1984 is the fact that leaders have power over the media. The novel starts with evocations stating, “Big brother is watching you,” (Orwell 6), after which it puts the reader into a cruel environment where television sets are used as surveillance tools by broadcasting only government related issues. Orwell critics this behavior by stating that televisions are central entertainment instruments at home and should not be used as instruments of government propaganda and social manipulation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The media in Orwell’s 1984 is instrumental in advancing government propaganda and is thus an instrument of surveillance and fear. For instance, in Orwell’s 1984, the government controls television sets by making sure that they have only one channel, and cannot be switched off. Orwell states that “the great majority of the people did not even have telescreens in their homes” (Orwell 77) and this underrates the ubiquity of television screens and their role in recreation, and indoctrination in today’s world.

The role of the media in Orwell’s 1984 is thus different from today’s world where the media functions in privatizing, serializing, and ensuring safety of citizens in their homes. Television watching in today’s world protects persons from political issues while at the same time shaping their contemplations and behaviors. This in 1984, however, disturbs individuals and deprives them of their privacy (Widmann, 2002).

Lust for power is an aspect of human nature criticized by Orwell in his work 1984. This is seen in the sentence “The Party seeks power entirely for its own sake. We are not interested in the good of others; we are interested solely in power. Not wealth or luxury or long life or happiness; only power, pure power….We are different from all the oligarchies of the past in that we know what we are doing….We know that no one ever seizes power with the intention of relinquishing it.” (Orwell 217).

Orwell illustrates how lust for power inspires party bureaucrats and how they make use of this power to put down anyone who goes up against their interests. At this point, the reader gets a powerful vision of disloyalty by a new class of people, which is similar to today’s world. To communicate this notion to the people, Orwell uses several literary techniques showing state power and fear (Widmann, 2002).

Orwell’s 1984 book is applied in today’s world to refer to quasi-fascist and authoritarian regimes in the United States, Latin America, and Africa. The brutality of leaders in becoming the most authoritative and evil dictators weakens a nation. For instance, in Orwell’s 1984, leaders use brute force in making their citizens to follow them. According to them “Power is not a means; it is an end.

One does not establish a dictatorship in order to safeguard a revolution; one makes the revolution in order to establish the dictatorship” (Orwell 218). This is similar to what is happening in today’s world where citizens are afraid of speaking out their minds and leaders end up becoming dictators. This is also evident in communist states where the citizens live in fear of their government and therefore cannot make any utterances against the government (Orwell, 2003).

Orwell in his work equates bureaucracy within totalitarian nations to political oppression and exploitation. He says that transition to a federal economy is inevitable though it concentrates power in the hands of the government.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The aspects of human nature that George Orwell criticizes in his work 1984 compared to today’s world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Orwell, a centralized government means more authority and control by the state bureaucracy, which is evident in today’s world. I agree to issues such as Stalinism, lust for power, corrupt leadership, inequality, and dictatorship as brought out in this novel since they are relevant in today’s world (George, 2002).

Similar issues in today’s society that should be reformed

Based on my opinion, the above issues can be reformed in today’s society. Stalinism, corrupt leadership, and lust for power can be reformed by electing sincere leaders. Support from the society is, however, very important in eliminating Stalinism and corrupt leadership and a cross party political consent should be encouraged. Dictatorship, on the other hand, can be reformed by transferring or sharing supremacy with others. The judiciary should check on the excesses of the ruling class to help solve inequality issues.

Conclusion Orwell in his book 1984, talks of totalitarianism, and the evils associated with this type of rule. He is considered a critic of suppressive socio-economic structures by providing strong condemnations against this type of rule. He further gives warnings concerning what might happen if such trends are adopted in the future.

Works Cited George Orwell. “Work: Summaries

[supanova_question]

A Dose of Realism: The Syrian Situation Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Throughout history, there have been documented accounts of terrorism and civil uprising in various nations around the world. While some of these situations have occurred due to violation of various human rights, others have been as a result of poor leadership and managerial skills by leaders of these nations. In the past two decades, cases of terrorism acts and civil instabilities have increased rapidly.

This can be attributed to radical teachings and a need for change by the perpetrators. Countries such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Egypt and Libya have in the recent past experienced civil unrest as citizens set out to fight for a more just and democratic regime.

Syria has also followed suit and for two decades, the nation’s citizenry has witnessed unimaginable atrocities at the hands of greedy and callous leaders. This paper shall set out to explore the situation in Syria. To this end, a brief history detailing the circumstances that led to the situation shall be discussed and viable recommendations on how best the situation can be resolved provided.

The Syrian situation: a brief overview The middle-east has for a long period been in a state of unrest. As mentioned earlier, this has been attributed to poor political systems, policies and cultural practices that limit people’s ability to enjoy their rights. While proponents of these dictatorial tendencies argue that such factors guarantee cooperation and foster peaceful coexistence, documented evidence proves otherwise as can be cited from the Syrian conflict.

Machiavelli (1961), states that the ongoing Syrian uprising is a part of a conflict that has been in Syria for a long period of time. Its cause can be traced as far back as in the early 1960’s. According to Yaniv (1986), Syria was in a state of emergency from 1963 to 2011. As a result of this declaration, the constitutional protection of the Syrian citizenry was suspended.

The Syrian government attributed this state of emergency to the fact that Syria was at war with Israel (Yaniv, 1986). Since then, Syria has been ruled by the secular Ba’ath party which took over during the Ba’athist overthrow in 1963. As a safe measure, the party ensured that Syrian citizen had limited powers in regard to presidential election.

To this end, Syrian citizens could only approve a president through referendum and multi-party elections were not allowed for this legislature (Kalmamaz, 2011). The Ba’ath party has effectively managed to maintain control over Syria despite various internal power changes such as the 1966 coup and the Syrian Correctional Revolution that took place in 1970 (Kalmamaz, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After this revolution, the situation only got worse as president Hafez al-Assad banned all opposition parties and candidates in a bid to promote conformity. However, this move only led to more uprising by Islamic insurgents that reached a climax in 1982.

According to Ofra and Sherko (2009), president Hafez al-Assad in turn carried out a “scorched earth policy” against Hama (a small town occupied by the Sunni Muslims community suspected of fueling the uprising). This move led to the Hama Massacre in which tens of thousands of people died including a large number of civilians who were caught up by the intense operation (Kalmamaz, 2011).

Similarly, president Hafez al-Assad’s succession sparked more conflict in Syria leading to the Latakia incident that took place in 1999. The violent protests and armed clashes were as a result of a pre-existing feud between president Hafez al-Assad and his brother Rifaat (Ofra

[supanova_question]

Biblical and Scholarly portrayal of King David Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction King David was one of most famous kings in Israel. The Bible portrays him as a righteous and able king who defeated many of the enemies of Israel. He was the youngest son of Jesee and often looked after the sheep of his father. It is while taking care of the sheep that this young man went through various experiences that prepared him to become the King of Israel.

He was able to challenge and kill a bear and a lion while protecting the sheep of his father. Later, Prophet Samuel under the instruction of God anoints David as king over Israel when he still at a tender age. After this, he was able to defeat Goliath, a philistine who had challenged the armies of Israel.

Even though King David had much achievement since he was young, he also had some pitfalls. For instance, he killed Uriah and took his wife to himself. This portrays that he was a lustful man and someone who would shed blood for his benefit. However, the way King David repented before God changes the whole aspect of being lustful and a murderer. This is because even God declares that David was a Man after his own heart. He rose in to kingship at a time when Saul did not please God in his leadership.

Berardi indicates that there was prophesy concerning the kingship and reign of David long before David became king over Israel. In this case, prophet Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah will come from the line of Jesee, who was the father of David. In addition, God had promised the Israelites that he will appoint a king for them who will rule in righteousness and justice. Under this promise, he was referring to King David. David was king over Israel for forty years and reigned in righteousness (1).

Despite this biblical portrayal of King David, various scholars portray this king as a very different man. There are even some scholars who claim that King David did not exist. They deem that there is no archaeological evidence to support that there was such a king like David in Israel.

Others portray him as a very immoral king who is lustful and loves to kill. These scholarly literature claims that the Bible accords King David too much credit that he does not deserve. This paper will analyze the portrayal of King David in the Bible as well as by scholars. The paper will draw a comparison between scholarly portrayal and biblical portrayal of this King and make some conclusions from the discussion.

Story of King David: Biblical portrayal The Bible introduces King David first during the reign of king Saul and when David was still a young boy looking after the sheep of his father Jesee. During that time, God spoke to Prophet Samuel and instructed him to anoint a king from the house of Jesee. Samuel thought that since Jesee had many grown-up sons, the king would come from one of them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, God instructed him not to look at the stature of the person but at the heart. God rejected all the other sons of Jesee, whom Samuel thought were the favorite. When a message was sent to David and he came, God approved him and told Samuel to anoint him. Although he was the youngest, the Bible portrays that God was looking at the heart of David not his age or stature.

The bible also portrays David as a young and very handsome man whom God had favored. After Samuel anointed David, the spirit of God descended upon him from that day onwards. This anointing signified that God was pleased with David and that he was displeased by the reign of Saul.

The Bible also indicates that after Samuel anointed David, God sent an evil spirit to Saul. David went to the palace to sooth the king by playing the harp. David had a talent in music and whenever he played the harp before the king, the evil spirit could leave him (Berardi, 1).

The bible records a very significant occasion that offered David much Credit and honor. This was the killing of Goliath. This is one of the events that made King David to be very famous in Israel and the enemies of Israel feared him. In addition, he received a lot of praise from women who sang for him. Eventually, this angered King Saul that he even sought to kill him.

During the time that this event occurred, the philistines had come together to fight the Israelites. The armies of the two sides camped on opposite sides ready for war. In the philistine army, there was a very huge and masculine man named Goliath.

He would come out every day and challenge the army of Israel, hauling negative words at them. The Bible describes Goliath as a giant who was very arrogant and had full armory ready to devour the Israelites. At the sight of this giant, the whole army of Israel feared and even the king could not try to fight Goliath (Fairchild, 1).

As Goliath challenged the Israelites, he claimed that if any of the Israelites defeat him in battle, then all the philistines would be servants of the Israelites. During that time, David was a brave young man not terrified by the sight of Goliath. He went to the battle ground and enquired on the gift that the king would reward the man who defeats Goliath. His elder brother tried to discourage him but he persisted and got the reply. He learnt that the man who would defeat the giant would receive the daughter of the King for a wife.

We will write a custom Essay on Biblical and Scholarly portrayal of King David specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since David was not afraid of Goliath he had trust in God, he volunteered to fight the giant. King Saul also tried to discourage David from trying such a thing. He deemed that Goliath was very huge and would kill David at once.

Despite this discouragement, David persisted and said that he was able to fight the philistine and he eventually convinced Saul. He gave justification that he had once killed a lion and a bear, hence was able to kill even Goliath. He also told Saul that he was very sure of the victorious hand of God to deliver him from the hand of the philistine (Berardi, 2).

Even though it took persistence for Saul to agree on allowing David to face Goliath, David was very sure that he would kill him. Saul recommended that David put on the whole armor so that he be ready to fight the philistine. However, David refused to put on the kings’ armor preferring simple equipments.

He dressed in his simple tunic, carried his shepherd’s staff, slingshot and a pouch full of stones. He then approached Goliath ready to challenge him. When Goliath saw David, he hurled negative words at the young man and cursed him (Fairchild, 3).

However, David was not afraid of the insults hurled at him by Goliath. He told the giant that even though he advances towards him with a spear, he would use the name of the God of Israel, whom Goliath had defiled. The biblical version of this story portrays that David trusted in God very much. It also portrays him as a righteous man since he did not insult Goliath back. In addition, the Bible provides the impression that David revered God by believing that he would deliver Goliath in to his hands (Berardi, 2).

The most fascinating part of this encounter is that David did not use much effort to kill Goliath. As the giant advanced to kill, David removed one stone from the porch swiftly and slung it on the forehead of Goliath. In an instant, Goliath fell down as the stone sunk deep in to his forehead.

David then removed the sword of Goliath and killed him, then cut his head to take to Saul as evidence. The philistines were very afraid when they saw that their leader was dead. They left the battleground and fled as the Israelites pursued them and killed all of them. This was a great victory for the Israelites prompted by the courage of David. In this sense, the Bible portrays King David as a very strong man who would fight for his people (Fairchild, 5).

Following this victory by David, the women praised David as they would sing that Saul has killed only one thousand but David has killed ten thousand. Due to this and because David became a strong warrior, Saul became very jealous and sought to kill David. His major concern was that David was capable of overthrowing him and taking over the kingdom from him.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Biblical and Scholarly portrayal of King David by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Saul planned several attempts to kill David but they all failed. He first planned that David would die in war against the philistines but the plan terribly failed since David was a strong and valiant warrior. David continued to grow stronger as the people praised him. Eventually, David became King over Israel after the death of Saul (Berardi, 3).

The Bible portrays another very important occurrence when David was still King over Israel. The King had sent all his army to the war but he remained in the palace. One evening as he was walking along the roof of the palace, he saw a very beautiful woman bathing.

The beauty of this woman moved David and he sent someone to enquire the identity of the woman. When the messenger said that she was Bathsheba the wife of Uriah, David sent some people to collect her. When she came to his house, David slept with Bathsheba and sent her away (Banerjee, 3).

After sometimes following the incidence, Bathsheba sent a message to David saying that she had become pregnant. David was pleased since he wanted an heir to his throne. Since he wanted to cover the sin he had committed before God and men, he ordered Joab to send Uriah at the center of the battle. He wanted Uriah to die in the battle so that he can take Bathsheba as his wife (Berardi, 4).

Not realizing that he was committing a serious sin before God, he was very glad when a message came that Uriah had died in the battle. He praised Joab for following his instructions and ensuring that Uriah died in the battle. When Bathsheba heard that his husband was dead, she lamented and mourned his husband. When the woman was through with the mourning, David summoned her to the palace and took her as his wife (Banerjee, 9).

God was not happy with David for the sins he had committed. Therefore, he sent his prophet Nathan to warn him and pronounce judgment. Nathan condemned the behavior of David and God punished him as well. God said that the child born by David and Bathsheba will surely die.

After the child died, David became sick and mourned for the child. He also acknowledged his sin and repented bitterly before God. God heard his repentance and forgave him. This incidence made God to say that David was a man after his own heart (Berardi, 4).

When Nathan approached David, he narrated the following story, in which he enquired response from David. He narrated that in one city, there were two men, one poor and the other very rich. The poor man had only one lamb that he loved very much while the rich man had many flocks.

A visitor came to the house of the rich man and this man sought to slaughter a lamb for his visitor. Instead of taking one from his flock, he took the only lamb that belonged to the poor man and slaughtered for the visitor. When enquired of the action that should be carried out on the rich man, David was very angry at the man. When Nathan said that David was that rich man because he had taken Uriah’s wife, David acknowledged his sin and lamented before God (Banerjee, 10).

This occasion indicated that even though David was a valiant warrior and a respected King, he too had human weaknesses. The Bible portrays that it is possible for every human to have some weaknesses inherent in the system of a human being regardless of their status in the society. However, the event also implies that though David sinned against God, he finally acknowledged his guilt and repented. This displays David as a righteous King for he could own up his mistakes.

The reign of King David lasted for forty years and he helped Israelites conqure many of their enemies. In addition, the Bible portrays David as a psalmist, who wrote most psalms while he was hiding from Saul. The Bible also portrays him as a man who was very vigilant in seeking the will of God when he was the King.

In reality, many Kings would rely on their own knowledge and discretion but David was very special as he enquired from God before doing anything. God also made a covenant with him that the messiah would come from his family line. When David died, his Son Solomon took over the throne and became the king of Israel (Berardi, 4).

How Scholars Portray King David Contrary to how the Bible portrays King David, most scholars especially in the twentieth century typify David in one of two opposing ways. The traditional version portrays David as a devout shepherd who later becomes the king of Israel. On the other hand, the critical version portrays David as a schemer, who manipulates his ways to gain kingship that he does not deserve.

In this case, some scholars assert that King David was an opportunistic, a murderer as well as a very promiscuous King. The first portrayal of David arises from the biblical story, where some biblical scholars analyze the events recorded in the Bible. The second characterization arises from a hermeneutic of suspicion reading, which happens to be against the biblical aspect (Bosworth, 191).

During the biblical times, Christians portrayed David as the mightiest king of Israel. David began his career in playing the lute in King Saul’s court but he later proved to be a talented person in battles. Due to this, Saul became jealous of David since he became famous. Samuel, who was a prophet, sided with David.

He was the one who anointed Saul to be a King. Samuel then anointed David as a God chosen king. Most scholars happen to be against the statement that David was a God chosen King. They argue that David took advantage of his power by committing crimes. These scholars also claim that it was due to favoritism that David became the king (Cline, 1).

In the Middle East, archeologists have excavated many documents from different sites in the past two centuries. These documents provided data concerning history, religion, politics, customs, laws and every aspect of life in the modern world. However, most of these documents came from Egypt and Iraq.

These two nations were in the process of re-enactment in 1000 B.C.E. According to the bible’s chronology, this was the time king David was in power. This means that these nations would not contact with other countries, as the communications networks were not superior. These archaeological studies reveal that there are no records of King David in Israel. Some scholars therefore deem that King David was not even there (McKenzie, 6).

In the biblical perspective, David was born in Bethlehem and was from the tribe of Judah. When David became the King, he chose a neutral city to be his new capital city, which was Jerusalem. Jerusalem belonged to the Jebusite and for David to acquire it; he had to fight against them.

He was successful and he was even capable of fending off the retaliatory assaults from the Philistines. According to scholars, this is an instance where David took advantage of his power to acquire what he wanted. In addition, such scholars claim that this aspect of King David portray him as a cruel king who ruled Israel with much injustice. They mostly refute the biblical portrayal of David as a just and righteous King (Cline, 2).

Over the past decades, different scholars have come up with different theories that explain the inconsistency in the biblical aspect of David and Goliath. One theory states that King David and Elhanan killed Goliath, who was formerly a giant from Gath and who carried a heavy and wide spear.

Another theory suggests that in the first place David did not kill Goliath (40). They claim that an admirer of David added the story of the mighty and pious young shepherd who conquered the giant. He did this in order to present the King as a powerful man. This shows that the scholars aspect of King David is negative compared to the aspect of the Bible. The Bible portrays David as a powerful and successful man and a God fearing person while the scholars portray David as a man who used his power in the wrong way (Slavicek, 41).

Most Scholars assert that from the Christian literature, Jesus was a descendant of David apart from the gospel of Mark. Because of this aspect, Christians romanticize David as leader but only happens at the expense of the text.

The episode of King David is clear and states that he was imperfect and did many immoral things. For instance, David killed Uriah and took his wife, slept wit her and thus he committed adultery and murder. The scholars therefore claim that David happens to be an interesting character but not a paragon of virtue (Cline, 5).

The modern interpreters and contemporary scholars have highly opposed the presentation of David as a hero. A crucial assessment of David has become standard in the field. However, these criticisms have made people to believe that David was an oppressor. This depends on the biblical aspect where David killed Uriah. Even though the biblical scholars view the Biblical episode of King David in a positive aspect, they claim that his murderous acts portray David as a different man from the devout literally figures (Bosworth, 192).

David attained one diplomatic victory after another against all Israel’s neighbors, which is according to the Bible. This permitted David to start a small empire where the Jews felt safe. The fact that Palestine was on a bridge between Africa, Asia, and Europe made David to believe that there was no little achievement.

For the first and the last time, Israel became a powerful empire, aided by David and his son Solomon. This shows that David took advantage of his position as a King and he did what he felt was good according to scholars (Cline, 3). Other scholars point out that David was initially born as Elhanan but he adopted the name David when he took the throne. This offers the continuity of the assertion that there was no King in Israel called King David (Slavicek, 41).

Comparison between the Bible Version and the Scholar version of King David The Biblical episode reveals some of the David’s personal virtues. The Biblical aspects portray David as a brave young man, who defended his fathers’ sheep from lions and bears. In addition, the Bible portrays his skills with a sling when he killed Goliath. David became famous due to his courageous and brave actions.

Regardless of these positive characters, David happens to be a man prone to excessive lust, violence and deception. These humanistic characters portrayed in the Bible illustrate David as a rounded, full, and vibrant character with human fragility as well as greatness. Their occurrence in the biblical text has some reason different from the royal misinformation generated by most scholars (Bosworth, 206).

The scholar version however portrays King David in a different way. For instance scholars portray David as an opportunist, who maneuvered his was to become King in Israel. They also assert that David used his bravery, courage and strength to humiliate and exploit other people.

In addition, he used his power as King to get whatever he wanted. The scholar version also portrays David as a very promiscuous man, not worthy to be a King. In addition, scholars deem that the high accordance offered to David is not justifiable since he was not a just King.

It is evident that even though the Bible shows that King David was a just and righteous King, it also portrays some of his weaknesses. A closer scrutiny of the Bible reveals that occasions where David displayed his weakness and injustice occurred for a reason.

For instance, when King David Killed Uriah and took his wife, the Bible portrays King David as a repentant King despite his position. On the contrary, scholars portray David as a promiscuous King and a murder. According to scholars, the issue of killing Uriah to take his wife shows a high level of oppression and lust.

In my own view, the Biblical portrayal of King David should override the scholarly portrayal. This is because even the scholars, who oppose the biblical aspect of King David as a just King, retrieve their evidence from the Bible. In addition, it is evident that every aspect of the life of King David occurred with a reason.

Closer interpretation of the Bible reveals that King David was a righteous, brave and considerate King who did not oppress his subjects. This is also evident because his subjects did not complain of his leadership. However, this issue can be very contentious as different people interpret the Bible differently. This means that the premise I have provided does not justify that the biblical portrayal is the most perfect.

Conclusion The biblical and scholarly portrayals of King David are two conflicting aspects. On the one hand, the Biblical portrayal of King David shows him as a righteous, brave and just king. On the other hand, most scholars portray King David a promiscuous, unjust King who also happens to be a murderer.

They deem that he oppressed his subjects to attain what he wanted and that he did not deserve to be the King over Israel. Even though these two portrayals are conflicting, the biblical aspect overrides the scholarly portrayal in many ways including lack of sufficient evidence for the scholar portrayal. This however does not mean that the biblical portrayal of King David is far much superior compared to the scholarly portrayal.

Works Cited Banerjee, B. Biblical Story of David and Bathsheba. 2008. Web.

Berardi, P. Important Figures of the Bible: King David. 2006. Web.

Bosworth, D. “Evaluating King David: Old Problems and Recent Scholarship”. Journal of the Catholic Biblical Quarterly 68 (2006): 191-210. Print.

Cline, A. Profile and Biography of David, Old Testament King. 2011. Web.

Fairchild, M. David and Goliath: Bible Story Summary. 2011. Web.

McKenzie, Steven. King D.: A Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

Slavicek, Louise C., King D.: Ancient World Leaders. New York: InfoBase Publishing, 2008. Print.

[supanova_question]

This is not a Test Essay custom essay help

The film “This is not a Test” was an American film produced in the midst of the cold war specifically in the year 1962. The film and several others were produced as way of increasing awareness about the possibility of a nuclear war between the two nuclear superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. The movie begins with a United States enforcement officer receiving orders to install a road block in a rural road in the State of California.

The officer stops several vehicles and their occupants as one way of dealing with the threat of bombardment. Threats are heard over the officer’s phone and this complicates his work as he attempts to carry out his orders and keep the group of people detained in order. When the possibility of an attack becomes imminent, the officer and the rest of the gathered citizens attempt to protect themselves from the attack by converting a truck into a temporary bomb shelter.

But the chaos of the attack leads to anarchy and in the process the law enforcement officer is atomized while some of the others drive away to safety. The film portrays the level of fear which was prevalent in the early days of the cold war and shows the kind of anarchy that an actual war could bring.

The movie makes one thing clear, the pointless nuclear race which nearly led to assured mutual destruction of both states and allies. The Soviet Union was bent on perpetuation of its communist agendas and saw military supremacy as one way of ensuring the continuation of its intentions.

This included assisting countries perceived to be communist against the threat of capitalistic societies. This included supporting Cuba’s government against US invasion and the subsequent placement of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. There was as an effort by the Soviet government around this time to take over Berlin which nearly put the nation on a collision course with Western powers.

The United States employed several policies and interventions during the cold war as a way of containing the Soviet threat. This included increased armament to deter Soviet aggression under the principle of assured mutual destruction. This would mean that an attack on US soil would lead to a swift counter attack on Soviet territories.

A nuclear war seemed inevitable during the Cuban missiles crisis when the United States saw the Soviet’s placement of nuclear missiles as direct threat to the security of the United States. The movie assumes that this tension actually leads to a nuclear war and shows the kind of carnage and chaos such a war would bring to our society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both governments employed intelligence and security organs in promotion of their cold war agendas and propaganda. The Soviet Union used secret police agencies to bear down on oppositions and those perceived to be against communism were executed. The American government created organs like the CIA to conduct spy missions and even orchestrate attempted coups in countries like Cuba. But the people of both nations just wanted peace and this might be a reason for subsequent reduction in nuclear weapons and a stop to the arms race.

The movie shows the kind of fear that the threat of a nuclear war would put on a nation and bring all other activities to a halt. It is also clear that the country is ill prepared to shield its people from the effects of such an attack as is demonstrated by the officer trying to convert a truck into a bomb shelter.

The message here is for nuclear disarmament since the losers in a nuclear war would be the citizens of the involved nations and no side can hope to emerge victorious with mutual destruction being assured. As in the case of those who drive away to safety, avoiding major cities in a nuclear war seems to be the best way to survive. Diplomacy then is the best way of solving issues and nations should refrain from acts which can be deemed as a threat to the security of others.

[supanova_question]

Importance of American Imperialism to the Economy and Society Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

World Bank and IMF as Tools of Imperialism

American Corporations

Globalization

Dollar as Standard Currency

Conclusion

References

Introduction The histories of empire building have enjoyed renaissance from the period of 19th century. This has been epitomized by the global primacy of USA militarily, economically and culturally. It is the tradition of USA that has given a place to imperialism and especially the Marxist form of imperialism.

The influence of the USA is widely related to two aspects: its geopolitical relations and its economic mode of capital accumulation. The economic influence of USA is primarily necessitated by the internationalization of systems of production, circulation and investment, the interpenetration of private capital and the structure of the nation.

This has resulted into an integrated nature of the world economy becoming the main arena for competition among states and further resulting into geopolitical conflicts between states. It is understood that the two world wars were products of anti-imperialist conflicts.

The US imperialism in the global arena conforms to the theory by Hardts and Negri, who posited that inter-imperialism rivalries have influence beyond the transnational power cycle. Consequently, it is argued that the advent of globalization has facilitated the establishment of the US Empire.

What makes the US an indispensable player in the global economy is its resources and massive population that can provide a huge market for its products. Other factors favoring US as a dominant player in the international stage are the dominance and presence of their culture all over the world and the sophistication of its military. Notwithstanding, these reasons, the secret of US dominance is due to the use of a dollar as a global and standard currency [1].

World Bank and IMF as Tools of Imperialism The World Bank, for example, has been considered as an instrument of imperialism that is used by the USA to dictate the world economy. This similarly applies to the IMF.

This is evidenced in the management of the bank whereby in the 24 member board, eight are representatives of the global powers namely: “Germany, Britain, France, China, Russia, Saudi Arabia, USA and Japan” [1] and the remaining sixteen slots are shared by approximately 185 member states. Consequently, US has control over the voting weight in the two organizations; with “17 percent in the IMF and 16 percent in World Bank” [1], its allies also hold a substantial say in the voting weight.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though World Bank is considered as a global institution, it is only the USA that has veto power of the Bank’s critical decisions, and it is the president of the USA, who is bestowed with the task of appointing the Bank’s president. This power wielded by the US over the two monetary institutions gives them the leverage to promote their imperialism tendencies. The USA influences the global economy through their corporations.

American Corporations Imperialism has also benefited US economy through having lee way for the operations of their corporations in the globe. The American multinational corporations have effectively capitalized on the American imperialism to exploit resources, advance their creativity and enhance communication to the remote parts of the world.

It is through the American corporations abroad that USA has had at their disposal all the instruments that guarantee itself stability. The USA has used their imperialism to influence international and domestic politics. This, America does to ensure that their objectives are met and not to benefit other people.

This was evident in Indonesia where America supported the activities of Mohammed Suharto, the dictator president who made use of brutality to implement policies that could benefit the interests of the USA. America only acknowledges a country as an ally if it is strategic and can serve their national interests. The USA has used the leverage they have in the World Bank to benefit their corporations and the ruling elite in developing countries at the expense of the poor.

In Indonesia, for example, they influenced World Bank to provide loans to the benefit of Indonesian rulers and US corporations. The result for this is to ensure that host countries are heavily indebted, which is the objective realized while the ruling class secure investments overseas through the assistance of the US [1].

Through corporations, the American society has been ruined. While the government secures them good opportunities abroad, they have destroyed the policies and the character of the Americans and the global society.

Corporations bribe politicians both at Washington and in other cities of the planet to facilitate the formulation of laws that are deceiving to the society so as to enable them to evade costs that they are likely to incur in their business operations. The laws they influence are detrimental and may include the environmental costs of exploiting resources, worker compensation and freedom to market hazardous goods or dump wastes [2].

We will write a custom Essay on Importance of American Imperialism to the Economy and Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More American corporations have ruled the world through greed as depicted by the massive profits they marshal. This was best exhibited by ExxonMobil when it announced a record-breaking profit and second of all time profit to be announced by a US company.

This is often achieved at the expense of suffering populations of the world’s poor and the favors they receive through the influence and imperialist nature of America, which enables it to negotiate for privileges like tax breaks and trade agreement and consequently, the presence of environmental and labor laws that are crafted to their favor.

The propagation of American imperialism is often achieved by compromising the central principles that hold the American society. America and its allies who are considered paragons of democracy demonstrate several undemocratic features namely: media manipulated by huge corporations and their governments, politicians are controlled and manipulated by wealthy people who are often major campaign contributors, consequently, policies in these countries are influenced by the wealthy and more often the policies are made behind closed doors so as to avoid the public getting informed on key matters [1].

To demonstrate how beneficial imperialism to the American society is, USA has been abstaining on any UN vote that works against its interests and has on several occasions vetoed them. The US, for example, abstained from the UN international treaty that banned land mines when it was brought to vote in 1997.

Consequently, the US has refused to ratify various conventions that are likely to undermine its imperialism like the Rome statute establishing the International Criminal Court, 1989 Rights of the Child, International Biological Weapons Convention and the Kyoto protocol.

Globalization The increased US imperialism due to globalization has created a lot of wealth for American corporations and their owners, and consequently, enormous wealth for the country but similarly creating sharp class difference and inequalities in the world. The growing US imperialism has enhanced the expansion of its economy while simultaneously fostering the belief among a majority of the population that market can offer solutions to societal and economic problems [2].

Dollar as Standard Currency The influencing of the Saudi Arabia by the United States of America under the scheme of Saudi Arabia Money Laundering Affair (SAMA) was on purpose; an agreement was coined to let the Royal Saud house to only sell oil in dollars.

This was due to the realization by the Americans that Saudi is the market controller of oil, and it could dictate similar terms for other OPEC countries. Due to this, the dominance of oil as a primary market commodity was enough assurance for the prevalence of the dollar as standard of exchange in the international economy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of American Imperialism to the Economy and Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, the creation of the Bretton Woods institutions, though primarily were aimed at reconstruction of the world after World War II, US used its leverage in the body and made it an instrument to demonstrate the power of capitalism over socialism. The Bank was used to aid US Corporations and Multinational corporations that subscribed to the ideals of capitalism.

The US has used it as a whipping tool to ensure that countries align to its social and economic policies. The US has used its three instruments of imperialism, namely: corporations, IMF and World Bank to lure those countries that are rich with resources that will allow them and their corporations to exploit for the benefit of their home and industries abroad.

Conclusion The trend that American imperialism is taking is no longer working to the benefit of the economy or the society. It is as a result of imperialism that American economy is deteriorating. Its military spending is spiraling at the expense of the weakening economy; in World Press Freedom List, it is going down. Its national and external debt is the largest in the world.

These realities should motivate the US society to alter the dynamics of its corporatocracy since they are at the heart inequalities in the world and changing them will be tantamount to changing the entire world.

References Perkins J. The Secret History of the American Empire: Economic Hit Men, Jackals, and the Truth about Global Corruption. New York: Penguin; 2007.

Jones J, Wood PH, Borstelman T, May TE, Ruiz, VL. Created Equal: A History of the United States. Toronto: Pearson Education; 2010.

[supanova_question]

Origin of Greek Civilization. Comparison of articles “Out of Africa” and “Not out of Africa: The origins of Greece and the illusions of Afrocentrists” Essay essay help site:edu

Both articles speculate on the origin of civilization. Begley explained the African and African American scholars’ perspective of civilization. According to Begley, Civilization originated from Africa. To support this observation, it was argued that the Pythagorean Theorem, pi concept, geometric formulas, screw and the lever originated from Egypt and not Greece as many intellectuals believe.

Western scholars dismissed all African achievements that they did not dispute. These include the sophisticated social, economic governance in the West Africa. Others argued that Egypt’s inhabitants were not originally Africans.

Bernal (Professor at Cornell University) studied Hebrew antiquity, which led him to studying Greece as well. From his work, Bernal’s described classists as racists and anti-Semites. There is a feeling that acknowledging African contribution would impure Greece society. Thus, all the accounts that shaped Aegean civilizations were upheld.

From Aryan model, Greek Civilization begun when Indo-European speakers interacted with the pre-Hellenes. Bernal proved explicitly that civilization came from Africa and not from Greece. For example, he traced linguistic words and utterance of Egyptian origin with some of the words being closely associated with Egyptian culture.

There are some modern historians who surmise that Bernal’s etymologies could be plausible, but insist that the influence would be due to interactions from trade. Therefore, both articles argue that Afro centrists such as Euclid, Homer, Socrates and Cleopatra came from African Origin. Begley further expounded that Greece civilization have its cultural roots from acrostic cultures (Egyptian and Phoenician) (Begley 1).

What is of fact from the two articles is that Greek civilization came about as a result of contact between the Indo-European Language and cultural influence from Egyptian and Semitic languages. However, all the information pointing out to the Greek civilization as having come out of the Afrocentric culture is only an overview.

There is a vast amount of concrete evidence yet uncovered and unexplored regarding the Greek civilization. Further more, the results and conclusion of investigations carried out by historians such as Bernal proved extraordinary conclusions, bringing about contradictions such that their work could not be easily acknowledged (Begley 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Greek civilization was as an influence of the interaction of the Indo-European language, Egyptian and Phoenicians. For example, Bernal cited many of Greek words, which are of Egyptian origin. Some of those words are accepted widely in the current Indo-European etymologies.

More so, the interactions during trade influenced their cultural conduct. Diop affirmed the interaction in his work the African origin of civilization. The Senegalese man traced Egyptian influence from the prehistoric periods, such as Cecrops, and showed that it originated from Egypt. James suggested the means in which Egypt’s mysteries could have reached Greece. He suggested that Scholars such as Solon and Pythagoras could have carried the mysteries with them.

As James said, there is no concrete evidence of Greek’s colonization. Therefore, the notion that Egypt’s civilization as a whole was black is off beam. It had other mixed populations, like Queen Cleopatra was of Greek origin. Classist Frank Snowden explained that racism never existed in that ancient past. Reger seconded Frank’s contributions (Lefkowitz 1).

Classifying ancient classist as racist and anti-Semites is unfair. This is because there is a possibility that the classists had misinterpreted the facts about Greeks’ origin. There is a lot, which is clear about Greeks’ origin; the subject has become a popular discussion. For example, Bernal read widely to assess Egyptian contribution to the Greek civilization. His contributions began from unproven an argument that European Scholars had distorted all archeological documents and evidence.

He opted to stick to his “Aryan” and “Ancient Model”, i.e. Greeks obtained their religion and cultural influence from Egypt. Bernal tried to ascertain his argument by accounting on “Revised Ancient Model”. His investigations were derived from disparate and fragmentary sources. His work insufficiently provided illustrations and concrete visual evidence such as art and architecture producing incomplete packs which the modern historians continue relying upon.

More so, his Ancient Model relied too much on Herodotus work. He suggested a conspiracy between the Europeans to neglect recognition of Egypt as the root for Greek Civilization. What he failed to understand was that medieval beliefs on cultural and religious beliefs in antiquity were described based on myths and ancient anecdotal biographers’ works.

Although Bernal cited Herodotus’ work to describe the origin of civilization, he failed to discuss explicitly the habits and customs influenced on the Greek culture by the Egyptians. More so, his work failed to give all plausible explanations on the areas he pointed out. For example, he barely explained the irrigation system and how the knowledge of controlling water was learnt (Lefkowitz 1).

We will write a custom Essay on Origin of Greek Civilization. Comparison of articles “Out of Africa” and “Not out of Africa: The origins of Greece and the illusions of Afrocentrists” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All the information pointing out that Greek civilization came for the afro centric culture is shallow and there is a feeling that much more needs to be covered in regard to digging out concrete evidence. There is little that is known about Greeks’ origin.

Most of the Greeks believed that their ancestors came from the land their descendants occupied. They insisted that the language they spoke was originally their own, and their writing system was intervened by their gods. Greeks dismissed other foreigners and were described to refer to foreigners as barbarians. They relied on their myths to give the origin of their unique identity. As we know, nothing much can be retrieved from the myths.

They give vague information and serve merely as a guide to historians to necessitate the formation of general opinion. There is information about Greeks’ movement to other parts of Asia Minor such as Egypt, Mesopotamia and Phoenicia to trade or for exploration. However, little is said about the interactions during their movements. Therefore, there must be a vast amount of evidence to be explored and be uncovered by the historians to support the claims of civilization roots being from Afrocentric (Begley 1).

Greeks certainly got influenced by other cultures for their civilization. It is irrefutable that they build a culture that is impressive for all civilizations and the most influential in western culture. Ancient Greece was a collection of Greek city states and colonies concentrated in the mainland Greece.

They also spread throughout the Aegean Sea, Asia Minor and Italy. Their culture and religion got influenced by the Phoenicians. Up to date, very little is known about the geographical origins of Greeks. Lefkowitz’s article “not from Africa” is more compelling than Begley’s “The Origin of Greece Civilization”. Lefkowitz expounded greatly and outlined his view noticeably and influentially.

Her arguments were against the biased use of skin color by Bernal. She also attacked the conflicting views by Bernal about the view that Phoenician civilization once colonized Greece and his efforts to convince readers that Egyptian and Phoenicians were not Mediterranean descendants.

What remains evident in the racial related issues in history education? For example, anthropologists’ efforts to trace human race from Africa struck much European cultural arrogance. Bernal acknowledged that his award-winning book was mainly to transform the European Cultural arrogance through re-examination of the origin of Western Civilization.

His contributions are respectable and had honorable intentions. We can only hope that his book will clearly define the degree of African culture on civilization. However, he did not deal with the racial issue squarely. He ought to have described Egypt as part of Africa but instead of determining the number of the dark-skinned people in the region.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Origin of Greek Civilization. Comparison of articles “Out of Africa” and “Not out of Africa: The origins of Greece and the illusions of Afrocentrists” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is especially in the respect of the ancient study where racism was unheard of. From Bernal’s contribution, many modern historians will continue to have the notion that the Greeks stole the Egyptian culture. However, the key question is, what exactly did the African culture really imply? Is claiming that African was the origin civilization a myth to seek self-ennoblement? Is it a mean to break loose from marginalization and enhances participation in common culture? (Lefkowitz 1)

However, the results must not be adequate. It might alter the main purpose of learning. The tendency to judge individuals as black or white, the origin as a measure to determine the value of the human race would result to great danger. Therefore, we should take pride in all Egyptian, Phoenicians or Greeks and other sources of civilization. This is because it brought great change and benefited all of us (Lefkowitz 1). It should also be noted all cultures have positive influences on civilization.

Works Cited Begley, Sharon. “Out of Africa.” The Beast Daily 22 September 1991. Print.

Lefkowitz, Mary. Not out of Africa: The origins of Greece and the illusions of Afrocentrists. HighBeam Business, 1992. Web. Web.

[supanova_question]

Violence in “A Good Man Is Hard To Find” Explicatory Essay essay help online: essay help online

O’Connor is one of the famous writers who have made tremendous contributions in the world of literature. She holds a belief that violent situations usually enable people’s real characters to emerge. She argues that once it surfaces, it demonstrates a man’s innate desires as well as his dark side.

She uses violence in a rhetorical manner in the story entitled “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”, which confirms her beliefs. O’Connor argues that extreme circumstances usually reveal the true nature of human beings. Violence is usually defined as the use of physical force or emotional torment in order to get something from someone as well as in situations where people want to satisfying their desires.

Violence situation in the story entitled “A good man is hard to find” begins when the family is on a road trip to Florida during the vacation. To some extent, violence begins in an indirect manner when the grandmother secretly plans to use tactics that would make her Son Bailey to change his mind so that she would visit plantations she had earlier visited.

More about This Topic What Is the Plot of a Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 30 What is the Short Story A Good Man Is Hard to Find about? 5 10 What Role Does the Setting Play in A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 9 Who is the protagonist in A Good Man is Hard to Find? 5 26 After inciting the children, they become excited and they yearn to visit the house that has some family silver. The grand mother incites them and it is said that “The children begins to yell and scream that they wanted to see the house…” (O’Connor, “Today’s Words: A Good Man Is Hard To Find”).

This provokes John Wesley to kick the driver’s seat in the verge of making his dad agree to their demand, making his father to lose control and they land into a ditch. Out of that violent situation, we are able to establish grandmother’s characters which include being selfish and self-centered. She seems to be narcissistic in nature and this has become apparent during the incident that leads to an accident.

It is also evident that John Wesley is mean, a character that comes out clearly during the incident. Earlier on we see a situation whereby, John Wesley is asked what he would do to Misfit. His answer is “I’d smack his face” (O’Connor, “Today’s Words: A Good Man Is Hard To Find”). Hitting the backseat creates a scenario where violence is evident. The situation depicts the boy’s violent nature

Misfit, who is an escaping prisoner, had killed his father before he was arrested. This is situation that portrays him as a violent character. However, he denies the allegations saying that his father died of flu. In the bush, the sound of guns are heard when Bailey and his son are taken there by Hiram and Bobby Lee.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reason they are taken there is unknown at first. One would think they want to get some information from them. Both Hiram and Bobby Lee act violently since they kills Bailey and his son Hiram puts on Bailey’s shirt. Two more pistol shots are heard and the grandmother begs for her life. First, she does not take into account that her children and grandchildren could be in danger.

She tells Misfit “…I know you wouldn’t shoot a lady…” (O’Connor, “Today’s Words: A Good Man Is Hard To Find”). Out of this violent situation, we find that she consider her welfare first before thinking about the rest; a character that emerges clearly symbolizing her dark side.

The first pistol shot and the subsequent ones in the incident mark the killing of Bailey, his wife and children. Misfit also shoots the grandmother three times on the chest after having debate about Christ killing her instantly. Out of this situation, we find that misfit is an antagonist of Christ and he seems to be provoked by discussions about him.

Further Research What Is the Tone of A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 26 How Does A Good Man Is Hard to Find Depict Conflict? 5 23 What Are the Examples of Verbal Irony in A Good Man is Hard to Find? 5 20 What Is the Style Of A Good Man Is Hard to Find? 5 12 The grandmother thought that misfit is a good man more than she thought of her children. It is evident that before the violence, Misfit displays some characters that would make people see him as a nice person. He is even apologetic to the grandmother. However, he confronts, endangered as well as murders the entire family. Previously, he was a gospel singer and did other jobs which made people think he was a nice man; however, Misfit has a dark side that clearly came out in his acts of violence and coercion.

He can do anything including killing innocent people instead of letting them live in case they recognize him. This reveals his animosity nature. Initially, he tells the grandmother that it would have been better for them all if she did not recognize him. Misfit reprimands Bobby Lee by making fun of the grandmother. This makes us learn of his desperation. We find him saying “Shut up, Bobby Lee…it’s no real pleasure in life” (O’Connor, “Today’s Words: A Good Man Is Hard To Find”).

In conclusion, O’Connor is able to show her belief concerning violence in this story. It is worth noting that in violent situations, a man usually exposes the traits that are least dispensable in his character. That is the personality which is enduring in an individual.

Works Cited O’Connor, Flannery. Today’s Words: A Good Man Is Hard To Find. 1November 2011.

We will write a custom Essay on Violence in “A Good Man Is Hard To Find” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

[supanova_question]

My own private Idaho Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Contrast and comparison

Conclusion

Reference

Introduction “My own private Idaho” is a film that was inspired by Shakespeare’s Henry IV, and no element epitomizes this in the movies as much as Scott’s character does. Prince Hal and Scott’s backgrounds, their relationships with their family and their associations with members of a lower class are all symptomatic of these similarities.

Contrast and comparison The first and most obvious similarity between Prince Hal and Scott is that they both come from rich families. Prince Hal is going to be the next heir of the throne –King Henry V – while, Scott has a rich dad too. They both decide to rebel against their fathers by engaging in inappropriate behavior. The concept of strained familial relationships is one that is common between these two individuals.

Prince Harry of Henry IV and Scott Favor also go through the same struggle of looking for new families. Although their dads are alive, there is a serious disconnect between the siblings and their parents. Harry feels like he needs to look for a different home where he can get love. He was tired of the pretentiousness and rigidity of the aristocracy. Scott wanted to be in a situation where he could let loose or be himself. He found a new family in the street members he associated with.

Through Mike, Bob and some of their friends, he is able to feel comfortable and at ease. In fact, Scott felt that Bob was a better caregiver than any of his parents could be. He appreciated the support that Bob gave him when they plotted their respective ploys and adventures. In the new life that he has taken up, no one expects him to be overly concerned about proper mannerisms and niceties.

In Henry IV, Prince Hal also finds a replacement to his family through Falstaff. Indeed Bob is an allusion to the character Falstaff. They all have a taste for life, and they all cause their new acquaintances to fulfill a missing component in their lives. Falstaff and Harry often engage in binge drinking and sleep with prostitutes (Shakespeare, 1598). They do daring things that would naturally have been considered a problem by their parents.

It is essential to realize that both Hal and Scott are distinctly aware of their place in society. Scott plans on becoming a mayor someday; he is ambitious and knows that there will be no place for people like Mike and Bob in that life. All he wants to do is to wait for his inheritance money before this can take place. Once his father dies, he plans on taking that money, and assuming the responsibilities that were bestowed upon him.

In fact, these intentions are confirmed when Mike and Scott go to Italy. Scott meets a beautiful girl and abandons Mike for her. At this point, Scott appears to be this selfish individual who was simply using a member of a lower class in order to achieve his own goals. Scott also affirms that he plans on taking on his responsibilities in a dramatic fashion, through a transformation. He believes that doing it when people least expect it will make it more amazing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These intentions are eventually confirmed when Bob and Scott’s father die. Scott breaks up his union with his friend Bob, and this causes him to die from the shock that someone who he thought of as his son could reject him so directly. When Scott’s father dies, Bob’s funeral can be contrasted to his dad’s funeral; one was grand and impressive while the other was modest and insignificant.

Scott prepares to take on his new responsibilities and shuns off the old, disrespectful life he led. Similarly, Prince Hal also has a plan up his sleeve. In early parts of the play, Hal tells the audience that he intends on changing his wayward ways. He will do this by taking on his rightful place in the kingdom; a decision that will prove to his father and other people in the kingdom that he is worthy of his title.

He thinks that this will be a way earning instant respect because it will be a transformation. In fact, Prince Hal gets to redeem himself during the Battle of Shrewsbury. At this point, he meets up with the leader of the enemy camp –Hotspur – and they each seek to prove their might. As fate would have it, Harry wins by killing the enemy and comes out as a hero.

Playtime is over for him. His feat with Falstaff was just that as he is now going to live a new life. When Falstaff is rejected, Prince Hal is essentially abandoning his humanitarian side for politics, this is symptomatic of a Machiavellian leader (a prince who does not rely on goodness as a prerequisite to good leadership, but uses selfish and unconventional methods like charisma in order to win the support of the people).

At the end of the play, one can also deduce that there are certain differences between Hal and Scott. Scott was looking to kill some time or do rebellious things when he forged a union with Mike. Conversely, Prince Hal may have been preparing for his role as King when doing this.

In one instance, he affirmed that he could fit-in quite easily with the commoners, and in fifteen minutes, they would think that he was one of them (Shakespeare, 1598). Furthermore, he kept playacting with Falstaff regarding being King. It seems that living with the commoners was one way of sharpening his leadership skills. However, for Scott, it was simply a way of making a statement to his father.

Additionally, “my own private Idaho” does not really illustrate a dramatic transformation of Scott’s identity. This was quite vivid in Henry IV because Hal went to fight and he won. Harry gained honor and recognition for this feat, and shamed Hotspur. One is only left to think about the life that Scott will lead in the future.

We will write a custom Essay on My own private Idaho specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Scott Favor was a loose depiction of Prince Harry owing to several factors. Both men were sons of rich fathers, and they rebelled against them. They were both looking for a family in the form of their new unions. They were also aware of their place in society, and realized that their rebelliousness would have to end.

The main difference between them lies in the fact that Prince Hal sees his rebelliousness as a preparation for his kingship. Conversely, this is just a way of making a statement to Scott. Furthermore Hal transforms dramatically in the story while Scott is going to take on those responsibilities in the future.

Reference Shakespeare, W. (1598). The History of Henrie the Fourth. London: P.S.

[supanova_question]

Sex Education and Early Pregnancies Essay essay help online

Sex education is a form of special education that concerns itself with developing young people’s skills so that they make reasoned choices concerning the way they behave. Sexual feelings are erotic feeling and experience as sexual beings and the awareness of themselves as males or females.

Although most people have failed to address the issue of sex education, the failing nature of the gospel of abstinence and thus increased rates of teenage pregnancies has led to a new awakening for all stakeholders to evaluate the position of sex education among the youth. Due to this awakening this topic has attracted the attention of various newspaper articles as well as other forms of editorials.

Most relationships go through difficulties where there are chances that things may go contrary to the expectations of the couples. In such a situation, the solution to solve the differences is through communication and knowing when and where to seek help if need be. In sex education, key tips towards solving such issues are provided. However, sexuality needs not be confused with sex and procreation.

Sexuality is the entire expression of who we are as human beings, male or female. It constitutes our moral values, mental attitudes, our beliefs, emotions, spiritual and physical selves, as well as social and cultural beliefs and aspects of relating to one another as male and female. Sex education also aims at reducing the risks that may result from irresponsible sexual behaviour such as early pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDs among many others.

To procreate means to reproduce and thus procreation is the process by which a new “offspring’’ or an individual in this case, is brought forth. Traditionally, sex was only meant for procreation and not for pleasure unlike the current situation where some people engage in sex for pleasure.

Although all human relationships involving people of the opposite sex are inevitably sexual, any situation involving both man and a woman is experienced partly as a function of their respective sexual identity and in terms of the distinct role that each one is called to perform. Sexuality is thus the energy for our relationships to reaching out to other people. For instance, sexuality in indigenous communities was looked upon as sacred and mysterious and it was believed that if it was misused, evil would result.

In order to bring up good mature people in our society, there is a need to provide sex education since this will help the children grow up understanding what is expected of them and at what age. The most appropriate people to provide sex education to the young include the parents or guardians, teachers, doctors, nurses, and public health officers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whereas the importance of sex education cannot be underscored, the subject has remained one of the least discussed subjects in the society. This problem has been attributed to the lack of the courage by the concerned parties to talk about sexual matters to the children. This has further been affected by different social cultural beliefs that make conversations concerning sex and sexuality highly secretive (Lewis, 2011). Nevertheless, lack of sex education in the society has led to increased cases of teenage pregnancies (Beil, 2007). These teenage pregnancies results from being sexually active and engaging in premarital sex. Limited access and high cost of contraceptives such the emergency pills is also a major cause of unplanned pregnancies.

One possible measure that can be used to curb the early pregnancy menace is accessibility to contraceptives. The government should subsidize these items to make them affordable. Most religious churches like the Catholic Church are sensitive to the issue of condoms, which is a way to safe sex.

Low levels of education and high rates of poverty in many communities are also a major cause of early pregnancies. In most cases, parents gives up the hope they have on their children the moment these children get pregnant at an early age. Some who could continue with their studies and perform well put an end to their studies at that.

Parents should not leave the duty of disciplining their kids to the teachers at school. Most parents make the mistake of taking the children to boarding schools from the time they are young and thus they get no time to nature their kids. It is upon the entire society to educate teenagers the need to wait until they are mature enough to engage in mature and loving relationships which will make better homes and avoid wasting time in love-hate relationships. This time would otherwise be used in learning or working to achieve their objectives.

In view of the fact that early childbearing can protect women from breast cancer, the reality is that many teenage pregnancies are unplanned. In all cases of teenage motherhood, the parents are neither prepared nor in a position to take care of their children (Lewis, 2011).

Besides this, they are mostly still in their education, which is interrupted by the unexpected pregnancies. Lewis, (2011), further asserts that teenage motherhood leads to social exclusion and exacerbates the chances for increased poverty which also leads to poor health for both the mother and the child. Unprotected sex often poses the danger of the teenagers contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or even HIV/AIDS.

This is because most young people are not well-informed about sex or otherwise ignore the advice given to them. Ways in which these diseases can be passed on is important to the teens in order to know the ways they can safeguard themselves. If sex education was offered all through from the childhood state to post teenage age, things could otherwise be different. Some underrate the education offered on sex and get the curiosity to know the hidden fact.

We will write a custom Essay on Sex Education and Early Pregnancies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The problem of teen pregnancies and other effects of early sexual activities by the adolescents can be traced from the conflict between traditions and modernity. Traditionally, adolescents were not given any form of sex education, despite the fact that adolescents are curious about some or all the aspects of their sex and sexuality in general.

In most communities, this was considered a taboo and matters relating to sex were often put off until just before a child’s marriage. In the contemporary society, children get to know some of the matters relating to sex through the media and even the internet sources. The deficiency of sex education increase incidences of teenage pregnancies as a result of the desire to know by oneself (Hope, 2010).

Sex education can be formal or informal. The most common and probably most effective form of sex education is the informal, which is in the form of conversations between the young and the elderly and more so, the parents back at home. This is where sexuality education begins and parents ought to be the primary educators of their children.

From birth, children learn about love through touch and the way they relate with their parents, siblings and other people around them on a daily basis and this is the right time that the parents should start teaching the infant about sex and family issues. These infants learn about sexuality when their parents talk to them, dress them, show affection, play with them and teach them the names of the parts of their bodies and as they grow into teens and young adults, they continue to receive information about sex.

Parents and their children have a wide range of comfort when it comes to discussing sexuality irrespective of the age, race, color, tribe or social class. However, despite this added advantages, most parents and guardians feel ashamed of providing too much information to their kids. Parents are the adult mentors and their role cannot be underestimated. Others feel embarrassed of not responding to questions directed to them.

This jeopardizes their ability to offer effective counseling to their children on sexuality. Some fear that this may hasten the onset or increase the frequency of sexual intercourse among the children. Research on sex education provides evidence that sex programs neither hastens nor increases this. Parents should be honest and openly communicate with their children through childhood and early adulthood in order to lay strong foundations of sexually healthy adults.

Regarding the matter of alcoholism, drugs and substance abuse, children need more education on their side-effects. Most teenage pregnancies come about as a result of alcoholism where adolescents engage is unprotected sex due to lack of know-how. Afterwards, they opt for abortion and others end up losing their lives.

Sugden, (2010), notes that the fight against early pregnancies cannot be won if the drug menace is tackled in the first instance. In agreement, Adams, (2010) notes that most of the girls who get pregnant engage in sexual activities that lead to the pregnancies while they are too intoxicated to take charge of their decision making process. It is a fact that most teenage girls who get pregnant can’t remember much about the night in question. Some did it out of their senses or were raped.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sex Education and Early Pregnancies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In view of the fact that most children spend a lot of the day’s time in school, traditional norms are either dying or are not there, and in addition to this, the parents are ever absent or so busy to spare some time for their infants, teens, and the young adults.

Schools and other learning institutions should take the responsibility of teaching sex education and teenage pregnancy as well. In this way, we shall have a healthy, respectful, responsible and a pleasurable approach to sexuality and marriage life at large. Doctors on the other hand should intervene where girls experience too many unplanned pregnancies.

The government should ensure that the youth have access to adequate and appropriate contraception and contraceptive services in all schools and health centers. However, it is important to note that such an enormous task of dealing with infants, adolescents and young adults require competent teachers. Teachers Training Colleges should hire qualified lecturers in order to produce competent graduates.

Reference List Adams, S., 2010. Sharp rise in teenage pregnancy rates. The Daily Telegraph. August 25. P. 11

Beil, L. 2007. Abstinence Education Faces an Uncertain Future. New York Times. July 18. P. 16.

Hope, J., 2010. Teach us parenthood, not just sex, say teens. Daily Mail. December 2. P. 16.

Lewis, R., 2011. We must educate young people about the risks of being sexually active; Dr Richard Lewis asks whether Wales’ high teenage pregnancy rate means we’re failing young people. The Western Mail. February 14. P. 22.

Sugden, J., 2010. Teenage pregnancies fall to lowest rate in a decade as campaigners warn over cuts. The Times (London). November 24. P. 21

[supanova_question]

American Jobs Act Proposed By President Obama Essay best essay help: best essay help

The American jobs act, introduced by Obama, will do more harm than good to the United States’ ailing economy. The plan’s long and short-term objectives are wanting. America does not need stopgap measures, but comprehensive policies that will restore her economy. As such, I believe you should not vote for this bill for the following reasons.

First, the plan has no concrete way of controlling workers’ expenditure out of the US. By reducing taxes on middle and low-income families, the government expects to fill the pockets of American workers with more money (Ohlemacher). Consequently, the purchasing power of the workers will increase leading to business boom as workers buy more.

However, for this plan to be effective, the workers must only buy products from American firms. What happens if they spend the extra cash in Chinese products? The local products will not sell apiece more. The increased demand for foreign products could have devastating effects on the country’s economy. By accepting, passing, and enacting the bill as a whole, the US will be strengthening the economies of other countries at the expense of her own.

Secondly, by introducing the payroll tax cuts, Obama expects to entice businesses to hire more workers, which will hardly work. Though this is a perfect short-run strategy, businesses use long-term financial projections in their hiring decisions. The payroll taxes being temporary, businesses will be reluctant to hire new employees (Doyle). This is because when the payroll tax program ends, businesses fear that they could be left with burdens too huge to bear.

After all, why hire today when you know you will retrench in less than a year? For businesses to respond to the payroll tax cut proposals the program must be permanent otherwise, it will be a complete fail. Additionally, the plan’s stimulus suggestion is a replica of congress’ 2009 decision, which has failed to create jobs.

When congress first authorized the extension of unemployment benefits to a maximum period of 99 weeks, their aim was to reduce unemployment rate (Blu). However, this has not achieved much since the unemployment rate is at all time high despite having authorized the same five times! Consequently, America has failed five times in her attempts to reduce, if not completely eradicate unemployment using this plan.

What has changed that makes this failed plan the best unemployment solution today? The answer is, “Nothing.” As a nation, we have walked down the path that has led us to our destruction not once or twice but five times. It is high time that we changed tact. We cannot tackle the 21st century’s economic challenges using the 15th century tactics, especially when they have failed us.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the plan will increase America’s debt to unimaginable level. Since Obama took office as the president of the United States of America, the US national debt has increased by more than $4 trillion (Ohlemacher). While Obama insists that his plan will be 100% paid for, he has not stated how and where he will get the money.

According to an Associated Press report, “the budget proposal would impose about $730 billion in new taxes on businesses and wealthy individuals over the next decade, while cutting about $400 billion in taxes on middle-income families, the working poor, and other businesses, for a net tax increase of about $330 billion (Ohlemacher).”

This leads to the question, where is Obama going to get the budget deficit funds. Having exhausted all taxation avenues, he may borrow from other nations.

The nation is already in too much debt that adding even a coin will be suicidal. Since Obama launched his job plan, many people, most of them being democrats, have supported it citing different advantages. First, they claim that the plan will help reduce the US spending greatly. Yes, the plan proposes a $ 400 billion saving by freezing any spending considered discretionary (Ohlemacher).

The plan further proposes spending only in areas considered critical for America’s growth and job creation. Secondly, the proponents of the plan say it will help many states in retaining workers such as police officers, teachers, and firefighters. Many states have in the past tried to reduce their expenditure by retrenching employees, the worst hit being the above categories.

Since this job plan proposes direct financial support to various state governments, such people will not lose their jobs. Finally, they also claim that the plan will help in modernizing public education and improving infrastructure development in the country. While the above reasons can easily convince one to believe in the credibility, creativeness, effectiveness, and reliability of the plan, a deeper scrutiny can reveal otherwise.

The claim that the plan will help reduce US spending is baseless. According to the plan, the $ 400 billion saving from other government expenditure is not real money. The government intends to spend even more that what the plan claims on infrastructure development (Blu). The claim that the government will save hundreds of thousands of jobs by offering financial support to states does not translate to job creation.

We will write a custom Essay on American Jobs Act Proposed By President Obama specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government will be preventing job losses, which is not the same as job creation. In conclusion, I may say that the American jobs act is a monster that if enacted will, bring the US government down on its knees. As such, we must stand strong to defend our country against bad policies that will ruin our great nation’s reputation and honor. I beseech you to stand for America and vote, “NO.”

Works Cited Blu, Fantasee. KissDetroit-Detroit’s Home for the Adult Urban Community. 15 February 2011. Web.

Doyle, Alison. About.com. 13 October 2011. Web.

Ohlemacher, Stephen. The Associated Press. 14 February 2011.Web.

[supanova_question]

Arguing on Planet Earth – Environmental issues: Outline Cause and Effect Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Conceptual Analysis

Economic Disaster

Psychological Influences

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction “Humans are 10,000 times more common than we should be” (McMahon 361). This is a statement uttered by Steve Jones (from the University College of London) who noted that, human beings are quickly overpopulating the earth, thereby creating a population time bomb which our natural habitat cannot sustain (McMahon 361).

The human population has been steadily increasing over the last few decades. This increase has been attributed to advancements in medicine and agricultural revolutions which have facilitated an increase in food production.

One such revolution is the “green” revolution which has multiplied food production in the last century (McMahon 361). A steady population increase (over the last two centuries) has increased concerns that the steady population growth is going to cause a strain on nature’s resources. This strain is witnessed in several forms, including a strain on fresh water, food resources, land (among other factors of production).

Hardin explains that, people should stop viewing the world as an infinite wealth of resources because it is not (Hardin 3). He notes that, since the world’s resources are obviously finite, an infinitely growing population would translate to a catastrophe because once the earth’s resources are depleted; there would be no more energy to support life.

Hardin further makes reference to human growth as being subject to energy production because we burn a specific number of calories per day, and these calories are often sourced from food (Hardin 3).

Food is supported by nature, and nature is finite (in the number of resources it can provide to sustain food production). From this understanding, an uncontrolled population growth poses as a strong environmental issue. However, the solution to fixing this problem lies in a controlled population growth. This argument forms the framework for this paper.

Conceptual Analysis The concept of overpopulation has not been in existence for a long time. In fact, before the industrial revolution, there was no concern for overpopulation because the world’s population hardly increased (Brawley 203).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is only after the industrial revolution that the world’s population reached a billion people and scholars started to predict that, soon, the world’s population will cause a strain on the world’s resources because a finite set of resources cannot support an endlessly growing population.

The concept of overpopulation is not limited to the number of people on the earths’ surface, or the size of the earth’s surface alone; it is also subject to the availability of resources that support life. Scientists note that, the concept of overpopulation is also subject to the use of resources and its distribution across various population groups (Brawley 203).

This argument started another debate regarding whether the earth is indeed overpopulated or not. Some scientists differ with people who hold the view that, the world is overpopulated because they believe the current situation (overpopulation) is not informed by a strain on resources but rather, a misuse of resources (over consumption and waste) by the world’s wealthy nations (Brawley 203).

The concept of overpopulation is normally subject to several factors, including an increase in births, depletion of resources, income variations (and the likes) because even a sparsely populated region may still be deemed to be overpopulated since available resources may fail to sustain life for the existing population.

Traditionally, overpopulation was subject to a few factors, such as the availability of clean water, clean air, good housing (and the likes). However, in today’s society where standards of living are vital in assessing population figures; the emphasis on availability of healthcare, education, proper sewage disposal systems (and the likes) are also critical in assessing if a region is overpopulated or not. Comprehensively, the concept of overpopulation grew from the strain of populations on the existing resources.

Economic Disaster An overpopulation of the earth is obviously a waiting time bomb. However, with the development and entrenchment of capitalism across the globe, there has been an imbalance in the distribution of resources.

In most regions of the world, there is a consensus among many economists that most of the world’s resources are controlled by the minority (wealthy), and a small portion of the world’s wealth is controlled by the majority (the world’s poor) (McMahon 361).

We will write a custom Essay on Arguing on Planet Earth – Environmental issues: Outline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This imbalance traces its root to the industrial revolution period where there was a scramble for the world’s resources that saw the western world scramble to secure the world’s resources for industrial processes.

This scramble gave birth to colonial powers that traveled around the globe to secure economic resources, thereby creating colonies. This scramble for resources also led to the colonization of Africa, America, India and similar regions where there were vast resources for economic production.

The industrial revolution created a capitalistic economy where most of the world’s resources were controlled by few western powers. Many people therefore worked for wealthy nations, making them vulnerable to their masters. Today, poor people still go through the same motions of unequal wealth distribution because most of the world’s resources are still controlled by the wealthy and many people are left to struggle for the few remaining resources.

From this understanding, there is a clear imbalance of wealth distribution in the world. The situation is already bad enough, considering the world’s population is already growing at an unsustainable rate and still, the existing socio-economic structures do not support the equal distribution of scarce resources. This artificial scarcity of the world’s resources has further exacerbated concerns about the disasters of a growing population.

Psychological Influences The strain on the world’s resources, emanating from an increase in population, is further worsened by the psychological influences of population growth. These psychological influences are normally fueled by different cultural ideologies regarding population growth. The differences in cultural influences are attributed to be the main reason behind the varied rates of population growth in different parts of the world (Brawley 203).

For instance, in some cultures, children are seen as a blessing, and the more children one has, the more blessings one gets. Such perceptions exist in certain parts of the world such as Africa and Asia (Brawley 203). With such ideologies in existence, people fail to look at the impact such cultural influences have on population sustainability and standards of living. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to argue against such cultures because they have existed for centuries, and they vary a lot.

Changing such ideologies is therefore a difficult task that cannot be easily overcome. This dynamic has further fueled population growth rates, and made it more difficult to solve the problem of an overpopulated earth (at least by viewing population control as an effective remedy to the problem of overpopulation) (Clemagami 1).

Discussion The question of world overpopulation can be analyzed from Leopold’s point of view regarding land ethics. He explains that, land is the mother of all resources because rivers, lakes, plants, soil, animals (and other resources) are supported by land (Leopold 2). In fact, arguments by Hardin, regarding the tragedy of the commons, is subject to Leopold’s arguments on land.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Arguing on Planet Earth – Environmental issues: Outline by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, Hardin’s argument that, the world’s resources are finite, is an apposition of Leopold’s analysis of land because land is the main finite factor of production on earth. Scientific developments have seen the replication of certain factors of production such energy, food (green energy) and the likes, but it is impossible to replicate land.

Therefore, land is the main factor of production that is finite. In solving the problem of overpopulation, emphasis should therefore be laid on controlling the world’s population so that it does not surpass the capability of land to sustain human life. In essence, the world population should be kept at minimum (or at par) with land productivity.

This measure should be free from all cultural or economic influences on overpopulation. Though this strategy may seem as a long shot towards the realization of sustainable human life, it is the only long-term strategy that solves overpopulation problems.

Conclusion Weighing the arguments regarding overpopulation, we can agree that, there is an impending human disaster which is caused by a strain on the world’s resources. Though this paper acknowledges the economic and psychological influences of unequal resource distribution (and over population), it identifies a control in population as the main long-term strategy that can be implemented if sustainable human existence is to be realized.

Works Cited Brawley, Sean. The White Peril: Foreign Relations and Asian Immigration To Australasia and North America, 1919-1978. New York: UNSW Press, 1995. Print.

Clemagami, Lucas, dir. Our Overpopulated World. YouTube, 2008. Film.

Hardin, Garrett. The Tragedy of the Commons. 13 December. 1968. Web.

Leopold, Aldo. The Land Ethic. Nd. 1948. Web. 1 November. 2011.

McMahon, Robin. On the Origin of Diversity: Celebrating Our Uniqueness and the Variety of Life. London: FilamentPublishing Ltd, 2011. Print.

[supanova_question]

Horizon Foods Company Analysis Case Study essay help free

This analytical paper seeks to analyze the operations of Horizon Foods Company which is specialized in food production. The characteristics of market served by Horizon Foods and problems facing its operation are also applauded. In addition, the treatise examines the possible causes of these challenges and recommendations which a task force would adopt in order to restore efficiency, optimal productivity, and market segmentation. The guidelines to this analysis are the following questions.

What are the characteristics of the market served by Horizon Foods Company? The market served by Horizon Foods is largely unutilized. At present, the company has no strategic marketing plan and only operates on sketchy blue print as the main marketing tool. Guidance, support, and leadership skills offered by top management serve to influence the market expansion (Coyle et al.734). The market consists of different segments of customers who experience unreliability of supplies from Horizon Company. This is a primary market where competition is minimal.

What problems exist at Horizon Foods? Horizon Foods has no quantifiable marketing strategic plan to influence competitive and satisfactory business operations. To facilitate control and demarcation of a territorial market, long term series of plans should be the basis of marketing orientation strategy. Advertisement accounts for only two percent of product promotion.

Due to this, the company is not aware of the needs of various customers of different segments of the market (Coyle et al.734). It is unfortunate that the company loses many orders and customers because of lack of the capacity to meet such demands. Though the market seems available, top management team assumes formlessness in decision making and planning for inventory balancing for financial sustainability.

Production capacity cannot meet demand. As a result, the company is unable to efficiently manage inventory and distribution. The distribution and communication channel, which facilitate finance and marketing operations, are empty. With no proper warehouse, storage and subsequent delivery are in a pathetic form. As a result, the supply chain is wanting as it has no network echelons.

Why do you think these problems exist? These problems occur due to lack of planning for market segmentation. Horizon Foods Company lacks for a quantifiable market creation, identification, and distribution strategies.

Marketing plan is inclusive of comprehensive forecasting tools. Since these tools are unavailable, it is almost impossible for the company to determine distribution monitoring compliments, such as the moving and weighted moving averages (Coyle et al. 734).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, collaboration between marketing research survey and production is null and void. Subsequently, the company loses out on the benefits attached to an established marketing and distribution channels.

Another contributor to market unreliability is disorganization of the operations facets (Coyle et al. 734). Horizon Foods Company has no coordinating agencies for smother operations across its departments for sale and production to finance them.

There is no quality assurance and control team responsible for costing, appraisal, evaluation, and review of the distribution and production patterns. Since this part is inactive in the operation system, Horizon Foods Company cannot outsource and plan for production scheduling, distribution channeling, and marketing flow-through.

Thirdly, the marketing and manufacturing objectives are in conflict with the financial objective. Financial objective is to optimize profit. However, here, the distribution and marketing objective are lacking. Due to distribution, the financial objective is met. Unfortunately, Horizon Foods Company neither has ERP systems nor SAP which is responsible for maintaining customer-client relationship.

What would you suggest the company gaining “control over this product movement process”? The task force team should concentrate on improving the demand side by financing efficiency in production. Besides, operational segmentation of the distribution pattern should reflect the consumers demand. In addition, at least 10% of the total production cost should go on marketing and product promotion.

Financing efficiency in production should influence profitability positively as long as the mode of funding is flexible enough to spread the risk across a definite period of operation. However, financing efficiency may require borrowing from financial institutions pegged on feasibility review.

Operation segmentation ensures accountability, responsibility, and efficiency of the production bundles, such as labor, capital, and equipment renting. Unfortunately, if the system is uncontrolled, it may sneak in unnecessary bureaucratic movements within the company and incite conflicts of interest. Marketing exposes company’s products to potential consumers. Marketing facilitates increased sales output. However, this is dependent on the opinion and reception of the targeted consumers and group and availability of funds.

We will write a custom Case Study on Horizon Foods Company Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Coyle, John J., Langley, John, Jr. C., Gibson, Brian J., Novack, Robert A., and Edward J. Bardi. Supply Chain Management: A Logistics Perspective. 8th ed. Alabama: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

[supanova_question]

Integration and Personal Reflection Paper Essay (Article) custom essay help: custom essay help

The first, second, and third forces of psychology are a classification of all the 17 theories of personality that are accepted by mainstream psychology. These are theories that are attributed to Freud, Jung, Adler, Karen Horney, Erickson, Maslow, Rogers, Murray, Sheldon, Sullivan, Allport, Cattle, Dollard and Miler, Bandura, Ellis, and Kelly.

As a result of their work in psychology, three forces of psychology have arisen (Münsterberg, 2010). The first force is referred to as Psychoanalysis, psychodynamic, or intra-psychic; the second force is known as behaviourism while the third force is known as phenomenology is humanistic psychology. However, some refer to behaviourism as the first force at times (Gels

[supanova_question]

Current Unemployment Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help

Unemployment problem is rising in most parts of the world. Economic crisis and spiraling prices, in an age of cost cut and job cuts, unemployment is on the rise. Similar case has been noted in Spain where the unemployment rate has reached a 15-year high (Brat, 2011).

The article discussed in the essay was published in Wall Street Journal in October 2011 (Brat, 2011). The article used for the essay is an online version of the printed newspaper. The aim of the paper is to summarize the article on unemployment and establish a connection between the article and the economic theories unemployment.

The article reports the increase of unemployment rate in Spain and the situation it has created for the unemployed people. Spain’s government spending has reduced greatly that has reduced the unemployment benefit given to the employed families. However, due to building pressure from international financial organizations to reduce budget deficit, the government was compelled to reduce its spending that subsequently reduced the unemployment benefits.

One main reason cited in the article for this 15-year high unemployment situation is due to three-year-old economic crisis that has left a high unemployment rate in Spain. In order to face the situation Spanish government has decided to boost up spending on job development. However, this may rise to increasing cuts in many areas, especially when the Euro zone is trying to reduce the spiraling debt situation.

The unemployment situation in Spain has become so dire that food assistance has to be increased. Many people are homeless, are moving to shelters, and have no money for food. The unemployment benefits are drying up for many and they are still unable to attain jobs. In such a situation, what economic reforms must be undertaken by the government that would bring forth a possible solution to the problem of unemployment in the country?

The Spanish unemployment demonstrates a job cut situation due to shrinking economic growth and recession. As the economic crisis has been looming over the country for almost 3 years, there has been a lack of economic growth and spiraling prices i.e. increasing inflation raises the rate of unemployment in the economy.

Figure 1: 20 year data on GDP growth, Unemployment rate, and Inflation in Spain. Source World Bank Databank (World Bank, 2011)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1 shows that the unemployment rate, GDP growth and inflation in Spain since 1990 through 2010. For the last 20 years unemployment rate is found to have a similar trend as the of inflation and GDP growth. In other words, as there is a decline in GDP growth, there is an increase in unemployment rate as is observed in 1993, 2002, and then again in 2009.

The figure shows that there is a continuous rise in unemployment rate since 2007 and it has reached the highest in 2010, supporting the observations in the article. Economic crisis in Spain is evident as there is a continuous decline in GDP growth in the country since 2007. This demonstrates that unemployment rate as a negative relation with GDP growth.

When the latter declines, the former increases and vice versa. This supports the argument put forth by Keynes that due to lack of economic growth, there is a decline in aggregate demand in the economy, which therefore, declines demand for labor, thus creating unemployment. Rise in inflation increases the cost of production that induces a decline in production, which in turn reduces labor requirement, therefore increasing unemployment. This is what has happened in Spain.

References Brat, I. (2011, October 29). Benefits Run Out for Spain’s Jobless. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204505304577003864242042958

World Bank. (2011, November). World Development Indicators and Global Development Finance. Retrieved from World Bank Databank: https://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx

[supanova_question]

Critical issues in the American Experience Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction America has an interesting history, which is characterized by migratory patterns from different European communities. The immigrants introduced new farming techniques and established large plantations of cash crops such as cotton, tobacco, sugarcane, and rice. These plantations required human labor to work in them; indeed, they were the root of slavery witnessed in the American continent up to the mid-nineteenth century.

Millions of Africans, especially from the Western and Northwestern Africa, were forcefully transported from their homes to work in these plantations in North, Central and South America. For instance, it has been observed that Brazil received five million slaves from Africa (Davis, para.1). Following this prolonged slave trade and continued immigration of individuals from different parts of Europe to America, the continent ended up with a mixture of races and cultures.

The United States is a unique nation that emerged as a union of some British colonies in North America. It was formed after representatives from thirteen British colonies came to an agreement to unite (Minkoff and Melamed, 3). These colonies had individuals from different cultures, religions, and traditional systems of government.

The union comprised of individuals with different backgrounds and languages other than English such as French, German, and Spanish. The United States was then challenged to prove the possibility that individuals of diverse origins could settle to form a nation and work towards the achievement of common goals and objectives.

There is a need to examine whether some uniting factors consolidate America or whether it still comprises distinct people living together. The answers to some of these disturbing questions are the subject of this paper. Much focus is given to slavery witnessed in the region and the role played by the government and religious leaders in managing the practice in relations to the objectives of forming United States.

The Mission of the United States The United States can be considered special due to the witnessed diversity. As a former colony of Britain, different colonies united to fight against oppression and social injustice as well as to promote equality among people of diverse backgrounds. However, after independence, the equality was not immediately realized and the US resembled the colonial government to some extent. The Americans attempted to develop values by which they would live.

This was faced with difficulties owing to diverse origins. There was a common belief that every American should identify the values and beliefs that could define his/her life (Kohls, para.2). This became the problem in identifying the exact values of Americans. Nevertheless, as Kohl illustrated, values like equality, time and its control, personal control of the environment, and change were late identified as some common values of Americans. These values are still practiced by many in the contemporary American society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Rise of Slavery in America Slavery is a form of inhuman treatment involving forced labor under strenuous conditions. It has been termed as the “most extreme form of dependency, exploitation, and domination, in which individuals can be bought and sold, and are legally subject to complete control in decisions of where to live or to work” (Engerman,1).

In ancient America, individuals were often subjected to heavy duties with severe punishments and poor working conditions. The slaveholders and overseers treated the slaves as though they were not fellow human beings, but other animals with different feelings. Unfortunately, slavery was being witnessed in nearly every part the world. It is very likely that any society in the world was at one point in time a slaveholder or slave.

Slave trade involving forceful transportation of Africans to go and work in the plantations in America can be traced back to the early fifteenth century (Davis, para.1). At the beginning of the Civil War in America, about 4 million enslaved African Americans were living in the United States working in the cotton, sugar, tobacco, or rice plantations.

The importation of enslaved Africans to the United States ended officially in 1808. However, thousands of slaves were still smuggled into the nation for the next fifty years following the ban of this international trade (Davis, para.1). The slave trade ended in the northern parts, but the south continued with the trade, arguing that forced labor was still necessary owing to the increased demand for cotton. This would later trigger Civil War between the south and the north.

The Purpose of Anti-Slavery Movements Slavery in America was characterized by brutality on the slaves, with few legal provisions checking the behavior and practices of the slaveholders towards the slaves. Physical force, threats, and sexual exploitation were the order of the day. In extreme cases, punishments would involve severe bodily harm such as “branding on the flesh of the hand or head with a hot iron applied for 20 seconds, and mutilation of the body by clipping the ears, breaking legs, severing fingers, and slitting tongues” (Davis, para.43).

The slaves who rejected these punishments were even subjected to more severe torture. The slaves could be forced to wear iron chains and masks for several weeks or months for disobedience. In less serious cases, and the most common form of punishment, the slaves were subjected to severe whipping. Indeed, the slave code defined that a common case would be solved by 39 slashes on the bare back (Davis, para.43).

This brutal inhuman treatment of the slaves is what triggered anti-slave movements. In fact, the resistance by the slaves traces back as early as the beginning of the salve trade. The slaves were often not pleased with the kind of treatment they received in the hands of slaveholders and overseers. As such, some of the slaves often escaped from slavery to different destinations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Critical issues in the American Experience specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Problem of Identity: Racism and Slavery The concept of identity of a group of individuals is not very clear. It entails a set of values, beliefs, principles, or practices that distinguish a community or societies from others. The identity could include other aspects like skin color and language.

It might be generally considered that groups would capture and enslave other groups that they feel are of different identity – outcasts of the main group (Engerman, 2). However, it is not clear who qualifies to be termed an outsider in order to be enslaved. It is not also clear why other forms of discrimination could not be applied rather than slavery in order to provide identity for different individuals.

This was evidenced in the early forms of slavery witnessed in different parts of the world. Slavery began way back before the issue of scientific racism came to the spotlight. There were cases of groups enslaving individuals of the same race or color. There were racial differences even in these earlier times yet they did not lead to slavery. Individuals were not treated differently due to their racial differences.

The slavery that was witnessed in the United States even after attaining its independence raises the question of the relationship between racism and slavery. The issue of relationship between the identities of individuals and the vicious practices is put to a test. Slavery based on racial segregation began with the settlement of Americans, as well as the intensification of transatlantic slave trade from Africa (Engerman, 2).

It was based on the identity of the individuals with the settlers considering the enslaved Africans as outsiders. The Africans become a part of the nation when their services were needed in the farms. However, they were denied in access to other essentials of life. The United States also had racism without slavery, which involved other forms of discrimination such as the denial of rights to vote and to elect a government, rights to education and occupations, and freedom of movements by the blacks (Engerman, 2).

There were severe restrictions on the movements of the blacks. This was witnessed in Illinois in 1813 when some legislation was passed, preventing legal entry of blacks. The individuals that did not follow the law would be whipped (Engerman, 13). The issue of racial identity continued in the United States.

The Fight For Equality in the U.S The quest to end slavery faced difficulties with the North abolishing the trade, whereas the south insisted on the trade following high demand of cotton in the world. This would later result into Civil War between the North and the South, in which the later wanted to secede from the union.

They were defeated and the right of equality was extended to the African Americans. Other forms of discrimination such as gender discrimination continued in the United States. For instance, women were not allowed to participate in the election till the first half of the twentieth century. However, several changes have been seen in contemporary America, and some form of equality is being seen in the US.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical issues in the American Experience by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though there is difficulty in identifying the exact American values, equality is one of the values by which most Americans live. It is intended that every individual should be given special attention and equal opportunity. In the contemporary America, issues like social class or wealth play little roles when it comes to treatment of different individuals.

It has been pointed out that individuals of high ranks and social status from other parts of the world are often disappointed by the kind of treatments they receive in the US hotels or restaurants (Kohls, para.20). This is because the waiters and other service providers consider them equal to any other client and provide similar attention.

Religion and the Anti-Slavery Movement The United States was formed from colonies with diverse religious beliefs and practices, even though Christianity was quite dominant. The country has since maintained freedom of worship. The religious beliefs define most of the values by which the Americans live.

Religion, especially Christianity, played diverse roles towards the fight to end slavery in the United States. In her article ‘The Neglected period of anti-slavery in America’ in the book ‘Exploring America: perspectives on critical issues,’ Alice D. Adams focused on the neglected contributions that the church made towards the abolition of slave trade and slavery in America. In the initial stages, there were mixed reactions about slavery by members of the clergy, with some feeling that slavery and slave trade could be pardoned for some reasons.

This led the clergymen being blamed for not correcting the authority in order to protect themselves. The church leaders often fled regions of slavery to free areas, leaving behind their families, friends, or followers (Adams, 202). However, they all generally concluded from different religious scriptures that it was inhuman to trade on fellow men and subject them to forced labor under harsh conditions.

The teachings of Christianity about morality and the divine personality of man had significant impacts in the American society in the nineteenth century. It contributed significantly to the end of slavery and the fight for equality in the country. The religious leaders gradually began to support the anti-slave movements, rejecting the believers who were slaveholders.

The synods and presbyteries advocated for freedom of the slaves even more than the General assembly (Adams, 204). In some instances, they even called upon the slaveholders to pay wages to the slave laborers. The slaveholders were not allowed to involve in ministerial activities and in some cases, they were rejected completely in some Christian churches.

The Individual and the State The individuals in a given society have a mutual relationship with the government or the society. The government should provide security and protection on the rights of its citizens. It should take care of its citizens and enact proper legislation to ensure this security is observed. The government has to ensure that the law is enforced and that the law-breakers face the necessary penalties.

Human rights are developed on the grounds of the needs of human beings and they have relations with the traditional laws, customs, and religion in a society. The fundamental rights protect individuals from arbitrary persecution and punishment. Similarly, every individual is expected to contribute towards all aspects of development of the community.

They have to participate in nation-building activities. In the event that the government fails to provide this protection, then it would be justifiable for the members of the public to disobey other civil laws when advocating for their rights. It is upon this basis that the anti-slavery movements were established. Slavery was a violation of different human rights, and a legal intervention was necessary to end the practice.

Conclusion The United States has had vast experiences with slavery and slave trade that ended in the mid nineteenth century as some of the significant histories of the nation. The nation that was developed to uphold human rights and advocate for equality was latter challenged, and these objectives were not to be realized until very recently.

Slave trade and other forms of discrimination continued long after independence, leading to the anti-slavery movements and other movements. The diversity among its citizens was evident up to the twentieth centuries when some equality was realized.

The government should protect the rights of its citizens. Other organizations like the church should also intervene to ensure that human rights are not violated. Indeed, human rights form a basis upon which the laws of a given nation are enacted. Members of the public also should strive to uphold the sovereignty of the state by being patriotic and responsible members of the society. Failure to have an agreement between the government and the citizens results into revolutions like the ones witnessed in America.

Works Cited Davis, Ronald. Slavery in America: Historical Overview. California State University, Northridge, N.d. Web.

Engerman, Stanley L. Slavery without Racism, Racism without Slavery: Mainland North America and Elsewhere. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Gilder Lehrman Center International Conference at Yale University, 2003. Web.

Kohls, Robert L. The Values Americans Live By, N.d. Web.

Minkoff, Harvey

[supanova_question]

Kafka’s Stories “A Hunger Artist”, “Jackals and Arabs” and “The Metamorphosis” Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A Hunger Artist

Jackals and Arabs

The Metamorphosis

Bibliography

Introduction One of the reasons why Franz Kafka was able to gain the fame of one of 20th century’s most prominent writers is that his literary works contain many motifs/themes, closely associated with a number of people’s subconscious anxieties.

In this paper, I will aim to substantiate the validly of an earlier suggestion in regards to Kafka’s short stories A Hunger Artist, Jackals and Arabs and The Metamorphosis, as literary works that are being concerned with exploring the themes of alienation, surrealism and self-sacrifice, which in turn explains these stories’ an essentially subliminal appeal to the reading audiences.

A Hunger Artist The most striking characteristic of Kafka’s short story A Hunger Artist is that in it, the author had shown that socially alienated introverts might nevertheless pass for being nothing short of extraverts. As it appears from this particular story, the actual reason why the character of a hunger artist was growing ever bitterer is that he sensed that the viewing audiences did not appreciate real motivations behind his public performances.

Whereas; Kafka’s hunger artist strived to be recognized as someone who had a plenty of will power to derive pleasure out of suppressing its own animalistic instincts, spectators never ceased thinking of his performances as having been solely motivated by the artist’s essentially animalistic hunger for fame and money.

The soundness of this suggestion can be well illustrated in relation to the story’s scene in which butchers (hired to observe artist at night, so that he would not have a chance of eating any sneaked out food) preoccupy themselves with playing cards – hence, allowing the hunger artist to have a bite.

Apparently, it never even occurred to them that the artist was a perfectly honest individual, totally incapable of cheating: “During the period of fasting the hunger artist would never, under any circumstances, have eaten the slightest thing, not even if compelled by force. The honour of his art forbade it”. It was namely due to the artist’s continuous exposure to people’s arrogance that he started to yield to depression.

However, being utterly unable to recognize artist’s existential nobleness, as the actual driving force behind his act, spectators could not help worsening the situation with artist’s mental state even further, because they arrogantly thought that the deterioration of his physical condition was brought about by his fasting as ‘thing in itself’.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet, this was far from being the case. As it appears from the story, nothing could satisfy the hunger-artist’s longing for self-realization better than being provided with an opportunity to do what he used to do the best – practicing an extreme form of fasting. Therefore, it would only be logical, on our part, to suggest that the artist’s ultimate demise came as a result of him never ceasing to remain strongly alienated from the rest of society.

Jackals and Arabs The reading of a short story Jackals and Arabs leaves no doubt as to the fact that this story’s foremost thematic element is being of clearly surreal nature.

The reason for this is simple – it is not only that the characters of jackals, featured in the story, are shown as being endowed with perfectly human psychological traits (they experience hate, fear, hope), but they can also speak human language: “I’m the oldest jackal for miles around. I’m happy I’m still able to welcome you here”. Jackals approach the narrator and begin to elaborate on how much they hate Arabs, as utterly filthy people, whose religious practices undermine the cleanliness of a surrounding environment.

This, however, is not only the single aspect to story’s clearly defined surrealist sounding. After all, it is not the encounter with jackals that can speak human voices, which amazes narrator as something rather impossible, but the fact that jackals appear to have been anticipating his arrival.

Such narrator’s reaction, of course, cannot be referred to as anything but strongly surreal, because it only makes logical sense within the framework of a story’s semantic content. The same can be said about story’s setting, which provide a surreal authenticity to plot’s unraveling.

There is also a surreal quality to the image of rusty scissors, which jackals used to carry along with them. Even though, when it comes to slashing people’s throats, one would be so much better off using a knife, the author made a deliberate point in representing scissors, as the intended instrument of Arabs’ punishment. Apparently, Kafka wanted to increase the story’s surreal appeal even further.

Just as it is being the case with the motifs in Salvador Dali’s paintings, which despite their seeming oddness make a perfectly good sense to those aware of the essence of Dali’s worldviews, clearly surreal undertones to Jackals and Arabs also appear fully explainable to those who have been introduced to Kafka’s biography.

We will write a custom Essay on Kafka’s Stories “A Hunger Artist”, “Jackals and Arabs” and “The Metamorphosis” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Metamorphosis One of the foremost thematic elements in Kafka’s The Metamorphosis is self-sacrifice. Even throughout story’s introductory part the theme of self-sacrifice is being featured rather prominently. After having been turned into a bug, the story’s main character Gregor Samsa does not think of his metamorphosis in terms of a personal tragedy, but solely in terms of how it may affect the members of his family.

This alone portrays Gregor as an individual endowed with an acute sense of social responsibleness, who does not think of ensuring of its personal well-being as such that represents his foremost priority. Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that, throughout story’s consequential phases, Gregor continues to act in a strongly defined sacrificial manner.

For example, while being perfectly aware of the fact that his family members find his new appearance utterly appalling, Gregor tries not to come out of his room, even though not being to socialize with his loved ones does hurt him rather immensely. Gregor also does not protest when his sister Grete rearranges furniture in his room, simply because he does not want her to be getting upset even more. This again portrays Gregor as an individual with strong self-sacrificial anxieties.

Nevertheless, Gregor’s ultimate sacrificial act was his decision to die – hence, relieving his relatives of a burden of taking care of him: “He remembered his family with deep feelings of love. In this business, his own thought that he had to disappear was, if possible, even more decisive than his sister’s”.

Apparently, despite the fact that, after having been turned into a bug Gregor never ceased being abused by the members of his family, he nevertheless continued to love them with a deep passion. Therefore, Gregor did not resist dying, as he felt that his relatives really did want him to disappear. Such Gregor’s final act, of course, cannot be referred to as anything but highly sacrificial.

More about This Topic What are The Metamorphosis themes? 5 97 What are the literary devices in The Metamorphosis? 4.5 1499 What are the symbols in The Metamorphosis? 5 128 What obstacles does Gregor face in The Metamorphosis? 5 96 Bibliography Kafka, Franz “The Metamorphosis.” Vancouver Island University. 2009. 3 Oct. 2011 http://johnstoniatexts.x10host.com/kafka/metamorphosishtml.html

Kafka, Franz “A Hunger Artist.” Vancouver Island University. 2009. 3 Oct. 2011 http://johnstoniatexts.x10host.com/kafka/hungerartisthtml.html

Kafka, Franz “Jackals and Arabs.” Vancouver Island University. 2009. 3 Oct. 2011 http://johnstoniatexts.x10host.com/kafka/jackalsandarabshtml.html

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kafka’s Stories “A Hunger Artist”, “Jackals and Arabs” and “The Metamorphosis” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

[supanova_question]

The Operations of Apple Inc in the United States of America and China Qualitative Research Essay essay help free

Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs, develops and markets consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. It has a wide range of products both software and hardware; the hardware include, iPod, iPhone and the iPad while software includes; iTune, iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software and iWork suite of productivity software.

Owing to its emphasis on the philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design and its distinctive advertising campaigns, the company not only endeared itself to consumers globally but also confirmed its status as a major player in the consumer electronics industry. The fact that the Apple App store can be found in 96 countries globally underpins its scope (Chesbrough

[supanova_question]

Google Qualitative Research Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Introduction The internet bubble occurred from mid 1990’s to 2000. During this period, stock markets in the developed world saw a sharp rise in value of technology and internet stocks. As a result, people believed that the internet would be the major driver of future business, people would not need to physically go to the retail store and we could shop our groceries online and order our meals from a dot com site.

Unfortunately, this did not last as the stock market suddenly crashed. Despite the crash, most internet companies are still registering significant growth and it is clear that there are here to stay. For the purpose of this study, the paper will focus on Google Corporation.

Discussion Google has registered significant success since its inception in 1998. The Company’s success is attributed to factors such as Google’s design to suit the final user and its simplicity in terms of design that has attracted many internet users over the years. Reuters (2009) reports that Google uses an excellent search engine that produces products that exactly fit into customer’s needs.

Google Corporation provides a software technology that is capable of continuous calculations that are performed simultaneously compared to traditional search engines that perform calculations one at a time. Due to the engine’s speed, the engine was able to perform over 85% of the search requests in 2004 on the World Wide Web.

Another key factor in Google’s success is the superb organizational culture. The working conditions for the company’s employees are conducive as they feel at ease at the work place. Moreover, the company’s top management is comprised of highly qualified MBA and PhD graduates from various fields that are important in the fulfilment of the objectives of the vision of Google Corporation.

They work together as a team to accomplish the goals of the company. In addition the employees are encouraged to be innovative. For instance, engineers are free to spend up to 20% of their work time in any interesting project that they believe can add value to Google, this has led to creation of innovative products like Ad sense, Google news and Google mail. Furthermore, the Google business model also explains its success.

This model makes it almost impossible for its rivals to catch up. Chaffey (2007) asserts that Google’s business model is summarised by the following phrase “to make the world’s information universally accessible and useful “(p.2). As noted by Chaffey, the firm has positioned itself well in the market in order to offer high quality products that cannot be compared to any competitor in the industry, thereby leaving its users satisfied and promoting the company through the word of mouth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategic alliances also explain Google’s success. Google has acquired and in some cases formed alliances with several other companies such as YouTube, E-bay, Yahoo and Amazon. Through such alliances, Google has a better position to tackle its competitors.

Dwivedi (2008) further notes that Google has largely changed its core business to a variety of businesses in the field of marketing such as Picasa, blogger, keyhole, Gmail and Google news among others. It is estimated that 90% of Google’s revenues are from advertising therefore suggesting that Google is majorly an advertising firm (Dwivedi, 2008).

Google Corporation offers its consumers high quality products that enable its clients such as corporate organizations to make online advertisements for their products without hiring advertisement consultants. Largely, Google is the most recognized brand outperforming even household brands like Coca-Cola and McDonalds because of its excellent search engine (Google, 2009).

Conclusion The evidence above shows that the business strategy pursued by Google is realistic. The company is better positioned to denominate internet associated business and activities. Unless something dramatic happens, Google will continue to be a going concern. In the search engine industry, one can deduce several lessons from Google`s success.

International internet retailers need competent and committed staffs that are creative and innovative. Furthermore, these organizations should give the professionals an opportunity to innovate by offering a free and favourable work environment. Internet retailers equally need financial and human resources in large scale. Without resources, Google could not have acquired companies such as You Tube.

It is estimated that Google has over 31,353 employees as at 30 September 2011. Gather (2009) notes that many people around the world will continue to “Google” things, not “Yahoo” or “Bing” them. This emphasizes the fact that Google has become a common household name more than any other search engine.

References Chaffey, D. (2007). Google case study-covering Google business strategy and technology case. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Google specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dwivedi, J. (2008). Google’s robust strategy and business model. Web.

Gather, (2009). Microsoft and Yahoo in a war against Google. Web.

Google, (2009). Technology overview. Web.

Reuters. (2009). Google quietly declares email war on Yahoo. Web.

[supanova_question]

Operations Management Strategy and Functions Essay (Article) a level english language essay help

Operations management is about efficiency in every operational activity in an organization. The operational activities of organizations include, purchasing of inputs, raw materials, and capital goods, hiring of labor, processing of the goods and final distribution to customers.

Operations management is involved in all the above processes in different ways but with one mission, ensuring efficiency. The scope of operations management is thus very wide. From the point of starting an organization or firm, to its days of glory, operations management is involved.

During the purchasing of raw materials and capital goods, operations professionals ensure efficiency and cost minimization by comparing prices and quality from different suppliers before signing of a supply contract. When allocating resources, operations management professionals consider several factors such as importance of the project to be funded, its viability, whether it is in line with business objectives, the return on investment and availability of funds. This helps the organization to make wise decisions.

Operations management function in distribution services is vital. Product distribution function ensures that the product reaches the final consumer. Since the profitability of any organization depends on how much of its products are sold, distribution function becomes the backbone of every organization.

The operations management professionals help here by determining the cheapest and most convenient channel of distribution to use. Finally, the operations management’s role in quality assurance is equally helpful in determining the sales and therefore success of the organization. By initiating research aimed at improving the quality of products, operations management increases the consumption of products to the advantage of the firm.

Operations management strategy involves the development of customer needs to help in developing products that satisfy them, developing corporate strategy to help in positioning the firm, operations strategy to help reduce cost while ensuring the production of goods of high quality, and continuous market scanning to react appropriately to environmental changes.

[supanova_question]

Digital Technology in Modern Society Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Digital technology analysis

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Technology has definitely become an important aspect of our daily lives. Whether directly or indirectly, people interact with technology on their daily basis and get affected differently. The manner in which individuals get affected further varies from one person to the other.

This essay focuses on the impact of digital technology on our culture with special emphasis on how youths have been affected by various aspects of digital technology. To achieve this objective, views from three authors have been considered through comparative analysis. These authors are: Charles McGrath, Lakshmi Chaundhry and Will Wright.

Digital technology analysis In his article, The Pleasures of the text, McGrath analyzes how digital technology has affected the manner in which young people communicate especially using mobile phones. With affordability of mobile phones having risen, messaging has gained preference among young people. He notes that the language of text messaging encompasses a wide range of elements like shorthand contractions, emoticons, acronyms and letter-number homophones (McGrath 1).

He argues that this preference is based on the limited number of characters that a text message can accommodate and the less versatility nature of cell phone screens. He says “But because the typical cell phone screen can accommodate no more than 160 characters, and because the cell phone touchpad is far less versatile than the computer keyboard, text-messaging puts an even greater premium on concision” (McGrath 1).

Because of the emerging texting trends, books have been written for acronyms like CWOT (complete waste of time) (McGrath 1). He further notes that text-messaging has mimicked hip hop so much that most commonly used characteristics are used by hip hoppers say, “a” for “er”. As a result, this form of texting that is common among young people is “lateral” and encourages mindlessness among users.

It is a rude way of expressions especially in Britain where relationships are terminated using such messages. He further affirms that excessive use of this messaging style is common in developing countries where messages are more affordable than voice calls. This has also been promoted by culture like in China where voice messages symbolize rudeness among users (McGrath 1).

On the other hand, Chaundhry argues that technology has created a new era of celebrities as people have endless opportunities to celebrate their heroes online. In his article, Mirror, Mirror on the Web, he notes that becoming a celebrity is no longer an honor in the digital world and that ordinary citizens have significantly grabbed these opportunities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the existence of mammoth technological ideas, the world is likely to change in several ways. He refers to this as progressive fantasy which is interlaced with collaboration, change and community (Chaundhry 1).

Furthermore, Web 2.0 allows people to be worshipped, admired and idolized as majority of people derive pleasure in being considered as heroes and heroines. This notion has promoted self-promotion in the digital society as individuals aim at establishing personal fame on the web through countless links and accounts with different social websites. Unlike previous generations when celebs commanded honor and respect for their achievements, digital technology has eliminated the honor of being a celeb.

Due to the public hunger for fame, the media always introduces programs that allow individuals to woo the public as their celebs. Additionally, Chaundhry argues that digital technology has reduced fame to public attention and separated it from the traditional achievements and wealth. As a result, fame has become a commodity that is only acquired through media publicity.

This has its core roots in the young generation that some consider being famous as the definition of American dream. According to Chaundhry, “Since a key component of narcissism is the need to be admired and to be the center of attention, Generation Me’s attraction to fame is inevitable.”You teach kids they’re special” (1).

It therefore suffices to mention that digital technology has promoted the desire for self-promotion and the need to seek public approval. As such, the cultural approach of becoming famous has been replaced with virtual personas among the youths. This obsession augmented by digital technology negates the need for achievement and success that traditionally characterized celebs.

With regard to digital technology and its impact on our culture, Will Wright discusses how computer imaging and videogames have tremendously affected young people in the current generation.

Unlike other forms of games, Wright notes that computer games are played through trial and error method as players rarely go through the manual in order to master rules and directions. However, he reiterates that videogames make young people to believe that the world is a place for creation and not consumption as perceived in olden days of structured learning.

We will write a custom Essay on Digital Technology in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This can therefore be regarded as the impact of videogames on our culture even as we embrace digital technology. In his article, Dream Machines, Wright views videogames from a two-dimensional point of view as he describes the impact of this technology in the society. The negative side of videogames emphasizes the fact that these games are violent and affect the personality of young people who play them (Wright 1).

Children who continuously play videogames usually end up becoming bullies at school or demonstrate some level of violence in their daily interactions. Additionally, videogames are addictive and time wasters. Many young people have replaced healthy and constructive leisure activities like excising with endless videogames which end up eating their time and rendering them into sedentary lifestyles.

As stated by Wright, “Games have the potential to subsume almost all other forms of entertainment media. They can tell us stories, offer us music, give us challenges, allow us to communicate and interact with others, encourage us to make things, connect us to new communities, and let us play” (1).

In other words, they can offer almost everything that a young person would look for in terms of music, tell stories and allow connection and communication among players. With the evolution of technology, videogames are likely to allow development of models to mimic what we like and do (Wright 1).

Conclusion From the above analysis, it is more evident that digital technology has a wide range of effects to our culture and to the young generation. Chaundhry and McGrath agree with Wright that digital technology has negatively affected our culture. According to the three, this technology affects youths positively and negatively. McGrath discusses how message texting has changed by use of shorthand contractions, emoticons and acronyms.

Similarly, Chaundhry concurs that social networks like YouTube have promoted self-promotion in the society and eliminated the role of achievements and success in defining ones fame. The same stance is taken by Wright who affirms that videogames have negatively affected youths by promoting violence, addiction and wastage of time.

Works Cited Chaundhry, Lakshmi. “Mirror, Mirror on the Web.” The Nation. 2007. Web.

McGrath, Charles. “The Pleasures of the Text”. The New York Times. 2006. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Digital Technology in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wright, Will. “Dream Machines.” Wired. 2006. Web.

[supanova_question]

The Saga as Old as Time: Romeo and Juliet, Vampire Style Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Love conquers all, an old byword says, and the recent novel adaptation, the famous Twilight Saga is a perfect proof for the fact that true love cannot be defeated. Rendering a number of ideas and topics, the movie offers a plethora of food for thoughts and provides a detailed description of a completely different world – the world of vampires.

Even though the movie balances between a fairytale and a real-life story, there can be no possible doubt that the Twilight Saga offers a modern interpretation of the famous Shakespearean play; however, taking less time, timeless classics proves to be doubtlessly deeper and more complex.

Basing partially on the plot of Romeo and Juliet story and partially on the problems that modern teenagers face, The Twilight Saga offers a number of issues that are quite topical nowadays, such as the hardships of being different, and dwells upon the great Everlasting Love and the famous Happily Ever After, yet is seemingly shallow in dealing with each of the issues.

The movie sends the audience into a typical American setting, where a typical American teenage girl meets a mysterious young man of her age. The latter turns out to be a vampire, yet belonging to the family of “vegetarian” ones, consuming the blood of animals only. Naturally, the young people fall in love, yet the gang of “bad” cannibal vampires arrive to kill Bella and her family. However, the young people save the day, and the movie ends with the couple dancing and one of the enemy vampire girls casts an envious look at Bella.

Telling the story of the touching relationships between a young girl, Bella, and her new acquaintance, mysterious Edward, who further on proves to be an incarnation of Count Dracula, a dreadful vampire, is quite enticing.

However, one must admit that the idea of mixing the incompatible beings into a love story is already dead at the arrival, since the idea of comprising the incompatible presupposes certain element of motion and activity, which the movie lacks, thus, making the plot more narrowed.

Does being a vampire presuppose being a dawdling silent dummy? Edward is suffering, but he does nothing. Bella is suffering, but she does nothing. Edward’s family sees the threat that the main characters are facing – but they do nothing. It seems that the movie will reach its climax as the entire world follows the lead characters and will be sitting twiddling their thumbs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the numerous flaws in showing the development of the characters, it is impossible to deny the obvious advantages of the movie. One of the major points about the simple and rather sentimental story is the fact that it deals with the detailed descriptions of the daily life of teenagers.

The scene involving the bullies is, sadly enough, quite a widespread situation that any child studying in public educational establishments has to face sooner or later. In addition, the portrayal of Bella’s and Edward’s falling in love for the first time in their life arrests the attention of the teenagers who have faced the same complexities – or, would it be better to say, moments of happiness?

In addition, the movie touches upon the issue that troubles most young people as they are about to cross the threshold between the childhood and the adult life, which is the problem of being different; however, the issues are mentioned far too briefly.

Though the problem could have been told in a more subtle way, depicting the hardships and the ordeals of being a vampire – moreover, a vegetarian vampire! – comes quite close to discussing the problems of being an outcast among the classmates, or any other social group which teenagers are so dependent on.

You are a vampire, and that is what makes you different. You are a vampire, and that makes you guilty. You are a vampire, and you do not deserve to be a part of the society. No matter how hard you will be lurking in the shadow, people will see you. You see, people do not like those who are different from the rest. The movie captures the very essence of the problem and develops it until it becomes grotesquely huge.

With the two topic intertwined, the movie cannot help causing contradictory reactions; however, the romantic relationships between a girl and a vampire, as well as the problem of being different, are never considered close enough.

The story of Romeo and Juliet, sugared with the grotesquely happy ending, is intertwined with the fears of an average teenager, which makes the movie attractive for the latter. This is a seemingly sweet sentimental story with several subplots, simple and strange. Altogether, these features make the movie enticing for the target audience.

We will write a custom Essay on The Saga as Old as Time: Romeo and Juliet, Vampire Style specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plot of the story is quite complex; however, the charming chant of cheerful angels at the end of each episode of the saga seems somewhat out of place, which makes the story less cohesive.

In addition, the attempt to break the plot of the Shakespearean tragedy seems quite forced, which makes the movie weaker and less credible. Though the meaningful look that one of the vampire girls casts on the leading characters dancing in complete delight does send shivers down the spectators’ spines, there is still a tangible lack of the thrill in the way the movie ends.

Allowing people to feel the atmosphere of the fairytale come true for a change, the movie, thus, obtains an unrealistic hue, which distorts the overall impression. However, it should be marked that there can hardly be anything realistic about a movie that tells the story of a vampire.

Offering a peculiar interpretation of Romeo and Juliet Story and incorporating the elements of the Count Dracula, the movie still follows its own, teenager-friendly topics, which makes it genuine and new, yet makes the movie linger between drama and fantasy. Though Twilight Saga cannot be considered as classic read, read classic Romeo and Juliet, and you will feel that the interpretation is worth taking a look at.

[supanova_question]

How to Determine Reliable and Relevant Sources Essay essay help

With the presence of so much information at the disposal of students, including information from the internet, it becomes relevant that they exercise necessary choices to access academic source material that is reliable, relevant and unbiased. This should be done in close association with their academic instructors who evaluate and re-evaluate their choices or annotated bibliographies and guide them through these choices (Ellis 2006).

To determine reliable and relevant source materials, students should pre-evaluate the requirements and purpose of the essay i.e. whether it requires facts or opinion. They should compare with other sources to determine those that best suit the purpose of the essay and not settle on first choice on perception of credibility. Comparison enhances the determination of biased and suspicious source materials. In addition, the student should be open-minded and unbiased when selecting source materials for writing (Ellis 2006).

Students should evaluate sources and their quality of information to provide information which serves as a basis for beliefs, decisions and knowledge. Unreliable and biased sources are not used in decision making because they compromise the information’s reliability and relevance hence weakening the essay.

Source evaluation is an art with no perfect marker of source reliability. However, source reliability can be determined by comparison with other sources and objectives of the essay. For example, if one needs reliable facts, he is likely to select high quality and reliable sources (Harris 2010).

Other approaches a person can use include use of Credibility-Accuracy-Reasonableness-Support checklist (CARS checklist). Though minimal sources are likely to meet requirements on this checklist, the writer should choose reliable sources and perform an in-depth analysis of the author’s credentials including his/her education, training, biography, reputation and position.

This gives a picture of the author’s level of knowledge, reliability and truthfulness. For example, if internet sources are selected, the evidence of quality control should exist, for example peer-review (Harris 2010).

Students should also compare meta-information for example abstracts summary, conclusion, reviews and ratings of various sources which give an overview of the author’s writings without having to read them completely. The student should be aware of the indicators of bias or lack of credibility such as anonymity, negative meta-information, and grammatical or spelling errors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Determination of source accuracy is necessary because a source may be credible but outdated, hence the information it contains may not be palatable at a particular time. Therefore the student should ensure information is factual, up to date, comprehensive and detailed (Ellis 2006).

Furthermore, one should have the knowledge of the target group and purpose of source material. This helps to determine whether the material is comprehensive or biased. For example, source materials which target children tend to be less comprehensive unlike those of adults.

Unbiased sources strengthen essays and make information contained in them to be fair, reasoned, balanced and objective with no fallacies or conflicting interests. In addition, the chosen source should have listed sources, convincing evidence, and corroboration to support it, otherwise it will be biased, unreliable or irrelevant (Harris 2010).

In conclusion, students should perform regular evaluation and re-evaluation of their sources to enhance accuracy of information which may be brought about by changes. This can be enhanced with the help of academic instructors who evaluate sources in the students’ essay or annotated bibliography (Ellis 2006).

References Ellis, D. B. (2006). Becoming a Masters Student. 4th ed. Rapid City, SD: College Survival.

Harris, R. (2010). Evaluating Internet Research Sources. Retrieved from https://www.virtualsalt.com/evalu8it.htm

[supanova_question]

Upstate South Carolina Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

The growth rate of the economy of Upstate South Carolina has been among those ranked as the fastest in the United States of America. The region has grown expansively from a traditionally textile-manufacturing region to a diverse and vast economic region endowed with almost each and every industry in the United States.

A number of reasons are responsible for this growth. These reasons include the availability of skilled workers, considerably low costs of conducting business and excellent educational and training institutions that yield high qualified workers. These are some of the reasons that made BMW and Michelin establish their North American headquarters in Greenville. This research paper will look at the economic history of Upstate South Carolina and its towns.

Agriculture was the main economic activity in Upstate South Carolina before the onset of the industrialization period that saw the introduction of other industries in the region (Weir 67). Although tourism is the current leading source of income to the Upstate South Carolina, agriculture still contributes a substantial amount of income to the region.

Upstate South Carolina is richly endowed with fertile soils that facilitate extensive mechanized cultivation of the cotton crop (South Carolina Department of Agriculture 13). The availability of this crop, coupled with the easy accessibility of water power, has led to the establishment of large textile and clothing industries which are centered in the piedmont.

In the recent past, crop farmers in Upstate South Carolina have realized the need to diversify the range of crops grown and break away from the traditional cotton farming (Wallace 34). This has led to the cultivation of crops such as tobacco, sweet potatoes, peaches, soybeans and pecans. The growth of these crops has led to food sufficiency in the region.

The fertile soils of Upstate South Carolina have also led to the emergence of lumbering activities and the manufacture of paper and pulp. These three economic activities derive their raw materials from the large forestland that covers a significant portion of the state. It is estimated that the size of land that is under tree cultivation is about five million hectares (Barry 98). The main species of trees grown are the loblolly pine and the longleaf which are ideal for paper manufacturing.

A few decades after Greenville was termed as the “Textile Capital of the World,” it is amazing that it is now among the leading towns in Upstate South Carolina in terms of the developments of the automobile industry. The town is now home to leading international automobile industries such as Michelin, BMW, General Electric Company, Honeywell, 3M and the Lockhead Martin Aircraft and Logistics Center (Bainbridge 145).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The towns of Spartanburg and Anderson have also advanced greatly in their economic status. For instance, Spartanburg is the headquarters of huge companies such as the QS/1 Data systems, Extended Stay Hotels, Advance America and Milliken and Company.

Anderson is home to over two hundred and thirty manufacturers which include twenty two international companies. It is widely known for the plastic and automotive industries. Like the rest of the York counties, the towns of Spartanburg and Anderson are known for their extensive supply of BMW vehicles.

It is evident from the foregoing discussion that Upstate South Carolina has gone through various stages of development in its economic history. The region has moved from its tradition of textile manufacturing to the development of other industries such as the automobile industry. The towns of Greenville, Anderson, Spartanburg and the York Counties have been at the center of this transformation.

Works Cited Bainbridge, Judith. Historic Greenville: The Story of Greenville and Greenville

County. Texas: Historical Publishing Network, 2008. Print.

Barry, John. Natural Vegetation of South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1970. Print.

South Carolina Department of Agriculture. Cotton Mills of South Carolina: Their Names, Location, Capacity, and History. New York: Charleston, 1880. Print.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Upstate South Carolina specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wallace, David. History of South Carolina. New York: American Historical Society, 1934. Print.

Weir, Robert. Colonial South Carolina: A History. Millwood, New York: KTO Press, 1983. Print.

[supanova_question]

“Sula” by Tony Morrison Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Morrison’s contribution to the literary world is made evident by the production of “Sula,” an interesting novel highlighting various issues that affected the American society in the 70s. This novel brings out significant scenes within the carefully crafted story that gives the readers an opportunity to grasp the lifestyle of the residents of Ohio at the time the novel was written.

Having chosen Ohio as the setting for the story, it becomes clear that the author’s intention was to highlight the issues affecting the entire American society at that time. In a bid to achieve his goals, Morrison has done well to highlight various significant themes in the earlier part of the novel that are important in terms of gaining knowledge concerning the issues that affected the American society at that time.

The first theme that comes out clearly in the early part of the novel is slavery and racism in America. It should be noted that the novel was written in 1973 when the issue of slavery and racism were prominent in the American society. The theme of slavery is indicated clearly by the author through the mentioning of the origin of the two communities- The Bottom (consisting of poor but vibrant black citizens) and Medallion (consisting of the wealthy whites).

The author indicates that “the bottom” community originated as a result of a master tricking a slave into occupying the hilly location as form of a “gift” to the slave. At this point, it can be noticed that the author is suggesting to the readers that slavery was an issue that existed in the society.

On the other hand, Morrison depicts the existence of racism in the American society in the 1970s. This can be seen through the description of the population distribution of the communities that reside in Ohio.

The set-up is based along racial lines. Morrison indicates that “The bottom” was situated on the upper side of the region and consisted of the poor but vibrant black people. In contrast, “Medallion” was situated on the lower side and mainly consisted of the wealthier whites. This is a sign that racism was prevalent in the American society at the time the novel was produced (Morrison 1-10).

The second theme is deceit and exploitation. Morrison has attempted to educate the readers concerning the existence of deceit in the American society. Through the highlighting of events that led to the black community occupying “the bottom,” it becomes clear to the readers that deceit was prevalent in the American society at that time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a matter of fact, the author indicates that events were triggered by a decision to trick a black slave by a white master that the hilly side of the region was close to heaven. It was clear to the master that the hilly side was unfavorable for living. This shows deceit. Later, the white community realizes that the hilly side has developed and suddenly their interests for golf arise.

The desire to construct a golf course becomes intense to the white community and this makes them determined to destroy a large portion of the land occupied by the blacks in order to accomplish their dreams. The white community lacks regard for the safety and welfare of the black community. They care about their interests above the security and livelihood of the black community. This shows selfishness and exploitation.

In conclusion, it can be deduced that Morrison has done well to highlight various significant themes in the earlier part of the novel that are important in terms of gaining knowledge concerning the issues that affected the American society in the 1970s. These include: slavery and racism; as well as; deceit and exploitation.

Works Cited Morrison, Tony. Sula. New York: Vintage, 2004.

[supanova_question]

Exploring the Human Culture Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Economics

Social Organization

Art and Science

Religion

Geography

Works Cited

Culture can be defined as the acquired behavior of a group of people. Examples of human cultural aspects include religion, traditions, economy, and relationship with the environment, music, art, hierarchies, mythology, social structures, and government systems. The study of the human culture creates an understanding of various cultures.

It also tries to lessen the barriers that divide different cultures in order to appreciate and care for all the members of the human community. In order to achieve this, one should engross himself/herself in a given culture, reside with the inhabitants, participate and learn their way of living in the best way possible.

When studying culture, we explore an individual’s mind, its contents, and the source of the contents. This is because culture is directly influenced by the mind (Siegel134). While carrying out research, cultural anthropologists use of their eyes and minds to survey and make the appropriate analysis.

Nevertheless, other instruments such as recording and videotaping devices as well as computers are also vital in this analysis. Indeed, the mind is the most crucial tool in anthropology. Thus, when studying the behavior of people, we should learn to separate our feelings from the facts. This should ensure that our feelings do not interfere with our factual observations.

There are various aspects of culture including religion, geography, family structures, economical background, social differences, science, aesthetics, and religion. For that reason, all anthropologists should ensure that they learn the given aspects of culture. Some of these aspects are elaborated below;

Economics The economics of a given people is a very important aspect of culture. When studying a given culture, it is vital to learn what the people do to eke a living. Anthropologists should always endeavor to find a people’s economic activities in a particular culture.

For instance, do the people produce farm products? If they do, what are the products and who are the people doing the work? What happens to the products? Are they consumed and if so who are the people who provide the market? The economic activities in a particular society enhance the people’s lifestyles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The world provides the resources and individuals make use of them in various ways. Case in point, one may plant cotton on a piece of land and another person may mine coal, or even hunt bush meat. Some cultures as seen in New Guinea require every individual to share some part of their daily income with others.

However, there arises a moral concern when one has to decide on what percentage of his/her income should be given out. Even though most cultures appreciate one’s ability to give and take care of one’s self, a person who offers to give too much is considered to be imprudent while the one gives too little is considered to be egocentric (Boas 188).

Social Organization In many cultures, societies are organized in terms of political lines and family structures. As a matter of fact, every society is composed of smaller structures which make up the entire society. For instance, every individual in a society belongs to a particular sub-group be it a family, a house of worship, school, town, nation, continent and ultimately, the world.

Precisely, the nuclear family that consists of father, mother and children is considered to be the smallest group in every society. On the other hand, the nuclear family forms the extended family which consists of several nuclear families. Several extended families form a clan while several associated clans form a phratry. Several related phratries compose a tribe.

Herbert Spencer, a great anthropologist, compares the society with the human body. He argues that, just like the human body, a society is a single unit that is composed of several parts that help each other, and while in conflict, they make the whole body sick. All the constituent sub-groups within a society have got a specific purpose as in social organizations. The groups ought to meet the needs of individual members while the individual members should meet the needs of their groups for effective growth.

Art and Science The study of the human culture also involves examining the people’s scientific know-how as well as the things they make. In any society, ethnoscience is of great importance. This refers to tribal science where people study their environment and collect knowledge on food sources, curative plants and soil.

Just as science involves practical and dynamic procedures, so does the study of culture form judgments based on factual knowledge. While science involves the use cognition to deduce factual information, art is affective. As much as we fancy the world facts, we also desire to feel the world. For instance, the splendor of the sunset is highly treasured in most parts of the world. Through the use of art, people are able to convey their feelings in various ways. This may be through the use of drawings dances poems as well as songs.

We will write a custom Essay on Exploring the Human Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We always encounter art in our day to day endeavors. For instance, we use well festooned utensils such as gourds, plates or even cups. According to Franz Boas, a valuable item is converted into an object of art only when form is added to it making it more effective. For example, one can curve a bowl of soup in an uneven and rough manner, and find that the bowl can also be made to hold a fish in a very functional way.

Even though it can be used for its main purpose, the bowl can hold the fish in a more striking and effective manner. Such a bowl is said to gain a significant form and creates an artistic feeling to a wide range of people. A people’s work of art should also be seen to bring resolution to individual as well as societal conflicts (Boas 189). This can be achieved by bringing in the element of fusion of various styles and opposites into art.

Religion Generally, every culture in this world conforms to a given religion. The belief that the world is controlled by a responsive and supernatural force is universal. The supernatural forces can either be annoyed or delighted by the actions of human beings. Different cultures associate different things with this supernatural being which may be in the form of sun, animals, clouds or even nature. One cannot examine a culture’s religion without considering the spirits or gods, which are often believed to be unapproachable.

For instance, in regards to the Southern Pacific culture, the ghosts of the Ifaluk atoll are known to be good and equally dreadful. The Malevolent spirits, often known as alus, are said to derive pleasure from doing harm to human beings. In most cultures, the view that gods have a two-sided nature matches to humanity’s two sided view of the world as good and bad. Ideally, there are two ways in which religion brings contentment to people.

First, by experiencing something good that we believe represents the world such as the, sun, or a good poem, we become happy. That way, we achieve aesthetic conquest. This is the most rational form of success.

The other success involves negative thinking about everything that exists in the world. This is where we perceive everything to be bad. A good number of people in many cultures find themselves in this category which makes them feel contented to some extent. In most cultures, the existence of harmful ghosts is attributed to two major sources.

The first source is the people’s perception of the world as hostile towards us and the other source is the general sentiment that people have annoyed the gods. This feeling comes as a result of our guilt from the sins we may have committed. In reality, these two views provoke individuals to have a fair outlook of life (Miller 503). They represent our unconscious mind in a spiritual way.

On the other hand, every culture in the world performs rituals. For instance, in the American culture, rituals such as the Easter celebrations are practiced every year.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Exploring the Human Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is more so with the Christian religion. Another common but simple ritual that is performed in many cultures throughout the world is that of shaking hands with acquaintances. Even though every individual learns the rituals in the process of life, they always create a new emotion within us. Among several cultures, Rituals are said to appease the spirits and digressions from the rituals are disciplined. This creates a desire in every individual to conform to the values of a given culture.

Geography In order to explain about a people’s way of living, it is important to describe their environment first. One should take note of where the people live and how this affects their mind and their way of living. As a matter of fact, there is always some relationship between our environment and how we are at present. For instance, farmer living in America may lead a very different life from a farmer living in Africa. The difference in their lifestyles may be attributed to the different weather patterns experienced in the two continents (Miller 503).

In conclusion, different cultures can be said to have some common aspects which are unique in every culture. These aspects include social structures, religion, traditions, their relationship to the environment, art, hierarchies, mythology, as well as government systems. All these aspects play important roles in terms of aesthetics as well as social economic functions.

Exploring the human culture creates an understanding and appreciation of various cultures. Thus, in order to achieve this, we should learn to detach our emotions and preconceived perceptions from the facts as we study human behavior.

Works Cited Boas, Franz. Race, Language, and Culture. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1995. Print.

Miller, Barbara. Culture Anthropology. Fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/McGraw Hill, 2009. Print.

Spradley, James and McCurdy, David. Conformity and Conflict. 13th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.

[supanova_question]

The Moral and Ethical Reasons Why Marijuana should be legal Research Paper essay help: essay help

When we hear the word “Marijuana”, a very negative feeling about it gets into our nerves. We think about how dangerous and harmful it is and how it should be avoided at all costs. News around us paints a very grim picture of cannabis. Unfortunately, this is not the case. There is more exposed lie than truth surrounding the control and use of marijuana.

This paper explores some of the reasons why Marijuana should be made a legal drug. In real sense, the drug should be made available to its users. This drug has more benefits than harm both to individuals who use it and authorities. It is my opinion that its open usage be encouraged due to the following facts:

Freedom: Need for free will The most important reason why marijuana needs legality is that it enhances people’s ability to exercise their free will and freedom. It is pointless to lock the potential of people to think and act their own way. The liberty of the mind creates great pleasure and leads to ultimate achievement in life.

Some of the greatest inventions and technological advances that have been made in the past and present world are as a result of personal liberty. From a philosophical point of view, people have the right to choose what is right for themselves. Authorities can only regulate such choices when it negatively impacts others. The use of marijuana does not even affect an immediate person because it is all about free will and not a communal undertaking.

The government may also decide to watch an individual’s action if the latter may threaten personal safety. However this argument does not apply to marijuana bearing in mind that we have other drugs that are more lethal such as tobacco and alcohol. I strongly assert that governments should allow people to have the freedom of choice as far as the use of marijuana is concerned.

Increased crime rate Think of this situation of a young impressible man who is eager to earn some cash and pay for his college tuition fees. He is being underpaid and overworked and therefore he can sufficiently cater living costs. To make matters worse, he cannot even afford decent housing and he is compelled to live in a ghetto. Then an opportunity strikes. He is offered a short errand to transport marijuana from one point to another in return for a good pay.

Unfortunately he is busted by authorities, arrested, prosecuted and sentenced in a long term jail. While in prison he is hardened up when he has to defend himself against rude inmates. After serving his sentence, he emerges out there as a hard core criminal now that he is strapped out of cash. Legalizing marijuana would eliminate such temptation of initiating good characters into real crime.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cost: Illegalizing marijuana is expensive The other vital argument why this drug should be legalized is that governments would save huge sums of money which is usually spent on the war and campaign against it. Peaceful people who are just exercising their character are hunted down by governments through arrests and prosecutions.

Above that, sensitizing people through awareness campaigns only equates to heavy spending and overloading the tax payer. It is my humble opinion that the billions of dollars being spent on the war against marijuana should be diverted to more useful projects like feeding the less fortunate in the society.

Failed project Banning the use of marijuana has never helped its eradication. The control, usage and domestic production of this harmless drug is a long process. For instance, it is widely accepted for use by most age groups ranging from teenagers to older adults. It is now used by over twenty five million people annually (Drug reporter, 2007).

Cannabis is currently the largest cash crop in the United States and marijuana is grown all over the planet. Those who purports that it will soon be faced out from consumption are ridiculing themselves. Prohibition has been an exercise in futility; users can only be educated and treated where necessary.

Hemp This plant is a useful naturally occurring resource that can be made utilized in industry or for agricultural purposes. It is not the same as marijuana (Mikos, 2009). Therefore the myth surrounding hemp plant would be eliminated if cannabis was legally recognized. Billions of dollars have been lost for ages because the hemp plant has been thought to be marijuana.

Religious attachment It is well understood that different religions have their unique practices. For example, Christianity and Judaism instruct their followers to take wine on certain occasions. Hindus, Buddhists, Rastafarians among others use this drug as part of their religious ceremonies. All these religious groups practice their freedom of conscience which according to me is justified. Why then should we not just legalize marijuana instead ignoring the reality and facts about it?

Controlling drug traffickers Legalizing marijuana can help control hundreds of gangs who form cartels to traffic drugs. Such illegal groupings would be put out of business and instead the incumbent governments would channel money lost through drug cartels to public coffers. This would translate to a big economic gain.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Moral and Ethical Reasons Why Marijuana should be legal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There was a lot of wrongly propagated information in the 1930’s about cannabis sativa as it is scientifically known. A famous film called “Reefer Madness” aired from 1937 which showed “violent narcotic’s … soul destroying effects on unwary teens” (Reefer Madness).The continued negative news on marijuana compelled the United States Congress to pass a Marijuana Tax Act in 1938.However, this was just a federal law passed and would have no global consequence on its use.

Moreover, many are still reluctant towards legalizing marijuana .On the contrary, the overwhelming research done on health impacts of this drug does not give a thorough conclusion and any bad effects resulting from it is considered negligible. I suppose the authorities should put in place similar if not the same regulations as those of alcohol or tobacco regarding control and usage of cannabis.

Some reason out that the drug is addictive. This is misleading. A report from Addiction Research Centre and another one from the University of California compared the following drugs addiction level: heroin, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and marijuana (Dubner, 2007). Nicotine was found to be most addictive of the drugs under study while marijuana had the lowest addictive level. This further confirms the ill-propagated information about marijuana.

Other critics who are still against this move of legalizing marijuana point out that it is an entry point to more harmful and life-endangering drugs. I do not agree with this. A research study in 2002 in United States revealed that an up surging seventy seven per cent of students had attempted to smoke marijuana but seventy four per cent had not consumed it the previous year and that this did not lead to the use of the so called dangerous drug, marijuana.

Legalizing it seems to be a difficult step to undertake but those reasons outweighs by far the fear behind making it legal. Proquest’s article “Marijuana Legalization Timeline” states that the United States Government Accountability Office reports that drug cartels from Mexico earned up to twenty three billion dollars from selling drugs just in the year 2008.If this and many other governments would legalize marijuana, then such huge amounts of money would not go to waste.

Decimalization Another worthy benefit why it should be legalized would be the returns accrued from decimalization. Most countries in the world today suffer from huge cost in prosecuting and penalizing drug related offenders. James Gray, a presiding judge in Orange County Superior Court asserted that the California state would save up to one billion dollars a year if offenders who do not cause violence are not prosecuted and imprisoned.

Back in 2005, Jeffrey Allen Miron carried out a study which showed that about six billion and two hundred million dollars would be realized annually if marijuana were taxed equally as alcohol and tobacco (Budgetary implications of marijuana, 2009).

The article “Budgetary implications of Marijuana in the United States,” stated that the economic rewards from making marijuana legal led to increasing call by over five hundred economists including Nobel prize winner Milton Friedman to legalize marijuana (Budgetary implications of marijuana, 2009)

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Moral and Ethical Reasons Why Marijuana should be legal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the world is facing a harsh economic downturn, individual governments should strive to look for any means to boost their economies. I believe one way of achieving this is by legalizing cannabis.

Curative purposes The medical benefits of marijuana are numerous and cannot be exhausted. The “Legalization of Marijuana Info” article affirms that no one has ever passed away from marijuana usage. Tobacco is more dangerous. Cannabis can replace ten to twenty per cent of recommended drugs currently in use (Growing Marijuana Seeds).

A paper written by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) explains that THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. It enhances appetite, glaucoma and pain, spastic muscles from MS, nausea and wasting from AIDS. These are medical advantages that cannot be obtained from any other plant. Even as scientists strive to research on better drugs for prescriptions, marijuana is a vital herb that can be put into use (Robins, 1995).

The American Academy of Family Physicians, American Public Health association, New England Journal of Medicine and American Medical Association (Prohibitioncosts.org) support legalizing of marijuana. All these accredited organizations cannot be wrong. At present, some American states permit the buying of marijuana by prescription. However, the Federal law overrides that of the states and one can still be arrested for consuming medicinal marijuana (Clements, Lan

[supanova_question]

The Confessions of St. Augustine Critical Essay essay help free

According to Augustine, the place where God’s mind touches people’s mind is full of light. Saint Augustine argues that God is something greater than people’s intellect, and his true nature is difficult to understand because he is peace and harmony. This keeps people hearts and mind in him.

The author further argues that peace is not inferior to humans’ mind, that is why it should be visible to peoples bodily eyes, although the mind itself is invisible (Augustine 34). Augustine reflects upon himself and enters in the innermost place of his being with the vision of his spirit. He sees a light, which is great and far above his spiritual ken, thus it transcends into his mind. Charity surpassing knowledge is God, and we all can fill his fullness (Augustine 18).

This is inferior to the light of people’s minds, which were bestowed by his illumination. According to Augustine, this light is superior and inaccessible to the bodily eyes since the body is visible, and the interior man is invisible. The mind and intelligence are the best parts of us that are invisible to bodily eyes, thus the higher part of us cannot be visible to the lower part (Augustine 14).

Augustine refers to God as a light. According to him, this light is the one which made him, so it is higher than his mind in the sense that the sky is above the earth, and it is exalted. According to Plato, the light is the son of the healthful. The light produced by sun makes all the physical objects visible and generates life on earth. In his philosophical writings, Plato argues that the sun generates light which makes the earth alive and differentiates day and night.

Basically, what Plato tries to bring out is that light is very important in life. The philosopher generally puts great emphasis on the importance of light on earth. This agrees with Augustine statement that the light is the one which made him. Many living beings require light for them to go on well with their life. Plants do need it for germination, and human beings for seeing (Augustine 23).

The light is referred to as the truth, and Augustine explains his experience of meeting with that light in the following way. When he enters the place where it is, he sees it with the eye of his soul, but the thing he watches surpasses all his expectations because it is beyond the perception of the eye of his soul and his mind. That light is unchangeable.

Moreover, it is not the ordinary light that we were used to. The light is greater and shines more brightly, thus Augustine states that it is the light that has made him. The light must turn inward and look upward, making a person shift his/her attention from the bottom to the top (Augustine 34). Augustine turns away from the external world of bodily things to the spiritual world. He enters the inner world of his own soul and gazes above his soul at the light of truth. He refers to this as to “unchanging creator.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His mind vision releases him from the problem of conceiving God’s nature. He tries to imagine something that takes no space though it really exists. Augustine tries to ponder on whether the truth is nothing because it is not spread out through finite or infinite shape. This concept plays a crucial role in Augustine’s opening meditation on the nature of God. The explanation is that God does not stretch out through space, no matter whether he is infinite or finite, but he is present everywhere like truth (Vaught 47).

Augustine just like the ancient Christians says that God or light is unchangeable. He states that the light is unchangeable because it helps him to get into the inward soul of himself. Many Christians also believe that God is invariable, that is why this means in some sense that God cannot change for the worse but only for the best (Augustine 48).

Augustine has no ontology to explain how something can be unchangeable, and therefore, the conception of God’s constancy is inadequate. God, soul and body are put in a hierarchy from the highest to the lowest, so God is the highest and rules over the body and soul (Vaught 47).

Augustine’s statement of charity means a lot to the Christians. In such statement of Augustine as “Love knows it”, “Eternal Truth”, “True Love and Beloved Eternity”, the word “eternity” is the name for the father, God. He goes on to mentioning that truth and charity are the names for the Son and Holy Spirit respectively.

It can intrigue people’s mind, so they try to understand the whole conception of God, yet his true nature is also beyond us and our comprehension. This turns minds away from outward things to things we can only see within. This means if God is different from me and external to me, so according to Paffenroth, to seek God within is like looking for one’s own self (14).

Works Cited Augustine, Saint. Augustine of Hippo, selected writings Issue 43 of Classics of Western spirituality. Manhattan: Paulist Press, 1984. Print.

Augustine, Saint. The Confessions of St. Augustine: Modern English Version. New York: Revell, 2008. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on The Confessions of St. Augustine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Paffenroth, Kennedy. A reader’s companion to Augustine’s Confessions. Geneva: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003. Print.

Vaught, Carl. Access to God in Augustine’s Confessions, Books 10-13. New York: SUNY Press, 2006. Print.

[supanova_question]

Sports Shop Organization Structure Report online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Organization Structure

Productivity

Accountability

Planning Skills

Coordination Skills

Introduction Small businesses form majority of the businesses world-wide. They contribute to the success of most world economies greatly. In developing countries, they are drivers of the economy. Therefore, they are a very critical part of the business society.

Despite their critical importance to our society, small businesses are not as complex as they may sound. Individuals, who in most cases are the owners, run a majority of those businesses. Consequently, their Organizational Structures are quite simple. In the Case under analysis (Sports Shop), the owner performs all the managerial duties whereas the employee tackles the mechanical activities of the business.

Organization Structure Organization Structure is the process that enables allocation of tasks and responsibilities to different departments in the organization. It influences division of labor to a great extent. This is because Organizational Structure sets clear guidelines as to what role each employee of the organization plays.

In this case, it helps to avoid conflicts in the work place. Therefore, it provides a peaceful working environment. A wrong Organization Structure may mean the end of business for the organization in question. This is because Organization Structure helps to specify who makes what decision and the reason for that.

The Sports Shop Structure is simple as there are only two workers involved. It employs a centralized structure. Hence, the owner makes all the managerial decisions. He (the owner) is responsible for the running of the shop. He only delegates the mechanical part to his employee.

This structure ensures that the owner has full control and responsibility over the business. By making all the important managerial decisions, the owner remains sure that things will go right. The assumption is that the owner undertakes only those activities that benefit the business and help it to grow.

Productivity As stated previously, small businesses are critical in most world economies, especially in developing countries. This is because they are productive in their areas of business. Since most small businesses sell proprietorships, their productivity heavily depends on the determination and diligence of their owners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the recent past, small businesses have recorded high levels of productivity. This is because of the Governments’ efforts in encouraging entrepreneurship to create jobs. The cost of lending money has reduced greatly to enable Small-Scale Investors to invest more. Depressions in economies across the globe have led to massive job losses. As a last resort, economies dedicate their time to small businesses.

Accountability Because of their manageable nature, small businesses have highly centralized and flat structures. In the Case above (Sports Shop), the employee has to be accountable to the owner. The owner has to be accountable to itself and to the customers. The owner has to be accountable to the employee to give him motivation for doing a good job.

As much as it is the owner’s business, he also has to employ professionalism and to avoid subjectivity in the business. This will help him to avoid conflicts with his employee. This is another type of accountability.

The employee has to be accountable to the owner for any business carried out in his (the owner’s) absentia. The owner has to be accountable to the employee in terms of salary increment/payment. This means that the owner has to be considerate of the welfare of the employee in terms of safety and monetary security.

Planning Skills Planning is a major part of the organization. This is because, planning helps in the formulation of budgets, monitoring of operations and directing the future of the organization as whole. Planning skills enable managers to visualize the future of the organization and set achievable goals.

The owners of the small businesses do the planning. They decide what they intend to achieve in the short-run and the long run. They may involve the other employees as a source of information but they make the final planning decisions. In most small businesses, the owner’s experience in doing business affects planning. In addition, the environment in which business operates heavily affects it. As the business grows, it employs complex planning skills.

Coordination Skills Business activities in small businesses follow a regular if not repetitive pattern. Consequently, their coordination requires less effort as the parties involved are accustomed to operating in the pattern.

We will write a custom Report on Sports Shop Organization Structure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Coordination is also easy because of the small number of employee/parties involved in performing the various tasks. In this case, there are only two parties involved in the operations of the Sports Shop. However, the owner naturally supervises the operations of the business. Furthermore, the owner performs most of the activities, which makes coordination easier.

Coordination is paramount in ensuring that operations are successful in an organization. It helps to keep operations in line with the Vision and Mission of the organization. It also helps to marry operations with other related operations in order to complete projects successfully. In addition, coordination helps in controlling operations to ensure operations’ completion in time or as required. Finally, coordination ensures efficiency both in terms of time and cost.

[supanova_question]

Plato and Descartes on Confusion or the sense of not knowing Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Plato and Descartes contributed immensely to the subject of knowledge. Today, the epistemological themes derived by Descartes continue to drive the modern education. On the other hand, Plato’s thinking has influenced many modern philosophers in respect of the concept of knowledge and ignorance (Wilson 135).

Plato approached the concept of ignorance with an authoritative tone. He was categorical that the only good thing is knowledge whereas the evil one is ignorance. He asserted that the characteristic element of ignorance is self-satisfaction, wherein he who upholds it is neither wise nor good and has no discerning for that which he does not have or need.

Discussion In his first meditations, Rene Descartes ventures to explain his doubtfulness of the world around him. He argues that his believes have sharply deceived him before. He presupposes that perhaps he is currently dreaming or God is a deceiver. He asserted that for an individual to be knowledgeable, the subject under review must possess within itself absolute certainty (Wilson 135).

He shared a common thought with Plato that there is universal and objective truth that human beings should discern. In his argument, Descartes suggested that to get the requisite sample that demonstrated absolute truth and, which results in being knowledgeable, eternal doubt is necessary. This brings in the concept of his desire for not knowing.

According to him, Descartes asserts that the need to know enables him to find something free of doubt and, which constitutes knowledge (Wilson 155). This state converges to the idea f knowing through establishing absolute truth. Fundamentally, the idea of not knowing brings about a belief, which must be held in order to sustain the gap created by ignorance or confusion (Garber 58).

He suggested that doubting everything paves the way for one to clear all possible beliefs. In his methodological doubt, Descartes sought to establish a single truth that could be used as the basis for testing all beliefs with a view to determine the ultimate truth.

Descartes held that the more knowledgeable one is, the more he or she discerns to know extensively. Using this statement, Descartes implies that not knowing is beneficial in letting a truth-seeking individual to obtain much knowledge of the single truth (Garber 58). Therefore, in his experience, Descartes believed that confusion or absolute lack of knowledge is necessary to spearhead the search for truth about objects within the context of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He reflects that people are beings existing only as thinking things. This process takes place within the inner most worlds of senses and thoughts (Hall 35). The methodological doubt espoused by Descartes renders individuals to question their beliefs about their physical world. His argument has preoccupied the modern epistemological thought that yields informed inquiry into the objects and subjects within our interactive environment.

Plato’s conception of the world led to his distrust of its changing nature. He argued that no one could understand or know anything concerning the world (Garber 58).

In his quest to explore the notion of ignorance, he sought to distinguish different types of ignorance. Plato defined simple ignorance as the sheer lack of sufficient knowledge or information and double ignorance, which amounted to both lack of knowledge and delusion of beholding genuine knowledge.

However, Platonic philosophy holds that those who do not know, but have a genuine and deep desire for the lasting truth are capable of protesting the limiting features of ignorance. In his submission about knowledge, belief and ignorance, Plato posited that we could not know that which is not true since truth is a necessary condition for knowledge.

Knowledge according to Plato has elements of permanence and certainty as contrasted to relativity and transience. Plato treated knowledge as that which relates to real and infallible, and that one cannot know a falsehood (Hall 26). To be certain that one is knowledgeable, he or she must be void of opinion since an opinion is always mistaken.

Plato’s conceptualization of knowledge is that to know, one should be able to give a logical account of the object in question. In other words, the idea relating to knowledge must be able to identify the elements of nature and elevate them from the rest in all respects. This contrasts with Descartes’ notion, which relies on the idea that to be knowledgeable means to possess a clear and unique idea that forms the basis for gauging all other ideas that come thereafter (Hall 23).

Although Descartes begins with doubt to seek the ultimate truth about the existence of things, he abandons this particular world to embrace the self. Self-doubting and questioning enables one to discover himself in the same way Descartes did. Therefore, not knowing has the capacity to enlighten an ignorant person.

We will write a custom Essay on Plato and Descartes on Confusion or the sense of not knowing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is important to state that from an individual to overcome his state of ignorance he or she must have the will to seek the eternal truth (Descartes 156). He continued to expand his methodology to conclude that if you doubt or question, you develop the tendencies of shaking off the remnants of belief, which do not account for knowledge.

In his popular sentiment, Descartes asserted that, “I think, therefore I am.” This statement has the implication of priori-knowledge in which Descartes “beliefs” in the capacity of empirical forms to result in genuine knowledge. To doubt is an equivalent or connotes lack of pure knowledge about a given phenomenon (Descartes 156). The process of engaging one’s mind in constructive doubt ensures that he unearths the loose truths in order to gain the concrete rock or clay that defines truth.

Descartes believed in the omniscience of God. The epistemological discourses of Descartes have far-reaching elements of confusion. For instance, he supposes that had he without the knowledge about the truth of the existence of God, he would be subject to ignorance and not knowing (Falzon 22). This statement challenges his proof of the existence of God in his claim that there is a deceitful or God or being that endeavors to deceive him.

Since god denotes truth that is undoubted, it cannot be true that this set of truths purportedly deceives his mind. This confusion is somewhat a blessing in disguise since it calls upon him to begin imagining and actively thinking in order to arrive at a conclusive remark about knowledge.

He, in his methodological doubt presents the two sides of the coin by demonstrating the distinguished importance of having knowledge as contrasted to ignorance. In general, Plato contends that ignorance is born of a foolish man who cannot attain any good since goodness is the result of true knowledge held and practiced by an individual (Falzon 22).

Conclusion The notion of not knowing in both Plato’s suppositions and Descartes’ converge to lay emphasis on the significant role played by ignorance to enlighten as well presenting its limiting sense to mankind. According to Plato, belief exhibited a lack of truth and the knowledge by the believer. Plato utilizes the posteriori –knowledge in understanding the elements of truth as contrasted to Descartes, who believed in the experimental truth.

Works Cited Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy. New York: NuVision Publications, LLC, 2007. Print.

Falzon, Christopher. Philosophy goes to the movies: an introduction to philosophy. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Plato and Descartes on Confusion or the sense of not knowing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Garber, Daniel. Descartes’ metaphysical physics. University of Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1992. Print.

Hall, Robert. Plato. New York: Routledge, 2004. Print.

Wilson, Dauler. Descartes. New York: Routledge, 1982. Print.

[supanova_question]

Italian Renaissance Research Paper essay help online

Renaissance period is understood to have been a period of rebirth. It was a period of rebirth in virtually every aspect of the society. It was then an initial stage in history that artistic expressions were becoming popular in Europe and artists at this period were not just mere craftspeople but people with unique talents who were in positions to redefine their talents and their views towards nature and humanity.

Consequently, mathematical innovations had an impact on renaissance art since it allowed the artists to redesign and portray objects and other human forms in real perspective and proportions. Renaissance in Italy began in the year 1400 and ended in the year 1600. During this period various ideas regarding to the ways of life were spread through Europe in dissimilar ways but during the similar period. There were several reasons as to why renaissance began in Italy. These reasons are:

City States: The strategic location of Italy and particularly, the Mediterranean Sea factor which boosted Italian trade in the production of textiles and luxury goods. This trade was spurred by crusades, which facilitated the development of large city states in the northern part of Italy. During this period, the northern part of Italy was urban while the rest of Europe was still rural and since cities are home to information and exchange of ideas, the Italian city states became ideal ground for intellectual revolution.

Prior to renaissance, the northern cities had been struck by Bubonic plague, which killed approximately 60 percent of the population. This had an impact on the economy, and since there were few laborers, they demanded higher wages. The plague also led to the reduction of business opportunities and this prompted merchants to pursue other ventures like art (Mantin 10).

Merchants and the Medici: Wealthiest cities of trade at that time only existed in Italy, and they included Naples, Venice and Genoa. These cities had survived the economic crises which had befallen most parts of Europe during the late middle age period. There also existed a wealthy class of merchants who cropped up in the cities.

Cities like Milan and Florence, due to their small geographical area made it easy for citizens to actively involve themselves in politics. Merchants dominated politics in these cities but unlike the nobility class, those merchants did not inherit a social rank, and they used their wits to succeed in business. Wealthy merchants developed the belief that they deserved leadership primarily because of their merit. This belief on personal achievement became instrumental during the period of renaissance.

Trade: Trade brought new ideas, and Italy was at that time a renowned trading machine. Consequently, Italy was special because it was the centre of ancient Roman history; its architectural remnants, statues and amphitheaters were considered to be the Glory of Rome. These factors were a recipe for the renaissance (Mantin 12).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During renaissance, man began thinking more of worldly things contrary to life after death. It was characterized by the ability of man to splendidly dress himself with jewels; man surrounding himself with paintings and statuary, indulging himself with several pleasures and growth of obsession towards objects of art.

During the renaissance period, people concentrated on the activities and matters of life contrary to seeking fame, wealthy, honor or glory in their lives. Italy considered herself as the foundation of renaissance due to her assumption of Rome and Greece, which involved adoption of ancient Greek life and art, politics and literature. Renaissance was characterized by innovations in arts and sciences, and the rejuvenated interest in history, literature and arts revolutionized thinking (Plumb 32).

In Italy, renaissance was considered to be a period of artistic and cultural realizations. The period was characterized by various distinct ideas concerning life and particularly secularism, individualism, humanism and materialism. Renaissance period influenced the European society for several generations making the period a golden age in history of Europe.

Florence was considered as a symbol of renaissance because, just like other ancient states like Athens, it attracted various people of different talents from all the Italian city states. Florence developed well when Medici, which was a strong family in Florence, exercised power and influence over the city. Medici family provided Florence with strong political and artistic leadership (Gundersheimer 4).

The most conspicuous changes during the period of renaissance were evidenced in paintings and sculpture, though there were some few elements of medieval tradition, which involved the use of religious subjects.

Renaissance combined this and the classical ideals of human form, which enhanced the depiction of nature. During the period, secular objects were prominent, and they were inspired by the Greek and Roman mythology. It was at this period that artists started using oil-based paints while also utilizing the fresco technique (Paoletti and Radke 87).

The period of renaissance began in the city of Florence, Italy, and it was characterized by numerous innovations, particularly in art, which, was the main concern regarding perspective, composition and the subject matter. During this period, emphasis was placed on depiction of nature in landscape design while moving towards the portrayal of religious figures in dissimilar light (Essortment 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Italian Renaissance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The renaissance period led to enhanced creativity on art and writing. In Italy, it referred to the rebirth of learning and art. The educated elite of Italy had desired to bring to active life the ancient culture of Greece and Rome but renaissance had new things for them.

It was in Florence that intellectual and artistic flowering took place hence making it to serve as a perfect example in Italy that was worth emulating. During the period, Florence had grown exceedingly rich due to its woolen industry. It was the Medici family that controlled the guild that produced wool. Money is also considered to be the foundation of Florentine greatness. The city was considered to be the greatest banking centre at that time, and it was under the control of the leading families (Osman 12).

Renaissance took place first in Italy since the rejuvenation of commerce and constructions of towns was deeper in Italy. It was also due to the fact that feudalism had taken a toll in Italy; consequently, there was a presence of antiquity, which was stronger in Italy as compared to other parts of Europe. Renaissance was a period of rebirth in various sectors, including economy, society, arts and literature (Hartt and Wilkins 4).

Concerning renaissance economics, church doctrines were being superseded in the primacy by profit making activities. These profit-oriented people used their wealth to activate philanthropy to guise their guilt. The high profit in Italy led to the diversification of the economy. During the period of renaissance economics, arts and art works were used as a medium to advertise their economic success.

On renaissance society, elitists dominated this period. This was due to the nature of Italy where the northern part was urban and commercial while the southern part was not. The period of renaissance was also characterized by a family-oriented society where marriages were in several occasions arranged to strengthen business ties.

In the Italian renaissance, it was the father who had overall authority over his own family but there were rare circumstances where wealthy women played critical roles particularly in the Italian city states, this was evidenced by Isabella d’Este of Mantua. Wealth was more concentrated in few great families, a phenomenon referred as “Populo grosso”.

The renaissance society in Italy was characterized by strong social stratification, which was divided into factions along the lines of wealthiest families.

The cult of the individual and the ability of the poor to improve their status was the order of the day, and this phenomenon was referred as Ciompi Revolt, which was considered as the fight by the poor. The cult of the individual during this period was called Populo minuto.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Italian Renaissance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The societal portraits that were created and painted during the period of Italian renaissance illustrated focus of individual who was a true nobleman. Italian renaissance also witnessed the emergence of humanism and secularism in the context of Christianity, which stressed on the free will of an individual. This kind of life had some efforts of strongly rewarding life in an excellent manner.

Renaissance Politics: The Italian cities followed a pattern similar to that of Greek city states whereby there were infighting and warfare among the city states; this led to the advancement of diplomacy that was aimed at achieving balance of power. 1300 republicanism later developed to be 1400 despotism in the states and cities with an exception Venice.

During this period, Niccolo Machiavelli emerged as the classical philosopher and critical thinker. According to Machiavelli, the prince must be driven by the desire to amass power; he explained the cynical and immoral view of human nature that is often driven by fear and not affection. The politics during the period of Italian renaissance was considered as the art of deception. Henry VIII emerged as the prince of the renaissance period (Italian Renaissance 29).

There were also renaissance art and architecture; these were characterized by the proliferation of portraits, portraiture and its importance. Most of the portraits depicted nudes or were a reflection of nudity. The artists were interested in the imitation of nature.

There were also pagan scenes and pagan myths, which were portrayed in the image of popular subjects without making apologies to the church. The status and portrait of individuals were elevated to the level of cultural heroes. Italian renaissance art placed emphasis on proportion, balance and harmony and ignored other aspects. Matters of perspective that often emerged as artistic problems were solved by stressing on the mathematical aspect of painting.

This was depicted in the Brunelleschi’s principle of linear perspective. Rome developed as the heart of high renaissance while Leonardo Da Vinci is regarded to be the true face of renaissance. The building of renaissance projects was achieved using Romanesque architecture as reflected in the Brunelleschi’s church of San Lorenzo (Italian Renaissance 37).

Regarding renaissance education and philosophy, there were various kinds of humanisms. An overwhelming fervor was evidenced in the finding and the collection of documents. Education was used as moral instruments. The education at this period was a true liberal one that was typified by the love for history.

The introduction of education led to the disappearance of the Greek language. The father of Italian renaissance humanism was Petrarch. Education in the renaissance period influenced the development of secondary education and stressed the relevance and importance of law, and rhetoric characterized renaissance education. It was through education that classical political ideals were created and nurtured because there was a need for a useful knowledge.

During the period of Italian renaissance, papacy lost influence over nation-states, this impacted on the moral prestige and leadership of the popes. This, however, could not stop the pope to be considered as the patron of renaissance art. Nepotism was widely widespread, and it was applied in the promotion of family interest (Italian Renaissance 45).

During the renaissance period, Italy was subdivided into city states with officials who performed both government and public duties. During the period, constitutions existed with full time elected officials. The city states were under the control of merchants who were rich. The Medici family was the prominent one during the period, and it controlled the state of Florence.

The Medici family consisted of established entrepreneurs, bankers and merchants; they also believed in education and were understood for their art and poetry. It was their money that assisted in driving arts as well as a starting renaissance. During the renaissance, there existed powerful merchants who used their wealth to achieve economic and political leadership. Bankers, for example, achieved fame and prestige by making loans available for expansion of business activities across Europe.

Humanism was the defining moment of renaissance. Humanism was a literary movement which started in Italy at the period of renaissance, but it was distinct since it broke from the tradition of medieval age where the creation of art or literature was only a product of moral religious motivations.

Humanist writers and artists moved away from religious themes to worldly or secular subjects, this was driven by their materialistic perspective about the world. Humanist artists and writers glorified individuals due to their belief that man was a measure of all things. The emergence of humanism marked the end of the influence and dominance of the church. Examples of humanists who lived during the age of Italian renaissance were: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Francesco Petrarca and Leonardo Bruni (Bloom 118).

There also existed renaissance popes. Popes were stationed in Rome, which was considered the cultural centre of Italy. People of talent traveled from all corners of the world to Italy at the request of the pope. Popes had several ambitions, and they were rich politically with determination to make Rome centre of spiritual, cultural and political activities of the world. Renaissance popes were sensual, self-indulgent but excellent administrators and generous patrons of arts.

Michelangelo was considered as the supreme artist of the renaissance period. He belonged to an aristocratic family, but their wealthy had declined and that is when he started developing ability in imitating classical styles of sculpture. Michelangelo created David, which was Florence’s symbol of strength.

Michelangelo was contracted by pope to design and construct the greatest tomb in the Christian world. Michelangelo also developed the ceiling of the Sistine chapel which took him four years to complete. To date, Michelangelo is considered as an epitome of arts and painting that is still used today (Chase 4).

Works Cited Bloom, Harold. The Italian Renaissance. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2004. Print.

Chase, Marilyn. Italian Renaissance. Dayton, OH: Lorenz Educational Press, 1971. Print.

Essortment. What Is The Italian Renaissance? Essortment, 2011. Web.

Gundersheimer, Werner. The Italian Renaissance. Canada, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. Print.

Hartt, Frederick and Wilkins, David. History of Italian Renaissance art: painting, sculpture, architecture (7th ed). New York, NY: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.

Italian Renaissance. Key concepts. Italian Renaissance, 2005. Web.

Mantin, Peter. The Italian renaissance. London, UK: Heinemann, 1992. Print.

Osman, Karen. The Italian Renaissance. New York, NY: Lucent Books, 1996. Print.

Paoletti, John and Radke, Gary. Art in Renaissance Italy (3rd ed). London, UK: Laurence King Publishing, 2005. Print.

Plumb, John. The Italian Renaissance. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1986. Print.

[supanova_question]

The augmentation of scientific knowledge of Europe over the world Essay essay help online: essay help online

How European begun to move ahead of the rest of the world in the scientific knowledge Europe has a very strong base in scientific knowledge, which it utilizes at a very important asset over other continents in the world. Due to this scientific base, Europe has become a world class in various researches. Europe has well-improved scientific knowledge transfer in its institutions. The scientific knowledge in Europe has had its history.

During the middle ages, Europe had a lot of difficulties that affected its intellectual production. However, there were the medieval scientific texts available to be read leading to the understanding that nature functions under laws that when there is reason, comprehension can be achieved very fast.

The phenomena of the universe were approached through scientific study through elaboration of texts. It was possible for the European to question the doctrines of science, and do research to find new answers in science leading to developments in science in Europe.

Europe had many learned and thoughtful people who even when there were problems in royal absolutism had better vision for the future, and anticipated for a community that was very happy. Scientists in the world have been looking for order, and more specifically this was the ultimate goal for the European scientists.

This vision for order in Europe let to the discoveries in astronomy, physics and all other sciences such as chemistry and biology. These advances in science showed that nature was constituted by different parts that worked harmoniously; from the particles to the stars (Yasmeen 391–396).

Through scientific knowledge, it was easy to formulate explanations for the realities in nature. This led the scientists to under look the religious stories to new ways of thinking and explaining nature. In the late seventeen century, science had been accepted in Europe and almost every European was dominated by it.

The European bit the odd of religious and traditional theories, and took science to find answers to the many problems in nature. Many advances were made in medicine and astronomy even though this work was considered irreligious and inconsequential.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though many of the scientists who took seriously their work were killed, Europeans did not give up on science and continued to develop more advances in various sciences. For example, the work of Copernicus was disregarded as a description of reality to a mathematical exercise. However, with more advances in science, Isaac Newton changed the perception of people when he developed experiments to support his universal law in mathematics.

Science in Europe formed conceptual and methodological approaches to find answers and facts about the natural world. This started as a revolution in the human thoughts thereby bringing about the modern science as it is now called. There were various reasons as to why science came into being in Europe, and the knowledge overcame the entire world.

Its growth in Europe and not other parts of the world is until today a debate in many people’s minds. However, science is thought to have been conceived as a rebirth of people’s thoughts as they tried to understand nature. The change in attitude towards knowledge led to the discoveries of wisdom.

According to the Europeans, facts were all that mattered. According to the scientists, it was impossible to have supernatural processes, and stand to the grounds that everything needs to be rationally explained mathematically. The study of science in Europe was therefore popularized by various mathematical discoveries.

The Europe scientific methodology was also advanced by other scientists who set a program that extolled human reason in its application to the sensory experiences of humans. Through this approach, hypothesis could be formulated and tested in experiments thereby coming up with fundamental laws of nature

Science instruments were improved through the inductive approach, and at the beginning of the seventeen century, the microscope and the telescope were developed and used. Other than the telescope and the microscope, thermometers barometers air pumps and pendulum clocks were also invented. These inventions gave scientists easier time in studying the physical environment of the universe.

From the scientific knowledge, findings of research are applied in policy making in Europe, and not only rely on the politicians decisions. The policies are based on the scientific findings thereby making scientist go much deep into scientific research. This has made the European policy makers to take science very seriously thereby basing their decisions on it (Joseph 253-57).

We will write a custom Essay on The augmentation of scientific knowledge of Europe over the world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The importance of the role of European advances in astronomy during the early and modern period Even if there were difficulties at first to the advancements in astronomy by the Europeans due to lack of readable texts, the available texts were copied. The texts brought the interests to describe the planet motions, and determine their significance astrologically.

Astronomers were the notable scientific pioneers in Europe, which employed two approaches that depended on human reasoning leading to different applications. There was the deductive approach that based on the truths that were self-evidenced leading to complex plans to be applied in problems practically.

This approach emphasized on the relationship between mathematics and logic. The other approach used was inductive and employed facts objectively. The proponents of induction were used to come up with conclusions from the facts presented. The reasoning of the early European astronomers depended on the two approaches.

The early astronomers used both observations and mathematics to pave way for revolution in science in Europe. Before his death, Copernicus had published a book, which opposed the traditional theory on passing days and how heavenly bodies moved.

In general, astronomers had achieved a lot, and scientists were encouraged to have interests in related scientific fields. It was astronomy that gave birth to all other sciences such as physics and chemistry. Science was respected in Europe and scientific institutions began to gain a lot of public support through out Europe.

This was very important in scientific growth in Europe unlike other continents where there were no scientific advances. It was possible for scientists to carry correspondence that developed communities with scientific values, beliefs and language. The European community was ready to endorse science through support to the scientific communities. Scientists were the important heroes with support from the women, kings and city councils who built museums.

In the early modern Europe, there was protestant reformation, wars of religion, discoveries and colonization. During this time, centralized government came into being followed by a period of enlightenment, and then later industrialization that was brought by advances in the scientific knowledge.

Astrology was widely practiced by the learned class. In natural astrology, stars were thought to influence the natural world and were readily accepted. Judicial astrology focused on the personalities of people and detailed on future thoughts, and several people refuted it since it interfered with free will.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The augmentation of scientific knowledge of Europe over the world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Europe astronomy resulted during renaissance when studying humanism. It is believed that astrology declined in the early days due to modern scientific thinking that was purely based on facts and scientific findings supported by experiments (Moyer 228).

Due to advance in science and development of telescope, stars were seen as moving and not fixed, and views from people changed since they saw stars as equivalent to the earth. When astrology was defeated by science, astrologers went into astronomy; an area they thought was scientific. Astronomy advanced into theoretical and observational branches. Celestial objects could be observed and data collected for physical analysis through basic principles. Computers are theoretically used to describe objects and phenomena.

The renaissance is used to describe the early modern when Europe was reborn and culture developed. Though Europe advanced in scientific knowledge than any other part in the world, the advancements were thought to be unjustifiable since they were thought to e guesses.

Though there were various critics to this scientific knowledge, scientific knowledge survived them. When Copernicus proposed heliocentric model, Galileo expanded the work, and later on telescopes were used to enhance the made observations. Motion around the sun was described by Kepler where the sun was at the center. Further developments followed when Newton invented the reflecting telescope.

Wherever there were discoveries about a thing in the planet, further work followed to find out more about the same. This allowed proper examination of the masses of the moon and the planet. When new technology was introduced, there was a significant advancement in astronomy, which brought about spectroscopes. Through the technology, astronomists proved that the stars were similar to the sun but with a wider range of temperatures and sizes (Bruce 868-7).

Works Cited Bruce, Eastwood. “The Revival of Planetary Astronomy in Carolingian and Post-Carolingian Europe”Variorum Collected Studies Series CS 279, (2002): 868-7

Joseph, Agassi. “Science and Its History: A Reassessment of the Historiography of Science”, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, (2008): 253-57.

Moyer, Ann. ‘The Astronomer’s Game: Astrology and University Culture in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries’, Early Science and Medicine, 4 (1999): 228.

Yasmeen, Faruqi. “Contributions of Islamic scholars to the scientific enterprise”. International Education Journal 7, 4 (2006): 391–396.

[supanova_question]

The Committee on the Armed Services in the US Report essay help free: essay help free

The committee in question throughout the course of this paper is the committee on the armed services. This paper is going to talk about the number of subcommittees under this committee.

The committee is made up of 62 members.

The members are divided into Republicans and Democrats.

The ratio of Republicans to Democrats is 35 to 27. (Congress, 2006).

The subcommittees under this committee include emerging threats and capabilities subcommittee, military personnel subcommittee, oversight and investigation subcommittee, readiness subcommittee, sea power and projection forces subcommittee, strategic forces subcommittee, and tactical air and land forces committee. The emerging threats and capabilities committee has 18 members. These members are divided into 10 republicans and 8 democrats.

The military committee is comprised of 14 members. These are divided into 8 Republican members and 6 Democrats. The oversight and investigations committee is comprised of 10 members. These are divided into 6 Republicans and 4 Democrats. The readiness committee is comprised of 21 members. These are divided into 12 Republicans and 9 Democrats. The sea power and projection forces committee has 20 members. These are divided into 11 Republican members and 9 Democrat members.

The strategic forces committee contains 16 members. These are divided into 9 republican members and 7 democrat members. The tactical air and land forces committee is made up of 25 members. These are divided into 14 republican members and 11 democrat members. (United States Congress, 1866).

The emerging threats and capabilities committee is chaired by Mac Thornberry from Texas. The chairman is a republican. Other republicans in the party include Jeff Miller (FL), John Kline (MN), Bill Shuster (PA), K. Michael Conaway (TX), Christopher P. Gibson (NY), Robert T. Schilling (IL), Allen B. West (FL), Trent Franks (AZ), and Duncan Hunter (CA). The Democrat constitutes 8 members of the 18 members in the committee.

These are James R. Langevin (RI), Loretta Sanchez (CA), Robert E. Andrews (NJ), Susan A. Davis (CA), Tim Ryan (OH), C. A. Dutch Ruppersberger (MD), Henry C. “Hank” Johnson, Jr. (GA), and Kathleen C. Hochul (NY).

The military personnel committee is made up chaired by Joe Wilson. He is one of the 8 republicans in the committee. Other members are Walter B. Jones (NC), Mike Coffman (CO), Thomas J. Rooney (FL), Joseph J. Heck (NV), Allen B. West (FL), Austin Scott (GA), and Vicky Hartzler (MO).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The democrats are Susan A. Davis (CA), Robert A. Brady (PA), Madeleine Z. Bordallo (GU), David Loebsack (IA), Niki Tsongas (MA), and Chellie Pingree (ME). The oversight and investigations committee is chaired by Robert J. Wittman (VA). He controls a part of the 6 members making up the committee. Other members are K. Michael Conaway (TX), Mo Brooks (AL), Todd C. Young (IN), Thomas J. Rooney (FL), and Mike Coffman (CO).

Group 1 represents the emerging threats and capabilities of the committee, and this is represented by the blue color. Group 2 presents the military personnel committee and is shown by the green color. Group 3 represents the oversight and investigation and is marked by the red color. Group 4 features the readiness committee and is presented by the med blue color.

Group 5 represents the sea power and projection forces and is colored in orange. Group 6 is the strategic forces subcommittee which is presented by the yellow color. Group 7 is meant to be the tactical air and land forces which is represented by the brown color. (Jewell, 1982).

References Congress (U.S.). (2006). Congressional Record, V. 148, Pt. 13, September 20, 2002 to October 1, 2002. New York: United States Congress.

Jewell, M.E. (1982). Representation in state legislatures. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky.

United States. Congress. (1866). Congressional edition. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

[supanova_question]

China. Economic Analysis Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Population

Economic Statistics and Activity

Currency system

Science and Technology

Channels of Distribution

Media

Works Cited

Appendix

Population With nearly 1.5 billion people, China has the biggest percentage of the world population based on country terms. The vast majority of the country’s citizens is largely rural as around eight hundred million people reside in rural areas while the rest, roughly 35 percent reside in urban areas.

Since the introduction of new family planning laws took effect, the population growth rate considerably slowed down (Murphey 10). The Chinese population continues to grow disproportionately as the number of girls born is less than the number of boys, for example, in 2000, for every 100 girls born; one hundred nineteen boys were born. The total imbalance stood at 128: 100 (Murphey 10).

China falls in the eastern part of Asia. The country stretches around three thousand four hundred miles from the North to the South while stretching approximately three thousand two hundred miles from the East to West. A bigger percentage of the population resides in the rural areas while few reside in the urban coastal towns of the country (Yu 28).

Economic Statistics and Activity In the recent past, China has been registering between eight and ten percent GDP growth. The country has managed to maintain GNI and per capita GDP at around one thousand seven hundred from the year 2005. The trade volumes between China and the rest of the world continue to increase.

However, it is notable that trade outflow has increased at a higher rate than the trade inflow. Another notable occurrence in China rests on the notion that inflation is under control. In the recent times, it is only in 2004 that inflation was high, as it stood at seven percent. In 2007 and 2008, China recorded around seven percent inflation. In the latter part of 2008, inflation rose to 8.7 percent (Guo 200-9).

The accession of the Chinese economy into the world stage took an interestingly turn in 2001 when China got admission into the WTO. After this admission, China became more open in terms of trade. As a direct result of the opening up, the trade volumes between countries such as the ASEAN countries and Japan on the one hand and China on the other hand, grew rapidly. At the same time, China lowered its tariffs (Guo 200-9).

According to Ilan and McIntyre (45), the opening up of the Chinese market also allowed for an increase in the levels of Direct Foreign Investments in the country. A year after the accession of the country to WTO, Foreign Direct Investment rose from forty-four to fifty three billion dollars. The Chinese trade volumes in 2010 was roughly 3 trillion Us dollars, making it the second largest trading country after the United States.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the recent successes being witnessed in the Chinese economy, one problem has emerged. The country’s employable work force has declined over the years. This is likely to force the country into further problems based on the notion that pension and associated benefits would put the economy under pressure (Guo 200).

Another problem that affects the country is based on the idea that China solely relies on a fixed exchange rate. The effect of using a fixed exchange rate rests on the belief that the system adversely affects inflation since counter-inflationary policies are comparatively less flexible. This system may benefit if some reforms are carried out.The other aspect that characterizes the Chinese economy is inequality.

The coastal cities of the country keep on registering unprecedented growth levels while the rural areas continue facing various hardships. China is thus among the most unequal societies. In the period between 1980’s and 1996, China registered the highest income inequality. At the same time, per-capita incomes were 2.3 times higher in urban areas in 1990. This rate increased to 2.7 in 1999 before rising to around 2.9 in 2000.

Thus, it is rightly alleged that China is split into two countries, the rich coastal megalopolis and the rest made up of poor interior regions. In the coastal megalopolis, per capita incomes are as high as $1,000 while in the interior regions, per capita incomes are as low as less than $200 per year (Guo 2009).

Table 1 proves that average disposable income and the consumption levels in the Chinese republic are relatively low when compared to other developed nations. Another aspect that springs up centers on the expenditure patterns of the Chinese people. Unlike other people from different parts of the world, the Chinese people prefer saving their money than spending. This is based on the Chinese tradition, which lays emphasis on saving for the future generations.

Urban families (Yuan/person)

Rural families (Yuan/person) Disposable income 3934.94 1280.5 Consumption expenditure 2619.55 1072.2 Table 1 showing consumption rates in 2007

China’s nominal GDP between 1952 and 2005

We will write a custom Research Paper on China. Economic Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mainland China GDP distribution in 2007

The transportation system in China is an important sector in the country’s economy. However, the transport system remains highly unequal (Donnithorne 252). This is coupled with variations in human and natural resources that have affected the development of the country.

The development in infrastructure remains inadequate in China. However, the country is working towards improving this state of affairs as it seeks to link its major economic centers. In order to achieve this goal, the country is reworking its road network. By 2000, the country had planned to have eight hundred thousand miles of roadway, of which, five thousand was to be highways.

In the same vein, the country aspired to put in place about nine hundred thousand miles of roadway, of which twelve thousand was to be highways by 2010. Despite the planned improvements, this would only present around 15 KM highway density. This is way behind the densities of leading countries such as the US and Germany which have 64 and 177 respectively. It is worth to note that road transport account for almost ninety percent of the country’s transportation services (Donnithorne 252).

From 2005, questions regarding labor emerged in China. This was because the country’s demand for labor was becoming stronger. Such a scenario enabled workers to select work that paid well and offered better working conditions. This forced companies to adjust the minimum wage upwards in order to keep hold of their employees. The fall in the number of workers may be connected to the idea that the family planning policy was taking its toll in the country.

Currency system RMB to the US dollar from 1981

Exchange rates

Chinese yuan per US$1)

Not sure if you can write a paper on China. Economic Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More July 31, 2008 – RMB 6.846

Mid 2007 – RMB 7.45

Early 2006 – RMB 8.07

January 2000 – RMB 8.2793

1999 – RMB 8.2783

1998 – RMB 8.2790

1997 – RMB 8.2898

1996 – RMB 8.3142

1995 – RMB 8.3514

Oil and natural gas are the major minerals available in the Chinese republic. In 2005 the production levels of oil stand at 47.87 km3, consumption was at 44.92 km3, imports were 0 m3, exports were 2.943 km3 while proved reserves were 1,448k m3 in 2006. Regarding oil, the following statistics were available

Production levels: 3,631,001 bbl/d (600, 000 m3/d) in 2005

Consumption levels: 6,535,000 bbl/d (1,000,800 m3/d) in 2005

Export levels: 444,300 bbl/d (70,470 m3/d) in 2005

Import levels: 3,182,000 bbl/d (505,676 m3/d) in 2005

Net import levels: 2,750,000 barrels @ day (435,000 m3/d) in 2005

Reserves: 16.4 Gbbl (2.589×10^9 m3) in 2006

Oil and natural gas

Science and Technology China is among the top countries in the world on the technological advancement front. China has made much progress in the area of technology. The most recent case is the breakthrough made in fuel reprocessing technology. However, China is accused by other countries as abusing patent and copyright rules because of non-adherence.

Spending on research and development in China has doubled over the last 15 years. In 1995, China spent roughly 0.6 percent of GDP ON research and development while the country used 1.2 percent in 2005.

Using the current exchange rates, this represents an increase from seventeen billion to ninety four billion US dollars. Surprisingly, investment in research and development is growing at a faster rate than that of the economy. Despite these developments, the percentage of the Chinese labor force posses technological skills remain relatively small.

Channels of Distribution The supply and retail industries play a valuable role in the Chinese republic. However, a number of restrictions that limit the extent to which foreigners participate in the industries. The following table clearly illustrates ownership in both supply and retail outlets. In reference to channels of distribution, the Chinese republic also has two faces.

Most Chinese are small-scale distributors while a minority group operates as large-scale distributors. Due to the high number of restrictions, only five percent of retailers are foreigners. This accounts for two thousand four hundred foreign retailers who have invested around five billion US dollars in the business (Gattorna 575).

Table 1: China’s Retail Market Structure, 2008 Sector Enterprises (10,000) Employees (10,000) Revenue (¥ billion) Total 54.9 836.9 4,335.3 Autos, motorcycles, fuel, and auto parts 8.0 122.9 1,693.3 Integrated retail 6.4 285.9 1,141.6 Household electric appliances and electronics 9.1 97.3 475.6 Textiles, garments, and daily consumer products 6.0 74.9 219.0 Medicine and medical devices 4.9 62.5 199.9 Hardware, furniture, and decoration materials 7.2 56.9 182.9 Source: Communiqué on Major Data of the Second National Economic Census (No. 3), PRC National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

Sales plus Operating Revenues: 2000-2009

China, Glassware, Crockery and Pottery Wholesaler-Distributors(NAICS 41431)

Source: Statistics Canada, special tabulation, unpublished data, Annual Wholesale Trade Survey.

Net Revenues: 2000-2009 China, Glassware, Crockery and Pottery Wholesaler-Distributors(NAICS 41431)

Source: Statistics Canada, special tabulation, unpublished data, Annual Wholesale Trade Survey.

Media Primarily, the Chinese media is made up of magazines, newspapers, radio and television. However, in the recent times, the emergence of the internet has brought a new dimension to the media as it continues to gain prominence.

Access to the media has remained limited since the State controlled the communication channels. However, access has improved especially after the introduction of the economic reforms. Nevertheless, State run media agencies such as People’s Daily, Xinhua and CCTV continue to hold considerable market share in the country (Shirk 1-23).

Shirk (1-23) observes that television revenues have been on the rise in the recent times. As an illustration, in 1995, the earnings totaled two billion US dollars, by 2005, the income was expected to rise to around six billion US dollars. At the same time, television advertising generated one fifty million US dollars.

The income covered roughly ninety percent of the television revenues. In contrast, radio advertising ranks way behind television in terms of earnings. However, print media earnings continue to rise at very high rates. The developments being made in the print media poses serious concerns to the other forms of communication.

An issue in Renmin Ribao in Hangzhou

Based on a World Bank report there were about thirty-five TV sets per hundred people in China. It was also indicated that on average each household had access to radios since the report established that eight out of ten people had radio access. The report also indicated that China has over one thousand radio stations.

Although radio has the largest coverage in terms of the ability to reach the biggest number of people, the other forms of communication are also progressing. Television continues to advance although not at the same pace with the print media. The resurgence in the use of print media is mostly attributable to the developments in the internet (Shirk 1-23).

Works Cited Donnithorne, Audrey. China’s Economic System. London: Routledge, 2008.

Gattorna, John. Gower handbook of supply chain management. Farnham: Gower Publishing, Ltd., 2003

Guo, Rongxing. An Introduction to the Chinese Economy: The Driving Forces Behind Modern Day China. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Ilan, Alon and McIntyre, John. The Globalization of Chinese Enterprises. New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2008.

Murphey, Robert. East Asia: A New History. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

Shirk, Susan. Changing media, changing China. London: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Yu, Keping Globalization and changes in China’s governance. Boston: BRILL, 2008.

Appendix Table showing the volumes of world trade

China rank by population

Map of China Location in the World, Map of China

[supanova_question]

Assumptions of Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Difference and similarity in Ontological view by Spencer and Herbert Ontology is the study of objects and their ties. It gives criteria on how to differentiate objects which are real or non real, abstract or concrete with their ties. In short it is the study of reality. Marx idea on how human’s perception suggests that humans believe they see but they do not see (Allan, 2010). He says human nature is expressed in the work produced or created. The aftermath of the work should act as a mirror to the human being.

Marx ontological work is based on human’s material dialect. To Marx, reality is perceived in two ways; by idealism and materialism. He says that the world only exists in our idea. Marx believes that what exists to man in the world is only man’s idea. In his materialism aspect he argues that reality is similar to physical properties which are the simple reflections structured by the innate physical properties. Marx disregarded the idea of materialism but was in at least support of idealism (Allan, 2010).

Ontology in other words can be seen as what exactly occurs. Herbert on the other hand demonstrates the evolutionary theory to explain various phenomena. Herbert explains the aspect of organic and inorganic evolution. This he projects on human society, animal and the physical world at large. His work completely disregards the issue of idealism (Allan, 2010).In addition Herbert elaborates the issue of human liberty and moral rights.

To him a life projected by these two issues means an amazingly free and enjoyable life. Also in his discussions he reveals that, progress in a free environment enables man to use all his faculties. This implies that the government’s sole work is to protect man. Moral sentiments and social condition are inextricably connected, constantly interact. For Herbert moral habits are the primary motivators of man (Elwick, 2003).

Difference and similarity in Epistemological view by Spencer and Herbert Epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified beliefs. Knowledge here includes; sufficient conditions, sources, structure and limits. It focuses on knowledge production and dissemination of that knowledge to areas that need clarification. Epistemology can be combined with ontology to form metaphysics.

To Karl Marx who is an idealist, knowledge is a product of the mind (Allan, 2010). The main concept of knowledge to him is to reason. On the other hand Spencer tries to inquire the basis of scientific study of education, psychology, sociology, and ethics of man from an evolutionary point of view (Alston, 1989).

His work although not valued in the present time brought out the distinguishing factor between sociology and social science. His work on evolutionary progress from a single unit of matter was justified. Spencer social philosophy dominated in the 19th century (Craig, 2002). The main ideas he coined were of free existence or laissez-faire and survival for the fittest. His work was against reform because this affected the balance between nature and human society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Difference and similarity in Human nature view by Spencer and Herbert Karl Marx idea on human nature is based on society as a key survival tactic of different species. His thoughts linked how the human species survive with human consciousness. In addition is survival by creative production. The human conscious therefore has evolved by economical changes.

Marx illustrates that through production and creation of products, man did form an intimate relation with his/her environment. Hence, products made by other human being were as if they were made by him, hence man viewed himself as a creative producer (Allan, 2010). This depicted a form of social relation since every human identified with the product made by other human beings. They did communicate by the world they created.

Marx believes in communism. He says the world has dictated the current attributes of man. He adds that for man to be a communist again, he will have to undergo a social restructuring process. Marx argues that every species is defined by the mode of its survival or existence. Marx says to understand a human being is to understand his alienation, ideology and false consciousness.

On the other hand Spencer argues that human nature is flexible and is in the process of advancement (Elwick, 2003). He says ancient man was very primitive, aggressive and irrational. He envisioned human beings to be perfect at the end of evolution, hence completely adapted to social life. This was due to the adaptations to the requirements of the society in future. His notion was based on generations passing quality trait mantles to the next generation.

He saw a society that would be living in balance, harmony, and peace because of the calm nature of environment they would live in (Allan, 2010). Hence, no one would inflict pain on the other. This of course would be from the idea of natural selection as new adaptation would create a perfect human being (Craig, 2002) .Spencer last years of writing depicted him as a pessisimst regarding human’s future.

Reference List Allan, K. (2010). Exploration in classical sociological theory. Seeing the social: London: Pine Forge Press. (2nd Edition).

Alston, W (1989). Epistimitic justification; Essays in the theory of knowledge. Ithaca: Conwell University Press.

We will write a custom Essay on Assumptions of Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Craig, J. (2002).Classical Sociological theory. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Elwick, J. (2003). Herbert Spencer and the disunity of the social organism. History of science journal. 41, (pp, 35-72).

[supanova_question]

Nuclear Power Advantages and Disadvantages Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Nuclear Power and Fuel Cost

Global warming and nuclear power

Article Annotation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Nuclear power is the energy generated by use of Uranium. The energy is produced via complex chemical processes in the nuclear power stations. Major chemical reactions that involve the splitting of atom’s nucleus take place in the reactors. This process is known as fission (Klug and Davies 31-32). The first nuclear power station was established in 1956 in Cumbira, England. Nuclear energy provides about sixteen percent of the total earth’s energy requirements (Cohen ch. 2).

Nuclear Power and Fuel Cost Nuclear plants take years to be built.The cost of buying, and building the reactors is way too high (Klug and Davies 31-32). The kinds of security installations done around the power plant are of high technology which is extremely costly. Managers of nuclear power plants would prefer claiming their returns at the commencement of the plants activities which describes the high cost of fuel. The claim is thought to include cost of installations and time taken to construct the nuclear plants.

Other reasons that could lead to high cost of fuel namely, Security measures, installation factors and safety measures (Klug and Davies 36). The safety measure gadgets are very expensive and are made by great technological experts. Another form of safety measure is availability of machine spare parts. This ensures frequent renewal and upgrading of the plant’s mechanical equipment and this is again very costly.

The main reason for such security is due to the danger that could be caused by exposure to the products of radioactivity. The main equipment that needs close check up is the reactor. Its installation is quite costly hence appropriate renewal of worn out parts is an option that should not to be overlooked.

In addition to these costs, the costs of containing the waste matter is also quite high (Cohen ch.11). Although many people think that investing in nuclear power is a costly event, I do not feel so because it is a worthy venture and one of the cleanest sources of energy.

Though it is not renewable, its establishment and good management could provide a perfect source of energy to the world at large. Nuclear energy production requires low fuel and once the plant is built the cost variables are minor. The Cost of doubling fuel or uranium cost in nuclear plants will only increase fuel cost by 9%. For other sources like coal and gas, doubling fuel prices will increase the fuel prices by 31% and 66% respectively (Cohen ch.9).

Global warming and nuclear power Global warming is caused by the effect of green house gases. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane, vapor and ozone. They are produced by burning fossil fuel. When the gases accumulate in the atmosphere they serve as a mirror in reflecting heat energy back to earth. The accumulation of these gases leads to increased temperature on earth’s atmosphere resulting into global warming (Klug and Davies 31-37).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nuclear power should not at any instance be regarded as one of the causative effects of global warming. This is because it consumes carbon dioxide which is of the green house gases during energy production. Carbon dioxide is a major gas among the green house gases. Hence nuclear energy has provided a solution point for its disposal.

Nuclear energy should therefore be referred to as a cleaner rather than destroyer. It has also boosted the economy by creating a market for sale of carbon dioxide gas. Industries producing this gas can as well trade with nuclear power plants. When serious action is taken in trading this gas from various outlets to various nuclear plants, then a solution would be made on how to regulate global warming using nuclear power generation.

In addition to nuclear power generation, use of renewable energy would also help in countering global warming. Due to the increased need for electricity, more nuclear power plants should be built. These will provide enough market for carbon dioxide waste from other manufacturing industries.

Nuclear energy should be adopted in place of fossil fuel. This is because fossil fuels position’s the earth at a higher risk of global warming. The only task that would justify the use of nuclear energy is when the purpose of Uranium metal is not shifted to bomb production or nuclear weapon production. New adoptions and policies on how to prevent global warming should be implemented.

Article Annotation Barkan, Steven. Nuclear Power and Protest Movements. Social problems journal Vol. 27.1(1979):11-36.Print.

Steve Barkan, a retired article writer basically points out people’s views that have been influenced by environmental degradation. The people have turned more attention to nuclear energy technology as a means of addressing the problem. Barkan’s article examines people’s opinion on nuclear energy. Those against the notion of nuclear energy as a source of energy believe that carbon dioxide emissions mostly emanate from nuclear power and not renewable energy.

These people’s arguments are based on the argument that high grade ores will get depleted hence low grade ores which produce carbon dioxide will be used with no installation of advanced reactor equipment.

We will write a custom Essay on Nuclear Power Advantages and Disadvantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition the opponents say that nuclear waste makes the environment susceptible to harm in the future, but they fail to point out that long lived constituents or radioactive elements give off small portion of radioactivity. The opponents also fail to mention any person that could have been harmed as a result of using fuel from power plants.

Another argument is that high cost of nuclear plant management has resulted to increased cost of fuel. In this case, they fail to note that the cost of electricity from nuclear energy is cheaper than most sources. Barkan also brings out the contrasting issue of terrorist attack whom the anti nuclear group argues that could cause melt down of ore. He responds by saying that high level of technological security would not allow access of such suicidal sabotage.

Conclusion Nuclear energy is more affordable to produce than coal energy. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Instead, the carbon dioxide is used in the process to remove heat from the system. In this case carbon dioxide does not act as a byproduct rather it serves a positive purpose by being utilized. In addition its usage, nuclear energy produces less waste. It does contribute to neither environmental hazards nor green house effect like coal.

Nuclear energy is reliable and produces large amount of energy from less fuel. The negative effect lies on the risks that are associated with nuclear plants especially accidents and suicidal terrorists. These could cause extremely deadly effects and scars that can never be erased. Only good management and high technological security can assist in nullifying such fateful occurrences.

Nuclear power reactors should not be built in politically unstable regions. Political instability results in war and negative effects on the economy. For instance war prone areas are susceptible to attacks by terrorists which could result in detrimental effects. There is need for effective safety policy to be implemented that will address the following factors namely, climate change, security of power plants, safety, energy security and proliferation of nuclear technologies. This is because such proliferations would result in nuclear bomb.

Works Cited Barkan, Steven. Nuclear Power and Protest Movements. Social problems journal Vol. 27.1(1979):11-36.Print.

Cohen, Benard. The Nuclear Energy Option. Plenum Press.1990.

Klug, Aaron

[supanova_question]