Table of Contents Elements of Cultural Branding
Overview Porter’s Generic Strategies
Suitability of Cultural Branding to Each Generic Strategy
The aim of building a brand is to gain market share and to retain it for the long term. Long term in this case refers to the full length of a marketing campaign. Some campaigns last for a short while such as a social cause to support victims of a natural disaster.
On the other hand, companies that exist in perpetuity musk keep on running marketing campaigns to build market share. Cultural branding is suited for marketing campaigns meant to promote a perpetual product. Usually cultural branding works based on prevailing tensions in the society.
Cultural branding targets the mass-market because tension in the society influences the whole society. When considering marketing strategy options, Porter’s generic strategies come to mind.
A cursory look into the generic strategies suggests that cultural branding fits very well with mass-marketing strategies of cost leadership and differentiation. The aim of this paper is to examine the application of cultural branding in the context Porter’s generic strategies.
In particular, the paper will establish whether cultural branding applies to all generic strategies proposed by Porter or whether the application of cultural branding is unique to mass-marketing strategies. The paper contains three parts.
The first part explores the defining element of cultural branding. The second part reviews Porter’s generic strategies, while the third section looks at the suitability of cultural branding to each of the three generic strategies.
Elements of Cultural Branding Cultural branding (iconic branding) is one of the major approaches to branding. It varies from cognitive branding in the sense that it draws from the collective cultural attributes of the target market rather than seeking attention from individual consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other theories of branding include emotional branding and viral branding. Emotional branding aims at finding an emotional connection with a consumer over time so that certain triggers lead to an emotional reinforcement of the appeal of the brand to the consumers.
A good example is the Nokia ring tone. Viral branding on the other hand occurs independently of the marketing campaign. It is almost impossible to know whether a branding effort will go viral before analyzing the results.
Viral branding is ideal for passing on new information about a new product in the fashion and entertainment industry. However, the marketer is not in control of the brand.
Five main issues emerge when exploring the essential elements of cultural branding. The essential elements of cultural branding are context, collective aspirations of the target market, tension and controversy, the need for long-term brand survival, and the requirement for brand reinvention.
Culture is contextual. Every brand that seeks to have a presence in more than one place must take into account the unique cultural differences between various markets.
For instance, a brand can use the outlandish and self-confident persona of most western cultures to ill effect in the more reserved cultures of the East. In short, cultural branding must take into account the context of each market before preparing communication messages.
Secondly, every successful cultural branding campaign must understand the collective desires of the target market. Cultural branding involves finding the unspoken needs of the society based on certain contradictions and then becoming the advocate for these needs.
We will write a custom Essay on Is Cultural Branding Consistent with Porter’s Generic Strategies? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Brands build trust by becoming the advocates of these social needs. Failure to understand the social desires and aspirations of the people will lead to failure.
Cultural branding thrives on controversy and resolving contradictions. It aims at finding a rebellious feeling in parts of the population that feel disenfranchised by the political and social direction of the society and giving credibility to the concerns of this group.
In the process, the brand gains visibility as the source of an alternative lifestyle and as the symbol of defiance. For as long as the tension exists, the brand thrives.
The fourth element of a cultural branding is the desire of the brand to endure over time. Cultural branding is very effective for brands that seek to exist in perpetuity. They occupy a historical space in the society, and they have the potential of becoming a defining aspect of culture.
Brands such as Coca Cola have a timeless appeal because of the careful branding of the drink over the years. It represents a historical as well as a cross cultural element to many people in the world.
The final element of cultural branding is reinvention to adapt to the emerging culture in the society. All brands using the cultural branding approach find it necessary to reinvent themselves to fit into new cultural realities. Long-term endurance depends on the ability to adapt to prevailing cultural realities.
For instance, today most brands find it necessary to communicate their environmental credentials because of the global concern for the environment.
In conclusion, using cultural branding as the branding philosophy of an organization requires an understanding of the culture in which the organization operates. This paves the way for a look at Porter’s generic strategies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Cultural Branding Consistent with Porter’s Generic Strategies? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Overview Porter’s Generic Strategies Porter identified a set of market positioning strategies applicable across all industries, hence the name generic strategies. The specific generic strategy is the result of cross-referencing the scope of the target market with the source of competitive advantage for a specific product.
The distinguishing features between these strategies are whether the product targets the mass-market or whether it targets a niche market. The source of competitive advantage may be low cost, or the uniqueness of the product. Therefore, there are four specific generic strategies.
The first one is cost leadership in the mass-market. The second one is differentiation strategy in the mass-market. The third and fourth strategies are cost leadership in a niche market or pursuing differentiation in a niche market. These two latter strategies constitute focus strategies in Porter’s model.
Cost leadership in any industry takes two forms. A producer may choose to offer products at average industry prices in order to earn a small profit, or it may choose to offer the products at prices lower than the industry average to gain market share. Either way, the main objective of cost leadership is offering the most attractive product in a certain category at the lowest price.
Differentiation strategy involves selling products that have unique attributes valued by consumers. For a producer to succeed in a marketing campaign using the differentiation strategy, the product must have an attribute or a set of attributes that competitors cannot copy.
This can come from leadership in research, access to proprietary technologies, patent and copyright protection, or an insurmountable brand value.
Focus strategies on the other hand require a unique understanding of a niche market. In the case of cost leadership under the focus strategy, the producers aim at offering the lowest prices for a product supplied to a unique niche. This can come from the unique relationships developed over time or being the sole supplier to a large consumer.
Choosing cost leadership under focus strategy presupposes the potential of competitors to offer the same product. Product differentiation under the niche strategy requires a producer to supply a unique type of product to a selection of consumers at a premium price. The basic rules that apply to the differentiation strategy also apply.
Some of the similarities that accompany the choice of a cultural branding as an organization’s branding philosophy and the choice of a generic strategy include the deliberate identification of a market to serve, and the need to understand market demand.
Suitability of Cultural Branding to Each Generic Strategy The main similarity between cost leadership and cultural branding is the mass-market orientation of the two approaches. Cultural branding works best within a mass culture because it seeks to tap into the cultural aspects of a target market. Cultural branding however is not limited to the sources of competitive advantage unique to cost leadership.
This means that a product marketed through cultural branding may or may not use cost leadership as a source of competitive advantage. The second similarity between cultural branding and cost leadership is the need to understand consumer needs in order to fulfill them.
Each approach requires a deep understanding of consumer needs. Cost leadership concentrates on the buying behavior of the target consumers, and their minimum quality requirements.
Cultural branding concentrates on influencing buying behavior by using cultural elements in the marketing campaign. In conclusion, the relationship between cultural branding and cost leadership is closest in the area of mass-marketing.
The relationship between cultural branding and product differentiation is similar in several ways to the relationship between cultural branding and cost leadership. First, differentiation is a mass-market strategy just as cultural branding targets the mass-market.
In some ways, the relationship is stronger because cultural branding aims at appealing to a section of the overall population that finds expression in the specific cultural elements propagated through a cultural branding effort. Cultural branding suffers from shifts in culture and the emergence of new subcultures. Similarly, products that pursue differentiation also suffer from changes in consumer tastes and preferences.
Competitors can replicate the sources of competitive advantage propagated through differentiation in the same way that they can leverage the cultural elements that support a cultural branding campaign.
The main difference between cultural branding and differentiation is that cultural branding targets a whole culture despite the fact that the product may reach a small part of the overall market. Differentiation calls for the use of optimized promotion methods to reach high potential markets within a target population.
Almost everyone in a particular region can identify with an iconic brand in stronger ways than they will identify with a differentiated product pursuing another branding strategy.
Cultural branding seems incongruent to focus strategies. The reason for this is that focus strategies target a very specific market niche. Cultural branding may seem too outlandish for a highly targeted product. After all, cultural branding makes more sense when used in mass-marketing strategies.
The distinction between cost leadership and differentiation within the niche-based strategies are trivial in the context of branding. The use of cultural branding in conjunction with focus strategies may occur if the product seeks to use cultural elements in its marketing campaigns.
The brand may not attain an iconic status in popular culture, but it can reach a niche market using these brand elements. In this sense, this is a modified use of cultural branding. Similarly, cultural branding may apply in the case of focus strategies if the product serves a subculture. A case in point is the Harley Davidson bikes and the hippie subculture.
Conclusions The disparities in the application of cultural branding in the context of Porter’s generic strategies come from the inherent differences between branding and market positioning.
While the overall objective of branding is to earn a position within the choices of consumers, the aim of the generic strategies is to position the company to take advantage of this position. The conclusions from the analysis include the following.
First, cultural branding is consistent with mass-marketing strategies depending on the nature of the product. The fact that the cultural branding aims at linking product attributes to the cultural elements of a society presupposes mass-marketing, since culture is a mass phenomenon.
Secondly, cultural branding may apply to focus strategies provided the brand communication efforts focus on the niches. In this sense, cultural branding will serve to sensitize the target niche about the unique attributes of the product.
This will work best if the cultural branding effort focuses on a subculture. Otherwise, cultural branding may be too expensive for a niche actor.
The conclusion of the stated thesis of this paper is that cultural branding is not unique to mass-marketing strategies. However, it has a better fit to mass-marketing strategies.
Reference List BCG 2010, Creating People Advantage in 2010: How Companies can Adapt their HR Practices for Volatile Times, The Boston Consulting Group, Boston, MA.
Cole, GA 2003, Strategic Management, Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.
Cullen, J 2011, Multinational Management: A Strategic Approach, 5th edn, Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.
Harris, F 2004, Global Environmental Issues, John Wiley
When an Individual Approach Must Be Undertaken Research Paper a level english language essay help
Teaching is one of those spheres where it is comparatively hard to come up with innovative approaches – with the existing variety of learning theories and strategies, inventing a brand new concept is quite complicated. However, with the rapid pace of technical progress and the appearance of computers and Internet, the existing teaching theories have evolved into another approach known as online teaching.
Offering new opportunities for the students to learn certain subjects distantly and to train their skills with the help of specific programs, online teaching, indeed, provides a number of issues for teachers to consider and has a lot of advantages compared to the old-fashioned manner of teaching.
However, it must be taken into account that online teaching also presupposes facing a lot of new challenges, one of which concerns the relationships between the teacher and the students as well as the relationships among the students.
Because of the lack of live communication between the students and the teacher and among the students, online learning can fall flat as a means to teach the students the basic group interaction skills and to help the students solve the conflicts which can arise in the course of communication.
Hence, while offering more opportunities for the students, the online teaching approach misses out the aspect of live communication, which makes it look rather as an addition to the real-life classes than an independent teaching approach.
In the course of online teaching, I have had the experience concerning the communication aspect, and to say that this experience left much to be desired would be to color the truth.
Actually, the students in the group which I was to provide with tasks and whose progress I was to control displayed consistently increasing improvements in such aspects of language learning as reading and writing, yet started experiencing great problems when it came to listening and speaking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When rethinking the given experience and analyzing the factors which could have possibly led to such deplorable results, I had to consider the learning theory. As it turned out, the idea of teaching students solely with the help of online teaching, which made the bulk of the chosen method, did not work as well as one might have expected it to.
Before going straight to emphasizing the downsides of the online learning concept, one must give credit to some of the luckiest improvements which the given theory has introduced into the field of English language learning. To start with, the given approach allows not only foreign students, but also adults to partake in the learning program.
Helping people from all walks of life obtain the skills and information which they will need in their further career, online learning has literally embraced the entire world. The online learning theory will help adults to learn what they consider necessary for their jobs without actually quitting their current positions.
However, the above-mentioned issue also presupposes facing certain challenges in developing the current theory. In contrast to the theory of adult learning, which has been developed long before and is nowadays firmly established among the rest of the theories as a truly solid set of concepts, online learning still requires further development.
Another minor drawback of the theory of online learning is the lack of live communication between the learner and the teacher, which has been mentioned above. The issue of communication can possibly become a major stepping stone for the students who will resort to the online learning theory to acquire new knowledge.
According to the ideas offered by Tough, interaction between the students and the teacher is extremely important for the learning process, since among the four planners described by Tough, none features learning process without communicating with the teacher (Tough).
Indeed, while evaluating the conclusions made in the course of the lesson and learning the “enduring value beyond the classroom” (Understanding by design by Wiggins and McTighe: A summary, n. d.) is important, the process of communication with the teacher and the peers is also of great significance.
We will write a custom Research Paper on When an Individual Approach Must Be Undertaken specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When deprived of the given element of learning, students are likely to start feeling uncertain; hence, the possibility of a failure is highly likely.
Nevertheless, the above-mentioned does not mean that the theory of online teaching has no intrinsic value in it. There are a number of positive aspects about the theory, and they are worth bringing up.
To start with, as it has been mentioned above, the online teaching approach does allow foreign students and the students who have to work to study distanced and yet manage to get all the necessary information without having to attend every lecture.
Another important issue that makes online learning theory worth consideration is the fact that online learning provides ample opportunities for both self-study and learning in virtual classrooms (Clark
George Orwell’s “Why I Write” Critical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
In his essay “Why I Write” (1946), George Orwell presents the discussion of his development as a writer. The essay is autobiographical. It can be divided into three parts.
The author’s childhood is described in the first part of the essay. The author pays attention to his first experiences as a writer and notes that he always knew about his future as a writer. Orwell discusses his early writing experiences in detail and accentuates the progress which led him to the profession of writer.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that Orwell always had the creative imagination, and he was sure that the other persons also could imagine their lives in vivid pictures and stories. The second part is the discussion of the writer’s attributes or motives.
Orwell states that there are four great motives for writing which are typical for any writer. Orwell discusses sheer egoism, the writer’s aesthetic enthusiasm, pays attention to the historical impulse, and focuses on the political purpose.
In spite of the fact these motives can be presented in different proportions, all of them can be used to characterize a writer. The third part of the essay reflects Orwell’s personal motives in writing and the development of his style which is rather “public-spirited” because Orwell wanted to reflect the social issues in writing (Orwell par. 15).
Following Orwell’s motives, it is possible to state that all writing is political to some extent because the political purpose is always present in writing. According to Orwell, “no book is genuinely free from political bias” (Orwell par. 9).
That is why, writing can be discussed as political in general sense because accentuating definite social aspects, the author always refer to the political background in detail or generally, with references to the purpose of writing. Orwell states that writers intend to “alter other peoples’ idea of the kind of society” (Orwell par. 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, it is possible to conclude with references to Orwell’s ideas that writers also have the intentions which can be discussed as political ones.
In his essay, Orwell uses rhetorical appeals to persuade the audience and realize the purpose of writing to present the story of becoming a writer with pointing the reasons. Ethos is realized with references to the fact that George Orwell is the famous writer that is why his discussion about the writer’s motives can be considered as credible.
Moreover, Orwell distinguishes between “serious writers” and their motives and journalists in order to support the reliability of his statement (Orwell par. 6). Pathos is presented in vivid descriptions of the author’s first writing experiences, and the emotional appeal is obvious from the first lines of the essay when Orwell stresses, “from a very early age …
I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer” (Orwell par. 1). Furthermore, the author accentuates that writing is a kind of challenge and draws the audience’s attention to the fact that writing is a “horrible” and “exhausting” struggle which resembles the “painful illness” (Orwell par. 15).
Moreover, Orwell uses logos in order to provide his considerations with necessary reasoning and states that the background information is helpful for presenting the complex picture of the writer’s development (Orwell par. 5). The next method is the depiction of autobiographical situations which contributed to Orwell’s writing on democratic socialism (Orwell par. 11).
Works Cited Orwell, George. Why I Write. 27 Nov. 2012. Web..
Television in Emirati Culture Research Paper online essay help
Introduction Among the GCC countries, the UAE is the pioneer to safeguard the national interest with forward looking strategy to preserving natural resources for the future generation; their ancestors dealt with great wisdom and invested their early efforts and resources for reorganizing the nation in order to make benefited the Emirati citizens to sharing the fruits of the joint progress.
The ambitious and responsible ancestors of the Emiratis possibly would effectively shape the future vigorously appealing towards the growing socioeconomic changes, representing their well-built families and communities lean towards moderate Islamic values along with deep-rooted heritage of Islamic radicalism where Emiratis are confident citizens who aimed to establish dignity of their nation by implementing moral values for the better achievement.
The challenge of establishing a contemporary and progressive nation in the Middle East region with the aim to sharing the fruits of the common development of Emirati people from their cultural perspectives to their professional, business and social life that prolonged from the long heritage of Arab nations in this zone.
George (2012) stated that television network of Egypt, KSA, and the UAE are strongly interlinked with each other in such way that any dish or cable business would be failed in this region if they do not integrate the three cultural combinations in their network; however, market for TV advertisement in these countries are around US$1.9 billion per year.
Different pay channels mentioned that in the UAE 10 % of their families are connected with pay channels where 58 channels like Viacom, Fox, and Sony along with Sky News are available with four hundred channels, which generate huge revenue from this sector; however, the television has influential impact on the local culture and behavioural change of the citizens.
The UAE is the gateway of the Far East and western hemisphere throw a dynamic maritime linkage in ambition to welcome people all over the world to enjoy the cultural heritage of this region along with materialization, socioeconomic progress and prosperity of the country with an amalgamation of local and expatriate culture (ECC, 2012, p.5).
The most important question is what exactly belongs to the local culture; whether the local people uphold their old Arab culture with religion radicalism and blindness or they are able to handshake with modern western culture, do the government persistence with democratic culture, do the society provide equal treatment to the women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ancient Arab culture was much uncivilized, rude towards female, apart from human values, now, almost 90 % population of the country is expatiate from the emerging Asian countries where they are most moderate free from religious radicalism concerned with their job performance rather than cultural issues.
To identifying the local culture, it should look to the anthropological heritage of the UAE that has already recognized and honoured by all nations of the world for its glorious cultural heritage along with the way of restructuring concurrent culture with amalgamation with the foreign culture where television plays a dominating role in this cultural struggles.
Study Problem It is important to state that the culture of the UAE society is quite different from the rest of the world because of its excessive conservativeness; as a result, the impact of TV in its culture is quite severe than other nations.
Consequently, in order to find out the effect of TV over the Emirati viewers, it is essential to focus on the culture and diversity of the UAE in this part of the paper.
Bard (2005, p.2) pointed out that the misrepresentation has prolonged in the Arab world that they have gained enough progress in terms of awarding and well protecting basic human rights and women’s rights, but the reality is totally different, as women are treated as ‘instruments for enjoyment’; however, the mentality of the UAE viewers are changing because of various TV-networks.
Gender discrimination, unequal property rights, freedom of speech or freedom of choice are prohibited for Arab women; they are treated as exclusive property of their husbands (which is mostly deep-rooted patriarchy that their ancestors inherited from old cultures); however, such views are changing slowly due to cable networks.
It’s a long myth that democracy and human rights situation in UAE has progressed enough in relation to other Arab countries, but reality is quite different and real scenario of democracy is very devastating, as people have no power to make any change in the state power – the source of real power is conserved to the sultans rather than parliament.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Television in Emirati Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, in some cases, free cable networks on TVs and other media like internet can pose problems to the government.
Even the present UAE rulers in November 2012 proclaimed a new degree on the title “Cyber Crime Protection Act”, which reflected the intolerance and of the government by criminalizing the way of non-violent democratic movement organized by using the internet, where the government urged to identify the political actors of the democratic movement as miscreant or “unlicensed demonstrations”.
This is a new culture of the UAE rulers to victimize the political actors as well as mass people; however, such political cultures are possibly found under the undemocratic and autocratic dictatorship, where human rights and democracy are under threat.
On the other hand, the prevailing idea about the UAE labour law was that it is ensuring the ‘model of best practice’ through compliance with the EPP terms, but in reality, it is violating this, as the contractors are getting financial incentives rather than any sanction for the law violation; this culture has indicated the inefficacy of UAE legal system.
Sabban (2005) presented the most devastating data regarding the workforce of the country that demonstrated that the workforce of the realm is providing a stable economic growth that consist of 80.43 % expatriate men, 10.48 % expatriate women, 7.90 % national men and 1.18% national women; where the contribution of expatriate workers are 90.90% and 9.1% by the local workers.
The largest economic actors of 90.90% in the UAE are seriously suppressed from different socioeconomic and cultural operation that immediately requires socialization to balance the demography from the dangerous impact of the socio-political violence, where the television could play a pioneering role to socializing the expatriates; so, this study has aimed to identifying the role of television in this concern.
The Goals of the Study The society of this country consists with an imbalanced population in ratio of local and overseas population where about 91.0% workers are expatriates and almost 9% employees are local; however, the large part is under suppression due to their foreign identity, although it is quite impossible for the employers to move the wheel of economy without the contribution of expatriates.
The 90% of the population is from different ethic group and cannot interact in local language, the employers and employees both have not any fluency level in the English; however, it is difficult for them to understand the local culture due to lack of interaction though local television channels have a potential role to remove language problem of the expatriates.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Television in Emirati Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The local TV as a mass media has a wider scope to amalgamate the large number of expatriates into the mainstream of demography; in addition, by doing so, the television channels could improve the relationship between the two cooperating class into a single platform of common interest where they do not think one another as enemy.
Consequently, Sabban (2005) and Stork (2012, p.1) stated that the local and foreign employees could exchange their feelings and emotions to each other that would develop a friendly atmosphere for socializing the expatriates that would ultimately reduce the brutal behaviour to the foreign workers in UAE, remove discrimination and improve economic contribution by the expatriates.
At the same time, Sabban (2005) and Stork (2012, p.1) further addressed that the positive impact of television in the Emirati culture could explore the national economy and a stable population growth by socializing into the mainstream demography.
The Study Inquiries The socialization process in the UAE society is very difficult due to its immigration law like citizenship of this country may not automatically provide to any foreigner with less efforts; during the time of the federalization, it was decided that the citizenship would be awarded to a person who is able to demonstrate affiliation with any of the local tribes.
Mutual relationship may not have any influence on the citizenship or connection with local native families and even Sheikhs, could assist to granting citizenship that has categorised into three types such as full citizen, legal citizen, and citizen by family relationship or naturalization, the holder of any of the first two types of citizens could apply for full citizenship.
However, El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) further addressed that the citizenship is not a vital problem to live in the UAE, any person could live and spend a long-time without having citizenship otherwise any ruling of Sheikh while the UAE citizenship are automatically awarded to the child whose father possesses full citizenship.
On the other hand, El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) explored that women expatriates would not get citizenship for children for their children though they become part of the UAE culture; at the same time, media also have both positive and negative impact on them.
The most horrible law that they would not allow to have any dual citizenship; candidates have to surrender his/her previous citizenship before applying for the UAE, the nationalization law of UAE has formed further dilemmas and controversies in the society that previously stabilized with fair share of dichotomy as well as conflict that ultimately generate new area of conflict.
Continuous rising of female domestic workers imported from overseas countries for the amusement and luxury of the ruling families have generated further complexity with the culture as no employment law could prevent the citizenship of such domestic workers; moreover, male industrial worker faces a lots of problem to gaining citizenship; this also creates cultural problem in the UAE. Due to lack of fair immigration policy and well-designed socialization process, the society of UAE has been automatically balancing abnormal and complex composition of population, for a balanced and future looking nest generation, it is obvious for the UAE policy makers to introduce a quick and easy socialisation process by which the expatriates would get citizenship easily.
The Importance of the Study The impact of television in the Emirati Culture is a very significant study with the background to the Arab spring and its consequential impact that would prolong to the society for a long time.
Television as a source of mass media communication in the UAE, it has a long impact on continuous and growing integration of major political and democratic institutions where culture influences the people’s live with the charismatic dominance on media and this is the response to the classical inquiry how media have an effect on society and culture of the UAE.
Standing on the reality of Arab Spring that has contributed a completely new social and political condition that would aggressively restructure the culture and society, the UAE has just evidenced without any previous experience or theoretical analysis; conventionally, the mass media has considered a separate entry isolated from the society and culture that prolonged in the concurrent UAE society.
The contemporary society of the UAE has verified the media with not just an array of purely technologies that establish linkage between the active parties who are considered as fit for further force on the social factors, but it can reengineered for the greater change of the culture in the extent by reshaping mass media like television and even internet.
The message and appeal presented by mass media has threaten the ruling class of the UAE that was ringing the bell of falling autocracy, and religion radicalism; in the name of Islamic law, there is no chance to deprive the people from democracy or impose extreme burden of Islamic cultural in order to save ruling families from the democratic movement.
On the other hand, for the continuous development of the television media would largely increase conscious people; consequently, the inherited family based dictators in this region were able to hearing the death sentence of Islamic monarchy who does not dare to put into practice of democracy, human and equal rights for women.
At the same time, general people are seriously influenced by the news and other related programs though present ruling system is forcing to destroy the people’s unity who eager for democracy by misleading the cultural, political, and social institutions with the ill intention to rescue the Arab monarchies from the influence of mass media.
Assumptions El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) explored the real scenario of the UAE mass media with assumption that government of the UAE were planning to introduce draft media law 2009 to replace the old Press and Publications Law 1980, which designed to establish control over the mass media and communication by integrating sixteen punishable offence for criticizing the royal family and the religion.
During the proclamation of new media law 2009, the government created panic among the media workers by conducting fear campaign for journalists by imposing different punishment and harassment through the law enforcement agencies; at the same time, the government propagated that the mass media of the UAE has been enjoying substantial freedom in the country.
This research has aimed to investigate the impact of mass media on the culture of UAE, with a homogeneous assumption that the government is cooperating with the mass media communication in order to assess the impact of television on the development of Emirati Culture.
The Theoretical Framework Understanding and Assessing Mass Communication Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.30) stated that some traditional, formal, and systematic social scientific theories have used to maintain the relationship between media and the citizens, which are known as theories of mass communication; in addition, these theories are imperative in order to discuss human behaviour and other related issues.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.31) argued that these theories are developing over time constructing even more practical and influential hypothetical perspectives by including diverse and occasionally contradictory thoughts related with history, philosophy, humanities, social sciences, psychology and so on.
However, Baran and Davis (2010, p.31) and Bryant and Miron (2004) stated that there are appropriate theoretical framework has been developed yet to materialize the issues; therefore, many scholars analyzed the factors such as aggregate media systems with their function in society considering unscientific methods.
At the same time, the researchers have concentrated on the subjective viewpoints to analyze the theories of mass communication in context of UAE television that exemplify enduring or inventive conceptualizations; in addition, they further stated that these theories will give the opportunity to predict what will happen.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.35) argued that four contemporary theories, such as, post positivist theory, hermeneutic theory, critical theory and normative theory are playing vital role to shape the society and change human behaviour’ however, Obe, Ayedun and Ofulue (2008, p.54) pointed out other theories including mass society theories, social scientific approach, media violence, common sense theories, and so on.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) stated that this theory based on physical sciences and empirical observation considering the fact that positivist only believe on the scientific method; on the other hand, the researchers are also dedicated to focus on such observational system under this theory. However, key features of this theory are –
No Characteristics Post-positivist Theory 1 Objectives The main objective of this theory are justification, prediction, and control (to link between social science and the physical sciences), for instance, from operation of political advertising, the researchers predict commercial factors and control the voting behaviour of the UAE television viewers 2 Ontology Human behaviour is satisfactorily predictable to be studied scientifically though social world may have more variation 3 Epistemology of this theory Knowledge can enhance by systematic, and logical method 4 Post positivism’s axiology the implementation of the scientific technique remains theorists’ values out of the search for understanding Table 1: Characteristics of Post-positivist Theory
Source: Self generated from Baran and Davis (2010, p.38)
According to the Baran and Davis (2010, p.39), this theory is based on the study of understanding particularly from side to side methodical interpretation of actions along with manuscript; in addition, the objective of this theory is to provide the answers to the questions like how and why that behaviour occurs in the society.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) stated that this theory has developed from the era when people started to interpret Bible and analyze how it reshapes early Christian culture; however, different forms of hermeneutic theory exists to understand interpret social situation to create value for the people.
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) argued that the name of hermeneutic theory can replace as interpretive theory because it interprets any product of social interaction while people react in accordance with their own preferences and prejudices.
Moreover, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) and Obe et al. (2008, p.37) stated that theory’s epistemology based on the subjective communication between the observers and their communities; in addition, the axiology of this theory encompasses personal and professional values of UAE television viewers.
Meyrowitz (2008, p. 641) and Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) stated that this theory is completely different from former theories because it based only on the political phenomenon because politics could change social and human behaviour.
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) further addressed that this theory challenges existing behaviour of organizing the social world because they can provide priority to the most significant individual values; thus, this theory based on inequality and oppression. However, key features of this theory are –
No Characteristics Critical Theory 1 Objectives Inherently political 2 Ontology It is a bit more complex 3 Epistemology of this theory Knowledge is sophisticated merely when it serves to free individuals and communities from the control of those more influential than themselves 4 Axiology Due to openly political system, its axiology is aggressively value-laden 5 Role of media Media is a crucial tool employed by corporate elites in order to restrain how individuals view their communal world and to border their organization in it 6 Strengths Used to plan change in the real world 7 Weaknesses It is too political and based on subjective observation, which also uses controversial research methods Table 2: Characteristics of critical theory
Source: Self generated from Baran and Davis (2010, p.40)
Normative Theories of Mass Communication
Baran and Davis (2010, p.100), Ostini and Fung (2002), and Obe et al. (2008, p.55) stated that normative theories included many theories such as authoritarian media theory, libertarian media theory, soviet-communist media theory; however, these theories does not provide any scientific explanations, but describe some ideal values, which assist to explicate the ways in which mass media should be rebuilt.
Authoritarian Media Theory
Obe et al. (2008, p.54) stated that it is on one the oldest of the press theories that positioned all kinds of communication under the power of a governing elites where institutions rationalised their control as a means to defend and guard a divinely preordained social order; furthermore, it began in 16th century and derived from State’s philosophy of absolutism.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) and Obe et al, (2008, p.54) stated that it supports the total domination of media to sever the purpose of the administrations instead of criticising the governments; at the same time, the media were not allowed to print and broadcast anything which might undermine the credibility of the administrations; otherwise, they were subjected to punishment.
However, Baran and Davis (2010, p.102) and Obe et al. (2008, p.54) stated that the basic supposition of this theory is that the administration is reliable for which media professionals were inadmissible to enjoy any independence; in addition, foreign medias had also controlled by the government; unfortunately, this theory is still practiced by the government of some countries.
On the other hand, Obe et al. (2008, p.55) and Baran and Davis (2010, p.102) argued that under the practice of this theory, the administration also imposed high taxes, passed oppressive laws, suppressed the media professionals and controlled over content of the news.
However, McQuail (1994) stated that media professionals have punished for violating royal charters; however, immunity is possible in some extent for the case of publicize minority perspective and culture, which not create any hindrance to control society as their wish; therefore, this theory does not emphasis on the development of a homogeneous national culture among the UAE television viewers.
Libertarian Media Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.103) stated that this hypothesis can be traced back to 16th century, which developed in opposition to authoritarian theory; at the same time, Obe et al. (2008, p.55) argued that some social movements such as Protestant Reformation enhanced the concept of freedom of express and thoughts, which would allow them to hold and express opinions independently.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.103), Ostini and Fung (2002), Obe et al. (2008, p.55) stated that libertarian theory is considered the perfect model while the main goal of it is to advance the interests of the people; therefore, it gives the opportunity to the people to publish whatever they like in some extent.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.104) stated that this theory has removed the arbitrary and erratic practice of the authoritarian model and Obe et al. (2008, p.55) further expressed that this model had not supported complete independence to express themselves regarding rule of law, but it has full protection to media professionals to draw a broader line between good and bad.
On the other hand, Ostini and Fung (2002) and McQuail (1994) addressed that most of the developed countries have followed this theory in order to shape the society more dramatic ways; in contrast, Baran and Davis (2010) stated that journalists and media professionals are not getting such immunities and facilities where the control rested in the hands of a king.
Figure 1: Strengths and weaknesses of Libertarian Media Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.120)
Soviet-Communist Media Theory
Obe et al. (2008) stated that this theory has introduced during the time of Russian Revolution in 1997 when Marx and Engels had struggled to serve the interests of the working class; however, it supported complete domination of media to promote the socialist system; the prime factors of this theory are –
No Characteristics Soviet-communist Theory 1 Objectives The main objective of this theory was to maintain the sovereignty of the proletariat 2 Ontology Used the media to carry on progress and transform towards the accomplishment of the communist period 3 Good intention The media was subject to direct state control to help communist party; here, it is important to mention that the Soviet press had removed the profit motive under this model 4 Social Responsibility Used media as an arm of government to protect political conflicts strictly Table 3: Characteristics of Soviet-communist Theory
Source: Self generated Obe et al. (2008)
Social Responsibility Media Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.121) stated that this model used to serve the political system as well as protect the rights of the individuals, serve financial interest of the community and preserve financial independence; however, the following figure shows the strengths and weaknesses of this theory –
Figure 2: Strengths and weaknesses of Social Responsibility Media Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.120)
Some Other Theories
Table 4: Characteristics of the theories
Source: Self generated Obe et al. (2008)
The Focus on Media Effects
Baran and Davis (2010, p.121) argued that the researcher have concentrated on the effects of media on the society and culture from the 1950s to the 1990s; they also focused on how media like television influence the buyer to purchase their products; however, the next figure demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of Attitude-Change theory –
Figure 3: Strengths and weaknesses of Attitude-Change Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.156)
Figure 4: Strengths and weaknesses of Entertainment Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.270)
Conceptual Framework on the Effect of Television
Baran and Davis (2010) noted that several academicians have engaged cultivation-analysis to scrutinize the influence of TV related concerns away from sadism and offence; this could examine of public awareness of wealth, separation, employed female, approval of gender typecasts, avarice, principles, psychological well-being, and political involvement among the UAE television viewers.
The scale of persuasion that is left in each of the sectors is debatable; however, there are certain other segments included in this concern, which, for example include belief of estrangement, ecological unease, employment, insights of wellbeing, and nuptial viewpoints; nevertheless, suppositions of cultivation are encouraged throughout, while the potency of results and the feature of the study diverge significantly.
Baran and Davis (2010) has clearly pointed out a number of factors, which could be regarded as the effects that television has on societies; these factors include the idea that TV smudges conventional features of public outlook of their planet, it merges their authenticity to TV’s cultural-mainstream, and curves that mainstream to the organizational interests of telly or its promoters.
The appraisal of the approach in which telly controls the societal world is evocative of the opinion regarding accepted cultures; in addition, what has been an opulently varied handcrafted procedure has become a composite industrialized and mass allotment endeavour; however, this has eliminated much of the provincialism and parochialism, over and above some of the exclusiveness of the pre-television epoch.
It is important to note that Obe et al. (2008) pointed out that this factor has enhanced close-minded cultural perspectives; on the other hand; this also gave more and more substantial industrialized corporations and the spot to bring to mind a large amount of what people feel on the subject of being familiar with terms and execution in general.
According to Bryant and Miron (2004), certain authors do not think this as a predominantly reasonable trade-off, and so, they placed cultivation-analysis in the territory of critical presumption; but others regarded cultivation as every now and then taken as a return of a strapping upshot outlook of mass media, though, interestingly, such outlook is not from top to bottom incorrect,
Nevertheless, it fails to notice the line of reasoning that such theory was in the beginning envisaged as a critical theory – that, in fact, concentrated over mass-media concerns in particular – merely as the mass-media (principally TV) give out the narrative convenience; moreover, TVs are leading means for dealing out communication from ethnic, communal, or financially viable influential classes,
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010) also noted that the foremost contentious fundamentals regarding this presumption is the centre of attention on serious viewers of TV, who do not have regard to any precise shows on telly; moreover, Obe et al. (2008) noted that cultivation is more than merely an investigation of effects from an explicit medium.
According to the authors, cultivation is rather an examination of the foundation of TV along with the societal role it plays; however, cultivation, reviewers asserted, has mistreated the requirement to recognize grave customers of precise kinds of programs; on the other hand, Obe et al. (2008) has stated that cultivation’s theoretical portion of disclosure to TV is excessively comprehensive.
Television Media of UAE
Television media of the country is a highly prospective sector in terms of profitability and sustainable growth; according to Media Abu Dhabi, local TV-Network has proclaimed an extraordinary increase of 122 percent in subscription sales in 2010 to 2011 period; moreover, it is notable that in 2012, hundreds of thousands families across the area enjoyed Abu Dhabi-Sport’s wide coverage.
Media as Culture Industries: The Commodification of Culture
The commodification of culture is an inspection of what happens when culture is mass-produced and distributed in direct competition with locally-based cultures; it suggests that media are industries focusing in the manufacture and allocation of cultural commodities; these grew at the cost of small-local-producers and the price of this was the continuous disruption of public lives (Baran and Davis 2010).
The condition of a highly conservative, Muslim, and radical society of the United Arab Emirates is no different from this – as a result, Emirati viewer behaviours after exposure to television programs can be explained by continuous disruption of public lives and distraction of conservative cultures of UAE.
Previous Studies There are very few studies with the contribution of mass media United Arab Emirates where most of that researches are centered to scrutinize the theories of media, overriding effects of media along with the significant cultural theories those are applied to observe the influential factors of media and society linking with the concurrent socioeconomic and cultural scenario of UAE.
Al-Jenaibi (2011, p.1) mentioned that the mass media along with the surrounding Arab societies and the exploring news media studies indicated the character of mass media within the Arab society integrating with the modern technologies that have been shifting dynamics of the Arab public domain aimed to improving freedom of press, freedom of speech aimed to encourage a democratic society apart from the prevailed culture of Arab monarchy.
For the last few decades, large numbers of mass communication theories have been put into practice in the social perspectives of UAE, but there is no effectual studies in the UAE regarding effectiveness and power of mass media to restructuring the society and public domain, the previous studies have engaged to demonstrate effectiveness of mass media on few social factors.
However, before the Arab Spring, there were no brave research that could predict the power and influence of mass media and dare to demonstrate the impact of mass media to promoting democracy, human rights and to develop democratic culture for social institutions.
Reference List Al-Jenaibi, B. (2011). News Media in Arab Societies. Web.
Baran, S. J.
Langston Hughes Biography Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Resilience
Calmness and Tactfulness
Langston Hughes was a human rights activist and a playwright who constantly led the revolution change against the segregation of the Negro in America. He is considered one of the most influential agitators for change in the social order in the history of activism in America. The poem highlights the plight of the Negro in the USA.
Resilience From the poem, Hughes outlines the virtue of resilience. Resilience refers to the quality of resuming to your original form irrespective of how much you are pressed with issues.
The racial segregation in America is a social phenomenon that no one would like to experience, it should elicit bad memories in any individual, but the persona simply says,” ….he laughs.”
He seems to be unaffected by the racial discrimination that he is being subjected to, he simply dismisses it, even though we all know that such occurrences would make an individual bulge and assume a combatant attitude.(Rhynes 62)
Patriotism Conventionally, anyone who gets treated wrongfully in an environment will be conditioned to deeply loathe such environment.
A student battered in any high school will hate anything to do with high schools, despite the sub human treatment he gets from the fellow countrymen; he is still patriotic enough to proclaim his love for the same nation. In the last line, he claims authoritatively that “…I too am America.”
He loves his country despite the ill treatment he is invariantly subjected to.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hopefulness Perhaps, this is the most outstanding value that Hughes wanted to portray in his poem. In my opinion, it forms the primary trait of the persona.
The author wanted to illuminate a ray of hope to the victims of racial segregation. He outlines this throughout the poem. When he says that he eats and grows strong, the value of hope is portrayed, he is not easily broken disheartened, he looks forward for change, and so he says, “…Tomorrow, i will be at the table.”
A hopeful person quotes the future, while a hopeless person drowns in disillusionment. (Rhynes 102) The persona however, looks forward for the brighter tomorrow. From the tone of the poem, it is very obvious that the future that he is waiting for will be much better than the present time. (Rhynes 11)
He argues that his tormentors “will see how beautiful I am.” Use of “will” infers to a future tense meaning the persona is still keeping hope alive of better tomorrow. (Rhynes 64)
The calmness he portrays in the poem is due to his hope for a free America. (Rhynes 66)
Patience The persona is a very tolerant person. He is not belligerent at all, even though it is obvious that he is subjected to surly conditions that undermine human dignity, he remains friendly to them, no wonder he says that “I laugh.” He also waits patiently for the outcomes of the future when he will be stronger and even “more beautiful.”
Calmness and Tactfulness One would expect opposition from the persona to counter the oppressors, but he avoided the confrontation and instead remained calm. (Rhynes 33) He says that when sent to the kitchen, “he ate well”, he didn’t confront anybody but planned by eating well and “growing strong.” Eventually, he says that he’ll no longer be told to “eat in the kitchen,”
We will write a custom Essay on Langston Hughes Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Rhynes, Martha E.I, too, sing America: the story of Langston Hughes. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds, 2002. Print.
Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
In this day and age, this world is referred to as globalized due to the fact that humans are now able to get in touch with each other from anywhere around the world.
From all sides of the world be it the Eastern side or the Western side, or from the Northern to the Southern, it is pertinent to note that people all of the information that they require from the principal resource of knowledge. This is the internet.
It enhances profitable activities among individuals who have never known each other previous to their transactions, and some of them even join up together to form or carry out diverse activities regardless of the differences in their nationalities or beliefs.
In this aspect, the matter of multinational companies can be used as the perfect example. This does not indicate that it is easy for them to work together. This is because there are quite a number of challenges that they encounter, which encompass harmonization as well as organizational culture within their operations.
They have to face up to these challenges in order for them to remain competitive and so that they can be able to survive in this world of shrewd business and the environment in which they are to thrive. Companies that do not attempt to adapt to these strategies will find it difficult to operate if the intend to expand their business.
Adoption of the strategic aspects of international business is the key to success in the world of international business and trade.
A multinational company can be defined as a corporate body or rather a venture, which in most instances, has its head offices in one country, which is normally referred to as the home nation, while operating industrial units in various other nations that are normally referred to as the host nations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The home nation hosts the management team, which ensures that all administrative decisions are made. All decisions may affect their operations in all of the host nations and their operations either directly or indirectly.
There are other names that are normally used to refer to multinational companies in the corporate world. These include international companies, and transnational companies. However, they are more or less the same thing.
This idea of multinational firms is not one that was formulated recently. The idea has been around for very many years and it has a very long history. The notion is believed to date back to the 17th century, when the Dutch East India Company gained fame.
It is thought to be the first multinational company in the world. This business concept or blueprint continues to thrive in the present century. More companies realized the need to diversify their operations in a bid to ensure that they remain competitive and can survive under most strenuous or stringent conditions that affect businesses.
The dawn of the 19th and the 20th centuries saw the rapid increase in embracing the idea by most companies, since the business model was most suitable to the nature of their businesses (Margison 151-180). They realized the advantages of venturing into other regions, and set out to adapt to the model.
There are some differences in the blueprints for multinational companies operations. This means that the bona fide blueprint may be somewhat different from what is actually being implemented by the multinationals today.
It is mostly common to find the operations of a multinational company being headed from one nation, while the other operations are being carried out in other countries. It makes business sense to operate like this since the company can choose to run their operations from nations that may offer them lower production costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rules that govern countries differ and thus, what they encounter in the name of laws or decrees, which they may find rather stringent to their operations, may not be applicable in other nations. It will always make good business sense to head a company from one region.
In this same respect, there are also firms that headquarter their operation from their country of origin due to reasons that favor them, and then seek to run other operations such as production and processing in various nations situated all over the world.
The operations of the auxiliary or arms of the mother company may operate in an independent sort of manner. These two models of multinational company operations are quite different and most of them are successful in their endeavors due to implementation of either of the models stated above.
Another blueprint that is most common among multinational companies and their operations is the setting up of their headquarters in one nation that will control the collaboration that works out to the rest of the nations as well as the industries that are set up in other regions.
In this type of operation, virtually everything is reported back to the main offices and operations are controlled directly from the parent nation. All sorts of decisions that touch ion the operations of the company within the regions must be made from the parent nation.
The system works well and most of the multinationals have adopted it since it offers them a sense of control over their operations and it is easier for them to run their production lines.
They can implement changes that may be construed in the host nation as either being effective or non-effective. The important thing is that it offers them a sense of accountability. Every decision can be traced to the decision maker very easily.
There are quite a number of reasons that may make a multinational firm thrive. The first instance may be that the efficient coordination among the multinational nations is considered better and more improved in comparison to the model, which encompasses independent operations in diverse nations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cooperation that is found among multinational firms influences the operations in a positive manner by creating effectual social networks. This influences the operations as well as most other aspects of the firms operations in an optimistic manner.
It improves the outlook of the firm in question. There are several other reasons that make multinational firms to thrive and another is that the subsistence of the multinational firms occurs by deficiencies in the constitutional market for the products that the companies display (Van den Born 111).
There are several examples such as that state that “two firms are considered monopolists in a market and isolated from competition by transportation costs and other tariff and non-tariff barriers. If these costs decrease, the competition will reduce profits.
The firms maximize income and diminish competition by cooperation” (Lavelle 407). This case mostly calls for control of pricing in various nations. The company can very easily enforce price controls in the countries that they deem necessary to do so in this case.
The management can easily determine whether the decisions that they are making will be worthwhile or not. In several other instances such as the one above there are indications that asserted, “Market imperfections are inherent conditions in markets and multinational companies are institutions which try to bypass these imperfections.
The imperfections in markets are natural as the neoclassical assumptions like full knowledge and enforcement don’t exist in real markets” (Green 356). Furthermore, it can be stated that the firms can decrease the amount of money that they spend on raw materials as well as the amount of money that they spend on cheap labor.
This accords the company management the chance to take advantage of the fact that the raw materials are easily available and costs such as the ones that may incurred in terms of logistics are minimal.
Apart from the raw materials, which are also easily available being an encouragement to the firm to operate in the model, the cheap labor also encourages the environment for the firm to operate.
The use of local workers ensures that the amount of money that is spent on the workforce is minimal since they will be paid at local rates.
It may also be important to note that most of the operations of the companies such as their operational expenses are not taxed, and if they are, then the tax that is imposed on them is not as hefty as it is in their parent nation.
This means that they can run their operations efficiently and at low costs in a bid to maximize their profits. Another advantage is that the goods or finished products can easily be availed to the locals for consumption at reduced costs.
In different countries, the amount of taxes may be considered since the firms are protected by the fact that they are creating employment within the regions. This means that they can pull out if conditions that are applied to them become too stringent leaving the populace out of work.
It certainly makes business sense to ensure that the companies are protected, although they ought to ensure that the workers are not exploited or taken advantage of in a negative manner. The rights of humans ought to be put into consideration.
It may also be pertinent to note that the economic strength, as well as enhancement of a nation is dependent on the expansion of multinational firms. The economic growth of a nation, as well as that of multinational firms is directly related. They both move in the same manner and are correlated.
One example is where the growth of a multinational firm can be stunted or stalled by the slowing down of the economic growth of a nation that it is operating within.
Although the firms may operate in different countries, they may have to abide by the rules and regulations of the countries that they have plants in. this is against the backdrop that there may be new strategies that may be engineered in the parent country where the headquarters of the firms may be located.
They may have to tailor their rules to suit that host nations so that their operations may remain stable. It can be stated that multinational firms are unable to operate at their own free will, and they have to adapt to the regions that their plants are located.
They may have to incorporate their own decrees according to the host nations.
This is not necessarily a disadvantage to the firms since the host nations would also not like to lose the revenue and the income as well as the business opportunities and the employment that the firms offer to their country and the people who live there.
In any case, firms that have fully adopted this strategy have seen an increase in their earnings due to the economic upsurge that the favorable business conditions offer them. Good cooperation with the administration of any nation as well as good personal relationships with administrators offers sufficient conditions for any firm to thrive.
The countries that host the international firms can take full advantage of the existence of the firms within their confines.
The fact that the numbers of unemployed individuals is kept at controllable levels in most instances by the employment of the workers in the factories, means that not only is it advantageous to have the firms in their countries.
It also it means that it is one more burden off their backs for the firms to absorb the people who work for them. This augurs well especially for developing nations who endure the most instances of economic turbulence.
It is evident that most nations that host international firms portray a picture that reflects economic growth in terms of their fiscal development. There are several ways that this can be seen such as the development of the infrastructure in the regions that the factories or plants are situated.
Other countries, especially neighboring nations, view these nations as economic hubs in their respective regions, and this works to ensure that they bring along investments into the host nations.
The completion that emanates from these situations is mostly beneficial to the people in the region, seeing as it brings about a wider variety from which they can choose their products from, ensuring that quality prevails.
The attraction of foreign investment brings with it foreign exchange in the region, as well as better cooperation among nations. Trade ties are improved and all countries benefit widely.
This does not imply that there are no negative effects on the host nation. Some situations may be ironical, in that, some people may find gainful employment when international firms bring their operations to a new country.
There are also some situations where at the same time that some people are being employed by the multinationals, others are losing their jobs. The bittersweet reactions that are observed in the reactions and counteractions are assumed to be all in the stride of the multinational companies operational aspects.
Some jobs that have been in existence in the countries that are hosting the international firms may be seen as obsolete once a new firm introduces modern methods of operating. The cultures that were construed into the system of the people may be corrupted by the modern structures implemented by the firms.
They may be wiped away altogether. It is also common knowledge that setting up factories may have detrimental effects on the environment, as well as the natural resources of the hosting country. The use of chemicals and the harvesting of natural resources ensure that the host nation will be affected in various ways.
There are several examples of multinational companies that can be used to elucidate these matters. One such example is Apple Incorporation, which is an American multinational firm involved in the design of various artifacts such as personal computers, electronics, as well as software for computers.
Some of the most renowned products of the firm include Macintosh computers as well as the i-pods and i-pads, as well as the i-phone. The number of people Apple Incorporated has employed has soared to well over 75,000 around the world (Perlmutter 15).
The firm has operations situated in various countries and cities around the world. They include Paris and Tokyo. The headquarters is in Silicon Valley, California.
BMW or Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is another classic example of a multinational firm. The company manufactures vehicles engines as well as motorcycles. There are other brands like the mini, as well as Rolls Royce vehicles that the firm produces.
The firm has its headquarters in Munich, Germany. It has several units situated all over the world including countries like China as well as India and Egypt. The firm also has plants in South Africa Canada as well as the United States and Austria. The units produce different products.
International firms face the challenge of blending diverse cultures, as well as nationalities of their employees the companies ought to take into consideration that they aim to achieve one goal and this means that they have to get their employees to cooperate regardless of their cultural, physical, or religious backgrounds.
Employees from different background and different nationalities can easily raise conflicts among themselves. These conflicts may vary from ideas or ethics to religious aspects. Teaching employees to embrace their colleagues and their cultures as well as ideas, makes them focus on attaining the goals of the firm.
Encouraging the employees to work in harmony and not to overlook or take for granted their colleagues despite their beliefs and cultures will go a long way in alleviating the hurdle associated with attaining the targets of the international firms.
People who act with ambiguity in terms of employee cooperation ought to be kept an eye on by administrators. All forms of racism and discrimination ought to be treated with the utmost of severity. They should not be condoned at all. Eradication of these vices will only see the companies attain profitability.
The comparison of the ultimate target of attaining commercial success, attributed to international firms, is relatively affirmable at present. Many aspects of an international firm are affected when it comes to cooperation among the employees.
In order for the units in diverse regions to realize investment from the parent nations, they must practice valuable cooperation among each other. They will be showcased to clients and the world at large. Profits are realized from efficiency and most businesses realize this aspect.
Nevertheless, leading a powerful international firm encompasses charted work schemes as well as appreciation of diverse nationalities by each employee. Most multinational firms have realized the importance of diversifying their operations and have successfully implemented these strategies in order to maximize their profits.
Works Cited Green, Duncan. From Poverty to Power: How Active Citizens and Effective States, London, England: Oxfam, 2008. Print.
Lavelle, Jonathan. “Patterning Employee Voice in Multinational Companies”. Human Relations 63.1 (2010): 395-418. Print.
Marginson, Paul. “Employee Representation and Consultative Voice in Multinational Companies Operating in Britain”. British Journal of Industrial Relations 48.1 (2010): 151-180. Print.
Perlmutter, Howard. The Tortuous Evolution of the Multinational Corporation. Columbia Journal of World Business, 30.7 (1969): 9-18. Print.
Van den Born, Floor. Business Communication. Language Policies and Communication in Multinational Companies, 47.2 (2010): 97-118. Print.
Sub-Saharan Africa Essay best essay help
Table of Contents The Civil War
The Civil War In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high rate of in-fighting within the different countries. The existence of different ethnic groups causes conflicts. The groups usually fight for control and power since the leaders tend to favor their ethnic tribes over the others.
This happened in Ivory Coast, when people who were supporting the incumbent president Gbagbo fought against those supporting the opposition leader Ouattara, who won the elections.
The same also happened in Kenya where the incumbent president Mwai Kibaki, refused to give up power in an election marred with numerous electoral irregularities acknowledged by the electoral commission.
This led to post election violence that led to the death of more than one thousand people. Sierra Leon has been in the Civil War since 1991 while the Congo has been in the Civil War since 1994 during the Rwanda genocide.
Political Turmoil Electoral irregularities are rampant in sub-Saharan Africa, which lead to political turmoil. This is because the incumbent leaders do not accept defeat. Hence, they refuse to give up power and force coalitions with their opponents as in the case of Kenya and Zimbabwe.
In Kenya, cases of rigging, voter bribery and election violence marred the electoral process. The electoral commission of Kenya favored the incumbent president Mwai Kibaki and declared him the winner amidst protests.
The commission also acknowledged the irregularities; this led post-election violence due to discontentment among voters. After negotiations, the opposition leader Raila Odinga agreed to form a coalition government with Kibaki.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A similar case occurred in Zimbabwe that forced Morgan Tsvangirai to form a coalition with the President Robert Mugabe after the closely contested election. In Ivory Coast, during the 2010 elections, the incumbent president Gbagbo refused to give up power leading to violence between supporters of the two groups.
Corruption The oil exploitation in Nigeria happens to benefit only the drilling companies and the political leaders. It does not benefit the local communities due to unequal distribution of wealth, promoted by the high levels of corruption among the oil companies and politicians.
In Kenya, the sitting president tends to favor his or her community when it comes to government appointments and project development.
In Sierra Leone, the Revolutionary united front as accused the government on numerous occasions for mismanagement of funds that have since plunged the country into poverty despite the presence of diamond deposits.
The President of Zimbabwe, Mugabe, took land forcefully from the minority white settlers and distributed them among his African cronies. Those given lands could not match the previous agricultural production capacities by the whites thus making the country unable to sustain itself.
Food crisis Most of the countries faced with the food crisis in sub-Saharan Africa are on the horn of Africa that is Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia. This is due to severe drought experience in the region that does not favor agriculture. The countries are totally dependent on agriculture thus worsening the food crisis when there is a drought.
There is a lack of appropriate measure to curb the food crisis; this is due to the lack of enough funds at the regional level to come up with projects to improve the level of food production.
We will write a custom Essay on Sub-Saharan Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instability in the region caused by the presence of the militia group in Somalia known as Alshabab also promotes food shortage by preventing aid from reaching the people. The governments of the countries in the region also fail to act on predictions of such a calamity.
The International Organization for Standardization Report essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Background
Discussion of the Clause
Best Organizational and Company Practices
Background The International Organization for Standardization, otherwise known as ISO, is a global organization, which accredits companies based on performance and service delivery.
The ISO certification for companies recognizes those companies, which have successfully gone through the laid down procedures in quality assurance.
Its principles include customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approach, the systems approach to management, continual improvement, factual approach to decision making, and mutually beneficial supplier relationships amongst others (Branson n.d., p. 1).
The scheme is about guaranteeing quality to the recipients of goods and services in business and entrepreneurship, as well as other fields. In determining this quality, customer needs are assessed followed by an evaluation of the degree to which an organization meets them. According to the ISO certification, quality cannot be achieved at once.
The process therefore is continuous. As such, it requires active improvement. It is also managed by instituting measures aimed at preventing rather than detecting flaws that may hinder companies’ performance. Some authors have described the quality as “getting it right the first time” (Branson n.d., p. 1).
This result is therefore the target of ISO certification in its course to achieve high standards in organizations’ performance. This research looks at the ISO 9000 clause 2.3. It describes it in details in a bid evaluated how companies and organizations deal with it and or how best they can reap from it.
Discussion of the Clause There are a number of clauses in the ISO 9000. Companies target to achieve the demands of specific clauses for their accreditation to hold. The clause that the essay looks at is clause 2.3. This clause is on quality management systems approach. It entails a number of prestigious business functions (Branson n.d., p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are also a number of steps involved for companies to fulfill the clause. The first step involves the initial determination of the expectations of clients to an organization or customers in a business enterprise.
In this step, a company considers the requirements of the population it serves so that it targets to fulfill the needs in a bid to benefit at the same time from the efforts. This stands out as the foundation of any successful company.
In the ISO requirement, an organization should be able to tell the needs of the people it serves before proceeding to meet them in a defined manner. Most of the organizations, which do not meet this first part of the clause, end up not satisfying the ISO standards. Therefore, they are not accredited.
The second part of the clause states that an organization should be able to come up with policies on quality and objectives pertaining to management (Branson n.d., p. 1).
These are laid down in the framework of the organization to be discussed with the interested parties and those involved in the management within a company. In most organizations, the quality statement is drafted and placed in the areas of work.
This strategy is meant to be adhered to by all workers and organizational affiliates. It sets the ground for those interested in the success of the organization, and for those who want the organization to proceed.
This part of the clause is pertinent to consider in excellence awarding exercise by ISO. It is also related to the first part of the clause. Therefore, it should be aligned with it.
We will write a custom Report on The International Organization for Standardization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the organization or company sets up the objectives, the next step according to the clause is to determine the process that is required to achieve these goals (Branson n.d., p. 1).
Not only is the process established but also the responsibilities that are required to meet the objectives are also determined (Branson n.d., p. 1). These are in line with the second step of setting up the objectives.
They should be made by an exceptional quality control part of the organization where possible. The processes are then written down for implementation. However, they should be cost-effective, orderly, and logical.
An organization should use processes that are easy to lead in the achievement of the set goals, which should not be out of reach for the particular organization. The responsibilities determined thereof should also be equally distributed within the organization with each of the employees being made aware of his or her part in the process.
These responsibilities include the approach to clients, meeting their needs in an informed and friendly manner, and client feedback. The process should also have room for getting suggestions in an attempt to ensure their implementation in the company.
The fourth part of the clause is on determining and providing resources necessary to attain quality objectives (Branson n.d., p. 1). In this part of the clause, the organization spells out the requirements in meeting the set objectives some of which are physical while others are non-tangible resources.
The requirements include increased funding in the quality assurance process of the organization, increased staffing, increased machinery, reduced number of processes, and reduction in the time of getting services within the organization.
The company should then proceed to provide these resources through a process that is efficient and beneficial to it and its clients. The basis of taking this step is to ensure client satisfaction, which is the ultimate goal of any organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The International Organization for Standardization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fifth process in the clause is the establishing of “methods to measure the effectiveness and efficacy of each process” (Branson n.d., p. 1) that have been mapped down according to the above procedure. The setting up of these methods is linked to the determination of resources needed as indicated in the preceding part.
Once a company has set the objectives in quality assurance, it should then embark on determining the efficiency of the processes that it has laid down. This step should be done in an internal manner where the company evaluates the methods.
The company then needs to consult widely on the processes used elsewhere before proceeding to develop its own from the existing ones. Some of these methods include surveys where client satisfaction is established via feedback.
Any process that is chosen should be able to determine the effectiveness and the efficiency of each of the processes listed above. A company can also enlist the services of other external companies to guarantee the effectiveness and efficiency of the processes that it has set as its quality assurance.
The next step after the determination of effectiveness and efficiency of the processes is the elimination of non-conformities. This part tries to answer the question of what will be done to eliminate non-conformities (Branson n.d., p. 1).
A company spells out the measures it will take to prevent non-conformities to eliminate their causes (Branson n.d., p. 1). This part aims to reduce any risks that organizations face in the achievement of quality in their services.
For organizations to maintain and establish quality services, they need to seal all the loopholes in their quality assurance process. This step involves the elimination of all hindrances to quality services. The most common process that companies use is the development of rules and laws governing their performance.
The personnel, processes, and other affiliates that do not meet the set rules and organizational laws are then dealt with according to the laid procedures, which include termination of contracts, warnings, and other disciplinary measures.
The last part of the clause entails the “establishment and application of a process for continual improvement of the quality management” (Branson n.d., p. 1: Rothery 1993, p.15). In the real sense, this means improving the business as a whole.
A business cannot achieve quality performance if any part of it is not performing according to clients’ requirements. The organization therefore targets to improve the overall rating of the organization by taking a holistic approach to quality service delivery. Any process that is initiated by the organization should be focused on improving it.
When a particular part of the organization is not performing optimally, the organization is perceived not to be performing as a whole. The target is therefore to eliminate this drawback by ensuring that all departments and services offered are within the organization’s target.
In most instances, various authors define the above clause as the most important in the ISO 9000 certification (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is however not a constituent of ISO 9001 (Branson n.d., p. 1) despite its importance in quality assurance.
The clause can be used to improve the quality management systems that exist within a particular organization, or even maintain it at a desired level (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is therefore indispensable to apply it in any organization.
Any organization that adopts it “…creates confidence in the capability of its processes and the quality of its products besides providing a basis for continual improvement” (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is therefore a necessity in meeting clients’ needs by ensuring their satisfaction and hence the overall organizational success.
Critique The clause is a paramount requirement in attaining the ISO 9000 certification for companies and organizations. The resources needed to meet these requirements are not readily available to medium and small companies. This gap may hinder their certification.
They are also subjective to an organization. Besides, standardization is difficult across various fields in the business world. These are the main disadvantages and hindrance to achieving the ISO in the companies. The clause however provides organizations with a chance to improve their services and operations.
This will not only improve their rating but also their market share, profitability, and efficiency. An organization therefore needs to pursue the principles in the clause irrespective of whether it is seeking ISO certification.
In the establishment of successful organizations, the clause also contributes in the development of quality management systems within the organization. This stands out as the target of the ISO 9000. All companies fulfilling this basic clause should be certified.
The clause is also not demanding to organizations, as the resources required are within the reach of most of them. An organization should determine resources it needs to guarantee client satisfaction.
Another positive creation of the clause is competition for companies. Organizations within a particular field and those offering related services continually compete to ensure the set standards are achieved. Other companies do not do it before them.
This competition has ensured that clients get the best services and products in a particular field (Klassen 2007, p.18). Companies that achieve ISO certification after meeting this clause therefore use it as a marketing strategy to improve their performance and rating (Johnson 1993, p.6).
There are a number of positive developments from this clause relative to quality assurance in organizations. This realization has contributed towards making service delivery efficient and affective.
Best Organizational and Company Practices The clause has ensured that some practices are adopted within organizations. In most of the organizations with ISO 9000 certification, the clause enables organizations to set up client feedback systems.
Most companies have existent client feedback systems in place as a way for clients to express their satisfaction with the services offered by the companies.
For client satisfaction, there are feedback centers within organizations, quality assurance departments, client reward schemes, organizational feedback websites, and programs (Klassen 2007, p.18). These centers have culminated from the adherence that companies have put to the clause hence making it one of the resultant practices.
Another company practice that has resulted from the clause is the development of the company and organizational charters (Peach 1997, p. 73). Organizations and government institutions falling under ISO offer these charters to ensure that services provided, and goods manufactured are within their standards.
Most of the organizations have therefore developed distinctive units within them, which are concerned with the achievement of the laid down quality assurance goals.
A schedule for monthly and annual meetings exists in companies to discuss the success in quality assurance for the organization and the steps required to guarantee continued customer satisfaction (Johnson 1993, p.6).
Other positive practices that businesses have adopted because of this clause include the award schemes. Most organizations have set up a means of rewarding their best performing personnel in various departments. This gesture serves as a motivation for them since it improves service delivery in companies.
It improves their market rating. It also serves as a means of marketing for their products and services. In the business world, profitability for companies is linked to the adherence to the clause.
The clause has also increased consumer awareness thus contributing towards the improvement in service delivery across all sectors of trade and business. The clause therefore makes a positive contribution in service deliver. Thus, its adoption of importance for the success of any organization
Conclusion In conclusion, the ISO certification has contributed towards establishing a reward scheme aimed at improving service delivery in organizations. The ISO 9000 and the constituent clause 2.3 have enabled this outcome to be effected, as it spells out the procedure to be followed in attaining quality service delivery.
The description made above establishes that the clause entails seven processes to be followed in attaining the fulfillment of this clause. They have been described in details. The critique establishes that the clause is beneficial to organizations and companies.
It therefore qualifies as an ingenious way of ensuring their positive market performance. Some of the best practices that organizations have adopted include awards scheme, quality assurance departments, and client feedback programs. These have contributed towards efficiency and effectiveness in organizational performance.
References Branson, P n.d., Most important clause, Business improvement through effective process management, viewed on .
Hoyle, D 1998, ISO 9000 Quality Systems Handbook, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
Johnson, P 1993, ISO 9000: Meeting the New International Standards, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Klassen, L 2007, Certification Study Guide, International Technical Support Organization, IBM, United States.
Peach, R 1997, The ISO 9000 Handbook, Irwin Professional Publishers, Chicago.
Rothery, B 1993, ISO 9000, Brookfield, VT, Gower.
Paul Farmer about the Human Rights Explicatory Essay best essay help
Ideally, we can comprehend human rights as unassailable elemental rights that an individual is intrinsically entitled because he/she is a human-being. Also, we can perceive them as being egalitarian and universal. As a matter of fact, these rights can be deemed to be either legal rights or natural rights.
Human rights are the basis of tranquility, self-determination and evenhandedness because they recognize equality, and inherent dignity all over the globe (Trostle, 2005). This paper will depict the call by Paul Farmer for the human rights to have a newer definition that will not disregard the most fundamental rights, such as health, all-foods, and shelter.
To begin with, the disdain or disregarding of the fundamental human rights have led to acts that are barbarous, and which are capable of outraging the individuals’ conscience as well as the globe’s advent that can permit an individual to enjoy the freedom of trepidation, freedom of talking; and freedom of basic needs like shelter, all-foods, and health.
These human rights can be affirmed as the individual’s foremost priority. These essential rights ought to be included in newer definition of human rights.
For instance, if an individual does not have a right to shelter, or health, or all-foods, then he/she is likely to become rebellious against being oppressed and autocracy. It can be vital if the rule-of-law protects this (Trostle, 2005).
Actually, by profession, Farmer Paul was a Medical Anthropology Professor at Harvard-Medical school. He initiated Partners-In-Health. In his Pathologies-of-power book, he greatly employed consecrating stories about life-and-death in circumstances that were tremendous with the aim of interrogating how we can comprehend human rights.
Also, as a physician and an anthropologist, Paul was an experienced worker with over 20 years as he had worked in a number of nations, such as Russia, Haiti, and Peru.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, Farmer argued that the current struggle for the essential and most vital human rights was to promote the social, as well as the economic rights of the poor individuals around the globe.
The eyewitness accounts by Paul were passionate. These accounts came from the prisons of Russia and the two villages that were beleaguered, such as: the Chiapas villages; and the Haiti villages. In actual fact, these accounts were employed by Farmer in linking the affected victims to a wider scrutiny with regards to structural violence.
Nevertheless, unadventurous thinking that was within the circles of human rights was challenged by Farmer as he tried to expose the correlations amid economical prejudice and politics, as well as the relationship between the powerless and their ill-health and/or suffering (Farmer, 2003).
Farmer was not only angry but also hopeful. This is because he was fervent as well as being authoritative at the same time. Vitally, the arguments by Farmer were elucidated as a request that was convincing in substantiating the human rights delineation not to disregard the most rudimentary rights, such as healthiness, all-foods, and shelter.
This plea had a potency that was deemed to be special as it came from a great individual that had already portrayed the notion that, it is probable to have a universal dream as well as a human-rights definition that is comprehensive. Also, Farmer brought health, shelter, food, and hopefulness to a number of poorest individuals in the world (Farmer, 2003).
While fighting for the newer definition of human rights, we can say that Farmer was not only charismatic but also luminous. He challenged individuals to face the 21st Century dogmatic and conjectural challenges that were regarded as being urgent.
This was to be done by linking personified social agony with structural violence but in so doing, the human rights was to be defined afresh. While referring to Farmer’s book that was entitled Pathologies-of-Power, As Trostle puts it, “Once this book is out, we will no longer be able to remain complacently or rather complicity on the sidelines” (Trostle, 2005, p. 117).
We will write a custom Essay on Paul Farmer about the Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Idyllically, in his arguments, Farmer gave a critique of the fanatical moral principles regarding a conformist. On the ground, he critiqued the relentless marching of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the drug-resistant tuberculosis amid those individuals that were very sick, the poor, and the imprisoned individuals.
This notion illuminated that the worldwide economy had made a number of pathologies to lose their soul. Paul clearly illustrated that the societal forces that were alike were capable of giving rise to endemic disorders, such as tuberculosis and HIV, which were also capable of sculpting risk for persons to violate human rights.
Nonetheless, Farmer was also able to portray the manner in which gender inequality and racism, particularly in America, were embodied as being a disorder or demise or both. Farmer’s book is regarded as being milestone away from an inventory-of-abuse that is hopeless.
The examples that Farmer used in his book correlated with a guarded sanguinity and thus, individuals needed new medical or/and social techniques so as to be able to implement/develop them with a more informed level-headedness as regards to social justice.
If not, Farmer asserted that the individuals will not tackle structural violence but only deal with social inequality (Farmer, 2003).
The urgent plea by Farmer was to perceive human rights in the milieu of the public health and then consider eminence concerns that are critical and finally, guarantee that the poor individuals around the globe are able to access them.
This concern should be fundamental as presently, the globe has been characterized not only by bizarre propinquity that is in excess, but also suffering. This present central dilemma was captured by Farmer Paul. This dilemma encompassed the societal well being and the escalating health discrepancies (Payer, 1996).
In view of the fact that all United Nations member countries had already deprecated the gross-violations of human rights that had been perpetrated by a number of individuals who were capable of torturing, murdering/killing or imprisoning another individual, we usually ignore the human-rights violations that are insidious, and which are as a result of structural violence, such as: the fiscal opportunity refutation, housing that is decent; accessibility to healthcare facilities; and accessibility to educational facilities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paul Farmer about the Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As thus, Farmer affirmed that, “Pathologies of Power makes a powerful case that our very humanity is threatened by our collective failure to end these abuses” (Farmer, 2003, p. 87).
In conclusion, we can say that arguments by Farmer have assisted us in opening up our hearts and intellects.
This is due to the fact that it has displayed itself as an engaged-scholarship model, as well as a call that is urgent, and which can motivate social scientists to be capable of forsaking their undemanding disregard for human-rights both at home and away from home. In reality, Farmer’s book has gathered both an activist’s potency and the strength of a thinker.
References Farmer, P. (2003). Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Payer, L. (1996). Medicine and Culture. New York: Holt Paperbacks.
Trostle, J. (2005). Epidemiology and Culture (Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology). Berwick: Cambridge University Press.
Cognitive Dissonance Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Cognitive Dissonance
Arguments on the Impact of Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance refers to the discomposure that is triggered when one is unable to choose from contradictory views. It occurs in many real life situations where an individual’s behavior conflicts with integral beliefs to his or her self-identity.
When a conflict arises between belief and behavior, something should change in order to reduce or eliminate the dissonance (McConnell
Ethical and Legal Implications of Insider Trading Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Ethics
Ethical and Legal Implication
Ethics Ethics can be applied in any profession. Basically, ethics denote set of laws or moral systems that provide a basis for discerning whether an action is correct or erroneous. Therefore, members of a profession can come up with ethical principles that guide them when carrying out their duties.
The five common ethical principles are “independence, integrity, responsibilities and practices, competence and technical standards, responsibilities to clients, responsibilities to colleagues, and other responsibilities and practices” (Anthony 10). This paper reviews the applicability of ethical and legal principles in the case of insider trading involving Stephen Cohen.
Case The founder of SAC Capital Advisor, Stephen Cohen and the portfolio manager, Mathew Martoma were involved in what is considered as the most profitable insider trading in the history of the United States of America.
Initially, “the court had charged Mr. Martoma with conspiracy to commit securities fraud and two counts of securities fraud” (The Wall Street Journal 2).
He obtained secret data for trading the company from a university. “The two bought shares for their funds in two drug companies involved in the clinical trial, and then bet on the companies’ shares to fall when Mr. Martoma learned of negative news in 2008” (The Wall Street Journal 1).
“Mr. Martoma, a portfolio manager at SAC’s CR Intrinsic Investors division, received secret data over an 18-month period from the professor about a trial for a drug being developed by Elan and Wyeth” (The Wall Street Journal 1).
The results of the trail of the drop were negative and the price of shares of the two companies flopped drastically. The two companies suffered serious losses. It is also reported that the profits generated by Mr. Martoma were paid to Mr. Cohen.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The Hedge fund gathered $276 million in profits and losses avoided based on the information obtained by Mr. Martoma “(The Wall Street Journal 1). From the case, it is evident that the two parties used information that was not known by the entire public to obtain undue benefits.
In their actions, there is an outright breach of the professional ethical code of conduct such as integrity, confidentiality, professional due care, and professional behavior. The act of the two individuals is regarded as white collar crime.
Ethical and Legal Implication The case displays a scenario of classical insider trading where the insider passes on the material information to another party who in turn trades with it. This type of insider trading is less common and often very difficult to identify. A legal trade is not necessarily ethical.
The transactions carried out by the two managers were legal but not ethical. This is as a result of the fact that the actions above were not conventional to “the principle tenet of trading at the security market, that is, no trader should have unjust gain when trading in the stock market” (Anthony 11).
This implies that when a trader has material information that is not known to the rest of the public and he carries out trade with it as was in the case, then the gains from the trade are unfair prima facie. However, there is no blanket court rule that declares trading with material insider information as illegal.
The court handles cases arising from unfair trade in isolation. In some cases, businesses advocate for insider trading since it promotes competition but with outlined policies to give directions. Therefore, it emerges that trading with material nonpublic information is unethical but may not be essentially against the law (Anthony 1).
Works Cited Anthony, Phillip 2010, Insider Trading in Financial Markets: Legality, Ethics, Efficiency. PDF file. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical and Legal Implications of Insider Trading specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Wall Street Journal 2012. Trading Charges Reach SAC. 17 Dec. 2012.
Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM Case Study online essay help
Introduction The success of a firm’s productivity depends on the organization of the human resource management. Reflectively, labour as a factor of production, determines the gross output, performance, and goal achievement at optimal resource use.
The Becton Dickson Company has been struggling with human resource management problems that range from competition, labour structure, and financial constraints. The current SHRM of the company shows limitation of available factors of production, especially on optimal labour use and employee motivation.
Thus, analytical paper attempts to explicitly review the current issues facing the SHRM of Becton Dickson Company and its relevance. In addition, the treatise explores the restructuring model of SHRM that would address these challenges.
Current Issues Facing Becton Dickson Company Current budget of the Becton Dickson firm may not allow it to utilize all factors of production in the economy. Becton Dickson Company faces several limitations in its operations after the sudden restructuring. First, the uncertain working conditions greatly impacted on employees’ confidence and performance patterns.
As employees’ incomes remain unstable, and relatively low, it was natural to witness an underperformance and low morale at work. The trading conditions continued to remain a challenge especially for this company.
These adversely influenced the ability of Becton Dickson to achieve the forecasted sales and consequently, the overall budget was affected. Increase in prices of factors of production directly affects budgeted cost of production, and thus low income earned by employees.
In addition, inability of the company to leverage its systems and processes hindered the growth of its business as it reduced ability of the company to attract the right labour skills and attitude. Finally, the company faces operational risks in areas such as supply chain management, communication systems, and human resource management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given that the company has to operate within a predetermined budget, changes in the individual component of the budget affect the operations of the entire business.
Becton Dickson is exposed to numerous threats. For instance, following the acquisition logistics and restructuring, the company has to remain afloat despite competition. Secondly, the human resource department is fairly responsive to sudden swings and also very sensitive to changes in income.
Since the restructuring, the company has suffered heavily, as communication system for implementing these changes seemed to have broken down. Due to redundancy, lack of performance evaluation processes, employee testing, and healthy work culture, the company is currently facing uncertainty.
These systems are critical in improving leadership skills, evaluation skills, promoting creativity, and rewarding outstanding achievement. The company is surrounded by several opportunities for growth of business. However, the human resource department is seriously underdeveloped despite the fact that labour determines total output, thus profitability.
Significance of SHRM Profiling as a Policy and Practice at Becton Dickson SHRM profiling in Becton Dickson consist of training and development programs that are both on-the-job and off-the job. These should be built around the core business values and is firmly aligned with the business strategy – developing skills that will support future growth of the business.
The results of the programme are meant for statistical t-testing of relevance of evaluation strategies adopted in reviewing employment terms and performance. Despite the fact that this company has a fresh initiative for correcting the previous mistakes, it has not fully adopted an inclusive career development plan.
Management ought to realize that there is no better way to achieve this rather than through the use of training and development. Further, Becton Dickson Company should evaluate effectiveness of training and development in realizing the goals and objectives of their set targets.
We will write a custom Case Study on Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The management of the company should use outcomes of trainings and development in decision making relating promotions and transfers within the organization. Besides, the company should undertake several career development programmes, such would be necessary for attracting and retaining human resource base.
The company should consider providing a job compensation structure that supports the organizations as well as individuals’ growth and development perspectives that evaluate employees and produce succession pipe-lines for vital job positions in the organization.
Since these aspects are incorporated in the SHRM profiling, it remains very relevant and should be fully adopted as a policy and practice by the company.
SHRM profiling as a policy facilitates appraisals on performance of the human resource function of a company. Reflectively, such appraisals are important as they help employees to establish their performance in relation to the expectations from the business and expected outcomes as agreed during performance planning.
Further, the appraisals reveal gaps that may be inherent when executing duties. At the end of appraisal procedure the line manager and the staff member formulate a plan for further development for the next period.
In the personal development plan, the employees set objectives based on the feedback from their performance appraisal and it is mandatory for all staff members to have such a plan. The whole interactive appraisal process is beneficial as it aids employees in developing a focused vocation trail.
Further, the process is realistic. The gaps noted during the review process are bridged by training and development. These trainings that are part of the SHRM for Becton Dickson will help in preparing the staff members for future managerial duties.
The performance review process will help management of the company to have a well-organized, effectual and motivated human resource base.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reconstructing the SHRM Profiling for Becton Dickson Company SHRM for Becton Dickson should be remodelled to be more inclusive in system evaluation and reporting of progress for each HR policy recommendation. The implementation should be done in three phases with the first phase actively involving an outsourced expert in the field of decision making.
After a fortnight, the management should then design in-house programs as a continuation of the first stage within the second stage.
In the last stage, the entire workforce is encouraged to internalize the concept initially introduced and deactivate fear and inferiority complex when addressing issues of interest to the organization and at personal level.
Though this process should be continuous, the active part should not run for more than four months from commencement at a budget less than four percent of the company’s net revenue.
Since magnitude of change is quantum as large changes involving culture, structure and strategy of the company is required. This form of change is necessary and very relevant in the case of Becton Dickson Company as the company attempts to restructure its human resource component.
Besides, when adopted, leadership responsibility, performance efficiency, and continuous motivational policies will facilitate responsive management. This modification of the SHRM would directly impact on the feedback channel as employees will have motivational power to proactively participate in decision making process.
As a result, the learning oriented process will facilitate optimal performance which is specific to the goals and desires of the company as the workforce would have the feeling of being appreciated and recognized for outstanding performance.
Training and development forms part of organizational strategy mostly because human resource department is characterized by constant dynamics in management since labour market is constantly affected by market swings.
Consequently, there is a need to merge organizational skills, knowledge and culture with the new challenges and demands. Therefore, there is constant need to use training and development largely because the department operates in a highly stratified environment.
The outcomes of performance appraisal are not only influenced by job performance of the employee, there are other several other factors that may influence performance appraisal rating of the employees.
For instance, performance initiative programmes, motivation programmes, and team building should be transformed into policies and integrated in the SHRM profiling practice for the company.
Another challenge to HRM department is properly undertaking several career development programs concurrently. If it were properly integrated, such would be necessary for attracting and retaining human resource base.
Therefore, the company’s SHRM should undergo modification to factor in the aspects of motivation, performance, and results review. Reflectively, through employee evaluation, the process will reorganise the company towards efficiency.
Fortunately, a comprehensive SHRM has room for modification to factor in this aspect and improve on reporting system as a policy profile for the Becton Dickson Company.
Conclusively, irrespective of the consequences of change element in the SHRM profiling for Becton Dickson Company, the dynamic essence of change proponent would not facilitate any state of quagmire or conflict as the unnecessary pressure associated with change would be integrated in a more consultative, proactive, and structure system for managing the human resource department of the expansive Becton Dickson Company.
Mafraq Hospital Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Mafraq hospital was open in 1983 and is located in united Arab. Mafraq hospital provides services like medicine, obstetrics, paediatrics, as well as surgical and critical services. In addition, Mafraq hospital also provides training of physicians and nurses.
Mafraq hospital has been awarded for its quality services provided to its customers thus is the best company to use in these research paper to determine the quality process used by the companies in order to be awarded (Oosten 2008).
History of the Organisation
Mafraq hospital is located 35km southeast of the UAEs capital. It is located in a unique area in the intersection of the road. Mafraq is Arabic name which mean where the road crosses.
According to Oosten (2008) the meeting of the road symbolises the conjunction of many nationalities working together to treat patients of all sex, ages and walks of life from across the world.
Mafraq hospital was established with the aim of providing the customer with services like medicine, critical services as well as surgical . In addition, Mafraq hospital operate Abu health centre that operate burn unit which is also perform best in thoracic surgery.
Mafraq hospital is known for proving world class services. It also provides training to the physicians and nurses.
Literature Review This research is based upon the review of a literature and information search that was carried out in the past. It mainly explores the company assessment that includes the achievements of the company, some certifications received and memberships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Detailed analysis of the strengths of the company, detailed analysis of the areas for improvement of the company, detailed analysis of the site visit matters. In this research paper the case study will be Mafraq Hospital.
Achievements of the Mafraq hospital Mafraq hospital management and staffs are always committed to provide quality healthcare and as resulted it is one of the credited UEA hospital. Mafraq hospital has been honoured with several awards.
In 2011 Mafraq hospital was awarded with Diamond Sheikh Khalifa Excellent Award (SKEA) due to quality services it provided it was also being recognised by SEHA for its dedication in implementing the EFQH model which aims to provide institution culture.
Mafraq hospital has been able to open and corporate many clinic in the area. This has enabled it to compete with its competitors successful and thus increasing its market share.
Mafraq hospital has been able to introduce customer care unit which has enable it to provide quality services to its customer. Through the customer care unit Mafraq is able to know what the customer want and what they need to improve.
In the year 2011, Dr.Mondy Hammad of Mafraq hospital won prestigious Arab Health Award. He and his team we appointed from over 190 submissions from 16 countries. All this is justification of the achievement of the Mafraq hospital.
Establishment Mafraq hospital operates an Abu health services which is concerned with curative activities of the clinics and public hospital of the Emirate. It is identified that Mafraq will open another advanced hospital in 2014 which aimed to provide services to its customers.
We will write a custom Report on Mafraq Hospital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These is meant to reach all the people as the new hospital will have more facilities and of new technology. The new hospital will serve as community hospital to provide quality services to the Abu Dhabi which is one of the fastest growing areas.
Services of the Mafraq Hospital Mafraq hospital has trained staffs that provide consultant’s services to its customers. From the research done shows that many patients have been coming to access consultant services in Mafraq hospital
Mafraq hospital also provides services like medicine, obstetrics, paediatrics, as well as surgical and critical services. In addition, Mafraq hospital also provides training of physicians and nurses. This has helped the Mafraq hospital to improve the health of the community.
Mafraq hospital also operates the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).
Identification of Stakeholders Need The Mafraq hospital has established the channel through which the policies of the organisation are communicated to the stakeholder. These channels help the management to provide the quality services to the customers.
It also established the means of collecting the information to the customers. These help the management of the Mafraq hospital to focus on the overall goal of the organisation.
Mafraq hospital has established customer care unit and Mafraq ambassador. This has helped the management to determine the customer needs which help them to improve their services.
Customer care unit has also helped to predict the future demand of the services of the Mafraq hospital. These help them to determine when to open a new branch to bring services closer to the customers. The customer care unit has also helped the Mafraq hospital to increase the market share of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mafraq Hospital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mafraq hospital has also complied with all the state policy. This has enabled the customers and the employees to enjoy full protection by the state policy.
Capability of Mafraq dependent upon balancing and satisfying the needs of all relevant stakeholders, like employees, customers, suppliers, investors and society in general. Business excellence models have provided framework that enabled the Mafraq hospital to alter its process and operations in the most effective way.
Strength of Identification Stakeholders
# Strength RADAR Approach Deployment Assessment
Ashtead Quantitative Research Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Background Information
Ashtead group provides rental solutions in various situations such as facilities management, nonresidential construction markets, disaster relief, traffic management and major event management. It provides equipment such as lifts, powers, generates, moves, digs, pumps, and directs for rental purposes.
It was founded in 1947 as Ashtead Plant Hire Equipment Limited. The Group trades in the London Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol AHT (Ashtead Group PLC. 2012a; Ashtead Group Plc. 2012c)
The company operates in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. In the US, it operates under the brand name Sunbelt Rentals and A-plant in the UK.
Sunbelt has over 372 outlets across various cities in the US while A-plant has over 110 outlets in the major cities of the UK. In the US, the Group has engaged about 6,822 employees while in the UK, it has employed about 1,916 employees.
The operating revenue for Sunbelt as at 31st October 2012 amounted to 1,041 million while for A-plant amounted 199 million. Based on the comparisons above, it is evident that the operations of Ashtead Group in the US are greater than the operations in the United Kingdom.
Market share of Ashtead Group is greater in the US than the UK. In the US, it is the second largest in the equipment rental business while in the UK it is the third largest (Ashtead Group Plc. 2012b; Ashtead Group Plc. 2012d, Ashtead Group Plc. 2012f).
Issues Facing the Management
The key issue facing management is how to manage the leverage level of the group so as to attract new investors (Smith
The Issue of Advance Medical Directives Essay essay help online
The use of advance medical directives in the Western countries is discussed as the possibility to resolve many ethical and legal questions in relation to incurable patients, and the practice is explained from the point of respect for the patients’ autonomy and their dignity.
However, this issue is impossible to be discussed only from one perspective. If the idea of advance medical directives is rather typical for the Western countries, the readiness of the Muslim countries to use the practice is rather questionable.
Hamdan Al-Jahdali and the group of researchers state that the concept of advance medical directives can be translated to the Muslim society, but it is impossible to agree with the statement completely because this perspective is controversial, and there are many cultural and religious barriers which are associated with the ethical aspects of the question.
It is necessary to respond to many traditional visions of the Muslim understanding of the death concept to use the Western concept of advance medical directives in these countries.
On the one hand, having the possibility to provide the advance directives, the incapacitated patients manipulate the right to have the definite autonomy and control their life. On the other hand, Muslims can act against the will of God in this situation. It is the traditional vision of the case which is the main barrier to admit the Westerners’ practice.
The situation is complicated with the fact that according to the religious beliefs, it is impossible to reject the necessary treatment and it is impossible to make the decisions about euthanasia or suicide. As a result, there are many controversies which are associated with the ethical aspect of using advance medical directives.
The issue of advance directives depends on many religious questions which can be discussed from different perspectives separately, but their combination in relation to the problem of advance directives provides the next barrier because of the challenges to find the single appropriate decision.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hamdan Al-Jahdali and the other researchers present their interpretation of different statements connected with the issue which are provided in the Quran. The problem is in the fact that many Muslims do not see the whole picture and cannot make the ethically and religiously right decision.
That is why, to overcome the first barrier, it is necessary to provide the explanation that the usage of advance directives is not connected with supporting possible suicides and medically approved murders.
As a result, the second barrier can be overcome accentuating the clear statements supported by the quotations from the Quran that the choice of treatment and the abstinence from seeking therapy adopted in the Muslim society have many common features in their nature with the concept of advance directives.
Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
An Overview of the Report This report is about an industrial site that has been used for discarding wastes by two companies. The companies have been operating for a period close to sixty years. The site is situated on the upper side of a residential area and separated by an approximate distance of one mile.
Running through the site is a stream that serves the community in some ways. First, the stream is an income-generating source as it is a prominent fishing ground.
There is an underground water withdrawal point at the site that is used to bring in water to the residents. The villagers pump water from the stream to their nearby farms for irrigation.
There are however, few environmental negative aspects noted at the waste site. Approaching the site, a strong pungent smell from chemicals released by the two companies hits the air. A critical evaluation of the site reveals that there one hundred drums that unfortunately are not marked.
The drums are rusting and most of them have cracked. Further evaluation leads to the finding of various hazardous wastes that include PCBs, Chromium wastes, Acrylamide and Toluene Diisocynate (DTI).
Thesis Statement This report was written after a visit to the site and it seeks to analyze the environmental conditions at the site, find the toxicants, their routes of exposure along with the mechanisms of toxicity.
The report makes recommendations on the actions that should be taken to avert an epidemic and other toxicological effects that could be caused by toxicants. This is after an analysis of the exposure limits of the toxicants and the assessment of the risks at the site.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the Wastes
The hazardous wastes found at site are industrial products discarded by the companies and by-products of the manufacturing processes. The wastes are a mixture of solids, gases, sludge, and liquids. The wastes are dangerous and harmful to the environment and human health.
These are the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) wastes. They are compounds of hydrocarbons and are mainly synthetic (Deng, 1990). Their level of toxicity varies and widely ranges depending on their color i.e. whether they are yellow, black, waxy solids or if they are light-colored liquids.
They are common in industries because they are the main components of insulators. Industrial products that contain PCBs include most electrical equipment such as capacitors, electromagnets, voltage regulators, transformers, and reclosers.
Cable insulators and other materials that make thermal insulators such as foam, fiberglass, and felt also have PCB.
The PCBs at the site are exposed to the environment during the manufacturing processes. This is in addition to the poor mechanisms of dumping wastes used by the companies. The maintenance of the site is poor. This increases the exposure levels making the wastes more hazardous.
Keen observation of the site also revealed that there were leaches streaming into the site. This could only mean that the companies have some of their waste storage tanks poorly maintained.
PCBs do not rot. They create a cycle around the soil, air, and water for many years. They are carried as loads and moved to far of distances if found in water Just like other toxicants, PCBs have bioaccumulative effects. This is mainly in animals and crops used for human consumption.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the site fish from the stream and the irrigated crops have huge amounts of the toxicant. The toxicological effects of PCBs are many and varied (Flora, 1987). A part from causing cancer, they impair the nervous system, endocrine system, and the reproductive system.
Research by health practitioners confirms that PCBs have both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. The most common PCB mixture associated with cancer is bioaccumulative in fish. Residents therefore, feed on fish that is exposed to PCB. They are at a greater risk than the workers in the two companies are.
Exposure to PCB cuts the power of the body to respond to environmental stimulants. It also decreases the power of the body to resist Epstein-Barr virus. PCB is likely to cut the size of thymus gland.
From the reproductive front, they cut the weight of the offspring at birth, men can also experience low sperm count and a shorter gestation age in women. The manufacture of PCBs was however, banned in 1979 and the government does not allow any exposure limits.
The second hazardous waste discovered at the site was chromium waste. Chromium is a steel metal that is hard and gray in color.
The industries using the site as a waste site have for more than sixty years used Chromium in the manufacture of Stainless steel and as a component of other alloys of metals because it does not rust even at high temperatures. The companies also use it in getting average paint pigments be it yellow, green, or even red (Gosselin, 1984).
It is also used in the treatment of wood along with making chrome plates. In small amounts, the companies use it in catalysts, water treatment, making magnetic tapes and photographic chemicals. Chromium is useful to the human body as it strengthens insulin and eases the metabolism of glucose and other sugars.
The companies release Hexavalent Chromium and other Chromium wastes to the site. The wastes have carcinogenic effects. The exposure of Chromium wastes to the environment usually contaminates the air. Combustion activities within the two companies led squarely to this.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Elements of Chromium wastes react with dust particles from the environment to form very toxic substances with the potential to damage the health of residents. The leaches from waste storage tanks that are poorly maintained by the company directly mixes with water in the stream.
The solids wastes are discarded improperly at the site and they contaminate stream water used for fishing and irrigation. The leaching waste contaminates drinking water in the area.
Further exposure of Chromium waste to people near the site comes from the waste slag. This is inhaled as it comes by wind erosion. They also consume fish that is exposed and through skin contact with soils as they use the steam water during irrigation.
The environment in this area and its vicinity provides the largest exposure source to Chromium wastes. This includes chemical effluents, airborne emissions, and asbestos linings.
In general, it could be said that Chromium gets into the human body through consumption of fish, inhalation of emissions from the companies and skin absorption during irrigation. The regulations guiding Chromium by the government are meant to protect the public from its unpleasant effects.
The government through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) restricts to a maximum of eight hours exposure limits to five micrograms of Chromium per cubic meter of air. This cuts down the industrial risk to health impairment.
The risks include developing asthma and damaging both the skin and nasal epithelia. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulated the amount of Chromium emissions into the air from 1990 to date.
Acrylamide has carcinogenic effects and is a reproductive toxin. Its components are found in liquid form at the site and in the stream. It is highly toxic in this form as it can be inhaled; absorbed through the skin as residents work on their farms using contaminated water and consumed when the residents feed on fish.
The companies use Acrylamide in the manufacture of plastic polymers in addition to synthesizing dyes and construction of tunnels that serve to dispose their by-products to the dumping site.
The exposure of Acrylamide is largely through wastes as the companies’ use it in sieving industrial wastes to remove solids (Manahan, 1990). In the end, they discard it with water. Acrylamide has a vapour density of 2.5 and very soluble in water.
It contaminates the stream interfering with the living environment for fish. This complements it’s almost colorless nature. Following the unprotected way it is disposed, its effects tend to be very adverse.
From the analysis of the site, it is clear that the two companies emit TDI. Its toxicological effect is high, as it does not dissolve in water. The main route of exposure of Toluene is through inhalation.
Small amounts of TDI cause irritation to the lungs and the respiratory tract. OSHA allows its exposure levels to a maximum of 0.02 ppm yet people close to factories can inhale as much as 2.1 ppm. This is one hundred times more than the exposure limits.
Workers in the two companies are at the risk of contacting asphyxiation if their rooms are poorly ventilated. Children in the residential areas are at the receiving end of TDI too. The risks increase because of the economic activities in the area i.e. fishing and irrigation.
Contact with the skin causes irritation and may result in inflammation of the mucous membrane. NIOSH IDLH puts the exposure limits of TDI to a scale of 2.5 ppm as an immediate danger to health and life (Toxic, 2000).
Overall Risk Assessment
An analysis of the above conditions clearly explains that the environment and the residents near the site are at risk. The toxicological effects of the available toxicants are bioaccumulative.
The outbreak of other diseases is eminent and therefore the government ought to take the initiative to avert a looming health crisis. Men, women, and children may contact diseases some of which are contagious.
Recommendation Based on the research conducted at the site, it is highly recommended that the government health departments put protective measures in place because the residents are exposed to various risks that can cause diseases now and in future.
Other effects could mean that children exposed to the toxicants could develop complications in their late twenties. This report could as well form part of the preliminary research process by the department.
It should move fast and work in collaboration with the two companies and the residents in addressing the hazardous effects of the wastes at the site. This should include taking proper care of the site by first undertaking a thorough cleaning exercise.
This will make sure that fish from the stream is safe for human consumption. Water used for irrigation will also be safe for use, as the mixed chemicals will be removed.
Examining the numerical relationship between the exposure levels and effects of the toxicants it is possible that villagers are exposed to too much toxins.
The government should stop this, as the consequences could be unmanageable. A study should be conducted to show the extent to which the toxicants explained above have affected the environment with corrective measures put in place.
References Deng, J (1990). Veterinary and Human Toxicology. New York: Oxford Press.
Flora, D (1987). Circadian reduction of Chromium. New York: Oxford Press.
Gosselin, R (1984). Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. New York: Williams
Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts Essay essay help online free
Marijuana is one of the most used illegal drugs in the United States of America. It is now a major concern since there is a leeway to use the drug inform of medicinal claims. Through the state law right of patients have been addressed unlike in the federal laws (Eric et al par.10).
Sixteen states including Columbia have a legal provision that permits the cultivation and use of marijuana for medication. A senate bill for the case of Los angeles is on the process of considering the use of marijuana for medical purpose.
Owing to this, businesses have started promoting legal marijuana medication on patients affordable and within the safety framework. They have gone as far as prepared themselves by opting to forming co-operates that cultivate and distribute as well as consulting and assisting patient to avoid contamination with other illuminants.
The federal substance control Act (“CSA”) prohibits the use of marijuana for whatever reasons therefore contravening the legal rights of individuals to purposes or use marijuana. The legality of marijuana raises a controversy between federal and state laws.
Under the state laws, the commerce clause is supreme since it conspicuously gives the federal government jurisdiction to punish anyone involved with either cultivation or use of marijuana or both.
Through the raich court, subsequent developments are taking place to challenge the jurisdiction of federal laws not to target marijuana users. Bipartisan coalition sponsors alongside Sam Far of California Democrat have reintroduced a legislation to protect the cannabis patients from facing prosecution as provided by the federal law jurisdiction.
The sailing through of bill 3939 would see the state law take over in federal trials. According to state law, seriously sick patients can only qualify to use Marijuana for medicinal purpose. It further permits chronic patients under the provision for people with disability as provided in American people with disability Act of 1990.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For one to qualify as a marijuana patient one has to recommended by a licensed physician to confirm. It should be in writing and kept in its original form always when in possession of marijuana.
Selling of Marijuana for commercial purposes is prohibited by federal law. The major problem arising is the prevention of diverging the use of medicinal use to non-medical.
To prevent the practice of profit making business the overhead costs should be catered for to reduce its price thus discouraging people with minds of making it a profit-generating affair.
Transportation measures are in place to avoid illegal access to the drug. The amount of marijuana and distance are restricted within the jurisdiction of federal laws.
Transpotation beyond personal needs for a patient is only allowed with condition that one has to carry a written document to proof that the drug transported is done on behalf of patients and should comply with the state laws.
Law enforcement officers have undergone enough training to quantify the yield of marijuana to ensure that the patient only produces what is needed for medication without having excess yields that could lead to commercial use.
Dispensaries have to comply with the law in terms of safety and accountability not to land the drugs in wrong hands. Dispensaries must run as non profit making corporate. Record keeping and documentation should be done confidentially and accurately nevertheless records must be well kept (Worthington par.2).
We will write a custom Essay on Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marijuana medical identifications are necessary for confidentiality.Safey on handling marijuana is a major concern both to the state and to the individuals. Those with families are endangered since the mishandling of marijuana can contaminate other foods thus incriminating the family for illegally accessing the drug.
However the main obstacle here also is the denial of testing and possession of marijuana to non qualified patients. In Los Angeles zoning is cumbersome since the law definition differs on the Interpretation of “collective”.
On one hand it implies where the crop is cultivated under one management while on the other it implies individuals in a given zone cultivating the crop. However the law is reluctant since it allows cultivation in a given zone and distributed in the city (Molina par.1).
Medicinal use of marijuana at the work place is a big challenge. Some companies are firing employees who test positive on using marijuana. It challenges the law whether to protect the employers just in case a marijuana patient causes damage property or injure someone at the workplace.
On my personal opinion, I agree that there is a policy that governs the medicinal use of marijuana in Los Angeles. The only issue is that the policy is not robust enough to filter illegal use of the drug. Part of the law should be amended in particular for the definition of “Collective “to give a clear guideline on what it is supposed to be.
The controversial clauses of the federal law should be realigned with the state law so as to avoid contradictions. The policy should elaborate and restrict on the handling of marijuana although there are several challenges.
As much as there are efforts being put in place to curb the menace it is very clear that this problem of illegal drug used cannot be completely solved. The U.S President Mr. Barrack Obama is for an official policy from Los Angeles advocates (Elias par.1).
Works Cited Elias, Paul. n.d. Huffingtonpost.n.d. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Eric D. Shevin
Panera Bread Company Case Study argumentative essay help
Panera Bread’s Strategy Panera Bread Company has expanded its business rapidly considering the demand of the US market; in addition, it focused on distinctive menu, prompt services, and signature café design to achieve long-term objectives and to become the dominant restaurant operator (Thompson 615).
However, this company has already launched a catering service in order to expand its market, for instance, people need such service to arrange parties or other gatherings; as a result, this company should carry out this type of effective services while it had earned more than $80 million in the fiscal year 2004/05 from this service.
Most closely fit strategy from the five generic competitive strategies:
Figure 1: The best strategy of Panera Bread
Broad differentiation strategy would fit with this company because Thompson (615) stated that the prime objective of Panera Bread is to attract local customers with quality food menu at reasonable price (typical meal costs $7 – $12) and achieve loyal customer base; however, type of competitive advantages are – it offers quality food items, atmosphere and rapid services to attract target consumers.
SWOT Analysis of Panera Bread Company Figure 2: SWOT Analysis of Panera Bread Company
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strengths
Main strongest points are –
High customer satisfaction rate in accordance with the survey report of Power and Associates’ and Sandleman
The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How the Event Happened
The Impact of the Event
Relations with Toxicology and How to Prevent the Event
Introduction Dan Olmsted and Mark Blaxill wrote the article about the new evidence on Tics and Toxins. It was written in July 2012. In the month of September 2011, schoolchildren at Leroy Junior-Senior high school were affected by tic disorder.
Eighteen students were affected and after tests, the State Health Department reported that they had symptoms of dust called Tundra. Although its effect is mild and is considered safer by the US than the original DDT, its use is not allowed in Europe because of its environmental effect.
How the Event Happened The pesticide that was sprayed in a cornfield caused the outbreak of the tic disorder. This was in Western New York, Genesee County. Harris Farms managed the Cornfield whose owner was Donald Pangrazio.
The Cornfields in that region are sprayed twice a year and the effect of the pesticide was evident when the State Health Department confirmed the case in two students from two adjacent schools. In the process of spraying, the molecules of DDT and DDE spread cross to the softball fields.
The aim of spraying the cornfield was to kill earthworms. The pesticide kills the earthworms by destroying the nervous system. The investigation did not expose any environmental contamination yet a neurologist from a clinic within the vicinity diagonized the students with a conversion disorder.
This psychiatric condition causes emotional disturbance. Initially the political leadership of New York State backed this statement,
The Impact of the Event The effect of what happened caused an immediate reaction from the government as the New York State banned the use of pesticides on all fields near school playgrounds. Parents of the children who were diagonized with illness resisted the diagnosis claiming that their children were not emotionally affected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This however, did not stop the political leadership in New York State from taking action. According to Olmsted and Blaxill, the investigating agencies of the government did not do a good job.
The evidence they collected from the responsible authorities did not show any prove of testing the bifenthrin that is the modern pesticide. The focus was instead on the types of DDT that were banned long ago.
Much of the information relied upon by both the testing agencies and Olmsted and Blaxill, was given by Don Dessert a resident of Leroy township. At first, both the school and the government department of Environmental Conservation dismissed pesticides as the likely cause of the tic outbreak.
The reasons given for this overlooked the idea that the spraying of the fields took place at a time the region was receiving the highest amount of rainfall.
The decision by the government was because no pesticides had been sprayed on the ground since the use of DDT was banned. That was just an example of how the impact of toxicology can be quite challenging.
The despite the fact that a pool of water next to the playground was ignored during investigation was a sign that the investigation was not comprehensive. Furthermore, the results did not include testing of the current pesticides that are used.
All this important elements were overlooked when the Leader of Professionals Services announced the lack of evidence that linked the soil, water, and air around the school to the contaminated molecules. Mark you, the report was said be extensive.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The parents, professional bodies, and the government agencies received enough media coverage to dispel the fact that toxicology was having an impact on earth. This was partly contributed by the nature of conversion disorder.
Some of the symptoms shown by the girls at LeRoy were similar to those shown by animals such as rats when exposed to bifenthrin at high doses.
Documented research from California on pyrethrins a chemical that is in the same class a bifenthrin could cause autism in pregnant mothers if they exposed to it.
Relations with Toxicology and How to Prevent the Event I have never been in such a situation. However, the best way to prevent such an occurrence is to have the laws regulating the use of pesticides very precise. Genesee County for instance does not have such laws in place. Another way of preventing this effect is to use the information availed by scientists very well.
In a separate article, the Leader of Professionals Services documented that elements of DDT were found in two soccer fields (Winas, 2011).
The body however, quickly issued a statement to add that DDT was already banned in the US. Such contradictions are a cause for confusion as Toxicology takes effect. This might be realized when it is too late and therefore little would be done.
An independent medical diagnosis of the girls from LeRoy was accompanied by the report from the doctor cautioning that co-factors should not be ignored in such a case. The regulations should be enforced to make sure that those with agricultural farms put in mind the lives of other people.
The topic is directly linked to toxicology. The effect of Toxicology is cumulative. It has not been established how bifenthrin that affected the girls will influence them in future. Chances are not zero that since the girls are teenagers another effect is suppressed and it will surface later in life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Winas, B. (2011). Environmental toxicants and the developing immune system. New York: Repro Toxicol abstract.
The Electronics Industry Analytical Essay essay help
Introduction Communication remains one of the most important tools in the current market. The market has become increasingly competitive. As Chaston (2009, p. 78) states, the market is getting very competitive as the world embraces globalization.
The world has been turned into a global village. An American company can now make its productions in China and sell its products in India. The geographical barrier that existed before has completely been eliminated. Transport and communication has enhanced business processes.
Firms can now go beyond their borders. This is considered as one of the biggest achievements in commerce. The market has been expanded for large firms that can manage to operate globally.
However, this also comes at a cost. While an American firm will have an advantage in the fact that the scope of the market is expanded, there will be a price to pay for this. It will also be ready to receive competitors in the local market.
The electronics industry is currently considered one of the largest and the fastest developing industries in the world. This industry has had a huge impact in the world in various fronts. This industry has played the leading role in transforming the world into a global village.
Information can flow very freely from one part of the world to another, thanks to the electronics industry (Viardot 2004, p. 37). Various firms can operate in the world market with much ease because of the improved communication.
The social media has had a massive impact on the lives of people, both economically and socially. Firms are currently relying on Facebook, Tweeter and YouTube to communicate to the populace because of the improved communication strategies. Electronics have become basics in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the Industry by Porters Five Forces
According to Handlechner (2008, p. 25), the market for electronics, and specifically personal computers have been on a constant rise in the last two decades. Emerging technologies are changing the social structure of societies around the world.
Communication has become very important in the lives of different individuals in the world. In the office, a personal computer is needed to store data and easily retrieve them. It is also useful in preparing various documents within the office. A manager will need a personal computer to track various records relevant to the organization.
Back at home, computers are very useful for entertainment, especially as a form of social networking. To a student, personal computers will be useful in performing various tasks that are related to their studies, including research. Every organization in the current world cannot operate normally without a personal computer.
With this massive growth of the market for this product, various firms have come out with various brands of computers to tap on the growing opportunity for this product. Apple has been one of the leading firms that have been considered as the leading manufacturers of personal computers.
Dell is facing a serious market competition from Dell in the manufacture and sale of personal computers in the United States and other overseas countries. Apple has proven to be the main threat of Dell in this industry for a number of reasons. The United States still remains that most attractive market for personal computers.
The market is large enough, and the purchasing power is strong enough to support the industry (McLaughlin
Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral and psychiatric disorder that affects at least one in every 20 children in the western world (Pineda, Ardila, RosselliMet al, 1999).
It is characterized by hyperactivity or impulsiveness, and in most cases, difficulties in paying attention. Since 1970s, there has been a debate over the existence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
In fact, the existence of the condition, its treatment and diagnosis, have been considered controversial topics since the condition was first suggested in the medical, psychology and education.
The controversial aspect of ADHD has attracted researchers from a number of fields, with an aim of determining whether the condition is real or whether it is a myth (Brown, Freeman, Perrin, et al, 2001).
Yes, ADHAD exists and Is a Brain Condition That Affects Children and Adults The American psychiatric Association (2004) asserts that ADHD actually exists and in the United States alone, it affects at least one in every 20 children. Studies have shown that sufferers of ADHD have relatively similar symptoms.
These symptoms includes inattention (the patients are easily disrupted), impulsivity as well as hyperactivity. In addition, APA (2004) asserts that ADHD victims may have a number of their aspects of behavior and performance adversely affected both at home and school.
Studies reveal that the condition may persist throughout adolescent, and in some cases, it may progress towards adulthood.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the last three decades, biomedical studies have confirmed the existence of the condition. For instance, the study by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008) found that the condition has a strong genetic linkage, with a high rate of hereditary and running in certain family lines.
In fact, this study confirmed that about 75% of all the cases are hereditary (Swanson, Sergeant, Taylor, et al, 1998). Recently, studies by Arcos-Bugos and colleagues (2010) have identified a number of candidate genes that are closely associated with the condition, including DAT1, DRD5, DRD4, HTR1B, 5HTT and SNAP25.
In fact, most of these genes are associated with and may affect dopamine transporters, further provides a strong indication of the presence of ADHD as a hereditary factor.
In addition, studies by Geizer, Ficks and Waldama (2009) have shown that a gene variant LPHN3 accounts for more than 9% of all the ADHD cases. These studies provide a strong evidence of the existence of ADHD.
No, ADHD Does Not Exist According to the US Department of Health and Human Services (1999), opinions regarding the existence of ADHD include a belief that the condition does not exist at all. Other opinions attempt to make the people belief that the condition is a purely hereditary factor running in families.
In addition, according to NIHCE (2004), ADHD diagnosis lacks any biological basis, indicating that the condition could only be an exaggeration of one of the known psychiatric conditions rather than a disease by its own.
According to Ramsey (2007), ADHD is a controversy that only results from a misunderstanding and misconception of diagnosis criteria and how medical practitioners use these criteria.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Personal Opinion on ADHD and Application in the Classroom ADHD is a psychiatric condition that should not be ignored in education. The fact that students with ADHD normally tend to be disrupted from concentrating in the class is a factor that requires adequate measures to ensure that student’s conditions are addressed (Biederman, Wilens, Mick et al, 1998).
Screening and testing is necessary to determine the children who require special attention.
Considering ADHD in the classroom, a teacher would observe the affected child getting frequent cases of inattention, which in turn disorients the child. Special education may be required in cases where the child’s condition is advanced.
References American Psychiatric Association. (2004). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington: American Psychiatric Association
Arcos-Burgos, M., Jain, M., Acosta, M. T., Shively, S., et al. (2010). A common variant of the latrophilin 3 gene, LPHN3, confers susceptibility to ADHD and predicts effectiveness of stimulant medication. Mol Psychiatry 15(11), 1053-66
Biederman, J., Wilens, T., Mick, E., et al. (1998). Is ADHD a risk factor for psychoactive substance use disorders? Findings from a four-year prospective follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36, 21–29
Brown, R. T., Freeman, W. S., Perrin, J. M., et al. (2001). Prevalence and assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary care settings. Pediatrics, 2(4), 107-114
Gizer, I R., Ficks, C., Waldman, I. D. (2009). Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet 126(1), 51-90
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2008). CG72 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). London: NIHCE
Pineda, D., Ardila, A., Rosselli, M, et al. (1999). Prevalence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms in 4- to 17-year-old children in the general population. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 27, 455–462.
Ramsay, J. R. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for adult ADHD. New York: Routledge
Swanson, J. M., Sergeant, J. A., Taylor, E., et al. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. Lancet, 351, 429–433
US department of health and human services. (1999). Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Washington, DC: department of health and human services.
The Societal View of Medicine and Treatment Expository Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Inquiry into the interaction between culture and medical practice has gained more ground with the passing years. The advancement in certain studies, such as sociology and psychology, has provided impetus for better understanding of the relationships between these fields.
The western medicine has been based on scientific inquiry. It relies on research and advancement of scientific methods. Treatment is often based on prove of evidence and diagnosis is purely based on findings considered scientifically sound.
Even then, a flash back into the field of medicine shows a very intricate relationship between culture and treatment. Culture has several bearings on a number of issues, which are absolutely important for the choice of medication. In the first place, culture defines what would be considered a disease in some context.
Furthermore, it determines whether such a disease warrantees the ill person to seek health intervention or not (Setha, 1988).
Culture defines the kind of medication or intervention a person chooses. It also determines the kind of treatment and the interaction between the healer and the sick person.
Evidently, the medical community has come to the appreciation of this vital interaction. It is such understanding, which forms the basis for the development of studies, such as medical ethnography. This deliberate and focused inquiry into culture and treatment is bound to reveal the interconnectivity between these issues.
This liberates both the practitioners and the sick to realize what is at odds in a medical treatment intervention. This way, more holistic approach to the healing process is likely to be practiced. The final result will be achievement of more effective treatments (Ren, Amick,
Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process Expository Essay essay help online
Poetry plays an important role in a learning process, specifically when poems are applied to teaching various disciplines. Although children sometimes prefer narrative verses to the lyrics ones, they can contribute greatly to improving pronunciation and spelling, as well memorizing various terms.
It is very important for teachers to introduce poetry in an oral form for children to develop their reading and speaking skills. Rhythm and rhyme, therefore, are crucial for attracting children attention and engaging them into accomplishing various assignments.
Using rhythmic patterns allows children to develop a new understanding of various issues in reading, as well as invent new means of comprehension. Poetry, as an emotionally colored means of written text, comprises imagery and sound that contribute to advancement of children’s intellectual and response mechanisms.
Therefore, due to such important attributes of poetry, as rhythm, repetition patterns, and rhyme, children can significantly promote their understanding of complicated terms. More importantly, it also contributes to their memorizing skills.
The interaction between children and poetry is characterized by strong materials (Glazer and Williams 271). These comprise good plots, rich settings, well-developed characters, vital and educative themes, and artistic styles that employ bold and creative language (Glazer and Williams 279).
This element of novelty is developed by the author, who first understands and comprehends the nature of the audience, or the child age bracket (Glazer and Williams 282). The authors then proceed to prepare the content. It is a common argument among children poets that they create good pieces, irrespective of whether the children like them or not.
According to Glazer and Williams (284), authors argue that their compositions are built of strong materials, and the likes and silikes of children cannot be used as a basis for determingn the quality of the literatur. They further claim that poetry should be judged as literature on its own merit, and children should them be given the most appropriate literature (Glazer and Williams 298).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lukens defines poetry as a concise, intense, and flamboyant type of literary work that employs the elements of sound and language to develop emotion and targeted notions. Poetry is aimed at developing emotional intensity through the use of rhythmic or figurative language.
All forms of poetry, including children poetry use various styles to bring out the intended emotion. These styles include: “alliteration, metaphors, similes, symbolism, personification, assonance, consonance, allusion, onomatopoeia, internal rhyme, and rhyme scheme” (Likens 8).
There are various forms of poetry including narrative poems, free verse, ballads, diamante, and cinquam.
While considering poetry language and its value for developing children’s comprehension and memory, specific emphasis should be placed on literary and figurative devices.
In particular, literary images include tactile, auditory, visual, kinesthetic, olfactory, and gustatory ones where figurative tools are composed of such stylistic devices as metaphor, personification, and simile (Russell 50). These qualities can help children broaden imagination and acquire new experience in operation various notions.
Poetry language, therefore, is a powerful skill in exploring new dimensions of learning approaches. Visual tools represented in poem can help children to see the objects and describe them in the most effective way whereas tactile devices appeal to children’s sense of touch (Russell 50).
Auditory skills can also be developed by reading and listening to poems. For instance, the poetic texts can allow children to distinguish a variety of animal sounds. Finally, there are poems performing kinesthetic functions that refer mostly to motions and actions.
We will write a custom Essay on Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such poetic works are helpful in case they are combined with the actions mentioned in the poem. The introduction of rhythmic patterns is helpful because they promote children memorizing skills. In this respect, poetry language can be indispensible to learning new figures in mathematics, natural phenomena, or the names of animals.
Using metaphors, simile, and personification complements the meaning of the poetic works, as well as provide children with greater understanding of how various phenomena could be explained.
Children are not attracted to reading as easily as grownups; therefore, their reading materials should not include difficult terms or abstract concepts. According to Hillman (34), poems and other literary works that are targeted at children display five key features.
First, their characters are either children or portray childlike characteristics. Second, their context is based on typical childhood experiences that are expressed from a child’s perspective. Third, they use straightforward and direct plots that focus on the action or intended emotion.
Fourth, they send out an image of innocence and optimism, such that they leave the audience emotional and happy. Fifth, they are based on both real and fictional events in order to enhance the sense of imagination.
These characteristics are common among children authors since they portray the way that adults converse with children, using short and simple texts.
Over the past few decades, there has been increased interest in the features of children poetry, which has led to a lot of research in that field (Russell 34). One of the areas under study involves the typical methods used to express children’s poetry.
These include vivid illustrations, humorous narrative, and simple and memorable lines. According to Russell (50), most of children’s poetry uses simple words and lines that children can comprehend and use in their activities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Complex terms and nonfigurative notions in poetry tend to discourage children from advancing their interest and comprehension of the concepts of poetry. Since children have low education level and minimal life experience, any poetry directed at them should have straightforward wording and language that the children can grasp with ease.
Children still have a lot to learn, and their comprehension for poetry is still undeveloped. Children are more attracted to poetry that is written in their language compared to poetry that uses profound language that is beyond their age.
Hence, children can only be interested in literary work that uses simple language to explain the idea, image, and action in poetry.
Russell (58) also notes that children link poetry to fun, hence, children should find poetry amusing for them to be interested in it. Humor is a vital component that authors use to seize the attention of children and cause them to read.
Children’s poetry is most successful in getting through to the readers if its combines simple words to describe situations that are familiar to the children with humorous narrative. Russell (62) states “children love silly nonsense that tickles their funny bones” to emphasize the vital role of humor in children poetry.
For children authors to appeal to children with their poems, they need to consider the element of entertainment in the form of humor, since children are open and willing to try out fun things.
Another area that has attracted a lot of research is the literary devices employed in children’s poetry. Such elements include lively imagery, rhythm and rhyme, personification and word-play.
While rhythm and rhyme make the poems melodious, fun and easy to remember, lively imagery stimulates the various senses when children are reading poems (Lukens 76). Studies claim that imagery is one of the most valuable devices in children’s poetry (Lukens 76).
In addition, research shows that children pay a lot of attention to imagery in poetry. Lukens (75) states that imagery is the most recurrently employed literary device, and most essential in the development of the setting and mood of the poem.
Imagery also aids in enhancing the understanding of a concept and stretches the insight of the children when reading the poem (Lukens 86).
Russell suggests that personification is a vital element in children’s poetry, especially for the very young. Personification involves the issuing of human qualities to inanimate objects, which makes poetry lively and attractive to children readers.
Instances of personification such as a dancing cat or a talking car appeal to the animalistic view of children since it allows them to relate to poems that have both human and inanimate characters (Russell 91).
Word play is also a vital component of children’s poetry that allows children to make up words as part of their learning process. Word-play employs the manipulation of words that make up the poem in a playful manner in order to appeal to the children.
Children poems should aim at encouraging children to play with words, which add both humor and delight to the reading process. Word-play is most useful when reading the poems aloud, which enhances the pleasure of listening and uttering the words.
Such sound patterns as rhythm and rhyme are inherent components that allow children to work out strategies for memorizing notion, definitions, and word combinations.
Use of alliteration, consonance, assonance, and repetition provides more perspective for reading comprehension, as well as allows children to define which syllables are stressed and which ones are not.
Other literary elements that are used in children’s narratives include plot, characterization, style, setting, theme, and point of view. Poems do not employ all these elements, though the ones used like theme and plot help to develop a memorable reading experience.
Plots are vital in constructing the conflict, which builds the narrative to a happy ending in order for it to e appealing to the children. According to Lukens (99), plots involve a struggle that is overcome. These struggles can be in the form of person verses person, nature, society, or self (Likens 102).
Based on the entities involved in the struggle, authors can employ the element of personification to portray diverse views of the scenario. Themes are vital elements that determine whether the children find it easy to understand the flow of the poem.
Most of the themes considered in children’s poetry involve simple life experiences that they are familiar with. This allows them to relate to true experiences or familiar thoughts as the authors encourage them to use the element of imagery.
The content of a poem can be based upon an experience like playing with friends, playing a video game, or facing punishment from parents. Such themes that provide content which is familiar to the children are useful in making successful children poetry.
The development of children is based on the ideas of freedom and emotion that are expressed in their learning material (Glazer and Williams 301). As a result, authors should focus on delivering literature that is valuable in enhancing the productivity of the children.
The focus of researchers on children literature is due to the challenges faced by authors who prepare their reading material. The content for children literature does not employ intricate concepts and vocabulary like that used for adult reading material.
Hence, studies revolving around the appeal of children literature, and especially poetry, have revealed interesting concepts. The studies analyzed in this paper focus on the characteristics of children’s poetry based on the analysis of techniques used to obtain the appropriate content.
The deduction obtained emphasize on the use of familiar situations to develop themes and content for the poems, in order for the children to identify with them. In addition, there are specific expression techniques that appeal to children such as simple and memorable lines, humorous narrative, personification, and imagery.
Lastly, authors also consider the plot and theme of the poems, since this provides the environment where the various styles like rhyme and word-play can be employed appropriately.
Verses do not necessarily focus on explaining certain meanings and definitions. Rather, there are poems that seek to deliver comic themes that do not have sense, but which should be read by children to explain what rhyme, rhythm, and meter mean (Russell 52).
The children poetry, therefore, can be used in form of a play to amuse children and attract their attention. With regard to the above-presented characteristics, poems can represent various themes and topics, including the once originating from real life and the ones coming from history (Russell 52).
There are also narrative poems that cover story poems based on themes about various characters and plots and lyric poetry that is premised on ancient Greek poetry.
Due to the variety and great availability of poetry, teachers heavily employ it in a learning process. Reading poetry aloud is among the most efficient strategies because children’s oral language forms the basis for later development of literacy.
Reading activities should be based on understanding meaning, as well as all unknown words (Russell 52). Attention should also be given to punctuation, stress, and rhythmic patterns. It is also important to use poems for dramatic performance. Use of special effects, as well as decorations, can enhance children’s motivation to take part in the activity.
Choral poetry is another approach that can be applied by teacher to encourage children’s participation. Incorporating gestures, movements, and body language will help children understand how to work in teams. Choral pronunciation of poetry can also teach children to adjust to the rhythm.
In addition, there could be various options while reading poems in groups, including solo, unison, or three-to-five people groupings. During such activities, perfection of pronunciation and sense of rhythm should be the main purpose.
Once all the approaches and activities are properly managed, children may proceed with making up simple verses, which also contributes to the development of imagination.
In conclusion, such qualities of poetry as rhythm, rhyme, as well as use of imaginary and figurative devices, contribute to learning experience of children. Specifically, teachers can introduce various activities, including reading aloud, pronouncing words, and developing performances.
Integrating poetry into a learning process is indispensible to developing children’s memorizing skills and enhancing their understanding of various notions that relate to auditory and visual phenomena.
Applying poem to learning various disciplines, therefore, can contribute to broadening children’s imagination. Overall, poetic language is much simpler than prose narrative because it has repetitive patterns.
Works Cited Glazer, Joan I. and Gurney Williams. Introduction to Children’s Literature. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 1979. Print.
Hillman, Judith. Discovering Children’s Literature 3rd Edition. New Jersey; Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003. Print.
Lukens, Rebecca J. A critical handbook of children’s literature. London: Good Year, 1986. Print.
Russell, David. L. Literature for children: A short introduction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2005. Print.
Strategic Planning in a Nursing Institution Compare and Contrast Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Strategic planning is a tool used by businesses and organizations, to guide their operations. It is a long term process of defining a company’s strategy, direction, and ways of distributing resources, so as to achieve objectives with maximum efficiency.
It presents a company’s mission, vision, core values, and to some extent, the strategy used by a company, to achieve its goals (Bryson, 2011). There are different models of strategic planning.
This paper looks at two models; issue-based and alignment models, in a bid to show their similarities and differences. Thereafter, it shows how the issue-based model can be used by a nursing institution.
People often say that failing to plan is planning to fail. This shows why strategic planning is vital for both public and non-profit organizations (Burkhart
The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” Analytical Essay best essay help
Rapid development of the World Wide Web and telecommunications has introduced tangible shifts in communication. Nowadays people all over the world have much greater opportunities for exchanging information and sharing their opinions on political, cultural, and social situation.
Specific attention should be given to the transition from personal, face-to-face communication to interpersonal and open communication via online channels and by mobile communication systems.
With regard to the above discussion, the writers Balouris, Shriver, and Sisario dedicate their articles to discussing the impact of social media development on shaping new forms of communication.
Their claims are specifically premised on the currently released song Call Me, Maybe? by Carley Ray Jepsen. The song content relates to the changing patterns in social interaction.
Balouris (2012), representing the Leadership Academic Blog, focuses on the importance of interpersonal communication, as well as how it is impacted by the emergence of mobile communication and social media. In particular, the author refers to such issues as appearance of a new generation whose communication will be dominated by social media.
Although Balouris (2012) does not criticize social media development, the author still notes, “some many things – tone of voice, facial expression, body language – are lost when conversation happen through a computer screen or phone screen” (n. p.).
Despite the loss of traditional distribution channels of information, the innovative techniques integrated by social media still have a positive impact on communication. This is of particular concern to development of online networks connecting people all over the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To prove the evident benefits of social media, Balouris (2012) provides persuasive statistics on constantly increasing percentage of users on Facebook ad Twitter. The new communication channels, therefore, have “…incredible power to make and shape the news and public opinion” (Balouris, 2012).
Apart from social dimension, the newly emerged online channels contribute to the development of political thoughts that provide various political campaigns all over the world.
Similar to Balouris (2012), Shriver (2010) does not confine to the discussion of Jepsen’s popular song and refers to other interesting contexts associated with it. In particular, the writer connects the issue of telecommunication with successful techniques that can be used while speaking with clients by phone.
The major recommendations are associated with note taking, anticipating, and pleasing the client. Telephone communication, therefore, is a new branch of science introducing efficient techniques for obtaining, sharing, and exchanging information.
In this respect, note taking of telephone calls differs much from similar process applied during personal meetings. Communication by means of mobile phones is much more complicated because it is very hard to predict the recipient reaction. At the same time, the speaker can also be more prepared to the conversation due to the absence of face-to-face confrontation.
Shriver’s (2010) advice on better phone communication relates to a business sphere rather than to daily communication, which points’ to the rapid integration of new social media to all spheres of life. Pleasing the client, therefore, is another recommendation that should be applied to attract consumers’ attention.
Similar to traditional communication, telephone conversation should start with attention grabbing phrases that will compensate scarcity of non-verbal approaches. In particular, Shriver (2010) stresses, “conference calls are great in working with other businesses around the country and even across the globe however it is limiting” (n. p.).
We will write a custom Essay on The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the shifts in interaction, nothing can replace such modes of nonverbal communication as a friendly smile or a handshake. Cultural aspects of conducting business are crucial for meeting the need of globalized community. Shriver (2010) steps far away from the topic introduced in Jepsen’s popular composition, but the writer’s advice is quite helpful.
Social media influence is also recognized by Sisario, the New York Times journalist who also discusses the new hit by Jepsen, Call Me, May Be? in context of new communication patterns. The author also deliberates on the overall influence of social media on the music industry, as well as on other spheres.
In particular, there are bright examples of how such famous online media as YouTube is employed to advertize songs and influence public opinion. Tweeter is also used by popular signers, such as Justin Bieber and Katy Perry, to advertise their songs.
More importantly, Sisario (2012) stresses that the emergence of YouTube has made radio a less important social media device because “nearly two-thirds of teenagers listen to music on YouTube, more than other medium” (Sisario, 2012).
Such a tendency, therefore, has a potent impact on cultural perception, as well as on the necessity of music producers to change their advertising and commercial techniques. Within this context, the writer also analyzes Jepsen’s attitude to the internet, particular to its incredible impact on the spread of music.
Serving as a driving force, the search engines are powerful tools for promoting musical compositions. This domain of advertising could be regarded as a step forward in promoting commercial projects.
Although the World Wide Web takes advantage over the other media platforms, the radio has not lost its positions. In this respect, the author explains “There’s not a million-seller out there that doesn’t have radio play…but its first million generally doesn’t come from radio” (n. p).
The song presents a bright example of how social media can be employed for marketing purposes. However, the success of the venture has little support in terms of theoretical approaches worked out to use online media as a new means of promoting products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Internet does not allow the producers to predict consumer behaviors accurately. Nevertheless, conventional means of advertizing are not less efficient because the product success depends on many other aspects, such as economic, social, and cultural tendencies.
In fact, the use of YouTube videos has captured the attention of million users all over the worlds, which minimizes the use of such media platforms as radio and television.
Introduction of new communication devices, including social networks, mobile communication, and online media platforms, have contributed greatly to all spheres of life.
Nevertheless, all the articles discussed above do not exclude the value conventional personal communication in all aspects of life, should it music industry, business, or daily interaction. This is of particular concern to nonverbal devices of sharing, exchanging, and storing information.
Analyzing the grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s song Call Me, May Be?, the writers have managed to cover such important topics as the influence of media culture on communication, challenges of interacting by means of wireless devices, and the use of the Internet as a powerful marketing tool.
New generation of users, therefore, can adjust to a new social environment to achieve successful communication and develop new techniques compensating the scarcity of nonverbal devices that could be produced online.
References Balouris, M. C. (2012). Call Me, Maybe? Marielena’s Presidential Leadership Academy Blog. Web.
Shriver (2012). Call Me, Maybe? Intern. Web.
Sisario, B. (2012). The new rise of a summer hit: Tweet it maybe. The New York Times. Web.