Is Cyber Bullying Against Teenagers More Detrimental Than Face-to-face Bullying? Essay Essay Help Online

Teenagers are an extremely sensitive population. They are associated with a variety of issues especially due to the changes in hormones and transition from childhood to adulthood. Bullying is a common practice among teenagers. It entails a form of violent behavior against an individual with an aim of harassing.

Cyber bullying on the other hand entails the use of information and communication technologies in an attempt to perpetrate deliberate and hostile behavior in a repeatedly manner. It could be done by an individual or group of people with the main aim of causing harm to the victim1.

Cyber bullying has become a very common practice among individuals especially the young generation. Some of the feelings related to cyber bullying include sadness and anxiety; hurt feelings towards others, depression and other mental health problems, inability to trust in other people, low self esteem, lack of confidence and sense of security, frustrations, fear and anger, formation of prejudice for instance based on the race or religion of the cyber bully among others2.

To some extent, cyber bullying may result in other major effects especially when the negative emotions in the victim are not dealt with in an appropriate manner.

Some of the behaviors include, poor academic performance, inability to form healthy social relationships with peers and older people, withdrawal and seclusion from various life issues and developing an attitude to bully others as a form of revenge or to feel in control.

To the extreme, cyber bullying is deemed to cause deaths of teenagers through suicide where they feel they cannot take it any more. This therefore shows that cyber bullying affects an individual emotionally and should always be avoided where possible3.

Research shows that cyber bullying is more detrimental than face to face bullying4. Some of the reasons behind this include the fact that the effect is more permanent. This is so because the insults or comments used in bullying an individual could be preserved by the victim or others and the victim could view them time after time making the issue even more painful5. There is also the issue of audience size.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the internet or social networks, the audience that can access the bullying message could be relatively big causing a lot of humiliation to the victim. Speed is also a critical issue. In cyber bullying, harmful materials intended for a certain target could spread very fast and reach many people hence increasing the source of intimidation and humiliation. Familiarity is also a concept that makes cyber bullying incredibly detrimental as compared to face-to-face bullying.

The fact that most teenagers know the individuals who cyber bully them plays a great part in raising the level or degree of humiliation and embarrassment to the target. Social networking has also contributed greatly to the issue of cyber bullying especially in making it more harmful as compared to face-to-face bullying.

Social networking sites for example Facebook facilitate cyber bullying as the cyber bullies are in a position to perpetrate campaigns against an individual with support of other members. In most cases, face-to-face bullying only involves the bully and the target and it is relatively easier to handle and forget as opposed to cyber bullying. This is enough justification that cyber bullying is more harmful as compared to traditional bullying.6

Farrell (2004) asserts that cyber bullying has a high likelihood of affecting the victims adversely as compared to the traditional face to face bullying experience. To support this argument, the author suggests that children and teenage victims of online or cyber abuse feel that they have no place to hide their embarrassment especially due to the fact that it involves a lot of people, not only the cyber bully and the victim but also other people who could be in the networks.

There is also no chance of striking back against the cyber bully as it could be in a face to face encounter. This therefore makes the experience more intimidating. Cyber bullying has been experienced by many children of the school going age and the phenomenon seems to be on the rise7.

Various research have revealed that even though face to face bullying have been deemed to have long term damaging effects to the victims, it is also true that cyber bullying could have even more damaging consequences especially due to the presence of a big audience and the inability of the victim to fight back and release the feelings or emotions experienced out of the bullying activity.

This is according to Marilyn Campbell, a researcher at Queensland University of technology. This reinforces the statement that cyber bullying is more detrimental than traditional face to face bullying8.

We will write a custom Essay on Is cyber bullying against teenagers more detrimental than face-to-face bullying? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are steps that should be taken once an individual discovers that a child or teenager is suffering from cyber bullying. Having seen all the above negative effects that are associated with cyber bullying, it is advisable that parents or caregivers be keener to recognize any of the behavior in their children9.

Once you suspect or notice some problems, it is recommended that one talks to the child to ensure that they are not badly affected. This could be through assuring them of your concern and support. Open dialogue plays a great role in cyber safety.

In case the offences against the child are serious and deemed harmful; one should make it known to the school authority or local law enforcement agency for further action. Any online evidence should be kept intact to guide in taking informed action upon the cyber bully.

It is also a good act to contact the medium through which cyber bullying is perpetrated. This could include aspects such as mobile phone providers, websites or social networks as they are in a position to either prevent or stop these behaviors. This shows that even though cyber bullying may seem inevitable, there exist some ways through which it could be controlled or avoided. 10

From the above discussion, it is evident that the concept of bullying is a reality that has affected a majority of young people in one way or the other. Cyber bullying seems to be extremely detrimental as compared to traditional or rather face-to-face bullying.

This is so because of the nature of consequences associated with it for instance permanence, audience size, familiarity, popularity of social networking as well as speed through which it is perpetrated among others. It is also clear that emotional effects suffered by an individual as a result of cyber bullying can be very devastating and affect him or her for a long period of time, some for a lifetime. This does not however mean that traditional face to face bullying is not harmful.

Bibliography Aalsma, M. C.

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Strategic Management Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Suzanne’s article on the interrelationship between beauty and business highlights the difficulties that leaders encounter when presented with an opportunity to draw. The report indicates that using art for professional progress is an intricate task. Evidently, the report begins by providing a brief history on the discovery of artistry in the Polaroid creativity lab as a means of perpetuating innovation.

It then discusses insight art, which is a convenient approach to art-based instruction used in the Polaroid creativity lab. Furthermore, the article focuses on active observation processes, which are recorded in a notebook. Drawing as a powerful technique in recording observations is also noted.

Concurrently, deriving aesthetic value from drawings and using such a skill to judge ideas in a practical business idea is important in attaining business success. Lastly, the report presents an example of the previous participants of insight art and the benefits enjoyed.

An in depth critique of this article would require an understanding of the difference in meaning between the words artistry and beauty. In the article, the intertwined usage of the words artistry and beauty is frequent.

Conversely, in the world of fine arts, these terms exude several dissimilarities. In the description of artistic things, the word aesthetic would be more appropriate. Anything artistic is beautiful, but beauty is more of an attribute of something that pleases the viewer’s senses. Incredible inventive would unleash the same sensational feeling notwithstanding other additives.

While beauty emphasizes an attractive nature, aesthetic attribute cover both bodily attractiveness and non-attractive aspects that could be rugged but desirable. Something artistic would unleash such feelings as admiration, enjoyment, shame, and dread. It is not agreeable that something dreadful is beautiful while something aesthetic could be fearful.

The use of art to instigate innovativeness among executives is a difficult endeavor. The ability of persons to note the aesthetic value of objects in their surroundings repeatedly qualifies them as candidates for the procedure. It is my belief that in the contemporary society, artistry is an incomparable and rare talent. It is easier to identify beautiful things but few would note the aesthetic character of their own surrounding. The article makes the adoption of artistic ability such an easy procedure, something that is easily disagreeable superficially.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Insight into the article indicates that it compares other common innovation methodologies with insight art. Innovation methodologies were truly excellent. However, they were deficient in vital innovation development procedure. These procedures are reported as too mechanical and lacking the ability to indulge the participants creatively.

Reportedly, imaginative art fills this void by providing a meaningful link between workers and their jobs. However, the perceived tendency of the writer to shun these procedures appears baseless. The backwardness brought a bout by a single negativity does not merit the obvious disqualification of these ancient procedures.

Evidently, insight art is a procedural technique that focuses on unifying minds and hearts of the participants by transferring them from their sublime to an innovative status. The technique is based on the ability to identify the aesthetic factor also called, the A factor. According to Suzanne, the A factor comprise eight attributes of beauty.

The article records these attributes as vitality, luminosity, unity in variety, complexity, utility, simplicity, synchronicity and sublimity. Looking at this A factors critically, they all tend to suggest the need for a stronger relationship between an individual and his job. In fostering any business policy, this is an exceptionally imperative calculated administration tool.

According to the writer, a three-step path cultivates these attributes. First, the compilation of information through observation, then making a connection between the observations and true business situations follows. Finally, initiating choices based on the identified A factors concludes the process. All these are procedures that require a slight artistic ability.

However, it is a known fact that a vast majority of the population do not have any artistic skills. It would be imperative to note that only individual with vast artistic skills who go through this procedure would flourish. Evidently, this locks out a full-size majority with skills vital in strategic management but devoid of any artistry. Additionally, the three steps would prove inefficient for full transformation of such individuals.

The report indicates that, insight art is a crucial tool in achieving outlined goals in strategic management. The writer reports that the procedure enables participants to identify negative space. This is crucial as it denotes areas that need strengthening; furthermore, points to the intended direction.

We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, the recognition of artistic aspects allows managers to determine the quality aspects devoid in their business. Beauty is an individual opinion not shared by many. However, aesthetic attributes are universal opinions about procedures. Corporate training should aim at enabling individuals to create attractive procedures.

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The concept of sustainable development robs the poor world of any possibility of convergence with the rich world. Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction In every economy, the main objective of the policy makers is to achieve development within the country. Many countries have employed various ways in order to achieve their development goals. In their efforts, the main target of the public policy makers is to bridge the gap between the poor and the rich.

The gap between the poor and the rich is the major criterion that is used to measure the position of an economy in terms of development. The more the disparities among the poor, the high is the level of poverty in an economy. Despite of the efforts employed by many organizations in promoting development, disparities among the poor still remains extremely high.

Many policy makers have been advocating for sustainable development as the best way to promote development within an economy. However, this has been opposed on the ground that sustainable development robs the poor world of the possibility of convergence with the rich world.

Discussion Sustainable development can be viewed as the process where the resources are utilized in such a way that it promotes preservation of the environment while meeting the present as well as the future needs1. The advocates of the sustainable development are determined to realize the economic environment where development efforts include environment protection, social progress, and economic growth. The main concern here is to avoid environmental degradation for the sake of the present as well as the future generation.

In the contemporary world, the question of globalization has raised critical issues on environment raising the need for a sustainable environment. The rate of environmental degradation has increased significantly, the fact which has raised the concern of the policy makers.

Although sustained development has paved way for convergence between the poor and the richer world, it has in some cases resulted in increased inequalities among the people. It has led to increased gap between the poor world and the rich world. This is because majority from the poor countries over rely on the natural capital as their main source of livelihood.

Sustainable development and poverty; Environmental issues As already noted, the main goal of the policy makers in every economy is to promote development. Many economies have employed sustainable development policies in order to achieve their development goals effectively. However, sustainable development may contribute to increased difference between the poor and the rich2.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sustainable development can be seen to increase disparities at various levels. First, it creates disparities at the personal level where some individuals get richer. Sustainable environment also increases disparities at regional level as well as at the national level.

According to the international trade arrangements and specifications, more emphasis is given to the protection of biodiversity, ozone layers and desertification through adoption of sustainable growth3. However, these international arrangements have paid very little attention on the strategies of harmonizing trade as well as environment trade and development4. As a result, these policies have led to increased disparities among the poor and the rich countries.

Most less developed economies relies on the debts from the developed organizations in order to meet most of their needs. In most cases, the lending economies tend to be pushed in adoption of the strategies promoting sustainable development5. Such pressure denies the developing countries the power to make independent decisions. As result they may end up being forced to adopt strategies that do not maximize their benefits.

Strategies of sustainable development require a significant amount of both institutional and human resources6. Therefore, a poor country is adversely affected if it chooses to use some of these funds in implementing sustainable development strategies. In most cases, these economies are faced with difficulties in their effort to meet the basic need of its citizens. Therefore, shifting fund to sustainable development may therefore lead to increased poverty within a country.

According to the principles of sustainable development, countries are required to replenish their natural resources faster than they are used7. Most developed countries are able to achieve this because they have diversified economy. On the other hand, poor or developing countries over rely on their natural resources as the backbone of their economies8.

Therefore, it is very difficult for the poor countries to replenish their natural capital at a higher rate because they have not diversified on their economic activities. This implies that these organizations will adversely be affected by the policies of sustainable development. The poor countries will become poorer because they over rely on the natural resources. One of the most important roles of sustainable development is to facilitate economic growth within an economy. However, this does not guarantee equitable distribution of resources.

There are no significant linkages between poverty and natural capital. However, some people are inclined to the conclusion that the poor are more destructive to the environment than the rich. This implies that we can still have sustainable growth or the growth that does not lead to environment degradation and still have majority of the people living in poverty.

We will write a custom Essay on The concept of sustainable development robs the poor world of any possibility of convergence with the rich world. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the government must not only facilitate sustainable development, but also emphasize on equitable distribution of resources. In most cases, economic growth is only felt by the rich in the society. This increases the disparity among the people.

Many people have argued that there is a need to have a development process which focus more on the institutional and cultural development, where more emphasis is granted to the stakeholders who include family, individual, community and both private and public sectors9.

All these groups must be given the opportunity to give their views on development issues. In such a case, each group will be represented in the decision making process. As a result, this will facilitate the convergence of the rich and the poor in the society. On the other hand, sustainable development will not always guarantee equity in the distribution of resources.

As already noted, sustainable development leads to economic growth. Since different places have different types of resources, this encourages disparities between different regions. As a result, the differences among the people from various regions increase10. For instance, some regions may have more resources than others.

Therefore, there is a need to have more strategies that will promote equitable distribution of resources across the regions. This will help in bridging the gap between the poor and the rich in the society. For instance, the government can promote social equity by using the tax charged on resources to provide social services.

In order to bridge the gap between the poor and the rich in the society, there is a need for a shift in the development strategy11. For instance, more emphasis must be put on the formal and informal institutions that brings together public sector, private sector, community, individual and family12.

However, sustainable development should be used in providing the direction for this strategy. This strategy must also ensure that the family, individual and the society are at the centre of these issues. Therefore, the problem at hand will be handled from the people’s perspective. Therefore, the stakeholders will be in a position to come up with appropriate policies that promotes equity and well being in the society.

The Role of Sustainable Development in Converging the Poor and the Rich Sustainable development has helped to bridge the gap between the poor and the rich. As already noted, sustainable growth helps an economy to maintain its natural capital as it realize its development goals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of sustainable development robs the poor world of any possibility of convergence with the rich world. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In most cases, when there are natural disasters resulting from natural capital degradation, the most affected people are the poor in the society13. In this case, sustainable development contributes in promoting the convergence between the rich and the poor in the society.

Sustainable development plays a significant role in tackling some of critical global issues like inequality, poverty, hunger and environmental degradation14. These are the main goals under which sustainable development is based. All these strategies have a significant contribution in bridging the gap between the rich and the poor.

Sustainable development advocates have been arguing that it leads to increase in employment levels. Low employment level is one of the main problems that have been facing a number of organizations in the contemporary world. High unemployment levels leads to increased discrepancies between the poor and the rich15. Poverty can significantly be reduced by increasing the level of unemployment in the society.

Sustainable development also leads to significant economic growth. In most cases, economic growth goes hand in hand with high living standards.16 Therefore, sustainable developments will help to improve on the living standards of the poor in the society. Consequently, every person will be better of through the economic growth. This has significantly helped in bringing convergence between the rich and the poor.

Solution As already noted, the main issue that is facing many economies in the world today is to bridge the gap between the poor and the rich. However, differences between the rich and the poor persist to increase. There is therefore a need to come up with a sustained development plan that promotes the equity between the rich and the poor.

In order for the sustainable growth to facilitate equity within the society, it is advisable to ensure that there is close partnership with all the parties involved in promoting sustainable development strategies in order to ensure that they develop development programs at the local level. When the local people are involved in making critical decisions that touches them, it is easier to come up with the best measures that does not affect the well being of the local society.

As noted earlier, most of the poor people depend on the natural resources as the source of their livelihood. As a result, they are more likely going to be affected if the use of these resources is restricted. Therefore, it is necessary for the policy makers to solve the problems of such families before putting restriction measures on the use of natural resources. By so doing, the gap between the rich and the poor will be bridged.

While promoting sustainable development policies across the world, it is advisable for the parties responsible to consider the economic positions and environment and then come up with appropriate policies. Poor countries cannot do without exploitation of their natural capital. Therefore, it is advisable to consider the feasibility of various sustained development policies before implementing the same. This will ensure that the strategies applied do not lead to more poverty but rather reduction in the gap between the rich and the poor.

Conclusion This discussion has clearly revealed the position of sustainable development in convergence between the poor and the rich world. Although sustainable development has contributed to economic growth, it does not guarantee equitable distribution of these resources.

In order to achieve equitable distribution, there is a need to integrate appropriate strategies that will facilitate equitable distribution of resources among the people from different regions. It is also advisable to include individuals and the society in the decision making process. This will ensure that all development strategies reflect the needs of the society. This will promote equitable distribution of the resources.

On the other hand, sustainable growth advocates argue that sustainable development has significantly contributed in reducing the gap between the rich and the poor in the society. Through sustainable development, an organization is able to reduce the level of unemployment in the economy. High level of employment helps in bridging disparities among the people.

Bibliography Anonymous, Summary of the Workshop on Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Exploring the Links. 2001. Web.

Elliott, J., An Introduction To Sustainable Development, New York, Routledge, 2008.

Faucheux, S., O’Connor, M. and Straaten, J, Sustainable Development: Concepts, Rationalities, and Strategies, New York, Springer, 1997.

Gechev, R., Sustainable Development: Economic Aspects. U.S.A., University Press, 2005.

Mawhinney, M., Sustainable Development: Understanding the Green Debates. Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.

Nomani, Z., Environment, Sustainable Development and Globalization. 2007. Web.

OECD, Sustainable Development: OECD Policy Approaches for the 21st Century..U.S.A., OECD Publishing, 1998.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Sustainable Development: Critical Issues. Danvers, MA, OECD Publishing, 2001.

Rao, P. K., Sustainable Development: Economics and Policy. Wiley-Blackwell, New York: Wiley-Blackwell. 2000.

Riley, J., Macroeconomics / International Economy. 2011. Web.

Rogers, P., Jalal, K., and Boyd, J., An Introduction To Sustainable Development, Earthscan, London, 2008.

Shah, A., Sustainable Development. Web.

South African Development Community, Environment and sustainable development. 2009. Web.

Stokke, O., Sustainable development, Routledge, New York, 1991.

Sustainable Africa, Environment. 2001. Web.

Footnotes 1 Z., Nomani, Environment, Sustainable Development and Globalization, 2007.

2 J. Riley. Macroeconomics / International Economy. 2011.

3 Anonymous. Summary of the Workshop on Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Exploring The Links. 2001.

4 South African Development Community. Environment and sustainable development. 2009.

5 A. Shah, Sustainable Development.

6 A. Shah, Sustainable Development.

7 S., Faucheux, M. O’Connor, and J. Straaten, Sustainable Development: Concepts, Rationalities, and Strategies. Springer, New York, 1997.

8 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sustainable Development: Critical Issues. OECD Publishing, Danvers, MA, 2001.

9 Sustainable Africa, Environment. 2001.

10 P. K.. Rao, Sustainable development: economics and policy. Wiley-Blackwell.New York, 2000.

11 P. Rogers, K. Jalal, and J. Boyd, An introduction to sustainable development. U.K: Earthscan, 2008.

12 R. Gechev, Sustainable Development: Economic Aspects. University Press, U.S.A., 2005.

13 J., Elliott, An introduction to sustainable development. Routledge, New York, 2008.

14 M., Mawhinney, Sustainable development: understanding the green debates. Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.

15 O., Stokke. Sustainable development. New York: Routledge, 1991.

16 OECD. Sustainable Development: OECD Policy Approaches for the 21st Century, OECD Publishing, U.S.A, 1998.

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Reasons for Increasing Unemployment in U.S Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of rising Unemployment

Dealing with Unemployment

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction Governments all over the world strive to ensure that their citizens are meaningfully employed and therefore able to afford a decent standard of living. As such, one of the most significant problems that a government faces is the issue of unemployment among its citizens.

The US which is the world’s largest economy is not spared from this issue and as a matter of fact, it has a large number of unemployed citizens. While there has always been a number of unemployed, the rate has historically been modest. The last few decades have seen the situation reversed and the unemployment rate in the US hit a record high of 10% in 20091.

This situation has escalated and at the present, there is increasing unemployment in the US. This paper will set out to document the main reasons behind the increasing unemployment in the US. The impact that this problem is having on the population will also be highlighted and measures for curbing unemployment suggested.

Causes of rising Unemployment The credit crunch that was experienced between from 2007 to 2009 greatly battered the private sector labor market and resulted in a decline in the number of people who are gainfully employed in the US. The private sector is an important player in the economy since as Baumol and Blinder report, in the year 2009, 68% of all non-farm workers in the US were employed by the private service industry2.

The Emerging Markets Monitor reveals that the past decade was characterized by weak job creation and a culling of the workforce as a result of the 2007-2009 recessions3. While the economy has experienced significant recovery from this market crush, jobs have not yet returned. Reports indicate that unemployment has actually continued to rise despite economic recoveries been made4.

The increasing population in the US is also to blame for the current unemployment rise. The US labor force has increased by 15million in the cause of the last decade5. While population growth has remained fairly constant over the decades, the same cannot be said for job opportunities. Conversely, the private sector which in 1999 employed 109 million people recorded a decline to 108.7 people employed as of 20096. Increase in population results in a more people joining the country’s work force. There are therefore more people today competing for the same jobs which results in increased unemployment.

The Emerging Markets Monitor states that there has been a noticeable stagnation in wages in the goods-producing sector. This stagnation has been blamed on low-skilled jobs being exported to low-cost countries such as China and Indonesia which have a large pool of low-skilled labor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data collected by the government corroborates the fact that the impact of jobs recession has therefore been felt more by the least educated group. For people with no high school education, the unemployment as of 2009 was 15.6% compared with 4.7% for those with high school diplomas or higher education7.

Technological advances which have been made in the last few decades have also contributed greatly to the rise in unemployment in the US. Many companies in the US have and continue to look for ways to automate their processes therefore increasing their productivity while at the same time reducing costs8.

As a result of this move, companies have laid off many workers whose role has become redundant since machines can perform the same work more efficiently. Bur points out that “Companies are investing in manufacturing equipment and information systems to increase the productivity of the workers they already employ, rather than investing in more employees”9. Notably, majority of the workers laid off are the low-skilled ones which means that they have low probabilities of obtaining other employment.

Another cause of the rising unemployment is the decline in growth of key sectors in the labor market. Traditionally, sectors such as financial services, retail, construction and manufactory have been the biggest sources of employment for people.

While these sectors have historically exhibited growth and expansion, the last decade has witnessed significant decline in this sectors. EMM state that the decline in these key sectors causes unemployment which in turn causes further decline in these key sectors. This is because higher unemployment means reduced income for many people which translates to weaker consuming power.

Yoon suggests that another cause of unemployment in the US is the government policies which are meant to protect American industries and union workers from competition. Yoon points out that following the outbreak of the financial meltdown in 2007, the Bush and Obama administrations have dedicated significant portions of public funds to aid ailing corporations and therefore stimulate the economy.

As a result of this bailout programs, the government now has tight regulations to control the behavior of the private financial sector which results in inefficiency10. Therefore, these government policies which are meant to stimulate economic recovery have the opposite effect since they result in shrinking consumption and investments11.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Reasons for Increasing Unemployment in U.S specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The measures therefore delay economic recovery making it hard for the private sector to employ people. The policies that the US has put in place for a sustainable economic recovery are therefore partly to blame for the unemployment issue that the country now faces.

Globalization has also contributed to the increase in unemployment in the US. Globalization is characterized by the interaction of economies and this process has been aided by advances in transport and communication means. As a result of globalization, many US based multinational companies engage in outsourcing of production and services.

Outsourcing is beneficial to business since it enables them to exploit favorable environments such as low taxes and availability of cheap labor. This has led to many companies stopping operations in the US or decreasing their staff significantly and redirecting operations to countries which have surplus cheap labor. A study by Thibault revealed that in the sportswear manufacturing industry, there has been significant increase in unemployment levels as companies outsource intensively12.

American companies have to face fierce competition from other nations which deal with similar products and services. In some cases, the outside countries are able to produce products that are significantly cheaper therefore infringing on the market that the US companies previously enjoyed13. This competition has forced some companies out of business or made them to reduce their workforce so as to remain profitable. This has led to increases in unemployment levels in the US.

Traditionally, companies encouraged employees to specialize in their tasks and a person only played a specific work function in the company. This has changed and today, many companies are requiring their workers to possess more than one set of skills. As such, a person may be required to fulfill the roles that were previously done by a number of employees in the company.

This emphasis on multiple roles means that more people are kept out of employment as one person engages in the tasks that they would have previously been employed to do.

Small businesses are a source of employment for a significant number of Americans. Bur asserts that despite small businesses being essential to the nation’s economy, these business entities suffer from inadequate credit to help them develop14. With limited credit, these businesses are unable to take in new employees and the job security of existing employees is also not guaranteed.

This is in contrast to the situation faced by big businesses which are assured of government support in harsh economic times. Small businesses do not enjoy the same protection and their collapse leads to even more people being unemployed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Reasons for Increasing Unemployment in U.S by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dealing with Unemployment The trend towards rising unemployment is projected to go on due to the various reasons explained in this paper. Unemployment results in a decrease in the standards of living for the citizens and hurts the economic well being of the country. Measures therefore need to be taken up to ensure that unemployment rates are restored to low levels.

Since migration of jobs to other countries through outsourcing has led to unemployment, the US government should address this issue. Bur proposes that by creating a market environment that is attractive for investors, the US can prevent companies from moving their production offshore15. This will create more jobs for Americans and hence alleviate the unemployment problem.

As has been noted, small businesses play a very important role in the US economy. With this consideration, the government should come up with measures to ensure that the businesses prosper. Tax relief which would ensure that businesses make profit even in hard financial times therefore guaranteeing their continuity. Incentives can also be offered to encourage businesses to expand and with this expansion, more employees would be taken in by the business.

Steps should also be taken to deal with the excessive competition that US companies face from the international market. Economists agree that China which has flooded the world market with cheaper goods manages to keep her goods low since the Chinese currency is low. This makes Chinese goods cheaper and hence more attractive in the market.

The US can adjust her exchange rate such that US produced goods are cheaper. Having cheaper goods of high quality will lead to more sales and hence increased productivity by companies. The companies will therefore be able to maintain their workforce and even

Conclusion This paper set out to highlight the reasons behind the increasing unemployment witnessed by the US in the past few years.

To this end, this paper has market out the 2008 credit crunch, increased population, outsourcing, and technological advances as the main causes of unemployment. Lack of growth in key sectors in the market and protective government policies have also been seen to cause unemployment. The paper has also delved into the actions that can be taken to deal with unemployment issue.

If these issues are tackled effectively, the US will be able to overcome unemployment and hence maintain her position as the world’s greatest economy.

Bibliography Amadeo, Kimberly. US Economy: Unemployment Rate. Web.

Baumol, William and Blinder Alan. Macroeconomics: Principles and Policy. Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2010.

Bur, James. 2010. Causes of High Unemployment in the U.S. Web.

Emerging Markets Monitor (EMM). US Cannot Afford Another ‘Lost Decade’ For Employment. NY: Business Monitor International Ltd, 2009.

Mooney, Linda and Schacht Caroline. Understanding Social Problems. Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2010.

Ryan, Meghan. Handbook of U.S. Labor Statistics 2010: Employment, Earnings, Prices, Productivity, and Other Labor Data. Princeton: Bernan Press, 2010.

Summers, Lawrence. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Unemployment. Web.

Thibault, Leo. Globalization of Sport: An Inconvenient Truth. Journal of Sport Management. No. 23 (2009): 1-23

Yoon, Joon. The Great Recession of the US and Lessons from the Past. SERI Quarterly, 2011.

Footnotes 1 Emerging Markets Monitor (EMM), US Cannot Afford Another ‘Lost Decade’ For Employment, (NY: Business Monitor International Ltd, 2009), 2.

2 William Baumol and Alan Blinder, Macroeconomics: Principles and Policy, (Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2010), 28.

3 EMM, 1

4 Amadeo Kimberly, US Economy: Unemployment Rate.

5 Meghan Ryan, Handbook of U.S. Labor Statistics 2010: Employment, Earnings, Prices, Productivity, and Other Labor Data, (Princeton: Bernan Press, 2010), 404

6 EMM, 2.

7 EMM, 3.

8 Linda Mooney and Caroline Schacht, Understanding Social Problems, (Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2010), 34.

9 James Bur, Causes of High Unemployment in the U.S.

10 Meghan. 201.

11 Lawrence Summers, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Unemployment.

12 Leo Thibault, Globalization of Sport: An Inconvenient Truth, Journal of Sport Management, 23(1), 2009, 1

13 Linda and Caroline, 231.

14 James, 1.

15 James, 1.

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United States population Research Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Causes of increased population growth rate in America

Consequence of a rapid population growth rate in America

Solution to the rapid population growth rate in America

Works Cited

Over the years, the US population has undergone through a rapid population growth. In 2011 the population of the US was estimated to be around 312,313,000, with a majority of the population living in the cities and suburbs. The urban dwellers made up 82% of the entire population.

In terms of geographical disparities, the population survey revealed that cities had high population than the rural areas, which were uninhabited. This paper will try to explain the factors that have contributed to the rapid American population growth rate in relation to social, economic and political aspects in regard to demographic change. In addition to this, the paper will examine how migration has influenced the American population (Dernbach and Environmental Law Institute 98).

According to the Census Bureau of America, the population has increased dramatically since the enactment and implementation of the immigration and nationality act of 1965. It was estimated that around that time, the number of legal immigrants entering the United States was a quarter of a million per annum.

By 1990, the figures had quadrupled to about one million immigrants per year. It is prudent to mention that the majority of the immigrants came from the South American countries. In connection to the Latin American immigrants, the census conducted by the Census Bureau in 2008-2009 established that in terms of birth rate, the number of children born in the United States belonging to the minorities constituted 48.6% forming the bigger chunk

Causes of increased population growth rate in America There are various factors that have contributed to the population explosion in America. One of these factors is increased food production. It is estimated that after the World War II the world faced a recession in its economy especially in Europe. Availability of processed goods reduced drastically and precipitated the need by these countries to look to other countries for its raw materials.

America benefited from this scarcity by increasing land under cultivation, this undertaking did not only prove profitable in the economic sense, but also affected its population growth on a positive scale where the growth rate doubled from the census conducted in the 1900. It is believed that a society that is food sufficient is able to increase numerically.

The continued influx of immigrants, both legal as well as illegal, continues to be a major contributor to population growth rates. The United States of America has remained to be the most preferred immigration destination due to the better economic opportunities it offers to its populace.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whereas the government of the United States of America has put elaborate measures to ensure that it controls legal immigration, the existence of the black market has aided the illegal immigrants to sustainably thrive in the country.

As noted by Kandel, (64), some unscrupulous business men opts to employ this illegal immigrants for some manual jobs so that they can pay them less than the minimum pay set by the labor laws. Since the illegal workers have no avenue to raise their grievances, they end up working in such establishment hence sustaining their livelihood in the United States. This has adversely affected the level population growth rates.

The provision of better health care services in America is estimated to have reduced mortality rate to be below one percent. Over the years, the American government has invested huge sums of millions of dollars in providing cheap and affordable health care by formulating laws that have seen improved access to health care facilities in addition to improved health care delivery.

After the World War II, many European countries embarked on a massive expedition to safeguard its population after massive lives were lost. This was precipitated by the United Nation Council formulating the Bill of Rights which stipulated that every person is entitled to the right of life and health.

These measures ensured that the American citizens got the best health care. In addition to availability of health care services, the American government has improved public health through the provision of water and sanitation, through improved public health contagious illness and diseases associated with poor sanitation have been eradicated by construction of efficient sewerage systems, separate water and gas lines and also through recycling of sewerage water through treatment.

The American population growth rate can also be associated with improved medical technology that has seen some diseases that increased the rate of child mortality like smallpox being eradicated through vaccination.

Medical technologies have also seen the war against diseases caused by bacteria being won through availability of antibiotics that have proved useful in treating almost all diseases caused by bacteria pathogens. This has translated to reduced mortality rate that has seen the American population increase drastically making America the third most populous country in the world.

We will write a custom Research Paper on United States population specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other factor that has led to massive increase of the American population is better economic strategy. Unlike most European countries which were devastated by the World War II. America had a sound and vibrant economy which had made most of its citizen to have jobs and access to important basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing.

This precipitated the increase in population. Also, after the war, most of the European economies could not produce their own goods and services and had to rely on imports making their economies to take a plunge in the world rating. These facts also led to mass exodus of Europeans migrating to America to smart their businesses. The impact of having an improving economy was directly proportional with population growth rate (Kandel 124).

Consequence of a rapid population growth rate in America Although increased population growth reflects a thriving society, it has negative consequences in various facets of life and the economy. One of the negative attributes in having a rapid population growth rate especially in America is increased pressure on the environment, with an estimated 82% of the American population living in the urban areas especially in cities.

These has translated to increased environmental degradation in terms of air pollution leading to global warming that has resulted to most states in the south coast experiencing level three typhoons that have been increasing over the years. The southern states have had their share of environment calamities ranging from high-level tornadoes to increased levels of floods.

Also, it is prudent to mention that the increased population has led to increased pressure on land in terms of fertility and crop production. Fertility has reduced with over cultivation causing people to relay on fertilizers that pollute the soil as they destroy microorganisms that are necessary for aeration of the soil (United Nations Human Settlements Programme 68).

In the economic sense, an increase in population results to unemployment especially if the rate of population growth is not proportional to economic growth, which results to increased levels of poverty. In America, the government is tasked with the mandate of looking after its citizen in terms of providing shelter, clothing and meals to the homeless and the poor.

This provision has made the government to incur a lot of expenditure in facilitating such undertakings. In the economic perspective, these measures are expensive considering that at the moment, the world is coming from a global recession that has seen the American economy adversely affected.

Solution to the rapid population growth rate in America Over the years, analyst of the American population growth rate have grappled with the question of how to have a viable population growth rate that is both environmentally and economically sustainable, having in mind that the problem that is facing China and Europe where majority of the population comprises of the old rather than the youth translating to both economic and social disparities, where in the future there will be no working class and the government will have to invest in taking care of its ageing population.

Not sure if you can write a paper on United States population by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some American analyst and organizations like the United Nations have come up with various proposals in line to having a sustainable population, one of the measures is through family planning and spacing of children. This has been facilitated by the provision of scientific family planning methods and availability of contraceptives in the market.

This will reduce the cases of unplanned pregnancies as well as juvenile pregnancies that have over the years experienced a dramatic increase, which has resulted to increased population growth as well as increasing the poverty rate as most of these young adults are unemployed (Hartman 36).

The other solution given by some analyst in regard to having a viable population that is environmental friendly is by reducing over reliance on some economic resources that have contributed to economic degradation like oil.

Oil causes a lot of emission into the atmosphere causing global warming that is associated with all the environmental catastrophes that the world faces today. Also, toxic gas emission associated with oil have led to increased rates of bronchitis associated with diseases that eventually lead to death or poor respiration among the youth causing both economic and social problems.

The need to adopt environment friendly alternatives to these resources has been spearheaded by the United Nation Environmental Program (UNEP). Also, land pressure should be reduced by coming up with improved means of soil conservation through using environment friendly fertilizers and by the American government developing the rural areas to ease the pressure on cities (Northrup 148).

Another solution that is advocated for is the need to sensitize the American population, especially the immigrant communities, to understand how a rapid population limits their chances of accessing basic needs. Most migrant communities have the notion that by having their children born in America, they automatically become citizens. Even those who are aliens in America have resulted to this measure to ensure they remain as citizens in America.

This is in disregard to the fact that most of them do not possess the right qualifications to guarantee them a job. These people have to result to manual work to sustain their livelihood and those of their children, but with the prevailing economic challenges, the end result is having a lot of poor and not so well educated migrants that have become a burden to society and the government (Louis 89).

Works Cited Dernbach, C. John and Environmental Law Institute. Stumbling toward sustainability. New York: Environmental Law Institute. Print.

Hartman, C. Edward. The Population Fix: Breaking America’s Addiction to Population Growth. New York: Edward C. Hartman, 2006. Print.

Kandel, A.William. U.S. ForeignBorn Population: Trends and Selected Characteristics. Chicago: DIANE Publishing. 2011. Print.

Louis, Arner George. Consanguineous Marriages in the American Population. New York: Echo Library. 2007. Print.

Northrup, Cynthia. The American economy: a historical encyclopedia. New York: ABC- CLIO, 2003. Print.

United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Planning sustainable cities: global report on human settlements 2009. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT, 2009. Print

Environmental Law Institute, 2002

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Time management and building team Report best essay help

Time and Self Management Farris, D., 2002. Time management: An Exercise of Self Awareness. Workforce Journal, 31, 124-136.

According to Farris (124), people do not manage time, but rather manage the use of it. Time cannot be expanded, reduced, stopped or altered and time can be seen as a subjective concept.

According to Farris, time management involves planning, goal setting, organization and establishment of good study habit – this involves understanding of the dynamics of needs, motivation and goal-focused behaviour and the awareness of the circumstances to one’s self-development and optimal productivity – and eliminating bad working habits – this involves self-awareness, acknowledging the facts about oneself and self-mastery.

Farris fundamentals of time management include; failure to plan and set objectives; failure to organize and create a work plan, that is, prioritizing activities, assigning necessary amount of time to each activity and gather resources, incorrectly assuming a correlation between a task’s importance and the time/efforts it will take to accomplish it, confusing activity with accomplishment, confusing efficiency with effectiveness, allowing things to pill up and letting oneself to be diverted from a goal or task.

Contrarily, Farris argues that organization does not transform to effective working. Some people may be organized but they do not meet their goals. Being organized therefore means, the act of being functional while focusing on meeting of goals.

Developing good study habits involves appreciating the dynamic of goal focused behaviour and circumstances that lead to one’s self optimal function. It involves understanding ways of motivation that will lead to self development and efficient achievement of goals.

The strength of this article is that it brings out clearly the point on time management and how it is essential for an individual to observe both time and self-management, which add up to success. It also lays the qualities of good time management and the requisites for success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, the article can be critiqued in that it argues organisation cannot be equated to effective working whereas it is factual that a well organised person is able to organise or manage his time well while a disorganised person get his/her time priorities wrong.

Also the article can be critiqued on that point that it does not differentiate time and stress management as Farris argues that stress management is the same as self management, but rather stress management usually involves the management of one self.

It is more of self management rather than time management. People do not manage the issue or event; they manage their reaction to it. Basically, stress as the body’s total response to any demand placed on it.

Springs, A., 2004. Time Management (Self Management). Mind tools, 1-9.

This article defines time management and how people can manage their time effectively. Time management is a set of related skills that helpone use their time effectively and productively. Good time management differentiates effective and ineffective people. Most importantly, good time management focuses on concentration on results, rather than being busy.

Many people spend their time in a frenzy of activities, but accomplish very little because they do not concentrate on the right things and making them succeed.

The following are some of the key points Springs recommends on a good time management plan: use of an activity log to evaluate one’s use of time, at different times of the day; knowing how much one’s time is worth, and hence, which tasks should be avoided or delegated; determining and agreeing what is important for success in one’s job, and what constitutes exceptional performance and setting the goals and plans that will lead one to that success.

We will write a custom Report on Time management and building team specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The article also concentrates on the time stealers and makes people aware of the need to control these. Time stealers will never be eliminated, but if people are aware of them, they will control them more easily.

Just like Farris, Springs (2004, 5) argues that one cannot manage time neither control time but manage oneself and their use of time. Time management is simply self management. Interestingly, the skills an individual needs to manage others are the same skills one needs to manage themselves: the ability to plan, delegate, organize, direct and control.

The article brings out clearly the elements of time and self management, which is its strongest point.

The weakness of this article is that it does not differentiate time management and self management as should be rather it holds that both are equal, which may certainly not be the case.

Berry, J., 2005. Self-management = Success. SC4, 12.

According to Berry, many people have the misperception that time is never enough and mostly blame their not meeting goals on time, as if there could be more of it. Berry argues that time-management does not exist but there is self-management (unlike Spring (2004, 4) and Farris (2002, 3). The reality of time management versus self management is such that people need to internalize the passage of time, making a change of focus, looking at how they manage themselves in relation to time, not how they can manage time better.

The way people “use” time or “waste” time is mainly a matter of habit. That is, how one “treats” (approaches, looks at, have a paradigm about) time is mainly attributed to how they create behaviour patterns that are called habits. Old habits die hard, but with a shift (change) in how one thinks about “time,” not seeing that they can control time, but rather that they can control themselves in relation to time, one can create a new and better habit about self management.

People believe that “time” happens outside of them…not that they pass through time. This conception gets in people’s way of “seeing” the reality that they must choose to study. Berry advices that when one “feels” like they are wasting time…they are simply not practicing self management, they feel then like time has slipped by…or that we do not have enough of it.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Time management and building team by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Berry, one of the best ways of self management is to make a personal schedule. A schedule should be well prepared to include all targets to be met and the nitty-gritty of success. However, a schedule created rightly is only as good as one is able to abide by it.

The strength of the article is that is able to base its argument on self management in achieving ones goals. Its somehow convincingly brings out the elements in self management and the misconceptions and excuses that people have for not achieving their goals.

The weakness of the article is that it overemphasis on self management as the only factor in succeeding while negating the crucial part that time management plays in success.

Building Teams and Work Groups Oakley B., et al., 2004. Turning Student Groups into Effective Teams. New Forums Press. Vol 2 (1).

This article focuses on students’ academic life and importance of team working in their academic life. The authors critically evaluate the importance of an effective academic system when creating effective academic teams.

These teams, as opposed to the traditional modes of teaching, where the student academic life was approached on an individual level, the teams will make learning more interesting, simpler and more involving the students, as they take a keen interest in learning. The authors note “the benefits of collaborative learning have been demonstrated in countless studies and several meta-analyses”.

As a result, positive effects realised by institutions that have implemented the teams approach in their academic system has greatly increased, as opposed to the tradition “individual approach”. Nevertheless, it cautions that the said positive effects are not automatic, and there are certain issues that must be taken into account in order to create an efficient team.

The issue the authors put forward is that there has to be a purpose of the team being formed, the team members must be compatible and each has to have a role/responsibility that compliments those of other team members.

It further cautions against having self-selection teams which members may abuse others by selecting each other without merit. Thus, it puts forward a selection criterion which should be taken into account when the selection of team members is taking place.

The strength of this article is that it explains the importance of team work in a learning environment and brings out clearly the requisites of a perfect team and the criterion for forming the team.

However, this first article fails to show the effectiveness of self selection of team members, as it puts an emphasis on an independent body choosing the group members. Thus, it falls short in highlighting the effectiveness of groups choosing their own members.

World Health Organization, 2007. Team Building. World Health Organization. Vol 519.

This article focuses on the overall structure of the team. It describes what a team is in detail, the criteria for creating one, and the phases in team development. It describes a team as “two or more people working interdependently towards a common goal, however getting a group of people together does not make a “team.”

A team develops products that are the result of the team’s collective effort and involves synergy.” It is important to note when teams can be used and when they are necessary. Team building depends on the type of task the team is set up to perform, whether it’s temporary or permanent and the timeline of the team. In addition, the article highlights the need for having an oversight committee to control the activities of the team.

Choosing the right team is very important, since failure to do so will result in teams being formed which fail to deliver its goals due. Thus, when teams are being formed, it is wise that the following key issues to be taken into account: size of the team, its composition, selection criteria and the recruitment process.

An effective team should comprise of smaller teams members since smaller teams are easy to manage, and be held accountable. Nevertheless, if a team has more than 8 members, it should have an expert to manage its affairs.

Another important issue to note is that the members who make the group should have the same goal or interest, and none should be in conflict with the goals of the team members.

Thus, the team members should be relevant to the group and more crucial, they should have different experiences or skills. Thus, the article advices that teams or groups should be made up of members who understand the project at hand, and should be professionals or people who are technical experts.

The strength of the article is that it takes more time in explaining what a team is and what many think a team to be. It also goes deep in explaining the different elements of a team and ways of team building.

However, this article fails to cater for groups/teams made up of more than 8 members, as it terms them as ineffective and un-objective towards attaining the ultimate goals of its members.

UVic Manager Tool., n. d. Kit Team Building: HR can provide you with support for building effective team work. Management.

This article focuses more on the relationship between the group or team members. This article puts an emphasis on the need to have an expert consultant’s opinion during the creation of groups/teams. It further adds the role of consultants, as creating a conducive environment for the full realisation for a group’s objective.

Hence, the role of the experts in the creation of the groups will be to assist the group members in learning each others strength and weakness, manage the team members and evaluate the team members understanding of their roles in the team/group.

In addition, it is vital for the team members to respect each others’ role in a group, and where it is necessary to ask questions whenever any team member felt that his/her issues were in conflict with other members. The article further provides four ways through which group members can maintain their responsibilities effectively without getting into conflicts with other group members.

The article explains the methods for building effective group obligations as; the team members having a clear goal of what the team objective is, the members having their role clearly defined, while also having the procedures of any team recruitment, dismissal and responsibility clearly outlined from the beginning.

In order to enhance the relationship between the team members, it is vital for the group to adopt certain strategies. The group has to have an efficient and effective communication channel, a way through which conflicts between the group members is resolved, and a mechanism to ensure that members are held accountable for their responsibilities.

This article provides a clear understanding of what a group/team is all about. Also it clearly shows the expectations of a team and the various facets of a perfect team.

Nevertheless, this article fails to take into account other forms of teams/groups, as it sees groups as being made only by professionals while sideling the informal sector.

References Berry, J., 2005. Self-management = Success. SC4, 12.

Farris, D., 2002. Time management: An Exercise of Self Awareness. Workforce Journal, 31, 124-136.

Oakley B., et al. 2004. Turning Student Groups into Effective Teams. New Forums Press. Vol 2 (1).

Springs, A., 2004. Time Management (Self Management). Mind tools, 1-9.

UVic Manager Tool., n. d. Kit Team Building: HR can provide you with support for building effective team work. Management. World Health Organization., 2007. Team Building. World Health Organization. Vol 519.

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Ethics and Computer Security Essay essay help: essay help

Abstract The world we live in today is very different compared to the one our fore fathers lived many years ago. It is clear that tremendous change has taken place over the last ten decades, and whose impacts has been felt in all the facets of human existence such as social, political and economic.

Over time, man has been trying to employee various means in order to improve his living standards through innovation and inventions of new machines and equipments with the aim of enhancing production in the society.

The involvement of machines in the process of production has made it possible for many nations in the globe to produce enough food, treat disease, eradicate the menace of poverty and facilitate capacity building of the people through education, to mention but a few.

The introduction of computers and the internet in the 1970s marked the end and the beginning of a new era where human labour was no longer required in the production of goods and services.

Workers were replaced with machines and in the process rendered jobless. But today computers are used to perform a large volume of workforce in organizations, such as storage and processing of data, coordination and planning of duties, controlling and regulating of operations and retrieval of information if need arises.

At this point in time we can despite the fact that information revolution has altered to a larger extends various components of human existence such as employment, education, production, religion, human relations, family structure and democracy. In order to counteract the impacts of information communication technology (ICT) in the society, researchers developed computer and information ethics body that is essentially an applied scientific body (Weckert

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The Individual Mandate and the Affordable Care Act: An Economic, Legal and Political Analysis Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

History and development of the Individual mandate

The Constitutionality of the Individual mandate

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The individual mandate is a provision contained in the Affordable Care Act legislation signed in March 2010. Generally, the individual mandate provision stipulates that all U.S. citizens and lawful inhabitants should have an eligible healthcare coverage.

The regulation also holds that for those who fail to acquire and maintain an eligible healthcare coverage, they are liable to a penalty of $695 for each member of the family uninsured.

However, the provision has some exemptions including economic or financial constraints, unrecorded immigrants and religious foundations. In addition, these exemptions would include uncovered individuals for a period of less than three months (Farley, 2010, p. 50).

In addition to the penalty on the individuals who do not obtain the coverage, there are also penalties for the employers who do not cover their employees.

The implementation and enforcement of this directive is under the mandate of The Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The individual mandate also gives some exemptions to the people in prison or incapacitated in a particular way (Manchikanti et al, 2010, p. 38).

Following the enactment of the Affordable Care Act, the provision of individual mandate became a controversial aspect of this enactment. The initial proposal of the individual mandate produced heated debates among the politicians, business people, policy makers as well as religious institutions.

These debates saw people change their perception concerning the issue and others standing firm with their decision. For instance, Mitt Romney, who enforced individual mandates in Massachusetts merely two years before the enactment of the proposal did not accept and support nationwide individual mandate (Schares, 2008, p. 17).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The core of the constitutional challenge of the Affordable Care Act rests in the provision of the individual mandate. Consequently, the issue has drawn various critics and oppositions from members of the public, policy makers, business people as well as politicians. In particular, the issue is very complex for the ordinary American citizens to absorb on a personal level (Farley, 2010, p. 50).

Besides the constitutionality of the individual mandate, many scholars, thinkers and the media focused on the ability of the mandate to attain the goal of ensuring coverage for all Americans. Advocates of the mandate asserted that such an individual mandate was essential for attaining universal insurance coverage.

On the other hand, those opposing the development of the individual mandate argued that its enactment would be an insult to individuality and personal freedom. They also argued that this mandate would be very expensive and unnecessary (Hoffman, 2010, p. 9).

This paper will seek to analyze the history and development of individual mandate, paying close attention to the reasons of its development as well as the opposition it received. The paper will also provide an analysis of the constitutionality of the individual mandate. It will also offer a conclusive argument asserting that the individual mandate is constitutional.

History and development of the Individual mandate The debate on the individual mandate started far off before its enactment. Candidates for the presidential election also used it as a bait to lure votes.

For instance, Secretary of State, Clinton, recommended an individual mandate as the focus of her health reform strategy during her presidential campaign. She asserted that the reason for her support of the individual mandate was the elimination of the free rider aspect in health insurance.

She deemed that this was achievable if the system could include young and healthy people. In addition, her proposal comprised a plan to extend Medicare services to cover people not insured. Moreover, her recommendation depicted a tax subvention for small businesses and families. Her proposal also included a system of checking the businesses who do not offer coverage (Wulsin

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Project Management and Medical Informatics Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Though the information technologies seem to be insufficient with regard to the area of medical informatics, the project management helps to resolve the problems effectively. It is necessary to mention that electronic health records as well as infrastructure upgrades are some of the IT challenges related to medical informatics.

All the problems should be solved with regard to long-term consequences in case of failure leading to inefficient use of available resources. Moreover, the project management involves staff that has some routine duties that should be performed regardless of the progress on the project.

In this respect, the number of project management methods is aimed at coping with challenges in the context of resource shortage, focus on privacy and security, outsourcing, and other aspects that influence the overall perception of the problems and their solving.

The most beneficial aspects of project management related to medical informatics include the opportunity to cope with tasks effectively using minimum of available resources. Besides, it is possible to resolve the risks that may occur in future before such a problem happens.

As such, it is easier to involve the stakeholders while solving the problem in order to meet the needs of clients and administration as well as medical staff. Moreover, a high-quality product can be created at the first push which enables the project team to save costs, efforts, resources, and time that would be spent on remaking and improving of the rough model of the project.

Project management enables the team to take into account all factors that may influence the outcomes of their work including the opinions of stakeholders to introduce an effective model/system that would work effectively within the given environment.

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The Challenge of the Average Employee Essay (Article) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Reasons for Interest

Synopsis

Summary of the Article

Key Lessons

Works Cited

Reasons for Interest This article discusses issues on how a manager who is utilizing the strategic management skills may be able to utilize and effectivey manage the average employees within the organization in a manner that ensures that they are at least optimally productive while at the same time identifying their potential to grow and move up the productivity and official ladder.

At the same time, the manager may be able to identify the ordinary employees who are comfortable to their positions and their level of productivity (Tjan). In addition, the manager may be able to identify the employees who add no value within the company and who should be gotten rid of.

This article helps in identification of the management skills that are required for every organization to effectively manage its labor resources in a manner that ensures that it lies above average in its operations and productivity. This aspect is hence very important in the discussion of strategic management that is being undertaken within our class.

Synopsis Key Issues:

Business builders managing their talent base within the average employees, performing regular and specific performance feedback, fit-test point, catering to the top-of-the-pool talent, Worker productivity.

Summary of the Article Strategic management of the average employees is a skill that requires viewing the employees from a different perspective. It is not the average employees that really count in the organization but rather the employees that are way above average.

Every skill builder within the organization should focus on attaining an above-average level from all employees since the average will always cost the organization a great deal yet without a lot of returns. The manager should hence focus on this factor through different strategies that are at hand so as to ensure best productivity levels from the employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main challenge in any organization is usually not obtaining employees but rather tending their talents so as to ensure that all talent is tapped properly and utilized in the organization for best results.

Most of the times, it is very hard to identify, manage, utilize and nurture talent within an employee in a manner that is beneficial both to the employee and more importantly to the company. Every manager should have a strategy that is aimed at talent realization within the employees as well as ensuring that the identified talent is fully utilized for the good of the company.

The manager should always conduct specific and regular performance analysis of the employees so as to determine their level of productivity as well as their progress as far as improving their skills is concerned. Any employee who portrays positive progress in their skill-building and productivity levels should be encouraged to move on the same trail. However, anyone with no progress as well as those with a negative trend should have their issues addressed and probably eventually gotten rid of from the organization (Tjan).

There should also be carried out fit tests to determine in which areas an employee is best fit and more productive. Over time, it is easy to discover the actual positions that employees should hold so as to ensure that they are not only productive but also they place the interests of the company in the forefront as well as ensuring that the employee is satisfied and happy at their position.

In this way, the organization is able to place its employees “where they belong” hence achieving the best combination of employees so as not only to achieve maximum productivity but also to ensure that there is quality production and reduced costs hence increasing the revenues for the company through optimal utilization of its labor resources.

Every organization should not focus on utilization of all the employees that are present within its premises or ensuring that they stay within the company under any circumstances.

Rather, managers would ensure that they only maintain then best talents within their organizations even as they sort out those that are “average”, knowing that they may be of better use in another organization all together (Tjan).

We will write a custom Article on The Challenge of the Average Employee specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Key Lessons The main agenda of the article is that in any organization, there should be a main focus on the employees who are above average so as to ensure not only their productivity but also the well being of the organization.

There should be strategies to ensure that the organization is able to identify the talents present in each of its employees so as to be able to identify the positions in which they may fit best within the organization so as to ensure they are fully utilized. The organization should hence concentrate on above-average employees and ensure that the talent for the average employees is nurtured to grow so that they may also find a place within the organization.

Works Cited Tjan, Anthony. “The Challenge of the Average Employee: How to manage the 80 percent of workers whose performance is neither stellar nor abysmal”. Bloomberg Business week, 4 Oct. 2011. Web.

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Elements of a Contract Essay online essay help

A contract is an agreement that involves two or more parties with the aim of creating a lawful responsibility. The accord sets the limits and dictates how the entities, the offeror and the offeree are expected to conduct themselves. A contract clearly states the mandates of each party and the consequences that can follow if one party fails in its designated responsibility (Goldman

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The effect of retail service quality and product quality on customer loyalty Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Summary of Key Issues in the Article The above quality management journal focuses on the effects of retail service quality and product quality dimension, with Hong Kong being its location of study. When the economy faces recession, success is based on how retailers are able to acquire customer loyalty by responding to customers’ demand.

Customer loyalty is brought about by a long-term and stable relationship between the customer and the business owner. Needless to say, customers are highly concerned with quality of services, which is a major contributor to customer loyalty.

This article emphasizes on physical aspects, personal interaction, policy, reliability and problem solving as impacts of retail service quality (Yuen

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Art and Design Analysis Essay writing essay help

Art is the effective use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments, or experiences that can be shared with others (Kilgallen para. 6). One arranges work in such a manner that will capture, influence and affect one or more senses, emotions and intellect (Kilgallen para. 2). Art is made up of a wide range of modes of expressions, creations, and human activities. They include photography, paintings, film, literature, and music.

Design is an area of human experience, skill and knowledge which is concerned with the ability of one to mould the environment to suit a desired need. Depending on the art and design work done, a person is likely to be impressed by the work. Art is meant to capture the readers mind and emotions (Kilgallen para. 4).

Art and design is supposed to bring or facilitate the intuitive of a person rather than the rational understanding (Kilgallen 6). Art has many specific categories whereby each is related to its technique and medium. Examples of arts are: decorative arts, performing arts, plastic arts and literature.

Art and design is primarily dependent on personal opinion (Kilgallen 21). For instance, what would be pleasing to my eyes would not attract another person’s sense of sight and mind. In my opinion, a good work of art is supposed to show some skill, create meaning and also show a high degree of creativity.

Analysis of the work of art from the source website is as follows. First, the arts show a high level of creativity. The images depict a strong form of creativity since in the process of the art work it shows there was a cognitive approach that describes the thought technique. The images too show a measure of creativity since it is evident there was a background skill of how things look like (Kilgallen 2).

For instance, the drawing of the tree seems to be an original art work due to the fact that the tree has green leaves and the rest of the images show simplicity since they graphically describe the natural life of people (Kilgallen 3). This is evident in the drawing of a person who is sure, stubborn, and yet, proud. This shows a high level of creativity.

These drawings express original record of action since they seem not to have been drawn using anything mechanical. The drawings are purely handmade and they show that the artist spent a lot of time to come up with these drawings. The artist took all the time to come up with these drawing and to further express the feeling to other people (Kilgallen 23). In my own opinion, the drawings are excellent since they are not flat but have great content.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The artist should have been influenced by the fact that most drawings found in books and libraries are very obvious and tend to be very flat. These drawings show that the artist of these art and design works was inspired by some thought and put the creative though into the drawings. There is a clear evidence of thinking in the mind of the art and design work (Kilgallen para. 6).

However, with regard to the space used, the drawings are congested together. The artist has effectively utilized the space though I feel the drawings are congested and have some text that is not clear.

The mixture of capital letters and small letters in the texts describing the images is also not appealing (Kilgallen para. 7). The multimedia files are also well dealt with. They depict a lot of creativity. Art and design, is not a simple work. It needs a lot of devotion and creativity in order to become a successful artist.

Works Cited Kilgallen, Margaret. Support for PBS. 2001. Web.

Kilgallen, Margaret. Support for PBS. 2001. Web.

Kilgallen, Margaret. Support for PBS. 2001. Web.

Kilgallen, Margaret. Support for PBS. 2001. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Art and Design Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kilgallen, Margaret. Support for PBS. 2001. Web.

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Smoke Alarm “Smart Smoke Detector” Report argumentative essay help

Introduction and Background It is usually very traumatising for homeowners in the event of house fires. Loss of property and life are the most likely outcomes associated with house fires. This situation is worsened if the homeowner is not insured or his insurance policy is limited to specific fire damages and causes.

In Australia, due to the high prevalence of bushfires, high quality smoke detectors have become an essential part and a compulsory fitting of every household in the country. This is necessary measure adopted to ensure safety of the occupants, and to minimize damages in case of house fires.

A typical smoke detector is designed to intersect smoke particles. When smoke particles interfere with the path of light to the sensor, the sensor circuit sequential sets up an alarm irrespective of what caused the smoke. Thus, smoke emanating from cooking or incense stick could set off the alarm. This makes it quite difficult to distinguish between false or actual alarms. As a result, this can contribute to alarm assumptions, which may lead to great damages in cases of fire.

What if there was a product that could overcome these issues and simply did the job it was intended to do, making it useful and less annoying? Our Smart Smoke Detector has been designed and built to satisfy the needs and requirements of a typical residential household. According to the National Fire Protection Agency, a well-chosen and working smoke detector will increase the chances of surviving a fire. This is because in case of a fire out break alarm goes on its occupants may have at most 2 minutes to evacuate.

Smart Smoke detectors will allow customers to evade the smoke detector and to reduce the annoyance of the alarm. The alarm will still sound only this time by the use of a heat detector, sensitizing the homeowner of a potential fire problem. Approximately after 1 hour, a squeak will sound alerting the user that the smoke detector is being re-activated.

Moreover, we will also have a peep to alert the user that the backup battery level is low. This report examines extensively and pinpoints the expected process that Global Engineering will follow to achieve a working prototype of the smart smoke detector.

Project Plan The goal of this project is to assemble a Smart Smoke Detector with a smoke detour system. This will be a more inventive and improved adaptation of the conventional smoke detectors obtainable in the market. The main objectives are for this project are to be completed in time successfully and the final product to be marketable globally.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order for success to be realized, the team must take into account every aspect extensively to reduce possible failure risks. Consequently, it is crucial for the team to come up with a comprehensive project plan that will take into considerations all the project risks as well as the project completion timeline. This prior planning will ensure that the product is built in an efficient and effective manner enhancing its marketability.

Global Engineering outlined the tasks necessary to build the final product while formulating the project plan. This project plan outlined the expected duration of the tasks n which Global Engineering could achieve optimum results. We used Gantt charts in our planning to facilitate the visual display and relationships of these tasks and their timings. Through Gantt chart predetermined project tasks timeline we could schedule resources and staff workloads as efficiently as possible.

There are diverse requirements for every task; some tasks need others to be completed before they could be started, while others require employment of a specific knowledge and skill to achieve the complete it, etc. The team defined the project tasks based on various factors and concerns of technical and financial matters.

It is most crucial in planning the project to make sure that the end product is priced appropriately, marketable and acceptable by the community. These concerns are enumerated below:

Conducting market survey to ascertain whether or not the there is a demand for the product in the community. It is worthy to obtain feedback from current smoke detector users and firms selling smoke detectors. This survey will assist in setting a standard product cost and ascertaining how much people are capable and willing to pay for this product once they are mounted in their homes.

In estimating market price for the new Smart Smoke Detector, Global Engineering will have to form a cost budget for construction of the product. Consequently, comprehensive product architecture required to be studied; the study will involve the varying of individual components on both cost and performance basis.

Constructing, trying and validating the prototype to ensure that all of the product specifications are met and obtainable. This is conducted so as any fallacies and inadequacies in the prototype can be fixed before the production stage, and to confirm that the Smart Smoke Detector adheres to current safety standards.

Developing a marketing and sales strategy which will deal with product promotion, advertising and preparation such as producing banners, brochures and setting up a booth for Trade Fairs.

Global Engineering convenes every week to keep members informed on the progress of the project. This meeting also gives the chance to all team members to communicate project concerns and search for support and guidance from other colleagues. In addition, it will assist in identifying any unforeseen risks, hence allowing the team to make decisions and implement action plans to mitigate delays which may arise. These meetings will also operate as a support system for the team to attain its goal and ensure a quality product is created.

Budget Budgets are very important while undertaking any project and usually determine its success. Budgets usually involve higher estimates than actual costs in order to cushion against any uncertainties or miscellaneous costs such as labour and materials fluctuations.

These unforeseen problems can be caused by inadequate research during the initial concept development and architectural design and research stage of the project. In addition, there may be disagreements among members and may result project delays and additional expenses i.e. salaries and rentals on usage of labs which result to variances in the budget.

We will write a custom Report on Smoke Alarm “Smart Smoke Detector” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are a number of methods to combat such uncertainties which is inclusive of costs cutting wherever possible during the early stages of a project. Secondly, carrying out extensive research to avoid testing failures, i.e. a certain component might not work, or the circuit as a whole might not work the way it was expected. This will enhance thorough product knowledge prior to the commencement and agreement among members. Consequently, these measures will ensure timely completion of the project within the budget.

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The Differences between the Chinese Guanxi (Connections) and Australian’s Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How business is conducted in Guanxi

How to establish a relationship in Guanxi

Differences of Australian’s networking with guanxi

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction Guanxi is Chinese word that means relationships, any kind of relationships. In the business culture, it simply refers to the network relationships that exist among business partners that cooperate and support each other. Guanxi networks are borne of the Chinese mentality that could be understood as “you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours.” 1 In this spirit, parties are expected to exchange favors regularly and voluntarily.

In doing business successfully in China, acquiring the right Guanxi is very important in that the risks, frustrations and disappointments that easily discourage foreigners are minimized. Acquiring a Guanxi with the relevant authorities in regard to ones business will put your business into a long time competitive advantage2.

Moreover, for any business enterprise in China a series of risks, barriers, and setups it experiences can be discouraging or render it unable to survive in the market but with the correct Guanxi working for your business, these barriers are eliminated 3.

This fact has been refuted by4 who says that benefits of Guanxi in business performance have been exaggerated and cannot be proven since there is not enough data due to the secrecy that shrouds the practice.

Establishing and nurturing a guanxi is a taxing investment in terms of resources and time but in the long run, these investments pay from the favors a person receives from partners especially when they are needed.

A common phenomenon in domestic businesses, in the country, is where a strong network of suppliers, retailers, banks and local government official are working together. In this circle, a common culture is where members visit each other’s residence on social visits and brings gifts to the hosts in terms of wine, cigarettes etc. In the western culture, this may be viewed as intrusion, but in China, this is another arena for furthering business interests as 5 observes.

Australian networking takes the western route. This means creating an opportunity to meet and build rapport with people who can help in career development if one is looking for a job, chances of meeting new people and exchanging ideas if one is interested in social networking and chances of connecting businesses for business owners and entrepreneurs 6. This is done through networking events, groups or online.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Networking organizations such as Networking World in Australia are business organizations that offer networking services for businesses to join networking groups or events. Business networking is built over time through sharing information and building trust though this is done in a more formal way than in Guanxi.

Businesses networking is done as a long term strategy for people mainly want to judge others professionalism, expertise and confidence. The major focus of networking is gaining contacts, leads and referrals without any personal gifts expected7.

How business is conducted in Guanxi The way business is conducted in china is different in many ways from how the western world conducts theirs8. First Chinese businesses prefer to the transaction with people they know and trust relying on relationships, as opposed to who offers the best deal. For an organization that wishes to do business with the Chinese, it has to establish a relationship with the necessary parties who will get to know them first before any business deal is sealed.

These relationships do not simply mean companies getting to know each other but also the individuals involved at a personal level through visits, participating in activities together such as sports and informal meetings among others. These are not one off affair that is done before deals are signed, but an ongoing proces9. This means this relationship has to be maintained if more business relations are expected.

How to establish a relationship in Guanxi Guanxi is established first by treating someone with decency and then showing trustworthiness whether on individual or company level10. If a Chinese establishes you can be trusted, he/she is likely to do more business with you. In order to strengthen this relationship, dependability and reliability are very crucial where you can be counted on in good and hard times.

Finally, making regular contacts with each other cultivates understanding and emotional bonding and at this level, you are already friends and the Chinese will feel compelled to do business with you first. In another aspect of Guanxi, is the relationships with high rank officials which is still of paramount importance in conducting successful business in China though this culture of political and administrative interference is reducing11.

Companies that do business with government subsidiaries still find this important but for those that do not need help from the government it is of less importance.

We will write a custom Essay on The Differences between the Chinese Guanxi (Connections) and Australian’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Guanxi at another form function as information resources network and for companies that have a wide relationship web, they are able to achieve much better results than those that have little or no relationship with Chinese12.

Differences of Australian’s networking with guanxi Australian networking in business takes the form of marketing relationships or business networks that those involved have nothing to do with each other at a personal level. On the other hand, Guanxi in China involves personal relationships where business is all about individuals involved and interact at a personal level even before they conduct any form of business13.

In Australian, business networks involves companies and goods in the industry that are being traded with, and the relationships they create at the business level, as opposed to a single employee being the center of the relationship. In China, however, Guanxi is seen as property of an individual working at a personal level; therefore, the company is utilizing the Guanxi assets of its employees. This means that when the person leaves the company, this asset of the networks he/she had created is lost to the organization14.

In Australia business networks or relationships are between parties who are exchanging products or ideas in their transactions and money is involved. In the Guanxi, the persons involved often do not have goods or services they are exchanging and, therefore, are neither buyers or sellers or even business partners.

These are often exchanging connections and other favors as it may involve a businessman or an employee of a company with a government official or a person with a connection to a government official. Example as described by15 is of an executive of an overseas company who has a friend in close to a key government official, and is constantly fed information on an upcoming project and the executive gives appropriate presentation based on this information and gets the tender.

In the western business networks, customers and the companies or business partners are all part of the network which does not extend beyond business while, in guanxi customers, business partners or even the organization may not be part of it since it involves private contacts that relate at a personal, informal and clandestine exchanges.

In the above example, the executive of the overseas company and his informant friend in the government have a personal relationship and exchange information secretary and informally without the involvement of the organizations they work for16.

In Australia, the form of information exchanged between the executive and the Chinese government officials, obviously with a reward, is unethical and constitutes to bribery. Law is broken and this can lead to serious actions taken against the participants, but in China, this is perfectly alright, it is an example of Guanxi at work17.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Differences between the Chinese Guanxi (Connections) and Australian’s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Chinese networking (Guanxi) and Australian networking are clearly very different from each other. This is in terms of the level of involvement where in Australia businesses relate at the organization level while in china personal relationships are involved. Relationships are also viewed as a personal property in Guanxi while this is not the case in Australia.

In Guanxi, also personal gifts exchange hands between parties while this is not the case in Australian networks and finally, Guanxi will be viewed as bribery and law breaking in Australia while, in China, this is perfectly legal.

Bibliography Coopes, Amy. “Australia is social networking capital of the world.” The Telegraph, 2010. Fan, Ying. “Guanxi’s Conseguences: personal gains at social cost.” Journal of Business Ethics, 2002: 371-380.

Gao, Hongmei. “Comparing Chinese guanxi with American networking for foreign-born Chinese job seekers in the U.S.” Business Library, 2007. Web.

Hinner, Michael. Chinese and Western business cultures: A comparison and contrast. Australia: Peter lang Publishing, Inc, 2005.

Lo, Vincent. “Chinese Business Culture: Guanxi, An Important Chinese Business Element.” Los Angeles Chinese Learning Center. Web.

Mungenast, Hannes. Chinese Business Culture. Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2007.

Reuvid, Jonathan. Doing Business with China. United States of America: GMB Publishing, 2005.

Sun, Ted. Inside the Chinese business mind: a tactical guide for managers. United States of America: ABC-CLIO, 2010.

Vanhonacker, Wilfried. “Guanxi Networks in China: how to be the spider not the fly.” The China Business Review, 2004: 48-60.

Wray, Richard, and Heather Stewart. “Western business struggles to break Chinese barriers.” The Guardian, March 28, 2010: 8.

Footnotes 1 Lo, Vincent. “Chinese Business Culture: Guanxi, An Important Chinese Business Element.” Los Angeles Chinese Learning Center.

2 Sun, Ted. Inside the Chinese business mind: a tactical guide for managers. United States of America: ABC-CLIO, 2010.

3 Gao, Hongmei. “Comparing Chinese guanxi with American networking for foreign-born Chinese job seekers in the U.S.” Busioness Library, 2007.

4 Vanhonacker, Wilfried. “Guanxi Networks in China: how to be the spider not the fly.” The China Business Review, 2004: 48-60.

5 Fan, Ying. “Guanxi’s Conseguences: personal gains at social cost.” Journal of Businesss Ethics, 2002: 371-380.

6 Coopes, Amy. “Australia is social networking capital of the world.” The Telegraph, 2010.

7 Hinner, Michael. Chinese and Western business cultures: A comparison and contrast. Australia: Peter lang Publishing, Inc, 2005.

8 Gao, Hongmei. “Comparing Chinese guanxi with American networking for foreign-born Chinese job seekers in the U.S.” Busioness Library, 2007.

9 Hinner, Michael. Chinese and Western business cultures: A comparison and contrast. Australia: Peter lang Publishing, Inc, 2005.

10 Wray, Richard, and Heather Stewart. “Western business struggles to break Chinese barriers.” The Guardian, March 28, 2010: 8.

11 Hinner, Michael. Chinese and Western business cultures: A comparison and contrast. Australia: Peter lang Publishing, Inc, 2005.

12 Mungenast, Hannes. Chinese Business Culture. Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2007.

13 Reuvid, Jonathan. Doing Business with China. United States of America: GMB Publishing, 2005.

14 Sun, Ted. Inside the Chinese business mind: a tactical guide for managers. United States of America: ABC-CLIO, 2010.

15 Vanhonacker, Wilfried. “Guanxi Networks in China: how to be the spider not the fly.” The China Business Review, 2004: 48-60.

16 Gao, Hongmei. “Comparing Chinese guanxi with American networking for foreign- born Chinese job seekers in the U.S.” Busioness Library, 2007.

17 Fan, Ying. “Guanxi’s Conseguences: personal gains at social cost.” Journal of Businesss Ethics, 2002: 371-380.

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The Medium is the Message Research Paper college application essay help

Human communication has developed from primitive forms, such as symbols and mimes, to more complex modern forms such as language. Communication, as a discipline, has attracted the attention of many scholars and professionals. Numerous theories have been put forward, all of which attempt to stake a claim as to what constitutes communication.

Within the theoretical foundations of communication, there exist the medium theory proposed by experts such as McLuhan, Ong and Meyrowitz. The medium theory postulates that effective communication is determined by the medium of communication. McLuhan uses the terms medium to also refer to communication technologies such as the TV, the radios, the internet and many others.

Thus, the meaning of a message is any change introduced by the medium within the communication process. This implies that communication technologies affect how people perceive the world around them. Such technologies also introduce new communication patterns into human affairs. Such patterns change people perception education, business trade among phenomena. Within this paper, the medium theory is analyzed Vis a Vis the internet.

Suffice to state that the medium theory has come under intense criticism. Critics argue that McLuhan and other medium theorist ignore other basic variables, which determine the effectiveness of communication. Despite the criticisms, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the internet as a communication medium is found to corroborate McLuhan’s (1964) theory. Medium theorists such as McLuhan, Ong and Meyrowitz propose that modern communication has been mediatised.

This implies that the medium the message. The medium of communication modifies communication process in that it determines how people transfer, receive, perceive and interpreted messages. The meaning of every message is determined by the medium and not the content or the manner in which the message is relayed (Centre for Media, Communication and Information Research 2011).

McLuhan and other media theorist postulate the media, rather than the actual content of the message should be the centre of study in relation to how meaning is derived. Furthermore, every form of medium is unique and has unique characteristics. Therefore, different forms of media modify communication differently.

To understand the medium theory, it is important to critically evaluate the meaning and implication of the terms ‘medium’ and ‘medium is the message’ (Federman 2004). McLuhan (1964) uses the terms ‘media’ and ‘technology’ to also refer to the medium of communication. McLuhan refers to Medium as “any extension of ourselves that helps us in perceiving the world around us” (1964).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In general terms, medium refers to technologies through which messages are passed from the speaker to the recipient. McLuhan (1964) further gives two types of media; hot and cool media. By hot media, McLuhan (1964) refers to any form of technology, such as the radio, that requires limited involvement by the user.

Conversely, cool media, such as the TV requires maximum involvement by the user. Other examples of medium forwarded by McLuhan include print media forms such as newspapers, bulletins, tabloids and magazines. McLuhan controversially adds that technologies such as cars and the light bulb are among useful communication media.

These Media are the lenses through which people see the world around them. McLuhan (1964) adds another form of medium; the content. McLuhan (1964) argues that “a typical characteristic of every medium is that the content carried by that medium is medium in itself”. Thus medium becomes a form of language with its own language structure and rules.

McLuhan (1964) asserts that medium intensifies and speeds up the process of communication. Medium changes the “scale, pace and pattern” through which people associate with others as well with the world around them resulting to “psychic and social consequences” (Weisband, Schneider

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Economic Impacts of Tourism Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Negative Impact of Tourism on Hawaii Natives and Environment

Tourism marketers need lasting impact from APEC

Estimating economic impacts from tourism

Tourism management: analysis, behaviour and strategy

Works Cited

Negative Impact of Tourism on Hawaii Natives and Environment The paper begins by pointing out to the multi-billion dollar nature of the tourism industry. Improvements on technology and transportation in the latter part of the 20th century have largely led to the growth of tourism in the recent years. The state of Hawaii thrives as a tourist destination due to its warm climate, cultural variation and additional pleasure to a tourist.

While tourism has resulted into a prosperous economy of the Hawaiian region, it has had severe consequences on the natives and the environment. Hawaii has struggled to adapt with the rapid changes brought about by tourism, such as the ever-increasing development and expansion of tourism structures (hotels, resorts etc).

These and other similar developments have diminished the natives’ capacity to maintain their traditional practices such as fishing, gathering food and medicine which, sequentially, have affected the economic aspects of their life. In addition, the growing disparity among the natives has reduced the economic options available to meet their basic needs.

This article is important tot stakeholders as it presents a business model that aids in understanding Hawaii’s approach to tourism and how tourism activities can be tailored so that the natives can also benefit economically.

Darowski et al (para. 2) give a critical evaluation of the economic impacts of tourism on the state of Hawaii. The authors assert that although tourism has had positive impacts on the Hawaiian economy, it has had several profound impacts on the natives’ ability to fend for themselves.

To justify this bold statement, the authors mention that today, 60 percent of animal and plant species in the state are endangered and although the state has issued regulations to tackle the issue, implementation is a problem. The facts and figures presented throughout the paper are cited as required, and attest to the credibility of the information presented therein.

One of the areas that have been heavily affected by tourism is the Hawaiian tradition and culture. Globalization coupled with recent developments have resulted in the natives finding it difficult to maintain their livelihoods with the loss of traditional jobs, making a number of them to turn to the industry to meet their daily needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other negative aspects of tourism include environmental issues and government legislation, which have contradicted with the natives’ way of life. I agree with the authors’ assertion that tourism has affected the Native Hawaiian’s way of life negatively as it has reduced their ability to meet their economic needs. The information is based on an in-depth discussion dating as far as the 18th and 19th centuries. The arguments used to support the thesis statement are drawn from credible sources.

The ideas expressed in the paper are consistent with my own experiences, especially the erosion of culture as a result of tourism. Besides, developments and expansions resulting from tourism as expressed in the paper are evident in my everyday experiences, particularly in towns and cities that have a high entry of tourists.

Tourism marketers need lasting impact from APEC The article is drawn from the Pacific Business News and details the plans by Hawaii’s tourism marketers to highlight the state as a “world-class destination for meetings and conventions” (Chiem, para. 1). Chiem writes that persons on business missions visiting Hawaii normally miss out on the state’s bright-and-sunny and high-surf seasons as they visit on the wrong time of the year.

The article addresses the importance of integrating tourism into business activities such as meetings and conventions so that the state can gain from tourism. The author focuses on how the economic aspects of tourism can affect the way business activities are conducted. The information presented in the paper is useful to stakeholders as it identifies strategies than can be used to integrate business processes or activities with tourism in the state of Hawaii.

I agree with the article’s main theme that business activities can be integrated with tourism for the mutual benefit of both. In order to reach the target audience, Hawaii’s tourism marketers have used the right platform: the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Leaders Week Meetings. In deed, the importance of this meeting is evident in the marketer’s reference to it as “the most important business convention in state history” (Chiem, para. 1).

Such a platform would enable them to reach their target audience, including company executives and businesspersons who could be convinced to visit Hawaii for business meetings and conventions during seasons that coincide with the bright-and-sunny or high-surf seasons. David Uchiyama, one of the leading members of the Hawaii Tourism Authority, points out to another element that can be used to promote tourism in Hawaii among the international business community; incentives.

I am in agreement with the plan as it is consistent with my experiences and the general perception regarding the role of incentives in business. Incentives would encourage business travelers not only to visit Hawaii, but to visit it during the season mentioned above and thus enjoy the cool weather of the island and, in return, increase Hawaii’s revenues from tourism. This plan, if successful, could generate numerous economic advantages to the state.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Economic Impacts of Tourism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Estimating economic impacts from tourism This paper compares two models, computable general equilibrium (CGE) and the input-output (IO) approach, used in examining the effects of tourism on the economy of an area.

The CGE model is a relatively new analytic technique that is in its early stages of use. After the comparison, the authors use the two models to analyze the impacts of a drop in visitor expenditure on Hawaii’s economy (Zhou et al, pp. 76).

Hawaii’s expenditure is mainly based on tourist spending, defense expenditure, and sugar sales. Spending by tourists has risen steadily over the decades and accounted for nearly 35 per cent of the state’s Gross State Product (GSP) in 1997.

From the analysis, the authors observe that segments of the economy related to tourism show the largest effects, hence pointing out to the economic significance of tourism to Hawaii. The research paper is important to practitioners in planning and implementing strategies for improving tourism in the state of Hawaii to improve its GSP values.

Being a research/scholarly paper, the authors have used a number of references to support their arguments on the economic impacts of tourism in the state of Hawaii. Zhou et al write that the growth of the tourism sector has steadily transformed the structure of Hawaii’s economy mainly in four areas.

First, Hawaii’s export industry has been transformed from agriculture-based exports to service-based exports. Second, growth in the service sector and decline in agriculture have re-shaped employment opportunities and skill requirements. Third, tax collected by the state and local governments has increased leading to improved public services delivery.

Lastly, as the service sector widens and pull is more labour, construction and complementary industries also realize increases in final product demands. The authors provide statistical evidences and tables to show proof of the transformations in the Hawaii’s economy resulting from tourism. Hence, I am in agreement with the authors’ arguments and, as a result, the findings.

The research findings of a 10 per cent drop in visitor numbers has the expected negative impacts in sectors that depend significantly on tourism, namely hotel, transportation, and eating and drinking industries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Impacts of Tourism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These findings are consistent with my own experiences in daily life, for instance, a shortage in the supply or increase in the costs of fuel often transforms the industries that depend on this products with some of them looking for alternative sources of fuel while others reduce the scale of their operations. The paper is credible and I agree with the authors’ arguments regarding their findings.

Tourism management: analysis, behaviour and strategy In Chapter 3 of Tourism management: analysis, behaviour and strategy, Woodside (pp. 87) reports on the history of tourism trends in the state of Hawaii, including the benefits and costs. Hawaii’s economy shows considerable comovement between the number of tourists and income and employment.

Tourism has its most immediate impact on gross state product, followed in a few months by the per capita income of the inhabitants. Kauai and Oahu, the largest and third largest of the islands that make up Hawaii respectively, are the most vulnerable to tourism trends in the state.

However, Maui, the second largest of the islands, is correlated with agricultural shocks while the Big Island varies most strongly with revenue from federal government employment. Generally, the economic effect of tourism in the eight islands making up the island is so immense. The information presented in the book is useful to stakeholders in planning and implementing strategies for coping with fluctuations in the number of tourists in the individual islands of Hawaii.

In this chapter, Woodside focuses on the importance of tourism as a driver of economic activity in Hawaii, and the effect that fluctuations in tourist numbers has had on the economic performance of the island over the years, with special focus on island-by-island analysis.

This chapter takes a time series approach to the relationship between tourism and the economy and examines the sensitivity of the Hawaiian economy to fluctuations in tourism numbers.

In the course of the discussion, Woodside mentions the sensitivity of the Hawaiian economy to tourism trends and how these effects impact on other sectors of the state’s economy not necessarily related to tourism, a domino effect kind of relation. Woodside’s arguments are similar to those expressed by other authors included in this paper, particularly on the importance of tourism to Hawaii’s economy.

Of particular interest in Woodside’s argument is the comovement of tourism, income, and employment in Hawaii. All three measures of Hawaii’s economy commove most strongly with fluctuations in the volume of tourists visiting the state, a factor that is reflected in the state’s figures for the Gross State Product (GSP) over the years covered by the author.

These figures are a precise pointer to the economic impacts of tourism in any town, city or state that depends significantly on earnings derived from tourism. Since the arguments are justified with numerical evidence from previous records, I am in agreement with this chapter.

Works Cited Chiem, Linda. Tourism marketers need lasting impact from APEC. Pacific Business News, September 29. 2011. Web.

Darowski, Lukasz, et al. Negative Impact of Tourism on Hawaii Natives and Environment. Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal, Volume 1 Number 2, 2006. Web.

Woodside, Arch G. Tourism management: analysis, behaviour and strategy. Oxfordshire: CAB Iinternational, 2008.

Zhou, Deying, et al. Estimating economic impacts from tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, Volume: 24, Issue: 1, 1997, Pages: 76-89.

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Sodaro, Michael. Comparative Politics Essay essay help online: essay help online

To address the current issues in politics, Sodaro has come up with a number of political approaches that can be used to understand the political ideologies of people (Sodaro 12). In his book, Sodaro has critically explained the trend politics in several countries.

To achieve this, he has explained the types of governments that different countries have, their status of democracy, social status and their economic stability. He has also explained factors that may influence the politics of a given country.

The first part of the book critically analyzes core political topics. It mainly focuses on the key issues that may affect the politics of a given country. This includes economic stability, political ideologies, international relations and personal interests of political leaders.

It is evident that many governments in the world are striving to improve their socio-political and economic status. To achieve this goal, they apply a number of strategies. However, it has been difficult for most of them to achieve this dream due to a number of factors that act as setbacks in their development (The Economist 6).

Democracy may or may not be viewed as a crisis depending on the level of its participation. When the level of political participation by individuals is high, there are high chances that a crisis may arise. At the same time, when the level of political participation is low, there are chances that a crisis may occur.

High levels of democracy tend to reduce the power of the government. This in turn increases the level of apathy and reduces the level of public trust among individuals. The government therefore cannot make tight decisions without the approval of its subjects. In many instances, this is viewed as democracy.

However, in most cases, it tends to make the process of decision making to be difficult. This in turn makes it difficult for the government to improve the social and economic status of the nation (Southhall 16). As a result, individuals will be demanding more from the government while it can only produce less.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the Rational Choice Theory, all individuals are believed to be rational. This means that an individual can only engage him or herself in an activity if he/she will benefit from it. The benefits that such an individual should accrue from a venture should exceed the effort invested in it (The Economist 11).

While participating in an event, an individual can benefit from either collective benefits or selective benefit. An individual who benefits from collective benefits and was not an active member of the group or initiative is known as a rider. Selective benefits on the other hand are exclusive benefits that the members of a given group or initiative earn.

However, with the current democratic trends, an individual will gain no benefit whatsoever from of voting. This may explain the reason why there has been a decline in voter turnout in many countries. However, there are those individuals who still vote. These individuals vote for very different reasons. Partisan identification, sense of civic duty and the thought of doing the right thing are some of the factors that make them vote.

Political parties have also been on the decline. This is due to the fact that people are now rational. As a result, their process of decision-making has changed. Decline in party membership and party affiliations are the main reasons behind this trend.

Currently, it is difficult for a person to vote for a candidate due to his/her political affiliation. People now demand more from their leaders. Due to this fact, people tend to vote for candidates of different political parties in different elections as long as these candidates meet their needs and desires.

The world is diverse. It is composed of many sovereign states that have different political systems and ideologies. At the present moment, there are a lot of changes in the politics of many countries. Many people now want to be ruled by a democratic system that empowers the citizens and reduces the power of the government (Lewis 9).

Countries like Egypt and Libya are good examples of states that have embraced democracy during the 21st century. The citizens of these countries brought to an end the dictatorship rule, a form of governance that had been common in many Islamic nations. The book is thus a powerful tool that gives students the chance to understand political trends, the needs and desires of individuals and their governments.

We will write a custom Essay on Sodaro, Michael. Comparative Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Lewis, Aidan. “Libya after Gaddafi: Who’s in Charge?” BBC.co.uk. 13th September 2011. Web.

Sodaro, Michael. Comparative Politics: A Global Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2007.

Southhall, Ashley. “The Early Word: Double Dip”. New York Times. 7th October 2011. Web.

The Economist. “Politics this week”. The Economist. 8th October 2011. Web.

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Gender and Sexuality Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Androcentrism is putting men at the centre of focus. In such a case, men control all issues concerning decision making in the society (Lorber 13). This notion gives the male gender power while the female gender is not recognized in the society. As such, this paper will discuss the numerous issues that women have faced for many years and it will also discuss the transformations that have taken place over the years for social change.

Discussion Androcentrism allows masculinity to be superior in the society. Children are socialized in a way that defines their position in the society. In the society, androcentrism allows misrepresentation of women in many sectors especially in areas of employment and governance issues (Lorber 17).

Men are socialized to be leaders and they occupy top position in the society but women are required to support men in their quest for power and leadership. Because of this, women have been discriminated and their views are not represented.

In the media and film industry, men are given bigger role, they are the stars and directors in most cases, and the main theme in a movie revolves around men and their ideas. Where women appear in movies, they are represented as sexy or beautiful and because of this, women are considered as sex objects and their bodies are given more focus than their brains.

For a long time the society has accepted that men are more superior and this is evident in the society. Most literature uses the title of man to refer to either men or women and words such as “humankind and guys” are used to refer to both genders and this way the women are overlooked.

This notion portrays men as strong, aggressive, and intelligent compared to women (Griffin 97). In fact, social media advertisements use women’s bodies but in cases where strength is to be portrayed only men are used.

Areas of politics, law, and policy making have been dominated by men too. In the society today, we have more men as presidents and senators and this implies that women have been misrepresented in issues of governance (Griffin 99). In the world, Rwanda is the only country with majority of women in parliament while in countries like the US it remains at 17% and 22% in United Kingdom (Lorber 83). This statistics clearly indicates that men still have high influence in issues of governance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women have been painted as human beings who are supposed to appraise men in their positions; this has been portrayed in entertainment industry and tourism sectors. In these areas women are treated as “comfort women” (Lorber 59). In fact, women are sex workers because that is how they have been socialized.

In some communities, women have been used as a source of income and this is evident since girls are offered to strangers as sex trade and this issue is very common in the tourism industry. In times of war, women are sexually exploited, because they are left behind with no protection or skills to defend themselves.

Because the society is dominated by men, women have been denied many opportunities in the society since they have not been valued. Women lack access to very important resources. For instance we have few female engineers because some jobs have been reserved for men but women are indirectly discouraged from taking them (Lorber 71).

This has led to a wide gender gap since even employment opportunities are not equally accorded to men and women. In areas where women are employed their jobs are referred to as “jobs for women.” Secretarial, nursing and teaching have been referred to as female occupations.

Women also practice domestic roles including taking care of children and this role is preventing women from being other better occupations. Men have dominated issues of leadership and this has lead to wide gender gap between men and women in the society.

For many years, women have been suppressed because the society is dominated by men. A few years ago, women felt the need to seek equal opportunities in the society to enjoy rights just like men. This led to formation of feminism theory and development of feminism movements to empower and campaign for women.

According to this approach, equality between men and women exists when both genders are able to have rights in terms of power control and influence in the society. As such, women empowerment means addressing all issues that have brought imbalance between men and women so that women can have equal participation in all issues of development.

We will write a custom Essay on Gender and Sexuality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Feminism theory is an extension of the feminism (Sjoberg 185). Feminism is a concept that emerged long time aimed at defining, establishing, and protecting social, economical, and political rights for women (Mohanty 514). Apart from this, feminism advocates for equal opportunities in the society for women.

Generally, the feminism theory emerged because women wanted to have equal rights in a male dominated society (Sjoberg 211). Feminism theory exists in various categories that have emerged from the feminism movements including theories about origin of inequality and social development of sex and gender.

In deed, feminism movements have campaigned for women rights including education rights, property ownership, voting rights, and equal employment opportunities among other civil liberties (Sjoberg 196).

Notably, the theory of feminism addresses three major areas. The first is the liberal feminism that advocates equal opportunities for men and women through political and legal reforms (Lorber 37). Liberal feminism looks at the interaction between men and women as it seeks to transform the society for better.

Generally, this topic addresses numerous issues such as voting, education, medical care, eradicating sexual and domestic violence and reproductive rights for women (Lorber 47). The second category is the socialist feminism which is a broad category that addresses the role of women in the society. According to this approach, women have been oppressed in the society and therefore there is need to address this concern (Lorber 51).

The third category is the radical feminism which aims at creating a balanced relationship in the society. According to the radical feminism approach, there is need to overthrow patriarchy by campaigning for equal gender roles (Lorber 82). After a wide campaign, there have been transformations that have granted women liberty.

Transformation is the change in beliefs and practices of people to gain a different perceptive. Despite the fact that for a very long time we have lived in a society that discriminates women, there have been tremendous achievements towards equality and equity between men and women.

Although women and men’s needs are not the same, the society has understood the needs of women and has recognized them as people with their own identity (Diamond 22). Women have been accorded the rights to acquire education in any field of their choice.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gender and Sexuality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Employment opportunities have been increased for women in an effort to bridge gender gap. Additionally, Development of affirmative action by the United Nations has reduced gender inequality (Diamond 51).

Today, much attention has been given to women and a platform for them to speak has been created. In fact, policies on governance and leadership have put in place to include women in policymaking. Restructuring of social institutions has put deliberate measures to liberate women and today women have the right to own property without any objection from men (Diamond 61).

Many countries have women as parliamentarians and politicians and this gives women the ability to have political power. Awareness on the importance of including women in political, social, and economic activities of a country has been recognized today. Because women constitute the highest population of the world’s human resource, they have a lot to offer to the world if their effort will be appreciated (Diamond 32).

Conclusion About one century ago women were still claimed as a man’s property and therefore they did not enjoy many rights (Mohanty 511). As such, women did not vote, they were not allowed to own properties, and they did not have equal right to education.

According to statistics, more than 70 per cent of illiterate people in the world are women and they are still suffering the consequences of social stratification (Lorber 21). Over the years, women have been forced to be caretakers at home. However, through much struggle women have campaigned for gender equality and today we have seen a lot of changes although equality has not been fully achieved in the society.

Works Cited Diamond, Morty. From the inside out: radical gender transformation, FTM and beyond. San Francisco: Manic D Press, 2004. Print.

Griffin, Penny. Gender, governance and the global economy. Australian Journal of International Affairs 64. 1 (2010): 86-104. Print.

Lorber, Judith. Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics. London: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Mohanty, Chandra. Feminist Solidarity through Ant capitalist struggles. Chicago Journals 28. 2 (2003): 499-535. Print.

Sjoberg, Laura. Introduction to security studies: feminist contributions. Security studies 18 (2009): 183-213. Print.

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Reaction Paper to Two Short Stories: “Salvation” by Langston Hughes and “On Going Home” by Joan Didion Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Authors use short non-fiction stories to convey unique messages of events, incidents, or emotions. This paper revolves around two short stories namely Salvation by Langston Hughes and On Going Home by Joan Didion. Further, it provides a summary of strategies utilized by the writers in conveying their ideas along with a detailed description of how I personally relate to the themes presented therein.

Moreover, it gives a detailed explanation of the purposes of the two short stories based on their themes pointing out how the two authors employ aspect of imaginations and nonfiction in their stories.

“Salvation” by Langston Hughes Strategies Used

Salvation is a unique and a must-read chef-d-oeuvre where the author Langston Hughes uses remarkable strategies to convey the aspect of irony. The writer uses irony to imply that, even if a person is in dire need of something, it is not easy for him/her to acquire it. Hughes attended the church ready to become a believer.

However, she left it entirely opposite of what she expected out of it. As Langston undergoes numerous tribulations and trials in a bid to receive salvation, she gradually distances herself from Jesus. This follows because she waited to see Jesus before her day of salvation. However, this never happened. Due to social pressure from the gathering at the church coupled with that of her aunt who vehemently pushes her towards salvation, Langston lies to the church concerning her salvation.

The writer draws the reader into irony by establishing a unique precedent that a person’s life can be a nightmare when he/she least expects such.

As a young boy, Langston experienced a difficult situation in the church. Group pressure and desire to please her own aunt forced her to do something that was against her judgment. The irony shows how the church congregation aimed at bringing Hughes’s closer to Christ. However, it did the opposite by making her hold the belief that God did not exist.

Moreover, Langston uses vivid description and concrete details in this short story. The detailed description of her aunt, the preacher, and the church aids in keeping the momentum rolling, thus, making story vivid and easy to master.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the reader can easily picture unique images of “old women with jet-black faces and braided hair; and old men having work-gnarled hands” (Sylvan, William

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Reaching for the Top: Customized Jeans Production Essay essay help free

Perhaps, one of the most revolutionary ideas of the modern world, the customized clothes production is one of the obvious profitable decisions fir such great companies as Levi Strauss. Because of high rates of competition in the world market and the necessity to come up with the idea that would allow to decrease the revenues, the company decided to shift to creating customized jeans.

As one of the industries that develop quite rapidly and, thus, have a number of competitors to face, the company can suffer considerable losses. On the one hand, the company is known for producing the genuine jeans of the finest quality; on the other hand, a number of other companies produce jeans of much lower quality, yet sells them several times cheaper.

Hence, the company is bound to work on the specific decision that could help it decrease the revenues and at the same time offer the goods that will never be topped in the world jeans market by any other jeans-producing company. It is worth mentioning, though, that the balance between complying with the demands of customers and keeping the company’s costs under control, since customers’ demands can be rather unreasonable.

It cannot be denied that the offered proposal will draw numerous investments into the company, which will also improve the economical and financial state of Levi Strauss greatly. Lowering the costs for the production, the new strategy will enhance the company’s authority in the world jeans market. Thus, it must be admitted that the Personal Pair Proposal is worth developing into a campaign.

It is also worth mentioning that the Personal Pair Proposal will help the Levi Strauss Corporation not to be able to compete with the low-cost jeans mass production, but to create the niche that will not allow the former hinder the company’s sales and revenue rates. Reconsidering the company’s financial and selling policy, as well as launching the new customer-oriented strategy for jeans production, the management is bound to make the enterprise strive even among the numerous rivals.

According to the general estimations, the Personal Pair Proposal campaign is going to decrease the revenues of the company considerably. Demanding the costs for its implementation and establishment, the idea will pay off as soon as people start buying the offered goods. Hence, the Personal Pair Proposal is the idea to consider.

Explaining the need to offer the Personal Pair Proposal and launch it into mass production, the author also stressed the necessity to standardize the production somehow. With help of certain model, the proposal will be much more efficient. In addition, the company will have to boost the Personal Pair proposal in its affiliates, which also requires certain standards for the jeans production to be set.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it is obvious that the idea of customized jeans making can prove rather profitable for the company. Once the customized jeans production is launched, Levi Strauss Corporation will take over the numerous competitors, providing the public with the production of much better quality for the most reasonable price.

Even though the production of customized clothes might cause certain complexities at first, namely, the process of measuring the clients and adjusting the existing mechanisms to creating the jeans of specific size and texture, it is obvious that the new idea will bring the company to its ultimate success.

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American History: Wars Research Paper scholarship essay help

Introduction The history of America encompasses a myriad of issues that were intertwined. Some of these issues led to varying stances among leaders and citizens. Relationships with other countries were paramount for the purpose of joint development efforts and support. This paper discuses some of the issues and how they affected the world.

The Nation at War The Trench Warfare refers to an historic time when soldiers dug trenches which were used to launch attacks and prevent direct attack from enemies. The layout of these trenches was quite complex and had a zigzag design which did not allow direct shooting from enemies during an attack (Divine et al., 2011).

Communication was also intensive with phone lines passing underground for the purpose of connecting with other trenches. Besides these trenches, there were resting points for fresh soldiers who were always on standby, ammunition, mail, water, food and several essential supplies.

Why did the Trench Warfare leave a three-year stalemate and historic slaughter on the battlefield? This was attributed to the tactics which were employed by both parties. Millions of soldiers were sent by France and Britain to participate in the attrition yet they knew that they would die.

The trench layout also led to massive deaths as millions lost their lives crossing barbed wires within the trench. Besides these wires, trench walls were a security threat as they collapsed and buried soldiers especially during heavy shielding (Divine et al., 2011). Trench conditions further claimed millions of soldiers with others succumbing to wounds sustained during battle attacks.

It was unhealthy for soldiers to spend hours standing in cold water as this affected their feet and general health. They also lacked sanitary facilities like toilets and proper sewage system with some of the diseases having been spread by lice and rats which lived in the trenches. Lastly, some of the weapons used were quite lethal including riffles, machine guns, gas, tanks and bayonets.

Two major battles were recorded during this period. The first one was the Battle of Verdun and Somme in 1916 in which German and French troops were the main casualties. On the other hand, the Battles of Arras and Leper which involved the Allies and Germany in 1917 causing more than 250, 000 casualties from each side (Divine et al., 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Treaty of Versailles The treaty was signed in June 1919 with the aim of ending the First World War which had significantly affected millions of people around the world. The treaty was further mandated to promote peace among nations and punish Germany by establishing a League of Nations to resolve diplomatic crisis.

To the contrary, the treaty resulted into a legacy of problems which has been arguably blamed for the start and escalation of the Second World War. The treaty was discussed by Allies without involving Germany after its ratification.

Terms for the treaty were drawn after discussions by the “Big Three” who included Lloyd George, Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson (Divine et al., 2011). With each having personal views, it is believed that Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” were to have significant impact and make the world safer for democracy to thrive.

The points were part of the speech the president gave in January 1918 and later formed the basis for a peace programme. Among these points was the need to have transparent agreements. This was to promote transparency in making future treaties and sub-treaties in order to engage every party involved.

As a result, all private discussions were to become effective after receiving a global public covenant. Secondly, President Wilson advocated for impartiality in making decisions concerning all colonies based on equitable claims and general interests of the population.

As such, colonial powers were not to act as owners of colonies but as trustees of the society’s interests through ethical administrative conduct. Lastly, he proposed the formation of a League of Nations aimed at guaranteeing the territorial and political sovereignty of all states (Divine et al., 2011). This formed a structural foundation of permanent peace among nations and cities and promoted democratic relationships.

Transition to Modern America This was the period after 1860 that was characterized by high level of industrial technology and advances in mass production of goods. There were new scientific knowledge and discoveries which were applied in industrial production leading to the establishment of new industries in steel, petroleum and chemical industries (Ross, 2008).

We will write a custom Research Paper on American History: Wars specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Advances in electricity and magnetism found application in the electrical industry, permitting high productivity than before. As a result, U.S. and Germany became the leading producers as they challenged the Great Britain on the Global market (Divine et al., 2011). Electricity was essential in driving all forms of machinery and powering of streetcars as electrical companies in Germany and United States sold their products around the world.

Existence of large production firms for steel and chemicals provided employment for millions of people as major firms dominated the market. Improved communication technology enhanced better communication as managers coordinated businesses and industrial operations effectively. Automobiles facilitated the movement of people, transportation of raw materials to factories and distribution of finished products around the world (Ross, 2008).

Although a lot had been achieved through the second industrial revolution, economic weaknesses to the prosperity of the Roaring Twenties were immense. This was a decade in which no major event happened as in previous years. There was haphazard demobilization of the nation from WWI through several ways (Streissguth, 2007).

These included reduction of army sizes, pausing of the shipbuilding exercise and control of the railroads by the private sector. In addition, there were labor strikes across the country and race violence. America witnessed several cultural conflicts before inflation hit the country towards the end of the decade (Divine et al., 2011). Although America was rapidly modernizing and urbanizing in the 1920s, conservatives and traditionalists created a backlash. This was mainly based on ideologies and perceptions from leaders and the public.

FDR and the New Deal It is believed that the crash of the stock market on October 29, 1929 led to a series of economic events which significantly contributed to the Great Depression. Unrealistic view of prosperity during “The Roaring Twenties” meant that America over-depended on industrial production and automobiles, widening the gap between the rich and the poor (Streissguth, 2007).

There was further disparity in sharing of resources between agriculture and industries with the latter dominating the market. Secondly, the depression emanated from global crisis as Europe struggled to deal with the effects of WWI (Divine et al., 2011). This made America to become the world banker allowing other nations to borrow loans some of which were not paid. Consequently, the demand for American products dropped since several nations had accumulated debts.

Another cause was false speculation from investors that resulted in high stock prices before the depression began. After the crash of October 1929, investors resorted to massive sell-off of stocks. Failure of banks also contributed to the depression as people withdrew most their savings after the crash.

This continuous withdrawal led to the collapse of several American banks. Accordingly, most banks did not have money to give out in form of loans during the Great Depression (Streissguth, 2007). Due to lack of employment, stock market crash and collapse of banks, there was low spending which implied low demand for products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American History: Wars by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More President Hoover’s legacy in fighting the Great Depression seemed controversial as he resisted calls for the government to intervene arguing that it was to affect American morality. He believed in austerity measures like reduction of expenditure. Nevertheless, he gave in reluctantly after pressure for his intervention mounted from Congress (Streissguth, 2007).

Hoover supported extra spending as away of stabilizing the business community. After his defeat, Hoover was replaced by President Franklin Roosevelt who engaged in intensive legislative procedures in “100 days”, from March 20th to June 28th in 1933 based on the New Deal (Divine et al., 2011). He met the Congress for a hundred days with all of his requests being granted, resulting into the adoption of programs such as FDIC which was meant to insure banks.

America and the World Kellogg-Briand Pact was signed on August 27, 1928 by fifteen countries to stop the use of war in solving international disputes. Although it was ratified by more than sixty nations, the Act was never effective because it lacked enforcement mechanisms. For instance, the League of Nations could not remove Japanese troops from Manchuria in 1931 and the much they could do was protesting (Divine et al., 2011).

The agreement was steered by Aristide Briand who was serving as French Foreign Affairs Minister. This pact shows the futility, naivete, and misguided diplomacy of the Great Powers in the interwar years. It lacked the mechanism to change the attitude of nations which were at war. The agreement did not have a holistic approach in curbing war as it permitted self defense. Lastly, Kellogg-Briand Pact lacked provisions to amend it in order to address and accommodate new democratic ideas.

As a result of warfare and tense relationships among nations, the US was reluctant to engage in partnerships and war. Many isolationists believed that America had a different and workable approach to solving conflicts and promoting democracy contrary to European’s war involvement. They argued that their sacrifices in the Great War were total waste of manpower and financial resources and opposed anything that would promote European alliances (Divine et al., 2011).

As a result, the US did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles and rejected the League of Nations. The country remained isolated in 1920s and 1930s, limiting its international involvement and trade. It protected its industries using tariffs on foreign products thus discouraging Europe from buying its goods. It also cut down the influx of immigrants as away of advancing its isolationism interests.

Hitler The rise of Hitler to power was attributed to a number of long term factors. Together with his followers, he opposed the Treaty of Versailles and the First World War. Secondly, the weak and infective constitution permitted dictators to rise to power especially during the crisis of 1929-1931 (Thomsett, 2007).

He also had financial support from rich businessmen and used propaganda to convince Germans that he was their last liberator. Storm­-troopers attacked and killed Jews and all who were opposed to Hitler’s rule. Hitler also had personal characteristics like good speech, organizational power and politician qualities. He therefore made people believe that he had come to rule Germany and the world (Divine et al., 2011).

On the other hand, fascism was founded by Benito Mussolini in Italy who propagated unity and socialism. Fascism fought for the rights of the nation, and Benito customized it into a cult to fight communism. It was associated with Hitler as it took control of the economy and advanced Benito’s belief of having a self reliant nation.

FDR’s endeavor to get America involved in some active way against the threat of European fascism was in 1933 through the National Industry Recovery Act (NRA) (Thomsett, 2007). The ideas contained in the act were believed to be from Gerard Swope which was later ratified by the US Chamber of Commerce.

Strategic plan of the allies to defeat Hitler The strategy was laid down by several leaders and military heads. According to the strategy, US together with the Allies purposed to defeat Hitler before attacking Japan. They knew that the collapse of Germany was to be a blow to Japan and they would have easier time defeating it (Thomsett, 2007).

As a result of the Cold War, Europe was divided variedly. West Germany was ruled by USSR while allied powers controlled the Eastern part of Germany. Europe remained divided throughout Cold War period up to the late 80’s when Mikhail Gorbachev transformed the system allowing Eastern Europe to be free from Soviet power (Divine et al., 2011).

Containment was a US policy during the rule of President Harry Truman to use diplomatic, military and economic approach to end the spread of communism. President Truman ensured this by resisting communism in China and Korea, cutting diplomatic relations with Russia and preparing America for war in promoting peace.

Effects of the Cold War The Cold War had far reaching effects in Asia. They included a significant rise in nationalism, revolt against Iran leader, and a strained relationship between the US and the Middle East. In America, the war strengthened the connection of the country with the foreign enemy which resulted into the “Red Scare” (Divine et al., 2011). Politicians distanced themselves from communism with victims facing trials conducted by the House Committee on Un-American Activities.

American Civil Rights movement 1945-168 There was a series of events which led to ratification of treaties, riots and deaths among others. The Civil Rights Committee was established in 1946 as the Supreme Court outlawed segregation on buses. Following this, discrimination in defense forces was banned in 1948 before segregation in schools was outlawed in 1954 by the Supreme Court.

The country witnessed the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 as Martin Luther King took the leadership of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The Civil Rights Act was passed in 1957 as pressure mounted from Elijah Muhammad to have black states formed (Divine et al., 2011).

As these efforts progressed, Freedom Riders were arrested in 1961 as students rioted after James Meredith was admitted at Mississippi University. It was followed by the assassination of Medgar Evers in 1963 resulting into protests in Washington, Chicago and other cities.

The efforts of Dr. Martin Luther were acknowledged when he won Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 with another Civil Rights Act being passed. Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965, causing demonstrations which were led by Martin Luther. Inter-racial marriages were allowed in 1967, the same year when Thurgood Marshall became the first black to join the Supreme Court. This period ended by the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther in 1968 (Divine et al., 2011).

Conclusion It is evident that the United States’ history is encompassed with a plethora of events ranging from Trench Warfare to the Civil Rights Movement. These events were led by individuals who fought for a better nation that respected the rule of law, democracy and equality.

References Divine et al. (2011). America Past and Present, Volume II: Since 1865. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Ross, S. (2008). The Industrial Revolution. London, UK: Evans Brothers.

Streissguth, T. (2007). The roaring twenties. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.

Thomsett, M. (2007). The German Opposition to Hitler: The Resistance, the Underground, and Assassination Plots, 1938-1945. New York, NY: McFarland.

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Kansas City Zephyrs Baseball Club, Inc Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Why do differences exist between the players and owners’ positions regarding the reported earnings of the Zephyrs?

It is clear that agency conflicts exist between the owners and players of Kansas City Zephyrs Baseball Club, Inc. The main reason for the contentious issues is the profitability disbursement to between the club operations and players.

The owners want to maximize their interest through reduction of taxes yet the players want to get the most of their salaries and benefits. As such, an extensive reference to the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and International Accounting Standards are significant to understand the contentious profitability issues of the major league baseball teams. There are only a few areas we dispute, but these areas can have a significant impact on the overall profitability of the team.

The owners have used three techniques to “hide” profits: (1) roster depreciation, (2) overstated player salary expense, and (3) related-party transactions. We feel it gives numbers that are not meaningful. The players’ version of the financial statements showed profits before tax of $24.5 million for 2009 and $23.6 million for 2010 as compared to the losses of $ 4.0 million end $7.4 million on the Owners’ statements.

The accrual basis of accounting and the cash basis accounting have presented the major issues in paying for expenses as well as the type of expenses. Again, the period of bonuses payment has raised concern and arguments that have left Bill Ahern in confused state. The depreciation expense arises only when a team is sold, so you can have two identical teams that will show dramatically different results if one had been sold and the other had not.

On the other hand, the players argued that their interpretation of skills and competencies was increasing with experience, which would increase goodwill or the value of the club. The owners had categorized the item under depreciation. Much contradiction arose from the thinking of the owners that depreciation is real because most of the players actually improve their skills with experience, so if anything, there should be an increase in roster value over time, not a reduction as the depreciation would lead you to believe.

The owners had agreed to defer a portion of their salary for 10 years. That helps save them taxes and provides them with some income after their playing days are over. The players value their payment and feel this is a way of denying them their pay through hiding profits.

Players argued that the owners had overstated player expense in several ways. One is that they expense the signing bonuses in the year they are paid. The players take the bonuses as a part of the compensation package, and that for accounting purposes, the bonuses should be spread over the term of the player’s contract. However, the contracts revealed clearly that the player is to receive, say, $1,000,000, of which $200,000 is deferred to the year 2018. In the same line, it indicates that the salary expense is $500,000.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why the owners want to maximize their interest through reduction of taxes

The owners want to reduce taxes to increase their share of earnings. Taxes reduce the profits that the company has earned. Therefore, reducing the value through allocation of depreciation will reduce earnings before income tax (EBIT). The percentage charge will effect on a lesser value.

The company will have more retained profits, previously allocated to depreciation. This raises the value of the business. As such, the owners’ attain their main objective, which is to increase the wealth of the business. Again, it will reflect on less debt capital, and much equity financing. This raises the value of the firm and maximizes shareholders wealth.

How should Bill Ahern resolve the accounting conflict between the owners and players? How much did the Kansas City Zephyrs Baseball Club earn in 2009 and 2010?

Extensive and intensive reference to the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and International Accounting Standards are significant to understand the contentious profitability issues of the major league baseball teams. This will enable Bill Ahern to handle the case under the same level of consideration.

As such, the statements may be subject to auditing to ensure that they have met the qualitative and quantitative qualities according to international standards. As such, it will pave a clear way on expenses, depreciation and payment of bonuses. As such, should share in the teams’ profits according to the contracts signed between each other, which are in line with GAAP.

Bill approached the accounting unit, depreciation, amortization of intangibles, and related-party transactions through construction of a new financial statement will reveal. This is urgent due to the tight deadline. Again, it was not at all obvious to him how to define “good accounting methods” for the Zephyrs Baseball Club. With the above adjustments, the net income shall change to profits of $11,981 in 2009, and $ 8,560.0 in the year 2010 (see the new income statement).

Why did you make the decision? Why was depreciation removed?

The decision made was the most adequate to solve the agency conflict. The approach considered the interest of the players and the owners. Depreciation was removed because the players improve in experience and they become better with time. As employees earn goodwill overtime, players also add value to the organization because of acquired experience and skills.

Depreciation is normally allocated to fixed assets like equipment and machinery. In fact, players can leave anytime due to better opportunities or injuries. Therefore, depreciation was considered a mechanism of increasing the company owners’ wealth at the expense players’ payments.

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US Legislations on Chinese Imports Essay essay help site:edu

Recently, the US government has exerted pressure on China to undervalue its currency. Since 1995, China has kept a fixed exchange rate of $1:8.28 renminbi. Consequently, the US considers China’s fixed exchange rate as a barrier to international adjustment and transmission of price indicators.

This phenomenon creates a risk to the United States’ economy. The legislation that was introduced in the Senate recommends that a tariff be imposed on Chinese imports if China fails to review its fixed exchange rate. According to the sponsors of this bill, 27.5% is the standard rate that must be used to undervalue China’s currency.

Several reasons have been put forward to justify the introduction of this bill. For example, under Article 21 of the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade, member states of the World Trade Organization are allowed to take any necessary steps to protect their security interests. The argument in support of this bill is that the US interests and its manufacturing sectors are negatively affected by the artificially cheap Chinese imports due to China’s fixed exchange rate (McKibbin and Stoeckel 1).

Some Washington insiders doubts whether the Senate bill will be implemented by the US government. Nevertheless, a number of economists argue that such an action is justified. For example, those in support of this bill suggest that the US manufacturing sector should be granted countervailing duties as a protection against cheap imports from China, including the Chinese fixed exchange rate.

On the other hand, China has conceded that their fixed exchange rate needs to be more flexible. Although they not ready to change their currency policy, they have proposed three solutions to this impasse: raise the foreign exchange trading volume; bolster its financial sector and policies in order to make the sector more elastic to fluctuations in exchange rate; and devise foreign exchange tools for trading currencies as well as currency risk management via hedging (McKibbin and Stoeckel 2).

There is a mixed-up perception among the US legislators about the need for China to adjust its currency policy. The US legislators consider the widening of the US current account and trade deficits; the immense growth of Chinese imports and the lack of proportionate growth of US exports to China as unjust trade and thus the need for China to devalue its currency.

According to some experts, the US current account deficit is caused by the anticipated returns to capital and this phenomenon is simply reflected by trade performance (McKibbin and Stoeckel 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As an emerging economic powerhouse, China will not allow to be manipulated by the US. There are several responses that China might adopt in face of hostility about unfair trade and currency revaluation. For example, China may challenge the legitimacy of the action taken by the United States under Article XXI of the GATT.

However, this could take several years before the issue is deliberated on. Alternatively, China could retaliate by enforcing tariffs on some imports from the United States such as Caterpillar earthmoving gear and Boeing airplane in order to consolidate its status among special interests in the US.

Given that it is hard to predict how China will respond to the Senate bill on Chinese imports and currency devaluation; the most probable Chinese response could be the introduction of a general tariff on exports from the United States to China (McKibbin and Stoeckel 3).

Work Cited McKibbin, Warwick, and Andrew Stoeckel. “What if the US Imposes a Tariff on China’s Exports to Force a Revaluation?” Economic Scenarios. com 11 (2005): 2-8. Web.

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Nairobi National Park Descriptive Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Nairobi National Park

The Park Flora and Fauna

Park Activity Options

Conclusion

Work Cited

Introduction This is a descriptive essay on a national park. I chose a national park situated in a country which is well known for its fauna and flora to make the whole descriptive process great and beautiful. Nairobi National Park receives thousands of tourists from Europe and America; they flock into this country to admire the natural beauty of the national park. The free roaming wildlife and beautiful scenery at the park provide a great opportunity for a beautiful descriptive essay to be written.

Nairobi National Park Nairobi national park was the fist to be established in Kenya in 1946 during the British colonial reign in the then East Africa region. The national park sits on a vast piece of land covering over 117 square kilometers. It is surrounded by an electric fence all round to contain the animals within the park and keep off poachers and any other intruders.

The park can be accessed through seven gates though two are only used by the Kenya Wildlife Services officials only. The park has an animal orphanage where young animals left behind by their parents are kept: life at the park is survival for the fittest and if, for instance, a zebra is ambushed by a leopard it has to outrun the leopard otherwise it turns into a good leopard food.

The position of the park is very strategic as it only takes less than ten minutes drive to be at the downtown of the capital city. For international visitors, the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport can be used and for those with light aircrafts the Wilson airstrip will be handy.

The park offers extremely beautiful features; all around within the park are trees of different species with different characteristics, there are thick bushes and the grass is either green or dry depending on the season at hand. With a pair of binocular, birds can be seen hovering over the bushes with some trying to outdo each other through their songs.

If the binoculars has sharp lens, then you are likely to see a race between a bird and an insect with the bird defeating its prey in most cases. If you project your eyes beyond the horizon of the park you will see Nairobi’s tall buildings. If you farther raise you head up you will see a light aircraft passing over the park on its way to an airstrip which is nearby. The park is relatively dry but has a rich collection of fauna and flora.

There are streams which run through the park and more often than not animals are witnessed coming to quench their thirst at these streams. This happens most in the afternoons when the sun is a bit strong.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Park Flora and Fauna The park environment mainly consists of an open plain consisting of grass with an average height of one meter from the ground. It is like hundreds of soccer pitches laid next to each other. Herbivorous like buffaloes, zebras, antelopes among others feed on this grass. The grass is also used tactically by the big cats especially the lions and leopards.

One thing that a careful observer will note is that the herbivorous will always appear distracted; they never absolutely focus on feeding on the grass, they keep on jabbing their heads up- it is the rule of this place.

A leopard can keep its body as low as an envelop and move stealthily towards a grazing zebra and if the zebra is not on the look out it is caught unawares but if its sixth sense raises an alarm the leopard will have lost the day – it is survival for the fittest. Watching the unfolding of all these through binoculars is unbelievable; it makes the experience at this place memorable (KWS 1).

The park tracks are not tarmac and off road vehicles are often used in cruising through the park. Driving at relatively high speeds through the park tracks creates a good experience and elevates the feel of cool air cool as it brushes over your face incase you are viewing the park through the roof of the car. The animals at this place are the greatest treasure. It these animals which have made park what it is.

Park Activity Options The park has selected spots where picnics can be held. Some of the picnic activities which can be carried out in the picnic sites include bush dinners, team building sessions, weddings, video and filming sessions. The park also maintains a three star restaurant where visitors to the park enjoy their meals while enjoying the view of the park.

The picnic spots are quite awesome and everything about them is great. The sites are quiet, the air is cool and sun is not very strong – it presents the right environment for outdoor activities. Playing badminton might be disappointing because the winds are likely to take the shuttlecock on a tour.

Soccer and volleyball will be good options and probably hide and seek is not a bad idea as the bushes around the picnic sites can perfectly offers some hiding spots. Holding a wedding in this place will be unforgettable experience.

We will write a custom Essay on Nairobi National Park specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For a wedding it will be advisable that the months of April through October are avoided as they are quite wet. The picnic sites are not very nice during the wet months as the ground is often wet and it is always raining. During the dry period, the ground is dry and one can sit down comfortably (KWS 1).

Within the park, there is a safari walk. This consists of a long trail of a pavement made of wood; the pavement which is raised above the ground by an average of eight meters. The pavement meanders in an ox-bow manner through trees and bushes; walking over this pavement gives a feeling of walking through the sky.

Conclusion Nairobi National Park is a great place. It offers a great scenic view which leaves an unforgettable experience. The ever flourishing vegetation makes the place appear evergreen. Trees are all over, the grass stand tall and bushes are spread around.

The place provides one great and detailed ecosystem which sustains itself in an amazing wonderful manner: predators depend on the herbivores for their food and herbivores in turn depend on the vegetation for food. The park management has done great to enhance the beauty and entertainment value of the park by creating picnic sites and a safari walk.

The safari walk and the picnic sites give a great opportunity for people to relax in a soothing environment which is quiet and with a lot of fresh air. The park is a great place to visit.

Work Cited KWS. Nairobi National Park. Kenya Wildlife Service, 2011. Web.

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National Geographic Travelers Magazine analysis Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction The National Geographic Travelers is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society that enjoys free shipping in the USA. Usually, a magazine has five functional areas namely the administration, editorial, advertising, production and circulation. This paper analyzes the National Geographic Magazine Traveler business model in light of these five areas of practice.

Functional areas In administration, the title ownership of the publication is independent even though it is part of a large group of publications by the National Geographic Society. The other related publication and electronic media by the same publisher include the National Geographic Kids, National Geographic Adventure and the National Expedition.

The editorial part of this magazine reflects its mission statement which is ‘’to increase and diffuse knowledge while promoting conservation of the world’s cultural, historical and natural resources’’ (National Geographic Society 2). The magazine articles inspire people to care about plants, animals, geographic locations, cultures, science and technology (Loma Linda University 1).

With the mandate of increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge, each part of the magazine seeks to accomplish that. The magazine has a very wide circulation and with monthly publications it is able to disseminate this information regularly. Travel and Culture section editors pick different places one can travel and highlight the location.

They also provide tips needed when going to particular places and the top things to see. In addition, they give themed travels, for example, fall themed trips as well as cultural themed travel and tours. Photography section brings the places to the reader and it also has a section for photo contests where readers subscribe to win prices.

This encourages people to travel more and conserve the beauty of the environment so that in many years to come the generations after them will enjoy the same. There are also photography seminars that offer advice on the whole scope of photography and this fulfils part of the mission statement “to increase knowledge”.

Geographical locations featured in the magazine provide new information to the reader and the explorers’ chronicles provide the details needed to entertain and educate. The animals section mainly has features of wild animals and this makes it informative as readers learn how they affect the planet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is also information on conservation of the endangered species; for example, there is a feature on the Virunga Gorillas that are decreasing rapidly in the DRC Congo forests. With the ongoing war, many have been poached leaving just a few (Waitt Foundation 2).

The magazine is sold at a price of $15 for a yearly subscription and $71 for copies at the newsstand. Delivery is within the USA and Canada for C$ 24. However, the online magazine is free and is accessible on the National Geographic website which has over 6 million subscribers.

The online version has over 16.5 million visitors per page and 4.2 million video views. The production function of the magazine shows that the paper size is 8″ x 10 ½’’ and employs a perfect binding method. The cover has a yellow rectangle which runs at the edges of the cover and this serves as the logo for television productions.

There are various advertising opportunities in the National Geographic Travelers’ Magazine. The mission of the magazine is to empower the readers by educating, delivering award winning contents by use of state of the art communication equipment in an entertaining format.

The magazine also runs an online website that attracts over 16 million visitors every month. The website offers consumers with various contents including news, photos, documentaries, and maps. The website has several section s that attract different visitors who may want to view the Travel

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Plagiarism Effects Essay essay help

Introduction Plagiarism is the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them as one’s own without proper acknowledge the original author. During the 18th century, copying or imitation of artistic work or expression was not considered to be a moral offense or something unethical. It was encouraged and highly regarded as being extremely close to the masters’ work. This was to discourage unnecessary inventions during the roman movement (Morgan

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Some of the consequences of colonial thinking about Aboriginal women’s sexuality for Aboriginal women themselves Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free

Hannah Roberts writes that the white man’s colonization of Australia did not only involve taking away the native’s land, it also included the colonization of the Aboriginal woman’s body.

The white man often used the Aboriginal woman’s body for sexual satisfaction, yet tried to maintain pretence of separation between the colonizers and the colonized because of his obsession with racial purity and pride (Roberts, 2001, pp.188). The Aboriginal woman was considered to be inherently sexual and immoral, and in some cases, was characterized as ‘bond slaves of Satan’.

The colonizers used this line of thinking to justify their colonization of the Aboriginal woman’s body. These women were referred to using derogatory names such as ‘gin’, ‘stud’, ‘breeder’, and so on, to distinguish them from other women, mainly white.

Due to their labeling as sexual objects, aboriginal women’s consent was rarely sought whenever the white man desired to have sex with them. Consequently, the native women were supposed to submit themselves to the colonizers, failure of which would lead to violent acts, as Roberts points out, instances of frequent shootings, torture, capture and rape against such were common.

Roberts further points out that because of the colonizer’s labeling of the Aboriginal women as sexual materials, cases of white men raping these women were rarely brought to court and were likely to fail. Violence against the Aboriginal woman seemed natural and normal and rarely elicited the traumatic effect on her or her husband as it would on a white woman, or so the white colonizers thought. Indeed, the women’s resistance to the colonizers controlling mechanism was further taken as proof of their immorality and only worsened their situation.

Week 9 How does Marie Bonaparte represent the clitoris in relation to female sexuality? What is ‘Freudian’ about this?

Marie Bonaparte writes that the clitoris gives women their distinctive female sexuality, and knowingly or unknowingly, endears them to the males. Consequently, the males have become unconscious worshippers of the woman due to the clitoris.

The importance of the clitoris to the woman’s sexuality cannot be underestimated, as Bonaparte explains, the importance of this miniature object before or during sex may even outweigh the pleasures or benefits of the sex itself in some women (Bonaparte, 1958, pp. 148). She further explains that in the West, many women find more sexual satisfaction from activities that involve the clitoris rather than from the penetration (sex) itself.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As such, Bonaparte explains that clitoridial women find more appreciation of their sexuality from men who understand the importance of the clitoris to them. Such men share their pleasure and loving identification with the woman while paying attention to her wishes, and this only takes place when a man loves a woman enough to care about her. While the clitoris may lead to a gratification of sexuality among women, it may also lead to a tragedy in a similar fashion, particularly from men who are too masculine to adapt to their clitoridal desires.

Whenever a woman recognizes that the male she entrusts to fulfill her clitoridal wishes does not live up to the task, which could be due to the male being too fierce to adapt to the woman’s wishes, she eventually has to adapt to the new environment either auto or alloplastically, a concept that is consistent with the Freudian writings on human sexuality.

Week 11 How did Dennis Altman define the ‘gay liberation’ of the 1970s?

In this article, Altman writes that society has denied the natural bi-sexuality of all humans in two ways, and that it is time homosexuals came out (Altman, 1979, pp. 18). He writes on the persecution of homosexuals in a number of ways, including the labeling of homosexuality as a perversion, and discrimination.

The author defines two main forms of discrimination against homosexuals: denial and tolerance. The former is exemplified in the various media such as in newspaper columns where homosexuals are not allowed to report on their social activities openly.

Altman writes that gay liberation doest not merely entail the liberation of the homosexuals from the above-mentioned discriminatory and repressive acts, but is in fact a liberation of all of us. While many people have tended to ignore this fact, a few people have recognized the potential of a homosexual as a revolutionary in the American society.

He also describes how hard it is for homosexuals to lead outward, respectable lives. This is made difficult by society’s poor labeling of homosexuality that has left homosexuals out of the basic unit of the society, the nuclear family. They challenge the idea of homosexuality that sexuality can only be justified by procreation, and this has further led to the stigmatization of gays.

Liberation is a concept far much wider than even sexuality, and any vision of liberation is one that sees gays breaking out of the quite needless limits on the human potential that exists in the society, and society recognizing the significance and the rights of man to diversity. Besides, society should not be imprisoned by old-fashioned ideas of what is natural and what is normal.

We will write a custom Assessment on Some of the consequences of colonial thinking about Aboriginal women’s sexuality for Aboriginal women themselves specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Week 12 On what basis did Campbell argue, in 1980, that it is heterosexual women who feel the biggest outcasts within feminism?

While Campbell admits that lesbians, celibates, and heterosexual feminists have suffered as a result of the feminist movements, she contends that it is heterosexuals who have suffered more. This suffering began soon after the sexual revolution, which led to the divorce between sex and reproduction.

However, the reality of pregnancy could not be ignored and even as heterosexual relations soared. During this revolution, women were acknowledged to be sexual and men’s duty was to satisfy them, so it was all disappointment among some women who did not experience satisfaction, although this could have been caused by female conditions.

Some scholars attributed this problem to the divergence between the curve of sensual pleasure in the male and female, which caused the man to “reach the peak point of sexual excitement while the woman is still getting there” (Campbell, 1980, pp. 5).

Another problem arising from the revolution was the risk of pregnancy, as mentioned earlier. Although birth control was advocated alongside the positive declaration of women’s sexuality, there was no critique of the conventional heterosexual sex and its essentially (for women) procreative mode.

Consequently, it put women at risk of pregnancy, and led to the labeling of women as the source of problems in heterosexual sexual relations. Besides, sexually independent heterosexual women were criticized for thwarting parenthood and it was argued that sexual liberation could not be achieved at the expense of maternity and parenthood.

Week 7 How has Kinsey’s work been influential in regards the topic of male homosexuality?

In the Kinsey Report of 1948, the author made unbeknown findings about American’s sexual behaviors, particularly among homosexuals. Among these findings was that homosexuality was more common in the United States than anyone had realized, this encouraged more and more homosexuals to come out of their closets and demand for their rights.

He reported that 37 percent of his respondents had had at least one homosexual incident (Kinsey, 1953, pp. 56). He also wrote that 10 percent of American males had been practiced homosexuality for at least three years at the ages of between 16 and 55.

However, Kinsey cautioned his readers and indicated that these figures reported were not absolute, and he even evaded using terms such as homosexual or heterosexual in his report, avowing that sexuality is likely to change over time. He also wrote that sexual behavior can occur both physically and psychologically through desire, sexual attraction, or fantasy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Some of the consequences of colonial thinking about Aboriginal women’s sexuality for Aboriginal women themselves by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result of Kinsey’s work, many people, mainly homosexuals, slowly started coming out and openly declared their sexual orientation. Indeed, the report was significant in the sexual revolution of the 1960s, and helped in the normalization of homosexuality in the American and other Western societies.

Homosexuals were now increasingly treated in a humane manner, a contrast from the previous harsh treatments where gays were persecuted and discriminated against and banned from other social places. However, the Kinsey Report cannot be single-handedly said to have brought about these changes, a number of factors were also at play.

References Altman, D. (1979). ‘Forum on Sexual Liberation’, in Coming out in the Seventies. Sydney: Wild and Woolle.

Bonaparte, M. (1958). Female Sexuality. London: Imago Publishing

Campbell, B. (1980). A Feminist Sexual Politics: Now you see it, Now you don’t. Feminist Review, No. 5, 1980, 1-18

Kinsey, F. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Indiana: Indiana University

Roberts, H. (2001). Disciplining the female aboriginal body: inter racial sex and the pretence of separation. Australian Feminist Studies, Vol 16(34), pp. 186-195

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Television Show’s Influences Expository Essay college admissions essay help

Television shows can be classified into views of the society towards women and they relate to each other. There are common patterns in most television shows. To start with, it is evident that most television shows relating to use women bodies as an attractive and catchy features to viewers as well as men as violent people.

They also use humor features in almost all the shows. This television shows require total concentration from the watcher and as such no activity can be expected from them. They also makes people become addictive and therefore it captures all attention and interests of the watcher.

This makes people inactive in other important aspects of life that are fundamental for their empowerment. I feel that the time people spend on such television shows is the sacrificed time for movements and therefore they become less active. Prison break television show have therefore affected the behavior of people negatively by encouraging them to assume violent behavour that may not acceptable in some societies.

When people watch violent show shows like prison break, they are likely to have less thinking when choosing relating to each other. It is possible for an average American child to watchover two hundred violent shows over television for one year. The frequency of the television shows is a pattern that is interesting to monitor in the shows watched.

The shows are more than any other programs on our screens. This is the same trend across the various channels and stations that showed different shows. This frequency is meant to capture the attention of the audience and keep the viewers focused on the television channel.

Some of these shows require callers to contribute making them glued to programs. Direct-call shows contrast with the general shows in terms of their goals. The aim of direct calling is to capture attention of the audience without having to intermediary connections. It presents the audience with the opportunity to contribute directly with show organizers.

Prison break show depicts prison as a place that reflects how people are defined by their role and function in society. Michael and friends have a role in prison, but they both learn that adjusting to society reveals their true lack of freedom. The film reveals that people, like society, are institutional in nature, and hence they cannot define who they are outside the role given to them by society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In that sense, the prison represents how people are imprisoned by society as even their sense of freedom is inseparable from the boundaries of social roles. Prison life reflects how people must continuously adapt to evolving circumstances that define the larger institution of society. Some turn to corruption in order to survive change while others turn to friendship and loyalty in order to achieve redemption.

The show depicts the prison as places in which prisoners such as Michael can find a means to interact with others and create friend to assist him learn away. Michael has a functional role in the prison as the other prisoners view him as influential and reliable. The depiction of the prison is related to how prisons can restrict our sense of personal freedom but also expand it.

The prison reflects how people are institutionalized beings as they are inseparable from the events and circumstances that shape their role in society. After their escape, Michael still feels imprisoned as he is on the run. The role of the prison suggests that people are imprisoned by their social roles, and that finding freedom from these roles can only be achieved by the mutual desire for redemption.

The show represents prison as in a steady decline of hope rather than the perpetual renewal of hope and the prospect for redemption. He argues that prison can have no real beneficial impact on a person as it deprives one of a sense of direction and purpose regarding the future. It is not a backdrop against which great metaphysical dramas are played out.

Prison life is routine and methodical – it does not have the inexorable narrative momentum of the movies, no promise of a heart-warming pay-off. The corrupted nature of the prison is reflected in how the people he works for only undermine his freedom and dignity. The reality of prison life manifests itself in how people are imprisoned by the institutional nature of society.

Most of the audiences of this show are youngsters and teenagers who at a very tender age get exposed to these acts of brutality. There is a strong connection between violence and aggressive behavior. People and especially youngster watching uncensored violence are likely to develop a thinking that justifies a violent and brutal behavior in real life. Children who are in learning stages when exposed to such entertainment soon adopt the same pattern of life.

Conclusion Watching television shows is among the most common interests in the lives of most people. However, these aspects affect people differently at a personal level. They constitute to development of some behaviors among people which are negative in nature. Negative influences could be dangerous and therefore it is important to discourage their course in the lives of different people. Television shows influence starts when people are young and develops along as they grow old.

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Assessment Plan of Student’s Ability Essay cheap essay help

Assessment plan is an important tool in education since it provides information about student’s ability. After completing an assessment plan, the next important factor is the analysis how it can be used appropriately. This essay will explain my assessment plan by indicating its importance and use.

The essay will then give justification that led to the selection of the context of the assessment plan. Finally, the essay will identify the reasons why the assessment constraints in my assessment plan are effective in testing the students reading and writing abilities.

Student assessment is an important leaning process to both the teacher and the students and therefore it needs a plan. The need for a plan requires the development of an assessment plan that provides the guidelines on how the assessment will be effected.

The assessment plan is also important since it allocate the available resources according to the expected uses. For the developed assessment plan to become useful, it needs to be understood by both the tutor and the learner. This essay provides an explanation for the assessment and the factors that make the assessment plan effective and appropriate in assessing students.

The main objective of the developed assessment plan is to gather information about the student with the aim of identifying their weaknesses as well as their strengths (Brownlie, Feniak

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Transition to Democracy in Latin America Essay (Book Review) essay help free: essay help free

Democracy simply means the rule by simple people. It was created as a solution to abuse of power by rulers. Democracy as opposed to other forms of governments guarantees basic human rights to every individual and ensures that there is separation of powers between different state institutions. Moreover, unlike other forms of governments, it grants sufficient freedom of speech, mass media, opinion and press among other rights.

Wisdom literature sufficiently demonstrates that there has never been any harmony between progress and authoritarianism. On the other hand, democracy guarantees progress through transparency given the fact that it does legitimize public policies since it is based on mutual deliberation and negotiation of interests.

In Latin American, international trade alone has not guaranteed the leveling effect on the remuneration of factors of production. This end can only be achieved through democratic governance. This article will discuss factors that that threaten smooth transition to democracy in Latin America.

Most economies in Latin America flourished during the sixties as a result of direct contribution of foreign investment, domestic private sector and public investment. Despite widespread economic gains during this period, one problem still persisted, transparent and equitable distribution of these financial benefits to the wider public.

To demonstrate political autonomy to the outer world, Latin American countries realized that they needed a transparent political framework sensitive enough to the interests of its people and this could only be achieved through democracy (Calderon, 2008).

Democratic transition and cultural reforms taking place in Latin America has elicited feelings of dissatisfaction and disappointment as well as increased expectations of sustainable progress and change that is certain to be initiated by democracy which is perceived by many to be the ideal form of government. People are able to freely express their feelings of dissatisfaction and disappointment by being more critical and open minded as a result of increased public spaces for dialogue, conflict and participation.

In part, political crisis being experienced in Latin America as a result of increased independence among the citizens can lead to renewed development and democratization (Calderon, 2008). Institutions and equity will finally have to adjust to change and reconfiguration taking place in the region. Equity and poverty are two social problems that politicians must confront if they are to be able to maintain a sustainable politico-institutional balance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Development of democracy in Latin America has often been undermined by politico-institutional risks and crisis situations occurring in the region. These problems need to be addressed by creating a link between the society and institutions. These risks make it extremely difficult to consolidate democracies in the region. The relationship between institutions and society is dependent on how well people’s expectations are managed.

If mismanaged, there could be civil unrest especially in presence of poor economic conditions and fragile public institutions. To enhance consolidation of democracy in the region, it would therefore be paramount to understand the nature of political changes taking place and their resulting benefits before searching for solutions to democratic development.

Intermediation and representation systems in this region face major criticisms from the people. Nobody trusts intermediation mechanisms and political parties anymore. Systems of representation are prone to reconfiguration given the emergence of movements composed of critical, independent and thoughtful citizens who go to great lenghts to demand for recognition, gender balance and local participation.

These problems occur as a result of political parties’ inability to represent people institutionally. It happens that most Latin Americans believe in a democracy that has many political parties, ironically, only a clique of them trusts those parties.

People are asking the government to expand democratic institutions and be more involved in the management of development. Through this, the state can work towards equity and social integration so as to strengthen the economy in terms of globalization. Most people in Latin America support government involvement in development as opposed to privatization so as to ensure equitable distribution of wealth. Citizen oversight over public authorities is seen as a key factor to increased transparency and reduced corruption.

Inequality and poverty pose a great challenge to transition to democracy. These problems are the center of socio-economic changes and influence democratic governance to a great extent. Latin America is one of the most unequal regions in the world. The gap between the rich and the poor is ever widening. The disparities between various subsections of the society in this region is appalling i.e. socio-economic groups, ethnic groups, sexes etc (Calderon, 2008). for instance, women with similar education to men earn relatively more.

Poverty mostly affects the indigenous people who in most cases live in rural areas. Social inequality compounds the problem of governance in the region since most leaders dominate their people instead of guiding them. This problem can only be solved when policies aimed at empowering the poor and improving their civic capabilities are put in place and implemented.

We will write a custom Book Review on Transition to Democracy in Latin America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When people’s expectations are not met, conflict and dissatisfaction are likely to occur. This situation can be aggravated by the extreme levels of poverty and inequality discussed earlier thereby undermining democratic governance. In this case, people dismiss promises under market economy and political programmes as unrealistic and may cause instability if proper checks and balances are not put in place.

Institutional crises occurring as result of poor governance by the ruling class could undermine democratic governance. Structural poverty and uneven distribution of income pose as a challenge to democracy in Latin America (Calderon, 2008). The elites in this region have been reluctant to address the issue of poverty. Corruption in Judicial system and National congress in countries like Honduras make democratic governance to be all the more impossible.

Increase in social conflicts in Latin America is an issue of great democratic concern. Conflicts arising in work places, public protests and reactions have continued to hinder the state and institutions from attaining the objective of social progress, integration and recognition.

People have undertaken more drastic measures to express their dissatisfaction to the government. It is not uncommon to hear of protest movements such as Movement to Socialism in countries like Bolivia and elsewhere who come together to oppose a government that they feel is unable to cater for their needs. This automatically weakens progress made through democratic governance.

Governance is understood best by looking at how spaces of communication relate to political change. Media, especially television, cell phones and the internet are taking central role in politics. Media has become the space through which power struggle takes place. Most Latin Americans have put all their trust in radio and television media houses and most recently, the internet.

The impact of media on politics in this region was felt when President Lucio Gutierrez resigned as a result of mass protests organized against him through common cell phone text messages and email (Calderon, 2008). This indicates a trend of audience democracy that is being perpetuated by media throughout the region.

Reference Calderon, F. (2008). A Historic Turning Point. Political Change and the Socio-Institutional Situation in Latin America. Cepal Review Journal, 96 (3), 123-136. Web.

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Theories of Desire Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theories of Desire

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Sophocles wrote the play Antigone in the classic year 442BC. Antigone continues to draw interests and literary debates in the postmodernism era. Chief among the discussions in the play revolves around theories, obsessions and new perspectives of the classic play. It has been observed that, as a point of fact, the play has been an obsession in the 18th century to date. Indeed, scholastic interest and analysis explain the relationship between Antigone and the modern political, controversial and conflict laden times.

Nonetheless, other quarters are of the view that Antigone presents nothing to be thought about in the modern hence dismissing its relevance to modern interests and applications. This paper takes the modern approach in referring to the relevancy of the play by critically giving an insight on the perspectives of the theories of desire. It is argued that desire in Antigone is greater than the confines of men and laws.

Theories of Desire Desire in this context is used to describe the obsession that people have in the society. Obsession takes different shapes in the society because people have different experiences. An attempt to understand Antigone must be backed by modern adaptations of the play by the likes of Jean Cocteau, Bertolt Brecht, Jean Anouilh and Heaney. In the Anouilh’s text, the greatest concern revolves around an attack of the family, youth, lofty, ideals and love and friendship.

Contrary to Sophocles play, Anouilh leaves the powerful illustration of the philosophy of the desire for death, foreignness and mixed registers. An analysis of these differences between the modern and classical texts helps to understand the mystery surrounding the philosophy of death in Sophocles’s Antigone. In the classical Antigone, Sophocles clearly illustrates that Antigone as a character is foreign to the land of Thebes as indicated by her words to her father shortly before his death. In the play, her nature of desire is hard to understand and is coupled with her religious concerns.

This is different from Anouilh texts that espouse that Antigone choice of death is a motivation by the dullness and lack of passion in life due to loneliness. This life according to Anouilh is one that repeats itself in a cycle explained by boredom from one lack of compelling life cycle to another meaningless in the other. A reference to Anouilh may partly explain the recent happenings of the uprisings in the Muslim and Arab worlds (Sophocles and Johnston, p. 5).

By analogy, the ideal held by the toppled governments represents Creon’s actions in some respects. The young and the old in these states represent the Antigone in Anouilh’s text. Years of state neglect to the necessary and basic requirements of the people found desires and insistence to live better lives embedded in the daily struggle and hearts of the citizens of these countries.

Therefore, it is from one basic act of denying the necessary needs required for better lives in the future that finds form in a forceful nature. This is through sacrifice of lives and blood shedding, just like in Antigone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Sophocles the idea of foreignness shadows Antigone’s actions and desires. Recapping the view of the Muslim and Arab worlds, it is also clear that the citizen’s modern approach to things is extremely foreign to the age old perspectives of the older order.

Fueled by the modern use of technology especially, social media, the youth in these countries have the connection of a family with ideals and views that those in power are not privy to and do not even understand. For the old order, it is their home ground register; however, for the new generations, this is their point of action hence particularly foreign to what has already been established.

The insistence on religiosity is a constant reminder of the value of belief in what is right and justice to follow. For Antigone, this bordered the belief she had in her traditions and hence her religion. For the youth in these countries, the belief in change for a better life and the need to chart new courses resembles what was in Antigone.

However, Anouilh’s text must guide this view in the analysis that the Arab world uprising is not about the choice of death as Creon observes. Therefore, it becomes crucial to note that Anouilh’s text at this juncture departs from the tenets of the Arab life and its consequences to the modern people.

It is the desire to right what is wrong in order that the future generations may reap the benefits of the philosophy of death. This is captured by Sophocles in Antigone of which later Creon finds truth in. In this sense then Antigone from Anouilh becomes a stranger to what Sophocles intended.

The misrepresentation of Anouilh, thus, allows an understanding of the real impact of tragedy one that is well captured by Sophocles. In the words of Marcel Anouilh’s work lacks the quality needed to explain human drama. According to him, Antigone’s by Sophocles, actions and desires can only be explained by invoking the ideas in religion just like Kierkegaard. Therefore, in this view, Anouilh’s text is a secularization of the actions in the tragedy Antigone (Sophocles and Johnston, p. 15).

Sophocles tragedy is a clear emphasis on the absolute contradiction and irreconcilability between Antigone and Creon. Clearly from their perspectives they are both right in a powerful cancellation between the state and kinship. The problem is that they cannot comprehend one another’s moral point of view and power in Sophocles text.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Theories of Desire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conflict, as Sophocles espouses appears as a first layer of disharmony through antinomy in that between the two no one is ready to cede ground for the other of which Anouilh fails to indicate just Jean Racine’s text. In these two texts, Antigone’s world is characterized as a doubt between the living and the dead through biological explanations. Creon and Antigone as presented Racine and Antigone indicate that they both had options, but they clearly intended to be antagonistic.

On Antigone’s insistence on foreignness and Kierkegaard rendition of the extent of subjectivity, it becomes clear that conflict between the state and the subject is a guaranteed occurrence. The fact lies in the view that taboos and transgressions in the society act in unison to decide the fate of those who uphold them at the expense of the state. Lacking commensurability in the above view again is a source of conflict between the subject and the state based on guilt held by the subject. In this view Antigone, qualifies for both options in Sophocles classic Antigone.

By extension, this explains the modern relationship between governments and their subjects. While religion states equality and democracy, “just like the flowing waters”; a deep surgical analysis reveals that even the most democratic governments have instances of conspicuous treatment just like in Creon’s rule. Thus, Kierkegaard’s observation that deviating from aesthetics is a necessity brings truth home in the case of modernity.

This reinforces his assertion that it is the rebirth of modern tragedy. Taking the example of the declaration of emergency situations in any nation, it can be noted that not all subjects behave in a certain way to call for such measures. On the contrary, there are citizens who are good at least in light of the situation while their brothers and sisters are on the wrong side of the law. However, in this case, the good suffer without any attempt to rationalize the boundaries.

On the second note, the subject’s desire in favor of her point of view clearly puts the state and the subject on a collision path. A subject has the obligation to follow what the state requires of for effective and efficient governance. In addition, democracy defines that the voice of the majority should be heard. If the subject is not given his or her due demands, then necessary suffering is taken as justice.

This is aimed at restoring the state under the invisible power of the subject. Further, this may translate to blood letting by a few who appear not realistic. In the end justice is achieved by the action of a few who deny their lives for a better cause. Therefore, in this desire, politics and what is necessary right governs the occurrence of such tragedy. Suffering can be in the form of death or even exile.

In Sophocles Antigone, there is the displacement of things from their normal order. In terms of gender and religion, Antigone as a character goes overboard of what is Athenian for her gender. Secondly, Antigone does not represent the state or the kinship and neither the living nor the dead.

This intermixing of desires lacks from Anouilh’s text. The fact that the play supports Antigone, though an outsider to the happenings; Teireisia, reveals that Sophocles’ view of the state as a static entity should be questioned under the guidance of principles not easily settled on common human understanding (Sophocles and Johnston, p. 39).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Theories of Desire by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Antigone’s desire is absent according to Hegel. She represents what is admirable and what is acceptable in excess is too good to live. She represents those who cannot allow the state to carry own its activities without regard to whether right or wrong. This excess leads to Antigone showing that the way to gods who live in such excess.

The occurrence of such needs for balance of equality on laws to all things under mankind is explained by this excess. Therefore, Sophocles’ text is a powerful reference to modernity on the will and power of religion, as opposed to the state authority.

Antigone in the theory of desire as presented by Sophocles is finally an examination of the problems of laws, family and state. Antigone’s actions do not support any at either perspectives, and the boundaries that lie between them are the necessary ingredients to tragedy.

The customs, the taboos and religion, and gender all play as factors to make desire in any one of these disastrous and dangerous. In essence, Antigone finds fault in what is established, but not written down as any law. This is forms Antigone’s desire to rise above this tragedy.

Conclusion In this analysis, therefore, it is worthy to note that the desire in Antigone is greater than the confines of men and laws. It is greater than the state and all its wise men, greater than family obedience, greater than love and the powers operating in the realm of human understanding. Antigone’s desire was thus like a process of justifying freedom in the confines of the society. However, religion should guide this proclamation.

Works Cited Sophocles and Johnston C. Ian. Antigone. Arlington, Virginia: Richer Resources Publications, 2007. Print.

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Failed Product Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Identification and description of failed product

Why company and product failed

Recommendation

Conclusion

References

Introduction Analysis of the history of corporations highlights the presence of products introduced in the market, which are discredited by the clientele. This makes it fundamental to phase out the product from the corporation’s product line. The following piece identifies a failed product, describes its tendencies and deduces the reasons for failure. Finally, it presents recommendations that the company ought to embrace through implementing diverse change initiatives.

Identification and description of failed product A case of a failed product incorporates McDonald’s Arch Deluxe, which was launched in 1996. It is a sophisticated burger, which seeks to cater for an adult audience with its different ingredients (Kincheloe, 2002). The Arch Deluxe has a soft buttery bun on top, which is above the mustard.

It equally encompasses the mayonnaise sauce followed by two “fresh lettuce leaves and slivered Spanish onions” (Kincheloe, 2002). After that, there is smocked bacon above the ripe tomato slice and a slice of American cheese. The sandwiching process encompasses the above constituents, cooked beef and fancy tomato ketchup.

Why company and product failed According to Rogers (1995), the five stages critical in a product’s development incorporate, “knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation”. He argues that the tipping point originates from diffusion theory, which is a set of generalizations that aid the spread of innovations within a social change process. Further, there are suggestions that the masses often oppose change meaning that companies should prepare for resistance and the means of addressing them upon the introduction of a new product.

In the knowledge stage, individuals learned about the new idea. There was a need to embrace longer life expectancies and cater for an old market. The feeling that the company’s focus was on children alone, made a significant contribution to the creation of the idea. The presence of the adult market encouraged McDonald’s company to introduce a new range of burgers; thus, initiating the identification process.

There was the creation of a new line of sandwiches instead of changing the menu. The creation entailed extra funds to make the idea a success. Before introducing the sandwiches, the adult market was not consulted to determine the reception of the arc deluxe burger (Kincheloe, 2002). Finally, the burger recorded some of the poorest sales in history, attributable to the mentioned reasons.

The persuasion stage involves forming opinions and attitudes about new ideas developed in the first stage. The company engaged its staff to envision the formed idea. As such, McDonald formed a favorable attitude and tasked its executive top chef Andrew Selvaggo to create the designed burger. The created burger was so big that it stood out. However, it failed since people noticed that it had many calories, which could be harmful to their health.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals engage in activities that suggest their adoption of the idea under the decision stage. The company’s management made a choice to address an adult oriented market. The launch of the deluxe arch burger saw the company spend $100 million on the advert that Fallon McElligolt, a Minneapolis advertising agent initiated. This adoption of the burger idea is among the most expensive campaigns in history.

However, the expensive advert turned off customers who termed it unconventional. Instead of concentrating on food quality in the advert, it featured young children complaining about the burger. The children discouraged sales of the burger because people are not used to such adverts. They refer to it as a rebel advert, which introduces negativity of the company’s products.

The implementation stage involves individuals putting new ideas to use. Lastly, there is gathering of positive feedback about ideas and reversing previous decisions based on negative feedback. After the negative feedback from the adult market, the burger was gradually eliminated from the American market. High prices and caloric contents of the burger contributed to the flop of the product because most people care about their health.

Recommendation In order to make positive change, the company ought to have enhanced the following ideologies. It should have tasked a professional team to research on market aspects to curb possible flopping of the product. As such, McDonald’s should have engaged in an extensive market investigation. This would enable the company determine if the adult marketplace would embrace the Arch Deluxe Burger idea. In the research, the discovery that adults considered the burger unhealthy would have been evident.

A different low calorie burger that could draw little resistant ought to have been created. In addition, the commercials should have avoided using children because the target group was adults. Rogers’s theory argues that an innovation ought to be introduced to individuals who easily use an invention to offer positive reactions. Adults enjoying the deluxe burger would be an appropriate model for the advert. This would ensure positive reaction to early adopters of the new burger.

According to Haig (2011), management in companies should be aware that people do not always embrace change. Additionally, there must be appropriate channels to introduce change in organizations. It is difficult for people to accept innovations, so McDonald needed to learn how to introduce the new burgers in the market. People should have been prepared early for the launch of the burger. As such, they would not complain so much on the changes made on the burger.

Prices of commodities must always be fair if they are to register sales in any market because people will always resist high prices. McDonald’s company ought to set a convenient price for the burger for it to sell. A lower introductory price would sell the “Arch Deluxe Burger” because people would be enthusiastic to try something new at an affordable price. Indeed, no one would complain of high prices.

We will write a custom Essay on Failed Product specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When founding and implementing new ideas like the “Arch Deluxe Burger”, consultation with individuals who command the food industry must exist. An individual whose opinion on food is highly regarded is more appropriate in the burger advertisement instead of complaining children. Furthermore, hiring nutritionists to give facts on healthy eating thus propose the burger to adults who wanted to eat healthy leads to high sales. McDonald’s would register more sales because people would be convinced that the burger was healthy.

Conclusion According to Wallach (1995), managers must never think for their clients or forcefully impose changes. Instead, customers should establish their preference through selected media. Improper decisions and lack of proper research have facilitated the failure of products that were highly anticipated. McDonalds made this mistake with their highly publicized “Arch Deluxe burger” that became a major flop. There was an assumption by MacDonald’s management that grown people would embrace the adult burger.

This incensed the public making them reject their productions thus causing embarrassment. Companies should properly evaluate a product or innovation before releasing it for purchase. Poorly researched products can have negative repercussions on the clientele and encourage lawsuits that may be expensive. Therefore, it is prudent for corporations to introduce quality products to their customers.

References Haig, M. (2011).Brand Failures: The Truth about the 100 Biggest Branding Mistakes of All Time. London, LDN: Kogan Page Publishers

Kincheloe, L. (2002). The sign of the burger: McDonald’s and the culture of power. Pennsylvania, PA: Temple University Press

Rogers, M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, New York, NY: The Free Press.

Wallach, B. (2005). Understanding the cultural landscape. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

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Environmental Scan and Industry Analysis Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Introduction Environmental scanning is a control mechanism operated by companies in order to ensure growth and stability in the market. It may be internal or external. An internal environmental scan focuses on the companies’ internal control system. It checks on the effectiveness of its present and future objectives.

This procedure assists the company to review the effectiveness of their policies and their capability in terms of facing future risks. The external environment encompasses the factors that may affect the companies’ performance with regard to issues that the management has no control over. These factors may include the market forces of demand and supply, political issues facing the country, environmental and social issues in the community.

Discussion The coffee industry has shown tremendous increase in its market over the years that have passed. These trends fluctuate over time due to the market forces of demand and supply. They may be influenced by government policies over the export and import of the commodity.

Climate change adversely affects the coffee industry where the temperatures in coffee producing areas have risen by half a degree within the past 25 years. This limits land capacity to productivity as well as reduced water availability. This has caused, and will continue causing, increased prices on coffee due to the demand being higher than the supply (Rogers, 2008).

The coffee industry has grown by about 190% since the 20th century. This is due to the wide variety of roasted coffee in the current market. Raw coffee beans have had a decline in prices, making the farmer resistant to cropping the crop. Political influences on coffee production occur from time to time, depending on the country of produce or purchase.

In the 1980’s, the coffee producers had “war taxes”, which made trade, of coffee impossible in El Salvador. The farmers refrained from replanting coffee trees so as to avoid huge loses of their property. In recent years since the year 2000, many competitors have come up the industry thus causing a decrease in the coffee market. (Morrison, 1987)

Developing countries have shown a great percentage of dependency on agriculture as a means of livelihood. Most farmers have shifted to production of cash crops in their farms, with a hope of increasing their income. Coffee and tea are the most widely produced cash crops in the developing nations. This is due to the favourable climate of coffee growing areas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The increase in the number of competitors has seen the income to these farmers decrease consistently to a level where the poor farmers have minimal benefit as compared to the retailers. The World Bank records that about 60.5 billion dollars arise from the trade of coffee. Out of this, the coffee producers get less than 3% of the final trade revenue.

The producers acquire the roasted coffee at an incredibly higher price than that of the raw beans. About half of all developing countries depend on exports in order to earn about 50% of the countries’ foreign exchange income.

In Africa, more than 75% of Burundi’s’ exports are coffee and in Uganda 50%. In the past, there was a body regulating the coffee prices in the market, the buffer stock system. The International coffee agreement implemented it but collapsed in the late 1980’s. Since then there has been no standard unit price for the coffee market (Weick

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Shekha Mozah 2010 Zurich Speech Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis

Personal Reflection

Conclusion

References

Introduction Communication is very important in every activity we undertake in the society today or in the future. Communication should pass a clear message that should be understood by the audience or the listeners. One of the modes used in capturing the attention of the audience is persuasion. The best way to achieve persuasion is either through revealing the truth or by stirring up the emotions of the listeners. The character of the person delivering a speech or trying to communicate with the audience is important in the communication process.

During the presentation of the FIFA 2022 World Cup Bid announcement, Sheikha Mozah moved the audience with her speech. Her speech reflected her smart personality and brought out how well she was aware of the realities of the World Cup games. This essay is going to analyze Sheikh Mozah’s speech during this specific event with the intention to find out how effective her speech was.

Analysis Her highness Sheikh Mozah began her speech by asking the listeners when they thought it was the perfect time for the World Cup to come to the Middle East, and this drew the attention of the audience. Once she had caught the attention of the audience, she went ahead to engage the public and explore more on the issues she was about to bring out. Sheikha Mozah did state the facts that indeed, the World Cup had never been held at the Middle East, and her appeal struck the tone of sincerity among the audience.

For instance, she outlined the importance of the World Cup to the Middle East and the role of the football in uniting the whole region. Her speech reflected honesty and credibility concerning the fact that she emphasized what a high status this game succeeded to achieve and that Qatar had to be recognized as a part of the nations contributing to the growing significance of football (Fromherz, 2011).

When she said, “A World Cup in Qatar will send an important message to the world that after 92 years of waiting, we will finally become a recognized part of the global football family.” With this phrase, she raised the question of football being a global sport game, and thus Qatar being a member of the global football family should be also given a chance to host this event (MalaysiaQatar, 2010). Her speech did bring out her character as an honest and convincing leader due to the fact that she focused on the importance of football in bringing unity and peace.

Her speech was to bring out her passion for football, and she achieved this by emphasizing the significance of football in unifying the youth. An example of how Sheikha Mozah incorporated sports with the daily life of the youth can be seen when she states, “Football shows that persistence leads to success, that problems could be solved through teamwork, and also teaches’ them values and rules. And if not, a yellow card will result.” By adding humor to her speech, she sounded more credible.

Her highness made use of indirect appeal to get to the audience in a very personal appeal. She became very passionate in her speech when speaking about values and beliefs in approaching the FIFA committee in a direct way (MalaysiaQatar, 2010). Moreover, she reached out to the audience by talking to them directly, and thus making her appeal more personal. For instance, she pointed out a collective message, “It will show the Middle East and the entire world that it is possible to bring East and West together”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sheikha Mozah used pathos to bring the message when she was not speaking of herself, but revealing the emotions and referring to the whole region of the Middle East. She underlined her message with a fervent appeal when she explained that she was not only the mother of her children but also the mother of a region. She went further to elucidate on how football contributed on achieving peace and unity among the youth in the region (Newman, 2010).

During her presentation speech to the FIFA committee in Zurich, Sheikha Mozah made a logical appeal to the committee to consider Qatar to be the host of 2022 World Cup. In her speech, she emphasized that in the history of the World Cup, Middle East had never had the opportunity to host such an event. She did that by elucidating the importance of the World Cup for Qatar because it would change football and global unity in the region (Rahim, 2010).

Her highness’ speech was delivered in a logical manner since her appeal started with the question ‘when.’ She went ahead to answer that question through the use of the phrases, such as ‘The time has come. The time is now’. As a result, she convinced the FIFA committee of the importance of Qatar’s 2022 World Cup. Her speech evoked the emotions of the audience since she highlighted how sports affected the daily lives of the youth in every part of the world.

However, it included her personality that brought the spotlight on the importance of football in Qatar and the whole Middle East region that touched the emotions of the audience (Wood, 2010). When she spoke of football in the Middle East region, she delivered a collective message that made her speech gain lots of credibility. Her message did show her authority in understanding the situation in Qatar and the Middle East region and told the story of the youth through football in relation to the World Cup.

Personal Reflection When we analyze the speech delivered by Sheikha Mozah, we realize that stating facts in a passionate and credible manner strikes a good rapport with the audience. However, her speech was not only a passionate appeal for consideration of Qatar as the World Cup host. Her speech was heeded by all the people in the Middle East since she spoke on behalf of their dreams, aspirations and believes. Qatar is an Islamic nation with traditional Islamic culture and beliefs practiced all over the country.

Qatar and the Middle East people are mainly conservative, and thus, Qatar’s 2022 World Cup bid was a departure from the past. The Middle East region has been rebuilding and rebranding itself through different events for the past decade (Newman, 2010). As a result, Qatar decided to be among the nations that host a global event such as the World Cup. Sheikha Mozah and, to some large extent, Qatar’s bid to host the World Cup were a marketing tool to attract the people and businesses to the region and make it a global tourist destination.

Qatar’s 2022 World Cup organizing committee understood that the effect of the World Cup being hosted in Qatar would be phenomenal. Since a lot of people would visit the country, explore the culture of the region and get to familiarize themselves with the Middle East (Fromherz, 2011). Consequently, the 2022 World Cup would serve as the best marketing tool for the regional tourism and sport.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Shekha Mozah 2010 Zurich Speech specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since Qatar will be hosting the 2022 world Cup, the country will be a sports destination which, as a result, is obligated to build its own team. Young people will be encouraged to play sports, and these sports facilities will be utilized later after the World Cup which contributes to building Qatar and the region as a sports destination (Rahim, 2010).

Conclusion The process of communication is quite complicated and the way we communicate can be perceived differently by many people. During the communication process, the speaker has to deliver his/her message to the audience in the most appealing manner with facts, humor and passion. Sheikha Mozah did her best during the FIFA committee meeting to gain her country the right to be the host of the 2022 World Cup.

Her speech impressed the FIFA World Cup committee, and many people attribute her speech to have helped Qatar clinch the rights of hosting the event. Moreover, her speech was moving in that it was passionate, honest and humorous while at the same time, it delivered strong message to the audience.

Sheikha Mozah made her speech appeal to the audience by making her message personal while addressing the facts as well. The delivery of her speech was majestic due to the fact that she started her speech with the question ‘when’ and went ahead to answer it in the best possible way.

References Fromherz, A. (2011). Qatar: A Modern History. London: Penguin Books.

MalaysiaQatar. (2010). Qatar World Cup 2022 Bid Presentation By HH Sheikha Mozah Bint Nasser. Web.

Newman, W.

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Theories of how Advertising Works Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction With innovation and development in technology, most customers are more informed about products that are available in the market. These customers are also more informed about their needs and their requirement from goods and services. Many companies that produce several products have also come up and they all compete for the attention of a similar market. Advertising has been proposed to have two theories of how it works which are a strong theory and a weak theory.

The strong theory of advertising suggests that for advertising to have an impact, an individual has to be persuaded to close the deal for the advertiser by making a purchase while the weak theory suggests that an individual is reminded to make a purchase for a particular brand of product.

However, advertisements use the same concepts to attract and hook the attention of the consumer and finally, close the deal after the client makes a purchase. This paper will take a look into the different communication models that are utilized in advertising and give an example of a successful advertisement that has been made in the 21st century. The paper will also look at the AIDA Attention Interest Desire and Action advertising model used in the Mac vs. PC model.

The critical debate is that, the modes of advertising currently used in the world today have evolved but the concepts that are used are still the same as those that were used a long time ago even before innovation and technology advanced. Even though consumers are more aware of their needs and rights, the concept of persuading and trying to keep consumers loyal to brands remains the same.

Communication Models All advertising and business organizations that intend on selling their products or services to consumers are aware of the need to attract and maintain the attention of consumers so that they can purchase products or services from the company and work to contribute to high profit margins for companies (Barker and Angelopulo 2005, 242).

Many companies spend large amounts of money on advertising just for this purpose. One of the communication models used by many advertising companies is abbreviated as AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action).

Attention Research surveys show that companies have a window of 3-4 seconds to attract the attention of a potential consumer after which the consumer would no longer be interested in the product or service. It is important for a business or organization to maximize on this chance by providing important information to the client such as great value or chance that the client might get (Howard

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Reasons for the Success of the Jewish Yishuv in 1947 Report (Assessment) essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Necessity for a Jewish State

Reasons for the Yishuv Success

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Introduction The birth of a Jewish nation occurred in 1948 when the United Nations established the state of Israel and the international community recognized it as a legitimate entity. However, this great accomplishment by the Jews took many years to realize. The single entity which is credited with the successful establishment of the state of Israel is the Yishuv. The term Yishuv refers to the “Jewish community in Palestine” and also the national liberation movement by Jews who sought to establish a Jewish State in Palestine territory.

This movement encouraged Jews from all over the world to immigrate to the land of Palestine and establish a Jewish State there. In their quest to achieve this goal, the Jews faced stringent opposition from the Palestinian Arabs who had been the occupants of the territory for centuries. This paper will set out to highlight the reasons for the success of the Jewish Yishuv as proposed by a number of key authors.

The Necessity for a Jewish State Bill and Springborg (1994) propose that any serious attempt to explain the reasons for the success of the Jewish Yishuv in 1947 should look at the events before the date which lay the foundations for this historic success for the Jews. Yishuv was advocated for by the Zionists who sought to establish a sovereign Jewish nation in the Land of Israel. Zionism was a product of the tumult of nineteenth-century Europe which resulted in Jews being met with increasing persecution and enforced isolation from the general non-Jewish society.

Bill and Springborg (1994, p.314) document that prominent Jewish persons in Western Europe came to the conclusion that the only means through which Jews could achieve true equality would be if they created their own state. As such, the hostile environment that the Jewish community faced made the prospects of establishing a Jewish state appealing because it was the only means through which Jews could become liberated and self-sufficient.

Migdal (1998, p.146) agrees that the Yishuv was a singular experience for both the original Jewish settlers in Palestine and the new immigrants since they were both highly motivated to achieve a unified political entity.

The ideological organization and financial resources provided by Western Europe led to the success of the Zionist movement which culminated in the establishment of the Jewish State of Israel. The prevailing ideology of the day was nationalism and colonialist as well as racial supremacy. The Jews therefore borrowed this ideology and applied it to Palestine which they viewed as a neglected corner of the Turkish Empire. Bill and Springborg (1994, p.316) states that the Zionists therefore set out to redeem Palestine through Jewish labor and capital.

Reasons for the Yishuv Success The defeat of the Ottoman Empire during the First World War and the subsequent succession to power by Britain on some of the former Ottoman provinces in the Middle East played a monumental role in the success of the Yishuv.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After this defeat, Palestine emerged as a new country separated from the rest of the Arab and Muslim world and more troubling, ruled over by a Christian power (Migdal 1988, 146). Bill, J, and Springborg, R, (1994) assert that the Zionist aspirations in Palestine could never have amounted to anything without British support in the cause of and after World War I. The prominent Jew professional Theodor Herzl appealed to Britain to support the establishment of a Jewish home in Palestine so as to protect her interests.

Herzl reasoned with Britain that the establishment of a Jewish state at the strategic point where Egyptian and Into-Persian interests converged would strengthen British influence by helping to counter other colonial interests in the region (Bill

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Comments for Invisible Man Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Perception

Dual Nature of Characters

Conclusion

Introduction When reading the story “the Invisible Man”, what is immediately apparent is that the invisibility in question is not related to actual invisibility but rather a form of social invisibility wherein the inalienable and indivisible rights that should be accorded to all members of an equal society that are absent in the case of the black people within the novel.

The fact that the author never expressly mentions the real name of the narrator, who is the main character in the story, can actually be perceived as a way in which the author portrays the concept of a lack of social identity and acknowledged of not only whites to blacks but of the perceptions of blacks to themselves.

Perception What must be understood is that to call someone by name is to acknowledge their existence; it is to encompass them into your world by virtue of awareness and as a result accord them a certain degree of “spatiality” in the way you perceive them in relation to everything else around you. By not naming a person you relegate them into the realm of “non-perception”. This is similar to the concept of knowing that air is around you yet never really consciously acknowledging the fact that is right there in front of your face.

The “invisibility” mentioned in the novel is, thus, a metaphor for the condition of African-Americans before the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. They are there in the background but are never really acknowledged by the white majority; they are right there in front of their faces yet are not accorded the same rights and privileges as the whites, they are “invisible”.

Dual Nature of Characters In fact, it can even be stated that the running theme within the novel is that it is a man’s search for identity and visibility within a predominantly white society that views him as being nothing more than a second class citizen.

Of particular interest within the novel is the sheer disambiguation between what the characters represent and what they actually are, for example, the founder of the university that the narrator attended supposedly rose up from slavery and plays the part of a pivotal role model for the author yet the famous speech of the founder is one of service and humility which in of itself promotes the idea among African Americans that it is their duty to forever be the servants of “the white man”.

Another example is seen in the case of the brotherhood wherein despite the fact that they supposedly fight for the rights of African Americans they are in fact, utilizing them as a means for their own political goals. In fact, the supposedly “invisible man” that the narrator represents is at times not so invisible in that he is often at the center of events of great visibility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taking this into consideration it can be assumed that the ambiguous nature of the characterizations wherein they are often revealed to be the complete opposite of who they are could be a metaphor for the dual nature of society at the time wherein on the surface they acknowledge African Americans but in reality will never consider them as being on the same level as whites.

Conclusion From a certain perspective, it can be stated that the novel itself is an excellent example of the “black condition” that pervaded African American society before the 1960s. It is evidence of the hypocrisy of society and the way in which people are rendered “invisible” by virtue of a lack of acknowledgment.

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Jesus Christ’ Sign Miracles Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

According to Kruse, Jesus performed eight great sign miracles that are recorded by John, a disciple of Jesus in his book found in the New Testament of the Holy Christian Bible.1 John accompanied Jesus wherever he went and therefore acted as an eye witness of what Jesus did.

Even today, Jesus performs miracles by transforming lives of Christians. Dr. Elmer Towns a professor of Liberty University and author of “The Gospel of John, Believe and Live” points out that the eight miracles acted as a proof of His Divinity, that Jesus Christ was God. The miracles of Jesus are used to show the mighty power of God manifested through Jesus Christ who lived on earth like normal human beings though he was God.2

Changing water into wine The first miracle to be performed by Jesus was at a wedding in Cana, a town in Galilee during which he turned water into wine. Jesus was invited to the wedding and he went in the company of his disciples. Wine that had been prepared got finished before all the guests could be served. Mary the mother of Jesus informed him that people had run short of wine. Jesus instructed the servants to take six pots and fill them with water. The water in the pots was turned into wine that served the rest of the guests. Turning water into wine shows that as a Deity, Jesus has power over creation.3

Healing the son of the nobleman In the book of (John 4: 46-54), the bible records that at one time, as Jesus walked around the town of Galilee, he was approached by a nobleman from Capernaum who explained to him about his dying son who was sick and still lying in bed. The nobleman requested Jesus to heal the boy. Just through uttering the healing words, and the faith that the nobleman had in Jesus’ healing power, the boy was healed. On his return home, he found that his son was healed in exactly the same time Jesus uttered the healing words.

This miracle shows that Jesus has power over space. This is because he spoke the healing words at Cana and the boy was healed at Capernaum. The miracle shows that space does not limit the power of Jesus. His mighty hand can reach people from all corners of the world even today.

The Lame Man Towns describe the story of how Jesus healed the lame man in Jerusalem.4 He had been for a longtime living beside the pool of Siloam where the angel of God healed the sick. It was a routine that the Angel of God came and troubled the water and the first person to enter the pool was healed. However much the lame man tried, his condition could not allow him to be the first to enter the pool. Jesus told the lame man to rise, carry his bed and walk and the man was healed.

Jesus healed the lame man on the Sabbath day an act that annoyed Jews because it was to be kept holy. Jesus told Jews that he worked under Gods instructions on when and how to use his power. This miracle was meant to show that God had the power over the Sabbath day. Time is not a determining factor of when God should manifest his power. He does it in his convenient time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Feeding the 5,000 people On the eve of the Passover, a large crowd of people gathered around Jesus to listen to his teachings. The food that was available was not enough to feed the large number of people. There was a boy with five loaves of bread and two small fishes within the crowd. Jesus ordered about 5000 men not inclusive of women and children to sit down. He thanked God, took the loaves and fish and gave it to his disciples to distribute it to the crowd.

The crowd ate to their satisfaction and a remainder of twelve baskets full of leftover was collected by the disciples. The miracle shows that God has power over food. The miracle implies the word of God that fills the souls of men. It means that small amounts of spiritual word satisfy large numbers of people.5

Jesus walks on water Jesus Christ rose to the mountain to pray while his disciples boarded a ship that travelled to Capernaum. In the course of their journey sometime at night, there was a great wind blowing against them that made the ship in which they were travelling in to lose direction thereby endangering their lives.

During this time, they spotted Jesus walking on the sea towards the ship. This astonished them but Jesus assured them that it was him, Christ Jesus and that they should not fear. Soon, the ship reached its destination. The miracle was meant to show that Jesus has power over nature.6

The healing of the blind man Jesus came across a man who had been blind right from birth. Through the miracle, Jesus showed that he was the light of the world while on earth. Jesus anointed his eyes with a mixture of clay and his saliva and ordered him to rinse his face in the pool of Siloam. The blind man was healed. The miracle shows God’s power over physical laws. Even today, Jesus has the power to cure all diseases.7

Lazarus resurrection John 11: 1-44 records the story of Lazarus’ resurrection. Lazarus the brother to Mary and Martha was raised from the dead by Jesus to show the glory of God. Jesus visited Bethany four days after Lazarus had passed away. Jesus assured Mary that Lazarus was not dead and would live again because he is the resurrection and life and whoever believed in him would rise from dead.

Mary believed in the power of Jesus. Jesus went to the grave and ordered them to remove the stone at the entrance of the tomb. He said a word of prayer and in a loud voice ordered Lazarus to come out. Lazarus resurrected and lived again. The miracle was meant to show Gods power over death. Those who witnessed Lazarus resurrection believed in God.8

We will write a custom Essay on Jesus Christ’ Sign Miracles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Miraculous Catch of Fish Simon Peter, Nathanael, James, Thomas, John among other disciples had been fishing in the sea of Tiberia for a whole night with no success. Jesus visited them early in the morning and instructed them to cast their net on the right side of the boat. They cast so many and big fish that they could not pool the net into the boat. They had to pull their nets to the show.

The miracle showed that Jesus can save many people. However hard an individuals heart may be, Jesus can save them from their sins. The eight sign miracles of Jesus were meant to show glory and mighty power of God manifested in different places to different people. The miracles act as evidence to Christians that God is real and his prophesies must come true.9

Bibliography Holy Bible. The King James Study Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1988.

Kruse, Colin. The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: John. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003.

Towns, Elmer. The Gospel of John: Believe and Live. Chattanooga: AMG Publishers, 2002.

Twelftree, Graham. Jesus the miracle worker: a historical

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Role of Women in the Church Essay scholarship essay help

The roles that women play in church leadership today have been of critical importance in enhancing performance of church ministries in both complementary and active roles. Credible studies on egalitarianism indicate that the intention of God regarding church ministry and leadership roles has been that both men and women serve in equal positions and status.

Rakate points out that the perspective of biblical equality embraces skin color, religion and gender while supporting the fact that God created individuals equally with same responsibilities to serve him.1 However, different viewpoints from complementarianism and egalitarianism on the role of women in the church have been areas of critical importance. It is against this backdrop that this paper takes a critical look at the role of women in church ministry.

To begin with, the term elder in the new testament (also called presbusteros) has been used several times to refer to the seventy disciples documented in Luke 10: 1-24, to the twelve apostles in Luke 6: 12-16 as well as other individuals who were in authority and held leadership roles in a Christian assembly.

Hamman points out that the term elder in the New Testament did not denote age, but represented both character and position of a person in terms of honor, experience, dignity and maturity.2 A deacon in original biblical language ‘Diakoneo’ refers to a servant. The term has been used 34 times in the New Testament to refer to a person serving at the table with examples from Acts 6:1 and Luke 10:41.

According to acts 6:3-5, the core qualifications of an individual filling the office of a deacon include good reputation, use of wisdom and manifestation of the Holy Spirit in his or her life. Other possible qualifications include being internally dynamic and good looking.

On the other hand, the qualifications of an elder are too many as indicated by Paul in Titus 1: 6-9 and also in 1Timothy. They include having a good reputation, a long term convert, ability to manage household well, patient, forbearing, hospitable, teachable, respectable, sober, faithfully married to one wife and blameless of any questionable character.

One of the fundamental issues in Christian ministry regarding the involvement of women in the ministry has been whether or not they should serve as deacons and elders. Paul in 1st Timothy 2: 9-15 strongly opposes women assuming leadership roles while favoring complementarianism. He says in verse twelve of Timothy 2: 9-15 that “I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet.”3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This statement has been repeated several times in 1 Corinthians 14:13, Titus 1: 6-9 and 1st Timothy 3: 1-13 and strongly indicates that leadership positions are a domain of men. The crux of the argument is that although God created men and female to be equal, it did not imply that the roles and functions they were to carry out were to be similar.4

Conversely, egalitarianism favors women and leadership roles. In Galatians 3:28, Paul says that “there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.”5 However, it would be hasty to interpret Paul’s position to mean that women are equal with men in terms of leadership roles. The fact that men and women are one in Christ refers to faith and salvation which is offered to all regardless of gender, race or economic status, and not leadership roles.

However, it is imperative to note that outside the church, women leadership roles are applicable, though it is abundantly clear that it has not been an easy affair as men still dominate many leadership positions. In the church, women have made immense contributions in complementary roles and in leadership roles in some churches. This has been in leading assemblies, composing songs and teachings.

To sum up, the discussion above has been based on the thesis statement that “the roles that women play in church leadership today have been of critical importance in enhancing performance of church ministries in both complementary and active roles”.

From the discussion, it is apparent that different views which are biblically-based have been raised favoring both egalitarianism and complementarianism. As noted from egalitarianism, women play important roles in church ministries and deserve to be treated equally as men since they are equal before God.

Bibliography Hamman, Jaco. “Resistance to women in ministry and the psychodynamics of sadness.” Pastoral Psychology, 59(2010)769-781.

Rakate, Faith. “Women in leadership: contextual dynamics and boundaries.”Journal of International Women’s Studies, 12(2011): 166-168.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of Women in the Church specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Footnotes 1 Rakate, Faith, “Women in leadership: contextual dynamics and boundaries,”Journal of International Women’s Studies, 12(2011): 167.

2 Hamman, Jaco, “Resistance to women in ministry and the psychodynamics of sadness,” Pastoral Psychology, 59(2010)781.

3 Ibid.780

4 Ibid. 781

5Rakate, Faith, “Women in leadership: contextual dynamics and boundaries,”Journal of International Women’s Studies, 12(2011): 168.

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Customers and Their Needs – Marketing Channels Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Adopting an effective marketing channel has become a critical factor today since a marketing channel plays pivotal role that impacts in positioning, placement, promotions, advertising, pricing and other important marketing decision. Studies indicate that meeting diverse needs of customers requires marketing channel decisions that ensures services and products are competently offered to consumers for consumption.

Manzerolle and Smeltzer (2011, p.330) posit that in the financial sector, different financial organizations utilize diverse marketing channels that are either direct or which involve intermediaries to meet various needs of their customers. As this paper analyses, all marketing channels have a common factor linking an end customer with a producer but vary in efficiency.

It is against this backdrop that this paper focuses on zero level marketing channels and how effective they are in selling financial services and products to customers. In addition, it compares this approach with other approaches used by other established organizations in the financial sector.

Direct marketing channel, also called zero level channel has become a major marketing conduit that most financial organizations like banks are using to take products and services directly to customers via means like infomercials, telemarketing, direct sales as well as through mails.

Sun and Wu (2011, p. 342) posit that the use of traditional model of utilizing retail channels to penetrate to customers has been regarded as less cost effective and infeasible for companies that are not well established or in the middle market. Direct marketing has emerged as an effective medium for marketing and selling financial services since it leverages on a one-on-one intimate selling.

Manzerolle and Smeltzer (2011, p.332) indicate that in the current fast-paced competitive market, the use of zero level channels makes it possible to spread word of a service or a product to customers more effectively, faster and in a wide area due to the availability of mass communication media. Such media include video conferencing, the internet, fax machines, electronic mail, adverting, computer and televisions.

The effectiveness of communication within this channel has increasingly grown due to the development of technology. Consequently, this growth and development has made marketing of financial services by marketers in the financial sector to consumers to be rapid and proficient when compared to other channels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A producer to consumer channel has been lauded by scholars of marketing management studies like Kim, Hibbard and Swain (2011, p. 524) as a channel which enhances a marketer’s profit margin. The option to adopt a zero level channel has been considered to be attractive by many financial organizations whose objectives have been to maximize profits.

Indeed, as Mary Jo Hatch posits in her model of business dynamics, adopting a zero level marketing channel is a key business concept that enables a producer to manage favorably his sales, reach customers and enjoy all the profits without having to share with distributors or other intermediaries (Manzerolle and Smeltzer 2011, p.332).

Indeed, this channel has become a favorite choice of most businesses such as CityBank, which sell its services and products directly to consumers. Additionally, direct marketing is a common practice and involves aspects such as telephone selling, direct mail and direct response advertising. A typical example is Western Union.

Approaches used by other businesses Studies indicate that using effective market channels has become a central pillar for most financial organizations seeking to win greater national and international markets. An effective market channel has the capacity to link consumers with respective organizations, and as a method of branding, developing loyalty and levering demand for continued market dominance and profitability.

Established financial service organizations like the Western Union and the American International Group have used their various marketing channels to act as major branding forces that seek to reach, persuade and establish customer bases where all consumers and stakeholders consider and feel part the company.

Financial markets are becoming highly competitive because of high specificity of consumers and the levels of marketing channels involved. Gabisch and Gwebu (2011, p. 310) explain that this competitive environment makes marketing complex as businesses are seeking effective ways of reaching customers. Large financial service organizations like AIG have adopted strategies aimed at utilizing superior marketing channels involving complex intermediaries to reach and put across their messages to consumers.

The scenario is even more difficult for small and medium new entrant enterprises that see the move as key threats to their existence. Competition is even more difficult to counter because existing organizations are run with government having major interests in them. The near monopolistic nature of the market is less tolerant to emerging competitors since it is very difficult to penetrate.

We will write a custom Report on Customers and Their Needs – Marketing Channels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The last two decades have seen information technology emerge as an unbeatable force and platform for marketing to reach their target consumers with ease. Sun and Wu (2011, p. 340) explain that many financial organizations in the UK and US have therefore turned to direct marketing because it offers them a chance to provide unlimited information to their consumers. In UK, most organizations have developed websites where marketing communicators post their messages for consumers to read.

It is imperative to note that the large number of people having access to internet makes it easy to reach a large number of populations with great ease. Similarly, companies operating in the US use their websites to post information to their clients. It has been particularly successful because the language can be customized for the customers to select what they are comfortable with.

Emails are further used to reach respective consumers that companies have in their mailing lists. Unlike a website where general information is posted, emails are personal and their use is considered to have a great effect to consumers.

Uematsu and Mishra (2011, p. 10) posit that this is because when consumers are sent emails, they easily get the sense of touch to their respective organizations. Besides, like the website, a lot of information can be sent to consumers through attachments, photos, music and even videos.

To sum up, the paper has noted that marketing channels are important parameters that financial organizations use to reach their customers with products and services. Different organizations use diverse marketing channels to perform marketing functions and improve value.

References Gabisch, J, and Gwebu, K 2011, ‘Impact of virtual brand experience on purchase intentions: the role of multichannel congruence’, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 302-319.

Kim, S, Hibbard, J, and Swain, S 2011, ‘Commitment in marketing channels: mitigator or aggravator of the effects of destructive acts?’ Journal of Retailing, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 521-539.

Manzerolle, V, and Smeltzer, S 2011, ‘Consumer databases and the commercial mediation of identity: A medium theory analyses’, Surveillance

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KFC Marketing Strategies Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Evolution of strategies used by KFC

Push and pull strategy used by KFC

The 7 p’s of marketing

Key challenges facing KFC

How KFC can remain relevant in the market

Reference List

Introduction Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is a world known chain of fast food restaurants based the United States. It’s the world’s most popular chain of restaurants that sells chicken pieces in a variety of forms.The company receives more than 12 million customers per day in its various restaurants based in 109 countries in the world. Harland Sanders is the person believed to have come up with this recipe more than half a century ago. The cooperation is part of the world’s largest restaurant, Yum! Brands Inc.

Evolution of strategies used by KFC Over the years, KFC has used a number of business strategies that have enabled them to evolve from a one man business to a multi-billion dollar enterprise. One of the skills that it first utilized was ensuring that one’s skills and knowledge is invaluable. The success of a business is greatly affected by the level of expertise the company brings in. it is obvious that the higher the level of skills and expertise, the greater the potential of business success.

It is advisable that people set up businesses based on their own set of skills and areas of expertise just like the founder of KFC, Colonel Harland Sanders. His knowledge and expertise in preparing chicken meals contributed to the success and expansion of KFC (KFC Business Strategies 2011).

Another strategy that was adopted was the strategy of achieving uniqueness. Being able to be set apart from other competitors goes a long way into improving the growth rate of any business. This is only achieved by doing things differently. It is therefore advised that the entrepreneur skims the market first in order to establish what they could do that is different from their competitors and it also has to be appealing to their customers.

The way products are produced, packaged, delivered, or even service delivery to the customer has to be unique and different from other competitors. KFC came up with the pressure fried chicken which set them apart from other chicken restaurants. It also included a special blend of recipes and herbs that made their chicken taste different from the others. Sanders became very popular in the 1930’s for using this technique.

Persistence and focus is another strategy that KFC adopted when it started its business. At the start of every business it is never a guarantee that the business will be a success. It may take some time for the sales to go up and at times the business may even experience a loss.

Persistence and focusing on what works and what doesn’t ensures that in the long run the business becomes a success. Colonel Sanders lost his business at the age of 65 but re-built it in ten years. This saw him opening a total of 600 franchises which saw him earn approximately $300, 000 before tax.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bringing in experts into your business is a good way of ensuring that the business continues to build and grow. The experts can be partners or employees; however, they are the most important people who will structure the business into systems that will outlive even the founder of the business. In 1964, KFC allowed professional managers to take over the business. This saw the business grow from a one man business to multi-billion dollar franchise.It even expanded into the international market and established its outlets in various foreign countries.

They believed that their products had a good market in other states other than the United States. Not only this, but also the production rate as compared to the consumers rate was profitable and they had little or no competition. Ironically, by 1992, KFC was collecting more revenue from the foreign markets than it was collecting from the United States.

Push and pull strategy used by KFC The push and pull strategy is most efficient if a producer wants to supply their stock to stores and at the same time create a demand supply for their products. This is particularly effective for a business that is still starting. The push strategy is whereby the producer of the goods has to work extra hard in order to distribute their products to retailers and wholesalers. Fast moving consumer goods can work effectively well for the push strategy whereby the customers are ready to make purchasing decisions.

The manufacturer can engage the retailers in promotion strategies such as face to face selling and encouraging them to stock the product (Kotler

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Collaboration in a Not-for-Profit Organization Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help

Table of Contents Problematic Issues

Myths, Theories and Realities

Conclusion

Works Cited

A not-for-profit organization is governed by a not-for-profit board. Since it is an organization built on the concept of service and the propagation of culture and the arts. The members of the board can even be considered as volunteers. The organization cannot afford to pay them because the endeavor does not create a profit compared to a traditional business organization.

This is good for the venture because all the money that it earns from fees and donations goes back to the system instead of paying hefty wages to members of the board. However, this complicates the management of the organization because there is no way to demand full-time commitment. Therefore, members of the board must learn to collaborate with all the stakeholders of the said organization in order to achieve its primary goals.

The stakeholders are the members of the community, the supporters, the contributors, consultants hired to perform certain duties, management professionals, and the staff. In Nello McDaniel and George Thorn’s treatise entitled Leading Arts Boards: An Arts Professional’s Guide for Creating and Leading an Effective Collaboration with Board and Volunteers the focus is on the board and the volunteers but in order to develop an efficient non-for-profit organization for the arts, the leaders must see the big picture.

The members of the board must focus not only in the interaction between the leaders and the volunteers. In other words it is not enough to simply clarify the work roles and the power structures; it is also imperative to get everyone involved. This assertion is consistent with the realities of leading an arts board as discussed by McDaniel and Thorn.

Problematic Issues The challenges faced by the board, volunteers and staff were correctly diagnosed by McDaniel and Thorn.

They pinpointed three major factors and these are listed as follows: 1) difficulty to raise contributed income; 2) the professional and personal difficulties that results in the selection process for board members and volunteers; and 3). Organizations are saddled by the need to sort out theories and myths with regards to what a board could, should and would do (McDaniel

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Mandate of Heaven Essay (Movie Review) custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

China’s Yellow River

Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism Philosophies

Great Wall and Silk Road

Opium Wars

Communism

Introduction The foremost rationale of the report is to seek and provide an elaborate explanation concerning the meaning of the “Mandate of Heaven”. It also covers how China’s yellow river played a role in China’s civilization, how Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism philosophies, Great Wall and Silk Road, Opium Wars, and communism affect China’s civilization. “Ming” in early Chou was in essence the heavenly mandate given to the ruling class.

However, it has undergone two different developments. It initially predestined the moral instructions of heaven. It appears that the superior or the ruling house received authority from heaven to manage and control the people. As such, when the superior or ruler was overthrown, it simplifies a loss in the Mandate of Heaven. Therefore, the concept of Mandate of Heaven resembles the heavenly right of kings in that the right to rule streams directly from God’s will.

The ruler or superior believes that the way they govern a state is in accordance with the will of Heaven, and that people have to obey the superior that has prearranged the mandate or authority to control them. In essence, it was an idea of authority or legitimacy of a ruler to preside over under the heaven. Thus, the superior became an earthly representative to care for the people, as well as the welfare of their subjects.

China’s Yellow River The Zhou and Shang dynasties marked a complex civilization period for China. During this period, Chinese traditions and cultural values were spread and transpired throughout Asia. China’s yellow river played a vital role, as well as the key influence on agriculture in China.

The development and success of cities, resource trading and labor opportunities also relied on the yellow river. The Pamir, Tian and Himalaya mountain ranges, the Mongolian steppe, as well as deserts such as the Gobi and Takla Makan, isolate China from the eastern hemisphere. As a result, travel was difficult due to the gigantic trail of mountains, therefore, making trade and transportation difficult, as well.

Actually, people did not travel by foot since communication would be made tremendously slow. As an alternative, travel was common through Yangzi and Yellow rivers. In addition, agriculture and trade could not be sufficient without the rivers.

Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism Philosophies China has immense history in religion and art. Currently, religion in China is coined “Chinese Religion” since it is not organized but a combined movement. Chinese culture categorizes religion into four traditions: Confucianism, Chinese folk religion, Buddhism and Taoism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most people in China mix religion with their daily beliefs. In addition, the Chinese government plays a crucial role in dictating the religion that people should follow. The Chinese art is founded on these three key religions: Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The previously mentioned religions put emphasis on love for nature. For this reason, landscapes, animals, flowers and birds constitute the established subjects of the art of Chinese.

Great Wall and Silk Road The Silk Road, which is known as the silk route is a wide-ranging interconnected, set of connections of trade routes that transverse the Asian continent. It connects East, West, and Southern Asia with the Mediterranean countries, as well as the Eastern and Northern Europe and Africa. The origin of the name Silk Road is linked to the extensive trans-continental silk trade that takes place in China.

The silk trade came into operation at a time when China had the reign of Han dynasty. In addition, to silk, the other significant feature is the Silk Road that was used to carry some other commodity to form part of the significant world history. In that same light, the Silk Road is regarded as the world’s oldest intercontinental routes that stretch and upholds a considerable number of religions in particular the Buddhism through Central Asia.

This broadcast/diffusion has not only made a considerable impact on the lives and cultures in exacting countries within the continent, but it has also left the citizens of those countries with an ocean of wonders in literature and art. Art and iconography are the two main forms that have played a noteworthy role in the transmission of religious traditions all along the Silk Road.

The Great Wall of China is a proof and a factual thing to the Chinese’s extensive journey of civilization. The wall was built to protect the country from invaders, as well as a show of wealth and power in ancient China.

Opium Wars The reign of Qing dynasty feared instability due to the influences of the outside world, especially European countries. This resulted to refusal of the traders into the country. As a result, wars were employed to open trade, particularly for opium. China lost the war, and this paved way to signing of treaties that saw large trading companies being opened in Hong Kong.

Communism The onset of communism witnessed an alternate loosening and tightening of political and economic policies. It ensured redistribution of wealth through land reforms, and initiating power structure that was centralized. In addition, communism led to a campaign directed against tax evasion, bribery, theft of government assets, cheating on materials and labor, and stealing government economic secrets.

We will write a custom Essay on Mandate of Heaven specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, communism shifted the economic system to socialist, as opposed to private ownership. China strived to attain economic growth and development founded on purposeful destabilization. The video explores the different aspects that affected the Chinese civilization.

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KFC Marketing Strategies Report writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Evolution of strategies used by KFC

Push and pull strategy used by KFC

The 7 p’s of marketing

Key challenges facing KFC

How KFC can remain relevant in the market

Reference List

Introduction Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is a world known chain of fast food restaurants based the United States. It’s the world’s most popular chain of restaurants that sells chicken pieces in a variety of forms.The company receives more than 12 million customers per day in its various restaurants based in 109 countries in the world. Harland Sanders is the person believed to have come up with this recipe more than half a century ago. The cooperation is part of the world’s largest restaurant, Yum! Brands Inc.

Evolution of strategies used by KFC Over the years, KFC has used a number of business strategies that have enabled them to evolve from a one man business to a multi-billion dollar enterprise. One of the skills that it first utilized was ensuring that one’s skills and knowledge is invaluable. The success of a business is greatly affected by the level of expertise the company brings in. it is obvious that the higher the level of skills and expertise, the greater the potential of business success.

It is advisable that people set up businesses based on their own set of skills and areas of expertise just like the founder of KFC, Colonel Harland Sanders. His knowledge and expertise in preparing chicken meals contributed to the success and expansion of KFC (KFC Business Strategies 2011).

Another strategy that was adopted was the strategy of achieving uniqueness. Being able to be set apart from other competitors goes a long way into improving the growth rate of any business. This is only achieved by doing things differently. It is therefore advised that the entrepreneur skims the market first in order to establish what they could do that is different from their competitors and it also has to be appealing to their customers.

The way products are produced, packaged, delivered, or even service delivery to the customer has to be unique and different from other competitors. KFC came up with the pressure fried chicken which set them apart from other chicken restaurants. It also included a special blend of recipes and herbs that made their chicken taste different from the others. Sanders became very popular in the 1930’s for using this technique.

Persistence and focus is another strategy that KFC adopted when it started its business. At the start of every business it is never a guarantee that the business will be a success. It may take some time for the sales to go up and at times the business may even experience a loss.

Persistence and focusing on what works and what doesn’t ensures that in the long run the business becomes a success. Colonel Sanders lost his business at the age of 65 but re-built it in ten years. This saw him opening a total of 600 franchises which saw him earn approximately $300, 000 before tax.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bringing in experts into your business is a good way of ensuring that the business continues to build and grow. The experts can be partners or employees; however, they are the most important people who will structure the business into systems that will outlive even the founder of the business. In 1964, KFC allowed professional managers to take over the business. This saw the business grow from a one man business to multi-billion dollar franchise.It even expanded into the international market and established its outlets in various foreign countries.

They believed that their products had a good market in other states other than the United States. Not only this, but also the production rate as compared to the consumers rate was profitable and they had little or no competition. Ironically, by 1992, KFC was collecting more revenue from the foreign markets than it was collecting from the United States.

Push and pull strategy used by KFC The push and pull strategy is most efficient if a producer wants to supply their stock to stores and at the same time create a demand supply for their products. This is particularly effective for a business that is still starting. The push strategy is whereby the producer of the goods has to work extra hard in order to distribute their products to retailers and wholesalers. Fast moving consumer goods can work effectively well for the push strategy whereby the customers are ready to make purchasing decisions.

The manufacturer can engage the retailers in promotion strategies such as face to face selling and encouraging them to stock the product (Kotler

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The 2008 Financial Crisis Report (Assessment) college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Role of the MBS and CDO in the financial Crisis

Conclusion

References

Introduction The 2008 financial crisis in United States of America caused the government to take several steps to ease the situation in the economy. The government through the federal and treasury institutions bailed out the insurance giant AIG. There was also the takeover of the Bear Sterns Bank by the government.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act were passed which authorised the injection of $787 Billion in the economy to stimulate demand and employment. The stimulus package was also offered with the aim of mitigating the mortgage foreclosures. There were the homeowners Affordability and Stability Plan that assisted the struggling people to refinance their mortgages.

The government purchased mortgage-backed securities and treasury bills to improve the credit conditions. The treasury also injected capital into the troubled financial institutions in exchange of common equity and preferred stocks in certain cases. Financial institutions were temporarily suspended from short-selling by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The government continued to lower the interest rates in order to increase security. What caused the financial crisis and what was the role of mortgage backed securities and collateralized debt obligations in the financial crisis? These financial instruments contributed substantially to the financial crisis.

The Role of the MBS and CDO in the financial Crisis The financial crisis has its origin in the housing sector. There was a surge in the subprime borrowers in the mortgage sector. The subprime borrowers have certain characteristics. They have low credit scores. Additionally they have high debt service to income ratio that may be as high as 40%.

They take small loans in the range of $100,000. They also have a high loan to value ratio of over 80%. House prices had been increasing from the 1990’s to 2005. In fact in the period 1998 to 2005, the housing prices doubled increasing the investor’s confidence in the market.

The home owners were therefore at an advantage since the value of their houses kept increasing (Weaver, 2008). When they were financially distressed they could sell the house. The mortgage rates were also relatively low in the period 2000 to 2005 so the people could refinance for another product that also had low rates.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At this time the adjustable rate mortgages (ARM) became highly attractive to the home owners. This kind of loans also increased during this period. The subprime owners were either getting ARM or other hybrid loans. There was an increase in the amount of loans in this sector that was contributed by a number of factors.

First of all, there had been lax underwriting standards over that period. Annual surveys that were conducted by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) showed that banks had lowered their credit standards in the period 2004 to 2006. The percentage of loans that had been given with full documentation also declined during this period.

There was also increased indebtedness of the subprime owners. In the period 2000 to 2006, the homeowners had been taking higher value loans against their house with the expectation that the prices would rise. The opposite trends in the cost of mortgage credit and the housing prices also made the home owners participate more in the market since the risk of default was much lower (Baily, Litan, and Johnson, 2008).

In 2004 however the mortgage rates started to rise and the house prices started declining. The home owners found themselves in a fix.

The consequences were high rates of delinquencies and foreclosures on the homes. In 2007, it was evident that the subprime borrowers were not the only ones affected by the financial crisis. The crisis had spread to the Alt-A and the prime mortgage products as well.

This turn of events in turn affected the mortgage backed securities. The financial market had turned the pool of financial obligations into a source of liquidity for the lenders and capital for several consumers. These repackaged products caused the housing crisis to affect the markets even more since the products were being sold in the global financial markets (Bullard, Neely and Wheelock, 2005).

The securitization process was a procedural process followed by the financial institutions. A customer would approach the bank for a loan to finance his purchase of a residential or commercial property. The rate of interest would be agreed on based on the credit features of the individual. The higher the risk the higher the interest rates would be.

We will write a custom Assessment on The 2008 Financial Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The mortgage lender would then approach the mortgage banker to be relieved of the risk of default of the customer. The mortgage bankers in the past would issue bonds in the market to sell the loans in the market however now there was an innovative system where the mortgage banker would sell the loan to an investment banker.

The investment banker would get a large group of mortgage based financial products, underwrite it and then sell it to investors. These mortgage backed products would be pooled together into a mortgage backed security. The risk of total default was therefore lower however the returns remained the same. If the customers defaulted, the investors

could still sell the houses and recover their money. The MBSs varied in their form or composition however they gave the investors certain yields either as cash flows over a period of time or the market value of the MBS.

There was also the creation of the CDOs. A collateralized debt obligation refers to an entity that holds the debt as the collateral in order to issue liabilities in the market. These liabilities are issued in the form of tranched securities. The CDO comprises of securities that are rated differently in terms of the timing of the repayment and the risk or seniority in bankruptcy. CDOs have different purposes.

They are those which are issued for the company to be able to hedge the credit risk and minimise the exposure in regulatory risk when it comes to the balance sheet balances. A company may also issue them in order to collect interest on the high yield products while others are issued in order to earn high management fees and exploit the management expertise. The product had existed in the market since the 1980’s however during this period the amount of CDO’s increased immensely.

There were credit agencies that would rate the risk of the MBS and CDOs. These ratings would influence the price of the security in the market and also inform the investment bankers on the risk-weighted capital treatment of these securities according to the Basel II framework.

The credit agencies were rating 80% of the subprime products at the highest credit rating (Jo, Lee, Munguia and Nguyen, 2009). The securities were therefore highly attractive. Banks, hedge funds and pension funds purchased the securities as part of their market portfolio.

The investment banks needed to also seek protection on the low credit rating securities in accordance to Basel II requirements. This came in the form of the credit default swap (CDS) which is a financial derivative. This would assist the holder of the MBS or CDO by insuring him against the risk of default.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The 2008 Financial Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was the creation of naked CDS which refers to contracts where neither party was in possession of the security or asset. This would create an avenue for high speculation and loopholes in risk management. The insurance company, AIG, was able to take up a high amount of CDS as the market was highly unregulated.

This was because the product had not been placed in the securities, insurance or futures contract in the financial market. If the insurer was rated highly in the industry, there was no need to provide any collateral. Furthermore the CDSs were put in the financial statements as profits based on the default probabilities the company had calculated based on the experience of the former years.

The securitization of mortgage securities had gained high popularity through the years due to the low interest rates and the rising house prices. The home owners gained immensely form speculation. There were high origination fees earned by the mortgage brokers.

The rating agencies experienced high demand for their services and earned high profits while the investment bankers were earning high amounts in securitization fees. All the relevant stakeholders were gaining and happy with the process. The investment bankers got even more involved in the process after April 2004, where the Securities and Exchange Commission allowed the investment bankers to borrow even

more money. They now took on more securitization of mortgage loans. Companies such as the Lehman Brothers now adopted generous lending standards. In the year 2007, the MBS market was now valued at $2Trillion while the CDO market was valued at $521Billion. This was despite the fact that between 85-95% of the CDS products were based on speculative circumstances.

The housing crash therefore affected investors and halted their cash flows. The lower house prices saw the prices of the MBOs and CDOs depreciate even further. The risk of default increased and the foreclosures and delinquencies thrust the country and the world into a financial crisis.

wThe CDO and MBOs started receiving adverse credit ratings as most of the products were subprime or non-agency categories. The Moody Company downgraded 30% of the products they had rated. Some of the products that had been graded highly were also downgraded. There had been an assumption that the housing prices would just continue increasing however it turned out not to be so.

The credit rating companies did not put into consideration the risk of defaulting en masse or the relaxed rating standards that were in place at that time. Insurance companies like AIG found itself facing high insurance payouts due to the massive defaulting the banks were experiencing (Roger and Stacey, 2001). They had to increase their capital in order to adequately deal with the change of circumstances. There was suspicion from the public towards the financial institutions that further aggravated the situation.

Depositors now wanted their money from the banks and the hedge funds. The interbank lending rates soared as banks were now reluctant to lend to each other. They were not

sure or certain of their value in the financial statements after the crisis and were also reluctant to lend to banks which they could not correctly affirm their credit worthiness. The firms that had specialised in the use of MBO and CDO in order to get funding could no longer receive any money due to the increase in the interest rates.

When the Lehman Brothers and AIG started facing great pressures, the money market became even more restrictive in their lending practices. The consequence was a credit crunch which affected firms adversely as they needed loans for liquidity.

Conclusion The financial crisis in 2008 was therefore caused by a myriad of factors. There was the lending to subprime borrowers to the financial institutions. There was greed in the sector with the brokers focused on the high rewards. There were also the credit rating agencies that were not prudent in considering several risk factors in grading the subprime mortgages.

However, the biggest cause of the crisis was the innovative financial products that had been introduced in the market in the recent years. The MBS and CDO involved huge companies such as banks, hedge funds and pension funds. When the housing prices fell and the mortgage rates went up, these big institutions magnified the impact of the defaults, the foreclosures and the delinquencies of the home owners. There was a credit crunch, firms collapsed and the government had to step in order to save some of the companies.

There was a need to minimise the impact that would be felt in the market. A stimulus package had to be injected into the market by the American government. There have been steps in the regulatory environment to streamline the risk management process as a result of the financial crisis.

References Baily, M., Litan, R. and Johnson, M. (2008). The Origins of the Financial Crisis. Fixing Finance Series, 3, pp. 1-47.

Bullard, J., Neely, C. and Wheelock, D. (2005). Systemic Risk and the Financial Crisis: A Primer. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 91(5), pp. 403-17.

Jo, H., Lee, C., Munguia, A. and Nguyen, C. (2009) Unethical misuse of derivatives and market volatility around the global financial crisis. Cambridge Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, 33, pp. 563-580.

Roger, L. and Stacey, L. (2001) A Model of Financial Fragility. Journal of Economic Theory, 99(1-2), pp. 220-64.

Weaver, K. (2008). The sub-prime mortgage crisis: a synopsis. Global Securitization and Structured Finance, 4, pp. 22- 31.

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Pearl Harbor Attack Descriptive Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Pearl Harbor is located at Hawaii in the United States of America. This was a military base of the US military forces during the Second World War. Japan was very keen on conquering the larger Asian region, having successfully suppressed China. It had entered into an alliance with Germany and Italy.

This alliance formed the central power that would fight the allied forces led by Britain. This country was one of the strongest nations during the Second World War and its leaders were keen on asserting their control in Asian region.

The United States of America had taken a low profile in the war at the beginning. It preferred supplying both weapons and food to both sides. This stabilized it economically, which would later help it in strengthening its military. Japan was weary of the US and wanted to suppress it as it was the only threat to Japan’s conquest.

The German soldiers convinced Japan that Britain and France were under control. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republicans was still recovering from the German attack. The only threat was the United States of America (Rottman 45).

Tension between the two countries started building up in early 1940s. Both countries were suspicious of each other. The US was keenly monitoring the rate at which Japan was arming itself. Japan was also aware that the US was heavily armed.

Japan therefore decided to attack the US for one main reason, which was to offer the US a devastating blow that would completely discourage it from going to war. They expected that after the attack, the US either would be too weak to join the war or would be scared. This would enable their advancement to other Asian countries since there could not be any threat from major powers.

In 25 November 1941, Japan decided to launch its offensive. It attacked the US military base at Pearl Harbor. This was one of the US main military bases located in Hawaii. This resulted to death of over 2400 Americans and wounded about 1300 people. Several ships were also destroyed and the harbor was damaged, though not to a large extent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The US had expected such an occurrence but had not predicted this kind of damage. The damage would have been worse but it was poorly planned. Furthermore, the military strength of the US forces was under-estimated by the Japanese senior commanders. It did not take much to repair the ships and get them back to the sea.

The United States of American responded to this attack very swiftly. It was convinced that Japan was an enemy that could no longer be assumed. They could no longer watch this war from the fence but had to join it actively. They declared war on Japan. This immediate cause forced America to join the Second World War officially.

This reaction was expected by German and Italy, which responded immediately by declaring war on the US. However, Japan did not expect this eventuality. They expected the US to be scared meaning that it could not be in a position to join the war.

The United States of America entered the war for two major reasons. One of it was to save its friendly nations such as Britain and France, which were under siege. In addition, it had to react to the attack on its military base. Although the US helped in suppressing the all-powerful Germany, its main target was Japan.

Works Cited Rottman, Gordon. World War 2 Pacific Island Guide. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Print.

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Ulysses and Gilgamesh Essay college admission essay help

The following is a comparison of two characters, Ulysses and Gilgamesh. Both are characters of epic stories where Ulysses is the main character of the Homer’s epic, who is one of the most famous heroes of the Greek epos. He is also known to the general public as Odysseus.

Ulysses is shown as a brave warrior who participates in the fight against the Trojans, in the Trojan War. Gilgamesh on the other hand is a character of Andrew George’s epic, which is a translation of the Sumerian mythology so that people in the modern world can understand it.

Gilgamesh is an adored icon in the Sumerian society , he was a hero and many perceived him to be a god (George 56). The following is a brief comparison between the two characters on their similarities their differences with each other.

Ulysses is a demigod as per his contemporaries, who viewed him with a lot of admiration. He goes to war with the Trojans and he leads the Greeks to victory. However, the god of the sea holds him back when on his returning to Ithaca and this means that his long awaiting return leaves his fanatics disappointed.

On the other hand, the suitors who concluded that Ulysses died are wooing his wife. Gilgamesh is also a hero in the Sumerian world (George 45). The writers refer to him as to one who surpassed all the kings and who was certainly a hero in the Sumerian world.

The two texts are probably descriptions of the two ancient worlds, and for the purpose of this essay it is important to analyze what could happen if the two heroes meet each other, and what would they talk about. What kind of discussion would Ulysses and Gilgamesh of Sumerian have?

First of all, they would talk of their different geographical locations and its beauty, Ulysses is from Ithaca whereas Gilgamesh is from Mesopotamia, where people practiced Agriculture, and regions that are considered to be the homelands of ancient civilization. Ulysses would talk about Greece as a land of mythology where people loved to think (Homer 67).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They would also have a lively discussion about war and how they had fought many battles. Ulysses would speak of the long battles with long time enemies of his people. He would talk about how he led his people during war against Trojans, and about many perils they experienced in the sea. Gilgamesh would seemingly be listening to Ulysses, but he would be in deep immersed in his own reverie about many battles he fought, especially the one he fought with Humbadda and how he won it.

They would also talk about many journeys. Gilgamesh would certainly talk about his journey with Ekiddu to meet the Upa-nishti so that he can be immortalized, and how he stayed in cold forests, and his encounters with wild animals, as well as how the long journey took him. Ulysses would also share with his interlocutor the story about many journeys he met on his way home.

He would also talk about how they met the beautiful sirens. This would include how he was tied to the pole so that even after hearing their beautiful music he would not jump into the sea to go to them. He would also tell about how he was held captive by the god of the sea. (Homer 80).

Then they would talk about their encounters with gods, Ulysses would tell how he met the god of the sea and how he was able to interact with him. He would also talk about how the god of the sea held him captive even after expressing his desire to go back to his family. Gilgamesh would also narrate of how he was disappointed when he finally met Uta-nipishti after his long journey, and how Upa-nishti denied him immortality, and he therefore had to return to Uruk, his homeland.

They would finally have to chat about their lives after failing to achieve what they wanted to achieve. After his late homecoming to Ithaca, Ulysses cannot be celebrated anymore, he also feels disappointed that he found his wife very old. He narrates to Gilgamesh how he decided to go back to the sea and explore the seas once again. This is how he finally puts as described by Homer “Though much is taken, much abides and though, made weak by time and fate, but strong in will to strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.”

Gilgamesh would also tell about what he decided to do after he was denied immortality even after fighting hard and spending his youth in pursuit of immortality (Homer 29). Gilgamesh has a sad ending because even after he was given a plant to renew his youth by Upa-nishti, he decides to test its effectiveness on a dying snake which shads its skin to youthfulness, but he lost the opportunity to revive his youth and relive his life again. He recalls with tears.

That is what a discussion could be between the two heroes. It could also be emotional as they recuperate their victories and their lows. The two characters are indeed heroes of the fictional world and they characterize the heroes of the ancient world.

We will write a custom Essay on Ulysses and Gilgamesh specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited George, Andrew. The Epic of Gilgamesh, London: Penguin Classics, 2000. Print.

Homer. The Odyssey. London: Penguin Modern Classics Paperback, 2000. Print.

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Outsourcing of Facilities Management Case Study essay help free: essay help free

Introduction All businesses manage their facilities as a way of supporting the business processes. Facilities include offices and commercial premises. Facility management is the process of streamlining efforts to maintain business premises to support and aid a business’s operations. Maintenance of the premises involves the effort of technical and administration staff to keep assets in good physical conditions for better performance.

In today’s business, managers strive to avoid wide error margins that could jeopardize their businesses in the increasingly competitive environments. In an effort to achieve effectiveness and efficiency, they take appropriate strategies that will help minimize costs and still offer good services. The strategies adopted by different businesses differ depending on the nature of competition and services required.

Outsourcing is one such widely adopted strategy in today’s hospitality sector due to the many benefits accrued to the practice. This paper studies use of practice in Hong Kong’s hospitality industry with a deeper analysis of benefits and challenges incurred in adopting the practice. This strategy is intended to increase productivity and returns, while lowering costs and operational risks that can be quite costly.

Background By outsourcing, the business employs a strategy whereby it gets more for less. A number of countries have become involved in practice with a large number of industry players in the hospitality industry adopting this method in their businesses. It is critical that we understand hoteliers’ motivation for outsourcing as a determinant of business success.

The wide adoption of the practice has not failed to catch researcher’s attention, calling for a number of studies on the trends and viability of the practice. Studies on the practice in the hotel industry have, however, not been intensified. In this study, we shall look at the issue of outsourcing from a corporate perspective.

This is because empirical assessment on the viability of the practice is often done at industrial levels. This will, therefore, provide us with good information for dissemination and analysis, enabling us to draw accurate conclusions.

Outsourcing in the Hotel Industry There are many ways by which management can outsource services in the hotel industry. Some firms attempt to lower operational costs by laying off employees. This reduces costs in terms of salaries and wages for employees. Some partner with external expertise companies in particular areas of interest. The external companies then perform the services by franchise, contacts, or simple agreements [1]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another common strategy used in the industry is employing workers in part time. This way, employees with specialized skills are engaged on a temporary basis as they continue to work in their parent companies. Besides, this way the business avoids having to pay fringe benefits to employees as a measure of reducing labour costs [1]

At times, outsourcing is done for maintenance purposes. In such cases, strategies for sourcing include in-sourcing, out-tasking, outsourcing in order to save cost, and outsourcing due to lack of capability. All these options have their strengths and weaknesses and before selecting an option, a clearly established and researched framework has to be instituted to aid selection [2].

Types of Outsourcing Studies have shown that bigger hotels tend to outsource more than smaller hotels in Hong Kong. This stands at 42% in-house services compared to 52% out-sourced services. Some hotels outsource services fully, partially, or selectively. Partial outsourcing means that specific services are outsourced for specific needs such as cleaning upholstery which is done occasionally.

This method is beneficial as it allows for greater monitoring of quality, at the same time reducing safety risks. It, however brings about confusion among workers, raises security risks due to the short time that the contactors spend at the firm. Besides, the short periods increase dishonesty among workers and lack of consistency in performance [3].

Although not popular this days, selective outsourcing requires that the sourcing firm engages more than one firm in the provision of services. This method is advantageous as the sourcing firm has a choice over the contractors chosen for the job. If one fails or offers poor quality services, he can disqualify the contractor and work will go on by other contractors.

The problem with this kind of outsourcing, however, is that it increases confusion between contractors and in-house staff and among the contactors. In some cases, services and jurisdiction may overlap so that each firm claims or shuns responsibility over some area [4].

Complete or full outsourcing occurs when a firm is contracted for entire provision of services at full time basis. This method saves time for the business, eliminates training costs for in-house staff, and specialized attention to tasks that require such. This method can, on the other hand pose security concerns, poor worker skills, management has less control over services and product, and in-house staff motivation is reduced.

We will write a custom Case Study on Outsourcing of Facilities Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because they tend to feel that the contracted staff are infringing into their rightful space. Employees also confuse their loyalties as it is divided up between the sourcing firm and their parent firm. Employees tend to be loyal to whoever pays them, and in this it is the sourcing firm, but their employer is then contractor firm. [5]

Complete sourcing reduces flexibility of operations in the hotel. This is because all services and their details are spelt out in the contract signed. A task that may be related but falls outside the specified tasks will not be performed by the contractors. Such will require adjustment of contract details before performing the task [4]

Need to Outsource Maintenance of complicated machinery and works are better outsourced. This is because these tasks are too complicated for in-house staff and it would be costly to hire maintenance personnel in the areas. Such maintenance needs are not frequent to deserve a full time employee. Hiring such an employee would, therefore be too costly for the business. In such a case, outsourcing becomes the best option [6]

Cases of licensing also require outsourcing of services, but these have to be done by respective registered experts. These include areas such as escalator installations and fire protection systems. Registered contractors should be contracted on an occasional basis like annually to carry out inventory and upgrade the services. Once again, it would not be feasible to employ such services on a full time basis; they are better outsourced [7]

Other factors to consider includes associated risk of the tasks. If risk is too high, the tasks are better outsourced so that it is passed on to contractors who are experts in the area and are likely to manage and mitigate the risks. Some tasks require use of special tools and equipment. These may be too expensive for the business to purchase. It is, therefore advisable to outsource such tasks to firms that possess the tools and who have specialized knowledge on handling them [7]

Commonly outsourced services in the hotel industry include technical areas such as marble and granite flooring, cleaning of upholstery, chandelier, and glass, and in managing pests [5]

Changes in the Industry The initial trend was that firms offered their workforce contracts to perform these tasks. However, with the institution of labor friendly laws and legal measures, firms were forced to change the way facilities were managed in their organizations.

They had to stop burdening the employees with loads of maintenance work, which most of them were not trained in. They focused on ways of achieving quality without having to stress their workforce with labour hassles. The quality services are now provided by external parties on a contractual basis [8]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Outsourcing of Facilities Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Advantages of Outsourcing By outsourcing some aspects of business, a business is able to employ extensively its scarce resources in areas it wishes to specialize on, thereby increasing its competence in these areas. A global trend now dictates that organizations come up and stick to concrete and distinct mission, vision, and core values. Because of this, organizations find it necessary to accumulate the few resources available in achieving their core goals in the perfect manner possible.

In-house workers are able to concentrate on other areas such as house keeping, concentrating their energies and resources on them. Services that are secondary to these goals are, therefore, outsourced so that quality is maintained without the organization having to use its resources which are used elsewhere within the organization [6]

In many cases, it has been proven that outsource contractors posses more specialized knowledge and skills in the particular matters than in-house staff. Outsourcing, therefore, enables a business to get quality services more efficiently without putting pressure on the employees.

Contactors are premised to be more efficient in providing technical knowledge and skills, posses appropriate equipment, fast in executing tasks, flexible in carrying out operations, and have sufficient manpower. Provision of these services by employees will require that the business employees a big number of specialized employees who will demand more in terms of salaries, and this is likely to increase the business labour cost in the long run [9]

By outsourcing, associated risk is also transferred to contractors. Some maintenance and repair procedures may be quite risky and expensive to the business. Because most employees lack the specialized expertise needed for such procedures, it is feasible to outsource the tasks to contractors who are more specialized and familiar with the procedures.

During the signing of contract between the two parties, legal aspects of risk and damage are detailed so that the contractor takes responsible for damage in such cases. This way, the firm minimizes costs of maintenance [7]

Disadvantages of Outsourcing Outsourcing a few operations may not be that costly as the costs are neutralized by better production in the areas that the business specializes in. However, outsourcing entire business operations can be quite costly, overriding strategic expectations.

While a number of businesses have thrived on this strategy, an almost equal number have also failed due to the strategy. Decisions concerning outsourcing need to be carefully made, bearing in mind all factors and expectations. Outsourcing should not be done arbitrarily, but rather with a clearly defined scope and purpose of engaging in the practice [4]

The decision to outsource is arrived at when outsourcing becomes cost effective and more appropriate than in- sourcing. The transaction cost theory can be used to determine cost efficiency where the calculation is not straightforward. The effective sourcing alternative must be lower in cost in all aspects of planning, work transaction, implementation process, and service agreement [1]

Although outsourcers believe that outsourcing guarantees best quality services, it has been found that a number of outsourced contactors do not meet the quality standards. This can negatively and adversely affect the business which spends a lot in services that turnout to be poor, not meeting customers’ expectation. Before outsourcing, therefore management needs to research on contractors and use the very best renowned in the particular services or products [2]

Another challenge inherent with outsourcing is the risk involved and agents taking advantage of the outsourcer. The outsourcer needs to be aware that business people will always tend to pursue self interests at the expense of the consumer, who in this case is the outsourcer. He must, therefore during the process monitor possible opportunities for opportunism by the contractor [10]

Risks that are likely to arise during the transaction should be properly envisioned and apportioned between the outsourcer and contractor fairly. This, if not well articulated in the performance contract can cost the business large sums of money in replacement and repair if the service providers tamper with machinery or premises facilities [10]

Trends in Outsourcing Flexibility is an emerging trend in the practice of outsourcing in the hospitality industry. This is achieved by using the short-term approach in contracting. This process allows the outsourcer to terminate the contract when he feels necessary at low cost. To avoid this, the outsourcer should seek a contractor with flexible terms of negotiations’ so that adjustments can be made to the contract, modifying it to the outsourcer’s satisfaction [7]

More and more firms are now seeking modern information technology (IT) systems. Large firms do not have integrated IT systems because they were formed by mergers or have not upgraded their systems because of the perceived costs.

IT systems are crucial in the hospitality industry to enable management of inventory, revenue appropriation, to track customers and monitor their activities, and connect with other related industry players such as travel and tourism firms. This is in an effort to offer the customer integrated and complete services [9]

Another trend in today’s outsourcing is that of multi-sourcing. The sourcing firm partners with a number of service providers in specific areas where they are best specialized in. This is rather than sourcing the entire project to a single provider that may t posses all skills required in the project. This enables businesses to obtain optimal expertise services in each area of the project [8]

Conclusion Outsourcing is an inevitable practice in the hospitality industry. Some services have to be outsourced due to their complicated nature and possible lack of sufficient knowledge by in-house employees. Adoption of the practice is not a haphazard procedure whose decision is arrived at vaguely. Deliberations and critical analysis of the benefits and costs accrued to the practice have to be made before adopting it.

Upcoming managers should know that, at any one point, outsourcing can be both beneficial and costly. A calculation of the costs to be incurred visa vis the benefits to be gained is what determines its adoption. While given services may seem costly to outsource, other benefits such as building and increasing consumer confidence in the firm must be factored in the analysis.

The manager needs to know that outsourcing is not the end of the maintenance process. He has to monitor the process constantly approving the progress made. Unsatisfactory progress should be noted and informed to concerned parties.

References Yadav I. Hospitality Industry Shifts towards Outsourcing? Express Hospitality. 2011 June 17: 34(2): 124-127.

Tsang A. Strategic Dimensions of Maintenance Management. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering. 2010 February 17; 8(1): 7-39.

Char K. An Empirical Study of Maintenance Costs for Hotels in Hong Kong. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property. 2009 August 6; 7(3): 35-52.

Lam I,

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Missing you maintains us Essay (Article) essay help: essay help

Article Review Paper: Missing you maintains us: missing a romantic partner, commitment, relationship maintenance and physical infidelity, by Le, Korn, Crockett and Loving.

The prevalence of long distance romantic relationships has portrayed an increasing trend in the recent past. The cause of the increase is career development of the participants especially during their schooling.

As a result, many researchers have embarked on several studies on the various aspects that are characteristic of long distance romantic relationships. This paper entails a review of an article based on one such study, Missing you maintains us: missing a romantic partner, commitment, relationship maintenance and physical infidelity, by Le, Korn, Crockett and Loving.

As aforementioned, long distance relationships have attracted the attention of several researchers. Some researchers have studied on the predictors of satisfaction of individuals involved in long distance relationships. In addition, some have researched on the interrelatedness of closeness, attachment as well as the satisfaction of students engaged in long distance relationships especially those in higher institutions of learning.

Other studies highlight the nature of the long distance relationships with specific interest on the degree of interaction of the individuals in a given dyad and their perception about the effect of their commitment to their partner as well as to the relationship. The researchers employ either the equity theory or the interdependence theory in their studies. Both are extensions of social exchange theories. Most of the researchers study long-term long distance relationships.

Only few researchers have studied some aspects of short-term long distance relationships. Drigottas, Safstrom and Gentilia carried out a research to study infidelity and commitment during short-term geographic separation relationships among college students (Le, et al., 2011, p.656). Recently, some researchers have focused on short-term geographic separations of individuals involved in romantic relationships.

The authors of the article, Missing you maintains us: missing a romantic partner, commitment, relationship maintenance and physical infidelity, employed the interdependence theory to carry out a study based on short-term geographic separation of individuals in romantic relationships during their holiday.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major goal of their study was to examine the experience of missing a romantic partner as a function of the processes associated with commitment; relationship maintenance as well as physical infidelity as far as romantic relationships are concerned. The authors also acknowledge that the development and existence of romantic relationships involve a process that has two important aspects namely initializing the relationship and its maintenance.

The article highlights the important factors that lead to the development of a relationship-relationship enhancing strategies. They include fidelity, optimism, commitment and task sharing between the two parties. They also note that a sense of belonging to the same social network is instrumental in enhancing the development of a romantic relationship.

To ensure the durability of a relationship, irrespective of geographic separation, the dyad should uphold some relationship maintenance behaviors. Such behaviors are associated with satisfaction, liking and mutual control of all the aspects of the relationship. Of major importance is commitment of the partners to the relationship.

The authors argue that commitment is important in determining the experience of missing a partner in a romantic relationship. They argue that partners who show much commitment to a given relationship adhere not only to the relationship enhancing strategies but also to the relationship maintenance behaviors to enhance the strength of their bond. Moreover, committed parties miss each other thus resulting in their zeal to remain in the relationship.

In carrying out their study, the authors used a longitudinal design in examining the relationship between commitment and the associated experience of missing a partner across short-term geographic separations. They had a sample of 88 students-59 females and 29 males. They were all in romantic relationships thus experienced a geographic separation during their holidays.

In order to attract these respondents to the study, the researchers made advertisements in the college website besides offering $5 to all the participants. The sample offered a good representation of all the races within the college. They collected data in four-time periods using internet-based surveys.

The researchers collected their first data before the geographic separation. From their study, they found out that there exist a significant positive association between commitment and missing. They also pointed out that, commitment over shadowed positivity as the major aspect contributing to missing a romantic partner. Commitment determined an individual’s loyalty to the relationship enhancement and maintenance strategies-positivity being one of them.

We will write a custom Article on Missing you maintains us specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The authors’ choice of the interdependence theory in the study is a major strength of the article. According to Rusbult and Lange (2003), the interdependence theory identifies the most significant characteristics of different intra-and interpersonal relationships by employing a comprehensive analysis of a given situation (p.352).

Geographical separation presents different concerns that were the point of interest for the researchers thus best placed to employ the interdependence theory since they were interested in knowing the relationship between commitment and missing of a partner in a romantic relationship.

Just as the article points out, commitment determines the level of missing as well as moral and physical fidelity in any romantic relationship. Individuals who are not committed to a given party and a relationship do not miss their partner thus increasing their chances of both physical and moral infidelity in their relationship (Stafford, 2005, p. 56). The article is also very informative as the authors acknowledge the works of other researchers on the phenomenon.

They point out the works of Drigotas, Safstrom and Gentilia as well as Diamond, Hicks and Ottre-Henderson’s work. This gives the strategic place as well as the significance of their study in shading more light on long distance romantic relationships. It is an instrumental aspect of every work of study to link the relevancy of its findings to the works of other researchers in the given field.

The article has a weakness: the authors did not highlight the assumptions that they made in carrying out their study. Assumptions are a fundamental aspect in most statistical works. For instance, they could have assumed that their payment did not deter their respondents in answering their questions.

The $5 acted as an incentive to attract many respondents to the survey. This could have made some or even most of the respondents to answer the questions just for the sake of receiving the money without giving much attention to some questions providing false data for the study.

I concur with the authors’ interpretation of their findings because I strongly belief that commitment in a romantic relationship results in the missing of a partner during geographic separations and that a committed party would follow the relationship maintenance strategies as well as uphold fidelity in the relationship.

The article gives a clear account of missing a romantic partner as a functional process associated with commitment, physical infidelity as well as relationship maintenance in romantic relationships in periods when the involved undergo geographic separations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Missing you maintains us by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, further research based on the significance of social networking sites in romantic relationships under geographical separations would be helpful in understanding the subject in this era where scientific and technological advancements are becoming more rampant in the society.

References Le, B., Korn, M. S., Crockett, E. E.,

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Human-Computer Interaction in Health Care Essay essay help site:edu

Medical errors are increasing in hospitals and normally considered as a result of human fault. Poor interface design which is because of poor human factor engineering (HFE) is the main factor which causes medical errors. Lack of usability testing of medical instruments is another factor which results in medical mistakes.

Poor human factor engineering arises problems, such as poorly designed indicator lights inside ambulances and siren speakers on ambulances. Most indicator lights in ambulances are not properly designed to maintain a proper operation process during the day and night and may cause unnecessary considerations affecting driver’s visibility.

On the other hand, siren speakers may produce a lot of noise which will interfere emergency workers inside the ambulance to perform their work, and this may cause errors (Carl, Aaron

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The Environmental Sustainability Concept in the Hospitality Industry Case Study online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background

Body

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The hospitality industry uses large amounts of natural resources and also releases wastes that degrade the natural environment. In order to minimize the negative effects on the environment, hotels and tourism resorts are adopting environmental sustainability in facilities management. Environmental sustainability refers to the responsible management of natural resources in order to preserve the lives of human beings and other organisms in the ecosystem.

Human beings impact on the environment through releasing toxic chemicals in the atmosphere that deplete the ozone layer. Human economic activities also use up natural resources as a source of energy. Economic activities also produce wastes that pollute the environment. All these factors have led to serious degradation of the natural environment. There are devastating consequences of environmental degradation such as global warming.

Failure to adopt sustainable practices will lead to the depletion of natural resources and pollution of the environment and consequently, the earth will not be able to support any form of life (Blackman and Carter, 2009). People are getting more informed about the effects of business activities on the environment. The hotel industry uses a lot of energy and water due to the nature of its operations. Many hotels are embracing environmental sustainability in hospitality facilities management.

They achieve this through using sustainable building materials, furniture, lighting, and cleaning supplies in the facility in order to cut costs, save energy, and improve the guest experience. Many hotels are also pursuing environmental sustainability certifications such as the ENERGY STAR and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certifications. Hotels also participate in the various green lodging state programs.

For a hotel to achieve a LEED certification, it must attain several sustainable requirements in indoor environmental quality, energy use, materials and resources, water efficiency, design process and innovation (Steiner, 2012). This paper explores the concept of environmental sustainability and its impact on facilities management and the hospitality industry. The drivers of change towards sustainability in the hospitality industry are also discussed. In addition, the importance of knowledge in environmental sustainability to future tourism managers is discussed.

Background Facility management refers to processes that are required to maintain and operate businesses to support its principal goals. Developing facilities management programs enables managers to achieve several goals. It facilitates the preparation of future capital budgets that are more accurate. They are also able to reduce expenditure by developing more accurate and meaningful space requirements forecasts.

Facilities management programs also provide a framework for meeting the budgets that have been established. Space utilization is improved. Improved efficiency and morale of the employees is also increased. Reduction of the consumption of energy is also achieved. Moreover, the managers are able to effectively control and allocate resources needed to support all the operations. It also ensures the establishment of a more flexible, functional, and cost effective facility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manager is also able to develop efficient standards for equipment, workstations special facilities and offices. The overall cost of procurement is reduced (Atkin and Brooks, 2009). Environmental sustainability is one of the trends that are gaining popularity in facilities management in the hospitality industry.

There have been growing concerns over the protection of the environment and now most customers prefer hospitality facilities that are environmentally sustainable. People in the hospitality industry have become more aware about the impacts that the development and operation of hotels can have on the environment. Several factors have led to the adoption of sustainability, including investors’ changes in attitudes towards the environment, the need to cut on operating costs and strict regulations on development and operation of facilities, among others (Chen, 2011).

The concept of environmental sustainability began in the 1950s when some hotels in places such as U.S. Virgin Islands on Maho Bay and Caneel Bay Camps decided to enhance the experience of their guests by using natural elements in the resorts. In the 1960s and 1970s, increased awareness of how human health was affected by pollution and increase in environmental disasters led to the initiation of modern environmental sustainability efforts.

Moreover, the hospitality industry started focusing on strategies of conserving energy after the energy crisis that occurred between 1973 and 1974. The United Nations introduced the concept of sustainable development with the aim of conserving the natural resources for our use and also for future generations. The Earth Summit also encouraged environmental sustainability in the 1990s through initiatives like environmental certification programs for the hospitality industry and green building.

As from 2000, there were increased sustainability efforts in the hospitality industry. Hoteliers embraced environmental sustainability as a corporate social responsibility and partnered with environmental organizations. Hoteliers further increased their sustainability efforts in their operations and equipment after the 2008 financial meltdown in order to reduce costs (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

I chose a global perspective because the issue of environmental degradation is affecting the whole world. Problems like global warming are a threat to the existence of the entire human race. Therefore, hospitality facilities all over the world should adopt sustainable practices in order to reduce the carbon footprint in the atmosphere. Every person is responsible for promoting sustainability in order to preserve the natural resources both for ourselves and for future generations.

Some of the hotels that have adopted environmental sustainability include The Proximity Hotel and Marriott international. The Proximity Hotel received Platinum, the highest LEED certification, in 2008. This hotel was constructed using sustainable materials, some of which were locally sourced while others were recycled. This helped in avoiding a lot of waste from being produced and dumped in landfills. The hotel also has windows that are energy-efficient and during the day, it utilizes the sunlight for lighting.

We will write a custom Case Study on The Environmental Sustainability Concept in the Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The hotel also uses solar panels as a source of energy for heating water. The building has also adopted efficient plumbing fixtures to save water including Cimarron Kohler toilets, faucets, and Kohler showerheads. The hotel also reduces the contamination of indoor air through the use of organic carpets and paints in the guestrooms. The Proximity Hotel acquired the facilities locally, including furniture, staircases and artwork (Steiner, 2012).

The Marriott International is another hotel that has shifted towards environmental sustainability. It has over 3000 hotels worldwide and is adopting environmentally sustainable strategies in all its branches. It uses recycled materials to make keycards, paper products and pillows that are environmental friendly.

The hotel aims to achieve the LEED certification by attaining sustainable construction standards, reducing the usage of water and fuel, using solar power, mobilizing the employees and guests to adopt sustainability and helping in rainforests preservation. This will reduce their carbon footprint. The hotel also plans to offer coreless toilet paper to the guests to help preserve trees and water. In 2010, Marriott International unveiled a prototype to help it in building sustainable hotels (Wauters, 2010).

Companies in the hospitality industry that aim to achieve environmental sustainability face several challenges. Firstly, they experience the challenge of introducing change to the organization. Introducing sustainability takes a lot of time and effort and it is challenging to convince the workforce that change is necessary. People are used to a certain way of doing things and introducing change is not easy.

If the management is unsupportive, introducing sustainability can be difficult to achieve. Another challenge is the perception that introducing sustainability is an expensive venture. Many people are not aware that the long-term economic gains will be higher than the investment costs. Ignorance is another challenge facing the adoption of sustainable practices in the hospitality industry. Many hospitality managers have little environmental awareness and therefore, they have no motivation to adopt sustainability (Dambyte, 2011).

Adopting sustainable practices in the hospitality industry presents several opportunities. Firstly, the facilities are able to achieve reduced costs in energy use, water use, and waste management. In addition, sustainable practices lead to improved guest experiences and this may help the hotel in attracting and retaining clients. Sustainable hospitality facilities also achieve sustainability certifications which show their commitment towards environmental preservation.

This can help in attracting investors. Sustainable trends in hospitality facilities management include, water and energy conservation, use of environmental friendly cleaning products and using sustainable building materials. Sustainable hospitality facilities can adopt several strategies.

They can start programs to reuse linen in the guest rooms. Hotels can also use LED light bulbs and turn down air conditioning and heating when the guests are not in the rooms. Lights should also be turned off in unoccupied rooms. The cleaners, paints, and sanitizers used should be nontoxic (Tiller, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Environmental Sustainability Concept in the Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Body There are several drivers of change towards environmental sustainability in hospitality facilities management. These include cost reduction, improved customer experience, retention of employee, indicating a sense of corporate social responsibility, among others. Saving of costs is one of the main drivers of sustainable practices in the hospitality industry.

Sustainable practices lead to the conservation and efficiency of energy, water, and waste management. Hoteliers are investing in environmental technologies as an incentive to reduce operational costs. With the adoption of proper strategies that ensure performance and optimization of equipment and employees, the hospitality industry can be able to achieve reduced costs (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

Another driver towards environmental sustainability is economic incentives. Various governments, organizations, and agencies have enacted economic incentives to encourage environmental sustainability in buildings. Such incentives include grants to support sustainable projects, insurance premium discounts, low interest loans, and tax credits, among others. In addition, the shift to environmental sustainability has been driven by increased environmental regulations.

There are various regulations governing hospitality operations such as waste management, handling of hazardous materials, and environmental safety and health. There are other legislations governing design and construction of hospitality facilities and operations. There are legislations focusing on emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere, among others. Therefore, hoteliers adopt sustainability in order to comply with legal and regulatory standards (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

Another driver of change is improving the guest experience. Hoteliers are adopting sustainability in order to attract and retain guests by improving their experience. Use of some environmental technologies such as sustainable HVAC systems and devices for managing energy can improve the air quality and thermal comfort of the facility, resulting in a better guest experience. Employee retention is another driver of change towards sustainability.

Environmental sustainability helps in boosting employees’ satisfaction and morale and therefore, retaining them. Some professionals prefer to work in environment conscious companies. Organizations that encourage and uphold sustainable practices are more likely to attract and retain employees.

Other companies adopt sustainability because they want to demonstrate corporate social responsibility to the investors. Investors are looking for performance indicators of sustainability. This has led to the adoption of sustainability programs by many organizations (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

Environmental sustainability is important in facilities management as it helps in saving costs through sustainable operations. The hospitality facilities management is mainly concerned with water, energy, and waste. Hotels use energy for various purposes including lighting, HVAC operations, cooking, space heating, refrigeration, water heating, ventilation, office equipment and other uses. Reducing the amount of energy used can be achieved through a process called commissioning.

Energy consumption can be minimized through reducing the plug load, closing the building envelope, and lighting retrofits. Moreover, energy can be preserved through enhanced equipment scheduling, efficient ventilation of the facility, avoiding concurrent heating and cooling and appropriate sensor calibration. The use of renewable sources of energy such as geothermal, solar, and wind can reduce the energy costs.

Water is also used in hotels laundry, food preparation, in the bathrooms and in other maintenance operations. Hotels conserve water through use of rain or recycled water, reusing of towels and linen, treatment of grey and black water, improvement of plumbing and HVAC systems and fixture retrofits. Hotels also generate waste including food wastes, construction wastes, waste from equipment, appliances and consumables, and harmful materials such as cleaning detergents.

In order to reduce the costs of transportation and processing of wastes, hotels adopt strategies to recycle, reuse, and reduce wastes. The wastes are processed and converted to alternative sources of energy which are then sold to hotels at low costs. Facility management in the hospitality industry also focuses on training programs for staff to increase their satisfaction and performance, sustainable procurement and the quality of indoor environment including air quality (Tiller, 2009).

Environmental sustainability has numerous benefits to the hospitality and tourism industry. It helps in cutting costs in energy and water use and waste management. Sustainable practices lead to reduced operation costs because there is a reduction in energy and water use and effective waste management through recycling. It also helps to improve the customers’ experience and therefore leads to attraction and retention of guests.

Sustainable practices also enhance employee satisfaction and retention. Adopting sustainability also helps in boosting the company image and attracting investors. It also enables the company to get grants from governments and other organizations. Companies that adopt sustainability will not have legal problems as they will be in compliance with the environmental regulations (Sloan, Chen and Legrand, 2009).

In order for the hospitality industry to successfully implement sustainability, some needs have to be met. Firstly, they will need finances. Many hotels cite lack of finances as the main reason why they are unable to implement sustainable practices. There are many sustainable technologies in the market today and the hospitality owners will need the investigation and validation of these technologies in order to choose the most appropriate and cost-effective for the hospitality industry.

The hospitality owners also need verification of the financial benefits of the sustainable technologies so that they can be able to make proper investment decisions. The hospitality owners also need the processes of procurement and implementation of sustainable projects to be streamlined to make them easier and less time-consuming.

This will encourage more hospitality owners to adopt sustainability. After the implementation of sustainable practices, there is a need to conduct proper training of the staff in order to ensure that they adopt effective operational practices. Failure to train staff will lead to inefficient implementation of the sustainable practices (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

As future tourism managers, knowledge about environmental sustainability will enable them to make sustainable decisions and strategically manage tourism resorts and institutions. The tourism managers will be able to prevent environmental degradation while providing a good experience to the tourists through sustainable practices. They will be able to instill sustainable practices in their employees and enlighten them on the benefits of sustainability.

Future tourism managers who will be enlightened in environmental sustainability will be able to contribute towards a more sustainable environment through implementing practices that will reduce the carbon footprint in the environment. They will ensure that all the facilities in the tourism resorts are environmental friendly. The tourism managers will also be able to explain to the guests the reasons for adopting sustainability, for instance, through reusing towels.

They will also be able to cut costs in the facilities that they will be running through adopting sustainable cost-effective alternatives. They will be able to oversee the construction of sustainable hospitality facilities to cut on both the cost and carbon footprint. Moreover, they will be able to attract and retain clients in the hospitality facilities because of adopting environmental friendly practices.

The manager will also be able to improve the image of the organization through sustainable practices and achievement of sustainability certifications like the LEED. The manager will facilitate the implementation of sustainable practices in the hospitality facility and this will improve the morale, satisfaction, and retention of employees. The tourism manager will also be able to assess current trends, goals, and strategies in sustainability in order to achieve enhanced harmonization of sustainable efforts in the facility (Gossling, Hall and Weaver, 2009).

Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that environmental sustainability is a growing trend in the hospitality industry that cannot be ignored. Many hospitality companies are adopting sustainability to reduce operational costs, improve the customer experience, comply with environmental regulations, retain employees, attract investors, and reduce their carbon footprint. They are constructing sustainable buildings and adopting practices in water and energy use and waste management.

Therefore, knowledge in environmental sustainability is indispensable to future tourism managers as they will be able to implement sustainable practices in the hospitality facilities that they will be running. The hospitality industry uses a significant amount of natural resources.

Therefore, adoption of sustainable practices will lead to conservation of natural resources like water and energy and reduced environmental pollution through waste recycling. Consequently, we will live in a more sustainable environment with enough resources for our use and for the survival of future generations.

Reference List Atkin, B. and Brooks, A. (2009).Total Facilities Management. UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Blackman, R. and Carter, I. (2009). Environmental Sustainability. USA: Tearfund.

Dambyte, R. (2011). Limitations and Incentives for Sustainable Tourism Development. Web.

Chen, J. S. (2011). Advances in Hospitality and Leisure. USA: Emerald Group Publishing.

Goldstein, K. A. and Primlani, R. V. (2012). Current Trends and Opportunities in Hotel Sustainability. Web.

Gossling, S., Hall, C. M. and Weaver, D. B. (2009). Sustainable Tourism Futures: Perspectives on Systems, Restructuring and Innovations. USA: Taylor

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Ethical Concept in “Blood Diamonds” film by Edward Zwick Essay cheap essay help

Introduction What is ethics? Society has tried to amplify the meaning of this word but it seems that it is ever faced by differing myriad of challenges which are associated by it. In essence, the term ethics has been associated with a code, or rules which govern what one thing ought to be and what another thing ought not to be.

This rule in most cases has been used as a bar which marks the line between distinguishing what ought to be the case and what ought. It is important to note that ethics does not just exist it is derived from values which we have acquired in the course of life. These values have come to the point that they define what is and what is not. Furthermore, they ensure that there are acts which we can follow and those which we can do away with or even ignore.

In general, ethics is a branch of philosophy which puts to task the questions of morality while evaluating concepts such as what is good and what is evil, what is right and what is wrong, the issues of value and justice. Thus this field is widely known as moral philosophy. Ethics has many other branches though that is not what we are going to be looking at in this paper.

The Movie Since ethics as a concept can be used to analyze the on goings in the society, we are going to take into this concept in detail. The subject matter shall be the movie Blood Diamond. This a movie which was produced in the year 2006 by Edward Zwick in which Leonardo DiCaprio, Djimon Hounsou and Jennifer Connelly are starring.

This movie is titled Blood Diamonds symbolizing the diamonds which are being mined in African war, in a country that was torn out by the struggle of soldiers and rebels. Throughout this movie the main aspect which is referred is the fact that these diamonds are mined and sold in order to raise funds which are to finance and to sustain war and conflict. Through this war, the warlords and companies which use diamond as raw material for their end products end up benefiting.

The movie as well is a bright and vivid in depicting battle scenes of colourable nature.

The Setting The setting of this movie is a reflection of the events which took place in the West African country of Sierra Leon in the years 1992 – 2002. This was a decade which was characterized by civil war and anarchy between rebel forces and government soldiers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During this time, a lot of atrocities were witnessed. Some of the atrocities which were witnessed include maiming of arms and limbs, rape and all manner of social evils which were taking place in that country for that entire period. This was meant to hinder the people from exercising their legal right to vote.

This movie ends up with a conference which took place in South Africa in the year 2000, with the aim of ending the civil conflict which was claiming lives in Sierra Leon. Eventually, the conference led to what would be later known as the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme.

This scheme was ratified with the aim of ascertaining the source of the diamonds. This was believed that it would aid in reducing if not stopping the trade involving illegal diamond which had contributed to the war.

The Plot This movie starts with the capture of a fisherman by the name of Solomon Vandy by forces which were loyal to the Revolutionary United Front rebels. During his capture, the rebels destroyed the village. Incidentally, these persons did not maim or cut off his limbs, instead they sent him to work and toil in the mines under the command of a warlord named Captain Poison. The proceeds from these mines are used to fund the war.

As this happens, Danny Archer is arrested while he was he was suspected of trying to smuggle diamonds into another West African country. In spite of the fact that he is arrested, he manages to work out his own release from the prison and consequently, he also manages to get Solomon also released from the prison.

The two get into a deal whereby if Solomon leads him to the precious commodity, he will help him locate his family. During this time, the RUF capture the capital Freetown and plunder the city devastating it to the core. Fortunate for these two, they manage to survive this battle and they flee from this city by night. As they escape they bump into an American journalist and humanitarian by the name of Maddy Bowen who enables them to escape in exchange of information on the “blood diamond”.

Eventually the duo go back to the mine which is under the command of Captain Poison to try and rescue Solomon’s son Dia who refuses to acknowledge him and also salvage some of the diamond for their benefit. Towards the end of the movie, Archer dies and he aids Solomon to flee. As it is witnessed in the movie, the eventuality is marked with a standing ovation in favour of Solomon during the Kimberley conference in South Africa.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Concept in “Blood Diamonds” film by Edward Zwick specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emerging issues from the movie This movie depicts issues which have emerged due to the conflict in Africa. Some of the emerging issues include human rights abuses, issues to do with environmental damage and terrorism. In this paper we are going to be looking at each of these issues in detail and look into the way one can be able to deal with them. Human Rights Issues

Human rights can be recognized as those values and dignity that people hold which set them apart from the others. These values are oriented towards protecting the sanctity of life and enhance the ideas of respect, justice, fairness and equality. It is important for us to recognize the value of human rights because they are important with regard to shaping our thinking patterns about the issues which might be affecting human life. These rights are basic and fundamental to human life.

They include the right to life, education, and right to fair trial, free speech and freedom from any form of torture or inhumane treatment. These rights were derived from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which were adopted and agreed upon by the nations on 10th December, 1948.

Environmental damage

These are issues which have to do with wantonness in environmental damage. For instance, the destruction of the forests to create room for mining has had its impact on the environment. This eventually leads to the destruction of the environment, like poisoning water, the land which becomes useless for raising, etc.

Terrorism

The subject of terrorism has been on the lips of every person on this planet. In essence, terrorism is an act which is characterized by the use of force in order to achieve political milestones or aims. Terrorism instils fear over the citizens that impair their ability to perform as effective citizens.

Ethical theories and their application There are several ethical theories which can be applied with regard to the ethical issues which are emerging in this movie. These theories include the consequentialism theory. This is a theory which holds the opinion that most of the actions that we delve into depend on what is known as the non moral consequences that the actions bring.

In this case, what is important is the ability to evaluate what relationship exists between the good and the evil that one’s action produces. Essentially, we should be human beings who perform actions based on the fact that there are issues which are best dealt with when we are better able to analyze the consequences in light of the goodness or badness of the activity involved. Thus, in relation to the movie, it is important for the warlords to be able to ascertain what those values that they hold are.

Secondly, value clarification as a theory emphasizes on evaluating what one believes to be right. This is based on the belief, feelings, and systems of thought which are held by a given number of people. It is a theory which is also known as philosophical relativism. In this approach what is fundamental is the fact that thinking and action should take place in line with the Socratic approach.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Concept in “Blood Diamonds” film by Edward Zwick by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thirdly, the utilitarianism is an ethical approach which is based on the principle or moral standards which should be geared towards the best long term interest of the masses, that everyone who is concerned with the choices and decisions which you make as a person. In this approach, there are two forms of utilitarianism.

That is the act utilitarianism in this case the right act which is considered to be the right utilitarian act is based on the ratio of good to evil for all the persons who are concerned. Secondly, there is the rule utilitarianism which is based on the fact that there are acts which may not possess the greatest utilitarian value therefore there are rules and regulations to ensure that the general rules are formulated to ensure that these acts are enforced.

The forth important principle is the moral absolutism or legalistic moral absolutism. In this case, there are acts which have multiples of consequences. For instance, pluralities have absolutes and some of these pluralities may not necessarily conflict. This implies that acts which are considered evil will still remain to be evil no matter the circumstances thus we do what is good and hope that the goodness will sustain the act itself.

The fifth principle is what is known as the situational ethic. In this form off ethical consideration, the value is placed on virtues such as helpfulness, absolute love ad particularity of moments otherwise known as kairos. This is an important aspect because it is based on the fact that love and justice are human aspects which can never change.

The sixth principle is the ethical realism. In this case, there is need to distinguish or evaluate amidst norms and values what is that which holds lesser value or greater value. This is based on the belief that every solution ash got its own alternatives and the preferred should be on that which produces the lesser evil.

The seventh principle is the graded absolutism or what is known as ethical hierachicalism. In this case, there are situations when norms might conflict. In this case, it is important to seek the higher order values. That is we ought to choose the greater of any two goods. Lastly, what is known as the cognitive moral development theory. This theory is based on the fact that morality develops with time and interaction with information.

From this principle is it important to note that there are different levels of moral development which everyone has a level in which they operate. This implies that, for one to be able to emerge as an ethical person, it is important that one learns to engage the Socratic method of thinking. This is because this method offers solutions to dilemmas which might seem to be in conflict.

In conclusion, it is important that we noted that there are three major classes of ethical theories. These are the consequentialism, deontological theories and the ethical relativism. In reference to the movie, it is important to note that there are cases where the value of human life has been trodden upon and it is on this basis that the deontological approach to ethics needs to be put into proper perspective.

In cases where there is need to secure the right of a human being, the value of choice and the utility of that human being needs to be placed into proper perspective. It is therefore imperative that the issues such as environmental degradation, human rights abuse and terrorism which are highlighted in this movie be brought under the scrutiny of these ethical principles.

The big question Why do these problems occur in the current society? That is the question which worries the minds of many people throughout the entire world. It is important to note or even to realize the fact that issues which emanate or have been associated with negative outcomes in places are based on policies which are formulated by people towards the sustenance of the lives of the masses.

It is of utter importance to note that values should provide the direction and impetus to act. It is only through this approach that invaluable policies and principles will be put into the right perspective thus resulting into realizing the goals and wishes of the masses. Insight into the causes of these ethical problems bring to the fore the following issues.

First the issue of lack of information, in the movie, it is quite clear that the time that these atrocities were taking place, it seemed as though none had the knowledge of the universal human rights which serve to protect the inferior in the society. Furthermore, it is worth noting that lack of knowledge is a major issue especially with regard to what is being taken place in the lives of human beings.

Secondly, the lack of proper values and principles among the elite. In this case, the leadership sought to benefit themselves at the expense of the masses. This meant that there were times when the rule of law was ignored in order to meet the demands of the warlords who were reigning at that time.

Essentially, when the principles of right and wrong, good and evil or what is ethical and what is unethical are put into perspective, the back stops at the people who hold the power to effect those changes and values. It is essential therefore to ensure that when the leadership lack ethical foundations then it is highly likely that the masses shall suffer the repercussions of the same.

Lastly, terrorism brings about these devastating effects. It worth noting that fear is a major component which waters down values and it leads to human beings believing that what is good might wait at the expense of what seems to be right and convenient at that particular point in time.

Conclusion In conclusion, the question which lingers is, was the movie worth the effort? From my personal view, I think it did despite the fact that the movie vividly depicts violence, men killing each other; children being taught to fight and to struggle, and, as a result violence and cruelty, from an early childhood.

First, the film brings to light ethical issues which face African leaders and brought to light some of the probable solutions. Throughout this movie, one gets the feeling that despite the fact that this has been brought to light, there are other issues which are unethical that are taking place especially in the business world. There are situations whereby the business person is faced by situations where there is an ethical dilemma.

This implies that the prevailing circumstances limit his ability to purposefully establishes which choice to make or with route to take. In essence, in such kinds of situations, business persons have found themselves displaying as multiplicity of persons with regard to the way they respond to issues. In addition, the importance of the issues at hand should therefore spur the business person into the realm of evaluating which values are fundamental and which values can be ignored if not dropped.

This implies that one has to assess the objectives of the business in relation to the fundamental values that one holds. This is because the essence of decision making is based on benchmarks of understanding and ethical principles in business enterprises. Thus the most fundamental thing to do is to seek to understand what kind of deals one gets into and what are their moral and ethical obligations.

Each business person should seek to evaluate the moral impact the business has on the people it serves. Furthermore, it is very important to synchronize value based ethics and actions which sustain business enterprises. Through these ventures, the world one day will be a better place to live unlike a shocking reality of the Mende village. One day it will be come a pretty and idolized village in Africa.

References Chirban, JT 1994, Ethical dilemmas: crises in faith and modern medicine , University Press of America, Maryland.

Ferrell, OC, Fraedrich, J

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Psychoanalytic Theory Term Paper essay help

Abstract The name personality has several meanings that suit various situations. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is one of the theories describing the personality in human beings. According to Freud, the theory seeks to explain why people behave the way they do, studies human’s brain, and explains more about their personality.

This paper discusses the various elements of the theory, its history, development and research. In addition, it takes a detailed look at Sigmund Freud who came up the theory and seeks to explain the various elements of the theory, and reliability of the research.

Psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory was developed at the end of the 19th century in 1880’s. It was based on the discovery made by Breuer, who studied a person who had a trauma in childhood, consequently affecting him during his adult life. According to this research, it was discovered that someone’s personality is related to his/her childhood experiences.

Freud states that it is through mechanical terms that people’s mental energy is released. Through various stages of child’s development, a person changes his/her character and releases his/her mental energy.

Psychoanalytic theory developed by Sigmund Freud is arguably the most famous amongst the personality theories. According to Freud, family life has a subconscious influence on a human’s sexual drive. Family also affects the individual’s nonsexual development. According to the psychoanalysis carried out by Freud, there are other effects that affect our thoughts (Carver and Scheier, 2011).

The thoughts and the motivation we have around us are such factors that affect the way we act, as well as the way we do things. According to Freud, the main drives or motivators of an individual’s personality are related to the sexual and aggressiveness. The theory further explains that the problems experienced during a person’s adult life are as a direct result of the conflicts during their childhood experiences.

As a result, the theory breaks down the process of childhood growth according to the psychosexual motivators as a child develops. These stages of growth seek to show that at various stages during growth, a person (child) has various motivators that shape their behavior, and keep changing as they move to the next stage of psychosexual growth. Any faulty growth or unsuccessful/unhealthy passage of any of the stages is said to result in the adult life conflicts, which eventually determines a person’s personality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just like any other theory, Psychoanalytic theory has its assumptions. One such assumption is the fact that humans have unconscious urges in their brain. The unconscious mind contains desires which the mind wish for, but the desires are usually limited by the world as they may not always be fulfilled.

The Psychic determination is the other assumption. It is assumed that everything that goes through people’s mind is as a resultant of an identifiable element. Through this assumption, things like accidents and miracles are eliminated. There is also the assumption that though the brain is an internal structure, it has several separate parts that are always competing amongst each other.

To learn about Freud’s theory, it is important to understand the basics the developer of the theory lays down first. One of the things he puts across is existence of a conscious and a non-conscious mind. The conscious portion of the mind is all about anything that we are knowledgeable about. Since this portion includes things we know of, it is usually easy to retrieve them whenever they are needed. Therefore, retrieving information from this part of the memory is usually very easy.

The section of the body that contains this information is referred to in Freud’s theory as the preconscious portion of the brain. The unconscious mind is like a reserve that contains thoughts, the feelings a person has as well as the memories that the human mind is not aware of. The main content of information of this portion is feelings of pain and anxiety. However, though we may be unaware of these feelings, it is evident that they are also involved in controlling our behavior (Beystehner, 2001).

Freud highlights three elements that are contained in a person’s personality; the super ego, the Ego, and the Id are the three elements that affect an individual’s personality. When a person is born, the id element of personality is in him/her. The id element is unconscious and contains primitive and instinct behavior of the person.

It is simply what would be considered as the primary component of a person’s personality. Notable about this element is the fact that it uses the pleasure principle (Carver and Scheier, 2011). The pleasure principle focuses on how the needs of a person are met. If for instance the needs are not met within the required time, anxiety and tension results. Id is important especially when it comes to children in their young age as it allows them to express their feelings through crying so that their demands are met.

However, satisfying the demands that we may have is not always possible. The pleasure principle is therefore not always applicable. However, according to Freud, a primary process results in a bid to ensure that the tension created by the pleasure principle is resolved. The second principle in this theory is the Ego. The ego component is all about the reality of life and it tends to express the Id element in the real world. Ego encompasses all the parts of the mind previously discussed.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Psychoanalytic Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The principle incorporated in this element is the reality principle, which aims at fulfilling the Id element in an appropriate way. Through using the reality principle, the Ego basically tries to fulfill the images created by the Id element. Fulfilling the Id element is done by finding the solution in the real world by looking for an object to fit the image at the primary process level. Super Ego is the other element that forms part of the personality (Pervin, 1996).

It comprises of all the aspects that a person gained from the society or the parents and people around them. It is through this that a person learns what is deemed right and what is wrong. Judgment is developed from guidelines. Super ego may further be broken down into two main parts; the ideal ego and the conscience.

The ideal ego is inclusive of what is considered good behavior by people in the society or the parents. When a person gets to follow the rules laid down in the society or by the authority, a feeling of accomplishment and pride is the resultant.

On the other hand, conscience is inclusive of engaging in actions that are considered not right by the society or the parents. When a person does these wrong acts, the resultant is a feeling of guilt.

Interaction between these elements is different amongst different individuals. For a person to live what would be considered healthy living there is need to ensure that a balance of the three elements is reached. One must have what Freud referred to as Ego strength so that he can fight the competition brought about by these three elements.

Individuals who have good ego strength are able to strike a balance between these forces, while those people with low ego strength may succumb to this pleasure. Research shows that there exists a balance between explorations of the child with their safety for the exploration to be there. According to International Journal of Psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis therapy may be in single consultation therapy and may as well take about one year or more to achieve success on a person.

Psychoanalytic theory uses free association as a way of measuring the personality in humans. Free association entails the patient speaking out on a certain subject and then an analysis carried out from what the he says. It is from this analysis that a conclusion is later derived. However, there have been issues of reliability of this tool of measuring someone’s personality.

For one, it is hard for the analyst to be sure that the memories that he accesses are representing the actual memories or what the patient is imagining. Sharp criticism was bestowed upon this method of inferring conclusions. Those opposing the theory argued that by having patients talk out their issues to a professional and having them draw conclusion based on the information, there were no precise guidelines and predetermined checklist or comparing and measuring the information given so as to make reliable conclusions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychoanalytic Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another criticism based its argument in the fact that different patients of mental illnesses talked to different professionals, and there being no guidelines to gauge the information, interpretations were likely to vary between different professionals. Though there have been issues of validity of measurement of people personality, success may only be achieved through having the analyst inspect the transcript closely (Beystehner, 2001).

Research onto this theory has brought out the fact that there certainly is a relationship between an individual’s behavior and the subconscious portion of the mind. The theory forms a base of the modern day psychopathology. Research has also shown that, as a method of treatment for mental illnesses, psychoanalytic theory attempts to change and work on the unconscious part of the brain. Ultimately, the theory proposes that a person’s personality is dependant on the three main components of personality.

The Id component is all about the person getting gratification for the needs that he requires. On the other hand, Ego tends to fulfill the desire of Id but in a realistic way, since at times Id may not always be realistic. Finally, super ego aims at adding morality in ensuring that the ego is fulfilled.

One of the great cornerstones of Freud’s work was interpretation of dreams. Through interpretation of dreams, the subconscious mind is brought out. It also made it easier for analysts to learn and understand people’s personality well. The way a person behaves is entirely dependant on their experiences as they grew up as well as the environment one is brought up in.

Freud clearly outlined in the psychoanalytic theory that the particular way in which humans behave is determined by psychic energies and their experiences during psychosexual development. A healthy adult life can thus be achieved by successfully going through the early childhood experiences or psychosexual stages. Such are some of the things the theory talks about.

The theory emphasizes on how learning of the subconscious bit of a person can lead to the analyst unraveling important information about the patient (Pervin, 1996). By way of analyzing and understanding both the conscious and the non-conscious mind of a person, it is possible to infer the individual’s behavior as well as why they result in that particular behavior. Though there are various elements of criticism of psychoanalytic theory, its contribution to modern day therapy is undeniable.

Progress has been achieved in treatment of mentally ill patients through the bases of Freud’s work outlined in his theory. It would therefore be unfair to discard it since it offers much contribution to modern day science. Though some people dismissed psychoanalytic theory as not belonging to the science field based on its lacking methodology, the theory brought about a new branch in the science field called experimental psychology.

References Beystehner, K. M., (2001). Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Retrieved from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html

Carver, C. S.,

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Mountain Equipment Co-Op Strategic Plan Essay (Article) online essay help: online essay help

Executive Summary Mountain Equipment Co-Op can be regarded as one of the best illustrations of an environmentally responsible company. In the late 1990 the company worked out new strategic plan which focused on increase of buildings’ energy efficiency. At the same time the company revealed its environmental responsibility.

This is, undoubtedly, a winning strategy which can be applicable in the contemporary business world as now people are more and more concerned with environmental issues. Though the strategy has certain flaws, the company will benefit from it. The company will only need to collaborate with likeminded companies and organizations. It should also launch a project to encourage talented designers to create new winning designs.

Background Mountain Equipment Co-Op founded in 1971 acknowledged the importance of environmental sustainability. In 1990s the company’s executives realized that MEC retail stores negatively affected environment. Notably, 1990 was the time when people started paying particular attention to environment issues.

Therefore, the executives decided to increase energy efficiency of its retail stores and decrease harmful emissions. One of the first buildings to be changed was the store in Toronto. The work had already started and the building was modified in terms of energy sufficiency. The project proved to be successful as the building was 35% more efficient than other buildings at that time. The company inspired by this successful project started constructing energy efficient buildings.

Situation Analysis Admittedly, contemporary society pays much attention to environmental issues. More so, companies that reveal their responsibility gain favorable image and additional publicity. Thus, when in 1990s people started being preoccupied with such environmental issue as emission of ozone-depleting substances, MEC responded to these concerns.

The company was committed to reduce the amount of such emissions produced by their buildings’ cooling systems. This was the right decision as people welcomed such changes and the company became one of the leaders of the movement. More and more companies started responding to the problem but MEC was still the first one to gain considerable success. Thus, the company gained a favorable image.

Strengths As has been mentioned above, the decision the company made was a winning one. The company obtained publicity. It also created a favorable image. The company attracted many consumers who appreciated the company’s environmental responsibility. MEC increased energy efficiency of its buildings. The company was among leaders of the movement which later involved many other companies and organizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weaknesses Nonetheless, there are certain weaknesses in this strategy. For instance, though the company increased energy efficiency of its buildings, it was not always cost efficient. Thus, some projects would take years or even a decade to realize paybacks.

Opportunities However, there are quite many opportunities for the company. MEC will also attract many new customers as more and more people tend to purchase products from socially and environmentally responsible retailers. Besides, the company can co-operate with likeminded companies and organizations to work out new ways, e.g. ways to improve efficiency.

Threats However, there are certain threats. For instance, the company cannot focus on environmental issues only. It is essential to allocate funds reasonably. Thus, extra expenditures can negatively affect business. Remarkably, recent financial crises also limited companies’ ability to fund various environmental projects. Therefore, it is important to take into account various financial constraints as well.

Analysis of Alternatives Admittedly, the company should continue working on its environmental projects and continue constructing energy efficient buildings. However, it can be also effective to collaborate with other organizations and companies to work out new environmental projects. This will help the company to save considerable sums of money, and, at the same time, to remain in the mainstream of the environmental movement.

Of course, there is another option for the company. It can give up financing such projects as constructing new ‘sustainable’ buildings. Nonetheless, this will be the step backwards as the company will lag behind the companies which already reveal their commitment in the sphere of sustainable technology. This will negatively influence MEC’s image. This can lead to loss of customers, too.

Recommendation Therefore, the company should continue working on its environmental projects. It should go on constructing ‘environmentally-friendly’ buildings. However, the company should not stop developing new ways and strategies. Thus, MEC should try new (more efficient) designs. As has been mentioned above, the company will be able to save funds when collaborating with other companies and organizations. Thus, sharing experiences can positively affect the development of business.

Implementation First, the company can negotiate with other construction companies, other retailers and organizations concerned with environmental issues. The company can start a project which will be beneficial for the companies involved. This will reduce costs of technological development.

We will write a custom Article on Mountain Equipment Co-Op Strategic Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides, the company can launch the following campaign. It can encourage designers to come up with ideas concerning construction. The company can choose the most winning projects and offer the most successful designers a job in the company.

Finally, the company should analyze its own experience and other company’s experience in the field. This will help to work out new strategies and projects. Of course, the company’s executives should take into account the changes which are taking place in the contemporary society.

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History of the Great Chicago Fire Essay college admission essay help

Formal Outline Fire is one of the most destructive and distressing aspects in the modern times due to massive losses that it can cause to both individuals and property. Fire incidents may be categorized as either natural or man-made. For instance, the most anguishing fire outbreak was the Great Chicago fire that razed the wooden city in 1871. This fire outbreak destroyed property and killed hundreds of people.

Reports indicate that the fire began in the night of October 8 when a cow owned by Catherine and Patrick O’Leary kicked a lantern that was burning in the barn. Being a windy night and coupled with some human agency, the fire quickly spread to the neighborhood destroying everything on its way.

Survey reports after the fire indicated vividly that the damage caused by the raging fire damaged dozens of property within a width of one kilometer and a length of approximately six kilometers. It is against this backdrop that the ability to effectively prepare, prevent and manage key fire risks forms one of the most fundamental practices in society bearing in mind that poor level of preparedness has quite often been cited as the main cause to massive loss of life and property in such incidents.

In addition, preparedness guarantees the needed security and prevention measures which is needed to promote higher levels of productivity. Due to the fire outbreak in Chicago, measures have been put in place to prevent another occurrence of the same.

Introduction Fire forms one of the most destructive and distressing aspects in the modern times due to its related losses to an individual, organization, and the country as a whole. In the year 2008 alone, the United States fire department noted that it had responded to about 1,451,500 fires in the country that resulted to 3,320 fatalities and over US $ 5,478,000,000 worth of property in terms of losses (Ethington, 2002).

At this point, it is imperative to mention that the most anguishing fire outbreak was the Great Chicago fire that razed the wooden city in 1871 alongside destroying property and killing hundreds of people. Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007) posit that fire codes and inspections for protection are very critical in this era of highly dynamic consumerism patterns. The only way to guarantee sustainable growth and development within a country is based on the holistic capacity to address all the incumbent risks factors.

It is from this consideration that fire safety becomes very critical in disaster management as a way of reducing its extended affects. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore the great Chicago fire, its cause and whether it was a code or inspection failure. In addition, the paper examines fire prevention that would have been set in place to avoid massive fire outbreak of that nature and magnitude.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The great Chicago fire: Origin and spread of fire “ The fire that razed Chicago in the summer of 1871 was a conflagration that spread about nine square kilometers destroying property and killing hundreds of people (Ethington, 2002). Reports indicate that the fire begun in the night of October 8 when a cow owned by Catherine and Patrick O’Leary kicked a lantern that was burning in the barn.

Being a windy night and coupled with some human agency, the fire quickly spread to the neighborhood destroying everything on its wake. However, other reports on the origin of the fire point out that the cow story was not the cause of the fire. These reports from the Chicago Republican pointed out that although the fire came from the barn it was unclear whether it was by human agency or fire from the chimney.

Ethington (2002) posits in his article The Great Chicago Fire and the Web of Memory that the spread of fire was enhanced by the nature of buildings that were erected those days in the city. Most of them were made of wood designs and were closely packed. Besides, there had been a drought in the land and most things were dried. With the southwest strong winds, flying embers of fire were blown into the city and the neighboring surroundings.

It is important to note that in the city, fire inspectors and fighters just as the citizens were not overly concerned when the fire began and made errors of not reacting immediately. Eventually, the fire became gigantic and overwhelmed fire fighters who after long and unfruitful struggles, got exhausted. The fire then spread to apartments, houses and mansions devastating everything on its path leaving over 100,000 homeless and over 300 dead (Ethington, 2002).

The Chicago fire department did not receive fire alarm until after the fire had began spreading. When the alarm came form a guard at a pharmacy, the firefighters were sent to fight fire on a wrong location giving room for fire to spread further. The fire spread to all corners of the city engulfing tall church buildings, theatres, the opera house, Chicago City Hall, department stores and hotels. When the winds and wood diminished, the fire ceased having wiped out 34 blocks from O’Leary property to the northern side Fullerton Avenue.

Aftermath Survey reports after the fire indicate that the damage caused by the raging conflagration property within a width of one kilometer and a length of approximately six kilometers. Most of the property that were destroyed were estimated to be about 17,500 buildings, 2000 lamp posts, a 190 kilometers stretch of sidewalk and a 117 kilometers of road all estimated to a loss of $ 222 million (Ethington, 2002).

At that time, the population in Chicago was about 300000 people of which 3% were left homeless (Ethington, 2002). Other important facilities which were destroyed included libraries and schools with over three million books lost. When the fire had died and the number of bodies had been counted to over 300, the city began setting up fire standards to prevent similar occurrences.

We will write a custom Essay on History of the Great Chicago Fire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analysis of the fire- Code or inspection failure The ability to effectively prepare, prevent and manage key fire risks forms one of the most important concepts in the society that guarantees the needed security and prevention measures to promote higher levels of productivity. From the Chicago event, the risks from fire outbreaks that people face in their various homes and cities have been the core causes of suffering and loss of property as well as life.

As a result, these uncertainties are considered to be key threats that not only reduce their ability to be productive, but with key potential of causing major dependency in the society. It is from this consideration that fire prevention processes and codes should be well established to curb fire risks in the society. A risk that may lead to a disaster such as that experienced in Chicago would indeed be highly unwelcome to many.

The question that many analysts seek answer to is what was the major cause of fire and why were fighters unable to control the fire. Was failure on the aspect of inspection or was it on codes? While different analysts have at times tended to differ on what the failure was, the results presented by various investigations have proved that failure was on fire inspection.

In the case of Chicago fire, the risk that resulted to the massive damages and loss of people’s lives culminated from the poor fire emergency procedures. The claim is indeed very true as the systems to alert fire fighters and offer right directions were not effective. As such, inspection failure should be blamed for risks that individuals in Chicago faced.

Impact on codes and process As indicated earlier, the fire in Chicago initiated many major developments of preventing and fighting fire outbreaks. One such initiative was the emergency communication warning system. According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), the effectiveness of fire protection systems in a country should be based on the holistic consideration of the entire fire protection capacity to effectively coordinate their detection and initial fire suppression as well as emergency operations to reduce loss of life and property.

One central factor that cuts across the whole process of fire protection, preparedness, and operations is the emergency warning communication system. They record that once fire has been detected, failure to offer the necessary emergency communication may lead to massive losses to life and property.

Roles and implications Emergency warning and communication system employs audio, visual, or both in alerting the people about the existence of fire in a particular area. Whereas different disaster management units for different organizations assimilate either audio or visual mechanisms to alert the people on the presence of fire in a region, Damon (2007) points out that a combination of both is important for higher efficacy levels. Analysts indicate that had emergency warning and communication system been effective in Chicago, it would have had the following major roles in fire fighting; To begin with, it would have formed a critical icon in alerting citizens in Chicago inside a factory or a building about the existence of fire in their premises.

At the notification, those alerted would have immediately tried to suppress fire in its point of origin using the available fire fighting equipments like waters pipes and fire extinguishers in their premises. However, citizens’ skills in using the different fire fighting systems and equipments in a nation are critical.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of the Great Chicago Fire by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By informing individuals in Chicago on the presence of fire in buildings or premises, they could have been able to move away from the scene and therefore escape danger. Ferguson and Christopher (2007) indicate that one of the most important concepts employed by fire fighting protection is preventing loss of life for both the employees and public.

Slap (2001) explains that to the public, emergency warning and communication system informs them on the existence of fire and therefore requires them to clear from the site of incidence and allow fire specialists to operate with minimal struggle in rescuing life and property. Particularly, road users are expected to cooperate in offering the best access to the site of emergency for the fire fighters vehicles either ferrying extinguishing water, chemicals, or ambulances transporting casualties.

Types of emergency warning and communication systems

In his review of disaster management systems, Pinkowski (2008) indicates that modernistic methods are critical in perfecting fire control considerations. In the public domain, outdoor warning sirens, citizen alert systems, and radio broadcasting system may be employed.

These techniques among others should be able to reach the maximum number of people near the fire occurrence area. After the Chicago fire in Chicago, voice broadcasting as well as other communication technologies was employed to alert people to keep away from the site of fire (Pinkowski, 2008). Provision of emergency warning and communication to the public were designed to provide guidelines and directions to the public as opposed to leaving them shocked of the incidence.

Besides, they were to provide the public with alternative routes to use in order to reduce traffic towards the area of fire occurrence in addition to giving information on the dangers of getting closer to the site and the need to provide effective environment for fire fighters operations.

Impact on codes and process from Chicago fire on modern fire prevention Fire Detection and Suppression Systems

Over the years, since the great Chicago fire, the ability to address fire problems is based on a nation’s or society ability to effectively detect it at the earliest incidence possible. According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), it is essential that organizations prepare themselves effectively for emergency cases by establishing the best fire detection systems. Fire detection and suppression over the years have seen great advancement towards more intelligent systems with higher levels of efficiency in detecting and suppressing fire at the earliest stages possible.

Fire experts have accredited the last decade reduction in fire outbreak cases and indeed losses to the increased ability to detect and suppress fire at early stages. Though application of modernistic methods as Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007) indicate have been highly limiting due to its inherent costs especially for small business units and individuals, their efficiency have been cited to be very high compared to the traditional methods. Some of the methods employed in the modern systems include.

Aspirating smoke detectors This is a modernistic system that is based on smoke concentration to determine presence of fire. Damon (2007) indicates that this method employs a nephelometer which is fixed on an enclosed chamber within which smoke particles are sucked and detection recorded in terms of light scattering levels. Unlike the traditional methods where human sight was employed to detect presence of fire, aspirating smoke detector can be able to detect smoke even before the particles are visible to the naked eye. This method is highly effective when it is employed in a stable environment with a relatively constant air composition. It is critical that fire suppression system is established to prevent fire progression, extinguish it, and provide emergency service on time.

Vision based real-time early flame and smoke detectors Following increasing concerns based on devastation on economic and ecologic outcomes of fire whenever they occur, more elaborate systems that can cover larger areas and provide more accurate information is essential. Vision based real-time early frame and smoke detector are surveillance systems that provides automated coordination that rely on spatial temporal characteristics of smoke and frames to determine the intensity of fire.

To bring out the actual intensity of fire during the outbreaks, this method compares smoke and colour histograms models which employ Continuous Adaptive Means Shift (CAMSHIFT) to determine the spatial temporal probability of frames in real time. This method as Keating (2004) indicates, require specialized skills in smoke and frame characteristics through algorithmic models for efficiency.

In addition, it requires application of specialized equipments and full time response units that can attend to the fire warning. Like the aspirant smoke detectors, this method calls for strong coordination between a local society and members of an organization or the fire department to promote efficacy of reduce the affects of fires.

Heat detectors According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), fire detection can also be affected by assessing the rate of heat changes. The design of thermo detectors is based on the principle that in case of a fire outbreak, temperatures generally rise above the ambient levels which can be detected to either sign a warning or set on an automated suppression system. Notably, thermo detectors operate more effectively when located in indoor settings as opposed to the outdoor areas.

One major advantage of modern thermo-detectors is that they are able to record changes of temperatures in a progressive system that can be used to further ascertain presence of fire in a building. Unlike the vision based real time frame and smoke detectors, thermo detectors lack the ability to effectively establish the actual area that the fire may be originating from.

To add to that, there is need for constant maintenance to ensure high efficiency levels in detecting changes of temperatures and fires. To promote greater levels of efficiency using this method, specialists indicate that it should be employed alongside other methods of detection, suppression, and fire extinction.

Water-mist system Water mist system is a suppressive application that is employed to protect high risk equipment like machines in factories and companies. They are also employed in areas that have high probabilities of igniting fires like machine rooms, kitchens, and stores for inflammable chemicals. Water mist system operates in an automated system where detectors that sense onset of fire are fixed to set water sprays towards then fire in action. Pinkowski (2008) indicates that this method has high levels of accuracy as it is targeted at the regions which have the highest possibilities of causing fire in a building or an industry.

At instances when the water system may be unable to suppress fire from its onset, it is still considered to be effective as it reduces the acceleration rates which can give people time to move away from the site of fire; a consideration that may reduce fatalities, destruction and also provide the fire fighters with time to launch their fighting mechanism well on time before major losses are incurred. Therefore, it is very crucial that emergency response units are always on the alert to supplement the operations of a water-mist system as a mechanism of promoting efficiency.

Lift Control and usage in fire situations Over the years, lifts have been employed as some of the most effective mechanisms for climbing new heights of tall buildings with speed. However, the untold story of their operations is technologically complicated and can lead to malfunctioning during fires outbreaks. Control and use of lifts during fire outbreak is a critical component that dictates the efficacy that fire fighting units can achieve at any particular moment. In case of fire outbreaks, people should avoid using lifts and instead follow the emergency exits as a major precautionary measure.

After reports warning of fire outbreak through emergency warning systems, the lift controller should guide the lift to his point of control and immobilize it there after confirming that all the occupants are out. Though disagreements have constantly recurred over the best model to use lifts in cases of outbreaks, most of the emergency rescue experts give the following reasons. To begin with, operations of the lift may be affected by the fire and trap the occupants in it.

This may be very dangerous especially in cases where the fire is spreading with speed. Besides, use of lifts may pass through sections with frames and Smalley (2005) indicates that allowing use of lift during fire outbreaks would lead to overloading and possible malfunctioning during the emergency period. To guarantee efficacy in the rescue units, use of emergency foot stairs is considered the best option.

Though use of lifts is not recommended during events of emergencies, Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that special cases may require their monitored use to perfect fire protection mechanisms. To begin with very tall buildings are inconvenient for the occupants to take stairs to the ground floor. Use of lifts in this case assists them to easily move down and escape from the burning site.

Secondly, when the occupants of the buildings at the time of fire outbreak were characterized of people with disability, their ability to move down the stairs may be greatly compromised. Failure to offer the disabled people with an alternative route down stairs as Keating (2004) indicates is like condemning them to fire since they are helpless. For other cases like hospitals, use of lifts is accepted to assist in moving the patients from the danger scene. It is critical that use of lift during emergency period is effectively monitored to avoid confusions.

Fire fighters and air traffic controllers should also have access to the lifts as their tasks require speed and coordination to address the fire from the source and communicate to the public respectively. To promote efficiency in fire protection, modern building codes require that special lifts are established to improve efficiency in their fire fighting mechanisms and evacuation procedures.

Building evacuation systems Evacuation systems entail removal of the people from the danger sites to regions of safety or hospital for treatments. Fire protection building evacuation systems seeks to ensure that all the people in a building are guided or taken to safety as fire is extinguished. Building evacuation systems requires strong planning, organization of the system, and careful supervision.

Organization of the building evacuation system requires a clear plan that defines the roles and responsibilities of different members of the evacuation team. Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that the participating members’ duties are complemented with respective equipments that are necessary for use in case of the need for evacuation (Lewinnek, 2003). Besides, effective evacuation policies and plans could be established to enhance better management and coordination with other departments.

Diagrams and evacuation routes should be effectively provided in a building. The policy should also provide for imminent danger definitions and determine how the central control should operate during evacuation.

Then evacuation should also include an effective detection reporting system on the situation which culminates to the decision of conducting evacuation in the building. At this point, Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that the evacuation team should operate in direct conjunction with all the other departments to make them understand their tasks and the expected conduct during fire outbreaks.

According to Austin and Roger (2007), the evacuation team should have a clear outline of their expected movements and operation during their operations. This is perhaps the most critical part of the system as it gives the necessary information of the equipments for suppressing fire especially to keep the exit routes free for all the people. Depending with the nature of a building, evacuation system may require that the group effectively possess special equipments like parachutes for evacuating people in tall buildings.

However, it would be incomplete to talk about an evacuation system without emphasizing on their communication. One critical element that determines the ability of an evacuation unit is its capacity to communicate among them effectively. As indicated earlier, evacuation is done to facilitate faster removal of people from their areas of high danger to safer points; therefore coordination is very critical to reduce panic and confusion.

Finally, en evacuation system should have an effective inspection and command system that provides the central command for the operations. This becomes very critical especially on tall buildings where coordination has to be effected at different heights. In addition, inspection and evaluation is essential as it offers the evacuation process undertaken with an assessment to determine how effective it was and provide recommendations for improvement in later emergencies (Ferguson

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Dealing With Inmates Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

A towns’ image is vital for establishing a formal relationship with the outside world. A decent towns’ image will make it easy, for people living there to establish a long lasting relationship. The healthy relationship is beneficial for attracting investors who help in boosting the economy of the town. Investors get scared when the town is famous for having a poor relationship with outsiders. Therefore, a wholesome image helps the locals interact with outsiders and share ideas.

The major cause of increased investment in any town is security. The image of a town is crucial for creating and maintaining a favorable image. Therefore, the government should intervene in this situation so that it can make the town secure. An acceptable image is also notable for making the town a pleasant place for educational achievement.

The entire image attracts more students than a town that is famous for insecurity. A town that is famous for being a prison centre is seen by people as a highly insecure place that is not safe for investment. The town is seen as a centre of criminal acts because of the prison.

The mayors’ panel should comprise all the stakeholders of the town. The stakeholders in this case, are Alice Rugby, David Halloway, Arnold Kitchen, John Edwards and Angela Bakersfield. All these people have a key role in the security and proceedings of the daily activities in the town. The above people have different perspectives on the issue at hand.

The people of the neighboring community have an issue with the security caused by the existence of the prison in the town. The people have a negative view because of the existence of the prison, and will propose that the town be rebranded into a town focused more on education than now when they focus on prisons.

The media reporters will want people to learn to live with the fact that the prison is in the town, and claim that they have to make the proceedings available to the other parts of the country. All the stakeholders have a different view of the situation, and they only thing that one can do is to try making them come to a consensus is allowing them to share their proposals and perspectives then negotiating on the best way forward.

The town does not need to change its image; instead, the stake holders should negotiate and come to an agreement on how to handle the situation. In this case, the way forward is to negotiate with the prisons department to make sure that the prisoners change their clothes before leaving the prison premises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The prisoners should also leave the premises at the time when their bus is ready to leave town so as to stop them from loitering in town. However, the media should also report on the other aspects of the town like the university and businesses.

The shift of focus from the prisons to the university and other will have a negative impact on the economy because many people come to the town to witness the executions which the media advertizes. This is impact can be reversed by the increase in the number of students who come to the university to study.

The people affected by the release of prisoners are the school children and the business people. However, it is better for businesses to lose a little amount of money and ensure the safety of the people.

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Grand Canyon Geology Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents The formation of the Grand Canyon

The origin of the Grand Canyon rocks

Grand Canyon’s fossil

Reference

This is a great feature in the world. It is in the list of the most scenery worldwide.

The formation of the Grand Canyon “ Grand Canyon formation occurred an exceedingly long time ago. However, no one is pretty sure of how its formation took place. Nevertheless, geologists come up with some guesses about this. Some say that there was a combination of some forces that led to its formation.

One strong suggestion is that there was erosion who’s the main cause was water and wind. Other forces that also contributed to the formation of the Grand Canyon are; volcanism, continental drift, some vibrations in the orbit of the earth and many others.

Water had an immense impact on Grand Canyon since it occupies the largest percentage of the world’s space. This becomes a complicated issue especially because the Grand Canyon is found in the desert. The soil that is in the canyon is extremely hard and does not absorb water whenever it rains. This is what makes it truly evident that water caused that erosion.

Another cause is water in the form of ice. When it is hot, the rocks in canyon crack. After this, during the cold season, the water freezes inside the rocks. This causes expansion of rocks. As a result, the rocks may fall, which in most cases leads to the formation of a landscape in the canyon.

The origin of the Grand Canyon rocks Geologists come up with a conclusion that the rocks formation was from the combination of forces like continental drift, and volcanism. The earth is not fixed in one place rather it floats on molten rocks (Beus, and Morales, 1990). The earth consists of layers “plate” of rocks. The North American rock is the one that contains the Grand Canyon.

During those old days, the canyon was located on further south side. The location changed gradually with change in climate. The earth’s continents are separate, although they move a bit on the molten rocks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is what enabled the North American rock move towards the west and collided with the Pacific plate. As this conflict took place, there arose a mountain at the point of contact. Mountains and ranges were formed like the mountains of California. These Rocky Mountains form the base of Grand Canyon.

As our planet’s climate warms, its median sea level rises and falls. This is caused by melting and freezing of the polar caps. The land that is close to the coast sometimes submerges when altitude is low. This is what caused the layers of rocks that exist in Grand Canyon. In conclusion, the Grand Canyon consists of sedimentary rocks, which were formed in the shallow coastal plains.

The Grand Canyon is formed at the bottom of the ocean since that is where sedimentary rock are present. The current top layer of the canyon is Kaibab limestone. The Kaibab limestone contains sandy limestone.

Grand Canyon’s fossil It contains fossils creatures that were aquatic like fish teeth, mollusks, worms, sea lilies, and many others. These make it less complicated when it comes to the fact that the Grand Canyon formation took place in the ocean. The shape of the Grand Canyon is due to many mountains that existed many years ago even before it was there. Its base is due to erosion of the mountains until a plane was formed.

Reference Beus, S. S.,

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The Case of Heineken Inc. Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Changing distribution system and opposition from people

Benefits of changing the distribution system

Possible effects of opposing change

References

Managing organizational change in a business has become one of the most important pillars supporting business productivity bearing in mind that through change, the performance of a business is enhanced, workers are motivated and new methods of innovation are introduced. Studies indicate that change management is an imperative structured approach that managers apply to transit organizations as well as employees to desired outcome.

Many individuals in organizations are quite often opposed to the process of change. They rather prefer status quo. Beugelsdjk and Slangen (2001) posit that by overcoming forces restraining change, organizations can make tremendous developments in terms of growth, sales and productivity. This paper examines organizational change in the distribution system at Heineken Inc. and its impact on the business.

Heineken’s distribution system has been considered to be one of the best among beer distributors in the world since its inception. Besides exporting its products, Heineken also sold its beers via agents to small and big pubs which were linked to consumers in the beer market.

After the Second World War, Freddy Heineken, the CEO at Heineken foresaw the forthcoming developments in technology where machines such as televisions and refrigerators would be introduced and revolutionize the market. On that front, he felt the need to radically abolish the traditional distribution system and initiate changes in distribution that would meet the expected changes in marketing patterns.

Changing distribution system and opposition from people In 1947, the traditional distribution pattern at Heineken was changed from pubs to wholesalers and supermarkets where more people frequented after television and refrigerators were introduced.

However, as indicated earlier in the paper, the move to create a change encountered massive resistance from other leaders of the organization who felt that by shifting from the traditional system of distribution via pubs, chances were that they would lose their crucial distribution channel.

Besides, change would interfere with the normal routine the business had of distribution by opening up to professionals from wholesaler groups and supermarkets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of changing the distribution system Mary Jo Hatch posits that change in the culture and normal practice of a business plays a pivotal role of enhancing performance and raising sales levels (Frimpon, 2011). The decision to change the distribution system at Heineken increased sales of beer by 35 litres per person in 1968 from the previous 10 litres in 1949. In addition, reports indicate that its market share also rose by 18% from a low of 21 to a high of 39% (Beugelsdjk

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Aristotle’s Philosophy Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Renford Bambrough seeks to express the importance of the discussions made by Aristotle with the aim of solving the problems that philosophers have struggled with throughout history. According to Bambrough, Aristotle made attempts to demystify the notion that philosophy is a continuing and a living activity which is separated from historical studies done.

Aristotle emphasized a need to incorporate classical works of ancient philosophers into the debates solving philosophical questions (Bambrough 378). This should be done with restraint and caution in order not to compromise the validity of modern studies and to avoid bias, as evident in the studies of some historical philosophers in their quoting of particular texts of Aristotle (Bambrough 381).

“There has also been hostilities extended towards the philosophers, not only those of the past, but also those of more recent times, in their exploration of the nature of the universe with specific dissatisfaction extended towards their theorizing instead of making empirical conclusions” (Bambrough 382).

This has encouraged some analytical philosophers to denounce the classical sources that their studies are based on, despite their dependence on the same, hence expressing bias in their deductions.

The author explains that though philosophy has enjoyed its fair share of interest over two thousand years, some philosophers argue that philosophy should now yield to science and religion. Aristotle’s work has served greatly to unite these fundamental specifications on the need to understand the universe as well as the need to understand the human being in a societal context” (Bambrough 382).

In this regard, philosophy should not be viewed as dominating the views of science and religion, but rather as their ‘hand maid’, as a reference point (Bambrough 382). This paper will discuss Aristotle’s views on human nature and , state in relation to and slavery. In addition, it will discuss the different partnerships mentioned in the books 1 and 2. Furthermore, the paper will discuss the concepts of citizenship outlined in the book 3 of Politics and compare the philosopher’s position regarding slavery outlined in his Politics and will.

A mutually beneficial association between masters and slaves Politics

Aristotle, like most Greeks who lived in his time and before him, did not believe that human beings could ever live a good life without institutions and social relationships. Aristotle defined a man as a creature adapted for life in a city-state or polis. This is in relation to Aristotle’s famous saying that man is a political animal by nature.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aristotle’s saying that ‘who is delighted by solitude is either a wild beast or a god’ has become a proverb (“Whosoever_is). Aristotle points out that to lead a happy life, a man has to live in a community where each person should strive for the development of the community in general and not his or her selfish goals. He claims that the state has to exist since individuals or even the family unit is too weak and too limited to support themselves.

While there may not be much interest in saving lives of certain individuals, it is important for all people to live in cities because they were designed for living in the state community and cannot exist separately. from community (Bambrough 384).

The environment provided by the city is also helpful for personal development where individuals can enjoy personal happiness as they exercise their intellectual and moral virtues. It is also imperative that the city or the state is self-sufficient and can sustain itself and it doesn’t need to be a part of a group or a larger community.

In his teachings, Aristotle reiterated what his predecessor Plato had said that as to the aspects of planning and governance, the Greek polis would make the most natural and ideal form of society where man can give his best. Aristotle, however, disagreed with Plato by indicating that moral and political virtues should be branches of knowledge just like navigation and medicine.

In addition, Aristotle also disagreed with Plato’s concept of creating a happy community by proposing that happiness is an individual activity that cannot be shared though it can be enjoyed concurrently with others. Aristotle also identified that, it is up to individuals to attain happiness from the state and not the state to attain happiness from individuals.

According to Aristotle, this is because the state exists for the benefit of individuals and not individuals exist for the sake of the state (Bambrough 392). He also rejected the offer of the communal ownership of property, wives and children that had been previously suggested by Plato.

Aristotle noted that if everything is made up of everybody’s business, then it will be nobody’s business. This is because individuals would have very little personal attachment to what is declared state property and as a result would not be interested in preserving and improving it.

We will write a custom Essay on Aristotle’s Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another important aspect of Aristotle’s philosophy indicated his acceptance of slavery as one of the most important characteristics of the community of his times. One of the most important arguments provided by Aristotle for justifying the institution of slavery in Politics was a mutually beneficial association between masters and slaves.

Aristotle stated that slavery can improve the humanity in general. He Aristotle noted that some men are made to be slaves and therefore achieve their purpose in life by performing servile duties to those who are higher than them. Though these views may be disputed in modern times, it is important to realize that Aristotle made his statements on principles and details that were related to the city-states of his own time.

In his exploration of property such as slaves, Aristotle justifies this phenomenon by pointing out at the existence of persons who are slaves by nature and consequent justification of slavery. According to Aristotle, some people need to provide services to others whom they consider as inferior to them to achieve their own telos (life purpose).

According to AristotleFurthermore,, Aristotle noted that every household should consist of slaves and free persons to be complete (Bambrough 385). A complete household requires effective association between men and women and between masters and slaves.

Though Aristotle’s views on slavery may be considered a prejudice, it should be noted that this period marked out the superiority of the Greeks over other nations who were considered inferior and called barbarians. For this reason, most of Aristotle’s work gives not only his views on how things should be, but also how things were at the time he lived.

Book 1 In Aristotle’s book 1, the author stated that states are based on certain partnership that is formed for the members to achieve certain desired good deeds. The author noted that, human beings are universally selfish and they always strive to achieve the goals which they perceive as advantageous for them (Bambrough 385).

Therefore, according to Aristotle, the state is a political partnership. Aristotle defined the state as a group of people who understand that they cannot live separately from this group and decided to create an association.

According to Aristotle, Tthe distinction between the a master, estate manager, statesman, and a slave is based on their nature and innate features. king has also been highlighted to be of contention, as some people base their definitions barely on the numbers that are ruled by people holding these titles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Aristotle’s Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aristotle admitted that the process in which an individual comes to power is of great importance. Like a king holds power on his own, while a statesman is one who follows the principles dictated by the science of statesmanship and takes turns with others to rule and govern (Bambrough 386). Slaves obey their masters because they tend to be ruled since their birth.

Therefore, the agreement between those who govern and those who are being governed is one of important principles of the science of statesmanship. Though Aristotle’s views on slavery may be considered as a prejudice, it should be noted that this period marked out the superiority of the Greeks over other nations who were considered inferior and called barbarians.

Aristotle noted that some people tend to be ruled since their birth (Bambrough 377379). For this reason, Greeks suggested that all barbarians were inferior to them and all barbarians were equal to slaves. Under the influence of stereotypes which were dominant among the philosophers of his time, Aristotle considered males to be superior to females.

Moreover, according to Aristotle, women in the barbarian community are equal to slaves and occupy the same position in the society (Bambrough 383). Aristotle concludes that it is right for Greeks to rule over non-Greeks because the latter are inferior and tend to be ruled by their nature. Therefore, in his Politics Aristotle defines slaves as weak creatures who tend to be ruled and includes all non-Greeks into this category.

According to the assumptions Aristotle made in his Politics, slaves are nothing more than tools which are needed for satisfying daily needs in the household. Analyzing Hesiod’s saying concerning the house, a wife and an ox which are needed for every man to run a successful household, Aristotle associates an ox with a slave as a tool required for performing certain household operations (Bambrough 383).

Taking into account the slaves’ natural desire to be ruled, it can be stated that that masters abd slaves have common interests which result in their mutually beneficial association. However, regardless of the obvious benefits of this association, masters should acquire an art of being masters for improving the effectiveness of this partnership.

Analyzing the assumptions concerning the innate features as the primary cause of the institution of slavery made by Aristotle in his Politics, it can be stated that the ancient philosopher accepted the institution of slavery as something that is taken for granted and is not disputable.

Comparing these assumptions to the decisions outlined by Aristotle in his Will, it can be stated that the latter are compatible with the philosophical doctrine included into Politics.

In his will Aristotle noted: “When my daughter marries, she shall be given 500 drachmas and the female slave she has at present” (Diogenes 64). Therefore, Aristotle left by will his slaves which were part of his household to his children so that they could become parts of their household in the future and the mutually beneficial association could continue.

Enslavement by convention As it can be seen from the book by Bambrough, Aristotle in his Politics justified the slavery by nature but questioned the justice of enslavement by convention. Aristotle admitted that his opponents claiming that slavery is unjust had certain right on their side.

In his Politics, Aristotle distinguishes between those who are slaves by nature and those who are slaves by convention or by law. Regarding the first category, Aristotle noted that they were designed to be ruled and even their physical characteristics are suitable for this task. In other words, slaves are physically stronger because they have to do the household tasks, whereas their masters are physically weaker because they were designed mainly for the art of being masters and political affairs.

However, the situation with those who were enslaved by convention is different. Aristotle discussed the counterargument to his theories, namely the position that the possibility to execute superior power cannot become a proper ground for justifying slavery. Discussing the enslavement as the product of war, Aristotle pointed out that it could be unjust if the beginning of war had been unjust.

Then, wellborn persons can be enslaved and their children would be slaves as well. However, Aristotle admitted that a person who did not really deserve to become a slave would never become a slave (Bambrough 389).

The ancient philosopher linked his assumptions concerning the injustice of enslavement by convention to the discussion of innate desire to be ruled as the main cause of enslavement. However, it should be noted that Aristotle’s assumption tat all barbarians are slaves is incompatible with his idea expressed later in Politics that there are people who never and nowhere can become slaves because of their innate virtues.

As an example, Aristotle discussed Helen’s words who admitted that nobody would dare to call her a servant because she had gods on both sides of her family tree (Bambrough 390). However, as it was further argued by Aristotle, the claims of those who are well-born or low-born cannot be used for answering the question whether they are or are not slaves. Aristotle admitted that not always good parents produce good children and even though it is frequently true, there are certain exceptions.

In his Politics, Aristotle noted that people who are slaves or masters by law not always are such by nature. Therefore, it can be concluded that nature and innate qualities should remain the main criteria to be used for distinguishing between slaves and masters, whereas people’s origin and the fact that they were well-born ot low-born cannot be used for answering the question whether a person can become a slave. Aristotle also pointed out at the negative consequences of ruling over those people who do not tend to be ruled.

Due to Aristotle’s assumption that a slave and a master in their mutually beneficial association are parts of a whole, the philosopher concluded that ruling over those who are not slaves by their nature can have a negative impact upon masters as well as their slaves (Bambrough 390).

According to Aristotle’s Politics, a slave can be defined as a separate animate part of his master’s body. A master and a slave have common interests if their relationship is natural and they have tended to be free or enslaved since their birth. However, if the association is based on force only, it is harmful for both of them.

Analyzing the assumptions made by Aristotle in his Politics and provisions for slaves the philosopher included into his will, it can be stated that the provision to liberate some of his slaves after his death is compatible with the arguments discussed in Politics. In his will Aristotle noted: “When my daughter is married, Tacho shall be freed, and also Philo, and Olympios, and his son. The executors are not to sell any of the slaves who looked after me, but to employ them.

When they reach the appropriate age, they should set them free as they deserve” (Diogenes 64 ). It is obvious that Aristotle asked to liberate the slaves, whom he considered to deserve freedom. Otherwise, the association between masters and slaves by convention but not by nature would have been unjust.

As it can be seen in the text by Bambrough, Aristotle stated that the principles of governing and being governed are significant for the science of statesmanship and existence of this association (382). There are several types of partnership ranging from the family unit to the village and in some cases a group of states where one state rules over others.

Aristotle went on to discuss the management of the state and then the property of the state, its nature and its administration. He concluded that the state occurs naturally and human beings are also naturally designed to live in the states. There are, however, individuals who by nature do not belong to any state and they therefore are either inferior beings or superior beings.

If a person is inferior, then the person is considered a slave, but if the person is superior he/she is obviously dangerous because all he seeks is war. Aristotle also stated that the state should be prior to families and particular individuals because the part cannot exist without the whole (Bambrough 385).

The relations between an individual and the state can be compared to those between a part and the whole. Aristotle uses an example of destroying a foot or a hand when the rest of the body can function. However, destroying the whole body would mean destroying a foot and a hand as well. Consequently, a part cannot exist without the whole, a hand or a foot cannot exist without the body, an individual or a particular household is not self-sufficient and cannot exist without the state.

Additionally, a part not only is included into a whole, but entirely belongs to it. The same goes for slaves who are considered as parts of certain households and entirely belong to their masters. In his will, Aristotle admitted that he would like to give liberty to some of his slaves after his death (Diogenes 64).

On the other hand, Aristotle would give liberty to those who according to his theories tended to be ruled. On the other hand, his decision to give liberty to some slaves clearly demonstrates Aristotle’s belief that his slaves were his property and he as a master could give liberty to them if he wanted to.

Book 2 In the book 2, Aristotle reviewed political partnerships in reference to good governance by identifying constitutions that are either theoretically beneficial or that are enjoyed by the states men. “In a good state, where there is a partnership, the people should commonly hold everything that belongs to the state that can be possibly held as so” (Bambrough 387).

In addition, as described in Bambrough’s text, Aristotle stated that, there is a single locality to the state and all citizens belong to it to show that state properties are commonly owned by its citizens as a partnership (Bambrough 394). The ancient philosopher suggested that a state ceases to be a state if it develops into unity.

This is because the state is naturally plural and if it grows in unity, the state becomes more of a household than a state. The state should also consist of individuals who are uniquely different. These people can come together because of their similar goals to form a state, but not due to their similar nature.

A group of states may come together to form an alliance of states. This is driven by the similarities in their goals. The most common goal in this case would be to avert aggression. This concept can be illustrated by an example of a difference between the state and the tribe.

Tribes may usually compete against one another, however in times of harsh and desperate times, they will unite together. The tribes are all strong when united together. As a result, the stronger they can combat and defeat a common enemy. This is related to States, which also form an alliance in a similar case and collaborate, due to their external needs.

As it can be seen from the book by Bambrough, Aristotle noted that if all individuals are equal, as suggested by Plato, where property, wives and children are owned communally, then the attention to things will be inversely proportional to the number of people who will take responsibility (386).

This is because people ignore the responsibility and assume that someone else will take it. Due to the selfish nature of a man, there might be a situation where nobody may come up to take the responsibility.

Aristotle also stated that “It is not easy for people living in this context to avoid troubles such as unintentional and intentional homicide, assault, insulting each other and fighting” (Bambrough 395). According to Aristotle, the main two rules which should be observed in a society include self-control in relation to women and generosity in relation to property.

Book 3 In book 3, the author explored the concept of citizenship by raising the question ‘what do we mean by the word citizen’ where he concluded that this term may be explained differently by different thinkers, as democracies and oligarchies define citizenship differently.

This question can only be answered through exploration of the process of becoming a citizen which leads to the consequent problem of whether these processes are just or unjust. Aristotle raised the question of defining a just citizen and wondered if a just citizen can be defined as a good person whereas the tenets characterizing just citizenship and goodness are different (Bambrough 398).

The conventional definition of a citizen is a child whose parents were both citizens. Aristotle stated that some people extend this requirement to two or three generations back (Bambrough 404) This raises the question of how the parents or these other prior generations became citizens in the first place, if they were also subjected to such a law. Will

Analyzing the provisions made by Aristotle in his will and comparing them to the assumptions made in his Politics, it can be stated that they are compatible because in both of them Aristotle distinguishes between slaves by nature and slaves by convention and recommends treating them differently.

The relations between an individual and the state similarly to those between a master and a slave can be compared to those between a part and the whole. Aristotle uses an example of destroying a foot or a hand when the rest of the body can function. However, destroying the whole body would mean destroying a foot and a hand as well.

Consequently, a part cannot exist without the whole, a hand or a foot cannot exist without the body, an individual or a particular household is not self-sufficient and cannot exist without the state. Additionally, a part not only is included into a whole, but entirely belongs to it. The same goes for slaves who are considered as parts of certain households and entirely belong to their masters.

Aristotle emphasized the link between slaves and their masters, admitting that association based on force can be harmful for both of them and a true art of being a master would exclude ruling over those who are free by their nature. In his will, Aristotle admitted that he would like to give liberty to some of his slaves after his death (Diogenes 64). On the one hand, Aristotle would give liberty to those who according to his theories did not tend to be ruled.

On the other hand, his decision to give liberty to some slaves clearly demonstrates Aristotle’s belief that some people would never become slaves regardless of place and situation. Therefore, it can be concluded that Aristotle implemented his theoretical principles regarding slavery, association between a master and a slave and different categories of slaves when he provided provisions to give some of his slaves to his children and liberate other slaves after his death.

Conclusion Analyzing the philosophical assumptions concerning the human nature, the state and slavery made by Aristotle in his Politics and decisions he outlined in his will, it can be stated that the philosopher considered the state as an important condition for well-being of people who cannot exist separately from the stateslavery as a natural phenomenon of any community and an important element of any household.

According to Aristotle, people were designed for living in the states and can be regarded as parts of the state, while the state as a whole is prior to individuals and particular householdssome people were designed to be ruled whereas others were designed to rule over others.. Aristotle accepted slavery as a natural phenomenon because he hypothesized that some people tend to rule, and others tend to be ruled.

Additionally, as it can be seen from Aristotle’s will, the philosopher considered slaves as property of their masters who can give liberty to their slaves if they would like to.However, another important assumption made by Aristotle in his Politics is that slaves were designed to obey their masters and their purpose in life to provide services to masters who are regarded as superior to them.

The conclusion drawn by the ancient philosopher is that a master and a slave share common interests and the association between them is mutually beneficial. However, this association would be ruined if a master or a slave does not belong to their role because of their innate qualities.

Aristotle accepted the fact that in some situations slavery can be unjust and even harmful for the masters who rule over slaves who were born to be free. This assumption explains Aristotle’s provisions to liberate some of his slaves after his death. Therefore, looking at his slaves, Aristotle regarded some of them as slaves by nature and ordered to give them to his children, whereas others he saw as free people and ordered to liberate them. In general, the Assumptions made by Aristotle in Politics are compatible with provisions of his will.

Works Cited Bambrough, Renford. The Philosophy of Aristotle. New York: New American Library, 1963. Print.

Diogenes, Laertius. “The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers”. Trans. Charles Duke Yonge. Course Booklet. n.a. n.d. 64. Print.

“Whosoever_is_delighted_in_solitude_is_either_a.” Columbia World of Quotations. Columbia University Press, 1996. 17 Nov. 2011.

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Wesfarmers Case Study college admissions essay help

Introduction The current position of Wesfarmers is largely due to the Global Financial Recession that threatened to grind its operations to a halt but thanks to the company’s broad conglomerates, it has managed to sail through, albeit with some financial shortcomings.

Wesfarmers’ acquisition in November 2007of Coles Group, which was one of the leading retailer chains in Australia, made it the biggest retailer and private employer in the country. However, the purchase, which was worth $19.3 billion, left Wesfarmers without adequate funds to operate its numerous businesses.

The global financial crisis further compounded the financial status of Wesfarmers between 2008 – 2009 (Huang, 2010).

Wesfarmers’ management and leadership style, however, has also enabled it to be the brand name that it is in the Australian markets. At corporate level, the company has directors who manage different functions and at the same time head various divisions.

This lessens the bureaucracy that would have otherwise existed between senior management, middle, and lower management levels. Moreover, the choice of these managers is made on merit and experience while underscoring teamwork for the success of the company. This paper, therefore, attempts to answer the CEO’s, Richard Goyder (Huang, 2010).

Macro-Environment Analysis Summary Political/Legal Forces

The politico-legal environment in Australia provides a good ground on which Wesfarmers can thrive.

The Australian government has provided good infrastructure for movement and communication within the country and given Wesfarmers’ diverse businesses it can easily communicate with customers, make deliveries, and receive supplies for its stores. Although it is headquartered in Perth, Western Australia, it is able to easily conduct its business all over the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sound infrastructure provides opportunity for Wesfarmers especially its online divisions (Coles online supermarket), which requires Internet thus making this division a viable project.

Trade liberalization has also opened up a wealth of opportunities in economies such as the European Union markets with un-entered and new target markets which the company can take advantage of (Mahadevan, 2004).

Economic Forces

With the global financial crisis behind it, Wesfarmers can exploit the budding post-financial crisis economy of Australia. The Reserve Bank of Australia has directed commercial banks to drop their lending rates from 10.2% in 2009 to 8.91% in 2011 (Juckes, 2009).

This is an indication of the brighter future for Wesfarmers because it can obtain loan cheaply to undertake its operations. Coupled with the low inflation in the country, people have money to spend and owing to Wesfarmers’ diverse businesses, at least one-half of its divisions must record increase in sales.

Equally important is the exchange rate against US dollar, which is AUD 1.08233 per USD. and AUD 1.35 per Euro (Juckes, 2009). International trade thus poses a great opportunity for Wesfarmers’ numerous businesses with relatively better returns.

Socio-Cultural Forces

The social dynamics of the Australian population provide an opportunity for Wesfarmers to expand its business and sustain its growth rate.

The company runs a total of nine divisions with various businesses and owing to the consumerist nature of Australians, they often flock retail stores to purchase food suppliers, home appliance stores, among others. In this era, the Y generation is the spendthrift customers who must be impressed by the products.

We will write a custom Report on Wesfarmers Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quality issues emerge strongly and must be addressed by the company for it to cash in on this dominant group. Australians have become conscious about the effects of junk food and green energy both to their lives and to the planet.

Wesfarmers energy generating divisions face close down due to perhaps boycott if it does not generate clean energy in the near future. Similarly, the retail division that deals in human food must produce whole grain stocks and reduce the junk type in order to make the business sustainable in the long-run.

Technological Forces

Technology has an irresistible influence to the operations of a company’s activities. The advancement has been so rapid that a company that lags behind is working its way out of business.

The federal government in cooperation with state governments has ensured that there is sound infrastructure that facilitates the availability of technology in every corner of the country. Consequently, companies have adopted the use of technology to give them a competitive edge.

Wesfarmers can use its scarce resources to institute a management information system where technology is used to effectively and efficiently manage the daily operations of the company, more so given that it is a large conglomerate.

The acquisition of Coles, for example, enabled Wesfarmers to have an online supermarket where customers can place and pay for their orders upon delivery (Huang, 2011).

Environmental Forces

Issues dealing with environment issues have significantly affected the modern macro-environment for most companies, including Wesfarmers, in the negative. The reason being they have influence on the financial arena such as decline of profit for green and carbon compliance schemes deployed by the Australian government.

These forces, irrespective of the industry, are set on long-term basis hence their influence of a company’s growth cannot be underestimated.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wesfarmers Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the cost of common resources increase such as the cost of crude oil, costs of other resources also rise thus increasing wholesale and supplier costs. Consequently, the potential profit and growth are reduced and felt by associated organizations (Baker, Graham

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Management Theory- The Tucker Company Case Study a level english language essay help

Introduction Reorganized Organizational Structure of the Tucker Company: Causes of Problems after Reorganization

The interdepartmental conflict between Mr. Hodge and Mr. Franklin, after the adoption of the above organization structure at the Tucker Company, had both personality and structural bases.

The Structural Basis

The new organizational structure adopted by the Tucker Company was classical in nature as many industrial oriented organizations are not (Spender, 1989). In following a structure formulated along product lines it adopted the basic principles of division of labor which is itself an integral aspect of the classical theory of management (Almashaqba et al, 2001).

In the classical theory of management, success is based on a few basic principles. Foremost, the notions of authority and responsibity are intimately intertwined (Almashaqba et al, 2001). In accepting to exercise your authority in a particular area, you also, out of necessity, accept the responsibilities inherent in it.

The second principle is that of unity of command. This principle states that each person should only receive commands from a single source (Almashaqba et al, 2001). This is because multiple commands would lead to confusion, and eventually conflict. A third principle is that of unity of direction.

It states that members of an organization should work towards the achievement of similar overt goals (Almashaqba et al, 2001). It is in the unity of objectives that harmony within the organization is achieved. Lastly, member of the organization are expected to harmonize their interests with those of the organization.

If there is conflict between the two, individual interests should be subordinated to those of the organization; this is called the principle of Subordination of Individual Interest (Almashaqba et al, 2001).

Due to its hierarchical nature, Tucker Company’s new structure falls in the bureaucratic subgroup of the classical theory of management which can be summarily characterized by a few features. Foremost, bureaucracy is typified by specialization. Job positions and the corresponding are offered to persons who are most qualified in carrying them out (Mullins, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also characterized by hierarchical authority which is reliant on levels that are vertically oriented (Mullins, 2005). For a bureaucracy to work, it is regulated by a system of rules and regulations. These rules are understood to be of utmost importance and as such they cannot and should not be subordinated to personalities (Mullins, 2005). These principles should have served to avoid conflict at the Tucker Company. They were however undermined by structural oversights, limited resources, divergent personality types and the neglect of these principles by members of staff as will be shown below.

To start with, the reorganization of the company into three main divisions whose vise-presidents were directly and independently answerable to the company president meant that they were autonomous from each other. This arrangement per se is not the cause of the ensuing conflict. Rather, it led to the fact that the company did not have access to unlimited resources to ensure that the implied concept of autonomy was not just theoretical. Since the company could not afford to equip and staff entire laboratories for each division, it carried on with the previously operational arrangement where the Laboratory, which was structurally under the Military Jet Engines Division, would serve all the other divisions. This was the mistake.

The resultant cross-departmental interaction had great potential for conflict. This is because the Classical theory of management is characterized by vertically oriented relationships. There were therefore no clear stipulations of how Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges, coming from different divisions and answering to different authorities, should have related.

In this respect, the conflict between the two can be blamed on either the incapacity or unwillingness of the company to actualize the autonomy of the three divisions or on the inability of the classical theory to facilitate healthy horizontal interaction.

As has been aforementioned, the classical management theory seeks to dispel ambiguity by regulating relationships by means of clearly laid down rules and guidelines. Such guidelines assist in reducing uncertainty in interdepartmental interaction which in turn aids performance (Hickson et al, 1971). This was however not the case in respect to Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges. In light of the probable efficiency of Mr. Hodges’ predecessor, there had never been need to establish such guidelines.

The restructuring of the company should however have been implemented as an opportunity to introduce the codification of such guidelines in light of the existing evidence that they are effective in reducing the number of opportunity for interdepartmental conflict and in providing means of conflict resolution (Smythe, 2000). The company management overlooked the potential danger of relying on the personal efficiency of Mr. Garfield and the risk of assuming that his replacement would be equally effective.

The Personality Basis

The conflict between Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges could also be looked at from the human perspective. Foremost, Mr. Hodges filled a position previously occupied by Mr. Garfield. It is significant to note that Mr. Garfield had efficiently fulfilled his duties and managed to satisfy all the departments that relied on his lab. The fact Mr. Hodges was unable to do this is a clear indication of a personality perspective to this conflict.

We will write a custom Case Study on Management Theory- The Tucker Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, Mr. Hodges was overlooking the authority and responsibility principle of the classical theory of management when he sought to have a say in the material selection process of Mr. Franklin’s department.

The fact that Mr. Hodges would not have been found answerable were something to go wrong is evidence enough that he should not have been accorded such authority. Having risen to the level of head of department Mr. Hodges would be expected to understand the workings of the new structure adopted by the company. Therefore, that he made such demands is a pointer to a personality weakness.

Lastly, the basis that Mr. Hodges raises for making these demands is that he feels he would be better at doing the job than Mr. Franklin owing to his training as a metallurgist. This constitutes lack of professional courtesy towards Mr. Franklin.

Implicit in this assertion is his questioning of Mr. Franklin’s capability to fulfill his responsibility and as well as the means by which he came to hold the position of head of manufacturing. Mr. Franklin also shows a weakness of character in hanging up on Mr. Hodge. This reaction might be attributable to the apparent perception of Mr. Hodges as a difficult man who only cares for his own interests at the expense of the company’s and others’.

Recommended Structure

It is clear that the conflict between Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges was a complex matter. However, it would have been avoided by restructuring the organization as follow:

The new Laboratory and Allied Division, coupled with a codification of regulations guiding its interaction with other divisions, would be advantageous in that it would eliminate structural and resource sharing problems discussed above.

Its main disadvantage is that it would be costly to establish a fully functional Laboratory and Allied Division. It would also still be beset by those that arise from personality differences and the neglect of observance of rules and regulations. Still, it would be the best.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Theory- The Tucker Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Almashaqba, Z., Alajloni, M.,

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Hospital Administrator Job Analysis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Human Resource is one of the most important departments within an organization. According to Muller (28), employees are the most important assets to any firm. They shape the direction of the firm and determine its success.

A work force that has the right qualification is determined to achieve and receive the right motivation, which would most definitely steer the firm towards achieving its strategic goals. To have this kind of a workforce, there must be an appropriate leadership in the human resource department. This leadership should be impartial in hiring and managing the human resource. It is therefore very important to have the right person with required qualifications holding this office in an organization (Shawn and Mazin 23).

Job Analysis of a Hospital Administrator Hospitals are some of the busiest organizational units in any society. Unlike other organizations, hospitals deal with health of people. This makes it very sensitive. The employees, who are doctors, nurses and other subordinate staff, have the lives of their patients in their hands. They have the responsibility to ensure that patients brought to them get the right medication and get back to the right health. This is not an easy task because it involves working for longer hours than expected.

At times, employees may be recalled after they have left work, especially at times of emergency. This task is very stressing. It is therefore important to note that an administrator of these employees should be in a position to understand them in order to work with them appropriately.

This position requires an individual who is able to master the art of human management. Furthermore, an administrator should have a clear understanding of the requirements of various medical units within the hospital. Such an individual should have a clear understanding of the requirements of a medical officer.

An administrator in such an institution should be a medical doctor by profession or a nurse. This is important because it would be easier to determine the capacity of his or her workforce. It would also help in determining the scope of employees in terms of ability in handling health related issues. This administrator should have some additional qualifications in human resource management to help him or her understand the art of personnel management.

The officer should have at least six years experience as a medical doctor or a nurse in a busy medical institution. The individual should also have a two-year working experience as an assistant human resource manager, or an equivalent position. He or she should have good interpersonal skills and the ability to work under extended time limits as an administrator.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This position is very sensitive since it determines the success of any organization. It is therefore important to offer a competitive remuneration to workers in the department. Holders of this position should receive about four thousand seven hundred dollars in a month as the basic salary. Any extended time spent at the institution should be paid differently in an hourly basis. This should be about twenty-four dollars per hour.

As an appreciation to dedication to the organization, they should be given other rewards in order to motivate them. This may include holiday leave, a team building tour or other financial benefits. It is through this that a health facility may have the right candidate for the position.

Works Cited Muller, Max. The Manager’s Guide To HR: Hiring, Firing, Performance Evaluations, Documentations, Benefits And Everything Else You Need To Know. New York: New York Press, 2009. Print.

Shawn, Smith and R, Mazin. The HR Answer Book: An Indispensable Guide for Managers and Human Resources Professionals. New York: AMACOM, 2011. Print.

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“Winning” by Welch Essay (Book Review) best college essay help

The book “winning” is an all-inclusive guide targeting all the aspect of any business. The author emphasizes on the importance of being the pace maker in a particular business discipline. This book gives business managers, owners, average employees and associates advice on how to relate amongst themselves in order to create a conducive environment for business growth and stability.

Welch illustrate with mild and reasonably balanced opinions on how to create a better business environment for the business community, which puts a particular business establishment at the top of the performance gauge without compromising any party’s stake and comfort. The book illustrates various practices and regimes that have been the recipe for some of American companies’ cause of success, and other practices and moves that have brought about downfall and crippling of some businesses beyond redemption.

Welch does not draw any strict lines in business and even continues to say that business is a game with a dynamic range of maneuvers and moves. The author insists that there are no definite governing principles in business, but principles that largely apply rationality and balance are most appropriate. Welch describes the techniques that an individual in business must adopt despite their seemingly contradicting nature. Welch outlines areas that require strict practice and those that require liberal thinking and flexibility (Welch and Suzy, 2).

The book emphasizes the importance of business ethics for business survival. In addition to ethics, the book shows the need for focus as an important accessory to all employees’ ethics in order to thrive. The author has succeeded in presenting a non-radical stance while engaging in highly effective competitive business practices. A mission statement coupled with a plan on how to achieve the objective of that mission is a crucial ingredient for realizing success.

Every company employee or an affiliate of the company should be subconsciously aware of the organizations targets and goals in order to chart a common route and direction to achievement. Customers as affiliates of the company should be treated in a liberal and free atmosphere in order to create a sense of belonging. Taking advantage of the customer’s vulnerability or difficult situation has been cited as the undoing of some companies resulting in their instability and eventual collapse.

Enron Corp and General Electric (GE) have been discussed as examples of companies that through contrasting ethics realized different endings in their businesses. Quick profit making moves are not always the best and may not provide stable and lasting business architecture. However, practices such as candor are allowed to a moderate extent to facilitate success. This practice of being friendly to customers and business associates has an enigmatic ethical standing but is a necessary practice.

Although specialization has often been viewed as unfair, it has been recommended as a means of getting rid of business sectors that perform poorly, and encourage faster growth. Leadership is an important responsibility in a business organization according to the book.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leaders are advised to have qualities such as openness, transparency, candor, ability to stand their ground however unpopular, and the courage to make unbiased decisions for the sake of the organization. Implementing new ideas is an advisable norm for managers. These ideas may be implemented from within the company, and require the managers to be more enterprising.

The hiring process, according to Welch, is a challenging task and a lot should be invested in it to ensure that those hired are of upright morals and have the required skills, knowledge and discipline. Human resource management is crucial to the success of any organization (Collings 5).The author continues to point out that new employees should be subjected to a fair system of management and should be motivated in order to get maximum value out of them.

Motivation can be achieved through techniques that are not necessarily monetary based (Lawler 60). The author advises that a serious approach should be applied in problem solving. Although a business manager should be optimistic, he or she should have an open mind concerning the possible outcomes of a crisis. Welch say that careful planning is always a good strategy for the business advancement.

Maximizing gains and limiting risks are important factors to consider in drawing out a healthy budget for the business. However, too much caution is discouraged as unhealthy and calculated investments are deemed important. Welch encourages people to find good jobs where they can fit in. This does not necessarily mean the most paying job, but the one, which fits the individual’s passion and ideal job model. The balance between life and work is encouraged by the book.

An individual should be assertive and able to work within the scope of his or her responsibilities. In addition, the author advises on how to get along with superiors. Good relationship with superiors, while maintaining satisfactory results at work and a balanced life, are necessary. The author of “winning” has also managed to lay down fundamental practices necessary for any business to succeed and accomplish its mission while maintaining clean moral and ethical record.

Works Cited Collings, David G., and Geoffrey T. Wood. Human resource management: a critical approach. London: Routledge, 2009. Print

Lawler, John J., and Greg Hundley. The global diffusion of human resource practices institutional and cultural limits. Bingley, UK: Emerald JAI, 2008. Print.

We will write a custom Book Review on “Winning” by Welch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Welch, Jack, and Suzy Welch. Winning. New York: HarperBusiness Publishers, 2005. Print.

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Karl Marx’s Take on Work Process Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

The article written by Mr. Viscusi outlines characteristics of a good employee in work places. The four main characteristics that make an employee safe in his job are being visible, ready, easy and useful at the work place.

This is an advantage to the employee because when it comes to firing employees, the first people to go are those that the employer does not know. He encourages employees to be visible by coming to work before and leaving after the boss.

Employees should be smartly dressed, participate in volunteer works, make presentation and represent their boss in functions so that they can be recognized. Employees should be easy by giving the working conditions for the boss easy listening and following instructions given to them.

Otherwise, chances of being fired are high in difficult employees. Employees should avoid unnecessary complaints like the quality of chairs they use or the system of lighting. They should be contented with what is provided to them.

Employees are allowed to take part in office but they should measure their words before letting them out. Punctuality is very important, as employees should make sure that they arrive in their offices early but leave a little bit late. This is to say that they should be beyond time expectations of the company.

A good employer should set apart some time to train other employees on the importance of taking part in extra tasks in jobs, being responsible as well as giving support to their boss. Employees should be ready for issues arising unexpectedly by updating their resumes and networks, enhancing their interview skills, adding knowledge to their skills as well as maintaining good relationship with employers.

They should also have cash with them in banks. According to Viscuss, the most important factor in work places is the relationship between the employer and the employee.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He asserts that bosses hold the fate of employees and therefore employees should maintain good relations by looking and sharing interests common to both. Socialization is very important in work places. It is difficult for the employer to fire employees who are his friends.

Following those laws prevents an individual from being fired in a case where employees have to be reduced. All employees regardless of the position they hold in the organization should follow the rules (Little, 1986). Some of the aspects expounded in the article are good in work places but others are subject to criticisms.

Employees should take part in activities in work places such as presentations, representing their boss, arriving in jobs early and leaving late, for success of the organization but the reason behind good participation should not be for the boss to recognize you.

Firing employees should not be based on the level of interaction between employer and employees. Whether friends or not, this should be based on the quality of work done by employees. A good employer should be in a position to fire his best friend if they are not performing.

Employees have rights to demand what best fits them. They should be allowed to put forward their complaints that the boss should listen to. If they do not have say, then they lack freedom. These rules should make employees feel empowered.

These rules benefit labor because employees will be working to their best to produce quality and quantity work so that the boss can recognize them. The employer should discuss the regulations with his/her employees before passing them to be laws so that employees are not pressed up.

The advice given by Mr. Viscusi contributes to alienation in the work place, a condition in which an employee feels foreign. Employees are not comfortable in work places if they do not meet some of the conditions.

We will write a custom Essay on Karl Marx’s Take on Work Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, employees who are not friendly to the boss are always insecure when it comes to reducing the number of employees because they stand at high chances of being fired regardless of the quality of their work. In addition, employees are not free to demand for their rights because if they do so, they will be the first to go. Such conditions make employees to remain in a condition of fear.

Karl Max argues that alienation in work places is brought about by capitalism. In the theory of alienation, he asserts that workers are deprived of their rights in capitalistic societies that make employees to lose hope in their lives and destinies.

In these societies, employees are not given rights to choose what to do or not, but are expected to follow laid down instructions that may be offending (Cutler, 1977, p. 227). The working is directed by rules and activities passed by those who own the means of production.

The bosses want the employees to work as much as possible so that they can get huge profits out of their work. They also ensure that the wages they pay to the employers is too low. The main beneficiaries of the work are the owners even though employees do most of the work.

It is obvious with employers that they want employees to work to their maximum for their benefit. The major role played by employees is not realized when it comes to payments. In the same case, extra work should be done for an individual to be recognized according to the article.

Creating a friendly environment with the boss is an added advantage to the employee. Employees who are not ready to adhere to the policies outline in this article are likely to be fired (Hindess

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Growth of China’s Economy Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

It is obvious that within the past two decades China’s economy has grown. It has become the second largest economy in the world which was because of government initiatives into encouraging foreign direct investment, local entrepreneurship and real estate development within the country.

Also, the outsourcing industry has helped in improving the Chinese economy within the past 20 years causing rapid development and expansion of cities and factory complexes in China.

It was seen though in the study of Country Report (2011 ) which looked at the 70 million housing surplus units within China showed that most if not all if these units had price schemes well above what an average Chinese worker would be capable of affording (Economic forecast, 2011: 7).

In looking at the case of Country Report (2011) the rapid economic growth and development within China came also with an equally good expansion of China’s real estate with hundreds of thousands of construction projects expected to reach their completion periods by the end of 2012 – 2015.

The problem as explained by Country Report (2011) is that while there is a high rate of property development that is happening within Chinese cities there is a lot of housing surplus within the country with well over 70 million surplus housing units at the present.

The problem when looking at this situation based on the findings of Country Report (2011) is that while having housing surplus would be fine if such housing were created in order to meet expected demand within the near future the problem is that what is being made is not housing or subsidized housing schemes which are in great demand within China due to a lot of urban poor and urban workers but what is being made is high end property development which few people can afford.

Another way of looking at this issue is through the article of Lan (2011) which looked at changes in China’s social development. Lan (2011) points out that within recent years, as result of China’s increasing manufacturing industry, a relatively new segment of the population developed as a direct result of China’s progressive economic growth and development over the past 20 years and as such has come to become an influential factor in the local economy (Lan, 2011: 47 – 49).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem as indicated by Lan (2011) is that this relatively new upper class is unfamiliar with the concept of wealth and privilege and as such have actually modeled their spending habits on that of the western world. It was seen in various instances that they spent a lot of money recklessly, lavishly and usually concentrated these purchases on high end real estate.

Data released by the Boston Consulting Group has estimated that the number of affluent/ middle class households within China will reach roughly 130 million by the end of 2020 (Lan, 2011: 47 – 49).

What is seen though in the case of China, as explained by Lan (2011) is that real estate development within the country has been that same as that of the affluent/middle class population growth but instead has gone past it with nearly 70 million homes/apartments meant for that particular population segment already having been built.

In the case of tier 2 cities Bennet (2002) explains that “the housing backlog (referring to the amount of unsold surplus units within buildings) was set for 1 year as determined by the developers during the initial phases of construction however in cities similar to Qingdao such as Dalian and Wuhan the housing backlog has reached 7.5 years to 8 years” (Bennet: 2002: 1).

A clarification of this particular statement by Zhang (2011) is that during project planning and construction developers thought that the apartments units that they had built would have been sold out within one year of construction yet the end result was that 2 to 3 years after construction barely 20% of units within apartment complexes in cities such as Qingdao were sold resulting in an excess in the amount of products present.

This particular problem is which is further worsened by the fact that even more properties are continuing to be built which few people can afford (Zhang, 2011: 514).

The problem with this is that there are too many homes versus too few people willing to buy which creates a potentially bad situation for China since up till this day construction projects of new homes continue to increase despite no one buying or too few people with money able to actually afford such places.

We will write a custom Essay on Growth of China’s Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shedding more light on this situation is the study by Wang et al. (2011) which looked at average home prices within China’s cities and the average salaries of workers within China.

Wang et al. (2011) showed that the average median home price within the country is equivalent to $114,900 while an average worker earns 2,000 to 4,000 Yuan per month and within an average year they could earn 24,000 to 48,000 Yuan.

Using XE.com to examine the current exchange rate it was seen that $114,900 is equivalent to 734,170 Yuan, as of the November 2011 exchange rate. When deducting the average cost of expenses that an ordinary Chinese worker has it can be seen taht it would take them a very very long time to earn even half of what is needed to buy even an average home with China’s current cities.

The underlying theme of Country Report (2011), Lan (2011) and Wang et al. (2011) is that there are too many surplus housing units within China since they focus too much on catering to the upper class instead of the lower class and the lower class is unable to buy because of the high prices.

This is connected to China’s current position in the multilateral trading system since as seen in the work of Zhang (2011) China has been using its current construction boom in order to artificially increase its GDP. The problem with this situation as explained by Zhang (2011) is that there is a limit to how much artificial GDP increase can be done which China has already clearly exceeded.

This leaves the country at the threshold of a possible real estate bubble burst which the Chinese economy must fix before things get much worse within the immediate future. The problem with China becoming a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system is that it would have to impose certain reforms in order to be considered “responsible”.

First and foremost among these possible reforms are issues regarding its manufacturing industry and its devaluation of its current currency.

Consumer Reports (2008) examined the spread of copied goods coming from China, it showed that the spread was a direct result of the outsourcing industry that China’s manufacturing industry was able to grow as fast as it did compared to other countries since China didn’t need to wait for technologies to develop within the country but rather copied the necessary technologies and processes needed to market their own goods (Real or FAKE, 2008: 12).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Growth of China’s Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What must also be taken into consideration is the fact that due to the low cost of doing business in China local manufacturers that copied the technologies and processes of companies that had outsourced to China were able to undercut prices resulting in situation where more international consumers chose to buy from these new companies due to the relatively lower prices for the same product.

It must also be considered that China’s manufacturing infrastructure as well as the various manufacturing technologies and processes that were brought into China by various multinational companies that were copied by local manufacturers enabled them to produce the same type of product at a lower cost.

The Economist (2010) states “it was the culmination of these events that brought about the development of a new Chinese upper class composed of businessmen and entrepreneurs that increased local demand for high end real estate development as well as high class foreign goods” (Safe as houses, 2004: 41).

One of the current negative issues regarding China has been the issue of technology stealing, undercutting prices and the cheap labor in order to overwhelm markets. Based on the facts presented so far it can be seen that such practices have actually greatly benefitted China.

If China were to become a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system it would need to implement reforms in order to ensure such practices are either abolished or limited in some way. The problem with doing so is that this would affect China’s local economy which is dependent upon the manufacturing industry to continuously churn out large amounts of goods.

Any slow down in the manufacturing industry would affect the current real estate market thus bringing about a housing bubble burst that would negatively affect China’s economy.

The same can also be said of China’s currency, if China were to correct it’s obviously undervalued currency the result would also create negative effects in the manufacturing industry which will also trigger another housing bubble from collapsing.

Becoming a “responsible stakeholder” in the current multilateral system involves having to conform to distinct guidelines, trade rules, international agreements as well as a variety of other possible regulations that would definitely affect China’s local economy.

You have to question whether a country would intentionally cause a widespread economic collapse within its borders all for the sake of “playing nice”. Another way of looking at this is by examining China’s previous course of actions over the past 50 years.

It can be seen that even in terms of being a “responsible state” it has considerably diverged from that due to reports of humans rights abuses, the limitations of human rights as well as an assortment of other questionable activities.

Even when China became a manufacturing hub for a large percentage of man-made products it as continued to disregard rules regarding the proper disposal of industrial waste as well as limiting the amount of C02 being released into the atmosphere.

Overall the country has continue to flagrantly disregard a lot of international rules all for the sake of continuing its activities. Now when taking into consideration the facts presented by the three articles presented in this paper it can be seen that not only has China not been a “responsible stakeholder” in a large percentage of its international actions but it seemingly only pursues actions which are to its benefit.

Thus, when presented with a situation such as a potential housing bubble burst should anything happen to its local economy it is can be stated that based on its previous history alone of non-compliance it is obvious that China will not be a responsible stakeholder in the near future.

One way in which China has been attempting to fix this issue is to implement stricter building policies however this has yet to actually affect the sheer amount of excess housing units within China.

In order for this to actually be resolved China needs time in order for either the units to get cheaper or for the government to come up with a way to fix the current housing problem.

As such it is very unlikely that China will seek to become a responsible stakeholder in the current international system but rather will continue along a route of destabilization since this is the only way it can prevent its local economy from collapsing under the weight of so many excess housing units.

Conclusion Based on an examination of the articles published in 2011 as well as the various articles utilized in supporting their arguments it can be seen that their underlying theme has been China’s overexpansion into high end property development within its local real estate market despite a majority of the demand being in affordable housing settlements.

While this particular action was in part precipitated by assumptions that China’s growing elite would buy the new properties the fact remains that estimates show that too many projects were built too quickly which many experts now agree could result in the worst real estate collapse in history.

Furthermore, due to the fact that any subsequent interference in China’s local economy would cause the housing bubble to burst it is unlikely that China would proactively become a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system since this would result in a devastating blow to its local economy which China doesn’t want.

Reference List Bennett, JT 2002, ‘The Minimum Wage: Some New Evidence’, Journal of Labor Research, 23, 1, pp. 1-2, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Economic forecast’ 2011, Country Report. China, 5, p. 7, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Home truths’ 2010, Economist, 395, 8684, pp. 73-75, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.

LAN, X 2011, ‘China’s West: Generating Change’, China Today, 60, 4, pp. 47-49, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Real or FAKE?’ 2008, Consumer Reports, 73, 1, p. 12, MasterFILE Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 ‘Safe as houses’ 2004, Economist, 371, 8377, p. 41, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost.September 2011.

Wang, S, Yang, Z,

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Visual Arts in Pre-historic Greek Artworks Essay online essay help

Pre-historic Greek artworks have influenced cultures and arts in many countries around the globe, especially in the sculptural and architectural arts. Right from the Roman Empire in the West to the Far East including Japan, ancient Greek artworks are a source of inspiration (O’Kelly 1982, p. 88).

The Greek architecture left a lasting impression in the architectural design of public buildings. Contemporary buildings and the ancient Roman arts copied a lot of things from the Greek. This paper compares the Parthenon, a well known surviving building of ancient Greek with the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, which is a piece of contemporary architectural artwork.

The Parthenon building on the Acropolis, in 5th BC to replace an old temple destroyed during an invasion (Beard 2010, p.12). The temple building in Athens and it acted as a sign of Athenian dominance in the Greek Peninsula.

The War Memorial Opera House located in San Francisco on Van Ness Avenue opposite the City Hall opened its gate to the public in 1932 (Couret 1998, para. 2). The building was among the last main American building built in the Beaux-arts style. This style of art borrowed a lot from the ancient Greek and Roman architectures.

The Parthenon (Neils 2005, p. 3)

The War Memorial Opera House (SFWMPAC Online n.d, n.p)

The Parthenon building to served as a temple for one of the goddesses of Athens. It was built to offer thanks to Athena the goddess for their success and victory in the war. In fact, the name originated from a cultic statue housed in one of the rooms, in the temple.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The building later invaded and turned into a church in honor of the Virgin Mary. On the other hand, the War Memorial Opera House was built to commemorate the people who died during the World War I. It also served to host the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center since 1932 when it opened its doors (‘Parthenon, Lovell Minnick and Fisher Lynch Conclude Acquisition of H.D. Vest Financial Services’ 2011, para. 2).

Classical Doric order or style, which, is normally calm and sturdy was used in building both buildings (Michos 2002, para. 7). The Parthenon, credited as one of the perfect Doric temple ever built in the world while the War memorial Opera House constructed using paired columns, an application of Doric order (‘The Webby Awards 2001(R) Will Take the Stage at San Francisco’s War Memorial Opera House’ 2001, n.p).

Doric style applied the directly standing columns on flat pavements known as stylobates and alternated metopes a feature common with the two architectural works under consideration. Ionic columns were also clearly used in both buildings.

The materials used to make the two pieces of architecture were different mainly because of the different in their respective location. Wooden roofs, marble tiles and marble statues made up the Parthenon’s interior. Other materials used in the building were ivory and gold, and it stood on a limestone rock.

Coffered ceiling; large aluminum and glass paneled chandelier made up the War Memorial Opera house’s interior. Sculptures are a common occurrence in the two buildings despite the difference in age (Clark 1997, para 5).

An explosion destroyed the Parthenon, but the War Memorial Opera house in San Francisco continues to stand. It maintains a lasting impression of the ancient Greek architectural designs, and buildings (Kaldor 2010, p 23). Technologically, the building has advanced, but it refuses to let go of its ancient world’s ‘theater feeling’.

Until late 20th century, the Parthenon laid destroyed, but the Greek government set out to revive the ancient building. Now it is meant to become a museum, but unfortunately, the original design cannot be recovered. Only an impression of it is possible.

We will write a custom Essay on Visual Arts in Pre-historic Greek Artworks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Beard, M., 2010. The Parthenon, Profile Books.

Clark, A., 1997. After the quake: Andrew Clark attends the re-opening of San Francisco’s refurbished War Memorial Opera House Financial Times, pp. 08-08.

Couret, C., 1998. San Francisco’s historic opera house re-opens, The American City

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Innovations in Payment Systems: Square Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Description of company

Problem definition, Goal, and Constraints

Analysis of possible solutions

Recommendation that need to be adopted

Works Cited

Description of company Square Inc is an innovative company that was launched in December 2009. Its president and the co-founder, Jack Dorsey, is also the co-founder of Twitter, a social network platform. The logic behind Square Inc. is to use paperless money as a mode of payment and transaction where every tweet would be a transaction.

The company is on the verge of changing the mode of payment in the U.S to ensure that payment is carried out through the use of smartphones (Romo 2). However, the president of Square Inc. has recently admitted that the company entered in the market prematurely.

Square Inc will ensure that payments are transacted everywhere since they are supported by android phones, iPads, and iPhones. According to the company’s president, the goal of Square is to enable customers accept payments instantly, everywhere.

Nonetheless, the company is wary of the anticipated competition from other emerging players like PayPal, Apple, and Google. The company has also devised a method of using the smartphones as cash registers whereby a squared credit card reader is connected to the Smartphone and transactions carried out easily (MacMillan 44).

Lastly, the innovative payment system of Square Inc. does not require fixed costs, hardware costs, and credit check like other credit payment systems. This makes it unique and competitive as people are on the lookout for the best mode of payment that is up to the current recession and changing market trends.

Problem definition, Goal, and Constraints The problem is to determine whether Square Inc. is wary of, and ready to accept and face competition from other emerging companies that have adopted new modes of payments in the industry.

Square Inc. has to make sure that its new payment transaction system has no loopholes that could be used by other companies as a competitive advantage. However, their goal is to “enable people to accept payments immediately, everywhere” (Siegler 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, this has not been achieved yet since the company is facing hardware shortages, although it has ordered for the parts. Another constraint facing the company is the inability to carry out transactions in the quickest time possible as some incidents of delay have already been reported to the Square management team. This problem could have resulted from its underwriting infrastructure facilities and capabilities (Siegler 4).

The company is also faced with the fear of customers caught up in fraud cases in the course of carrying out their payment transactions as this could dent their image. Although Square Inc wishes to execute a modern method of carrying out transactions through mobile phone innovations, the mode of payment faces a major blow if cheques re-emerge as a mode of payment.

The company also faces stiff competition from emerging competitors like, PayPal, Google, and Apple who could offer better modes of transactions and services than Square Inc.

Lastly, the company is constrained by its inability to handle risks associated with charge backs by determining the transactions limits (Siegler 4. This could lead to incidents of fraud and other malicious issues on the part of the users.

Analysis of possible solutions For Square Inc. to remain relevant and competitive in the market, it has to devise solutions that will help the company to address the current problem and constraints facing it.

The constraints act as impediments in realizing the company’s goal, which is to enable payments anywhere immediately. The solutions that follow would enable Square Inc. to solve the current problems as well as allowing the company to compete favorably and effectively in the market.

Square Inc needs to develop strong encryption software that would address the risks of fraud thus promoting security (Romo, 2011). This would ensure that crime cyberspace is reduced since hackers or fraudsters cannot access credit cards in the process of carrying out transactions.

We will write a custom Case Study on Innovations in Payment Systems: Square specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also supposed to create awareness to its customers on the need to secure their phones and passwords as fraudsters could take advantage of their carelessness to commit frauds. The company has to address the issue of the hardware shortages by importing or finding a reliable supplier who will address the increased demand by Smartphone users.

This would ensure that customers are not swayed away by other payments providers like the NFCs system of Goggle or PayPal.

Customers have already filed complaints, and the President of the Square Inc has also acknowledged that there have been delays in carrying out transactions. The company needs to view the causes for delays during transactions immediately before consumers lose their loyalty towards the brand and adopt other modes of payments.

Square Inc needs to improve its underwriting infrastructure facilities and capabilities to a competitive edge. This will increase its competence and the speed required in financial transactions. Technology improvement is the core solution to the problems facing Square Inc. Therefore, the company needs to address its problems before entering the market with full force.

Lastly, the looming problem facing Square Inc. is the emergence of other rival companies who are bound to introduce competitive rivalry through perfect substitute products. The company can operate at low costs by minimizing the transactional costs.

This would create a competitive advantage to the company, thereby increasing its profits margins. Through marketing methods and structures, Square Inc. can make the new mode of transactions acceptable by its customers and other people who posses Smartphones or are willing to adopt one. This would ensure that it gains adequate market share, making it competitive.

Recommendation that need to be adopted Based on the analysis of the problems, constraints, and the available solutions, it is recommended that Square Inc. adopts all the solutions because they address all the issues currently being experienced. No problem should be taken for granted as a single mistake would affect the customers affecting their loyalty.

Other than solving the problems, it is recommended that the company adopts a more efficient and the latest technology accessible to all customers. With competition increasing in the industry, Square Inc could operate under economies of a scale after reducing the transactional costs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovations in Payment Systems: Square by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This would ensure that the company remains relevant and that it realizes its competitive edge. Square Inc has the capability of turning the whole industry into a technological hub. To retain its capabilities, the company needs to devise a means of improving its software and hardware to meet the changing consumers’ demands and the markets trends caused by technological advancements.

In conclusion, although Square Inc seems to be the latest option that will change payment transactions, the company needs to address all its problems in advance. This will ensure that it remains relevant in the market as it competes favorably and effectively.

Works Cited MacMillan, Douglas. Turning Smartphones into Cash Registers. Bloomberg Businessweek, February 2011. Web.

Romo, Venessa. Square Businesses ‘Square’Away Client Bill Pay. January 2011. Web.

Siegler, Michael. “Square Delays Mass Roll-Out, Admits They Began Before Things Were “Fully Baked””. June 2010. Web.

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The concept of space and time Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Everydayness

“Split-space”

Three Times

Sabu’s Monday

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Over the years, individuals have been baffled by the nature of both time and space. Kant was the first philosopher to doubt the existence of both space and time. He conceptualized that they (time and space) were mere ‘intuitions’ or perceptions invented by our own minds.

Later, in 1900s, Minkowski and Einstein were back at it again and found that time and space can be interchanged. For painstaking systematic reasons, they swapped time with ‘spacetime’.

In 1986, Szamosi delved into the subject again this time round detailing how the perceptions of space and time developed from earlier attempts of primitive life forms to understand their world to become the modern impression we have of space and time.

In this paper, I will show that dominant conceptualizations of Time and Space do not just exist, but are produced; I will base my arguments on 2 articles and two films which will be relevant to the understanding of space and time perceptions.

Everydayness The “Mystery of the Everyday”: Everydayness in History is an article build around an object of modern intellectual history. Harry Harootunian’s work on “the everyday” presents the reader with a strict definition of concept of time and space. Harootunian’s work is a critique of everyday life.

He wonders how people situate and frame the everyday as something to be experimented, thought, and to be analyzed critically. Lefebvre views modern artwork as not just obscure objects desiring explanation but rather as explanations. Under capitalism, modern artwork is nothing but multiple responses to the condition of everyday life.

Lefebvre focuses on political time. For example, he wonders why modernity, tradition, and postcoloniality are labeled as interventions in the field of political time. To him, modernization theory and post-colonial discourse are a group in the historical continuum.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This article, which looks at modernization in Japan, argues that “modernity is a specific cultural form and consciousness of lived historical time that differs according to social forms and practices” (Harootunian 62).

Lefebvre opposes the various descriptions of modernities such as alternative modernities, divergent modernities, competing modernities, and retroactive modernities. According to him, this term is wrongly used to the existence of an “original”.

The terms were mere creation in the “west” but due to a series of “copies” and lesser variations, the terms acquired new meanings. These conceptions of modernities were only built upon transmuting a temporal lag into a qualitative difference.

The idea that Japan and other societies transforming into a modern order at different paces reveals that modernity is an idea of western capital. On the concept of space, Lefebvre refers to a unity called “West”.

To him, space is inexistent. He looks at the dyad term west and non-west and wonder exactly where is west on the world map. This idea invented by western capital tends to determine the geographical location of other places in relation to modernity.

“Split-space” In the article The Discursive Space of Modern Japan by Karatani Kojin, sheds light on how the concept of time and space is produced. His theory of “split-space” emphasizes inflection of certain terms and or concepts that brings the complex relation of philosophy and history into clearer focus.

Kojin argues how periodization and history are inseparable. Societies mark of a period by assigning a beginning and an end so as to understand the importance of events occurring in their life. Kojin begins by demonstrating how the Showa period began.

We will write a custom Essay on The concept of space and time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He says that the word Showa and the dissertation concerning the Showa period began in 1987 during the time of the emperor’s illness. By the start of 1989, the Showa period came to an end. Afterwards, it came to be known that a “Showa period” existed. This is what he calls “periodizing history”.

Karatani in particular criticizes Japan for neglecting the possibilities present during its inception that were instead replaced by modernist ideology and the nation state system. According to Kojin, comparative history is not fit for measuring Japanese historical trajectory against another build upon European-based model of development.

Such a move, he advises, is likely to yield problems as it may endanger productive discussions. The Japanese ‘feudalism’, connected to Tokugawa political system, put Japanese history in a relative framework and pitted Japanese historians with those from medieval Europe.

Such a formulation suggests a comparison without connection; labeling Tokugawa Japan “feudal” imply placing Japanese development with events happening in Europe and in a different era. Terms like “Early Modern Japan” means an entirely different thing.

Karatani points to the Christian calendar and Japanese periodization saying that “both serve to make explicit the fact that each nation’s ‘era/world’ is only a communal, illusory space, and that a plurality of worlds (eras/worlds) exists simultaneously, maintaining relations with one another” (Kojin 77).

To Kojin, history relies on the marking of a period so as to understand the importance of events and occurrences. History is all about the question of periodizing and periodization has the tendency of altering the importance of events!

Kojin’s split-pace theory of reception as it appears tends to suggest that in the future, his own theory will be split and decentered. To kojin, centers and margins are a play of transposition. We cannot entirely argue that margins and centers do not exist.

The center is somehow blind and the peripheral or the margins do not necessarily need to cope with. Kojin fail to understand that the west has been marginal itself. Karatani focuses his theory towards the west rather than being post-colonial. It tends to get lost in concepts of time and space it is supposed to analyze.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of space and time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Three Times Hou Hsiao-hsien’sThree Times is the only of his many movies that delves into historical material. This is a triptych of stories of love that are narrated in different time periods but stared by the same actors.

In this movie, Hou Hsiao-hsien combines the past and the present in a way that he creates free floating narratives that are not tied to any chronological progression.

Hou Hsiao-hsien puts a lot of effort in the development of these semi-related tales and at no one time in the movie does he succumb to straightforward duplication. The film is entangled with its director’s conviction in the powerful influence of history on here and now (Three Times 2007).

The ‘Three times’ has a 1966 introductory segment titled “A time for love”. The plot however shifts backwards in time and tell of an actor named May’s maiden arrival at the pool-hall.

This is a way for Hou Hsiao-hsien to make his audience to revisit and reassess through their memory what led to the current situation. It is worth noting that this is only a primer to the following stories that are full of historical shading.

Part two of the movie-“A time for freedom” is yet another rumination of historical episode. The scene is set in 1911 in Taiwan reflecting the difficulties, and unbalanced realities facing mankind during the start of the century. Qi’s performance in this part reflects Taiwan as she struggled to free herself from imperial Japan rule.

The final episode – “A time for Youth” is a depiction of modern day Taipei youth mixed in the millennium Mambo’s pop music and juvenile aimlessness. When Hou Hsiao-hsien displays a suicide note on the monitor although having said so in narration, he makes his audience revisit the past again. This is a plea to the Taiwanese to embrace their history.

Hou Hsiao-hsien is a puppetmaster. “A time for Love” happens when Hou Hsiao-hsien was about the same age as two of the lovers. This could only be taken to mean that his age may not be the same to that of the youth of the present. However, he is looks more at ease in the future than in the past. With Hou Hsiao-hsien, time and space do not exist – they are notions created in the peoples’ mind.

Sabu’s Monday In Sabu’s ‘Monday (2000), the scene is a hotel room and a man, Takagi, wakes up not knowing how he got there in the first place. Takagi reaches over the table and pick a newspaper, checks the front page and realizes that it’s Monday. The last day he can remember is Saturday.

Takagi has no recollection of what occurred between Saturday and Monday! Sabu leaves the audience to work out the puzzle with him as he leads them through Takagi’s scrappy memory of his missing 48 hours. When a packet of sanitizing salt falls from his pocket, he starts recollecting what occurred.

We are taken back to a funeral scene, a graveside; the conversation turns out to be a shoot-out after Takagi disagrees with his girlfriend. The audience then shifts from the unsteady weekend of Takagi to the hotel scene. This makes flashback gain relevance. Outside the hotel, Takagi learns from a hotel TV that he is surrounded by police (Monday 2000).

From the story, we learn that after the quarrel following the burial, Takagi got angry and armed with a gun from a Yakuza club, he embarks on a vigilante killing orgy. Takagi not only killed the boss of the yakuza gang but also some street punks in the process. Takagi shifts from being sober and at times he becomes murderous.

The goal of Sabu’s movie is to show how the world is capable of drawing out the dark side that each of us possess. The movie lacks the aspect of time. To Sabu, we are capable of traveling anywhere in the notion of time.

Conclusion The four works have demonstrated how time and space are creations of the mind that help mankind understand the world. In the Mystery of everyday: Everydayness in history, Harootunian clearly demonstrates how the west created the term modernity and industrialization in the process of marking Japan and other slowly developing countries as lagging back in time.

He criticizes labeling japan underdeveloped in the sense of time because of its peripheral location on the world map. Karatani Kojin in The Discursive Space of Modern Japan argues that periodization – creation of time – is inherent in history, to mark the beginning and the end of a certain period of interest.

In Three times, directorHou Hsiao-hsien tells a story devoid of both space and time. His film is set in three different times and places.

Hou is capable of making his audiences traverse between different times with ease. He is not in any way restricted by timing in the setting of his movies as both are notions to him. Sabu’s Monday, is similar to Hou Hsiao-hsien’s ‘Three times’. Sabu makes his audience traverse between the past and the present in the process erasing the notion of both time and space.

Works Cited Harootunian, Harry. History’s Disquiet: Modernity, Cultural Practice, and The Question Of Everyday Life. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2000. Print.

Karatani, Kojin. The Discursive Space of Modern Japan. London: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.

Monday. Dir. Hiroyuki Tanaka.Perf.Shin’ichiTsutsumi, Yasuko Matsuyuki, Hijiri Kojima. download, 2000. DVD.

Three Times.Dir. Hsiao-hsienHou.Perf. Qi Shu, Chen Chang, Fang Mei. Ifc, 2007. DVD.

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