Executive Summary Many companies which expand their businesses to a multinational scale usually end up failing and retracting back into domestic business organizations due to poor planning. Operating in an international scale usually increases the level of risk that a company faces therefore increasing the chances of failure if companies do not take the activities of planning and strategic management in marketing with seriousness.
Russia is a country with a good political, economic, social, environmental and even legal framework therefore the chances of business prospering in that country is quite high if the company is a proactive planner.
With a good economic growth pattern and citizens who enjoy one of the strongest purchasing power with disposable income close to 70% the country has become a hot spot for international business especially among multinational corporations (Global impact 2010).
Oriflame entered the Russian market 15 years ago and is right now one of the industry leaders and it has reached at this position simply because the company takes business activities such as planning and strategic management in marketing seriously thereby giving the company a competitive advantage over other companies.
Introduction The commercial environment is becoming exceedingly volatile and as a result organizations are looking for other avenues to successfully realize their objectives and corporate goals in order to please both stake holders and shareholders (Wheelen
Organization Learning Concept and Its Contributions Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Organization learning is arguably one of the most important business concepts that any organization must embrace if it were to maintain a competitive edge during this volatile market trends.
Organization learning basically means the process of acquiring new business concepts, knowledge, experience and ideas and intelligently integrating what is learned with previous knowledge to create new and innovative products either technological, business ideas or management to gain a competitive edge over other competitors by offering excellent services to their invaluable customers.
This paper addresses how organization learning contributes to innovation, competitiveness, and economic-financial results and also how successful the article is in relating organization learning with business performance.
Contribution of organization learning to innovation Organization learning involves well-planned acquisition, distribution, interpretation and comparison of knowledge with previous knowledge and experience in all organizational structures of the organization.
The knowledge obtained from organizational learning is used in developing superior products and services and also more effective management in all aspects of the organization. This results to dynamic innovation not only of new brands, products and services to customers but also excellent management that will leave the customers with customer experience (Serrat, 2009).
I concur with Lopez, Peon, and Ordas (2005) that “learning-oriented organizations are able to quickly reconfigure their architecture and reallocate their resources to focus on emerging opportunities or threats” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005, p. 230).
Toyota industry has always applied this concept whereby they either learn from current demands of low emission more fuel-efficient policies and genius marketing strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have also continuously learned from mistakes as was seen when they recalled some of their models. The Toyota Company has continuously developed its brands to form better models that are always competitive at the market (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005).
Contribution of organization learning to competitiveness We are living in a world where everything changes in a flash second. For organizations to maintain their brands on this dynamic market they have to employ organization learning. Organization learning ensures that organizations are well equipped with previous knowledge, experience and the acquired knowledge which they carefully organize to create dynamic products which are unique.
This is simply blending what you already know and newly acquired knowledge to predict the future needs of your customers and this makes sure organization will always remain competitive.
This is suggested by Lopez, Peon, and Ordas (2005) “learning, through better knowledge and understanding, facilitates behavior change that leads to improve performance” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, p. 230).
Successful organizations such as Microsoft continuously learn from previous models, marketing concepts and overall management strategies to continuously maintain a competitive edge in the most dynamic field of business (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005).
Economic financial result Organization learning encompasses careful and guided employment of knowledge to make sure that every aspect of the organization works towards one common objective of delivering services that will create customer experience and confidence. This will ensure that the organization will remain relevant in the market and the outcome will be sustained profits.
Organization learning also ensures superior overall management of the organization whereby everyone in the organization works towards one common objective of realizing the vision and mission objectives that were set in the process of establishing organization learning.
We will write a custom Assessment on Organization Learning Concept and Its Contributions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The report by Lopez, Peon, and Ordas (2005) claimed that effective organization learning should “lead directly to superior outcomes, such as greater new product success, superior customer retention, higher customer-defined quality, and, ultimately superior growth and/or profitability” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas p. 230).
Increased organizational performance Organizational learning requires the participation of everyone in the organization in terms of continual learning from previous and current challenges of the organization and thinking of creative response. The organization is able to act as a unit towards a common objective.
This improves the overall management of the organization leading to increased organizational performance I concur with Lopez, Peon, and Ordas (2005) that “The knowledge generated in this way is translated into new models of activity, routines and logic in the organization” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005, p. 230).
Perhaps this can be seen from the management of the Virgin brands, which have proved their worth with time. Through continuous organization learning, Virgin has been able to attain high levels of organizational performance despite the wide range of brands all over the world (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005).
Success of the article in relating organization learning with business performance The article has well-outlined definition and interpretation of the concept of organization learning that was easy to relate to however the relation of organization learning to business performance though successful was a little bit too complex.
The article outlines the methods that were used to relate the two in terms of setting out hypothesis for the research and the methods of information gathering the statistics obtained were correlated to various aspects of business performance.
The article finally concludes that some of the results obtained are related to business performance “Therefore, these results indicate support for the notion that organizational learning influences financial performance both directly and indirectly through its impact on innovation and competitiveness” (Lopez, Peon, and Ordas, 2005, p. 238).
Conclusion Organization learning is a core requirement of any organization that dreams of sustaining its prowess in the ever-changing market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization Learning Concept and Its Contributions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effective organization learning was observed to positively contribute to competitiveness and economic-financial results by ensuring that learned knowledge is organized and used effectively for the benefit of the organization. The article though a little bit complex was effective in relating organization learning with business performance. It is therefore important that all business organizations embrace this concept.
References Lopez, S., Peon, J. and Ordas, C. (2005) Organizational Learning as a Determining Factor in Business Performance. The Learning Organization Vol. 12 No. 3, 2005 pp. 227-245.
Serrat, O. (2009) Building a Learning Organization. Web.
Comparative Legal Traditions Essay online essay help
Abstract Comparative legal study usually involves the analysis of two or more jurisdictions with a view to compare and contrast the legal practices and the theoretical framework that guides the formulation of each individual country’s legal system. In this study, I look at the jurisdictional differences between Australia, England
Adult Learning Methodology Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Andragogy
Collaboratively Determined Objectives
Andragogy Andragogy is an adult teaching methodology which developed from pedagology (the teaching methodology for children) (Rachal, 2002, p. 210). Before the introduction of the concept (andragogy), pedagogy was the only known teaching methodology. Andragogy was basically developed by a group of researchers to focus more on unique adult needs as opposed to the conventional child needs.
In andragogy, there is a strong emphasis on process design as opposed to pedagology, which focuses more on the content plan (Rachal, 2002, p. 210). With focus on process design, andragogy is basically aimed at designing and managing processes that are aimed at facilitating the acquisition of content by adult learners; but in the same manner, it also serves as a content resource for peers, supervisors and specialists.
Andragogy was specifically started by a German educationist in 1833, but it is Malcolm Knowles, an American educational researcher, who essentially turned the learning methodology into a popular adult theory (Rachal, 2002, p. 210).
However, in later years, Malcolm changed his stand on the adult theory and gave conflicting statements one whether the teaching paradigm was essentially meant for adults or could be applicable to children as well. This conflict of opinion essentially defines the controversy surrounding the use of andragogy as a unique adult teaching methodology.
Considering andragogy basically defines the transition from a teacher-centered to a student-centered learning style, critics note that the shift could equally be beneficial to children, as much as it is for adults. This fact characterizes the conflict surrounding andragogy.
Nonetheless, it is important to note that such concerns have been dispelled by the fact that proponents of the adult educational methodology were essentially adult teachers and they devised the theory to specifically apply to their unique student group (adults) (Rachal, 2002, p. 210). This makes the teaching methodology uniquely applicable to adult learners.
The controversy surrounding andragogy is however not the essence of this study (but contributes to its understanding) because this study focuses more on the basis of the teaching paradigm in imparting knowledge to adult learners. In other words, this study will evaluate the teaching criteria behind its use.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The criteria to be evaluated essentially define the platform through which andragogy is implemented and the guidelines to which it is practiced. Comprehensively, this study will analyze the proffered criteria for its applicability and possible areas that may cause its failures (based on existing literature surrounding its use).
Voluntary Participation Andragogy has been traditionally known to be based on the ability of teachers to identify the right internal motivating factor among adult learners.
However, Lindeman (1926) notes that instructors should not identify the internal motivation among adult learners if it is in form of professional advancement; however, this view has been disputed by other researchers such as Knowles (1980) who accepts professional career motivation as a form of personal motivational factor (only if it is not coercive).
In other words, it is identified that voluntary participation among learners should not be based on material reward but rather on immaterial reward.
From a comprehensive point of view, restricting voluntary participation in the context that only legitimate benefit of andragogy would be learning for its own sake (or for self-actualization) is deemed a rather extreme limitation and it also goes contrary to what Knowles said when defining andragogy. Specifically Knowles (1980) asserted that:
“Although it acknowledges that adults will respond to some external motivators-a better job, a salary increase, and the like-the andragogical model predicates that the more potent motivators are internal-self-esteem, recognition, better quality of life, greater self-confidence, self-actualization, and the like” (p. 281).
In a study done by Rachal (2002) to evaluate the motives of adult students to enroll in an adult educational program, it was established that their motives were not exactly internal. Interestingly, it was also affirmed that some of the subjects in the study were paid to join the educational program.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Adult Learning Methodology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that adult learners are sometimes not driven by internal and personal factors but also by external and material factors. Current research studies have proposed more research to be done on non-credit continuing education programs where there is a good environment to learn, and the students are not coerced in any manner or motivated by unfamiliar factors to take part in educational programs (Rachal, 2002, p. 212).
It is also predicted that in this type of situation, adult learners are bound to view the learning activity as essentially valuable to themselves as opposed to perceiving the experience (or enrolment to the educational program) as a mere means to an end (Rachal, 2002, p. 212).
Adult Status In implementing the andragogy approach, it is recommended that an adult learning environment be provided to facilitate the learning process (Rachal, 2002, p. 212). More importantly, it is recommended that college environments, where many young college-goers frequent should be avoided if andragogy is to be effectively undertaken.
This is in line with Knowles’s view that andragogy is essential for adults and the students should not be subjected to an environment that seeks to compare them with another student group (young learners). To affirm his sentiments, Knowles (1980) explains that:
“If a college setting is used, and traditional students are part of the study, it is very desirable to have four groups, including an adult andragogy and an adult pedagogy group.
It is not desirable to have two groups where a combined group of adults and traditional students receives an andragogical treatment and a second combined group of adults and traditional students receive a pedagogical treatment, even when the adults are separated in the analysis” (p. 284).
However, there is enough evidence to suggest that higher learning environments are quite beneficial to andragogical teaching, but it is more recommended that future studies should be done in scenarios where the environment is exclusively adult-centered (Rachal, 2002, p. 210).
Considering there is a high emphasis on adult environments (when referring to andragogy), there has consequently been an increased need to define adult environments and who an adult is in the first place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Adult Learning Methodology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rachal (2002) claims that an adult is a person who perceives himself or herself as an adult and has assumed the social and cultural responsibilities that are characteristic of adults.
In the same manner, she also provides another criterion (where the above definitions lack) and defines an adult as a person who has attained a given age ceiling, says, 25 years (whichever is considered adult, considering the social definitions of an adult in a given community setting).
Knowles’s (1980) definition of an adult is also congruent with the above definition because he defines adult education as “activities intentionally engaged in for the purpose of bringing about learning among those whose age, social roles, or self-perception define them as adults” (p. 215). This definition of an adult is important because andragogy is known to work best in environments that are exclusively adult-centered.
Collaboratively Determined Objectives Environments that are critical to the adult learner and which the adult learner plays a vital role in the learning experience should be utilized when implementing andragogy (Rachal, 2002, p. 215).
Contracts are one of the tools through which instructors and researchers have been advised to use to achieve the required learning purpose; however, there is no guarantee that such a strategy will work in all situations.
Specifically drawn contracts which have a predetermined set of objectives for the adult learners are said to be bound to fail if an adult learner does not know the predetermined objectives in the first place (or if the objectives were not the learner’s main objectives of engaging in the learning experience in the first place).
For instance, a course focusing on how to improve one’s saving plan would be congruent with a learner’s personal objectives, as well as the course’s objectives, and this could probably be the reason why a learner would enroll in the given course in the first place.
Nonetheless, in situations where this scenario is not the case, it would mean that the instructor would have to collaborate with the learners and negotiate on their learning objectives (as regards what would exhibit a high level of competence for the instructor in the course of using the andragogy learning methodology).
Langston (1990) seems to have met the criterion defining this standard when undertaking related research studies on his focus groups where the goal of the instructor or the competence expected of the instructor was second to the learner’s objectives.
From this analysis, we can deduce the fact that andragogy works best in environments that are specifically determined by the learner’s objectives and not the instructors’ because it is affirmed that the learner should have more say in the planning of the learning process. The ideal situation should however be when the learner’s and instructor’s objectives are similar (such as that defined in the savings plan example).
Performance-Based Achievement Considering andragogy and many other learning theories are specifically based on competence and proficiency (in a given area of study); the will to measure the achievement level of the learners is inevitable. However, it should be understood that under andragogy, the assessment criterion should not resemble those of conventional learning styles because they should seem to be as low-threat as possible (Rachal, 2002, p. 216).
In this regard, Knowles (1980) previously went ahead to establish a contract with a portfolio of evidence that specifically exposed the level of learner’s achievement (with regards to well-determined learning objectives), but the criterion for carrying out such assessments needs to be mutually negotiated with the learners and the instructors.
The assessment criteria is normally based on the learner’s ability to particularly perform all the learned content in a rather direct manner, which can be demonstrated by his or her ability to take and print a photograph, as opposed to a learner’s ability to take a paper-pencil test that evaluates how to take and print a photograph (the latter is indirect while the former is a direct assessment method).
Studies undertaken by Clark (1991), with reference to assessment criteria (when using the andragogy approach), made use of a performance-based activity as a benchmark for performance where it was easily determined whether a person passed a given assessment test or not.
Clark (1991) recommends that the appropriate performance criterion is to be designed in situations where the learner’s learning objective demonstrates a desired learning outcome. For instance, if an adult learner wants to acquire basic computer skills that would enable him or her send and receive emails without any assistance; the assessment criteria will be based on whether he or she is able to send and open emails without assistance.
This kind of assessment is also what determines the “book test” approach from the practical knowledge expected of adult learners when the andragogy methodology is applied.
With regards to standardized tests to assess adult learners, Knowles (1980, p. 12) cautions that “tests often smack of childhood schooling to adult learners, and so should be used with caution and preferably with the participants’ full participation in the decision, administration and analysis”.
Since standardized tests are not essentially recommended by Knowles (1980), he proposes the use of tailor-made tests, but he also expresses caution about this assessment criterion, noting that if instructors use it to compare two adult learners, it would not be in the spirit of andragogy.
Unfortunately, most instructors have used this assessment criterion in this manner. On the contrary, Knowles, recommends that tailor-made assessment criteria should be used for purposes of the students’ own edification (with regards to the relative gains made in the entire learning process), and if it is possible, adult learners should be allowed to come up with their own assessment criteria in group or individual contexts.
Measuring Satisfaction Many adult education activities have been faulted by many researchers as lacking the primary goal of attaining skills and expertise, but rather having the feeling to attain personal satisfaction. In this regard, there is enough evidence to suggest that many adult learners are increasingly participating in various learning activities, merely for the pleasure they derive from it.
Since this trend is real, Rachal (2002) affirms that there is a strong need for instructors, using the andragogy approach, to measure the learner’s level of satisfaction in this light.
Though this assessment criterion is not basically recommended (if achievement is not the essential goal), satisfaction in the learning experience should be measured in virtually all spheres of the administration of andragogy because this is basically the primary reason most adult learners are likely to be influenced by when enrolling for learning.
Andragogy instructors should, therefore, measure the variables related to the educational activity, but it is also recommended that they couple the same with the learner’s interests (Rachal, 2002).
Conclusion This study identifies the need for adult education to be andragological because the methodology specifically appeals to the needs of adult learners. The above criteria, focused on the effective implementation of andragogy also specifically appeals to situational aspects which are unique to adult learning because the application of andragogy is in itself situational.
More importantly, this study points out that andragogy appeals to the learner’s ability, learner’s motivation, and the facilitative elements of the instructor in the entire learning process.
These elements are the successive factors in adult learning and from the above analysis, they are also the basis through which andragogy is based on.
The above criteria also seem to succinctly follow the precepts and ideals of Knowles, even though his recommendations and perception about andragogy and adult learning were criticized as idealistic. Nonetheless, it is an undeniable fact that adult learning, just like children learning, should be tailored towards the needs of the learner groups and this is what andragogy seeks to appeal to.
Conversely, the issue of the appropriateness of andragogy in adult learning can be contrasted with its effectiveness. Pratt (1988) is also sympathetic to this view and affirms that the appropriateness of andragogy in adult education should be the primary focus of study for future researchers because efforts to understand the appropriateness of a given learning methodology would be fruitless if its effectiveness is not established.
However, apart from acknowledging the importance of this analysis in this study; this issue would be a separate topic altogether. Comprehensively, we can see that andragogy is essentially based on unique adult needs and the above-mentioned criteria act as the blueprint for its implementation.
References Clark, J. A. (1991). Self-directed learning skills and clinical performance: A comparison of traditionally taught and learning contract-taught nursing students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(07), 2236A.
Knowles, M. S. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Cambridge.
Langston, L. C. (1990). Self-directed learning, achievement, and satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A
Globalisation and cultural background Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
How Cai’s history influenced his work
Analysis of the actual work ‘borrowing your enemy’s arrows’
Effects of globalisation on the work
Introduction Cai GuoQiang epitomises hybridisation of culture through art. His work of “borrowing your enemy’s arrows” captures his oriental origins and hence captivates Asian audiences; on the other hand, his overseas exposure has permeated his art and given it a global appeal. Through an analysis of this work, it will be argued that Cai has managed to negotiate artistic meaning owing to his dual influences; globalisation and cultural background.
How Cai’s history influenced his work Cai left China for Japan in 1987 and then proceeded to the United States eight years later. This had a profound influence on Cai as an artist because he became an ambassador on behalf of his original culture (Minglu, 2009). But most importantly, Cai found a way of challenging the limits of Asian philosophy.
He therefore curved an artistic pathway that superseded his own culture and added a global or even universal ideal to his work. Japan taught Cai how to relate the human being to nature. This explains why “borrowing your enemies’ arrows” has a certain natural appeal to it.
On the other hand, Cai asserts that living in the United States taught him to be bold and political as described in an interview conducted by Kay Itoi (2009). He noticed that Americans were very straightforward in their work and this makes them quite arresting. Such an influence has also been captured in the work under analysis. Cai has been bold and political just like the Americans.
It is very clear to see some of the traces of Chinese heritage in his work. His use of rice straws and arrows are illustrative of his origins. In fact, in response to his hometown Quanzhou, Cai asserted that he wanted to mine the small elements of his culture and then present them to the world so the world can understand China better. In an interview with Jing Daily, Cai asserted that he should not be regarded as a returning artist.
To him China was always a part of him and he heavily depended on it to create most of his work. Nonetheless, because Cai has involved himself in many large scale works that are quite technologically advanced, he needed to do something that brought him closer to his origins and this was the reason why he chose to make ‘borrowing your enemies’ arrows.
To this individual, progress is only possible when he gets personal and this occurs after he has gone back to his historic roots. In this regard, it can be stated that China is very central to the piece under analysis because it represented who he truly was in the artistic industry (Cai Guo Qiang, 56).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cai is often fond of taking on relatively political aspects in society and bringing them out in his work; the piece ‘borrowing your enemies’ arrows’ is no exception. This is something he learnt from his foreign influences. Cai has always felt that the communist concept is quite applicable to the people of China. The element of Marxism is especially real to those who have been victim to this kind of propaganda.
The art work under analysis heavily draws on these concepts and is quite applicable to the people of China. In this regard, it was an interpretation of Marxism through an analysis of the East versus the West. He firmly believed that western hegemony as perpetuated through cultural domination can be turned around and utilised by the Chinese as an asset.
Cai was profoundly influenced by his culture even though he was not aware of this fact at first. He left his country of origin as a show of this defiance. However, as he went on abroad, he soon realised that he could never erase his Chinese identity. In fact, he often liked to speak in his native tongue.
Furthermore, his artistic pieces are reminiscent of a strong culture which, like the boat, is always changing. Therefore, one can say that the continuous travels and movements by this artist led him to rediscover his roots and to appreciate them even more (Cavallucci, 2002, 11).
Some Chinese citizens had previously dismissed work done by oversees artists claiming that this was nothing more than western art. They presumed that those artists were so caught up in the ways and perspectives of the west that they ought not to be taken seriously, however, this kind of thinking soon diminished once people realised that Chinese contemporary Art actually reflected matters that were central to Chinese people.
Cai is one of the artists who has been at the heart of this change in thinking because of the subject matter of his works including the one addressed in borrowing your enemies’ arrow (Itoi, 2009).
Analysis of the actual work ‘borrowing your enemy’s arrows’ This piece of work consists of a myriad of objects from Chinese culture but the manner in which he puts them together testifies to his trans-cultural nature. The work consists of a boat that has been suspended in mid air. It is made of rice straw; material that comes from Southern China i.e. Quanzhou.
We will write a custom Essay on Globalisation and cultural background specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The latter was Cai’s hometown and there is no doubt that he was profoundly affected by its inclinations. The boat has been pierced by a series of arrows and it has a Chinese flag that is being blown by a fan attached therein.
At face value, one would be tempted to think of this piece as being highly destructive. This is because the boat has been pierced by the arrows. However, after taking a deeper look, one easily realises that the latter work is quite contradictory; that there is something else that is rather healing about it.
Because of the arrows, the boat has overcome its limitations and therefore flown up (its suspended). The feathers of the arrows have made this possible. Therefore, one must endure pain in order to get to a better place (Zaya, 2002, 38).
This work borrows the concept from an ancient Asian narrative called “cao chuna jie juan” or straw boat borrows arrows1. It was basically about this army that was preparing to go to war with its enemies. However, its leader realised that he did not have sufficient tools to outnumber his adversaries. Therefore, he thought about a smart way of going around this challenge.
He gathered three hundred boats and filled them up with rice straws that had the shape of humans and sent them in the direction of his enemies. The latter fell for the trap and actually thought that they were being confronted. They shot their arrows onto the straw figures thinking that they had outdone their adversaries.
However, the smart general retrieved the boats and used his enemies’ arrows to destroy them; he eventually won the battle. This context explains his choice of materials i.e. arrows and straws and the boat as well. Therefore, this work of art captures a rich aspect of the Chinese tradition and appeals directly to Asian audiences.
However, one must not limit interpretation of his work to this commemorative aspect only2. Analysts should ask why Cai selected this narrative of all other ancient Chinese narratives. The reason was that he wanted to give a social commentary about the clash between Chinese culture and western culture. The work involved is a recount of what goes on in Eastern martial arts versus Western boxing.
In Western boxing, all one needs to do is beat one’s opponent to the ground and that person has won. However, in the martial arts, one often needs to outsmart one’s opponents in a different way. One may have to utilise the strength of that individual against himself.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalisation and cultural background by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, Cai was showing how different the Chinese ways were from the American ways (Hansen, 2002). He was giving a commentary on the struggles that one goes through when one opens up to another culture. In essence, he presented the complex issues that emanate out of these interactions (Pooke and Newall, 2007).
It should be noted that these tensions emanated from the fact that non western art has long been regarded as inferior. Consequently, non western artist are confronted with the challenge of battling the dominant culture. They have the opportunity to seek recognition and therefore provoke those traditional stereotypes to emerge stronger. In fact, these messages can be best understood through the concept of post colonialism.
The US and the west have long been seen as agents of post colonialism through their cultural and economic domination. They have long spearheaded technological innovations and other transformations in the global arena. Consequently, they have possessed an unfair advantage in determining cultural trends.
In this regard, non western art forms have been categorised as being subordinate to those of the west because of post colonialism. In fact, Cai through an interview carried out by Lombardi (2009) reveals that during the cold war era, some interest in non western art started emerging because of seemingly minor reasons.
Westerners thought that those contemporary artists were actually defying their own culture and that they wanted to shift away from it. Alternatively, some western audiences picked interest in Oriental art because they presumed that the contemporary artists were trying to imitate the Western perspective. However, these assumptions could not be farther from the truth today; a multicultural world is emerging3.
Globalisation has brought various cultures closer together and thus demystified them. In art specifically, western concepts no longer have to be the only perspectives that truly matter. Oriental artists can therefore utilise those very notions that are well understood by westerners to show that Orientals are worth their salt. They can therefore emerge triumphant in this struggle to redefine art (Pooke and Newall, 2007, 211).
Therefore, what the ancient Chinese narrative teaches can therefore become true i.e. that a seemingly weaker team can borrow something indirectly from their adversaries and eventually use it to reign supreme. In this regard, Asian artists can succeed in redefining art and fighting against colonialism by using those very concepts that have been linked to the West.
This work is also illustrative of yet another important lesson; that the Asian world is better equipped to deal with the future because of its adaptability. The Chinese narrative is in fact a depiction of the usefulness of this important trait called flexibility. The army that triumphed in the latter piece was the one that responded quickly to the situation around it.
It did not stick to traditional methods of fighting battles because if it had done so, then chances are that it would have lost. Similarly, Cai was trying show that through continual change, the Asian culture can become much stronger than it was in the past. Belting (1987) explains that the irony between the East and the west is that the East is more willing to change than the latter.
In other words, it is only through the hardships and transitory nature of China that its people have come to resist fixedness. They take it as a universal and permanent state. This can make China highly creative because it is a crucial ingredient in art. The West has long been characterised by an inclination towards technology.
However, because of the need to maintain certain identities, the West has become rigid and unresponsive to change around it. In this regard, it is often very difficult for the West to adjust to its external conditions. Therefore, when tough times come, Easterners are at a better place to embrace them because they have always known that things are cyclical.
Furthermore, most tend to dwell on what will happen to their artists after the difficult times rather than focus on the actual difficulties. Their optimism is what gives them strength. However, the same thing cannot be said of Westerners who have not always looked at issues from a relativist perspective. This renders strength to the Chinese who can then be in a position to develop their minds and transform themselves.
Through the piece ‘Borrowing your enemies’ arrows”, Cai has shown that contrary to popular assumption, China has the qualities necessary to deal with an ever changing world and this will ensure a bright future (Belting, 1987).
In fact, it appears as though even in the political front the Chinese government has embraced the fact that change is here to stay. For instance, contemporary Chinese artists are now featured in art exhibitions and this shows how much they are respected by their people.
In fact, since a number of contemporary artists utilised their art work as a platform for criticising their governments, they will now have to think of other subject matters since the government has become cooperative4. This explains why ‘borrowing your enemies’ arrows’ was political in nature but it did not necessarily address the personal conflicts that the local China man had with his government.
Instead, Cai opted to look at another issue which did involve the Chinese people but was more far reaching because it involved that group’s interactions with the world. In essence, change for the people of China – especially their artists – is something that they will always encounter and they need to adjust accordingly by looking for new social evils that they can address through their work (Itoi, 2010)
Effects of globalisation on the work Cai’s work has been described by art critics such a Dominic Lombardi (2009)as mysterious and intriguing. Indeed, one can argue that this could be a risky move given that most Oriental art is rarely understood5. However, reports show that the world has been rather receptive of his work especially the piece under analysis.
Some external audiences have asserted that the work is quite engaging and empowering thus denoting the fact that it does possess a multicultural appeal. The reason his work has appealed to the masses outside of China is that the pieces first of all are symbolic of social realism.
‘Borrowing your enemies’ arrows’ discuss a myriad of issues confronted by an increasingly open China. He takes on a social issue and translates it into an art piece that can be understood by the world.
In fact, this work’s true meaning is best understood by a stranger to Chinese culture because that person will not be confused by the baggage of ancient narratives in understanding it. Non easterners have been very quick at identifying the social issues being put forward by the piece even more than the Easterners because they tend to focus only on what is available to them.
Globalisation also plays a crucial role in this work because of its carefree nature. In an interview conducted by Rodriguez (2005), Cai explained that the thing he admires most about western artists is their willingness to be themselves or to let go. Most of them never lose touch of this fact even when they become critically acclaimed artists.
Cai explains that what he did not like most about artists from his home country is their tendency to lose that freedom in their work. He explained that in fact most mature Chinese artists tend to become teachers and they play it too safe or too cautiously. Cai believes that this is indeed a major killer in the Asian artistic industry because it delineates the artist from what truly added value to him.
He believes that one must continuously look for happiness in his or her work no matter how great one’s status becomes. It can therefore be seen that Cai’s respect for experimentation is an alien feature in the orient and that he derived this aspect from the west. He defied the way of thinking of his earlier culture because it did not encourage self growth6.
In fact, the reason why Picasso is one of his favourite artists is that this individual was continuously looking for things to improve himself and that is something that he always strives to achieve. In fact, ‘borrowing your enemies’ arrow’ is indicative of this point of view because even if the work is quite insightful or deep, the author has still created something beautiful and carefree.
Conclusion There is no doubt that Cai’s cultural origins played a tremendous role in this piece. The narrative behind the piece, its title, choice of material are all quite entrenched in this way of life. On the other hand, his contemporary nature and the fact that he travelled to different parts of the world are also indicative of how influential foreign elements have been in his wok.
His inclinations towards the political in the piece testify to this concept. Furthermore, he is bold in his work in much the same manner that western artists are. He has talked about a subject matter that can be understood by anyone i.e. change.
Cai puts forward the notion that in opening up to the West, then China can use Americans’ own strength to bring out theirs. This focus on tensions that take place between adversarial groups therefore brings out the global nature of his work. Cai is a nationalist and globalist all wrapped up in one.
Footnotes 1 Luo Guanzhong, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Graham Brash, Singapore, 1985
2 Jennifer We Mon. “I Wish It Never Happened”. Ed. Cai Guo-Qiang. Cai Guo-Qiang. Taiwan: Artist Publishing Co., 2005.
3 Niklas Luhmann, Art as a Social System, trans. Eva M. Knodt, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 2000 p.19
4 Dan, Cameron. “Blinded by the Light”, Cai Guo-Qiang: Head On, Frankfurt am Main: Deutsche Bank AG, 2006, pp. 19-24.
5 Hou Hanru, On The Mid Ground, Timezone 8, HongKong 2002 p.32
6 Craig Clunas, Pictures and Visuality in Early Modern China, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1997 p.10
References Minglu, Gao. Inside out: New Chinese Art. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the Asia Society Galleries, New York, 2009.
Marketing Plan for Command Spanish Coursework best college essay help
Executive Summary Command Spanish is a small sole proprietorship franchise in Grand Valley. It specializes in providing occupation Spanish training to businesses and government institution in the region. In the past, it has been very successful, because of the wealth of experience that Mr. Sadoval the owner has in teaching Spanish and the personalized attention he gives to each and every of his students.
The company has a wide distribution network allowing it to reach many customers at their convenience. The company is ranked the best for quality. The company has adopted many new and innovative ways to deliver its services such as the internet, books, audio tapes and CD’s as well as the traditional face to face approach.
However the company is facing increased competition from new entrants into the Spanish language training market. Some of these companies are well organized, well resourced and are using cheaper and innovative methods to deliver their services.
As a result the company’s market share and position is being threatened. However the competitors lack local knowledge and their services lack personal touch that Command Spanish is renowned for.
The company’s primary objective is to expand its service into other segments other than corporate and government institution. The company also seeks to defend its position and market share from new entrants and various forms of competition.
This will be achieved through transformation into a fully fledged institution with a fixed location, highly trained and motivated staffs that are able to provide high quality services at affordable prices. The challenge that the company faces is that it has a weak financial position and lacks funds to finance the expansion program. It will source these funds externally from financial institution or invite equity partners.
The owner also lacks the capacity to implement the transformational process. External consultants will be hired to advice and guide the process. The company will use its knowledge and experience to enter into new segments. It will maintain same levels of service quality in these new markets segments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The products will continue to be differentiated through quality and personal touch and through provision of high quality supplementary materials using new innovative delivery methods.
The products will be creatively priced to maximize revenue yet giving value to customers, The Company will deliver its services through its new training facilities and through the internet, CDs and books. The company will undertake an advertising campaign to create awareness of the company products and will use the internet to promote its products because it is cheaper and it has a global reach.
It will place adverts in print media especially business magazines and journals because they have a longer shelf life. The company will invest in its staff as they are the key channel through which the services are delivered through provision of training and adequate motivation. The company will also invest in the best processes to ensure that services are offered in the best way and that customer’s experience is enhanced.
It is expected that after implementing this programme, the company will realize increased growth in sales and profitability; it will achieve growth in market share and level of customer satisfaction. These measures will be monitored constantly to evaluate the success of the marketing programme and to guide future marketing planning activities.
Marketing Plan Developing Competitive Advantage
Matching internal strengths to its opportunities to create capability in serving customers needs; the emerging opportunities for Command Spanish company have been identified to be in the areas of information and communication technology, use of new media such as internet, audio-visual and print to reach a wider market, the recovery of the United States’ economy which is expected to increase hiring and hence the market size, and the.
The company should use its internal strengths to ensure maximum exploitation of these opportunities.
First Command Spanish will need to carry out research to identify the needs in the new present market segments and emerging market segments and then utilize the vast experience and knowledge of the company to provide high quality training to customers.
We will write a custom Coursework on Marketing Plan for Command Spanish specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More New methods of service delivery should be used to reach those customers who are far, or are unable to attend classes such as CDs, books and the internet.
The company should use all forms of communication that is internet, radio, TV and print to promote itself and inform the market of their products and the high reputation of the company, its trainers and training programs. They should also maintain flexible pricing to attract all types of customers.
The company has been committed to operational excellence, product leadership and customer intimacy and this is demonstrated through its investment in research and development to ensure customers’ needs are met and emerging trends identified. The company has provided high quality training for many years and is the market leader in quality teaching of Command Spanish.
It espouses customer intimacy as seen in the personal attention given by Mr. Sadoval to his student and prompt response to their queries. The company also maintains a flexible pricing policy to accommodate all customers.
Weaknesses and Recommendations
The main weakness of the company is its weak financial position. Because of lack of adequate funds the company is unable to adequately finance its operations, expand into new markets and segments and is not assured of sustainable future operations. Lack of funds for research and development, limits the company’s ability to develop relevant products and this may lead to poor quality services.
Poor quality services will damage the reputation and the image of the company. The company should increase its funds by injecting capital, inviting equity partners or taking a loan facility. If the company is unable to secure financing it should maintain the current level of operations where it’s assured it can deliver high level of service quality to its current limited number of customers given its limited resources.
The company has several major liabilities and their effect on service delivery is visible. The most significant is that Mr. Sadoval is the only trainer in the whole company. Because of this, he is unable to teach many students and at the same time give personalized attention to those he teaches.
The company also lacks a permanent venue for training as he has to hire space and he keeps moving around. This costs money and there is low visibility of the company than if the company had a permanent office and training facilities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan for Command Spanish by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company also has a limited segments focus. A market segment is a group of customers in a market who have a homogenous set of needs and wants and whom exhibit similar behaviors (Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman, Hansen, 2009). It focuses on the corporate and government markets ignoring other segments completely.
The market potential of the other segments namely personal, educational, and international has not been tapped. Finally the teaching format of Mr. Sadoval focuses so much on phonetics rather than grammar and conversational skills. The company should realize that its customers do not seek mastery of the language but just working knowledge to enable them converse at basic level on Spanish.
The company should also employ more trainers to assist Mr. Sadoval and find permanent premises where training will be carried out. There is need to expand training to the other untapped segments and finally implement a shift from emphasis on phonetics to providing practical grammar and conversation skills in the training
Developing a Competitive Focus The recovery of the economy in the United States presents Command Spanish Company an opportunity for growth. However there is increased competition as more and more trainers enter into the market. Some of them are using cheaper methods such as e-learning, learning softwares amongst others. Some of the competitors have more resources than Command Spanish.
To maximize the opportunities and counter the threats in the market the company needs multiple approaches in strategy. One to adopt a defensive strategy whereby it will seek to protect its market share and position itself differently among new competitors.
Secondly the company should adopt a market segment diversification strategy in which it will seek to enter into other market other than the corporate segment it currently serves.
To serve this multiple segments well it needs to adopt a differential pricing strategy where a different price will be charged to business/government and individual clients. To effectively distribute its products the company needs to have a fixed premises for carrying out training activities. This location should be well considered as it determines the perception of people of the company and the brand.
Other methods of distributing the services include on site delivery for example training delivered to companies, schools, institutions among others. Internet, audio tapes, CDs and books should also be used to distribute the service. The company will need to revise and redesign its products so as to meet the needs of the market especially the new segments it enters.
Marketing Goals and Objectives
The marketing goal for Command Spanish should be 1: To offer Spanish language training to business community, government and other segments. The following should be the subdivisions of the main objective.
Objective A 1: Provide high quality services by using multiple, internal, high-value resources through teaching aids such as books, audio, CD’s, internet and face to face interaction.
Objective A 2: To increase the capacity of the organization to cater for the expected growth in demand for training due to improved economic condition and demographic factors by hiring two assistant trainers in the next three months.
Objective A 3: To develop new ways of delivering service and value to customers in the current financial year by establishing a fixed location for a training institution. And increased usage of new media such as internet, software, TV and audio promote the organization in the next six months.
Marketing Goal 2: To grow the Market size of the company
Objective B 1: To expand the organization’s business segment’s focus from the current two segments of government and corporate to include schools, personal and Institutional segments in the current financial year.
Objective B 2: To increase the expenditure in Research and Development by 40% in the next 2 years, to facilitate product review, new product development, market analysis, trend monitoring and projection. This is expected to enhance the organizations capacity to improve satisfaction of current customers needs as well as enter into new segment thereby resulting in growth.
Objective B 3: To expand into at least three major countries as other markets other than the United States in the next 3 years. The country has focused entirely on the United States in the past and has overlooked opportunities in other markets where the service is needed.
The company should use the development in technology such as internet learning, internet conferencing and physical entry into these new markets as means to provide training in the new market. The countries with good potential to enter include Canada, UK and China, Germany, Japan amongst others.
Marketing Strategy The primary market constitute of both English speaking government and corporate institutions’ employees in the Grand Junction and Western Slopes area who require knowledge of Spanish in the course of their work. The individuals that use or need the training services are those that feel that a little knowledge in Spanish will improve their business or work.
The customers or potential customers for the company’s training services also include any company that does business with Spanish speaking people or might have them as customers or suppliers in the future. The customers of Command Spanish services are English speakers who do not speak any Spanish.
Most of these customers do not feel it is necessary to master the Spanish language in order to improve their business and work, but would benefit from having a working knowledge of Spanish. The advantage of the Command Spanish training is that it is not as broad and tedious as most competitors programs are but it is simplified to equip its customers with knowledge necessary to communicate in Spanish within a short time and with minimum effort.
Those who need the training services are business owners, workers as well as government workers. They are English speakers and are usually new employees who are young in age but also include older workers who have settled from other areas where there are very few Spanish speakers to be found.
People who need Spanish language training are workers who manage Spanish speaking personnel such as farm managers and construction managers as well as public employees such as law enforcement officers, librarian, health workers, school teachers, social workers as well as workers in retail and business who interact regularly with Spanish speaking people.
Basic Needs and Requirement
The desire of those seeking Spanish language training is a working knowledge of Spanish which include the ability to understand and express themselves in Spanish. Due to the pressure of time, these customers require flexible and convenient training programmes that fit into their busy lifestyles.
They also require programmes they can afford that are customized to their needs as well as a lot of attention and prompt responses. The young people undertaking the programmes prefer IT savvy modes of training such as CDs, audio tapes, video and internet. Older generations are content to use books and tapes that are easy to read and the material simple enough to comprehend.
Purchasing /shopping habits
Purchasing /shopping habits are most likely to be influenced by age and incomes. Young users are likely to buy and use the product online. They are likely to make payments using online systems.
They prefer quick and convenient access to training services which online system would provide, are more likely to favor a group training session instead of a one on one approach. Status is important to them; therefore need to emphasize the status significance of training. They are unlikely to identify the need for training; mostly it would be a senior manager who would recommend they go for training.
On the other hand older users will identify their own need for training; they will prefer face to face training over internet and audio.
They are likely to consider the cheapest form of training and are unlikely to buy a lot of supplementary materials because of price sensitivity. They are known to be loyal to respected personality and are likely to be loyal customers of Mr. Sadoval who is widely respected and renowned in the Grand Valley area. They are unlikely to use online payment systems and instead more likely to pay using cash.
The brand name, package design and logo design of the Command Spanish Company are widely known and respected. The company has the widest and most up to date distribution system in the market. The quality level associated with the company is the highest and their programmes are known to be concise yet very significant.
The company trainer Mr. Sadoval is well renowned and respected and he delivers personalized training to all his customers. The major features and benefits of the training programme is its compactness.
It is brief yet sufficient. It has an exciting approach to learning utilizing a conversational style and uses a wide variety of interesting modern tools such as CD’s, internet, books and videos to enhance learning. It is cheap and it is customized to the needs and ability of every customer.
The attention given to every student is a very strong characteristic as it shows the commitment of the company to the success of every customer. In addition the curriculum is well researched and incorporates dialogues and phrases that are widely recognized among all Spanish dialects. The programme also is flexible to accommodate the time and money a student has.
The product is differentiated from others in its quality focus since the company always seeks to provide the highest quality of service using the best methods of delivery. It is positioned as a market leader in the Grand Valley area and has the largest distribution network. Unlike its competitors the products are specifically tailored for occupational purposes and not just for a broad understanding of Spanish.
The service is faster and less expensive, and incorporates cross cultural training necessary for occupational purposes. The service is provided with supplementary products which customers are encouraged to buy such as books audio tapes and CD’s as well as using additional material in the web to increase their knowledge. These materials enable students to learn at their convenience.
The company’s pricing strategy is designed towards its key market segments i.e. government and corporate institutions. The objectives of the pricing strategy are to contribute to giving value to customer through high quality services at affordable prices.
There are different types of competition; there are large organizations like Profluent and Spanish Now which are big institution with human and financial resources and their prices closely match those of Command Spanish.
Other competitors include Rosetta Stone who have developed a Do-it-Yourself Software and are using their financial resources to aggressively market it. Online website also offer training at rock bottom prices compared to others. People can also get free training from Spanish speakers.
The company’s prices are designed to give the best value to the customers and this is achieved through R
Poem Explication paper Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Explication of the poem
Introduction Anne Bradstreet wrote the poem entitled the flesh and the spirit and tried to compare the things of the world and the thing of the spirit (Lash 1).
She clearly did this through dramatizing it into two different people in a form of conversation. Most of Bradstreet’s poetry revolved around her experiences in life and her great love for her family and husband. The theme of spiritualism can also be associated with the love and devotion she had for God.
Thesis statement The writer, in her quest to compare spiritualism and materialism, dramatizes the two as sisters and involves them in a kind of conversation. The two seem to be in an argument, each wanting to support their own ideas and perceptions about life.
The author also tries to show that the world is in a perfect balance between good and evil and that it is the choice of the human beings to choose from one of them. This paper aims at making an explication of the poem to get the inner meaning and the finer details there in.
Explication of the poem In the poem, the author talks of the two sisters and names them Flesh and Spirit as shown in line 5 and 7 in the poem respectively. The flesh is used to symbolize the tangible things of the earth, which include diamonds, pearls and gold as shown in line 84.
The author categorises and describes these things as having value. The spirit on the other hand, includes the things of the spirit that are not tangible and are priceless. This perception is highlighted in the phrase when the poet talks of the hidden manna in line 68 (Lash 2).
The poem shows the difficulty the people have in seeing the spirit or getting in its presence. This is however not the case when it comes to flesh since many can gain the worldly pleasures which gives them recognition and honour.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author believes that the will of God for the puritans-who were a group of Protestants that arose in the 16th century within the Church of England, demanding the simplification of doctrine and worship, and greater strictness in religious discipline-was no longer fulfilled.
Religion, in this context, is displayed as being hard to reach and that only a few managed to attain it. Bradstreet uses symbolism and metaphors to show how religion belonged to a chosen few who were saved and assured of an after-life with God. The author also uses imagery to show the complicated beliefs that the religious people had about the way temptations of the worldly pleasures and gains corrupted their faith.
The poem is not made of stanzas as it takes the form of a long stanza. The author however manages to change the persona. In the beginning of the poem (line 2 to 5), the narrator comes in. The narrator is likely to be a witness who overheard the conversation between the two.
The next part of the poem which begins from line 10 to line 37, takes the form one of the sisters called by the name Flesh. The other sister, Spirit appears as from line 38 up to line 109 in the poem.
The narrator does not differentiate the characters in the poem through the use of stanzas but uses a caesura to show that the conversation takes a pause as the character changes. The author probably utilizes slat rhymes from line 1 to line 15 to demonstrate that as much as the two were from the same origin (twins), their perception and believes about life differed remarkably.
The author uses iambic tetrameter in the whole poem which can take the form of the corners of a square to define the equilibrium that was attained by the two situations. The use of four iambs in a line demonstrates the enclosure of beliefs of the puritans. The bible talks of the way God throws out Lucifer, who was an angel, from heaven in to abyss to take over the world and is called the devil.
The irony here is that the devil, in conjunction with God, keeps the universe in a balance. This balance usually gives humans the choice between good and evil. This is the only way man can get to know what is wrong and what is right and therefore choose from the two.
We will write a custom Essay on Poem Explication paper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This poem contrasts the two sisters as good and evil when she says that there is no candle there and yet there was light and that there shall be no darksome night, on lines 101 and 102 respectively. These phrases mean that wherever the Spirit resides, the light of God illuminates it.
Also the phrase that says, this city pure is not for thee and for things unclean there shall not be (lines 106-107) show the fact that one is pure and the other one evil. Spirit has a judgmental tone as she appraises herself as being worthy of God’s favour and despises the filth of the earth that Flesh is associated with. She also believes that she would live with God for eternity for her goodness.
The aspect of idol worship, which is supported by flesh, is also brought out in the poem. Flesh is quoted trying to convince her sister, Spirit in to it. This can be seen when Flesh challenges Spirit that with immortal fame, she would be worshipped and her name praised.
The phrase in line 28 that say trophies will be erected in her name show the extent of appreciation she would have if she were on her side. This issue of worshipping idols is condemned in the Christian faith and that explains the great difference between good and evil.
The people who desire things of the flesh and those that are worldly and not spiritual are drawn into idol worship which is against the teachings and the commands given by God. In the poem, however, Spirit is seen as being very proud as opposed to being humble.
This shows some form of contradiction to the whole concept of religion. It shows how Christians only believe that they are the ones on the right and deserve to go to heaven and believe that all the rest who are not Christians and do not abide by the statutes belong to hell.
On many occasions Flesh is seen to be asking the sister why she always only thought of and fantasized about things that seemed impossible to get or attain. In line 9 to 11 she asks her whether she only lives on nothing but meditation and contemplation.
Flesh tries to pump sense in to Spirit’s head and tells her to get realistic. She wonders whether where Spirit believes she would finally go possesses treasure in store for her (Lash 1). Flesh would rather get treasure that is tangible that wait for the unseen and intangible treasure that Spirit talks of.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Poem Explication paper by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Anne Bradstreet manages to demonstrate the perfect balance that exists between good and evil in the world. It therefore leaves the reader with the freedom to choose between the two but shows clearly the difference between the two and the consequences of choosing either.
There is no clear illustration to show whether it is possible to get an intermediate between the two and therefore it would mean that one chooses from either being materialistic or being spiritual.
Bradstreet, through her poem, believes that Christianity is a big struggle of trying to maintain purity and that it only belongs to the chosen ones. Those that are chosen are assured of living with God through eternity and enjoying the treasures that are in store for them.
The writer, through Spirit, describes the beauty of heaven as having a crystal river that runs through it, a gate made of pearl and streets of gold that could be seen through. This description of beauty is meant to show the treasure that are in store for Spirit and anyone else that is willing to follow and abide by the Christian teachings.
The reader also appreciates the fact that there are many temptations and they are actually rewarding since it brings fame and great riches. The writer however brings out clearly in the poem and appreciates the fact that it is because of such temptations that one is able to learn of the higher calling and gets to know how to refrain from them.
Work Cited Lash, Chris. Anne Bradstreet: The Flesh and The Spirit. 2011. Web.
Curriculum Analysis Essay scholarship essay help
Curriculum Documentation and Origins I will be analyzing the Read 180 curriculum which is a reading program. For the standards I will use the Virginia Standards of Learning test and Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI). There are various types of documentation made about the program.
The first is peer-reviewed sources which include books, articles, internet sources and various scholarly materials where publishers have included the contributions from many experts in the field before deciding to publish it. The national level sources are also present and are available for the audiences around the nation.
There are also publisher/developer evaluations. The other types of documentation include quantitative data, quantitative investigations about the subject and various convincing evidences.
There are four approaches that are considered so as to match the standards and they include, the reading curricula, instructions assisted by the computer, the methods that aim at providing the teachers with more professional knowledge so as to understand some given instructions and methods that bring together instructions of large and small groups using computer activities.
The documentation about Read180 is well put and it enables the readers to fully understand the concepts behind it and the goals and objectives that it strives to reach.
Read 180 is a scholastic program which was developed by the educators at the University of Vanderbilt in conjunction with the Orange County of Florida and those from various public schools. It was then implemented in 1999. The prototype was developed by the Peabody Learning Lab which is in Vanderbilt University and Dr. Hasselbring Ted. At the moment, Scholastic is its marketer.
Read 180 is a program that was after more than twenty years of research based on scientific knowledge and the assistance of a group of well known and acknowledged experts in the field of adolescent literacy and researchers that dealt with reading problems. It was after intense research on the issue of reading problems that the Read 180 was developed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Curriculum Proper This reading program was designed so as to respond to an educational problem that faced many students of varied ages. It was developed mainly so as to target the students that were in grades 3 to 12 and had not achieved a certain required reading proficiency.
The program was designed so as to breach the gap that existed in the skills of the individual student. This was supposed to be done by involving the each student in a session that lasted for ten minutes during which the student was issued with certain instructions which he or she was supposed to follow for the session to be successful.
The program also aims at improving the reading and comprehension levels of the students. At first, the lexile levels of the students are determined so as to know which novel the students can read in the Read 180 curriculum. This is determined using the SRI test which assigns every individual with a lexile score.
Read 180, which is identified as the most efficient reading assistant program, is a system of curriculum that gives instructions which are later assessed and with the aim of developing professionals.
It has been proven to improve the reading abilities of many readers who struggle to read. It was mainly developed for those students that are reading either two or more years before graduating (grade-level).
It also contains many features that assist in the educating of students with special needs. It was also developed due to the need to boost English language learners by providing the necessary academic vocabularies that are necessary for success in reading.
The curriculum is intended for educational purposes. There are five major components in the program. The first one is instructional reading where students read some passage after viewing a video clip from a CD and this is meant to give them some background knowledge about the subject.
We will write a custom Essay on Curriculum Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The students are given a choice of language where they choose to view the preview in Spanish. The educational skills acquired here include word recognition, vocabulary use, spelling of the various words and fluency in pronunciation. Double clicking on any word gives its Spanish translated version.
The second component in the program is the modelled reading. During this session, an audio CD is played whereby a recording of fluent readings from a peer coach is recorded and the students follow along and try to pronounce the words and phrases just as fluently as the coach.
The third component is the independent reading sessions. During these sessions, the students get in to private compartments where they are to read individually. Each student reads a book that fit their individual levels of skill in reading. The students are not allowed to go into groups for discussions of the written works. This is meant to give them time to try out the skills they had acquired during the other sessions.
There is also the teacher-directed instruction where the teachers and their students have interactive sessions. This happens daily and can either be done when the students are in groups or are in their individual sessions. The lessons that are to be learnt are those of writing, comprehension in reading, improving the vocabulary and studying the characteristics of the words they encounter.
After all these sessions, there is an assessment that is done. This is done using the Lexile Framework which yields lexile scores which are not the usual, everyday scores. The lexile score indicate the difficulty that the student encounters during reading. This is done by the use of lexiles which assess the difficulty of comprehending text. The computer is used to monitor students’ performance on the activities.
Read 180 has also been acknowledged for its support for the diverse cultures and languages of the readers. This is evidenced in the package provided for in the Read 180 program which includes the audio tapes recorded in the Spanish language together with books and other multiethnic literature. This ensures that people of various cultures and languages are targeted.
This explains why the Read 180 program had been adopted and implemented in many countries and institutions. It also targets a wide range of age groups right from the 4th up to the 12th graders. This shows how user-friendly this program is. The program is not gender sensitive as it can be used equally well by both sexes.
The main goals of these components include the following:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Curriculum Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the primary goals of the program is to motivate to the students. This is achieved through the use of good looking peer mentors who appear during the video session on tape. This program focuses on getting the attention of the students and consequently motivates them into being interested in topics that deal with adolescents. It promoter frequent positive contributions from the students and captures their attention and interest throughout the session.
The program also aims at providing basic decoding skills to the students. This achieved by providing the students with the opportunity to preview and identify some of the difficult words that are used in the passages on the CD before they are allowed to read the passage. When the students listen to a certain word pronounced on the CD, they check on the structural model and take a quiz to show that they have identified the word. This provides them with the basic decoding skills that are critical in education.
The program also aims at promoting fluency in decoding skills. The teachers first prepare for the session which involves instructing either the students that are in groups or the whole class in general. Thereafter, follows a two-day implementation of the training in the use of software in the computer that supports the program.
The program also aims at imparting knowledge in language comprehension. The processes addressed include, predicting, summarizing, predicting, general mental imagery and evaluation skills.
It also aims at promoting linguistic knowledge. The student should be able to know the definitions and spellings of vocabulary.
Promote the abilities of making inferences. This is achieved by asking the students inferential questions in the quizzes on comprehension.
Since the program involves the use of complex software, it requires that the teachers attain some certain level of knowledge and skills. Those teachers that are not computer literate might have a rough time when it comes to this.
An institution that is ready to adopt this program should make sure that it has a good number of staff that possess the adequate knowledge on computers and the software and any other technologies that are included in the lessons as per the requirements of the Read 180 program.
Since teachers are required to have prior knowledge concerning this activity, they are provided for with materials which equip them with the necessary knowledge. The teachers are also requires to attend several workshops so as to support instruction in various aspect such as vocabulary. They also need to sharpen their skills in terms of comprehension and the reading strategies as required by the Read 180 program.
Some of the values that are incorporated in the Read 180 program may not go well with the morals or attitudes of the community. Such practices as the those of using attractive coaches during the lessons so as to motivate the students in attending the lessons and making them participate more in class may not be accepted by all.
As much as it is a good idea and has actually been proven to be effective, other members of the community which includes the parents of the students may think that it is more of a distraction than a motivator.
The students might concentrate more on the physique of the attractive coaches and less on the lessons they are trying to teach. This is a matter that is subject to debate but judging by the success rate of the particular activity, the use of beautiful and handsome coaches may be here to stay.
The Curriculum in Use
The curriculum is designed in such a way that it accommodates for sixty students per classroom. For any institution that is willing to adopt the program there is a certain estimate of the costs to be incurred in the setting up of the entire program.
The estimated cost for setting a whole program for a class of at least sixty students and the entire teaching staff and materials which include computer hardware and software and the paperbacks and audiotapes is an estimated $ 400. This cost, however may have changed due to time lapse. This estimate was set during the publication in 2000. An accurate and current amount can be obtained by contacting the publisher.
There are various materials needed for the implementation of the program. These include lesson on presentations, questions and reading that are stored in CDs. Paperbacks and audio books are also used in the exercises that lead to the implementation of program’s goals and objectives. There is also the use of posters and the whole package provided for in Read 180.
The program is meant to solve the problems faced by secondary students in reading. Researchers have tried to compare the achievements the various approaches that the program has provided for the teachers and policymakers and to study the current edge in secondary programs.
Stage B of the Read180 program is meant to be used by students from grade 6 and above. The students are divided into groups of fifteen and provided with instructions in a span of ninety minutes per day. Each lesson starts with a twenty minutes session where everyone is present. Afterwards, the students get into groups of fives and go through three different activities.
The first activity is the one of doing instructional reading through the assistance of the computer. The next one is the independent reading session where everyone goes his or her separate way to read alone and the last session is the one of getting into small groups and a teacher is present to instruct them. Read 180 program provides software which mostly has topics on social studies and science in general.
Since Read 180 provides the students with the necessary skills that are needed in improved learning, it meets the standards that are set by the region and this makes it an efficient tool in learning. Research has also proved it to be very effective and this gives it an added advantage over those that have not been scientifically proven yet.
Some data on research findings done to warrant Read 180 as an effective program in the learning process have been conducted.
An evaluation that involved a large region was conducted on the program in high schools in Phoenix where a group of students that had been performed poorly were introduced to the Read 180 program and their results later (after a year) compared with their fellow academically weak students who had not participated in the program.
The results indicated that the students who had engaged in the Read 180 program scored substantially higher than those who had not.
Another research was carried out in California and it encompassed the 8th graders in Los Angeles. The research studied the performance of students in terms of reading abilities and therefore monitored the performance of those that had used the program and those that had not and the results indicated that those that had been involved in the Read 180 program actually performed better.
These results concurred with those obtained in Phoenix.
Critique I believe that the Read 180 program is an effective tool that can be useful to the education sector. It provides the skills which include fluency in the spoken language, skills in comprehension, skills in knowing the correct spelling and those of word recognitions and correct use.
These are the essential and primary requirements for anyone that wants to be a proficient reader or writer. This program therefore builds a strong foundation for those students aspiring to be great writers in the future.
Unlike other programs or day to day lessons in the education sector, Read 180 manages to combine fun and education in a way no one anticipated.
The use of attractive coaches for the sole reason of motivating the students is one of its own kind. The aim is to improve the concentration of the students in class and get them to participate in discussions especially concerning sex education and other things that affect any adolescent student.
Through its motivational nature, the Read 180 program has managed to get some students that had completely given up with education to get back to school and actually score high marks. The program takes education to the next level and makes school a nice place to be. It brings fun into education and gets the attention of the students that had despised education.
Read 180 is a winner when it comes to making scores. It has changed the perceptions of students towards education and has brought great success to all or at least most of those who have attempted to give it a try. Above all Read 180 does not only impart academic skills to the students that engage in it but also socializing skills.
Through the use of group work, the program brings together different groups of people who interact freely. This interaction gives the students a sense of belonging that enables them to be the best they can be and this is equally reflected in their grade scores.
The Read 180 program also portrays a good image by the fact that it supports for its use by readers of diverse cultures and languages. The option given to students to choose from different languages gives this program an added advantage from the conventional programs. It enhances socialization and cultural exchange which are among the strongholds a country must have to so as to develop into a destination for different people.
The only problem that is experienced in the adoption and implementation of the Read 180 program is the fact that it is a new field and needs teachers who have prior knowledge on the running of the program which requires specialized training.
The other thing to be concerned about is the likelihood of some students being distracted by the attractive coaches that teach them. This should be checked for in individual classes so as to ensure that others don’t fail out of the distractions created.
Conclusion Read 180 is a program that can be adopted and implemented by any institution that seeks to improve the skills of its student body. It helps in creating all-rounded students who have both skills that help them in classroom activities and outdoor activities such as socializing. I would personally recommend it to anyone willing to experience positive change in their learning process.
Teaching the Spoken Language Dissertation custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction English is the most widely spoken language in the world today. Stemming from the British Empire dominance in the early days of civilization, former colonies of Britain either adopted English as their official language or as their second most important language after some indigenous languages.
Because its used in international instruction, learning English as a second language is a necessary undertaking for students and instructors especially given the dominance of the US and UK in global economics and politics. In Asia, all the learners whose first language is not English study the language as their second language.
ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English for speakers of other languages), EFL (English as a foreign language) all refer to the learning of English by people whose fist language is not English. They may also refer to the use of the language by the same group.
Teaching of English is also referred to in different terms summarized in popular acronyms. ELT (English language teaching), TESL (Teaching English as a second language), TESOL (Teaching English to speakers of other languages), and TEFL (Teaching English as a foreign language) all referred to teaching English to non-native speakers.
There are many more terms used to describe teaching and learning g English. However, this research concentrated on the TESOL, which primarily involves the teaching of English to speakers of other language.
Learners and instructors of English all over the world including countries that have English as their first language have trouble in the process. According to Brown et al (1983), the difficulties that these learners face are especially compounded in situations where the native language is different from English like in Asia (p. 50).
Through contrastive analysis, for instance it’s easy to conclude that a person of Chinese origin will have difficulties studying English compared to a French man because of the close relationship French has with English. Errors relating to syntax and pronunciation emanating form the influence of first language weigh heavily on learners, which easily discourages the learners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Demoralization of both parties can easily set in if no steps are taken to address the challenges that face such instruction. This paper therefore largely explored the elements of motivation in the foreign language teaching after tackling the problems that face the process such as anxiety.
The research also reviewed various existing literature on the subject of motivation strategies that have been put in place to ensure learners and instructors successfully deal with the challenges that they face in their course of learning.
Motivation and Foreign Language Learning Motivation is important in foreign language learning because it helps students the morale to pursue the studies despite the challenges associated with it. In Asia, like many parts of the world where English is studied as a second language, its important for learners to be motivated to ensure they don’t drop out of the ESL classes besides helping them better their performance.
According to Moriam, who carried out extensive research on ESL in Asia, motivation and language learning strategies are the most valued variables that help highlight the differences that exist in individual learners (2008 p.51). According to Moriam (2008) quoting Oxford
The Difficulties Asian Students at the English Class Dissertation essay help online: essay help online
Background Language acquisition is the complex process of a teacher’s and a learner’s activity, which should function in accord and concurrence. Undoubtedly, during mastering the particular language, there arises a range of problems of different nature, which the potential foreign language speaker has to face and overcome alone or with the teacher’s help.
These problems emerge at different spheres of language acquisition process, one of which is profoundly analyzed in this paper. In particular, the latter is focused on oral activity of the foreign language learner, the difficulties he or she has to face during foreign language production.
As far as ‘language is for speaking’, not merely grammar and structure knowledge, it is highly desirable to develop the oral predisposition to foreign language at the first place. [Wharton Pepper, 2000]
There is a necessity to mention that oral language production, in comparison with written, for example, has peculiar features. Moreover, in case of mastering foreign language oral production, the process of learning would constitute not merely of ‘studying the language’ (considering language structure, grammar, etc).
To reach success in speaking foreign language, one has to take into consideration either personal psychological peculiarities. This is due to the fact that oral activity is never introspective, it is directly connected to contact with other people and immediate interaction.
Hence, while dealing with oral language production difficulties, foreign language teacher is obliged to take a reasonable range of aspects into consideration. In addition to general language knowledge, personal predispositions of a foreign language learner, a teacher should also ponder on such factors as nationality, age, social status, etc.
This study is built over one of the aspects which influence the language acquisition in terms of oral production. Thus, this paper is devoted to investigating the difficulties Asian students face at the English class while managing oral language production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, on defining the nature of these difficulties, the research discusses the alternative strategies that a foreign language teacher may apply in order to motivate and encourage a student to speak English efficiently.
During analyzing the problems Asian students have while being engaged in speaking activity, the preliminary research should be conducted into the components which constitute Asian conscience, i.e. the culture of Asian peoples.
By Raymond Williams, culture encompasses the following elements:
a general process of intellectual, spiritual and aesthetic development;
a particular way of life, whether of a people, a period, group, or humanity in general;
the works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity. [Williams, 1976]
Stuart Hall defines culture as “the actual grounded terrain of practices, representations, languages and customs of any specific society”. [Hall, 1996]
These components accomplish essential influence on the model of the whole teaching-learning process, which creates the basic conception of education in general. Hence, in order to acquire deep understanding of the subject, the researcher makes and expedition into the Asian cultural peculiarities.
Firstly, the position of a teacher in Asian culture is utterly dominant over the student. The information a teacher provides is unquestionable and is frequently not subjected to discussion but represented mainly to be accepted and memorized.
This, through a long time, has developed the tradition of being patient and silent at the class, totally different from the policy of communicative learning procedure which is being widely applied in educational establishments.
We will write a custom Dissertation on The Difficulties Asian Students at the English Class specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, the Asian culture is patriarchal; it is following the established hierarchy of society, which is defined according to the age and social status. Hence, a teacher as a person considerably older than a student is not likely to tolerate any contradiction or disrespect.
The fact that a teacher is a center of learning process reflects negatively on the students’ ability to perceive information and to operate knowledge as, for example, in language learning. Becoming fluent in foreign language requires constant participation and interaction, which is an unfamiliar practice for an Asian student.
In general, the thorough analyses of Asian societies indicate that the collective tradition constitutes the basis of Asian culture. Unlike individualistic societies, collective mentality prevents the change to occur, in particular considering the alterations in the methods and techniques of teaching foreign languages.
When applied synthetically, e.g. through the authority, the students would nonetheless accept the mode of learning process as violation of established norms. Hence, the education reform in learning foreign languages would not be accomplished without the change in society conscience.
Lastly, there is a cultural preconception, that foreign language contravenes national identity of a person and this prejudice, stemming already from the genetic level, is either the obstacle to acquiring fluency in foreign language.
Thus, considering the factors mentioned above, these are the main premises to inducing reluctance, reticence, and passive role of an Asian student in foreign language learning process. The considerable amount of observations states that Asian learners experience high anxiety level during foreign language speaking activity in class.
Hence, this study is going to investigate the motivation techniques and encouragement strategies in order to facilitate the acquisition of English speaking skills among Asian students. The paper will either consider the perception of the students concerning these strategies and discuss the most preferable ways of class structure that Asian students define.
Purpose of the Study The aim of this study is to define the peculiarities of perception of motivation strategies and encouragement techniques of English speaking activity by 30 Asian foreign language learners at the University of Edinburg.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Difficulties Asian Students at the English Class by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the investigation is constructed to determine the differences in perceptions of the strategies by foreign language teacher and by Asian students, for the effect carried by the practice of these strategies may differ from the expected result.
Hence, the work has a purpose of developing understanding and awareness of the prerogatives of the students, which can consciously relate about reasons for their attitude to the techniques applied.
Naturally, the development of these strategies demands preliminary investigation into the difficulties the Asian speakers have during English learning process, particularly, the oral English language production. Thus, the strategies will be the reflection of students’ speaking difficulties and will have the purpose of inducing students to speak English freely and fluently.
The study aims not only at investigating the perception of the students towards the strategies applied, but also at conducting a research into preferable modes of studying. The research has a purpose to define the structure and activities of the class that the Asian English learners appreciate.
The conclusions are to serve a hint to development of effective methodology of working with Asian students. There is also a potential to define innovative ‘universal’ motivation strategies at the language class, which may foster foreign language acquisition.
Research Questions and Methodology
The research questions should be set in accordance with the purposes of the study, for only through the correctly constructed questions the purpose of the investigation will be realized. Hence, the research questions of this study are as follows:
What are Asian EFL learners’ perceptions about speaking English in the classroom?
What strategies did the teacher use to motivate and encourage Asian EFL learners to speak in English in the classroom?
What teacher did in the mode of learning / classroom environment that could help Asian EFL learners to speak English freely in the classroom?
The research questions mentioned above are managed through the qualitative investigation approach, which includes a questionnaire and observation as the most effective methods of qualitative research in collecting data and analyzing it.
Lincoln and Guba “posit that trustworthiness of a research study is important to evaluating its worth.” [Lincoln and Guba, 1985] Trustworthiness involves establishing credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability.
Credibility states for “confidence in the ‘truth’ of the findings”, transferability “shows that the findings have applicability in other contexts”, dependability “showing that the findings are consistent and could be repeated”, and confirmability indicates “a degree of neutrality or the extent to which the findings of a study are shaped by the respondents and not researcher bias, motivation, or interest”.
[Lincoln and Guba, 1985] The complexity of carrying out qualitative research consists in following these four aspects that define the validity of the process and the outcomes of particular investigation. Constant attention to keeping these standards, naturally, requires effort and thoroughness from the side of a researcher.
Undoubtedly, as far as the subject of investigation is not the phenomenon that can be measured and analyzed purely quantitatively, the research results will have predispositions to higher degree of subjectivity.
However, the chosen methods enable to hold a complex multilateral research, for the researcher is able to manage the analyses through different angles of view simultaneously, which is very important for issues as language acquisition.
Formulae One Constructors Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me
Background of the case The case is about motor sports formulae one competition that has been dominated by different companies as sponsors; the case dwells on three main companies that have had contrasting management approach with the sole aim of earning high financial and reputational rewards associated with the sport.
Motor sport at premiership level was established in 1945 by the federation Internationale de I’Automobile (FIA) and named it as Formulae 1, in 1950, drivers got the first chance to have a world championship competition that saw reputational and financial rewards exchange hands; the first champion was Giusepper Farina of Italy.
Other than the original idea of a sport, the sport emanated to be effective marketing tools to car manufacturers where they would interact with the customers and using the sports to promote their products.
In the efforts large sums of money were invested in the sector, for instance in 2006, Renault, Ferrari and McLaren were estimate to have committed between $250 and $350 million to the sport with Toyota believed to have hit $billion. The large sum of money that is used in the sport comes from the company promoting its brand and other third parties.
The Strategies Pursued By Ferrari 1975-1978 The company had a strong brand name being among the first companies in the racing world; other than the name, it was able to make some of its parts thus it was making them for the good of their trade. From the onset, the company had the sport as a hobby, thus it was willing to fund the undertaking from its earnings, the company had strong financial base thus it would cater for the needs of the sports effectively.
Although Ferrari is one of the most successful motor sports constructors, it hardly has as many sponsors as other companies; they make other range of cars that they get the funds from then invest in the racing sport, from the onset, Ferrari has taken the sport as a hobby that he has the responsibility of funding and making fit.
In 1969, Ferrari merged with Fiat was a major boost to financing of the company as it allowed Fiat to make the road machines and Ferrari to concentrate on racing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has a number of resources in expertise, physical resources, and experience that offered it an opportunity of being one of the best teams in the industry; the structures were better than those employed by its competitors.
One weakness that has been found in the company was its products development approach where the case illustrates that Ferrari relied on information from third parties to model and design their products instead of moving out and fetching the designs. This is probably seen as one of the weakness that led to its failure in later years.
The major threat that the company had was from an increasing competition from other companies in the industry like McLaren and Williams, they came in the industry with new technology and expertise that made the competition more competitive.
The race also started to dominate in the sporting sector that it attracted some political influences and it was moving the people of different ages. People became interested in the game and Ferrari was the team that they were willing to associate with, the social dynamic was so large that Italians see the brand as one of their country’s heritage.
The reliability of the cars that were made in 1971 to 1973 were wanting with some not being able to finish a race; this was even made worse by health condition of Enzo who had early acted as a main motivator of the team.
To ensure that the company remained competitive, there were some strategic alliances that were made to improve things, they include alliance with Fiat, the adoption of Mauro Forghieri in 1973 as the technical director; this offered the team with experienced managers who were able to turn things around for the benefit of the team.
The move was also a compete change of the management with new faces being called to task to assist the technical bench come with rewarding strategies; the move also saw the team recruit some talented drivers.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Formulae One Constructors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What are they key elements of successful F1 team The main elements that have made the company successful include;
A dedicated and experienced management and technical team, other than Ferrari himself, the company recruited management and technical bench that was composed of people with wide experience in the racing competition, the people offered the team required knowledge and timely information.
In the racing history, one company that has suffered greatly financially is Ferrari, there are loyalists and some companies who are willing to finance the team; this creates a highly motivated team like drivers, mechanics and other technical team members.
The company has had a strong brand name that has continued to make it the choice of many Italian; this by itself is enough motivation to make the team work hard to fulfill the big burden that the society seems to have placed on its shoulders.
The team had a number of benefit from the garage that it maintained; the garage was able to make accustomed products like Engines and gears of the team motor a move that made the vehicles reliable and a choice of many talented drivers.
Main causes of the problems experienced by the Ferrari in the early 1970 and how they overcome them
The company had taken motor sport as a sporting activities and had invested minimal in the research and development; the case study illustrated that Ferrari relied on media news to make out the approach that he was to take in the sport, this likely was a disadvantage to the company as other companies were going out and fetching the right design and approach.
Another likely problem that the racing team might have experienced is the increased competition for better engines by racing teams that had sponsors; there is high likelihood that the company was not able to compete financially with other teams thus chances of underperforming.
Identify the main elements of the strategic policies followed by each of the 3 teams which lead them to their success and ultimately failure Ferrari
The company used the approach of in-house development and autocratic leadership approach; this is where it aimed at making their own parts and engines and followed the able leadership of Enzo Ferrari. The main mission and vision of the team was to successfully compete with other machines and prove their dominance, they thus worked hard to develop the best in the market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Formulae One Constructors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The failure of the strategy was experienced when other team became keen on the sector and came up with machines that were better than those maintained by Ferrari. Also the central concentration of power was challenged by human factors like diseases.
The team had the sponsorship approach; the approach ensured that the team was financially well off and could develop machines that are required in the race. Some sponsors that have seen some of the teams succeed include Phillips Morris which financed McLaren in 1974 to 1996 in the efforts of advertising its Marlboro brand of Cigarettes.
The sponsors signed contracts with the team and promises to cater for some of their expenses like salaries, wages and upkeep in the efforts of having their products advertised in the context. They would fund development of different machines, technology and automation of the motors.
The failure of the approach was when sponsored withdrew or changed their team, this left the team without an option other than getting to the drawing board.
The team used the technological approach, with the development in technology; the company was able to make machines that were durable and reliable depending with the terrain of a certain race. The approach was successful but was challenged by fast development of technology were the team needed to be on its toes to get the technology always.
What issue facing each 3 teams in this case study were strategically flawed and how would you have overcome them The main issue that cut across the three teams is the lack of reliable talented drivers; the drivers that were available are not seen to be taking the sport as their hobby or talent; some come to benefit from the financial benefits in the sport that lacks the commitment required.
Like any other sport, talent in the particular sport plays a crucial role in its success; with the lack of talents, then each team is left with a far felt deficit when a team member quits or fails to participate.
Since the sport is rewarding enough, to have a continuous flow of drivers, I would enact a talent establishing, nurturing and development approach, with such an approach, I would suggest to have racing sports even in high schools so that those people who can do the racing and are talented get a chance to exploit their talents.
What were the strategic that provide each of the 3 team with success? In all the three teams, one thing stands out, the quality of human capital they have and the machines they are using for racing. When every team won, it was during the period that it had been able to combine its human, information, and physical resources effectively. Drivers, mechanics, researchers and developers, and technical teams, were the main work force that saw the company succeed.
Research played a crucial role in the success of a team; when a team researched extensively, it was able to make such effective strategies that saw their team succeeds amidst the challenge that was present at that particular time.
When reading the case and determining the strengths that saw the teams succeed, the main issue that was coming out is the benefit and advantage that can be derived from a team that is well constituted and utilizes the resources it has effectively.
What are the essential elements of success F1 team and how should the management structure be constructed The main success elements that F1 requires can be divided into three main areas;
Under this subtitle, the management and the team needed to gather such quality information that would assist them when making their machines. When a team had quality information, then it was able to have the best from the team.
To have a winning team, the racing team needs to have talents, experienced and dedicated people in the sector and area that they are being involved in; for example there is need to have drivers, mechanics and effective management teams.
The motors used in the race needs to be quality and have high reliability; this would help them compete successfully in the racing.
To ensure that all the above success elements are available, as a manager, I would ensure that every department is well staffed and there is an orchestrate team in the company.
Team funding sources Motor sports is an expensive sports that involves much fixing of the car to be used as well as training of people to be involved in the sports. Expenses can be seen in the form of fixing costs, labor costs, training, and research cots.
For instance in large teams, there are about 450 to 800 employees that travel the world almost fortnightly to look for the best approach to their teams; they are mandated with the task of researching the best approach to adopt in the sport. For an effective sport, a company that aims to use the sport as its advertising tool will have to look for means that the costs will be catered for: the following are the main approach adopted:
Sponsors: According to the case, about one fifth of the operational costs in the sports come from sponsors who come in the game with different ideas and agendas to meet with the sport.
When a car has been upgraded to compete in the race, the sponsor come in handy to offer funds for some services and additions like painting the car in the colors of the company, advertisings the race, and providing some financial contacts to the drivers, engineers and other stakeholders.
The brand name company: As a matter of meeting some of the cost incurred in the sports, some brand companies have some testing and development equipments which include wind tunnels and other facilities development; some of the services and fixing are done as normal service of cars while some have been accustomed to the benefit of the cars that are involved in the sport.
The company may have the option of making some of the parts that are used in the sporting cars like gearbox, and Engines; this format is the most dominant with Ferrari which has been a leader in the industry, or the companies may decide to buy the parts from different places and assemble them for quality machines.
In Germany the race can be seen to be more divided between the constructors of the motor and the sponsors, after the constructors have made the best they can, the sponsor comes in and offer some accustoming services to make the vehicle attractive and representative of their brand as the sponsors. This is an advertising method where companies seek to be associated with the success of the sport.
Financial reward: Other than the prestige that the sports come along by, the sport has some financial reward to the companies that are participating or have won. The reward is used to finance some essences of the sport like media loyalty coverage expenses.
Other than the reward money, there is some revenue that is negotiated on their behalf by Bernie Ecclestone’s Formula One Administration (FOA); the amount has become another reliable source of funds to the sport. In 2003, prize rewards accounted for 9.7% of the total revenue that was in the port, the amount was about $30 million.
The overall winner has a much higher financial reward with McLaren and Ferrari being the only constructors to have won the championship for four consecutive years 1988-1991 and 1999 to 2004 respectively.
Recommendation for more funding All the three companies have their strategy of raising funds however none of them has membership subscriptions as its main source of fund; this is so despite the potential that the teams have to get funds from their loyal members.
Companies should consider this approach to raise of funds; it would probably make the financial base of the company stronger.
Sources Of Finance For The Mcdonald Inc. Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
To any business, funding remains an issue of critical importance that needs to be addressed with utmost care. Sources of funds to any business remain a critical issue that demands that an organization’s strategic managers guard the sources of funding to guarantee business growth. Traditionally, funds for business come from the sales proceeds.
However, the fluctuating nature of the market makes it necessary for organizations to devise stable sources of funds to avoid unnecessary losses should the sales volumes drop significantly. Therefore, this means that although the main purpose of all business is to get revenue form the sales that they make, it is also important to invest some of the proceeds to some other forms of incomes to protect the company for some eventuality.
Sources of funds for McDonald in either starting a new or expanding the existing restaurants can be classified into three broad categories, which are:
Internal sources of finance
External sources of finances
Long-term sources of finance
Internal Sources of Finance One of the main sources of funds for McDonalds is sales proceeds. From the sales made by McDonald restaurants, the revenue earned minus all the expenditures incurred, gives it a surplus. This amount is retained by the business and used to finance its expansion into new market areas through establishment of new restaurants or purchase of new assets.
Owner’s savings is also another source of financing for the McDonald Inc in Kuwait. Owner’s savings ensure that the business owners have money at their disposal to use or furtherance of business. In most cases, when businesses are being started, much of the finance is usually from the individual savings.
Another source of finance for McDonalds Inc. is royalty from franchises. According to Keown, (2006), Franchises are businesses that use an already established brand name and in return pay the main firm some funds in form of royalties. The franchisee retains all the profits from the venture, but pays the Franchisor royalties and a minimal rental payment as agreed.
In this case, McDonalds continues to be recognized as one of the great franchising companies in the world in which over 75% of the McDonald restaurants are owned and operated by franchisees. This means that McDonald greatly gains from these franchises when they remit their payments to the franchiser. Franchising is, therefore, one of McDonald’s major sources of finance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Retained earnings and retained profits are often used as a source of finance. Over the years that the chain has operated in Kuwait, their retained earnings have been used for their expansionary missions. Retained earnings also have been used for asset financing among other major ventures of the organization. Sale of assets is another way that McDonald can get finances for their business ventures.
This involves the selling off the excess assets that are held by the company so as to generate money that could be used to start a new business or expanding an existing one.
However, great caution should be taken into account when doing this and this is because, some of the assets could still be used in smooth running of the current business. The accumulated retained earnings have boosted the return on equity on McDonalds Kuwait as attested by the graph below.
McDonalds’ reatined earnings trends over a 10 years trend.
External Sources of Finance McDonald also gets finances from partnership ventures. The partners contribute capital for the business and McDonald benefits from this business relationship in that through these capital contributions, it is able to finance its business.
McDonald can obtain finances from bank loans. This form of finances allows McDonalds Inc. to finance its initial costs. The loans come in either long-term nature or in short-term nature. Among the main financiers of McDonald’s Kuwait is the National Bank of Kuwait (NBK) which allows provides a varied form of loans to McDonalds.
Debenture loans are also forms of loans that are used by McDonalds in Kuwait just like in any other worldwide branches. Debenture loans are loans that are secured against with the assets of the business that is being invested in. Secured debentures attract fixed or variable interest rates depending on the assets they are attached to whereby the interest’s rates of these debentures can be predetermined.
We will write a custom Report on Sources Of Finance For The Mcdonald Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McDonald could use this source of finance to fund its existing business or start new ones. However, the business cannot sell the assets without the lenders’ consent and in case the business fails, the lender always take the first priority in being compensated over the owners and the shareholders and also this applies in case of winding up of the business.
Bank overdrafts as sources of funds are also used to fund McDonald’s operations. This is a good source of short-term finance as it helps solve the immediate problems that are being faced by the organization quicker than looking at the long-term ways. The overdraft has more advantage than a loan on the short-term.
Venture capital is another source of finance that McDonald can use to its existing business or start a new one. Venture capital is used by business in the initial stages of their development. For venture capital arrangement to be successful, an investor known as a venture capitalist must be willing to invest a huge sum of money into the business.
This means of soliciting funds has the advantage that the business in most cases end up being successful, but also runs the risk of the venture capitalist demanding to hold part of the business ownership or they may request very high returns at the expense of the business (Braun
How to effectively transform change in your employees Term Paper essay help
Abstract One of the primary tasks of leaders in any organization is to initiate changes. Different models describe changes in various perspectives. The leaders of an organization may use any model depending on their systems and the type of change implemented.
The paper compares Price Waterhouse and Michael Beer models. It covers the strengths and weaknesses of each model and implications they have if applied in organizations. Both Price Waterhouse and Michael Beer models shows how to transform change effectively in employees.
Introduction Change is inevitable in an organization or a company. Employees react differently to organizational changes depending on the models used. Some employees may have positive reactions and others may have negative reactions. While some of the changes receive joyous reactions, most of these organizational changes face fierce reactions. Psychologists attribute these variations in reactions to the nature of human brains.
There are two systems in human brains, emotional and rational systems. Emotional system deals with emotional changes, while rational system in the brain deals with logic and thoughtful changes. Employees receive organizational change easily and positively when the two systems are in alignment.
It is possible to overcome negative reactions to hard changes in organizations by making sure that emotional system and logical system align. To transform change in their employees effectively, organizations use different steps and models.
A comparison of steps and models used by Price Waterhouse and Michael Beers to implement change within organizations successfully Although the steps and models used by Price Waterhouse and Michael Beers to implement changes within organizations are different, the results of the steps and models in transforming changes to employees correlate the two.
According to Chip and Dan, (2010), different leaders use different models to transform and implement changes within their organizations (p.298). However, there exist similarities in the strategies, which organizations use to transform change in their employees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Comparison Price Waterhouse model requires an organization to make changes in all departments and processes. Redesigned processes in an organization lead to changes in procedures and jobs. As stated by technologies and systems also need to change to keep up with the dynamic needs of customers.
Changing “the processes, procedures, and system removes barriers to implement change for the employees and they are able to adapt to the changes and new processes” (Herzog 1993, p.87). In Michael Beer model, changes in the organization should only involve organizational processes and should not affect the employees.
The model does not require changes in all departments like in the case of Price Waterhouse. Michael Beer model requires for changes in the staff when the individuals/employees in the organization are unable to develop commitment and skills used in the new organizational arrangement.
Price Waterhouse models describe the process of change mainly using organizational leaders, but consultants have the freedom to adopt the process. On contrary, Michael Beer model does not involve a sponsor in any of its steps. The model does not have a change team that is in charge of change within the organization. Organizational leaders are not the key people used in the process of change.
In the Price Waterhouse model, the change team in the organization has the responsibility of planning, which involves looking for the necessary resources and setting the required goals. The change team must have a leader who focuses on the change program within the organization. The responsibility of the team leader is to pass the change message to relevant departments.
He/she also informs them concerning the transformation and leads them to focus their vision on the transformation of the organization. On the other hand, the work of a change leader in Michael Beer model is to clarify the need for organizational change to the members. The leader explains to the members why there is need for change and gives its future vision (Michael, 2008, p. 10).
The leaders in this model avoid imposing change programs from the top, unlike in Price Waterhouse model where the top management is in charge of change implementation. The leaders in various sub units redefine the goals, values, and strategy and later involve their top teams.
We will write a custom Term Paper on How to effectively transform change in your employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The next step in Michael Beer model is data collection for the organization and people alignment. The purpose of the data is to stimulate organizational and personal change.
New organizational arrangements do not require staffing changes if employees are able to develop commitment and skills. The similarity between the two models is that they both involve the low-level management in implementing changes. They also seek to transform change in employees effectively using different modes and steps.
My evaluation on their steps or models Price Waterhouse
The change models used by Price Waterhouse require involvement of every person in the organization. Price Waterhouse models seek to achieve high performance, measured difference, and improved results with the help of motivated and empowered employees (Herzog, 1993, p. 87).
The models focus on transforming change effectively based on customer needs. Price Waterhouse models successfully accomplish organizational change with guiding principles. The steps used by Price Waterhouse results into transformation change of employees.
The change model used by Michael Beer model of implementing change within organizations use behavioral and agency theoretical perspectives. Behavioral theory gives vehemence on the importance of the top management to participate in the processes. The participation helps them to develop commitment to organizational change.
It focuses on the behavior in the firm such as teamwork and commitment. Agency theory emphasizes on economic outcomes; does not deal with the organizational behavior inside the firm (Michael, 2008, p. 10). In Michael Beer model of implementing change within organizations, planned organizational change is the first step taken by an organization to improve its performance.
The steps only involve the top management and sub unit managers. The use of Michael Beer model might take a shorter time in its implementation because the low-level leaders are involved in the initial stages and they initiate most of the organizational changes. Michael Beer model shows how to transform change in employees in an effective way.
Strengths and weaknesses of their steps or models Strengths
One of the strength associated with the steps used by Price Waterhouse and Michael Beer is that the employees and the low-level organizational members are involved in implementation of organizational change (Herzog, 1993, p. 87). Price Waterhouse model uses consensus to incorporate all levels whereas Michael Beer model encourages the leaders of various sub units to involve top leaders in redefining values, strategies, and goals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How to effectively transform change in your employees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Michael Beer model, unit leaders only involve corporate leaders, which reduce resistance to change by the staff. The strength associated with Price Waterhouse model is that it involves every member of the organization and therefore all the employees are able to adapt to changes without barriers.
Involving leaders of various sub units may result into ineffectiveness of step used by Michael Beer as these leaders may take time to initiate the appropriate changes (Michael, 2008, p. 10).
The skills and experience of the sub unit leaders may be limited relative to that of effective corporate leaders, and they may therefore take time to manage performance improvement and involve top leaders in redefining strategies and goals of the organization.
The responsibility of the change team to set goals without the involvement of the relevant departments and employees is the major weakness of the steps followed by Price Waterhouse.
The team leaders only inform the employees and other stakeholders of the organization once they have instituted the changes. This may result into fierce resistance to the organizational changes.
Major implications for application to organization Price Waterhouse
The implication of changing all the processes used in an organization is that it removes barriers for the employees. The employees are able to adapt to new changes without barriers when everything else in the organization has changed. Redesigned processes, jobs, procedures, systems and technologies make it easier for the employees to implement, transform, and accept changes (Herzog, 1993, p. 87).
It becomes easier to transform change of employees in any organization by training them on new processes. Effective change of employees measures the success of an organization.
In Price Waterhouse model, the implication of having a sponsor to initiate mandate for change is that there might be problems in communicating the changes to the employees and other teams involved in the organizational change.
To overcome these problems, the language used to communicate must be specific and easy to understand. All levels in the organization should understand the change mandate translated by the sponsors (organizational leaders).
The sponsors designate change process to a change team, which takes over from the sponsor and the implications is that it may take time for the change team to understand the details of the change, since they do not initiate the changes. The team then proceeds with the other procedures, which involves setting goals and looking for the necessary resources (Herzog, 1993, p. 87).
The implication of the use of change team is that it gets the responsibility of developing programs that may be of great help within the organization. The programs developed gives direction to the team managers to transform changes in the employees in an effective manner.
The implication of having a team leader in the change team is that he/she is able to convince employees and other members of the organization on the expected organizational changes.
It also implies that the organization can change the team leader in case he/she does not perform satisfactorily. However, establishing that the leader is doing a good job in implementing changes takes some time since changing a culture in an organization does not occur rapidly.
The time taken to change the culture of an organization would reduce by changing the key people in the leadership of the team. Application of the method would lead to rapid changes because everything including the leaders of an organization would change. Because of the transformation, changing the culture will be easier for the organizational change management, and it will be easier to transform change in employees effectively.
The implication of having new leaders is that the employees and the sub unit leaders might not want to support and follow the new leaders. Since the top management supports organizational change, it implies that the other levels of the organization would follow suit, thus forming a high consensus.
One of the major implications of using Michael Beer models or steps in implementation of change within organization is that the employees and other members of the organization respond to the transformation more rapidly.
The reason behind the quick response is that initiation of the changes involves all levels of the organization. Implementation of the changes may take a very short time because it will face less resistance from the employees and the low-level leaders.
The implication of encouraging and demanding leaders to manage performance improvement is that it simplifies the steps used. There is no much time taken to communication on the new ideas to the employees, because they are involved from the initial stages (Michael, 2008, p. 10). The sub unit managers do most of the work while the top teams do little.
The responsibility of the top teams is to work together with the sub unit managers in redesigning the values, goals, and strategies of the organization. However, in large firms, the steps involve the top management who manage the performance improvement like the sub unit managers.
Lack of commitment in the leaders may lead to delayed implementation of organizational change. Inadequate commitment of the leaders exposes their inability to deal with resistance from members/employees of the organization.
The leaders should be commitment and should have enough skills to make it possible for them to succeed through the whole process of change. The implications of Michael Beer model is that the new organizational arrangement will help to transform change in the employees effectively.
Conclusion To transform change in employees in an effective manner, the leaders of the organizations need to use available models or steps. The leaders of the organization need to seek advice from consultants who are able to provide them with better information and appropriate information on the best models to use. All the models will show the leaders how to transform change in employees in an effective way.
References Chip, H.,
Toyota Motor Corporation: Strategic Human Resource Planning and Strategic Recruitment Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free
Introduction The business environment has been getting more complex and competition has been increasing everyday. Recent problems such as the economic crises and others have caused organization to find ways of staying ahead of competition.
Organizations are continuously looking for ways to gain a competitive edge over the other organizations. This mostly affects the multinational organizations because the international organizations face global environment which is more complex than the local environment.
One of the major areas of focus in trying to attain a competitive advantage is through the use of employees. Organizations have realized and embraced the fact that human resource is a strategic asset to an organization and if well used, it can make the organizations gain a competitive advantage (Kathy
Bill Clinton Leadership Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Clinton’s philosophy on leadership
Leadership Theories connected to Clinton’s leadership
Lessons we can learn from leadership of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton was one among the many presidents of the United States of America. As a leader, Bill Clinton achieved many things which made him become a popular leader during his reign (Biography.com, 2011).
This research paper will focus its discussion on the leadership of Mr. Bill Clinton, his major style of leadership, the numerous theories connected to his leadership and it will further highlight the lesson we as population can learn from his system of leadership.
To have a good understanding of Bill Clinton, we shall have a review and a brief description of his biography in order to understand about the background of Bill Clinton right from the time he was born up to his time in power as the president to of US.
Bill Clinton was born in August the year 1946 in the state of Arkansas where he was raised by his grandparents until the age of three years since he was born in a single family after the death of his father just before he born (Biography.com, 2011).
During his stay with the grandparents, Bill Clinton learned a lot including; good discipline, reading and counting which he was taught by the grandfather who liked the young boy very much. During all this time, Clinton’s mother was at college and she only came back after graduating with a nursing degree and shortly moved in with Roger Clinton his newly wedded husband.
During his childhood Bill Clinton was raised in a religious manner and was a devoted Baptist where he attended church services every Sunday. At the Baptist church, Bill became interested in music and he engaged a lot in the church music where he even learned how to play jazz saxophone which he continued playing up to high school (Biography.com, 2011).
Al this particular time, Bill was used to the hard life such as harsh, abusive and rude stepfather due to excessive drinking. At the age of 14 Bill gained his ground and decided it was no more when he engaged his step father in a quarrel that consequently put a stop to the abusive behavior. However, not long after this incidence that the mother divorced with Roger Clinton.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At high school, Bill used to play musical instrument and also engaged in political debates a factor that made his teacher Ms Mae Mackey to like him very much (Biography.com, 2011). At the age of 17, at Arkansas Boys state, Bill was selected as the representatives of the boys association due to his outstanding character giving him a wonderful opportunity to meet face to face with President John F. Kennedy at the state house.
After high school, the youthful Bill attended Georgetown University where he got involved in university politics very much. After college he won a highly prestigious award for further studies at the Oxford University where he studied law.
Moreover, after the scholarship at oxford, Clinton further went to Yale university school of law to complete his law course; after schooling he immediately went into national politics and in the 1978 he become the youngest governor in history of US.
After this incidence Clinton had his ups and down going in and out of politics until 1992 when he was nominated as a party representative to vie for presidency which he campaigned well and in November 3 he become the 42nd president of United State of America (Biography.com, 2011).
Clinton’s philosophy on leadership Clinton a young president belonging to Democrat party had changed the history by winning the election against the republicans which had not happened for such a long time (Hamilton, 2008); in fact, he was elected for the second term despite of the many scandals that he had been accused of due to his negative personality.
However, Clinton is highly regarded for the positive changes he brought to US which are highly attributed to his concerned nature for the well being of the citizens (Gates, 2000).
One of the major policies which he held is that of economical progression. In fact, during his reign and presidency, Clinton achieved economical progress in many ways; his government was keen to note the high rate of unemployment which his administration developed measures to curb such crisis (Hamilton, 2008).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Bill Clinton Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, Clinton’s administration was very successful in ensuring that the level of inflation was reduced by all means and due to the efforts administered during his term, US acquired the lowest level of inflation (Gates, 2000). On the other hand, Clinton’s administration was very alert and did not hesitate to make necessary changes in the national budget.
During Clinton’s era, the government made proposals that really impacted the US economy in a very positive way; in point of fact, Clinton’s government made a budget that is said to have brought a balance in the deficit that had been there for decades and in effect to this, the result was a budget which was surplus (Gates, 2000).
Another topic which makes Clinton to be a president who was highly regarded was due to his enthusiasm for peace causing him to extended campaign works intended to bring harmony in the land. Further more, his administration cleared all issue of violence and crime which is reported that, during his era issues of crime rates were reported to have reduced considerably.
In the education sector, Clinton’s administration made numerous changes that have brought a positive impact up to date. During his era, the US achieved the largest investments in the education segment by expanding college edification and facilities in order to ensure all American could have at least access college education.
This program was made accessible in the course of also giving scholarship to more than five million students annually (Hamilton, 2008). Additionally, Clinton ensured that college education became basic; his administration hired more teachers and lowered college fees in order to make education become quality and be easily accessed even by the poor in order to promote equity in the society (Gates, 2000).
More importantly, his administration encouraged technology through incorporating modern facilities in schools to embrace technological changes as a form of development in the education sector.
Moreover, Clinton’s administration was in the forefront to campaign for better and improved health care; as such his government ensured increased medical facility access to all Americans at an affordable rate (Gates, 2000). Through creating a balance in the national budget, Clinton’s government extended the medical facilities through making accommodative changes to cater for the growing population of US.
In the child health care, Clinton’s administration enacted the largest health supportive program since 1965 which was big enough to cater for medical needs for more than 5 million children every year (Gates, 2000).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bill Clinton Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, to ensure better health care, his government signed a law to cater for the mental challenged across America which would help eradicate stigmatization against those mentally challenged (Hamilton, 2008). Apart from this, Clinton’s administration also developed foreign policies that were meant to facilitate peace, campaign for freedom and encourage democracy (Gates, 2000).
Leadership Theories connected to Clinton’s leadership There are many theories of associated with leadership and we can relate a good number of the theories to the leadership of Bill Clinton based on his accomplishment as the 42nd president of US. In order to have an understanding of this concept we shall review just but a few of the leadership theories studied in class for a broader understanding.
One among many other leadership theories is the great man theory; great man theory argues that, quality leaders arise when they are needs in the society and it further argues that “leaders are born and not made” (Changingminds.com , 2002). By looking back to the system of Clinton’s administration, we can be able to relate Clinton’s leadership to this particular in the following way.
As a president of US Clinton was able to integrate quality management leadership when the state was undergoing tough economical times, it during his era when US acquired a balance in the national budget something that seems not to have been achieved for decades.
So, we can be able to attribute the economical progress to sthe good leadership style by Clinton which can also be argued that the great man theory correctly fits in this situation because as the theory argues “good leaders come in when the society really needs them” (Changingminds.com , 2002), as such, Clinton’s leadership also seems to have appeared right when US was under tough economical times.
Secondly, another theory of leadership which can be related to leadership of bill Clinton is the transformational leadership theory.
Transformational leadership theory is a hypothesis whose assumption is that, good leaders are those who inspire others and usually work hard to achieving what they have passion for (Changingminds.com , 2002); mostly their style of leadership is based on what they what to achieve in the society, so, the transformational leaders will be motivated to achieve their desired goals which they work and dedicate all their energy towards such objectives (Changingminds.com , 2002).
In this regard, by reviewing the leadership of bill Clinton we are able to conclude that, it is no doubt that Clinton’s leadership style can be related to this particular theory in various ways. One way is through the way Clinton had passion for education based on his background and how he had gotten quality education through scholarship.
As such, we can be able to trace those qualities through observing how Clinton was aggressive to make positive change in the education sector in US (Gates, 2000). In point of fact, Clinton’s administration worked towards making college education to be accessible as basic by all Americans and this was achieved through his passion for education.
Additionally, Clintons made sure that college education was affordable by campaigning for reduced college fee. Most importantly, Clinton’s administration initiated the scholarship program in order to support the needy students towards attaining education in the society and it does support millions of student annually (Gates, 2000).
Lessons we can learn from leadership of Bill Clinton From what we have already learned, Clinton is one among the many presidents of the US who was popular during his term as a leader of US. Despite of the few shortcomings and criticism raised regarding his personality, Clinton was a charismatic leader a factor that also contributed to him being selected for the second term.
Generally, there are many positive things we can learn from such form of leadership and if applied in the society today, it could contribute to progressive changes necessary for development and social change in the world today.
One great lesson we can always learn from Clinton’s presidency is that, a good leader transforms the society for better.
Clearly, we have already seen how Clinton’s administration strived to make a lot of changes in the society in order to accommodate developments and hence steer growth of the state; such changes include, economical development, technological advancement, health for all, affordable college education, environmental conservation among many others. All these changes are necessary for a better tomorrow.
Furthermore, we can also get to learn that as leaders, we should develop love for others in order to change our society and our neighbors (Koestenbaum, 2000).
Such a lesson can be derived form Clinton’s leadership looking at the way his administration was concern about peace; majorly, he was concerned about peace in his country and that of the other countries which resulted in developing foreign policies that were meant to promote internal and external peace.
Finally, another lesson we can learn from Clinton’s leadership is that, as leaders we should have a desire to impact changes where others have not achieved (Koestenbaum, 2000). It is obvious that Clinton made positive developments where other presidents had not achieved; such changes include creating a balance in the national budget something that had not been achieved for decades.
Therefore, leaders should not be discouraged by the fact that others have not achieved, in fact this should be a motivation to achieve and exercise ones abilities in order to achieve great things in the society.
References Biography.com. (2011). Bill Clinton. Web.
Changingminds.com. (2002). Leadership theories. Web.
Gates, P (2000). Bill Clinton Accomplishments. Web.
Hamilton, N. (2008). Bill Clinton: Mastering the Presidency. New York: PublicAffairs.
Koestenbaum, P. (2000). Leadership: The Inner Side Of Greatness: A Philosophy For Leaders. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Literature Aspects in “The Scarlet Letter” by Nathaniel Hawthorne Essay scholarship essay help
Genre The tales in the Scarlet Letter possess several mystery elements. For instance, Hester’s lover is not directly mentioned. Mystery is also experienced in the way Hester, Dimmesdale and Chillingworth undergo punishment. In addition, full information about the Puritan’s colonial attitudes is not given. This leaves the reader thinking.
Setting The physical setting of the novel represents the Puritan’s beliefs and lack of development. First, we get to know that the prison and the town scaffold are the most important buildings in town as they are frequently used by the Puritans for religious purposes. Second, the Bay Colony of Massachusetts is likened to an island in the midst of wilderness, indicating that the place is undeveloped
Plot Analysis First, the market place is described. Second, Hester encounters her husband. Third, Reverend Dimmesdale keeps his secret. Fourth, Hester and the Reverend plans to run away. Fifth, the Reverend gives his Election Day summon.
Sixth, the Reverend confesses his sin to the public before he collapses and dies. Finally, Hester finds her way back to Boston. Basically, the novel starts with the initial situation followed by conflict, climax, suspense and conclusion.
She is a very powerful woman who is imprisoned for committing adultery. She is ashamed publicly for her adultery act and she is forced to wear a scarlet with the letter ‘A’. While in jail, she embroiders the scarlet letter so as to translate her punishment into a meaningful experience.
She is the daughter of Hester, who is born out of adultery. She represents all that Hester gave up when she committed adultery.
Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale
He is a likeable minister of the word. He commits adultery with Hester.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Roger Chillingworth
He is a brilliant scholar and husband to Hester. He is also vengeful as he decides to take revenge on the Reverend
Governor Richard Bellingham
He had served as a governor of the Bay colony of Massachusetts for many years.
Reverend John Wilson
He judges Hester for her adultery act at the beginning of the novel.
She is a sister to Governor Richard Bellingham and a witch.
Themes The themes discussed in this book include: alienation, revenge, women and femininity, compassion and forgiveness, hypocrisy, guilt and blame, justice and judgment, isolation, the supernatural, fate and free will, and man and the natural world.
Point of View The narrator pretends to be unbiased, though it is clear that he does not agree with the Puritans as he frequently criticizes the Puritan society.
Style The writer has used diverse vocabulary in writing the novel. For instance, words like ‘ignominy’ and ‘cogitating’ have been used. The writer also uses long sentences separated by commas in writing the novel. Shmoop University describes the novel’s writing style as ornate, formal, thorny, biblical, shadowy and comma-loving (1).
We will write a custom Essay on Literature Aspects in “The Scarlet Letter” by Nathaniel Hawthorne specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Persona The persona in the novel is a third person omniscient narrator.
Images, Metaphors, Schemes Images, metaphors and schemes that have been used in this novel include: the prison door, Pearl, the scarlet letter, the red mark on Dimmesdale’s chest, the Meteor, the black man, the forest and the wilderness.
National Mythologies or Ideologies The Puritans were centered on the idea of purity and believed that God was omnipotent and that salvation was predestined (Hawthorne 2). They related worldly success to salvation. Sins were heavily punished in the Puritan society.
Cultural Context and what transfers to today The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne’s is of great historical significance as it contains many insights that are relevant to contemporary readers. For instance, young people who are deviant and stubborn can relate to the themes of alienation and breaking rules.
In this view, the novel can be explained as a story of a woman who was heavily punished for letting the heart to rule her. Hester’s experiences can stimulate sympathy, Dimmesdale’s hypocrisy can provoke disgust, and Chillingworth’s revenge can arouse anger among readers.
Among the practices in the novel that are experienced in our current society are rules and punishments. However, the extent to which some crimes like adultery should be punished still remains a controversial issue. Technology has also advanced over the years.
Work Cited Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Plain Label Books, 1850.
Shmoop University. “Learning Guides to The Scarlet Letter.”(30 Sep. 2008) Web.
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“Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass” Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass is a pure and classical narrative written by Fredrick Douglass from the first person singular format focusing on Douglass’s own reaction to slavery in America.
The Author is also the persona in entire narration as he recounts his real experience in slavery right from childhood (‘Clayton’1). The narrative is set around slavery period in1817 when the author was born. During this time, Douglas (author) had separated from his mother. Meanwhile, his father worked as a clerk in a rich man’s farm.
In the narrative, Lloyd owns huge chunks of plantations where slaves are compelled to work under tough conditions (‘Easyread’ 5). Douglas’ life develops in the plantation until he approaches 7 years when he is taken by his father’s brother-in-law to Baltimore. As the story unfolds, we find that Douglass faces torture in the hands of several slave masters (‘Clayton’ 44).
He became enlightened and realized the importance of education. Eventually, he fled himself from slavery, changed his name and married a free black woman, Anna Murray. Finally, he engaged himself with anti-slavery movements as an orator (‘Clayton’180).
In the narration, there are major and minor characters that the author has used to develop the plot. The author plays two major roles as both the narrator and main protagonist (‘Easyread’1). He uses an average tone to express his emotion over horrific moments he experienced while in slavery. The author builds his characters in the narration and eventually able to develop several themes from their diverse roles.
Moreover, he is able to bring out his views well through their role in the scene. For instance, he portrays Sophia Auld as unrealistic and inhumane as part of developing his argument against slavery. He uses her cruelty to demonstrate adverse impacts of slavery.
Douglass portrays Covey as a villain to develop a theme of conflict in religion (‘Easyread’ 76). He makes him get convinced that he is a Christian although his evil actions provoked him. As a major character in the story, Covey violence triggered Douglass to get transformed into a more brave character who eventually became freedom seeker. Meanwhile, he develops other minor characters to build his plot.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Douglass has also developed various themes in the narrative to address universal issues affecting society during his times. The main theme developed from the narrative is on effects of slavery to victims and slave dealers (‘Easyread’4). This is evident from the ruthlessness subjected to slaves by their masters. Slaves suffered both physical and psychological torture.
Moreover, inappropriate use of slaves led to family conflicts especially when masters adopted slaves to as concubines. Religion as a theme has been well developed in the story. The author develops a distinction between Christians and non-Christians. The slaves refer Covey as a serpent for his evil actions (‘Clayton’7 6). The incumbent is in conflict of convincing himself that he is a Christian.
Other themes developed in the narrative include education, ignorance and freedom. From the author’s point of view, he reflects on negative effects of slavery and as well emphasizes on the importance of freedom (‘Easyread’ 164).
Additionally, the author has used several schemes such as images and metaphors to develop the plot and make it more appealing to the audience. Initially, the author uses symbols to represent abstract concepts in his views. For instance, Sophia Auld has been used to symbolize oppressive nature of society (‘Clayton’ 32). In the story, the persona uses his life to symbolize human rights.
However, the author is a bit controversial in the fact that he appears to play two roles simultaneously though differently (‘Clayton’ 6). Moreover, he criticizes slave-owners yet he does not explain why slavery has become rampant.
The narrative has some significance both in the cultural and historical context of the 19th century human civilization. Apparently, we are able to embrace strides made in the search for freedom against slavery. In addition, the major themes developed are still evident in modern day history.
Moreover, the culture depicted in the narrative can be equated to a mirror reflecting daily experiences in modern society since not much may have changed especially with the advent of neo-colonialism and improper local and foreign policies by some nations.
We will write a custom Essay on “Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Clayton: Prestwick House Inc, 2005.
Douglass Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Easy read Comfort Edition. New York: ReadHowYouWant.com, 2008.
Aspects of Literature Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Authored by Margaret Fuller, The Great Lawsuit is a must-read captivating chef-d’oeuvre heavy-laden with literary aspects like plot, setting, themes, style, and images among others as highlighted in the paper.
Period, as an aspect of literature refers to the time frame a certain piece of work is written. This is important since it gives a reader an idea of what the work is all about. “The Great Lawsuits by Fuller was done in July 1843 and therefore captured the daily occurrences of the times.
When it comes to genre, Fuller adapts a pure narrative. The work is an observation of the author and her own experiences that existed between men and women during her time (Dickenson 187). Therefore, the author develops her story based on these experiences and also borrows from the past events and uses them in developing her work.
Setting in any literal work is paramount in providing a clear picture of the story. For instance, in “The Great Lawsuit”, events occur in her place of residence in the Northern Europe. She builds her plot based on the experiences and how the community or the society behaves and believes. She therefore borrows more from her own setting and therefore builds her plot and provides suggestions to his audiences.
The plot of “The Great Lawsuit” is well developed through systematic occurrence of events. The book is about the self and individuality of the people and how these have resulted to inequity in the society. For instance, men and women should be able to uplift each other and eliminate their perceived differences. Women need to rise up and uplift their fellow women in order to be equals.
The author too uses various characters in ensuring that her message reaches the audiences clearly. Some of the authors that she uses are Miranda, a woman and a child born of a father who believed in equality of sexes. Others are Roland, Justina, and Mary Wollstonecraft commonly known as George Sand amongst others.
The theme of freedom stands out in the book. According to Fuller, women should be able to break the chains of slavery that have been subjected to them by their male counter parts (34). Other themes revolve around love, self or individuality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The story comes from the third person point of view where the author mainly wishes to reach all the humankind. She sees the need for both men and women to abolish their self interests and be able to support each other in order for all of them to operate on the same grounds.
Style is also one of the salient aspects in literature. In her work, Fuller employs a simple style in propagating her message to the audience. For instance, she uses simple language, short and precise in her writing, which fosters quick understanding.
Example is, “They, too, raised the cry; God is living, all is his, and all created beings are brothers, for they are his children” (Miller 23). These were the triumphant moments; but as we have said, man slept and selfishness awoke.” This shows how the selfishness of men made them to mind their own interests.
In “The Great Lawsuit”, Fuller presents herself as the persona in addressing the key themes in her works. She also depicts illustrations of men and women as personas in bringing forward her ideas.
Images, Metaphors and schemes are styles employed in literature to advance the intended message. The author uses various images and metaphors in her work which makes it interesting. A good illustration of metaphor used is “We feel that the mind may “grow black and rancid in the smoke” (Dickenson 45). This means that men are hypocrites often doing contrary to what they say.
Ideologies are someone’s predispositions or thinking perspectives. Fuller adopts a mythology or ideologies that all people are equal regardless of gender, profession and religion amongst other parameters. A good example that illustrates the ideologies of the author is, “All men are born free and equal” (Dickenson 12).
Fuller’s work borrows much from culture and historical practices that society has been observing. She endeavors to bring into existence a new leaf on how people should relate and socialize. She wrestles with various technologies some including the place of a woman in the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Aspects of Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women are not given the full attention with their full capability not fully explored. She believes that things will only change when women will rise up to other occasions and lead their fellow women towards independence (Miller 34).This has seen drastic changes in today’s life as women have taken up their roles in different facets of life.
Fuller’s work represents the reality and the social injustices that various communities go through. There has been effort by various parties to ensure that all men and women are able to exploit their full potential in life. Therefore, it is true that her work has played a key role in shaping the current today.
Works Cited Dickenson, Donna. Margaret Fuller: Writing a Woman’s Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
Miller, Edwin. Salem Is My Dwelling Place: A Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Lowa City: University of Lowa Press, 1991.
Medicaid Fraud and Influence on Medical Services Research Paper best essay help
Introduction Medicaid Fraud is one of the main issues that hamper provision of quality, reliable, and efficient medical services across the world.
Medicaid is designed as a health insurance that offers the less fortunate in the society a chance to get affordable quality medical services; they are edible to children, the elderly, and persons with a disability and funded to a large extent by Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) Medical Assistance Administration.
The United States government medical department with collaboration of the office of the Attorney General has been on the fore front fighting the vice; however, the vice seems to be far from being won. As much as the practice is unethical and unaccepted in the medical fraternities, the efforts that the federal government has enacted remain focused on corporate level but they seem to be un-reaching to the micro level practices.
According to Steven Malanga, the rate of misuse of Medicaid Fraud has continued to increase with an estimated amount of 10% of the total cost nationwide, which translate to about loss of
Efficiency of Communications Research Report best essay help: best essay help
Communications research is a field that every successful organization should invest in, if it is interested in the maximization of service production and guaranteeing consumer satisfaction. The claim comes in because it equips an organization to deal with its research questions concerning issues such as usage, branding, advertising, new product introduction, and pricing among others.
Such insight is necessary both for making inter-organizational projections, and in judging consumers’ reactions to the organization’s policy. Therefore, the PR Department has to spend some of the organization’s limited funds to conduct such a research, with hopes of making amends on the image projected by the organization to the public, as well as to fellow personnel.
In terms of objectives, this research will aim at gleaning as much information as possible concerning the effectiveness of three data collection methods; interviewing, questionnaires, and observation, which are most commonly applied by the organization in research. It will also study other available options, their effectiveness, and comparability with the former three in terms of meeting the organization’s demands.
The knowledge drawn from such research will be instrumental in analyzing the organization’s ability to interact with the subjects of its previous, present and future researches. It will also improve the credibility of the organization should its competence, or integrity in the execution of its objectives ever be questioned by external forces.
Finally, it will come up with the best approach of collecting information from subjects while best presenting it as their ally, which in turn will give it credence in the local community, and provide ease with which information can be obtained. Thus, the relationship with its publics will be secured further.
The research topics in need of exploration are outlined below; three topics of study, which this research will propose, and the reasons are outlined alongside each topic. These are:
Interviewing – as a way of communicating, an interview is only effective where language is not a barrier. This makes previous findings of research thus conducted suspect, as this is a foreign organization with a native language differing from that of the host community.
Questionnaires – this method requires the respondents to be literate or to understand researchers’ questions in the questionnaires. Again, the community in question is still developing and thus characteristic of rampant illiteracy thus invalidating most of the data presented in questionnaires.
Observation- this method has proved ineffective especially if the subject of the research is hostile to the researchers, as is the case with our organization’s relationship with the local community. Moreover, there is a high probability of reporting inaccurate findings due to a change in routine by the subjects, which would go unnoticed by the observer, as well as a lack of understanding of the subjects’ actions or behaviors, which the researcher is to report on.
The Relevant communications expert knowledge that supports the argument of the research is that communication is a complex process. Language eases part of the burden, as people are able to package ideas that can be transmitted between different minds.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it acts as the channel through which these ideas are transported. When there is a language barrier, little can be done to pass ideas, opinions, beliefs and attitudes therefore preventing any understanding from occurring. Consequently, people who do not understand each other resort to basic human nature, which is lined with suspicion in turn triggering hostility, and the cycle continues.
Ultimately, no progress can be made without finding a way to remove, or go around this barrier. That is the quagmire this organization finds itself in.
Until we are able to resolve this issue, researchers will continue to be misinformed depicting much biasness in the subjects, and therefore their information will continue to be inaccurate. Locals will in urn never accept any policies made by the organization, and we will continue o exist at an impasse.
The proposed planning process for developing the research is as follows: The organization shall enlist the services of other foreign firms that have established a strong foundation with the local community and organize benchmarking sessions with our own personnel.
We shall also engage linguistic professionals to teach our staff the native language, as this will be necessary for the trial researcher within the research to gauge the effectiveness of the new principles learnt. Finally, we shall require he funds proposed by the budget of this research to acquire all the necessary materials to be used in the research.
Content Outline and Assessment Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Things to consider when writing a content outline
A content outline contain the following
Introduction A content outline and assessment is used to give students a guideline and help them study for their exams. It also helps the teachers to prepare their lesson and exams to be given to students. Students can use a content outline to assess their knowledge and experience in each topic covered. They are also able to identify areas that need further studying before they take their exams.
A content outline includes; the objectives of the study, information to be explained, procedures to be used, and the assessment criteria to be used on students. This paper provides a guideline on how to write a content outline, gives the things that are contained in a content outline and concludes by highlighting the importance of assessments and how to conduct them.
Things to consider when writing a content outline What do students need to know?
Which mechanism will be used to help students get what is required of them?
How will they be assessed to ensure that they have achieved the goal?
After putting the above questions into consideration, the content outline should contain the following categories.
Goals The outline should offer a general overview of the contents of the material as well as how the material will be handled for an effective delivery of the information to students, in some times it may offer guideline to tutors on how to approach different issues.
The goals should be written in reference to the National curriculum (Ritzel, 2010). If it is an outline for a specific unit, goals should be specific to that unit and the same should be assessed at the end of the unit.
Objectives This part concentrates on what students can do to increase their knowledge and skills. The following questions should be put into consideration
What is the students’ capability?
Which mechanism will be used to measure students’ performance?
How will satisfactory attainment of goals be judged?
How will the students show that they have thoroughly understood what was being taught and that they understand the objectives of the unit?
Prerequisites Prerequisites allow teachers to determine which activities can be used to ensure that students meet the objectives of the unit being studied. Every teacher should be in a position to assess the students’ state of readiness before introducing a new outline (Ritzel, 2010). He must be able to determine the concepts that will help in the accomplishment of objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A content outline contain the following Introduction
It highlights how the objectives and goals of a certain unit will be introduced; the method is beneficial as it is able motivate and facilitate students to go through a content and grasp what the writer wanted to say. Additionally, the introduction provides a link between the past activities and the students’ interests. Also, the introduction highlights what is expected out of students
This is the main part of the outline which gives a framework of the expectation that the student should have. It is prepared in such a way that other teachers can be able to understand the flow. The main activity gives all the topics that are to be covered, experiments to be conducted, when assessment tests will be taken, among other things. It also includes examples that will help students understand the topics well.
The following is contained in the main activity:
Demonstration- this provides a list of all the steps to be followed in a sequential order.
Explanation- this is a sketch of the information that need to be elucidated
Discussion this section provides a listing of key questions to direct the discussion
Method of instruction- this specifies how the outline will be taught, how students will learn the information, time for each segment, materials to support presentations, key point that need to be emphasized (kellough