International Relations As Natural And Social Science Argumentative Essay A Level English Language Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction/Thesis statement

Analytical part




Introduction/Thesis statement Nowadays, it became a common practice among many political scientists to suggest that, since the observable emanations of international relations in today’s world do seem to have acquired a number of qualitatively new subtleties, the application of a positivist methodology in IR can no longer be considered appropriate.1 This suggestion, however, cannot be referred to as such that represents an undeniable truth-value.

This is because, even though that, during the course of recent decades, the operational principles of IR did undergo a rather drastic transformation, the innermost essence of how different countries relate to each other on the arena of international politics remains thoroughly ‘functional’.

This, of course, implies that IR-related subject matters can be best addressed within the conceptual framework of a specifically positivist methodology, which in turn suggests that IR may indeed be studied as a natural science. I will aim to explore the validity of this thesis at length.

Analytical part The methodological principles of natural sciences are based upon the empirically tested assumption that there are a number of objectively existing impersonal laws, which define the essence of a surrounding reality. In its turn, this makes it possible to predict the vector of a researched phenomena’s spatial development.

For example, we are well aware of the fact that, after having been thrown high into the air, any physical object will necessarily fall down back on earth – the law of gravity will cause it to do so. This is exactly the reason why physics is considered a ‘hard science’, for example – physical laws are thoroughly objective.

Even though IR cannot be considered a ‘hard science’, in the full sense of this word, there are many good reasons to consider IR’s discursive conventions as such that fit well within the methodological framework of biology (another ‘hard science’) and physics. This points out to the fact that IR can indeed be considered a subject of a positivist scientific inquiry.

For example, even though that traditionalists and post-positivists suggest that, there is too much complexity to the subject of international relations (in order for its integral components to be disassembled for the purpose of positivist testing); this point of view does not stand much ground.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because, once we apply a naturalistic approach for assessing the actual significance of IR-related conventions, the earlier mentioned ‘complexity’ will simply evaporate.

After all, just about all the aspects of how countries coexist/compete on the arena of international politics can be well discussed within the context of what positivists consider the foremost purposes of every state’s existence:

Economic/geopolitical expansion,

Protection of internal stability,

Impairment of the internal stability of competing/neighboring countries.2

In their turn, the earlier mentioned purposes of states’ existence reflect the scientifically proven fact that, biologically speaking, the representatives of Homo Sapiens species are nothing but primates, whose foremost existential pursuits are being concerned with reproduction and with trying to impose their dominance upon others.

What it means is that national states can be well conceptualized as culturally/scientifically advanced and geographically bounded packs of apes that remain in the state of a continual competition for natural resources.

The validity of this statement can be well explored in regards to the actual consequences of 2011 Arab revolutions.

Even though that Western mainstream Medias never ceased referring to the downfalls of secular regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, as such that have been predetermined by the citizens’ strive towards ‘democracy’, it now became clear to just about anyone that the ‘Arab spring’s’ actual cause had to do with the America’s decision to take control of natural resources in the area – pure and simple.

The same can be said about the actual cause of the ongoing civil war in Syria.

We will write a custom Essay on International Relations as Natural and Social Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The significance of IR’s subject matters can also be assessed within the methodological framework of physics. The reason for this is quite apparent – given the fact that human societies are essentially material (they consist of psychically-bodied individuals), the qualitative dynamics within just about any society do reflect the effects of people’s exposure to physical laws.

After all, every human society (country) can be well conceptualized in terms of an open thermo-dynamic system. The continuous functioning of such a system can only be ensured for as long as the extent of its inner complexity remains higher than the complexity of a surrounding environment.3

When the extent of environment’s complexity is being higher, it becomes only the matter of time before this system ‘dissolves’ in it. In its turn, this explains why, as of today, Western countries suffer from the inflow of illegal immigrants, while being slowly ‘dissolved’ in the surrounding Third World.

Conclusion I believe that the earlier deployed line of argumentation, in defense of the suggestion that IR can indeed be studied as a natural science, is being thoroughly consistent with the paper’s initial thesis.

Apparently, only the application of a positivist approach to dealing with IR-related subject matters can help us to gain an in-depth insight into the dialectically predetermined essence of a particular IR’s phenomenon in question. This is exactly the reason why, even though traditional and post-positivist elaborations on IR do sound pretentiously sophisticate, they rarely account for any practical value.

Bibliography: Ashby, William. Introduction to Cybernetics. London: Routledge Kegan


The Classical Arabic and The Colloquial Dialects: Where the Line Is Drawn Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction There are numerous languages that are used in different parts of the world for communication. Arabic is one of them. It is spoken by many people in the world and mostly by countries in Middle East and the northern parts in the continent of Africa. In total, around 24 countries use this language as their official language.

This language is also used by the Muslims as the language which is used to teach their religious teachings; consequently many Muslims use this language either as the first language or through learning it for religious purposes. Arabic is recognized by the United Nations as one of its official languages.

Languages are important avenues for communication unique to human beings alone. Animals use different means of communication other than the language. Within the communities, there exist two important things which distinguish one community from the other, which are: language and culture.

Any change in culture brings about a change in the corresponding language used in that culture. The kind of language used today is therefore a result of the years of evolution in the culture which have impacted on the language.

This paper shall address the topic of classicism from the Quran in Arabic colloquial conversion and also the impacts of culture on aspects of Arabic language and/or Arabic language use.

Different Forms of Arabic Arabic exists in several forms. They include the Quranic or classical Arabic, formal also known as modern standard Arabic and spoken or colloquial Arabic.

The Quranic form is used mostly for religious purposes. It is the form of Arabic through which the Quran and other religious writing of the Muslims have been written. It is an old form of the language because its use dates back to the time when the first copies of Quran were written around 600’s.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has primarily been used for religious purposes and is learnt only to enable one to read and be able to perform other religious functions and not for everyday conversations or for scholarly writings.

This form of Arabic is therefore only confined to the setting of religious writings in Islam and is rare in other areas of literature.

For official communication and teaching in schools, modern standard Arabic is used. This is also the form that is used to write literary works and taught to foreigners who may want to learn Arabic as a foreign language.

Colloquial Arabic is used in everyday conversations. It varies from one country to another with each Arabic speaking country having a different dialect from other countries.

However, the form of Arabic spoken in Egypt is considered more standard among others from the other countries because it is easily understood by many people.

Classicism from the Quran in Colloquial Arabic conversation Colloquial Arabic, which is the form of Arabic that is used in day to day conversation, although distinct from classicism, has its root in classicism. Classicism forms the basis for the development of colloquial Arabic.

However, colloquial Arabic differs from classicism in that it has borrowed many words which it has incorporated in its vocabulary.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Classical Arabic and The Colloquial Dialects: Where the Line Is Drawn specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are aspects of classicism that can be traced in colloquial Arabic. Some religious terms like “salat” which means prayer was only found in classic Arabic and restricted to be used for religious purposes.

This however has changed slightly because such and other terms are being used even in colloquial Arabic without one being viewed as if they are breaking the rules of the Arabic language.

There are some grammatical rules that are derived from classicism and used in other forms of Arabic, including the colloquial Arabic. Most of the modern forms of Arabic adhere to the grammatical rules stipulated by the founders of classicism (Freeman, 1994).

Although each Arabic speaking region has a different form of colloquial Arabic, there is one common feature among all these dialects.

Most of them retain some forms of words derived from the classicism or just modify them a bit such that it becomes easy for the people from all regions to understand these words even if they do not understand other words from a given dialect.

Classicism has also played a great role in affecting the pronunciation of words used in colloquial Arabic. The word orders in sentence structures are also as a result of classicism influence on the dialects of Arabic.

Colloquial Arabic relies mostly on classicism in order for it to be effective in usage for conveying intended meaning.

In the area of greetings, classicism can also be noted when one is using colloquial Arabic. There are many forms of formal greetings and ways of saluting people that are used in colloquial Arabic.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Classical Arabic and The Colloquial Dialects: Where the Line Is Drawn by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Let Us Be Theoretical: The Mystery of Underevolution Among the most widespread questions concerning the classical Arabic language introduced by Quran and its multiple varieties the one that takes the first place is, perhaps, the classicism details adopted from Quran in a number of the Arabic language varieties.

Since the phenomenon is rather well-known and important for the modern Arabic languages, it requires considerable research.

Knowing the impact of the classical Quran language on the modern language dialects, one can draw a scheme of the future language development and even foresee the probable misconceptions that can arise as the representatives of the different dialects encounter.

Therefore, one of the most crucial issues is suggesting a valid theory that explains the peculiarities of the language development and outlines the prospects of its further progress.

Despite the fact that the issue has already become a widespread topic, there is certain lack of theories that can explain the phenomenon of the Arabic dialects all over the world.

However, the existing theory explains the facts that are observed in the most sufficient way, which allows to suggest that the given theory can be used as the basis for the given research.

According to Hammond (2005), the key reason for the dialects to resemble the traditional, classical Quran Arabic is the fact that the language was strongly associated with religion and thus could not be used for “low” purposes; on the contrary, the colloquial Arabic was not supposed to be used when talking about the “elevated” things:

Arabic, on the other hand, was theorized as being God’s language and those who spoke it were considered to be among God’s chosen people.

Not only that, the elevation of the Quranic text to a concept of divine linguistic perfection created an imperative to maintain the use of that formal language. So, colloquial Arabic never evolved into separate written languages in the way of the Romanic languages (323)

However, it is worth keeping in mind that there is another theory concerning the traditional Quran version of the Arabic language and the multiple dialects appearing on its basis. According to Hassan (2004), there are two principal theoretical approaches to the variety of the Arabian dialects.

The first one, created by Mitchell, splits the entire Arabian language into three varieties:

vernacular, which has prestige in born urban and rural regions

Written Standard Arabic, which is also spoken on formal occasions

Mixed Arabic, which is a mixture of written and vernacular Arabic and which functions in formal and informal situations (84).

Speaking of the second theory that Hassan (2004) mentions, one should say that it is based on the model suggested by Ferguson and presupposes the subdivision of the language into the “high” and “low” dialects (84).

With such abundance of theories and opinions, it can be considered that the most reasonable would be to follow the model offered by Hammond (2005).

Since in certain issues this theory has some points of contact with the other ideas concerning the split of the Arabic language, there are certain reasons to suppose that this is one of the most credible theories of all existing.

When the Language Splits in Two: Koran and the Colloquial Speech. Where the Line Is Drawn Koran and the colloquial Arabic speech coexistence can be considered a unique phenomenon. Still, despite the obvious prevalence of the colloquial Arabic speech in the modern society, the influence and authority of the more standard version, worshipped for hundreds of years, is still one of the key issues in the Arabic language.

As Akhtar (2010) marks, “Arabic seems to operate through not one, but two different languages. One is a standard language used uniformly through Arab world, while the other can be any of the thousands of dialects that are spoken natively by Arabs” (140)

Examining the most widely used expressions from Quran, one can draw a scheme of the extent to which the Quran influences the modern Arabic language.

It is necessary to mark that the Quran expressions are and certain linguistic peculiarities of the way in which sentences and words are built in Quran texts not only make the greatest impact on the rest of the Arab languages, but also reprint the most essential features of the culture; perhaps, this is the key reason for the Quran language to have such immense impact on the rest of the Arabic dialects.

For instance, according to what Luxenberg (2007) claims, the Quran words are deprived of the typical feminine endings:

This rule of Syro-Aramaic grammar according to which the status absolutus feminine in the predicative adjective and participle, through the dropping of the t and the retention of the final ā, does not differ formally from the status emphaticus of the corresponding attributive masculine form, now opens our eyes to a phenomenon of classical Arabic grammar that has until now been considered a mystery (219)

Therefore, it must be marked especially that the classical Arabic suggests masculine adjectives endings instead of the feminine. Considering the culture and the traditions of the Arabic countries, this is quite logical. However, this is not the only peculiarity of the Quran language.

Considering the abovementioned theory, one would claim that Quran is supposed to have the strongest impact on the existing Arabic language varieties. Since the linguistic varieties are not likely to develop further on, they are bound to keep the traditions once established in the texts of Quran.

Another peculiar detail concerning the Quran classical Arabic is the fact that the use of participles in the Quran language is rather restricted, and the “location of the even in the past is not indicated by the language structure,” as Kinberg (2001) says (165).

Concerning the Colloquial Arabic language, one can possibly say that this is a “milder” version of the Quran language, with the variations that the official language does not allow on the ground of religious ideas.

Hence, it contains a number of details that make it quite different from the original language, yet prevents fro becoming the multiple variations of the Arabic from becoming sovereign languages.

Glued together with the religion and the sacred text, these dialects have much in common, rooting from the same language. Speaking of the dialects peculiarities, one must mention that these concern mainly the use of adjectives, as Wightwhick (2003) says (68).

The Classicism in Koran and the Colloquial Speech: Part One. Looking for the Differences It must be mentioned that the differences between the stem language – the Koran one – and the dialects are considerable, which predetermines the social stratification in the society.

In addition, the difference between the formal language and its less official variants allow to differentiate between the religious and the secular issues. Following Versteegh’s (2007) train of thoughts,

The importance of the lexical aspect in the distinction between literary and colloquial Arabic is partly due to the sheer number of the lexical items, which naturally far exceed the number of grammatical structures and phonological categories (655).

Therefore, the key aspect that separates the main language and its dialects is the loan words and the words used in the colloquia; speech used to demote the objects that were not mentioned in Quran. Therefore, the existing theory of the impact that Quran has on the language variations proves completely right.

There is no doubt that the sacred book influences the dialects formation and contributes to their stability. This guarantees that the local variations of the Quran language will be used only as a means of oral communication among the lower layers of the society, but not intrude into the sphere of religion and the state affairs.

To demonstrate the key difference between the Quran Arabic and the colloquial one, which makes the former influence the latter, one could quote McAuliffe (2006), who says that “Quran has enriched Arabic poetry more than any other Arabic literary genre” (131).

This is the most refined language, in contrast to the colloquial Arabic dialects.

With help of this little yet essential detail the different kinds of languages are quite unlikely to become another standard of official Arabic someday. It is obvious that the lexical charge of the words used in Quran is far too complicated to integrate into the linguistic varieties of the Arabic language.

However, that does not mean that the impact of the Quran is going to become weaker – on the contrary, guided by the key language, the speakers of the dialects will be reluctant to charge their language with the words from the other languages; creating the colloquial equivalent of the Quran term will be preferable.

It must be kept in mind though that Quran possesses the lexemes that do not have their corresponding colloquial equivalent, which means that the impact of the Quran language on the rest of the Arabic languages is going to become even stronger.

Like the language of the “higher” level, it is dominant over the rest of the Arabic dialects; as Naseem explains,

We can’t take the literal meaning of words in all cases. For example the “Quran” “Salat,” “Zakat” and “Haji” are such words whose literal meanings are different from their technical usages, which are assigned by the Sharah Science (302)

This means that the difference between the initial language, the one that is spoken I Quran, and the number of dialects used by the usual people is quite considerable. Yet it must be admitted that the Quran Arabic has great impact on the Arabic languages despite the peculiarities of the colloquial Arabic.

The Classicism in Koran and the Colloquial Speech: Part Two. The Evident Similarities One of the most peculiar features of the Quran Arabic and its variations is that the linguistic similarities manifest themselves on the very phonetic level, which means that the Quran Arabic is supposed to have huge impact on the dialects. As Versteegh (2007) claims,

Usually, speakers of a colloquial Arabic dialect use the same consonants for literary Arabic as for colloquial Arabic. the emphatics /s, d, t, d/” and the somewhat language-specific pharyngeals l’, h/, as well as plosives, fricatives, lateral and semivowels are pronounced in the same manner in both (spoken) literary and in the colloquial Arabic (657)

This means that, with such sufficient similarities on the most basic level of the language building, there can be no doubt that the Quran Arabic has the greatest impact on the existing dialects. It is obvious that the key aspects of the classical Quran Arabic language serve as the basis for the colloquial Arabian.

However, the similarities between the two language variations can be traced not only on the level of phoneme, but also in the sphere of lexis.

According to the number of derivations from the Quran Arabic into the colloquial language, the sense shifting and the polysemy of certain words, one can possibly say that the spirit of the Quran Arabic is rather distinct in the modern colloquial dialects, despite the time gap between the two.

South (2006) drives a good example of such change of meaning occurring as time passes: “The Arabic name for mosque and university is from the same root: jaamea” (71).

However, such dominance over the dialects often results in rather deplorable consequences. Once translated from one Arabic dialect into another, the message written in Quran Arabic loses all its sense.

As Kinberg (2001) mentioned, “even when author himself takes upon himself to translate his literary production from literary Arabic to colloquial Arabic, the two texts are not completely identical” (68).

It must be kept in mind that the two kinds of the Arabic language, the standard one, and the vernacular Arabic, are unlikely to merge further on. According to the existing evidence, the more time is going to pass, the bigger the gap between the stem language and its varieties is going to be.

As About (1973) explains, the grammar of the modern official Arabic does not differ much from the traditional Quran style. However, “as for colloquial, its ancient dialects and forms have changed, and they have come to differ greatly from one country to another” (572).

Still it must be admitted that, with the grammar rules unchanged in the traditional language and in its variations, it can be considered that the classical Quran language does have its impact on the modern Arabic dialects.

However, it must be also remembered that there is a considerable difference between the colloquial and the standard Arabic.

Conclusion Considering the abovementioned, one can conclude that the classical Quran Arabic language still has its impact on the modern language variations. Despite the seeming difference that usually manifests itself in the vocabulary of the language, there is the specific grammatical structure that keeps the languages together.

Considering the differences and the similarities of the classical Arabic language and the colloquial variations, one can conclude that, despite the obvious split between the languages, there is certain stem that keeps them together and makes them fuse into a single language.

Still it is obvious that the classical form dominates over the other dialects and offers the basis that the rest of the language variations ate based on. With such state of affairs, it is absolutely clear that the classical elements of the modern Arabic language have certain effect on the colloquial dialects to a considerable degree.

As Versteegh (2001) clarified,

Anyone wishing to write in Arabic does so with the Classical norm in mind. The amount of deviation or the distance from the colloquial varies with the degree of education of the author of the text. Thus, some Middle Arabic texts exhibit only an occasional mistake, whereas in other texts the entire structure of the language is almost colloquial (115)

Thus, with the abundance of language variations, they are all influenced by the single stem language. With help of the classical standards of Arabic, the dialects stay within their boundaries and do not form other languages.

It is clear that, once the impact of the classical Arabic fades away, the rest of the dialects will develop in their own specific way.

Reference List Abbound, P. F.


DeHavilland’s Falling Comet Risk Management Case Study college application essay help

Executive Summary DeHavilland is the manufacturer of the pioneer jet-powered aircraft known as the Comet. The innovation failed to assure passengers and crew safety after three of its aircrafts crashed mid air within the first year of its release. The large window shapes, structures of the wing, and structure designs were cited as the cause of the accidents.

Boeing and DC-8 took up the technology and successfully launched jet-powered commercial aircrafts that provided maximum safety to passengers and crew. The two companies had studied DeHavelland, and the manner it handled the risks associated with the Comet. Both Boeing and DC-8 are presently the market leaders in the technology while the Comet is grounded.

DeHavilland failed to initiate risk management strategies which would have helped it to address the problems with its aircrafts strategically and sort them out. The company suffered financial risk because the technological innovation was expensive and it required additional external funding.

The British government and the British Overseas Airways Corporation, abbreviated as BOAC, advanced the additional funding. Huge technical and commercial risks were also suffered as a result of the company’s excessive costs incurred in research and development, and the advantages its consumers had anticipated sharing, as a result.

Introduction Business entities and companies have integrated the management of risk into their operations as a way of mitigating the dangers that they face by virtue of their activities. High risk has the potential of ruining business and rendering the organisation inert, especially if measures are not put in place to manage the surrounding risks.

When an organisation pioneers a new technology, it faces a high risk mainly because there have not been previous incidences that provide an insight on how the risk can be handled effectively. This report details on the aspect of risk management with particular reference to DeHavilland’s pioneer jet-powered Comet airplane which was first released in 1952.

Failure to appropriately manage the risk related with the Comet technology has since rendered the airplanes grounded and, instead, DeHavillands main competitor at the time, mainly Boeing, enjoys market leadership with the same technology.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Risk Types Related to the Comet Case Technical risk

Commercial aircrafts mainly manage to grow in their popularity by virtue of their consideration on critical issues such as maintaining high safety standards for passengers and crew. The Comet failed particularly in this area after the technology it employed in the manufacture of the first jet-powered aircraft failed to assure passengers and crew of their safety.

Although the commercial jetliner technology was first introduced by DeHavilland through its Comet aircrafts, it was abound with technical problems that led to a series of fatal accidents within the first year of its introduction into the market.

The allure of pioneering the aircraft market with a unique technology caused DeHavilland to marginalise on safety factors, a decision that in the end resulted in very dangerous quality trade-offs in the Comet (Artto 1997, p. 45). The design of large windows was discovered to be the reason behind the series of accidents that were involving the aircraft.

The windows’ large shapes were causing stress cracks to form in the corners due to rapid pressurization, as well as cabin depressurization. These cracks would result in a catastrophic blow out once the cabins were pressurised and thus, leading to a gyroscopic moment. The comet’s wings also had low fatigue resistance, were prone to damage when rapidly fueling, and also had leaking fuel lines (Hoefer


Medicine Issues: Epidemiology Study Designs Essay essay help: essay help

Choosing the most appropriate study design is a fundamental step in an epidemiological study (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008). According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), epidemiologists use different epidemiological study designs to answer research questions. This paper highlights epidemiological study designs most commonly used during epidemiological research.

Experimental studies According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), investigators often use experimental studies when investigating the role of a given agent in the prevention and cure of diseases.

Main characteristics

The main characteristic of experimental study is that it involves the study of prevention and treatment of diseases (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).

Strength of Experimental

Experimental studies often yield more accurate results than other study designs.

Weakness of Experimental

Experimental studies are extremely costly and involve thorny ethical issues.

Observational studies This study design involves the observation of the natural experience of the group of people with similar characteristics.

Main characteristics

Observational studies examine causes, prevention and possible treatments of specified diseases. In observational studies, investigators take part in passive observation of a given group of people or events. During the study, investigators do not interfere with the group or events (Friss, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strength

Observational study can be used on a wider range of exposure, such as occurrences, prevention measures and treatments of diseases (Friss, 2010).


According to Aschengrau and Seage (2008), the main weakness of this study is that researchers do not have absolute control over unsettling influences or inappropriate factors.

Cohort Studies Cohort study can also be referred to as incidence or specific studies. It involves the study of group of people who are free of diseases (Friss, 2010). The selected people are classified into groups according to their level of exposure to a potential cause of disease or outcome (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).

Main characteristics

Cohort study involves examination of multiple health effects of an exposure (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).


According to Friss (2010), Cohort Study is extremely beneficial for studying the national progression of diseases or risk factors for diseases.


In the cohort study, cases such as dropouts or non-response can result in bias.

The most appropriate measure of associations for the three study designs The most appropriate measure of association in an epidemiologic study depends on the plan used to collect the needed information (Till and Grohan, 2012).

We will write a custom Essay on Medicine Issues: Epidemiology Study Designs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the most appropriate measure of association for experimental study is the comparison of disease level between two groups: a group that has experienced the exposure of interest and one that has not. Experiential studies are the most effective way of examining disease level during exposure (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).

Secondly, the appropriate measure of association for observational study is rating new cases in population at given point. This measure is appropriate because it is easy to observe natural occurrences within new populations (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).

On the other hand, the most appropriate measure of association for cohort is rating of new cases in population at any given period (Mill, 2011). Cohort studies are effective when handling new cases in a population.

This section describes the potential biases that are most likely to be present in the study descriptions and how they affect the measure of association.

The possible bias that can result in this scenario would be a selection bias. Investigators could have been biased when selecting children that are sick against those that are not sick. Selection bias would lead to underestimation of the outcome of the study (Filed, 2010).

The possible bias that can come up from this situation is differential recall bias. Recall bias could result from this study survey because some individuals in the groups might decide to give false information during study survey. Recall bias, in this situation, would lead to overestimation of the results (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).

The type of selection bias, known as healthy worker effect, could result from this situation. Investigators, in this scenario, categorize the participants with respect to exposure status after which a follow up is done to record the disease (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008). However, ten years is an unusually long period and can lead to underestimation of measures of association.

Investigators could possibly introduce misclassification bias in this case. For instance, error could have occurred during classification of disease or exposure. The different groups used in the study survey could have also used drugs that are different from the ones prescribed by the doctors (Filed, 2010).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Medicine Issues: Epidemiology Study Designs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This bias can lead to overestimation of the measures of associations because the outcome might not reflect the effect of placebo (Till and Grohan, 2012).

Conclusion Conclusively, while carrying out investigations, investigators should choose the best study designs that can help minimize biases to a considerable level. Investigators should also chose the most appropriate measure of association when carrying out epidemiological research (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008).

References Aschengrau, A., and Seage, G. (2008). Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health (second edition). New York, NY: Jones


Behaviour in Economics Critical Essay college application essay help

In his exploration of the organization of complexity, Herbert Simon brings out the understanding of economic rationality in, “The sciences of the artificial”. The book is more of Simon’s conception of complexity in terms of how it can be studied, adapted to and understood by human beings.

With knowledge from diverse fields such as social science, economics, psychology, computer science and biology, Simon has well illustrated a theme that pervades these fields, namely, the complexity emerging from simplicity of a complex environment.

He explores how human beings are viewed as behaving systems while the real thing is that the complexity of their behaviour is a reflection of the complexity of their environment. He defines economics as a theory of human rationality stating that decisions are usually made based on procedural and substantive rationality (Simon 1996, p.57).

The author starts by describing the differences between artificial and natural; he explains that artificial is the one that is made by human including skyscrapers and software (Willemien 2006, p.181). It is through this statement the point is rarely discerned. In his explanation, he talks of how science deals with things as they are perceived.

For instance, classical science only allows people to reason about the various properties of the structure they put in question; but what they do not tell straightforwardly is how to come up with a new structure from scratch with better designs that meet the needs of consumers. Also on the basis of design, accumulated knowledge is better as it gives rational view of things helping people make better decisions.

The real world is usually satisfied by the strictness of standards generalized on matters (Simon 1996, p.129). It is for this reason that designers study old designs aiming at making better ones that meet the new demands. Therefore, economic rationality is a scientific reasoning mode that economists use to interpret the models and designs of future behaviours of socio-economic systems.

On the other hand, Milton Friedman’s, “The methodology of positive economics” is cited as among the most influential and controversial pieces of methodological writings in the economics of the twentieth century. The essay is Friedman’s research based on John Neville’s distinction of normative and positive economics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relation between positive and normative economics somehow brings out inevitable confusion, which has resulted in mischievous errors.

Tautological completeness should not be the judging factor for a useful economic theory; instead, simplicity, fruitfulness, predictability and the ability to generate additional information on the matter should take the role; the more unrealistic the assumptions are, the more significant the theory is. The essay is a plea for a positivistic interaction of theories and observations (Friedman 1953, p.14).

The essay primarily focuses on certain methodological problems that arise when constructing the so called “positive science”. In other words, the problem comes when determining whether a theory should be accepted as part of knowledge it emphasizes (Maki 2009, p.91). Assimilation of theories, unrealistic concepts, social constructions, predictive tests and explanatory unification are the concerning issues that Friedman raises.

The author acknowledges the element of omission of details perceived to be irrelevant, and as a result, presents invalid predictions. What is more, the book provides an insight of useful heuristics of economics. It is in this book that the author talks of economics as a rationalized skill used to predict behaviours, and determining whether they are factual through perceptions.

Reference list Friedman, M 1953, Essays in positive economics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Maki, U (ed.) 2009, The Methodology of Positive Economics: Reflections on the Milton Friedman Legacy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Simon, H 1996, The sciences of the artificial, MIT Press, Cambridge.

We will write a custom Essay on Behaviour in Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Willemien, V 2006, The Cognitive Artifacts of Designing, Routledge, London.


Personal Skills Development in the Teamwork Report (Assessment) essay help online

Introduction In the modern world, organizations are increasingly becoming active and uneven (Barthe 2010, p. 94). Instabilities force organizations to form groups and teams that are expected to work together in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives. An organization relies on teams and groups in delivering services to clients.

There is increased complexity regarding the composition of teams, skill requirement, and risk management. In high reliability organizations such as the telecommunication company, teamwork plays a critical role in enhancing service delivery. A small mistake would result in serious losses, as well as complaints from customers.

Working in a team enabled me to learn various coping skills (Horlick-Jones 1995, p. 310). I realized that teamwork is a tool that can be utilized to achieve high results. In the Nigerian network industry, competition is stiff implying that organizations must develop some strategies in order to outsmart their competitors. MRN employs teamwork in order to conquer its rivals.

Working with other experts in the organization assisted me in understanding that teamwork entails three strategies. One of the strategies employed in enhancing teamwork is grouping individuals according to capabilities. This is upon realization that people differ in terms of talent. For instance, I was placed under the supervision of a network professional, with adequate skills on matters related to networking.

This was to ensure that I learn the basics of networking in detail. In the team, there were individuals with task-oriented skills while others were team-oriented. It was the role of the manager to balance the two groups (Geschwind 2001, p. 69).

In the team, the management ensured that organizational goals are achieved by modifying the tasks of individuals and the organization structure. This was to ensure workflow in the organization. Team competency was guaranteed in the organization through continuous training. The management at MRN capitalized on team training in enhancing team performance.

Scholars define team training as the application of set of instructions that depend on well-tested apparatus. This apparatus includes simulator, lectures, and videos. In the organization, the management ensured that employees are provided with relevant training lessons each week. The main aim of management was to ensure that team training replicates the general values of learning theory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, training was meant to present information regarding basic group behaviors. Training provided team members with a chance to practice the skills they learned on a weekly basis. Working under the supervision of an expert was vital to my career because I could get feedback as regards to my performance (Dressel 2001, p. 39).

Drawing on relevant theory and concepts, would this be described as a group or a team?

Usually, there is a difference between a group and a team. However, many people fail to note the difference. A team is internally structured while the group is externally structured. A team has objectives, with tasks for each team member. On the other hand, a group is a collection of individuals who share the same objective. It may include people with similar interests.

In the organization, all employees belong to a group because their major interest is to earn a salary. A number of scholars have designed theories to explain the behavior of individuals in a team. However, Tuckman’s theory is the only outstanding theory that explains the activities of individuals in a team precisely (Drake, Wong


Property Management Systems (Hospitality Industry) Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Property Management Systems (PMSs) are essential tools in the hospitality industry. Hospitality industry is complex and has numerous challenges. Reservations, customer care and administration of hotels and resorts offer challenges that the management must confront in order to attain customer satisfaction, productivity and profitability of the establishments (O’Connor, 2004).

For this reason, PMSs are devised to manage the operations that take place in the complex hotel and resort environments. Therefore, PMS is an investment option that firms in the hospitality industry must implement. Technological developments have made various types of PMSs available for hotels at low prices (Deakin, 2004).

This paper explores the functions, importance and structure of PMSs. In addition, it includes a SWOT analysis of the use of PMSs in the hospitality industry. Finally, it considers some of the financial considerations that firms in the hospitality industry should consider before they integrate PMS systems in the management of their establishments. The paper focuses on hotels and resorts.

Property Management Systems (PMSs) A property management system is software that computerizes the operations of resorts, restaurants, hotels and casinos. The automation of operations in these establishments includes the integration of back and front office activities and applications to enable full control of the entire establishments.

A fully functional PMS system should be able to incorporate all value-chain parts within the establishment’s business network into one functional storage area (Ismail, 2002). Property Management Systems (PMSs) are significant components of business oversight mechanisms, and assist the management to oversee the operational activities of establishments (Bhattacharya, 2009).

A PMS is a vital component of a firm’s decision assembly process. It is a group of application programs that are related directly to front and back office activities of hotels. Notably, the main activities that PMS deals with in hotel management include revenue, guest relationships and reservation management. Others are check-in and checkout, room condition and folio management.

Consequently, PMS collects vital amounts of information that management can use to improve tactical, strategic and operational decisions. The management can also collect data from other sources due to the use of PMS. The management can obtain more data through customer relationships, electronic point of sales at outlets, the internet via hotels website or through loyalty programs (Karolin


Goodman Fielder Benefits in Asia Report (Assessment) cheap essay help

Businesses organisations expand as a result of hard work which involves ensuring that customers get satisfied and aggressive exploration of the market. Sometimes, old fashioned methods of marketing are used to increase sales. This approach is supported by many consultants and business experts.

Although hard work is important for business growth, it is basically described as traditional wisdom. Both small and large business organisations can increase their growth through acquisitions. Goodman Fielder will enjoy many benefits of acquisitions in Asia as opposed to other entry modes.

The first benefit that he will enjoy is easy integration. Rapid business growth is associated with numerous risks. This has been witnessed in some business organisations where rapid growth has caused their decline because they have been forced to do many things at the same time.

Acquisitions will be beneficial to Goodman since they will provide enough procedures and systems to accommodate business growth. This will be done through the selling company that will provide the necessary facilities and human labour to ensure that the new business operates in a smooth manner.

The second benefit that Goodman will enjoy from acquisitions in Asia is ability to deal with entry barriers. Entry into new markets is often associated with numerous challenges that limit business growth. In some extreme circumstances, businesses may even collapse completely.

Acquisitions will enable him to use the resources of an existing organisation to stabilise his business. As a result, the risk of stiff competition from rival companies will be reduced. Without acquisitions, this will not be possible because of stiff competition (Gaughan 28).

The third benefit of acquisitions in Asia that Goodman will enjoy is market power. Market is very important in any business establishment since it enhances its growth. Most business organisations fail due to lack of a strong market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through acquisitions, Goodman will be able to establish a strong market presence in Asia. Consequently, this will enhance the rate of business growth. The market power will be strengthened by increased market share (Advantages and Disadvantages of Acquisition 3). In addition, there will be reduced competition due to capacity shut down. These are benefits that will only be achieved through acquisitions.

The fourth benefit that Goodman will enjoy from acquisitions in Asia is financial gains. The aim of establishing any business venture in a particular region is to make profits. Without making profits and generating the required revenue, businesses do not perform well. Acquisitions will make it possible for a company whose share value will be low to become part of a stronger company in order to strip assets and acquire short term benefits.

For example, getting finances from banks will not be difficult since there will be tangible assets that the banks could sell in case borrowers fail to pay back the borrowed money. This will not be possible without acquisitions since a company will be forced to rely on its limited resources (Growth through Acquisition 4).

The fifth benefit that Goodman will get from acquisitions in Asia is reduced marketing expenses and risks. Some companies attempt to initiate marketing campaigns in order to increase their sales since they think that it is easy.

However, the expectations of getting huge sales from marketing campaigns are not usually realistic. Marketing is a risky activity that can lead to losses instead of profits. Acquisitions will therefore be beneficial since marketing through an existing company will reduce the risks involved and increase the sales.

Works Cited Advantages and Disadvantages of Acquisition 2012. Web.

Gaughan, Patrick. Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructurings, New York: John Wiley


Does the East Asian “Miracle” Invalidate Dependency Theory? Argumentative Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction The phenomenal growth enjoyed by the 4 Asian Tigers, namely Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, call into question the validity of dependency theory and its application to a modern-day setting.

The main idea behind dependency theory is the notion that “various resources from the periphery, representing the poor and underdeveloped states, flow towards the core, representing the rich and industrialized nations” (Nelson and Pack, 1999).

It must be noted that the theory itself is a branch of Marxism and was actually heavily developed during the midpoint of the twentieth century (Bhatti,1980).

Taking this into consideration, it can be stated that theory itself may be slightly outdated in terms of its applicability in a financial system that is continuously evolving as a result of new technologies and globalization.

While its central premise was the “core and periphery” system it did come with the implication that poor states were integrated into world economic order in such a way that developing countries cannot or couldn’t dramatically develop into rich industrialized states under the present political-economical world order (Baylis and Smith 2001).

At the time of its creation such an assumption proved to be quite true, wealthy industrialized countries at the time had the advantage of technological innovation, modern-day infrastructures and systems, an educated population base as well as several centuries worth of social development that emerging economies were hard-pressed to even reach a fraction of what such societies had accomplished (Chilcote, 1981).

In order to survive in such an environment, various developing countries fell into the pattern of supplying raw resources to industrialized countries in exchange for various products and technologies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It must be noted that these products and technologies were not bought at the same price of the natural resources sent but rather had a significant amount of added value-added to their overall price (Santos, 1970).

It is this added value (justified as processing and production costs) that was one of the main reasons why dependency theorists at the time stated that there was little possibility for periphery states to get out of their current situation since more value was flowing towards the core than what was actually flowing out (Frank, 1967).

For a time this proved to be true since core states enjoyed years of sustained growth and development as a direct result of the resources flowing into core and the wealth accumulated by selling processed resources to the periphery (Cox, 1981).

The occurrence of the East Asian Miracle threw this notion developed by dependency theorists into question since countries that were previously part of the periphery took on characteristics of core states as a result of sustained economic growth and development (Amsden, 1979).

The inherent problem with dependency theory is that it neglected to take into account what would happen if periphery states started to develop their own means of producing goods and services that would be in demand by the core states (Dunne et al., 2010).

In fact, it can be stated that rapid globalization and technological development combined with significant foreign investments and demand for cheap processed goods were the main reasons behind the East Asian Miracle which could be considered a continuing trend to this very day.

Explaining the Origins of the East Asian Miracle An examination of the historical factors leading up to the East Asian Miracle show that the actors involved, namely: Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand had several years of supercharged growth as a direct result of market liberalization and a focus on increasing exports to other countries.

We will write a custom Essay on Does the East Asian “Miracle” Invalidate Dependency Theory? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What must first be understood is that each economy, society and culture in each of the actors involved in the East Asian Miracle is unique and as such it cannot be stated that their sudden growth is inherent to special factors inherent in the countries themselves (Strange, 1987).

A better approach would be to examine the common threads that unite each specific case that gives a better picture of the whole instead of trying to interpret each country on a case by case basis.

One of the first aspects that must be answered is how the rapid growth and industrialization happen in these countries did in the first place?

Dependency theory clearly states that wealthy nations perpetuate a state of dependence on such countries through various means whether it be economic, financial, political or the development of human resources.

If this were so the East Asian Miracle shouldn’t have happened in the first place since in order to perpetuate a continuous stream of resources towards the core, periphery states needed to be kept in a constant state of dependence.

In 1993 the World Bank presented the argument that the reason why high performing Asian economies were able to bring about the supposed “miracle” was due to them “getting the basics right” in that they were able to instill sound economic policies and were able to expand the quantity and quality of their physical and human capital (Nelson and Pack, 1999).

This explanation though still doesn’t explain how this sudden reversal came to pass if one were to take dependency theory into consideration, then the East Asian Miracle should have been prevented since it would have been in the best interests of core states to keep the periphery in check.

In addition, due to the unequal exchanging relations between the core and the periphery, the root cause of this phenomenon is because of the unfair terms of trade established by the core states (Frank, 1967).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Does the East Asian “Miracle” Invalidate Dependency Theory? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is due to this, the global capitalist system and the distribution method of economical surplus values resulting in the relatively minor development of periphery countries in other parts of the world.

The global system was one wherein developed countries controlled various regions through the export of capital and the capital accumulate system, through the combination of economic expansion and political domination, even through the use of military assets.

It was through the use of such means that the unequal relations between developed countries and underdeveloped countries became firmly established resulting in the economic plight of peripheral states (Santos, 1970).

An examination of the international political climate at the time reveals that a few years before the Asian Miracle started to come to pass, there was an ongoing political clash between the ideals of communism and democracy.

In its attempt to increasingly isolate the “communist threat” the U.S. undertook numerous endeavors such as the Korean War and the Vietnam war however one of the most lasting and positive methods of preventing the spread of communism was to bolster the economies of various countries that were supposedly “vulnerable” to the spread of communist ideals.

In the eyes of the U.S. communism spread more easily as a direct result of economic scarcity, it was due to this notion that it began to invest in numerous Asian economies in order to create more allies in East Asia as well as prevent the spread of communist ideals.

The various authoritarian regimes in Asia at the time were more than willing to comply with the plans of the U.S. in exchange for foreign direct investments and as a result this began the initial stages of the East Asian Miracle (McKinnon, 2008).

Through millions (possibly billions of dollars) in foreign direct investments countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, etc. were able to invest in infrastructure development and technological advancement resulting in the development of various local industries.

Due to the policy of the U.S. in supporting developing economies in order to ward off the spread of communism the U.S. in effect became the largest market for various goods and products originating from these now newly industrialized countries (Linklater, 1986).

As this relationship evolved the periphery no longer became a source of raw materials but rather processed goods and as a result the cycle of described in dependency theory was broken.

Supporting Factors behind the East Asian Miracle Wage Gap Explanation Model

One of the basic premises of dependency theory is the fact that developing nations are source of natural resources as well as cheap labor however the theory doesn’t take into account what would happen if the natural resources and cheap labor found within such countries were utilized for the country’s own benefit (Hall, 2004).

Dependency theory operates under the assumption that developing countries (the periphery) will always have inferior technology compared to the wealthy countries (the core) (Helleiner,2002).

Under this assumption, it is thought that since developing countries will always have inferior technology then the core will always be a necessity as a source of processed goods (Keohane and Nye,2003).

In the case of the East Asian Miracle large amounts of direct foreign investments necessitated the development of various technologies and methods of innovation within periphery countries in East Asia.

Under the wage gap explanation model as economic development takes place differences in wages makes the production of certain goods more viable in other countries with low wages as compared to countries with high wages.

From the 1950’s all the way till the present American and European wages always surpassed those in Asia this, of course, created added costs for the production of certain goods and services.

In the case of the now newly industrialized countries in East Asia their comparatively low wages along with the lower costs of production and distinct lack of transportation fees usually seen in transporting natural resources resulted in significantly lower prices for certain products produced in such countries as compared to those in the U.S (Jones, 2006).

As a result a new system developed wherein the production of certain non-viable items were done in Asia (the periphery) due to the lower cost of production as compared to those in the core system (Terry, 2002).

Under the neoclassical thesis of economic growth, the subsequent economic expansion of the periphery states after the period of direct foreign investments is explained by the fact that “markets are efficient systems and as such will create growth if left alone”.

In the case of developing markets in East Asia the new system created as a result of direct foreign investment, industrial development and markets for processed goods in the U.S. continued well into the future due to wage gap model utilized as a means of ensuring continued economic growth (Wendt, 1992).


The concept of globalization can be described as the rapid integration of financial markets, economies, societies and cultures through trade, communication and transportation (Olds et al. 1999).

Dependency theory states that one of the methods utilized by the core in order to perpetuate dependency was through economic, social, financial and political means.

Under such a notion it can be assumed that one of the reasons why developing countries remained in the state that they were was because they were increasingly isolated to domestic trade within their region and couldn’t effectively enter into the global market place as a result of interference from wealthy countries seeking to perpetuate dependence (Olds et al. 1999).

As a result of globalization financial markets within Asia were actually able to effectively enter into the global market as a result of the integration of financial, transportation and communication systems thus facilitating the abolishment of the old system (Mayer,2009).

Fiscal Policies

One of the reasons why East Asian countries were able to create the “Asian Miracle” was due to the establishment of “prudent” fiscal policies that focused on macroeconomic stability.

Compared with other developing countries, the governments of East Asia paid great attention to maintaining macroeconomic stability and creating a good environment of investment and operation activities for enterprises (Singh, 1995).

They followed two basic principles: the use of a prudent fiscal policy and avoiding overvalued exchange rates (Stiglitz, 2004).

It was due to this that they were able to respond to rapid changes in the economic system and create a flexible response to the changes of the economic situation which resulted in the successful management of fiscal deficits, inflation, external debts and exchange rates.

These countries usually limited the fiscal deficit carefully in order to cover the deficit without causing sudden inflationary pressures and internal and external debt. It must be noted that macroeconomic stability is conducive to long-term planning and private investment, thereby promoting steady economic growth.

All in all, the high savings rate, relatively low taxation, a strong educational system as well as a lower price pressure, access to foreign knowledge and technology, a friendly investment environment and the strategy of government intervention were key factors behind the success of the East Asian countries which resulted in the supposed “miracle”.

Arguments of the Dependency Theorists Regarding the East Asian Miracle In response to claims of the East Asian “miracle” invalidating dependency theory several theorists in support of its claim that the “miracle” is by and large a “temporary experience” which was brought about through a crisis situation that created a distinct imbalance in trade between the core and the periphery (Krugman, 1994).

The aforementioned situation was the world economic crisis that occurred in the 1970’s wherein sudden booms in production resulted in a distinct “overheating” of international markets resulting in spiraling prices of various commodities.

One of the greatest increases in prices was seen in the sudden spike in the price of petroleum which further exacerbated an already dire situation.

The end result was an attack on the concept of the Keynesian welfare state and the establishment of monetarist solutions advocated by Milton Freedman as a method of stabilizing the system.

Dependency theorists argue that that the worldwide economic crisis that occurred and the resulting changes to global financial markets were the main reasons behind the sudden boost in performance of East Asian markets due to the fact that this provided sufficient impetus to weaken the ties between the core and periphery which enabled East Asian markets to expand without the limitations imposed on them by the core.

While dependency theorists agree that the possibility for development does exist in the periphery, they state that it can only occur on a temporary basis and can only occur in times where a certain economic crisis affects the core weakening its dominant position.

A.G. Frank, a dependency theorist, completely dismisses the possibility of the periphery rising to the level of the core and rather asserts the claim that “the growth of export-led manufacturing in East Asian countries and the concomitant exploitation and repression of labor force cannot in any sense be called development” (O’Brien and Williams, 2007).

In other words, he believes that the growth in Asian markets is only a temporary phase with the core eventually asserting its dominance.

Another dependency theorist, Samir Amin, even goes to far as to reject the classification for various East Asian countries as being called NICs or Newly Industrialized Countries.

He asserts the claim that the classification itself is merely superficial and that such economies “have no real conjectural phenomenon of their own, even transmitted from outside, because they are without any internal dynamism of their own” (O’Brien and Williams, 2007).

He even goes so far as to state that the 4 tiger economies are merely showing a new type of inequality in the global market due to the fact that the manufacturing and economic processes found in such economies cannot be extended to encompass the entirety of the East Asian region (O’Brien and Williams, 2007).

As such it can be seen that for dependency theorists they claim that the East Asian Miracle, the growth of various Asian economies the creation of the 4 Tiger economies as well as the rise of manufacturing and economic centers within East Asia is nothing more than a temporary occurrence.

For them the 4 Tiger economies are merely another level in the framework of periphery and thus are an inconsequential existence.

Argument against the View of the Dependency Theorists After examining the view of the dependency theorists regarding the East Asian Miracle, one cannot help but feel that their view is highly erroneous when taking into consideration the fact that at the present Asian economies are actually outstripping their Western counterparts.

For example, China used to be considered part of the periphery within East Asia however within the past 20 years China has grown to become an industrial powerhouse outstripping the production rates of several of the world’s Western economies.

It has grown to become the world’s second-largest economy and is in fact, well on its way to becoming the largest economy by 2015.

Not only that the growth of economies such as that of Hong Kong, Thailand, South Korea, and Singapore have continued to rise over the past several years and in fact, Asian economic growth rates have far outstripped that of countries that were previously known to be part of the “core”.

Further examination of the current situation in East Asia shows the case of the Philippines that was previously not part of the original countries that directly benefitted from the East Asian “Miracle” but as of late has been creating a miracle of its own.

The country is now known as the world’s largest business process outsourcing location with literally thousands of companies outsourcing their back-office processes and call center work to various companies within the Philippines.

As mentioned earlier, with the advent of globalization comes the ability of greater interconnection and communication, which as a result has enabled the creation of processes where particular jobs can be done anywhere in world by anyone.

Globalization is also one of the reasons why the Chinese economy has grown the way it has, due to the advent of interconnected financial services and methods of transportation companies can now easily set up their offshore manufacturing locations within Chinese markets and transport their products to various countries around the world (Rowthorn, 1996).

As mentioned earlier regarding the wage gap explanation model, due to the relatively low cost of labor within East Asian countries such as the Philippines and China a new trend has occurred, supported by globalization, wherein manufacturing processes and various business offices no longer have to be isolated within the core but now are present within the periphery due to the lower cost of labor.

It all basically comes down to economies of scale, the Chinese and Filipinos are basically cheaper and easier to hire compared to workers located in western countries and as such global businesses prefer to have their factories, call centers, and back offices located in such countries in order to save on the cost of labor.

The problem with the dependency theory model is that it neglected to take into account the possibility that new developments brought about by globalization and technological innovation could, in fact, create a situation wherein the greater interconnectivity of financial markets made it possible for developing countries to enter into the world economy despite interference from the core.

One of the arguments presented by dependency theorists that is apparently self-defeating is their assertion that the current status of East Asian countries is only temporarily and can only be brought about through a certain crisis affecting the core.

The recent 2008 financial crisis did, in fact, support this theory however not in the way the dependency theorists predicted, while western markets did, in fact, take a beating from the fallout of the U.S. housing crisis conservative investments done by East Asian markets actually resulted in minimal losses for the region.

While this did result in a sudden increase in the economic activity of East Asian markets another consequence that development theorists didn’t think of was the potential for businesses to move specific service platforms from economies in the U.S. and Europe to locations within East Asia.

Various companies suffering from the fallout of the financial crisis in effect shifted their back office and call center work to the Philippines while at the same time transferred their manufacturing processes to China.

As a result, the economies of the two countries benefitted heavily from the financial crisis and it is estimated that such companies will continue to maintain their offshore operations in China and the Philippines due to the relatively low cost of operations.

What this means for core countries is a continuous decline from their “core” position wherein a relatively new global economic situation is taking place where it is Asian countries with their ability to deliver products and services at a much lower rate that has in effect almost completely abolished the system of core and periphery.

Conclusion Based on the arguments presented it can be seen that the East Asian Miracle and the subsequent events that followed did indeed invalidate dependency theory. In fact, it can even be seen today based on the substantial growth of China, the Philippines and various other countries in East Asia that dependency theory is no longer applicable to their current situation.

The arguments presented by the dependency theorists have been shown to be fairly wrong as proven by current situations and as such the core and periphery system that used to exist in the past can now be relegated to nothing more than a historical footnote in the greater history of the global economy.

Reference List Amsden, A. H., (1979) Taiwan’s Economic History: A Case of Etatisme and a Challenge to Dependency Theory, Source: Modern China, Vol. 5, No. 3, Symposium on Taiwan: Society and Economy (Jul., 1979), pp. 341-379.

Bhatti, A., (1980), Realism in Marxism, Source: Social Scientist, Vol. 8, No. 5/6, [Marxism and Aesthetics] (Dec., 1979 – Jan., 1980), pp.30-51.

Baylis, J. and Smith, S., (2001), The Globalization of World Politics. New York, Oxford University Press.

Chilcote, R. H., (1981), Issues of Theory in Dependency and Marxism, Source: Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 8, No. 3/4, Dependency and Marxism (Late Summer-Autumn, 1981), pp. 3-16.

Cox, R. W., (1981), Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2.

Dunne, T., Kurki, M. and Smith, S., (2010), International Relations Theories Discipline and Diversity, second edition, New York: Oxford University Press

Frank, A. G., (1967). Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America: historical studies of Chile and Brazil. New York: monthly review press. [ebook].

Hall, D., (2004) Japanese Spirit, Western Economics: The Continuing Salience of Economic Nationalism in Japan, New Political Economy, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 2004.

Helleiner, E., (2002) Economic Nationalism as a Challenge to Economic Liberalism, Lessons from the 19th Century, Source: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Sep., 2002), pp. 307-329.

Jones, S., (2006) Antonio Gramsci. London: Routledge.

Krugman, P., (1994) the Myth of Asia’s Miracle Source: Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73, No. 6 (Nov. – Dec., 1994), and pp. 62-78.

Keohane, R.O. and Nye, J. S., (2003) Realism and Complex Interdependence, from Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition, 2d edition, PP.23-25; 29-37.

Linklater, A., (1986), Realism, Marxism and critical international theory, Review of International Studies (1986), 12, 301-312.

McKinnon, C., (2008), Issues in Political Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mayer, J., (2009), The Growing Interdependence Between Financial and Commodity Markets, No. 195, October, 2009; Discussion Papers, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

Nelson, R. R., and Pack, H., (1999), The Asian Miracle and Modern Growth Theory, Royal Economic Society 1999. Published by Blackwell.

Olds, K., Dicken, P., Kelly, P. F. and Yeung, H. W., (1999), Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific Contested Territories, Bristol: Routledge.

O’Brien, R. and Williams, M. (2007) Global Political Economy, Hong Kong: Palgrave Macmillan, pp, 15.

Rowthorn, R., (1996), East Asian Development: The Flying Geese Paradigm Reconsidered, East Asian Development: Lessons for a New Global Environment, Project sponsored by the Japan Government, Study No.8.

Santos, D. T., (1970), the Structure of Dependence, Source: The American Economic Review, Vol. 60, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Eighty-second Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May, 1970), pp. 231-236.

Singh, A., (1995) How did East Asia Grow So Fast? Slow Progress Towards an Analytical Consensus, No.97, Discussion Papers, From United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

Stiglitz, J.E., (2004) Some Lessons From the East Asian Miracle, The World Bank Research Observer, vol. 11, no. 2 (August 1996), pp. 151-77 © 1996 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / THE WORLD BANK/ New Political Economy, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 2004.

Strange, S., The Persistent Myth of Lost Hegemony, Source: International Organization, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Autumn, 1987), pp. 551-574.

Santos, T. D., (1970) The Structure of Dependence, Source: The American Economic Review, Vol. 60, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Eighty-second Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May, 1970), pp. 231-236.

Terry, E., (2002) How Asia Got Rich Japan, China, and the Asian miracle, USA: M. E. Sharpe.

Wendt, A., (1992), Anarchy is what state s make of it: the social construction of power politics, International Organization, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring, 1992), pp. 391-425.


Virtual vs. Traditional Tour Operator Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Business model in tourism

Criteria for evaluating website for travel agency

Company Evaluation



Introduction Virtual tour operators offer online tourism services while traditional tour operators use other mode of services but not online services. Lastminute.Com is one of the leading online tourism operators offering variety of online travel services.

The company headquarter is located in London and it is currently performing well in the London stock exchange. The company was founded in 1998 with an aim of providing online deals for late holiday booking.

It had about 500,000 regular users by 2000, and it has continued to improve its services to include gifts, entertainment, and travel. The company has also continued to charge lower prices for their services, which have continued to attract more and more customers.

The company offers all its services online and customers can see and choose the services they would like and charges for the services. As Campo and Yague (2008) argue, perceived price quality and satisfaction is very important to the consumers (p.20).

Moreover, “The choice of tourist destination depends so much on their finances” (Schetzina, 2010, p.28). For instance, the company offers prices for their travel services to different destinations and their respective prices.

Lastminute.Com Company also offers variety of services in the UK and Ireland. The hotels offer quality services and at the same time charge rates that are affordable.

The company also offers theater services at very affordable rates that have attracted customers from all parts of UK and Ireland. Thus, this company has continued to excel in the virtual tourism operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Kuoni.Com has continued to use traditional tourism services in the UK. Kuoni.Com is a tourism company owned by the Kuoni group of companies and offers variety of services for tourists.

The travels services include travel services, hotel services search as venues for retreat and honeymoon, and medical services to the tourists among other services.

The company provides its services using traditional tour operations where customers have to visit their offices or those of their agencies in order to book for their services. People have chosen the two companies because of their different mode of operations.

Business model in tourism According to Rachman and Richins, “tour operators are very important for they facilitate services for tourists” (1997, p.78). The two companies have continued to use different marketing strategies as well as offering quality services as way of attracting and retaining their customers.

Customers of tourism services would like to have a tourism agency that is offering a variety of services that will meet their expectations. In tourism industries, quality services and lower charges are important requirements from the customers.

Tourists will give a priority to a tourism company that offers services at lower charges without compromising quality when they are selecting their agencies. These two companies have continued to offer different discount rates for different services as a way of attracting and retaining their customers (Broadus, 2003, p.45).

For instance, Lastminute.Com Company gives its customers 5 percent discount for different travel destinations and this has made many tourists to choose their travel services just because of the fair prices.

We will write a custom Assessment on Virtual vs. Traditional Tour Operator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The two companies have also continued to give quality services and this has satisfied their customers making them come back repeatedly. Kapoor and Quinby (2009) note that, “Online travel agencies have continued to outperform the traditional agencies” (p.15).

For instance, they offer medical services to their customers when they are traveling. They also give different beverages to their customers when they are using their services. These factors have enabled the companies to develop and build loyal customers who will always choose their services.

These strategies underscore distributing channels, which are very important in tourism (Williams and Richter, 2002, p.404).

However, the traditional mode of tourism has been seriously affected by the new technology (Sangpikul, 2010, p.110) but Machlouzarides observes that traditional modes of business are still used to govern operations of tourism and travels, (2010, p.161).

Last Minute.Com Company has continued to use online services as way of reaching more customers. All the potential customers in all the parts of the world easily access online services at any time they want them.

Through online services, the two companies advertise all their services and carry out all the booking services with their customers at very low charges. Khare and Anshuman (2010) argue that use of technology has improved online transactions.

Traditional tour operations took place through agencies, which took a lot of time before they were completed. Customers had to apply for these services earlier enough before the actual date, which was costly in terms of time. However, online booking services are very fast and customers can book even in the last minute.

Hailin, and Dong (2009), observe that it is very easy to buy air ticket online (p.203).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Virtual vs. Traditional Tour Operator by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These services do not require customers to book a few days before the actual date of services; they just need to place their order one day before or even a few hours before the actual time for using the services, which has brought convenience on the side of customers especially those who like to book at the last minute.

Again, online booking services are very efficient based on the installation of all the customers’ requirements in the system. Mistakes and errors that made by traditional system are not common with online booking and this has made many customers to prefer online services as compared to traditional services.

These companies have also used online services as a marketing strategy where the operators place all the information about services offered on the internet. Customers are informed about different offers such as discounts offered by different travel companies as well as other services on offer.

As noted by Javanbakht, Alipour and Hajaliakbari (2009), “tourism and internet is the same thing” (p.267). Kim, Chung, and Lee (2009), support this argument by observing that online tourism services are very important for success tourism industry (p.256).

Criteria for evaluating website for travel agency Evaluation of the website for travel agency involves determining whether the website is meeting its objectives for which it was established. The main aim of this website is to reach the potential customers and giving them all the information they require about the services offered by the agency.

First, the website must have the right authority as a way of authenticating information provided.

Secondly, the agency ought to provide different services to its customers.

Thirdly, it also needs to provide the prices charged for these services.

Fourthly, it needs further to provide other services offered to the customers such as help services.

Fifthly, the information provided over the website should meet the needs of the customers. According to Chaiprasit, Jariangprasert, Chomphunut, Naparat, and Jaturapataraporn (2010), quality of information is very important on travel agencies website (p.45).

Company Evaluation The websites of the two companies are different given that, one of them is virtual tour operator and the other is traditional tour operator. Though the two companies’ websites are meeting their objectives, virtual tour operator is doing it better than the traditional tour operator is.

Lastminute.Com Company meets almost all the aforementioned criteria since it has provided all the information about their products in its websites. The company displays different discount rates in the website in a way that will capture the attention of the customers.

According to Park and Jemieson, (2009), a good monitoring system is important in tourism (p.46). On the other hand, the Website of Company does not have all the necessary information about their services.

It also lacks online booking facilities that are very important to the customers. Therefore, it is important to evaluate online services in order to ensure their quality (Tsang, Lai,


Sustainability in Cruise Tourism Industry Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction As the sources of income become limited and human being needs become insatiable, man has looked for alternatives for making sure that he is able to fulfill his needs. One such need has been the need to enjoy the aesthetic value which our environment offers.

This has resulted in engaging in different activities as he tries to fulfill these aesthetic needs. Several activities which man has engaged in include mountain climbing, beach rallying, and watching wildlife and so on.

With globalization and the ability of people to move freely from one place to the other without many barriers a different kind of tourism has gained momentum with the number of tourists increasing day in day out: The cruise tourism industry.

The gains from the industry have been increasing, however as the industry grows issues of major concerns have risen concerning the contribution of the cruise tourism industry to unsustainable development with proposals of the sustainable development strategies emerging and the authorities insisting on the need for their implementation.

In this essay, we shall discuss the environmental impacts the cruise tourism industry has had on the environment and then propose mitigation measures which need to be observed to promote sustainable development of the industry.

Cruise Tourism Any trip taken through the sea with the sole purpose being for leisure is usually defined as a cruise. A cruise involves stopping at several stop points which are usually defined as destinations with in the coast line during the expedition (Dowling, 2006).

It is on this basis that a cruise tourist is thereby defined as a person who travels in such a ship (cruise) enjoying visiting the various destinations as well as the journey itself. A cruise ship is different from your ordinary ships since it is aided by the weather and the sea conditions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is aided by the weather and the sea condition in the aspect that, cruise tourists only use the cruise ship when visiting a certain area which is assumed to be having a nice weather (usually sunny) and the sea condition which makes the cruising enjoyable (Stonehouse


Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries Critical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Summary



Reference List

Summary Written by Adrian Wood, the article Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: the Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom, explores the effects of openness and wage inequality especially in developing countries.

The conventional wisdom theory of East Asian is analysed in relation to the experience of the Latin America countries in the mid 1980s.

As the author puts it, the conventional wisdom theory that was developed from the experience of the East Asian countries in the 1960s argues that increased openness to trade particularly in the developing countries increases efficiency and reduces inequality that exists in wages between unskilled and skilled workers.

According to this theory, increased openness to trade raises the demand for unskilled workers who form the largest proportion of workforce in the developing countries hence reducing the rate of unemployment.

Wood argues that, in developing countries, the number of unskilled workers far outweighs the number of skilled workers. This argument is supported by the well-known Heckscher-Ohlin theory.

On the other hand, the author argues that the experience of the Latin American countries in the mid 1980s contradicted the theory of the conventional wisdom.

The challenge faced by these countries showed that increased openness to trade made the wage gap to widen rather than to reduce as it is portrayed by the conventional wisdom theory. Increased openness to trade in the developing countries has continued to raise wage inequality in greater magnitude than expected.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author attempts to bring the two views together by providing an explanation of what could have caused this increased wage differential in the Latin America countries.

As demonstrated in this article, the possible explanation for the difference between the two theories lies in the economic difference between the two regions and time difference between the experiences of the two regions.

Analysis The debate over the two schools of thought has been going on for many years. As the author in this article points out, increased openness to trade reduces wage differential in the developing countries (Wood, 1997, p.33).

An economic occurrence that contradicts this theory is not easy to explain for it goes against what is empirically tested and accepted. Openness to trade creates employment opportunities among skilled and unskilled workers in the developing countries.

As Heckscher-Ohlin theory explains, countries tend to produce goods, which will intensively use the resources that are available in abundance.

On the hand, countries import goods that require resources in scarce supply and this explains why countries in developed world produce goods that are capital intensive while developing countries tend to export goods that are labour intensive (Wood, 1997, p.34).

As Juozapaviciene and Eizenta argue, resources endowment may help to explain export and imports of different countries (2010, p.87). Thus, openness to trade will allow exchange of these factors of production between developed and developing countries.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Increased demand for unskilled labour because of openness in trade will create more opportunities for unskilled labour thus reducing wage differential and as Pollan notes, “Reduced wage differential will increase income inequality” (2009, p.389).

The author of this article presents two possible explanation of why openness to trade led to wage inequality in the Latin American countries. First, there was economic difference between the two regions and secondly, the time difference between the experiences of the two countries (Wood, 1997, p.55).

These two explanations are possible since they are supported by empirical evidence, which is presented by the author of this article. The two regions are different in terms of endowment in natural resources.

The supply of skilled labour in the East Asian countries is growing at a faster speed, which is different from the Latin American countries where labour market is highly regulated.

The two regions are almost the same in resources endowment since both enjoy developed infrastructures and high literacy rate compared to other regions like south Asia and Africa.

In spite of this, Latin American countries have more natural resources compared to East Asian countries that make the former to prefer primary products production (Wood, 1997, p.46).

On the other hand, East Asian countries have a competitive advantage in manufactured products though with a narrow margin and this phenomenon explains why the export products of East Asian countries are mainly manufacturing products while those for Latin American countries are primary products.

Therefore, in Latin American countries, natural resources and skilled labour were used to complement each other (Wood, 1997, p.47). Expansion of the primary products industry because of openness to trade raised the demand for skilled labour thus increasing the wage of this type of labour.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the case is different for East Asian countries where expansion in the manufacturing industries provides more opportunities for unskilled workers. Increased employment for unskilled workers will reduce wage differential (Wood, 1997, p.47).

The author of this article brings out this point very well by providing an empirical analysis of both manufacturing and primary products industries in the two regions. The two regions also have different trade policies, which could have resulted to this contradiction (Wood, 1997, p.48).

As the article presents, the experiences of the two regions happened at different economic periods. The Latin America challenge happened at a time when several activities that had great impact to the world economy were happening.

First, there was entry of middle-level income generating countries such as China into the world economy, which affected global labour market in many ways.

Secondly, there was technological advancement and mobility of capital and labour globally, which affected operations of the labour market. These differences can help to explain why the two views are different (Wood, 1997, p.55).

For instance, Egger, Huber, and Pfaffermayr posit that, export openness in Eastern and Central Europe has also continued to increase wage disparity (2005, p.63) and this could explain the differences experienced in the aforementioned case.

However, the author of the article does not appreciate the fact that Heckscher-Ohlin theory is not universally accepted in international trade. As Thompson argues, “factor price equalisation does not hold for capital and labour” (2011, p.186).

This may make Heckscher-Ohlin theory not to hold when explaining the relationship between wage inequality and openness to trade in developing countries. Again, productivity differences as noted by Morrow (2010, p.139) may also help to explain the differences between the two outcomes.

Conclusion The author of this article gives two explanations in his attempt to harmonise the two different views of openness to trade and wage inequality.

Economic and time differences between the two economic phenomena in Latin American countries’ challenges and East Asian countries’ conventional wisdom are strong explanation of the contradiction.

However, Heckscher-Ohlin theory may not fully explain this contradiction since it is not universally accepted in international trade. Differences in productivity between the two regions may also help to explain the contradiction between the two views.

Reference List Egger, P., Huber, P.,


How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World? Expository Essay college essay help near me

Gender inequality is a complex phenomenon that does not seem to have a conclusive argument. According to Rives and Yousefi (1997), the statement above is right in its articulation that the problem is prevalent and widely spread all over the world (p. 90).

This has prompted scholars to critically debate about the issue with varying opinions among those that support it and those that oppose it.

The argument supporting gender inequality derives its support from the belief that there is injustice that stems from unequal access to resources and opportunities based on gender or sex.

Rhode (1997) says that as a result, gender equality movements have sprang up allover the world from the beginning of the last century culminating to passage of various acts by different governments allowing inheritance of property by people of both genders and criminalizing any act that is contrary to those (p.102).

Despite the strides made by society in stemming gender inequality, it will be naive to assume that gender equality has been achieved in the world today.

Rhodes (1997) further says that Even the most advanced societies that boast of constitutions that guarantee universal freedoms and human rights experience different forms of discrimination based on sex (p. 114).

Rhode (1997) concludes that gender inequality nowadays has become synonymous with the struggle of women fighting for the same treatment as men (p.76). It is not correct however to assume that only women are negatively affected by gender inequality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Historically however, traditions of different peoples who inhabit the earth have been biased against women often showing open prejudice against them compared to men REFERENCE (own words).

Women have since time immemorial been subjected to restrictions that have ensured they are treated as sub humans. All cultures from European, Asian, and African have considered women to be subordinates to their men.

These discrimination has been passed on to successful generations through socialization and has over time been accepted a way of life REFERENCE (own words).

Rives and Yousefi (1997) say that little boys are taught from a young age to behave in a superior manner while girls are taught to respect men and look upon them as the providers and ultimate destiny deciders (p.106).

Men are regarded as the heads of the family and major decision makers. Women are traditionally not allowed to inherit property as it is assumed that they will get married and would have access to the husband’s property. Even then, few have a major say on the how family property should be managed REFERENCE (own words).

Rhode (1997, p. 28) says that besides general cultural traditions, religion has played a major role on propagating gender inequality and sex discrimination. For instance, the world’s two major religions; Christianity and Islam have openly shown preference of the men folk to women.

Women are not allowed to hold high positions in these religions because they were not considered full human beings. Only men went out to talk to God, wrote the holy books, and up to date, carry out religious functions.

We will write a custom Essay on How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The language itself used in these books makes no effort to hide its prejudice against women as human beings are referred to as men.

While some sections of Christianity have undergone reforms and accommodated women in their ranks, many have not. Islam on its part is more or less, what it used to be since its inception as far as women issues are concerned (Rhode 1997 p. 28).

According Ridgeway (1992, p.86), it may not be correct per se to say that its only women who are aggrieved by the gender imbalance but majority of the cases that depict gender inequalities involve women on the receiving end

According to Oxfam (2011, p 1), quoting UN (2005, pp 2), gender inequality that has resulted in the discrimination of women through denial of basic human rights is a leading cause of poverty in the world today.

Oxfam (2011, p 2) adds that majority of women in the world have little or no control on matters of sexuality, reproduction and marital choices.

Oxfam (2011 p 2) further adds that women have diminished recourse to legal and political protection and recognition. Women also rank poorly in terms of access to public knowledge, and decision-making power compared to their male counterparts.

According to Robeyns (2002, p.457), positions like the above mean women have reduced participation in public affairs hence increasing their vulnerability to abuse and subordination.

Many organizations have carried out research to paint the clear picture of the problem. This paper will focus on some of the studies carried out so far, the sectors that have been hardest hit by gender discrimination and some of the forms through which gender inequality has manifested itself in the society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Facts about Gender inequality Oxfam (2011, p 3) referring to IPU (2009) estimated in 2009 that only 18.4% of women made up composition of parliaments in the world. Far less women contributed to major decision making in the world. It therefore means few women participated in making laws and decisions that directly affect them

UNESCO estimates that there are almost 780 million illiterate people in the world (United Nations 2005, pp 2). Furthermore, there are over 75 million school drops out in the world according to the UN body.

Two thirds of the illiterate population is women while over 55% of the school dropouts are girls (United Nations 2005, pp 2). The blatant lack of access to information as shown above clearly puts women at a disadvantage in terms of access to information and knowledge REFERENCE(own words).

Statistics about wage earnings too paint a grim picture about the position of women. According ITUC, women make an average of 84% of what men mage in income.

This is besides the fact that they are largely concentrated in the informal sector and exposed to dangerous working conditions. Ridgeway, (2011, p 326) says that the instability associated with this work and the low earnings have compounded the problem leading to income disparities between men and women.

By virtue of giving birth, women are exposed to more risk than men are.

The world health organization estimates that over half a million women die from complications related to pregnancy while millions ranging from 8-20 million suffer irreversible injuries and permanent disabilities from pregnancy related complications (United Nations 2005, pp 3).

Factors cited earlier as low pay and lack of education contribute greatly to this situation. Further highlighting the poor treatment of women in healthcare, the UN estimates that more than half of the people living with HIV in the world are women (United Nations 2005, pp 3).

According to Ridgeway (2011), both men and women are exposed to the same risk of contracting the virus.

However, lack of access to health care by women in equal measure as men, coupled with low pay, minimal rights to decide sexual matters and lack of adequate information due to illiteracy have contributed o the high cases of HIV in women (p.127).

Though both men and women experience domestic and sexual violence, the problem is more prevalent in women than men are. Systematic rape is common in many countries that leave women traumatized, pregnant, or infected hence living disjointed lives.

The UN estimates that between 10-68% of women experience domestic violence and abuse from their sexual partners. The high cases show trend where culprits are not brought to book due to weak institutions or laws that are biased against women or not updated to deal with delicate women issues (United Nations 2005, pp 4).

While men suffer as causalities in conflicts, women and children make up over 85% of refuges in the camps. The women are usually not well looked after and the men who survive the conflicts often flee their families.

Laws to address the situation that is highly disadvantageous to women are almost non-existent (United Nations 2005, pp 4).

The above statistics depict a precarious situation for women and do not at all reinforce a notion that gender inequality may be a two-way phenomenon where men are also negatively affected. Even if there is a situation like that, women are clearly more affected than men are REFERENCE (own words.)

Manifestation of gender inequality Gender inequality has manifested itself through many ways in society. In most of these cases, its women who bear the brunt of the injustices that are as a result of the inequalities.

According to Jacobs (1995) there are numerous practices carried out all over the world that amount to gender discrimination, the Asian and Middle East region has some of the most disturbing cultural practices that do not favor women (p. 68).


Miller et al (2009, p. 257) says that in western cultures, divorce is accessed by either partner who feels aggrieved hence cannot continue to stay in the arrangement.

However, some cultures like in Lebanon the divorce process is extremely punitive to women until many prefer to stay in their dysfunctional marriages to divorce. The laws governing such places have heaped both legal and financial obstacles on the part of women who would like to divorce effectively locking them out of the process.

Egyptian women are allowed to initiate divorce if they wish. However, the law makes it difficult for them to be granted their wish since it requires them or their families to repay dowries. The law further demends that they give up all the rights on the couple’s finances.

In Lebanon, women who experience domestic violence must produce an eyewitness for them to be granted divorce proceedings, a requirement that is quite stringent and difficult to fulfill.

The situation is no different in Israel. The right to divorce can only be given by the husband and never the wife. On the other hand, men in the above territories can do as they please as far as divorce is concerned Miller et al (2009, p. 305).


According to Spade, and Valentine (2008, p. 203), access to education by girls is lower compared to that of boys. Everywhere in the world with the exception of a few countries, the enrollment of boys is always higher than that of girls.

In Afghanistan for instance, the Taliban regime that aggressively enforced fundamental Islamic practices banned enrolment of girls to school. Still the literacy rate of women in the country is low owing to the fact that there is a shortage of female teachers, who must teach girls from a certain age.

The most discriminative practice in the country involves taking girls to school at puberty, effectively ensuring lack of uniform education among women from an early age.


Some communities in the Middle East and Africa demand that women walk accompanied by a male relative, even if the male companion is the age of a child. In other countries of the Middle East, husbands have the right to restrict their wife’s movements by filling papers at the airport that ban their women from traveling.

In other countries like Libya, married women must have a written permission from the husband authorizing her travel abroad. The practices are quite discriminative to women especially considering the demand places women at par with children Miller et al (2009, p. 310).

Women in such communities cannot decide what is right for them. Jacobs (1995) says that religious and selfish interests reign supreme and women are the losers at the end of it all (p. 56).


In the Middle East there are no laid down judicial procedures combating violence against women, especially sexual violence. Men have absolute control over women and battering is always treated as a domestic matter outside the state’s jurisdiction.

The system is not favorable at all to women who experience violence of any kind. Police stations do not allow reporting of cases of abuse nor do they take actions when actual cases are reported (Jacobs 1995, p 80).

Female infant discrimination

Blau (2006, p.308) says that there is a traditional believe that boys are better than girls are. Preference for boys over girls has led to increased infanticide, neglect, and abandonment of girls by parents who are desperate for boys.

In China and India, for instance there are high abortion rates of female fetuses by parents in search of boys. Such cases show the level of discrimination and outdated thinking that people have towards women.

Sectors hardest him by gender inequality

According to Tischler (2007, p.48), effects of gender inequality are universal. Many systems through which human beings operate have had negative impacts of gender inequality.

Education, the economy and labor markets and politics are some of the sectors that have experienced gender inequality and the negative consequences that are associated with it.


According to UNFPA, education for girls ensures long-term economic benefits for the entire society, access to more economic opportunities by girls and engagement in public life (United Nations 2005, pp 5). Educated women tend to make wise choices about health by bearing fewer children.

On the other hand, education increases girls bargaining power in sexual matters resulting in reduced chances of infection by HIV. The agency however casts some doubt about the achievement of millennium development goals on gender balance in the enrollment of girls into school.

According to the organization, there has been some progress but regions like south western Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa still lag behind in the enrollment of girls to school.

Blau (2006, p.308) adds that in countries that fall in these regions, choices about sending children to school are made and more often than not boys are sent to school while girls are left out (p.198).

Some of the issues that discourage girls from going to school include provision of safe transport, construction of separate amenities from both genders and discouragement of gender stereotyping in classrooms.

The above are very prevalent and greatly contribute in to the gender inequality that is witnessed in the education sector. The same situation is witnessed in the secondary school level where enrolment of girls is same as that in primary school. In some cases its lower (United Nations 2005, pp 5)

Labor Market

Bruckner (2004) says that, to ensure economic security for women and sustainable development and growth of economies, gender inequality must be done a way with in the labor sectors (p.84).

According to the UN, gender inequality in the Labor market is manifested through occupational discrimination, wage gaps based on gender and the uneven representation in informal employment, unpaid work, and high rates of unemployment (United Nations 2005, pp 5).

The UN further says that the majority of the working poor in the world are women. The working number up to 500 million and out of that, women comprise 60%.

The undervaluation of women’s work and the potential of clashing of their careers and other obligations like giving birth and raising families, contributes to the situation above (United Nations 2005, pp 5).

Kendall (2007, p. 248) says that some countries have even gone further and placed restrictions on the type of work that women should do and the earnings they should make.

Further more women earn less even when they do the same kind of work as men. Bruckner (2004, p.157) asserts that far less women own businesses compared to men and over 60% of all women who work in household businesses are not paid for their services.

National assemblies

There has been significant increase in the number of women elected to their national assemblies over the last decade. Despite the progress, national parliaments are yet to achieve the gender parity that they are supposed to have.



Generic Toolkit for Implementing a Web-Based Product Innovation Strategy for Zara Fashion Retailer Report (Assessment) essay help

Introduction Sweeping demographic changes, technological advances, increased competition, geopolitical realignments and other related pressures are combining with concerns for security, changing customer preferences and expectations, expansion urges, and shifts in organizational governance to generate momentous pressure for organizational change (Kotter, 2007; Howard, 1994).

A multiplicity of studies (Haveman, 1993; Amburgay et al, 1993) demonstrate that organizations need to continually change and reinvent themselves to maintain profitability and competitiveness in the ever shifting and continuously more complex business environment.

In this regard, effective management of change becomes a critical constituent in the organization’s attempt to meet and even surpass its goals and objectives (Johns Hopkins, 2008).

It is against this background that this report seeks to detail a generic toolkit that will be used to initiate a web-based product innovation strategy that will assist the company to deal with changing customer preferences in the fashion industry through customer integration

Background to the Company Headquartered in Corona, Spain, Zara Fashion Retailer’s main interests revolves around the manufacturing, distribution and retailing of various fashion products, which include clothes, footwear, designer bags, children’s wear, designer glasses and other fashion and beauty accessories (Zara, 2011).

With an estimated 1,500 fashion retail outlets, 92,000-strong workforce and € 6.26 billion in 2007 annual sales, Zara is not only one of the leading fashion retailers globally, but it has also become one of the most treasured and respected apparel brands worldwide, in part due to its impressive financial growth and stability in recent years (Caro et al., 2010).

According to these authors, “…the success [of Zara] is widely attributed to its fast-fashion business model, which involves frequent in-season assortment changes and ever-trendy items offered in appealing environments and at competitive prices” (p. 71).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Zara has a market presence in over 70 countries dispersed around the world (Zara, 2011).

Brief Description of Pressures Faced by Zara The impetus for change arises from certain key drivers originating from the external environment (social, legal, economic and technological) as well as drivers originating from the internal business environment (Oakland


Corona Beer Company Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Trends in the global market beer

Mondelo’s international expansion

Next foreign market for Mondelo to enter

Challenges facing Modelo

Modelo’s diversification


Trends in the global market beer The global market trends has faced substantial changes over the past three decades with giants like Heineken being edged out by upcoming new brands such as Corona Extra from Grupo Modelo.

The two key strategies that clearly alter global beer market are strategic alliances with strategic partners and global marketing strategies that are unique and quickly identifiable.

The two Mexican companies Modelo and FEMSA were forced to form strategic alliances with international distributors with sound knowledge on local market and because of the fact that they enjoyed less international restrictions especially because of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

Modelo chose Anheuser-Busch while FEMSA opted for Heineken. These strategic alliances were especially important in terms of market penetration since less cost was incurred.

The strategic marketing images of “fun in the sun” and strategies employed by Modelo played a pivotal role in its international growth toppling market leaders such as Heineken in the United States.

On the other hand FEMSA faced a rather difficult time while Heineken marketing strategies caused its significant market loss to Modelo. This was because Modelo focused less on human image for marketing but rather focused on the experience enhanced by its products.

It actually created a myth “fun in the sun” which swept the U.S. market like never before. Its mergers with Gambrinus Inc and Barton Beers also reduced the cost of distribution, marketing, insurance and advertising.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current global marketing has rather shifted to strategic alliance partnership to enhance global market dominance as evident in the case of InBev and Anheuser-Busch possible alliance.

Such an approach has shaped the brewing industry towards global strategic partnership to create a behemoth capable of taking advantage of economies of scale and other strategic benefits to enhance their market presence and future sustainability.

Mondelo’s international expansion International market entry for Modelo was particularly strategic because the international market nature and the restriction faced by foreign companies while exporting their products across borders.

This was specifically experienced in the United States where North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) limited foreign companies from accessing the market.

It was because of these restrictions that forced Modelo to form strategic alliances with local distributors that could ease the expense incurred as a result of the restrictions. Modelo first chose Anheuser-Busch because it enjoyed the NAFTA environment.

This initial step was particularly important for Modelo to enhance its international coverage especially with its economically strong neighbour the U.S.

In order to further increase their international strength internationally, Modelo entered into new contracts with local distributors with local market knowledge to further their creative campaign strategy of “fun in the sun”. Modelo also maintained an active role in the decision making process regarding its products.

We will write a custom Assessment on Corona Beer Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Modelo aligned itself with Barton Beers a large importer of beer with more than 25 countries internationally and also experienced in marketing of imported beers. It was through Barton Beers that the image of “fun in the sun” gained a substantial ground. Because of the continuing growth in the U.S. market, Modelo decided to add another major distributor, Gambrinus Inc. Modelo was advantaged because the company was headed by former Modelo executive.

Modelo gained from these two distributors because they helped to ease cost related to transportation, insurance, customer and even advertising among other international expenses.

Modelo however maintained an active role with respect to the brands image and thus ensuring the brands increased performance internationally.

To further strategically coordinate its international distributors, Modelo tasked Procennex Inc as a subsidiary mandated the task of coordinating and supervising the activities of the two distributors.

Next foreign market for Mondelo to enter The next strategic market that Modelo should enter is the European and Asian market. The rationale for this is because Heineken has succeeded in these regions. In Europe Ireland and Germany are potential countries while in Asian, China is strategic market opportunity.

Modelo has a number of strategic advantages that it has gained from its U.S. market exploitation; the key advantage is its marketing image “fun in the sun” which has gained popularity as opposed to Heineken strategic plan that is focused on its qualities.

Modelo should enter these Key international with an open mind considering that the strategies used in U.S. may not be efficient especially in China.

It is however strategic for Modelo to consider the same approach of selecting an experienced distributor that is well acquainted with the local market in Europe and Asia. This will ease the trade restrictions that are especially significant in China and thus reducing the cost of market penetration in the country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corona Beer Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another important aspect that Modelo should ensure is the uniqueness that it demonstrated in the market penetration both locally and in the United States.

In the modern marketing strategies, it is imperative to ensure that the products being sold and unique and remarkable for the consumers to be able to instantly recognize the brand and differentiate it from other brands.

Constant and strategic marketing strategies that align with the local market should also be enhanced in order to ensure that these strategies are successful in the target local market. Few modifications may therefore be necessary with advice from the local distributors in order for Modelo to penetrate the market significantly.

Challenges facing Modelo The possible alliance between InBev and Anheuser-Busch will likely create unimaginable behemoth in the brewing industry, a situation that will dwarf giants like Modelo and Carlsberg and Heineken among others.

Such a strategic alliance will not only play an important role in cost saving through economies of scale but also provide a strong competition to almost all the brewing industries in the world.

Such a step announced by the InBev executive has forced other industry stake-holders to rethink their strategies in order to be sustainable amidst a strong competition from the colossus merger.

The immediate strategic response that Modelo should take is to create a consolidated merger with other stakeholders in the beer industry. Such a merger will be a response to the steps taken by InBev (Ellet, 2007).

The most immediate alliances should thus be started with mid-tiers such as Anheuser, Molson Coors and Heineken among others.

The steps taken by InBev will limit the options of these mid-tiers and thus important for Modelo and other to consider an immediate response strategic alliance in order to ensure their sustainability (Hughes, 2005).

Modelo’s diversification The most immediate action that Modelo should ensure is not to diversify into other businesses but rather enhance its global presence in terms of market ownership of the beer industry. The rational for this reasoning is because a company ought to be sustainable in order to think of other diversification elements.

If Modelo for instance diversifies into other market niches, its primary source of income may be relaxed and thus allowing competitors to reduce the company’s market share.

It is however strategic for Modelo to diversify into other market niches such as wines production, this should however happen only when the company has acquired a substantial global market share in country’s outside the US and Mexico.

Since the Modelo brand is already established and even a market leader in the United States market, the brand should help the company acquire more international market niches instead of pre-mature diversification (Thompson, 2010).

The other rationale for objecting pre-mature business diversification is the overall risks of another business venture. Modelo will have to drain its resources and risks market variations in a new market niche yet its core competencies are doing extremely well established.

Its 7.8 % revenues from international market will be reduced by the cost of starting new operations and thus weakening its financial status when its competitors such as InBev are forming strategic alliances to capture global market.

These alliances are significant in terms of reducing cost of new market penetration. Modelo should also seek strategic international alliance in order to keep at pace with the global leaders if it is to be sustainable in the beer industry.

References Ellet, W. (2007). The case study book: How to read, discuss, and write persuasively about cases. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Hughes, R.,


The Evolution of Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory Report (Assessment) essay help

Analyzing the Evolution of Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory and Research Organizational knowledge creation involves making available and intensifying knowledge created by individuals and also shaping up and linking it with an organization’s knowledge system.

The description of knowledge and knowledge conversion triggered research on conducive organization for and the context for knowledge creation. Research particularly found that knowledge, vision, activism, organizational forms and leadership affect organizational knowledge creation.

With further evolution of organizational knowledge creation theory, the nature of the firm was made clearer and ‘knowledge strategy’ concept was furthered (Nonaka, Von Krogh


Importance of Organizational Knowledge Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

In today’s world, there is hardly any organization that enjoys monopoly due to liberation of trade. This is because in every sector there are many traders and thus, each business entity must up its game to remain ahead.

Gone are the days when legendary businessmen used to sabotage the businesses of their rivals by collaborating with the authorities, just to eject them from the market place. Consumers are in praise of this stiff competition because they get the worth of their money at subsidized rates.

It is said that knowledge is the strongest source of power, and the organizations that are ranked at the top in business world, such as Apple, Google, and Southwest Airways are investing lots of money on knowledge because they know lack of it will cost them their fortunes.

O’Keeffe (2002) explains that in organizational knowledge, getting at the top is not a problem as long as the organization is willing to pay the price.

What matters the most is retaining the position because learning is a continuous process and if an organization stops its employees from upgrading themselves, then that marks the beginning of the end for that particular organization.

In organizational knowledge, an organization has to learn more than its rival companies and this means that they have to learn quickly. Learning entails observing what competitors are doing, and repackaging their approach to make it much better.

Organizational learning is initiated by the administrators because employees would take ages to take the initiative unless they are assured it will come with appraisals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several benefits of organizational knowledge. The first one is that it enhances the quality of output. Besides, it enables organizations to come up with techniques of completing the processes involved in production faster thus saving time.

Similarly, a knowledgeable work force is able to cope with the challenges as opposed to when it’s not informed. This is because learning provides early warning to the expected challenges and thus, organizations prepare adequately for those challenges.

For instance, British Airways uses learning as the platform to improve the quality of its services. This has been done in collaboration with its suppliers after trimming them.

Processes and Systems There are various approaches of acquiring organizational knowledge, but the most common ones are mastery and team learning. Team learning entails gathering employees through seminars and workshops and it’s the most preferred mode of learning.

Mastery learning revolves around an individual and in this approach an individual is sponsored by the organization to upgrade his/her skills with expectations that he/she will make a positive contribution to the success of the organization.

Hardie, Bontis, and Serenko (2007) argue that most organizations do not like this approach because there are many cases where employees are trained only for them to leave the company that paid for their training because they have identified another employer who can pay them better.

Organizational knowledge should be based on trust and this can be achieved by appreciating what employees are already doing which will make them hold on to their current position.

We will write a custom Assessment on Importance of Organizational Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, appropriate communication channels should be established to enhance sharing of knowledge. This is because the few employees who will be trained should share what they have learnt with their colleagues in various departments.

This is necessary because they are not the ones who will carry out all the tasks involved in production. For communication to be effective there must be working relationships among employees to eliminate the fear that the juniors have towards their seniors.

Organizations can succeed in encouraging their employees to gain more knowledge by sharing the benefits that are achieved by the organization with the employees.

For instance, the suppliers of British Airways were resentful to learning because they felt that the changes were coming to throw them out of the business. This is why organizations should counsel their employees so that they can understand why it is necessary to learn.

This will make the employees change their attitude towards learning because they will be assured that their efforts will eventually pay when the organization thrives.

In another example, companies like Toyota and Ford were successful in the implementation of lean manufacturing because information about the new technology was shared among the stakeholders, and everyone’s view was considered.

Therefore, organizational learning should not be mandatory because it will imply that the employees are only learning for the betterment of the organization. This suggests that learning should be voluntary and no one should be victimized for declining it.

References Hardie, T., Bontis, N., and Serenko, A., 2007. Organizational size and knowledge flow: a proposed theoretical link. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 8 (4): pp. 610-627.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Organizational Knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More O’Keeffe, T., 2002. Organizational learning: a new perspective. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26 (2): pp. 130-141.


Ethical Issues in Online Learning Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Online education is a common form of learning today. Learners are now benefitting from online learning process without having to go to school. Online learning has been promoted by modern technologies. These technologies include computers, smart phones and the internet.

However, this promising innovation has its own set of challenges. The issue of identity is a major concern in online learning. Some experts argue that distance education can lead to cheating and academic dishonesty (Oosterhof, Conrad


The Required Skills for a Sales Manager Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction and Summary

Educational Requirements for Sales Managers

General Skills Required for Sales Managers


Works Cited

Introduction and Summary In sales jobs, sales managers normally play a very crucial role. This is majorly based on the fact that they act as intermediaries that link an organization to its potential clients while offering proficient leadership in the management of sales.

It is based on this reason that these sales managers have to be well-equipped with the skills on their sales jobs while they have vast knowledge about the company to represent it well (Goleman et al. 42-51).

Even more importantly, the sales managers should ensure that they carry out themselves professionally and in a decent way that aptly represents the organization that they represent. Also, they should be able to set a good example that can be emulated by those working below them.

If the above roles are to be ardently played by the sales managers, some adept level of education is required. It is upon these fundamental requirements that this paper seeks to give an analytical and expansive explanation of the skills required for one to be a good sales manager.

Educational Requirements for Sales Managers Based on the fact that a sales manager is among the most celebrated and greatly rewarding job titles in today’s world; it is very elemental that one is equipped with relevant educational skills in the management of sales endeavors.

The prominence of sales managers is not only because most sales managers are placed in charge of high-profile sales operations, but they also have to go through rigorous educational systems and trainings to get the credentials that enable to do their work.

Some of the crucial education requirements for sales managers are given below.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To begin with, different countries and regions have different education systems and requirements for sales managers. However, as a generally accepted rule by most scholars, the more industrialized or developed a country is; the more meticulous its learning and education system is.

Moreover, a good number of high-performing organizations usually need well-skilled sales managers to manage the dynamics and intricacies of sales in their companies.

This, probably, is the reason Calvin (30-50) states that a sales manager’s salary in an industrialized country, as well as high-performing organizations, tends to be high when compared to the less industrialized countries and small-performing sales institutions.

Generally speaking, there have been great advancements made on the nature of education in most countries (Devine). As a result, a diploma or degree from a certified academic institution is usually considered as the least academic qualification for sales managers.

However, to get top sales management positions, particularly in high-flying sales organizations, a masters or PhD in academic fields that deal with sales management is very necessary. On the other hand, sales managers in small organizations can even get sales management jobs with certificate-level education.

Again, higher educational prowess and knowledge on the management of sales and salespeople often leads to higher pay grades while the lower forms of education lead to lower pay grades (Vince 1325-1335).

On a final note regarding the education skills required for sales managers, the sales management salary of individuals with experience is often higher than that of their counterparts.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Required Skills for a Sales Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Remarkably, most countries today dictate that university and college students seeking to be sales managers must go through industrial training in an organization dealing with sales. This should be done under the supervision of some professionals.

Gaining experience from these training institutions is usually considered important thus assessed by most employers who seek to employ sales managers. For this reason, aspiring sales managers should always strive to gain as much experience as possible to better their chances of getting good jobs and salaries.

General Skills Required for Sales Managers Other than the educational skills, there are other important skills required for one to be a good sales manager. These other skills are succinctly detailed below.

Progress as sales managers in sales companies can be ensured by the observation of important business facets like teamwork, accountability and hard work, among many others.

However, it is inherent to note that the performance and job jurisdictions of sales managers hugely vary depending on factors like the region an individual is working in, the person’s competencies, the type of clients the salesperson deals with and the experience a salesperson has on a particular job—just as was glimpsed in the section about educational skills for sales managers.

Such skills help in motivating other workers while ensuring that clients are satisfied with the sales services and products offered by the company (Goleman et al. 42-51).

Moreover, different clients call for different sales services and thus different levels of attention from sales managers. For example, when the client is irate, it is vital for the sales manager to deal with them calmly just in the same way an uneducated customer requires the use of simple and easy-to-understand language.

In spite of working for the same company and having similar objectives, different sales managers have different potentials, experiences and regions they deal with. As a result, the final performance of such people in their jobs varies from one person to another just in the same way it varies with regions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Required Skills for a Sales Manager by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As is common with many business-oriented industries, no sales company will ever have everyone performing to his/her utmost best to achieve all the objectives of the company.

So, whether or not everything goes as planned by the organization, you should always strive to give your very best and lead others by example. Common knowledge dictates that lazy and uncommitted sales people will only focus on quickly skimming through their jobs and make as much profits as possible.

As a manager, you are expected not to be like such lazy people. Of course making money or rather getting profits is the target of most sales organizations.

However, when profits are heralded in sales jobs to the point that organizations have to sacrifice fundamental business statutes like discipline and loyalty; then urgent measures have to be put in place to correct the money-minded mentality.

The current diversified and highly competitive nature of businesses today calls for very effective sales managers to ensure overall efficiency in the organization. The best way of doing this, as a manager, is by staying industrious while staying in focus so as not to deviate from achieving the company’s objectives.

Conclusion Finally, as was stated by Benjamin Disraeli, it is important to remember that the secret of success is constancy to purpose.

Therefore, instead of sitting back feeling contented of what you have achieved so far as a sales manager, or someone aspiring to be one; you need to overcome the challenges in your industry while continually laboring to ensure that you maximize your potential and that of the company you work for (Gosling and Mintzberg 19-22).

It is only by doing this that we can be assured of adequate success as sales managers.

Works Cited Calvin, Robert. Sales Management Demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print.

Devine, Anne. Is a Career in Sales Right For You? 2010. Web.

Goleman, Daniel, Boyatzis Richard and McKee Anne. “Primal Leadership: the Hidden Driver of Great Performance.” Harvard Business review, (2001): 42-51. Print.

Gosling, Jonathan and Mintzberg Henry. “The Education of Practicing Managers.” Sloan Management Review, 45.4 (2003): 19-22. Print.

Vince, Russ. “Power and Emotion in Organizational Learning.” Human Relations, 54.10 (2001): 1325–1351. Print.


Marketing Mix Strategy Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Marketing mix refers to a combination of product/services, price, place, and distribution. A marketing manager of Campos Coffee can have control of these four factors subject to external and internal environment factors. Campos Coffee has to make decisions regarding its products and services (Antony 2008, p. 58).

Products/Services Products refer to anything tangible or intangible offered to customers for purchase, acquisition, and attention. This includes the physical objects, places, ideas, services, and personality.

Campos Coffee offers products such as Campos Coffee Superior Blend, Clever Coffee Dripper, Kenya Wamuguma Pea berry, Papua New Guinea, and Panama Esmeralda Special.

This shows that the company has done enough research and found out what their customers want in different countries and it has enabled the company to produce products that are tailor made for that particular market. There is good branding of the products.

This appeals to customers and helps them meet their preferences and consequently, get value for their money (Antony 2008, p. 98). The products and services target the high-ended and the low-income customers.

Campos Coffee has made its products and services accessible to customers in different places through its online purchasing platform. Campos Coffee should offer products that are low in prices and quantities that are different.

Customers expect to get unmatched experience from it services such as the Cupping Experience, which enables customers to enjoy coffee tasting sessions, learning about the background, and processing of coffee table. The company has strategically positioned its products to beat its competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Porter’s five forces model of the Company Analysis (Andreas 2009, p. 61) Threat of entry by competitors

There are potential entrances into every industry. Campos Coffee may make use of the following strategies;

Product differentiation

Capital requirements

Reputation and goodwill of the company

High industry standards that the company has set

Use of low costs

Taking advantage of its large economies of scale

Campos Coffee should use its strong channels of distribution

It should switch costs to buyers

Where the economies of scale are sufficient, Campos Coffee may reduce its prices significantly to preempt the entry of a new comer (Andreas 2009, p. 66).

Bargaining power of buyers

In this industry, buyers exact a considerable amount of influence on the level of competition and strategy development. This happens under the following conditions,

There are few buyers in the market

Campos Coffee has not differentiated its products

The differentiation of Campos Coffee’s products is easy.

Campos Coffee should emphasis on the importance of their product to the buyer

It should emphasis on the volume of purchases made by buyers

It should develop strategy to stop buyers from switching to other products.

Bargaining power of suppliers

Suppliers exact pressure on competition and strategies developed in the industry where,

There are few suppliers

There are few substitute products

The products are highly differentiated and cannot be differentiated

Campos Coffee should emphasis on the importance of the industry to suppliers.

Suppliers’ notification of the importance of their input to customers

Threats of substitute products

The extent to which substitute products exist will affect the intensity and dynamics of competition. Substitute products are those products that fulfill similar purpose to consumers.

The company should examine the relative prices of the substitutes and reduce their own prices. The firm should also improve the quality of their product to prevent customers switching to substitute products (Richard 2000, p. 27).

We will write a custom Report on Marketing Mix Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rivalry among existing firms

Campos Coffee faces stiff competition where;

There are numerous and equally balanced companies and therefore, Campos Coffee must compete aggressively to survive.

There are similar companies offering similar products, they are of same size, and therefore, Campos Coffee must distinguish itself from the rest.

There are diverse competitors in the market.

The industry is slow and companies must work hard to maintain and improve their market share (Richard 2000, p. 14).

List of References Andreas, S 2009, Porter’s Five Forces Framework, Grin Verlag, New York.

Antony, H 2008, Understanding Strategic Management, Oxford University Press, London.

Richard, S 2000, Marketing, Barron’s Educational Series, London.


How Does the Leadership Style Adopted by the Franchisor Affect the Behavior of the Franchisee? Thesis essay help

Abstract Franchising is regarded as one of the easiest forms of business deals that an entrepreneur can take advantage of. The requirements of such a venture are not very straining provided one secures a franchisor. A franchisor is an organization that lets another business entity utilize its intellectual property and transact on its behalf.

The arrangement is based on a consideration, which is paid in terms of royalties or fees. On the other hand, a franchisee is an entrepreneur who establishes a business relationship with a franchisor. The two entrepreneurs seek to exploit opportunities and receive incentives from franchising.

Franchising is common all over the world. It has become difficult for clients to differentiate between an outlet owned by the company and a franchise shop. The major advantage of such a deal is the creation of numerous job opportunities.

At the same time, the arrangement expands the outreach of the brand in the market. Franchising makes it possible for consumers to access high quality products. As a result of franchising, the quality of products has improved because of stiff competition.

The franchising industry has faced its fair share of challenges. Franchisors seek to improve productivity, performance, and quality of goods and services delivered by the franchisee. But this has not always been the case due to weaknesses exhibited by the franchisee.

In order to combat such weaknesses, franchisors adopt various leadership strategies. The change in leadership style gives rise to conflicts with the franchisee or a corresponding change of behavior on the part of the franchisee. The effects of the various leadership strategies are evaluated in this research paper.

Introduction to the Franchising Business Franchising has enabled many multinationals to grow their products and brands in the global market. Franchising has enabled consumers in the international market to enjoy products and services that are of the same quality as those produced by the company in the mother country (Rothernberg, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a nutshell, franchising is a form of business practice that enables the holder of production rights, trademarks, patent rights, and brands to enter into an agreement with another party. The second party is granted the rights to produce or utilize the trademark on behalf of the first party (Gappa, 2012).

After agreeing on the terms and conditions of such a business transaction, the franchisor issues the franchisee with a license to operate under those terms at a stipulated fee. The practice of franchising has enabled numerous multinationals to grow their brands and products throughout the world (Shane, 2008).

Such multinationals include, among others, Coca Cola Enterprises, KFC, Pepsi Corporation, and McDonalds. The multinationals find it cheaper to franchise than to open branches in other parts of the world. The franchisor takes advantage of the franchisee’s distribution network and experience in the local market.

The business giants mentioned above view franchising as one of the most affordable ways of establishing their products in new markets. As already indicated, setting up branches in the respective markets is viewed as an extremely expensive venture.

Their argument is that setting up a branch in a new market is capital intensive, increasing the expenses of the company (Combs