Investigative Report On The Costa Concordia Report (Assessment) Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents Abstract


Events Surrounding the Costa Concordia Sinking and Who to Blame

Conclusion and Recommendations


Abstract This paper looks at the events surrounding the sinking of Costa Concordia ship. The ship hit the rocks and this resulted in the death of several people and others went missing. The occurrence of this accident is largely attributed to the careless behavior of Captain Schettino. Following this, he was arrested and taken to court but later returned to his home in Italy after the judge granting him a house arrest.

Costa Concordia, weighing 1145000 tones, is the largest passenger ship that has ever been ruined. Following such incidents, this brings fear among those who like going to cruise because they feel the high sea is no longer safe.

Therefore, as it is looked in the paper, it is the responsibility of the cruise companies to ensure they reassure their customers about the sea safety. The cruise officers and staff need to receive adequate training that will enable them do their job in the most appropriate way possible.

Introduction It was reported that at least six people were confirmed dead and twenty nine more were reported to be missing following an accident that occurred on the night of 13th January 2012, in which Costa Concordia, an Italian cruise ship hit a reef and went aground off Italy close to Isola del Giglio (Rose, 2012).

There were more than more than four thousand people in the ship, including about one thousand crew members and a minimum of three thousand and two hundred. Costa Concordia, weighing 1145000 tones, is the largest passenger ship that has ever been ruined. This ship swiftly “rolled on its side with a long gouge below the waterline right after the dinner had been served on Friday night” (Rose 2012, par.1).

The local coastguard made an assertion that there was some hope that those people who had survived the accident could be found. As the owners of the ship engaged in blaming the captain for changing direction towards the shore on the day of the occurrence of the accident in order to display the huge ship to the local people who lived on the Tuscan island; a large amount of fuel (2300 ton) started causing pollution to the “surrounding Mediterranean waters of the nature reserve” (Rose 2012, par.1).

In this paper, there is going to be a discussion about the events surrounding the sinking of Costa Concordia. The main issues that are going to be discussed include; what happened to this ship on the night of 13 January; what the crew and captain did. What the coastguard response was and the actions that were undertaken in searching the survivors. The paper will also provide a summary about how the cruise lines have reacted to this incident and the new policies that may have been introduced to ensure there is safety at the sea.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Events Surrounding the Costa Concordia Sinking and Who to Blame It is reported that, while Captain Francesco Schettino together with his officers engaged in guiding Costa Concordia and the four thousand or more people over the waters off the Italian coast on the Friday night, 13 January 2012, “they could avail themselves of a bridge full of navigation equipment that would have made Luke Skywalker jealous” (Higgins, 2012, p.9).

But it is also reported that while the captain was reaching Isola del Giglio and its picturesque villages, impressive church spires, as well as offshore rocks and cliffs, the captain did not obey the first rule of seamanship: “look around, know where you are and keep a safe distance from land” (Higgins, 2012, p.1).

It was pointed out that captain would have done well to have taken some advice into consideration that was offered by Admiral John Smith, the North America colonist and an English explorer. It is said that this person had had his neck saved “from an unappreciative tribe of Native Americans by the chief’s daughter, Pocahontas” (Higgins, 2012, p.9).

According to Higgins (2012), the investigators from Italy would spent months engaging in grilling the officers of Costa Concordia, undertaking interviews with the eyewitnesses that were on the ship and those that were on Giglio, and searching data from the black box of the ship in order to find out how Costa Concordia “came to grief with a gash in its side” (Higgins, 2012, p.9).

After the disaster, the initial conclusion that was drawn by he authorities facilitated painting of a disturbingly simple image. It is reported that Captain Schettino clearly wanted to show off by moving the ship near to the shore to bring about an exhibition for the tourists that were on Giglio and the passengers who were onboard.

It is pointed out that the statement that came from the owner of Costa Concordia ship went as follows; “while investigation is ongoing, preliminary indications are that there may have been significant human error on the part of the ship’s master, Captain Francesco Schettino, which resulted in these grave consequences” (Higgins, 2012, p.9).

The early explanation that was made by Captain Schettino was that, at a time he had not yet he been whisked away by carabinieri and arrested for allegedly committing manslaughter and engaging in abandoning his ship, the rocks that were hit rocks were unchartered and he could not have known that these rocks were there (Higgins, 2012, p.9).

We will write a custom Assessment on Investigative Report on the Costa Concordia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is further pointed out that the captain admitted that he was engaging in the maneuvering the vessel in what he referred to as “touristic navigation”. The captain said that they were navigating about three hundred meters from the rocks and there should not have been there such a rock.

It was indicated on the nautical chart, that, below, there was deep water. However, this suggestion was not accepted by the Australian naval experts.

According to the former commodore in the Royal Australian, called Sam Bateman, he held thoughts that would have been quite unlikely, it is a charted water stretch on and it was almost inconceivable that there would be an uncharted danger to navigation” (Higgins, 2012,p.9).

Kissane (2012) reported in The West Australian that the captain of Costa Concordia was said not to have heeded to the requests that were made to him by the coastguard to leave a lifeboat, where he was said to have taken a place ahead of the women and the children, and to come back to his ship in order to engage in organizing the evacuation.

It is also reported that the captain is said to have not called mayday at the time the ship initially ran into the rocks at about 9.45 PM on Friday 13. An alert to the police was made at about 10.06PM by a passenger through the mobile phone. The police in turn contacted the coastguard.

It is reported that, Captain Schettino did not accept that there was serious trouble at the time he was contacted by the coast guard and did not take a step of issuing a distress call till it was almost fifty minutes after the ship hitting the rocks (Kissane, 2012). The incident had initially left at least six people dead and it has also been reported that more than twenty people were missing (Kissane, 2012).

Corrado Clini, the minister of environment of Italy, took a measure of calling a “state of emergence” over the suspicion of having fuel leaking from the wrecked ship (Kissane, 2012). The minister pointed out that the vessel was in a “nature reserve” and he would give out the emergency funds in order to make efforts to ensure prevention of a likely environmental disaster (Kissane, 2012).

It is reported that on January 17, 2012, there was arriving on Giglio of the elite team of the underwater commandos. They started to utilize dynamite in blowing the hull open in order to create access to the decks that are under water.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Investigative Report on the Costa Concordia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On January 18, it was reported that the fresh claims that came in about the conduct of the captain during this incident originated from the phone calls as well as from the exchanges that were recorded by the black box of the ship that were found by Italian news agency and in turn reported by the Times (Kissane, 2012).

The captain was arrested, being charged with manslaughter and ship abandonment. However, the captain returned to his home in Italy after the judge granting him a house arrest, according to what his lawyer said (Kissane, 2012). This ruling was made hours after emerging of audio in which he was recorded. The audio showed that he rejected the orders that came from coastguard to go back to go back to the ship during the height of the calamity (Bloomberg, 2012).

The search for the people affected in the disaster had started on the same day of its occurrence and was resumed on Saturday 14 in January by the emergency workers, “blasting holes into the hulk of the ship” (Reuters, 2012, n.p). One of the coast guard official pointed out that “the movement of the ship is very dangerous…there are big risks, but we all looked each other in the eyes and told each other it was worth it to give the families some solace” (Reuters, 2012, n.p).

At that time, the movement was just some few millimeters per hour. However, this increased fears that the vessel would move in to the deeper waters and this would undermine the plans to engage in pumping about two thousand four hundred tones of fuel from the tanks of the ship (Associated Press and Telegraph Group, 2012).

It was pointed out by the leader of the “Civil Protection Authority”, Franco Gabrielli, that it was vital to commence on recovering of the thick fuel oil as well as the diesel that was trapped on the board in the soonest time possible (Reuters, 2012, n.p).

He said that “our aim is to find the missing; to give certainty about the fate of these people, but it is also a priority to avert an environmental disaster” (Reuters, 2012, n.p). He also pointed out that environmental contamination had already taken place especially when thinking about the “the oils, the solvents, the detergents, everything that a city of 4000 people needs” (Reuters, 2012, n.p).

According to Reuters (2012), in the day that followed after the accident, the body of a lady on the ship was recovered by the diving crews and at this point the number of people who had died following the accident had approached a minimum of twelve. Moreover, at that time, twenty people were not accounted for and the hopes of having other people recovered had all vanished (Reuters, 2012, n.p).

It was also reported by Reuters that the prosecutors pointed out that “Schettino steered the vessel within 150 meters of Giglio island to perform a maneuver known as ‘salute’ – a greeting to the islanders” (Reuters, 2012, n.p). According to Reuters, Schettino accepted that the ship went very near to the shore. However, he did not admit carrying the individual blame, pointing out that there might have been involvement of other issues (Reuters, 2012).

Basing on the records of the questioning of the captain that was undertaken by the court prosecutors which found their way to the media of Italy, Captain Schettino said that a short while after hitting the reef, he took a step of sending his officers for them to go to the engine room to engage in checking on the vessel’s condition.

The moment he came to realize the extent of the destruction, he called the marine operations director of the Costa cruises by the name Roberto Ferrarini and said to him, “I have got myself into a mess, there was contact with the seabed. I am telling out the truth, we passed under Giglio and there was an impact” (Reuters, 2012, n.p).

He also pointed out that “I cant remember how many times I called him in the following hour and 15 minutes…in any case, I am certain that I informed Ferrarini about everything in real time” (Reuters, 2012, n.p). He also pointed out that he had requested the company to take an immediate measure of sending helicopters as well as tug boats (Reuters, 2012).

But on the other hand, according to the company’s Chief Executive, the captain was not prompt enough in undertaking the SOS issuing as well as the evacuation orders and did not provide true information to the company. According to the Executive director, the captain was not actually honest with the company.

He further pointed out that the initial talk on the phone that was held by Ferrarini with Schettino occurred twenty minutes after crash reef and this, according to him, was too late.

He also pointed out that the company had only came to a realization of the level of the calamity at the time of issuing of the evacuation order, a thing the prosecutors pointed out that it occurred one hour later after the initial conversation that was held between Ferrarini and Schettino (Reuters, 2012, n.p).

The documents that were made from his hearing with a court judge point out that he had portrayed “incredible careless and total inability to manage the successive phases of the emergency” (Reuters, 2012, n.p).

The conversations that had been taped give out a revelation that the ship’s bridge “told cost guards alerted by passengers the vessel had only suffered a black-out even after those on board had donned life vests” (Reuters, 2012, n.p).

According to the Telegraph Group (2012) the captain of Costa Concordia was actually drinking and eating with a blonde Moldovan woman a short time before the ship ran aground off the Giglio Island. The woman, whose name is said to be Domnica Cemortan, who was a passenger and a former dancer, is said to have been on the bridge with the captain on the night when the ship capsized.

It was reported that on 20th January 2012,a number of passengers said that they saw the captain together with a woman who resembled Miss Cemortan “dinning and sharing a decanter of red wine just before the disaster” (Telegraph Group, 2012, n.p). The assertion made by Italian media was that Cemortan had received an invitation to go to the bridge of the Concordia on Friday night when the disaster occurred.

She is reported to have been there at the time the accident occurred. It is also reported that Cemortan agreed on 20 January that she had been on the bridge with the captain, who is married and has a daughter. However, she kept on insisting that she was not on the bridge and it only up to the time the crash was over when she was called on to offer her assistance in addressing the passengers who came from Russia (Costa Concordia, 2012).

Miss Cemortan engaged in defending Captain Schettino as well as the crew members against the criticism in regard to the evacuation. She said that “he did a great thing, he saved over 300 lives” (Telegraph Group, 2012, n.p).

This lady speaks the Russian language and had engaged in working in the capacity of a hostess in an Italian cruise company, but her contract had reached its expiry time and she was on holiday at the time of disaster.

Measures Taken and Policies Put In Place by Cruise Lines after the Costa Concordia Incident and Improving Sea Safety

It is pointed out that “timing is everything and from the beginning, since the Costa Concordia ship disaster began, Carnival Cruise lines have had time on their side” (Mustard, 2012, par.1). The definition of the crisis management is given as:

The act, manner, or practice of managing, supervising or controlling a situation, protecting a company’s name, brand and consumer loyalty, preserving its reputation as much as its shareholder stock, and mitigating or minimizing to as much a degree as possible negative consumer public perceptions (Mustard, 2012, par.2).

In this line, it is reported that, by all means, Burson-Marsteller which is the PR organization called in to deal with “the ship sinking disaster on day three after the occurrence of the accident on the Carnival Cruise Lines’ behave is undertaking its activities in a brilliant way in dealing with the Costa Concordia Ship Sinking Disaster” (Mustard, 2012, par.2).

It is reported that a panel of the cruise experts took a step of holding an international media briefing on January 19, 2012, that was intended to set “jittery cruisers at ease days after the tragic sinking of Costa Concordia” (Richard, 2012, par.1).

And as on one hand every person goes on to engage in wondering about his or her return to the seas, on the other hand, it is quite apparent that this disaster will bring an impact on the future of the cruising industry in two main ways. One of them is in regard with the way the standards for the safety of cruise ship will be and the other way is in regard with whether or not the passenger bookings as well as the profitability of cruise line will fall.

The reassurances that are expected were offered to people that were soured in regard with this industry, in light of the broadly exposed vivid images of the destroyed Costa Concordia and the utter pandemonium of the upsetting escape that came up. It is also reported that the social media channels have been seen exploding with the cruise naysayers in the aftermath of the incident, “while the parallels to the Titanic, which will be commemorating the centennial of sinking in April, have found a timely tie-in” (Richard, 2012, par.3).

It is reported that the panel whose posting was done by “umbrella cruise operator groups” such as PSA, CLIA, ECC, engaged in striving to paint the Costa Concordia sinking as being a tragic anomaly which is unusual within the cruise industry. Having the ship’s sinking greatly attributed to the unpleasant human error, this panel gave description of cruising as being among the kinds of vacation travel that are safe, with a concrete safety evidence as back up.

It is reported that the “passenger Ship Safety Conference Panel” that was convened on January 19 made a vow that while there are still a lot of questions that have not been answered which surround the unfortunate Costa Concordia ship, the cruising industry would make application of the lessons that were learned from this disastrous event in order to further carry out enhancement of the safety of cruise ship across the world (Richard, 2012).

It was pointed out that while there are no expectations of seeing any immediate far-reaching changes undertaken in the cruising industry at large, inspection of the present internal safety practices “are poised to sound a wake-up all for greater regulations” (Richard, 2012, par.4).

It is pointed out that “the hot topics du jour, which will certainly garner further investigation, surrounded requiring passenger safety drills; enforcing the level of training of cruise officers and staff, ensuring operations of lifeboats many of those on Concordia cited confusing time-consuming announcements in multiple languages” (Richard, 2012, par.4).

This panel made an assurance that the end toward the ever-big cruise ships did not bring in a threat of more hardships to ships that are smaller in size, pointing out that they beneficially offered “a bigger platform to work with in regards to evacuation” (Richard, 2012, par.4).

According to Richard (2012), the setting up of IMO is undertaken in order to engage in carrying out of a detailed evaluation of the Costa occurrence, although it could take several years before making official recommendations on carrying out improvement on the safety of the cruise ships.

In the meantime, there was initiation of an exploration into the practices, on 18 January, linked to the safety of the cruise ships by a “United States Congressional committee” and plans were set up of having a hearing in the month of February, 2012, with hopes of evading any possibility of facing a similar disaster on the cruise ships that call on the U.S ports in the future (Richard, 2012).

It is also reported that after the Costa Concordia sinking, the cruise companies have engaged in bracing for a fall out, while the investors commenced on dumping their shares some few days after the Costa Concordia incident, in the Carnival Corporation, which is the parent company to eleven cruising companies, “bearing the brunt of it, and Royal Caribbean cruises falling closely behind” (Richard, 2012, par.5).

It was pointed out that Carnival carried out an estimation that the shipwreck alone would bring in costs of almost ninety five million dollars in lost earnings. The uncertainties that came in is that the cruise vacations bookings would fall, as the disaster took place at the time the ‘wave season’ was high, which is the “peak booking period of the industry” (Richard, 2012).

The panel that was set up gave out a hope, and was giving out advice that as on one hand they were not able to make prediction about the future, but on the other hand, they had not yet undertaken discernment of any particular changes in booking (Richard, 2012).

Finally, there are expectations that the ships of carnival will come together with the rest of the cruise companies and will bring down the level of the ticket costs in an effort to entice the passengers, who are spooked, back on the ship It is also pointed out that, as for Costa Cruises itself, it’s unclear that discounted rates will suffice: “it takes years for the brand to regain its credibility and recover from its tarnished image – it manages to do so at all” (Richard, 2012, par.5).

Conclusion and Recommendations On the night of January 13, 2012, Costa Concordia cruise ship hit rocks and went aground off Italy close to Isola del Giglio. This ship was carrying more than four thousand people and among these, there were at least three thousand and two hundred passengers and one thousand crew members.

Costa Concordia, weighing 1145000 tones, is the largest passenger ship that has ever been broken down. This accident led to the death of several people and a number of efforts were made in order to save lives. At some point, the rescue process was halted for some time when there was moving of the ruin on rocks and this caused the divers’ work to become much more complex as they had already been obstructed by reduced visibility as well as sea debris and the dropping objects.

The occurrence of this accident is largely blamed on the ship’s captain. Basing on what was found out, it was the captain’s careless conduct that made the ship to hit the rocks. He moved the ship close to the shore, just to “show off” to the people of the island, forgetting that this could cause an accident. It is also reported that the captain was drinking and dining with a girl just before the vessel sank. This might have diverted his attention causing him to be careless.

The captain has denied all the charges presented against him and he points out that he is not the one to blame for the accident but rather, that should be blamed on other factors, despite the fact the company and some eye witnesses pointing some evidence that could incriminate him. He was arrested and charged against manslaughter and for abandoning the ship but later the judge let him to return to his home after the judge granting him a house arrest.

The occurrence of such an accident actually makes people to feel that it is not safe to go cruising again. The impact of this is reduced profitability for the cruise lines. Moreover, such the affected cruise line like Costa Concordia may no longer have an appealing brand image.

Therefore, following this, the cruising companies need to take appropriate measures to avoid the occurrence of such incidents as on faced by Costa Concordia. For instance, to avoid careless conduct among the captains, strict rules should be in place to guide their behavior while doing their work.

For instance, they should not be allowed to drink carelessly to a level of forgetting their work. Moreover, the cruise officers and staff should receive more training in order for them to work effectively. This may include knowing how to go about it, should an accident come about, in order to save lives.

More over, there should be ensuring operations of lifeboats. A large number of them that were on Concordia were found out to be confusing consuming much time announcements in many languages. It is also important for the cruise lines to use all the possible means, especially Costa Concordia, to entice customers to continue using their services. They might do this through price cuts among other possible incentives.

References Associated Press and Telegraph Group, (2012). Ship captain accused of showing off to tourists. The West Australian, n.p.

Bloomberg, (2012). Captain put under house arrest. The Australian, n.p.

Costa Concordia, (2012). Ship’s captain ‘drinking with dancer on night of tragedy’. Web.

Higgins, E. (2012). Off-course for a maritime disaster. The Australian, n.p

Kissane, K. (2012). Captain jumped lifeboat queue. The West Australia, p.9

Mustard, J. (2012). Carnival cruise floats settlement offer to Costa Concordia passengers: Burson-Marsteller bestows brilliant crisis counseling for client, Carnival Cruise Lines. Web.

Reuters, (2012). Costa Concordia captain Francesco Schettino denies delaying alarm, allegedly admits he messed up. Web.

Richard, E. (2012). What the Costa Concordia disaster means fro cruising in 2012. Web.

Rose, M. (2012). Costa Concordia Cruise Ship Accident: Six passengers dead in tragic Italian ship sinking. Web.

Telegraph Group, (2012). Captain was drinking with blonde before ship disaster. The Australia, n.p.


HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd Report essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction




Analysis of the difference between current practice and best practice as identified in the literature appropriate for the industry location of the organization. Additionally, there is my recommended practice for the organization given current constraints:

Introduction The major strategy to be used in tackling this question is the location of Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd as compared to the best location of such businesses in the industry. This is because it is important to analyze the costs associated with the strategic location and logistical procedures of the business outlets. It is also necessary to know the importance of the organization’s cultural perspective to Baiada’s performance.

Currently, Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd headquarters are situated at Pendle Hill, 30km west of Sydney. The other operating centers are in major Australian cities and towns such as Victoria and Brisbane (Welcome to Baiada 2007). This location can pose a challenge to the logistical operations of Baiada Poultry.

This is because there are other major companies that engage in poultry farming as well. These have more supply joints as compared to Baiada and they can therefore pose a challenge to the company’s profits (IBISWorld 2010).

Since these competitors such as Inghams Enterprises are strategically located within 50 km of the market, they can be in a position to reduce operating costs associated with transport. As a result, they can achieve a competitive advantage over Baiada Poultry by selling their products at cheaper prices (Organisations: Connected with poultry 2011).

On the other side, it is important to note that the best location for poultry products is near the consumers. The current location of Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd may therefore not benefit it logistically.

This is because it might take long to deliver the desired goods on time. This is given the fact that Baiada’s poultry outlets are further from the markets while the major poultry producing firms are located within the market centers (Location of Farms and Processing 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Delivery time is essential in ensuring that product quality is maintained. If the products take too long to reach the end consumer, then quality is compromised. Eventually, consumers will opt for the competitor’s products. This can have long term negative effects on the profits of Baiada Poultry Pty.

It is necessary to consider that Baiada’s human resource re-strategized its workforce. It therefore trained and promoted employees from within therefore creating a friendly culture among the employees and their seniors. This way, the poultry business has flourished because the employees are well coordinated and promotion activities boost their morale.

Since they feel fairly treated, their production levels have improved. Consequently, Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd has been able to achieve a competitive advantage over its competitors (Marchington, M 2005, p. 74).

As a result of the good relations at the place of work, the overall level of production as well as performance of the company has increased with time. Note that with increased consumption of poultry products in Australia, it is necessary to improve the quality by constant training of the workforce (Adams 2010).

Recommendations The location of any business and in this case poultry business is essential in order to save transport costs of either raw materials or finished goods. Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd should therefore aim at establishing businesses near major consumer joints such as hotels. Additionally, its suppliers or source of poultry should be conveniently located in order to save time and money. This way, it is possible to save costs.

It is recommendable that Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd should increase the number of its outlets. This way, it will be able to reach many consumers and therefore be able to beat competition from the top players in the market. Logistically, it should improve the supply chain by contracting raw materials from suppliers who are near its production facilities.

Additionally, the company can reduce costs by establishing its outlets near the consumers. This way, less delivery costs will be incurred. Baiada Poultry can also practice economies of scale whereby it can sell in bulks in order to save transport costs. As a result, this can create a competitive advantage over the competitors.

We will write a custom Report on HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company’s human resource department should yearn to improve the level of management to a standard that is up to date. It can do this by conducting seminars in order to train its staff about the managerial as well as supervisory roles.

This way, production procedures can be smoothened and problems associated with industrial strikes can be prevented. Baiada Poultry Property should also be keen to ensure that promotion is transparent at all times. This way, issues of mistrust among the employees may be avoided and quality can be maintained always.

Challenges There are various challenges that were encountered during research on this topic. For instance, some of the information available is very inadequate. This is to say that Baiada Poultry Property Ltd has not posted sufficient information about its operations on the internet. Therefore, there is need to constantly update poultry business information in order to form a reference for prospective clients.

References Adams, P 2010, Landline: Chicken Run. Web.

IBISWorld 2010, Poultry meat farming in Australia- industry market research report. Web..

Location of Farms and Processing 2011. Web.

Marchington, M 2005, Fragmenting work: blurring boundaries and disordering hierarchies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Organisations: Connected with poultry 2011. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on HRM Evaluation: Baiada Poultry Pty Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Welcome to Baiada 2007. Web.


The Music Industry Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction The music industry is dealing with many issues that are affecting how it operates. The industry is among the many that have endured the most of technological and social changes in the last three decades. The forces of globalization have changed for good how people access, use, and distribute music.

In addition, there are very powerful forces in the music supply chain that will influence the music industry at least in the near term. The industry had many commercialization approaches before the emergence of the internet as a force driving globalization. Some of them remain valid ways of running a career in music but some are becoming obsolete.

The relative ease with which new entrants can make music has reduced in a significant way the barriers to entry. It is no longer enough to be a talented musician to succeed in music. It takes business acumen, intelligence and a keen appreciation of subtle changes in consumer tastes and preferences to keep up with the rapid rate of change in this industry.

This paper will explore the driving forces in the music industry. It will also look at the strategies used in the development and marketing of music, the challenges to the industry and some potential strategies that can help to overcome these challenges.

Current State of the Music Industry Scope of the Music Industry

The music industry is a very varied establishment. Understandably, music was not an invention in a lab or a unique cultural element in a specific part of the world. Rather, music evolved in different cultures independently leading to very many classes of music. Even within the same cultures, there were songs for each occasion.

There were songs of celebrations such as when a child was born or when there was something important in the community, and there were songs for funerals and general mourning. Some communities had songs to accompany work while almost all cultures had singing games for children. In this sense, the evolution of music is a human phenomenon that grew with the technological development of each culture.

The emergence of the musician as a career person is also a new development in the world. Advanced cultures allowed people to specialize in music but they often had another trade to make it possible for them to earn a living. Otherwise, music was a community endeavour where all the people took part in singing and dancing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In last century, mass communication and rapid transit systems made it possible for some people to become career musicians, travelling from town to town to play music for varied audiences. As this art grew in commercial meaning, many other people joined the commercial facets of music to support the careers of popular musicians.

The current scope of the music industry is very large. There are still elements of the traditional sense of music where whole communities participate in singing. This is common in churches and in institutions of worship where the entire audience participates in singing as part of their spiritual expression.

There are also songs that families sing such as during birthdays. Lullabies help children go to sleep. Perhaps the most common expression of communal aspects of music is the singing of national anthems, which every country sings during important national functions. Apart from these expressions of music, there is a fully-fledged commercial music industry. This industry packages music as a product and presents it to a paying audience. This paper will concentrate on this type of music.

Stakeholders in the Music Industry

In order for music industry to function, several stakeholders must cooperate to ensure that a song leaves the music writer’s pad and ends up in the earphones or stereo speakers of a music enthusiast. While the list below describes these stakeholders individually, is common for an individual to play more than one role.

Composer: This is the originator of songs, the person writes the actual words of the songs. This role calls for someone well versed in music to understand musical language, and has the gift or skill of writing songs.

Singers/Musicians: A singer or musician is the person that performs the song because of their ability to sing. Their talent gives them this role. It is not strange to find musicians that write their own songs. In fact, many of the talented musicians that songwriters seek start as their own composers.

Instrumentalists: This category of stakeholders refers to the people that play musical instruments to accompany music. They have a much-reduced role in recorded music especially because of the use of computer-based instrumentals. However, their role in live music is still intact. They are also in demand by instrumental music enthusiasts.

We will write a custom Essay on The Music Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Producers: These are the professionals managing the music production process. They ensure that all necessary factors of music production come together to produce music

Technical personnel: There is a class of technical personnel necessary for the effective recording of music. They include sound engineers and recording technicians. Their role is to manage the technical factors of music production.

Record label companies: Since the advent of the gramophone record, companies came up to profit from the music industry. These companies continue to sign musicians and then support their careers at a fee. In other words, they provide musicians with everything they need to get their music out and then they share the proceeds.

Marketing companies: After the production of music, record label companies hand them over to marketing companies to send the music to the market. Some record label companies own the marketing companies that handle the marketing of the music they produce.

Retail distributors: The final important stakeholder in the music industry is the retail distributors. They make copies of the music available to the eventual consumer.

The stakeholders above represent the music supply chain where the eventual music gets to the consumer via tangible means, in this case, a disc. Other stakeholders benefit from music such as advertisers, movie producers and television companies. The important thing to note is that the industry is very large and the number of stakeholders is very large depending on the supply chain used to market a particular piece of music. For instance, there is no role for a record label company if a band or a musician decides to use concerts and music tours as the only way they distribute their music. On the other hand, they will need other people to support their business model.

Current Income Generation Strategies for the Music Industry An analysis of the music supply chain reveals the fact that the musician is only a small part of the entire process. The process of commercializing a musical production is a very complex business undertaking that needs more than just the musical skills of an artist to succeed.

In the same vein, it is imperative for musicians to have a working knowledge of commercial aspects of the music industry to ensure that they get the most out of their work. There are direct ways and indirect ways that the music industry uses to reach consumers. Direct ways refer to those that aim at reaching the eventual consumer and hence earn revenue from it. Indirect avenues refer to uses of music where the music forms part of the final product, or accompanies another product before reaching the final consumer.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Music Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Direct Strategies

This paper classifies indirect strategies used in the distribution of music as concerts, selling of a music bearing product, and thirdly, internet sales of music. These strategies feature actual transfer of the music from the musician to the end user.


Concerts are still a popular method used to earn revenues from music. With the globalization of music, musicians normally have fans in vary vast areas. Many fans of popular musicians have never met of seen their idol performing in person. This makes concerts a very powerful means of facilitating this interaction.

Revenue from concerts comes in different ways depending on the popularity of the musician. For very popular musicians, organizers sell tickets to cover the concert expenses and to pay the artist their performance fees. Some of these organisers use the concerts as a means of making a profit.

They bring in a musician to a local fan base, and organize the concert in such as a way that in the end they have a profit from ticket sales. A musician can also use personal resources to organize the concert and make a profit from it. In situations where the musician needs publicity, a concert can also help to raise the required awareness. In this case, the musician may either meet the cost of the concert as part of their marketing fees, and hope to recover their expenses by selling CDs.

A concert is also a good place to sell merchandise products to fans. A musician may arrange to sell t-shirts, jewellery, shoes and other fashion accessories that carry their brand. If well planned, this method can help meet the costs of organizing the concert. The advantage of converts is that they eliminate the risk of piracy. If a musician uses concerts as the exclusive means of distributing music, then there will be no copies of the music to pirate.

Selling CDs

In the life of the commercial music industry, there has always been a means of conveying music to consumers. While technology has moved from the gramophones to iPods, the principle remains unchanged. Mass commercialization of music took place when the magnetic tape came into existence.

This tape had certain advantages over the gramophone record such as portability. It was possible to carry a number of tapes on a trip using a very tiny carriage space. The walkman was also a revolutionary invention in the development of music. It made music personal. The magnetic tapes introduced the problem of piracy.

Magnetic tapes were erasable and easily reproducible. However, the impact of piracy in the era of the magnetic tape was not as serious as the impact of piracy on CD sales. Original tapes had a superior sound quality and there was a sense of prestige in having original tapes. CD’s do not have the same qualities.

The output quality of a pirated copy can match the original. CDs are still popular nonetheless as a means of selling music. In the late nineties, the success of a musician depended on the number of albums sold, while in the last ten years, the measure of a musician’s success is the number of CDs sold. Outlets for CD sales include local retail stores, bookshops, supermarkets and music stores. In addition, CD sales can form part of the revenue streams for a concert.

Internet Sales

The internet is a new avenue for the distribution of music. With the development of digital versions of music, it is possible to transfer music by digital means. Selling music via the internet has several advantages. First, it eliminates the need to transport music physically to retailers. The consumer simply logs in to a site such as eBay or iTunes and buys music. It is very easy and convenient to pay for music online using one of the many online money vendors. The most popular vendor is PayPal, but a number of competitors exist.

Sales from the internet cut out a number of intermediaries from the music supply chain. It is possible for a musician to pay studio time to record their music, and to make sales online without passing through a record label. The only copy the musician will need is the master copy of the music from the studio.

After that, it is theoretically possible to sell millions of copies of the music at no additional cost, or the need to make physical copies. This method of sales is becoming more attractive even for record labels because it reduces their distribution costs by a very large margin.

Licensing of Music to Intermediate Users The final means through which musicians commercialise their music is by licensing. This refers to selling rights to the music, in whole or in part to a third party for their own use. Since music is an intellectual property, copyright laws protect the composers and the musicians by outlawing the use of the music without the consent of the musician.

The demand for licensing will increase as more and more people selling products online and advertising products through mass broadcast develop the need to piggyback their advertising messages on the music of popular musicians. Clients for licensing include moviemakers, advertising companies, video game makers and producers of television programs. A good example of this method of making money is the use of Celine Dion’s Song, “My heart will go on” in the Movie “Titanic”, produced by James Cameron.

Indirect Strategies

Some musicians have successfully developed merchandises from their music brand. The idea behind making products unrelated to music comes from the realization that a fan base is also a market niche. Developing products that can help fans to identify more with the brand makes the fans feel more attached to the musician.

The products that make successful merchandises are fashion items such as shoes, clothes, armlets, caps, bracelets, necklaces and T-shirts among others. It is feasible to produce perfumes, cosmetics and beauty products as a means of commercializing music. The basis of their success is the strength of the musical brand they represent, and the loyalty their fans have to them.

Challenges the Music Industry Faces The music industry has been on the receiving end of both the positive and negative consequences of technological growth. In fact, music makes for a very viable subject when it comes to the study of the impact of technology in the modern world. As music becomes more and more reliant on technology for production and distribution, it is clear that the most significant challenges the industry faces are technology related.

These challenges include piracy, influx of software alternatives to musical instruments, ease of file sharing and file transfer, and the death of the album as a measure of success in the music industry. Another problem related to technological developments is the creation and retention of a fan base.


Piracy in music in its simplest terms refers to the production and sale of illegal copies of music. It does not matter whether it is a single song or a complete album. Piracy is not new in the music industry. Its recognition as a problem came about with the emergence of the magnetic tapes.

Magnetic tapes were easy to reproduce even at the domestic level. However, the real threat came from commercial piracy where people set up entire business systems that made counterfeit copies of music and sold them for profit. Often pirated copies of music had a lower quality compared to the originals hence the market put up some form of resistance against pirated music.

With the advent of digital technologies, it is almost impossible to detect a pirated copy of music from an original one by listening to it. This is making pirated music more acceptable. Moreover, CDs lack the prestige magnetic tapes had.

They are not very good show items. This has led to a lack of attachment comparable to the one that original magnetic tape owners and gramophone records enthusiasts exhibited.

In fact, it is very easy to simply take an original CD and in just a few minutes copy it onto a laptop’s hard disk. Unless new technologies inhibiting the making of digital copies of CDs get widespread use, the problem of piracy will continue to affect the music industry.

The Software Influx

On the creative end, music is suffering from an influx of softwares for use in the production of music. This comes from the fact that it is possible to make a song, complete with beats and instrumentals using a headset and an open source software. It is no longer necessary to learn the art of making music such as playing a musical instrument in order to produce the sound of that instrument.

What a person will learn in three months about playing a guitar, an average computer user with access to a music making software can reproduce within a day. The remaining frontier that computers have not yet conquered is singing. Theoretically speaking it will not be long before it becomes possible to reproduce voices of popular artists or to create fictionalised ones and synthesize their voices into music!

There is a real threat to music as a form of art. The space for creativity is reducing more and more. As people become more accustomed to music made by computers, the sounds of authentic artists playing authentic musical instruments will become strange.

As voices undergo scientific manipulation to perfect them in digital sound studios, there will be lesser recognition for the effort it takes to perfect a singers natural voice. It may not matter anymore.

Ease of File Sharing

Another problem that music faces today because of technological change is the ease of file sharing enabled by the internet. It is true that “Illegal downloading remains to be a continuous challenge for the recording industry”. Once one person in a clique of friends finds an interesting song in digital format, it is then very easy to pass on the song by forwarding the file to their friends.

In the context of social media, it may be hundreds of people in an instant. This whole clique will not need to buy the music thereafter, which wipes out that market. Sharing files is much harder to track especially when the sharing takes place in privately held email accounts. This problem eats into the potential revenue a musician can make from their music.

Death of the Album

The next threat to the development of music is the death of the album. Musicians are working harder to produce near perfect singles rather than committing time to produce full albums. The current distribution systems of music make it easier and more economical to produce a hit single and then go find the next big song rather than sell a whole album to an audience.

In addition to this, people no longer listen to whole albums the old-fashioned way. Rather, they listen to specific songs of interest from different albums. People are listening to music on digital media more and more. Whether it is a CD player, a laptop, a phone or an iPod, a user creates a playlist and listens to the particular songs of interest. Unlike records and magnetic tapes, picking specific songs is not a laborious activity.

The response on the side of musicians has been to provide music in detachable formats hence fuelling this new trend. The problem it posses to music is that it reduces the power of music as a communication tool. The art of producing music albums revolved around the capacity of the musician to produce a set of songs based on a particular theme thereby increasing the communicative value of their music.

Creating and Keeping a Fan Base

Globalization and “increased amateur activity” in the music industry because of the lowering of entry barriers have made it very difficult to develop and retain a fan base. Music markets span the world and are not in specific geographical confines. For a musician to reach such a diverse audience, it calls for a lot of work.

The challenge of raising a fan base also stems from the difficulty of getting through to the fans because of the high number of musicians looking for their attention. Remember, music is not the only input an average music fan receives. It is a constant struggle to keep looking for an appropriate means to find and maintain a fan base.

Responses to the Problems Facing the Music Industry In order to address the issues facing music, it is important to have certain things in mind. First, there is need to recognize that a successful music career depends on the soundness of the business strategy used to distribute it. The musician needs a source of income, and the most efficient way of making a living is through the music.

A successful musical career requires dedication and focus, which a part time hobby just cannot allow. Secondly, music is essentially an art form. Therefore, the commercial aspects of music do not have the last word on the success of music.

The intrinsic appreciation of music by enthusiasts transcends the challenges that modern music must deal with. In this sense, the technological challenges music faces cannot kill music. However, every musician must find a way of overcoming these challenges.

Using Piracy to Advantage

While piracy imputes illicit gain on the part of the commercial pirate, some concession on the part of the musicians can reduce the impact that piracy has on their careers. For instance, a musician can decide to use pirate networks to build publicity and to grow their fan base.

After all, it is the demand for the music by their fans that makes the music pirates find it attractive to make illicit copies. Even better, if the perceived losses in revenue by the distribution of illicit copies do not outweigh the benefits from the resulting publicity, then it may make sense for a musician to allow their music to pass through pirate channels.

Another safe way of avoiding pirate channels can be the use a business model that does not rely on the digital copies for success. This can include the sale of merchandize to raise funds for the music. If fans know that a musician does not sell their music but instead uses merchandise to pay for its production, they will be supportive of the efforts.

The other way to beat piracy is to release music free of charge for personal use but to position the music as a product for licensing. If the song is popular, them someone will want to use it for their promotional campaigns.

This model will make it easy for the musician to monitor commercial uses of their music and to make money from royalties. Giving out the music without cost will also make the music available to many people thereby growing the fan base.

“Live Music” Tag to Mitigate Software Threat

The threat posed by software will be very difficult to beat. Music lovers are listening to more and more computer generated music that it is only a matter of time before music from real instruments becomes odd. The only way to ensure that the taste for music made from real instruments remains is by providing opportunities for the fans to listen to live band music.

It is possible to use concerts for this purpose. Another method would be to add the label, “made from real Instruments” to such productions to differentiate the music from the rest. This approach will likely create a market niche for music lovers who value the art of making music from real instruments.

Education that File Sharing Constitutes Piracy

After establishing a fan base, it may be necessary to educate fans on the fact that file sharing is as bad as piracy. While a fan does not derive economic value from the copies they share, they deny the musician potential revenue when they share musical files with their friends.

A musician can exercise a certain amount of persuasion over loyal fans hence it makes sense to try to persuade them against sharing files. Moral persuasion is the best tool available for a musician because any other method of dealing with piracy will be very expensive. Policing piracy is a very expensive undertaking, which is difficult even for organised law enforcement agencies.

Letting the Album Die and Creation of Collector Albums

The traditional album seems headed for certain death. However, it is not a trend worth trying to change. This is because the way people listen to music no longer supports music delivered in album format.

From today’s standpoint, it is inconceivable that people will revert to the old ways of listening to music the way magnetic tapes and gramophone records forced them to. They do not have to listen to music sequentially but can choose to shuffle them, skip, or rearrange them in the way they wish.

On the other hand, it may be helpful to sell collections of singles such as the best hits by an artist in the last two years. Just as people no longer look for whole albums, they will only be interested in songs that please them.

Another way of looking at this situation is to consider it a marketing situation where the old way of packaging music does not support current consumption trends. Artists will therefore have the increased burden of planning their songs in a way that they each song stands alone. What should guide them is more of a philosophy rather than a theme when writing their songs.

Use of Social Media to Create and Maintain Fans

The need to raise and maintain a fan base will not become easier with time. The good thing is that technology has solutions to the same problems it has created for the music industry. The difference between a successful musician and a non-starter may well be their social media strategy.

The young generation, who support the emerging music industry, spend a lot of their time on social media platforms. With a good strategy, it is possible to grow a fan base using the tools available there. In fact, a musician today has more opportunities to build and maintain a fan base by adopting existing technologies to do the work that old musicians travelled thousands of miles to do.

Alternative Income Sources

It is incumbent upon musicians to continue thinking about more income streams that they can use to bolster their financial standing. Granted, there is a point where too much commercialization of music can actually kill the art. However, without some kind of income, artists cannot commit themselves fully to the art of making music.

Musicians should do their best to find new ways of utilizing their talent for income. As they do this, record labels also should work hard to find ways of making music available to users at a lower cost and in a manner, which discourages piracy. It is vital to develop CD technologies that will resist duplication. While technically it is very complex to do this, it is vital to find ways of reducing this vice. Piracy is a real vice that threatens the future of music.

Conclusion The music industry is not exempt from changes in technology. If anything, the music industry bears the brunt historically whenever there are groundbreaking changes in technology. For the music industry to survive beyond this point as a commercial venture, it will need to adapt its systems to fit the current circumstances.

Reference List Holmes, D 2005, Communication Theory: Media, Technology, and Society, SAGE, London, UK.

Mather 2012, ‘Print


Why an interview is generally invalid and unreliable Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Discussion and analysis



Introduction As a selection tool, an interview has been found to be unreliable and invalid therefore most companies end up employing candidates under bias conditions. This article will consider the reasons behind the fruitless efforts of interviews in giving accurate and genuine results.

However the key to improving the reliability and validity of interviews can be seen through employing useful tools. This paper will also explore various ways in which interviews can be made a more impactful tool for selection. Further analysis on how these tools can be incorporated into the selection process to improve decision making will also be discussed.

Background Many companies and businesses have been opened up recently. The need to employ new ideas and opportunities has also been on the rise with different companies and businesses searching for fresh talent. Ideally, an interview as a tool is used to gauge a candidate’s performance ability by a potential employer (Fontana


Influence of Heavy Metal Music on Adolescence (Behavior, Identity, Mood, Regulation, Psychology) Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Studies on adolescence and teenage culture are confined to understanding of teenagers’ needs. Because adolescents have similar concerns and needs and create similar peer groups, music performs the same goals for all of the groups. Being a source of peer group identity, music contrasts either with working class street subculture or with conformist culture in schools.

Accepting the potent impact of music on adolescents’ behavior, identity, and psychology leads to a deeper analysis of the influences of heavy metal music on teenagers’ development. At this point, adolescents’ preoccupation with heavy metal music is found to be harmful in terms of its influence on school achievement, social behavior, and individual differences (Harqreaves


Research paper on Vietnamese women immigrants in the United States Essay best essay help: best essay help

It is apparent that Vietnamese women ranging from the age of 20 to 45 began to migrate into the United States in the mid 1970s (Seller, 1994). Research has shown that the current population of Vietnamese women stands at approximately 1.1 million. Moreover, this has been perceived to be one of the largest immigrant groups in the US.

From a comprehensive analysis, it is evident that in a period of two decades, the population has grown significantly with majority residing in Texas and California (Seller, 1994). Notably, despite the increased number of immigrants into the US, majority of the women have faced numerous challenges.

Nevertheless, there are those who have been able to cope with the emerging situations regardless of the numerous barriers related to language and cultural shocks (Fadiman, 1997). It is against this backdrop that this paper explores how these women adjust in the US and their specific avenues for success and failure.

Literature review Vietnamese women who ventured into the US had high hopes to live up to their dreams while there. Nevertheless, it is notable that majority of them have been disillusioned since they find life in the US totally different from what they imagined or expected (Seller, 1994). Probably, I expect that since these women had attained working age, they wanted to venture out and search for greener pastures in this foreign land.

I also tend to think that initially, it was not easy for them since most of them were native speakers of Vietnam languages and hence they could not communicate effectively in English. In this case, I anticipate that they became vulnerable to alienation and loneliness. Alternatively, there were those women who were quick to adapt to life in the US. For instance, they learnt how to communicate in English and this liberated them from language barrier (Kingston, 1989).

In addition, I suppose there emerged a generational gap between the native immigrants and children who were born by the women while in the US. This would be due to the fact that these children grew up in a different cultural and social setting from that of their parents (Seller, 1994).

Furthermore, I intended to study how the Vietnamese women coped with the strange situations in the US. Therefore, this study is relevant in explaining why the number of immigrants has kept on increasing yearly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, this study intends to prove the hypothesis or the assumption that Vietnamese women aged between 20 and 40 years were prone to cultural shocks, discrimination and economic difficulties in the US (Seller, 1994).

This hypothesis is integral in understanding the possible factors influencing success and failure of immigrants in the US. Additionally, poverty in Vietnam is one of the independent variables that triggered immigration to the US. However, poor skills and language barrier were some of dependent variables that hindered migration of majority of the women to the US.

The study has revealed that most of the Vietnamese women at the age of 20-45 years migrated into the US as domestic workers. Nevertheless, they faced challenges in conforming to the social roles and norms in the new society. This is due to the fact that their roles both in the society and in families were configured by the new social setting in the US (Kingston, 1989).

It is evident that they operated under tough conditions while trying to balance the conflicting social roles. Moreover, empirical research has shown that cultural shocks were inevitable and they had to transit from their native culture in order to cope and adopt the US culture (Fadiman, 1997).

For instance, in Vietnam, these women thrived in a patriarchal society whereby they remained submissive to their husbands unlike the case in the US. For example, while in the US, they had to abandon certain feminine roles and pick up those that were masculine. Notably, they compromised patriarchal values from their culture, a factor that was not easy to cope with at the beginning.

Other cultural shocks emerged from the fact that women and children had a lot of freedom as opposed to the case in Vietnam. Interestingly, this was perceived as a violation of the traditional family structure in Vietnam (Kingston, 1989).

Issues to do with gender disparity were no longer a common issue in the US. Contrastingly, the issue of gender discrimination is very significant in Vietnam and probably that was the reason why most of the women preferred to migrate to the US in search for freedom (Seller, 1994).

We will write a custom Essay on Research paper on Vietnamese women immigrants in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it is evident that most of the Vietnamese women faced economic difficulties since they were not prepared for the US life. Research indicates that majority of the immigrants were being trafficked into the US as domestic workers. Consequently, circumstances took a different turn once they found that there were unique sets of issues that they had to adhere to in order to cope with life.

For instance, majority were used to speak native languages as opposed to the case in the US where English was the medium of communication (Seller, 1994).

Therefore, they had problems while seeking Jobs and this made them to strain for some time before they could cope with the normal lifestyle. From the study, I found out that there emerged a huge gap between the children and parents due to difference in cultural standards (Kingston, 1989).

Nevertheless, regardless of the numerous challenges faced by Vietnamese women, majority of them have succeeded and are doing remarkably well. Most of them have learnt to speak in fluent English. This has helped them to venture into businesses such as running restaurants, beauty shops and salons (Fadiman, 1997).

References Fadiman, A. (1997). The Spirit catches you and you fall down. New York: Douglas


Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography Research Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Theoretical Understanding




Introduction “The impact technology has had upon society today cannot be measured. In fact, it has had such an impact that if it were wiped out, the human race would be thrown back into the Dark Ages” (Leon 2011, p. 2). The above statement was made to show the extent that technology influences our society today.

Indeed, new forms of technology have greatly revolutionized almost all aspects of our society. It is almost impossible to point out one aspect of the society that is not affected by technology (directly or indirectly).

In fact, technology has had such a strong impact on the society, that if it were eliminated, the society would probably grind to a halt. Furthermore, technology controls all aspects of our daily activities (from the time we wake up to the time we go to bed) because everything we do or engage in is run by some form of technology (Leon 2011).

The thought that technology has greatly improved our functions as a society is undoubted, but in the same light, it is only fair to represent the fact that technology has made our society become more ferocious and mean. Today, people use technology to spy on other people, launch attacks (like digital terrorism) and perpetrate hateful information (among other ills) (Wall 2007).

However, there is no better example of how technology has been condemned for its misdeeds than through its revolution of the pornography industry (Gallop 2011). Pornography greatly touches on the morals of a society and indeed, like the diverse universe we live in today, people hold different views about it.

This paper seeks to understand the impact of new technology on online pornography based on an incident in Indonesia where a lawmaker was caught viewing porn during a parliamentary session. This incident centers around the actions of Arifinto who belongs to the Islamic conservative Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) of Indonesia (Wilson 2011). This incident acts as the case study for this paper.

Privacy and identity issues will be highlighted through this case study. Besides using the above case study as a basis for explaining the research problem, this paper also analyzes how technology has impacted our understanding of pornography through different tenets of the industry including distribution, production, access, privacy and identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper therefore shows that technology has completely changed concepts of the production of pornographic material, the distribution of pornographic material, access to pornographic material and our understanding of the concepts of privacy and identity. The diffusion innovations theory will (also) be used to explain these facts.

Distribution Even though the pornography industry has grown in leaps and bounds, a few years ago, our understanding of pornography was mainly informed by our understanding that pornographic materials could only be found in printed forms and in theatres and strip clubs (Emily 2007, p. 2).

However, from the progress in technology, the motion picture industry has heralded a new dawn in the distribution of pornographic materials. Initially, video and home video cassette recorders provided an opportunity to change the distribution of pornographic content in new and more personal ways.

Indeed, the introduction of video and home video cassette recorders meant that people did not necessarily have to go to a movie theatre to watch movies or sex shows; one could easily access such content at the comfort of their bedrooms. With this new progress, the porn industry found another opportunity to grow because producers made many video productions for home entertainment (Holt 2011, p. 12).

However, perhaps, the biggest break in the distribution of pornographic content came with the advent of the internet. The internet provided a global network for the sale of pornographic content because pornographic materials could easily be shared through the worldwide web. Subscriptions to adult content websites is now not a new phenomenon. The surge in digital content of pornographic materials was especially spurred by the relatively low prices of owning personal computers (Emily 2007).

From the progress in technological inventions, our perception of pornography has been greatly changed. Pornography is no more a taboo subject; it is quickly becoming a readily accessible product that is no longer a preserve of a specific age group or culture. It is readily available to all.

Perhaps, in the past, it was easy to regulate the sale and distribution of print material (bearing pornographic content) or the access to strip and dance clubs (age restrictions) but with the advent of the digital age, pornography is no longer subject to the above limitations. In fact, the lack of these limitations has been a cause of worry for most adults because they perceive the lack of these limitations as a threat to the morals of our society (Holt 2011).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Identity Advancements in technology have made it very difficult to uphold principles of true identity in the sale, production, distribution or even access to digital content. The biggest worry among most people today is the easy access to pornographic content that minors have (Gallop 2011).

More so, the invention of portable digital devices like tablet computers, mobile phones (and the likes) have made it very difficult to supervise the access to digital content among minors. Now, minors can access pornographic materials merely by faking their identities and more importantly, their ages (Holliday 2003, p. 124).

Incidents of identity misrepresentation and the unauthorized access to classified information or adult content has been facilitated by advancements in technology. The digital landscape now is such that, there is no basis for verifying information provided online. Therefore, it is very easy for people to masquerade themselves for people they are truly not.

The use of fake names to access or produce pornographic content is especially rampant. As opposed to previous years where it was easy to know people accessing pornographic content, it has been increasingly difficult (in recent years) to identify who is truly accessing pornographic content (Gallop 2011).

Focusing on Arifinto’s widely publicized case; we can easily testify that his private browsing of pornographic material was anonymously done. Indeed, the websites he was accessing could not reveal his identity. In other words, if he was not caught, we would not know that the lawmaker accessed the pornographic materials and it would equally be difficult to detect if any prominent personality was accessing the pornographic content.

A few years back, it would be very difficult to conceal one’s identity when accessing these pornographic materials. As explained in earlier sections of this paper, pornography was mainly accessed through the physical presence of the consumer at the venue of production. Consumers had to be present at the location where the pornography was being produced because technology did not provide the convenience or storing such information or distributing such content through digital means.

For example, if Arifinto was not spotted by the photographer (as he viewed pornographic material) it would be difficult to know if he truly accessed such information. In fact, it is there mere fact that there was evidence pegging him to the accusations that he accepted to resign and admit to his actions (Wilson 2011). Otherwise, if there was no evidence to show that he was actually viewing pornographic material in parliament (and he decided not to accept such claims), it would be difficult to pin him down.

Just to show the influence of technology in this example, it is important to highlight the fact that if Arifinto attended a strip club or a live sex show, he would have otherwise been spotted in person and he could not deny such claims because there would be eye-witness accounts. Therefore, technology has greatly facilitated identity concealment and it has made it possible to access pornography without one’s identity being known.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of New Forms of Technology on Our Understanding of Pornography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Privacy Privacy is often a common concern in most technological debates. Often, this concept is used to refer to debates concerning the importance of embracing technology (or not) (Bogart 2002). When referring to pornography, we can see that technology has greatly infringed on people’s rights to privacy.

In fact, pornography thrives on the fact that people would pay money to access pictures or videos which would have otherwise been considered private. Incidents of prominent personalities having private videos or photos leaked to the internet are ever more common now than before.

Arifinto’s case clearly depicts the extent that technology has changed the concept of privacy in today’s society. In detail, the invention of digital devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers has enabled people to access information or videos in public places. For example, as explained in earlier sections of this paper, in the past, access to pornographic materials was only limited to strip clubs and dance houses.

Sex shows were mainly done in private and in highly regulated environments where everything that went on in such premises was considered private. However, with the advent of technology and the continuous invention of digital devices, people have been able to access products which would otherwise be considered private in public places (Cavalier 2005).

When Afrinto accessed pornographic material in parliament, he exhibited the power of technology in transforming private content into publicly accessible information. A few years ago, he would not have been able to access such pornographic material in public places (let alone in parliament).

Coincidentally, it is also through another technological device that he was pointed out. A camera man with a powerful camera was able to zoom at the pornographic pages that the parliamentarian was browsing (from a distance).

In fact, media reports show that Afrinto’s claims that he accidentally bumped into the pornographic site were disputed by the camera man’s photo which showed that he had about six folders of pornographic content (opened) as his colleagues debated important matters of national importance (Wilson 2011).

The influence of technology on privacy can therefore be highlighted through this example, despite the fact that it was interesting to see that the same technology that was used to access “private” content was also used to infringe on Afrinto’s privacy.

Afrinto’s use of the tablet computer to access pornographic material therefore shows the influence of technology in making pornographic content (which would have otherwise been considered private) public. Indeed, if Afrinto accessed such content at the comfort of his house, he probably wouldn’t have received the same level of criticism he did.

Theoretical Understanding The diffusion innovation theory focuses on explaining how innovation is quickly communicated within a specific society. Usually, this theory is used to explain how new ideas are spread (within a society) because innovation is perceived to be a representation of new ideas.

Rogers (2003) explains that characteristics of new ideas or concepts in communication often determine the rate at which new technology will be communicated. There are four elements that are used to explain the rate of technological adoption (revolution within the society). These elements include communication channels, time, the social context and the innovation itself (Rogers 2003).

These four elements can be used to explain the rate and form used by technological innovations to revolutionize our understanding of the pornography industry. More so, the concept of ‘time’ clearly explains the transition in the production and distribution of pornographic content from previous years when pornography was considered a private product to now that it is readily accessible.

The time difference between today’s conventional methods of the sale, access and distribution of pornographic materials shows the change in the perception of pornography over the years.

The element of communication channels (explained in the diffusion innovation theory) explains the various forms of digital gadgets and networks that have been used to communicate pornographic content (Greenhalgh 2007, p. 20). Indeed, the internet and the tablet computer were the main forms of digital tools used by Arifinto to access pornography.

The concept of communication channels is therefore the main element of technology that has influenced the concepts of identity and privacy in today’s society. Through the communication tools used to share and transfer information, different safeguards for verifying subscriber information have been by-passed. Moreover, these communication tools have been used by subscribers to access information anonymously. This measure has completely changed the concept of identity in accessing digital contents.

The concept of innovation explains the advancements in technology used to transform the pornography industry. A common question asked by many observers when referring to the concept of innovation is why some innovations spread faster than others (Dwivedi 2011).

This paper identifies the worldwide network that the internet provides as a main catalyst for the changes in distribution strategies within the porn industry. Concisely, through the internet, Arifinto was able to access porn. The internet has also been able to transform the porn industry from a private industry to a public one. This phenomenon has been explained under the concept of privacy.

Finally, the diffusion innovations theory explains that the social context is an important element explaining the spread of innovations within the society. However, within the context of this study, the concept of social context can be used to explain the pressure and condemnation that Arifinto received after the pornography scandal.

The immense pressure to resign can be explained by the strict Islamic principles that did not condone pornography or appreciate the impact that technology brings in the Indonesian context. In fact, pornography access through new technology is condemned and at best, frowned upon (Wilson 2011).

Conclusion Arifinto’s incident shows the transformation that technology has brought to our understanding of pornography. This paper shows that distribution, privacy and identity in pornography have been completely changed by technology. Technology has eased the access to pornographic material and similarly, it has changed the production of pornographic content.

Like the diffusion innovations theory explains, concepts of identity and privacy have also been completely changed through technology. Technology has made it easy for users to access pornographic material (anonymously) and it has also transformed pornography from a private product to a public product. Through these transformations, we see that technology has completely transformed our understanding of pornography in the 21st century.

References Bogart, W 2002, Consequences: The Impact of Law and Its Complexity, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Cavalier, R 2005, The Impact Of The Internet On Our Moral Lives, SUNY Press, New York.

Dwivedi, Y 2011, Information Systems Theory: Explaining and Predicting Our Digital Society, Springer, New York.

Emily, B 2007, Internet’s Affect on the Porn Industry. Web.

Gallop, C 2011, Make Love Not Porn: Technology’s Hardcore Impact on Human Behavior, TED Books, New York.

Greenhalgh, T 2007, Diffusion Of Innovations In Health Service Organisations: A Systematic Literature Review, John Wiley


Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Brief overview of country and main issues

Cultural Context

Political/Legal context

Economic context

Conclusion and recommendation


List of References

Executive Summary South Africa is the leading economy in the African continent. It gained its independence in 1994 from the Dutch who had took over power from British government in 1910. The country is the focal of Africa. It was the first African nation to host FIFA World Cup in 2010. This country has the highest number of languages considered by the government as official (eleven languages).

It has varied cultural background because of the numerous tribes it has. Some of the cultural values are prohibitive to specific type trade, while others are supportive. The political environment of this country has been very stable. The political class has been very supportive of foreign investments in various fronts.

This has seen many firms’ growth. The legal system is also very welcoming to foreign investment. There are a few formalities that any foreign firm may need to take. The process of getting the trade permit is simple and short. The economic structure of the country is another factor that makes this country attractive to foreign investment.

Although there are a few individuals who are super rich, having amassed most of the country’s wealth, the other populace is still economically viable. The best approach to get into this market is to adopt target marketing technique. Each market segment should be determined based on their wealth and cultural values that affects their purchasing habits.

Brief overview of country and main issues South Africa is the leading economy in the entire continent of Africa. It has a population of about 51 million people. According to a report by Tarp and Brixen (1996, p. 78), South Africa has a strong economy when compared to other countries in this region. This can partly be attributed to the fact that this nation gained its independence from the British rule as early as 1910.

Although the Dutch remained in power, they took citizenship of this country and as such, the resources of this country were not taken away to the European countries. Another factor that has ensured that this country has a strong economy is its rich natural resources.

South Africa is the world’s largest gold exporter. Gold is a very precious metal and it fetches good money in the international market. Other sectors of the economy are also equally developed. The country has the best infrastructure in Africa, especially after hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The transport sector was upgraded, and so were other sectors like communication, banking and other social amenities. The country has some of the best harbors in this region (Best 2009, p. 98). Since the time the blacks took over power in 1994, the country has relatively been peaceful, save for the xenophobia that was witnessed in the late 2009 following economic downturn in the world that affected this country.

Amidst all these positivity, the country experiences a great difference in the distribution of wealth. The wealth of this country is held by a few individuals, leaving the majority wallowing in poverty. This has greatly affected the purchasing power of the people of this country, as discussed below.

This paper seeks to conduct a survey of this country’s business environment in order to ascertain its viability to sustain business ventures.

Cultural Context South Africa is very rich in culture. Majority of this population are the blacks, making up 80 percent of the entire population. The whites make 9 percent and so are the colored.

The Asians make up 2 percent of the country’s populace. Among the Africans, there are various tribes each with its own cultural practices. There are the Zulu’s who are the majority, the Xhosas, Swazis, the Ndebele, the Sotho, Venda, Tswana and the Tsonga. The country has about eleven official languages, most of them Africa languages, other than English and Afrikaans.

The African cultural values are still cherished in this country. For instance, many of the African cultures values children and this would make men marry many wives. Although this is advantageous to the business world in that it increases the target population, it has an equal negative effect because the little wealth that is available has to be spread among the many, making their purchasing power very low.

The current president of this country, Jacob Zuma is such typical African. A Zulu by tribe, this president has married several wives as a symbol of being true to his culture. Some of these cultural practices may be a hindrance to business while others may be beneficial.

We will write a custom Case Study on Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among some societies for instance, traditional medicine is highly encouraged as opposed to the pharmaceutical ones. This has had negative impact on the sale of laboratory drugs because the population does not believe in them. Conversely, the sale of electronics has been boosted by the cultural practices of this country.

Most of the African cultures have close family ties. They stay as a large society, always concerned about the others welfare. As such, such electronic products like cell phones that enable communication have been a great welcome. The social media has also received an equally high acceptance among the locals. As such, items like the iPad, iPhone, and computers in general have found good market in South Africa.

Most of the country’s cultural practices have been influenced by the west because of the increased interactivity between Africans of this country and the west. Such products as the Hollywood movies are very popular among the youths. There is a shift in the cultural practices of the country’s citizens, especially among the youths.

Because of the influence from the west as fostered by various channels, the youths are abandoning some cultural practices that were highly valued by different tribes of this nation for the western culture which to them is more liberal and less restrictive. Their dressing code is changing and as such, business firms that operate in this industry have come to realize that those dresses that are in demand in the American markets would fetch good prices in this country, especially among the youths who want to imitate the west in almost everything.

Political/Legal context South Africa was one of the most attractive colonies in the entire African region because of its rich resources. During the scramble and partition of Africa, the British government took this country as one of its colony. In 1990, the Dutch declared self governance and took over power. They presided over a government that was highly racial. Africans, the whites, the colored and the Asians had their own facilities that were not to be shared.

The whites had the best infrastructural facilities and other amenities, while the blacks, who were the majority, had the worst (Fifield 2007, p. 78). This was called the apartheid governance. This has had a great effect in the political structure of this country even today. Although the governance of the country currently is purely on a democratic front, there is still a great mistrust between the whites and the blacks.

The conservative whites, who were forced out of the government because of the strong wave of change, still harbor the feeling that they deserve to be treated better than any other race in this country. On the other hand, the blacks are still suspicious of the whites following the oppressive rule that the whites had made them undergo.

This is a source of tension, and although the country’s political environment has been very stable since the onset of democratic rule in 1994, there is fear that this tension could deteriorate to violence as was witnessed in 2009. The law of this land has liberalized trade. Investors who may wish to invest in this country have to undergo a few formalities to open up business units in the country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Opportunities and Implications for an Organization to Enter Into South Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic context South Africa has a sound economic structure. According to a report by Roux (2005, p. 67), South Africa is the leading producer of gold in the world. This industry employs many of the country’s nationals as miners of the product, transporters, traders and many other positions.

It is the main foreign exchange product for the country. This country has a well developed agricultural sector. Most of the food products consumed locally is found locally. It also exports some of its agricultural products to other African countries. The fishing industry is also developed, especially on the high seas. Other industries are also well developed.

Despite all these economic prosperity that this country seems to enjoy, there is one major problem with the economic structure of this nation. The country’s economic system is controlled by the minority. Though rated Africa’s best economy, the wealth is in the hands of a few individuals.

These individuals cannot manage to spend all the wealth they have, and at the same time fear that a moment may come where the government may put them to task to explain their source of wealth. As such, they have kept this wealth in European nations where they know that they would be safe from any investigation.

This has left the larger population in object poverty. They cannot afford many luxuries in life. To others, even the basics are a problem. To an investor, the large population of the country and the huge gross domestic product may be very attractive. However, the reduced purchasing power of this high population is a huge impediment to growth of business units in the country.

Conclusion and recommendation South Africa is one of the most attractive destinations for investors. It is one of the fastest growing economies among the developing nations. The political structure of this nation has been its main strength. The country has experienced a stable political environment since the Africans took over power from the Dutch.

This has provided business opportunities to many investors because of total absence of strife. Save for the little xenophobic behavior that was witnessed a few years ago for about a week, the country has been a safe place to invest in. The political class has avoided interrupting with the business units. The ruling party ANC (African National Congress), which has been in power since independence, has had friendly policies towards foreign investors coming to this country.

The economic structure of the country is also very attractive. Although the country has its wealth with the minority, it is still economically viable. The remaining population is still attractive enough to make a good market. The rich minority can also make attractive market segment for goods of ostentation like top of the range cars.

The social structure is another factor that can facilitate trade. The cultural practices of the majority of the residents would facilitate trade in such products as electronics and clothing. With the legal structure that is not prohibitive of foreign investment, investors have the best opportunity to invest in this country’s various sectors.

Recommendations To succeed in this environment, the following factors are strongly recommended to ensure prosperity for firm.

Any foreign firm should avoid any practice that would be a sign that they favor a certain section of the community as this would be a strong reminder to this society of the apartheid rule which is abhorred by many of the citizens

It is advisable to have a deep knowledge of the sector one is planning to invest in. The investment should be that which can be supported by the chosen sector.

The investors should adhere to the legal structures that the country has put in place regarding the trade in the country

Target marketing is highly encouraged. This is because this country has people of different cultures and with different amounts of wealth. The rich should be targeted with specific products and so are the middle class and the poor. Similarly, the cultural practice of the specific tribes of this country may dictate the type of product that would be most preferable to them.

List of References Best, RJ 2009, Market-Based Management Strategies for Growing Customer value and Profitability, Pearson, New Jersey.

Fifield, P 2007, Marketing Strategy: The Difference between Marketing and Markets, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.

Roux, A 2005, Everyone’s Guide to the South African Economy, Zebra, Cape Town.

Tarp, F


“The man to send rain clouds” by Leslie Marmon Silko Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How conflict is developed

How conflict is resolved

Works Cited

Introduction The central conflict in a story is normally the fight between the main character and other things that hinder him or her from achieving or accomplishing something that he or she wants (Garfinkel, 44). If there is no central conflict then a story does not exist since other characters and themes revolve around the central conflict to make a story. At times the central conflict in a story can be the burning issue in the story that needs to be addressed or resolved (Fog