International And Comparative Human Resource Management Research Paper Best Essay Help

Introduction Multinational firms are faced with various challenges while operating in the host country. The challenges are particularly worse for multinational companies operating in countries where there are differences in cultural and management practices between the host country and the multinational firm’s country.

Multinational firms operating in mainland China and in the UK or US face these challenges in their operations. China is one of the countries that values Foreign Direct Investment. This is because of the belief that, Foreign Direct Investment benefits a country via receiving products and equipment that are up to date.

It also brings forth advanced practices in Human Resource Management. A lot of foreign investors from all over the globe have successfully started business enterprises in china, despite the challenges they face.

The rapid economic growth that has been witnessed in China in the recent past has attracted a lot of foreign investors. Many foreign organizations have shown interest in investing in the Republic of China.

Firms that have established their operations in China are concerned about using the right management practices, in order to be successful in their endeavors. However, this has not been without various challenges that these multinational companies have had to deal with.

The process of globalization, which began a few years ago, has opened up a lot of opportunities for business to be carried out globally. The restrictions that used to hinder companies from venturing into business practices overseas have now been eliminated. The nations are currently able to venture into businesses globally.

This paper entails a theoretical discussion on international and comparative HRM. It shall then address the various challenges that a fictitious chain of supermarket, MRH, from Australia is likely to face as it establishes branches in three overseas markets namely China, the United States and the United Kingdom.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theoretical discussion on international and comparative HRM Different countries have their own human resource management practices that may not be necessarily identical to the Human Resource Management practices found in other countries. Multinational corporations planning to venture into other countries to start their operations there are likely to encounter some challenges while trying to adopt to the HRM practices of the host country.

Multinational companies face numerous challenges, especially in attracting and keeping qualified personnel. For example, in China, there is a massive shortage of talents although the country has been producing the largest number of graduates annually.

This is attributed to the unpractical system of education that is practiced in China. Most of the graduates pursue degree courses that are not marketable in the labor market. The graduates end up being jobless. Multinational companies have also had to deal with the challenge of expatriate failure due to the culture shock they experience once they start their operations in China.

Initially, multinational corporations operating in China tried to use Standardized Human Resource Management practices in their operations. Most managers believed that this would be very effective and efficient in their operations.

However, this approach was not workable because they realized that every country has its own unique culture as well as beliefs on the right organization behavior. Multinational corporations planning to launch their operations are likely to encounter cross-cultural and cross-national challenges.

These challenges may lead to conflicts in the strategies made. Localization of human resources by multinational corporations operating in China is very important to overcome most of the human resources challenges that most multinational companies face.

China is one of the countries that has the largest population and produces the most graduates annually. Therefore, it is considered one of the largest labor markets for multinational companies. There are numerous corporations from various countries globally that are launching their operations in China because of the numerous benefits they expect to get.

We will write a custom Research Paper on International and Comparative Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More HRM is a managerial function that is mostly dependent on an organization’s arrangement as well as the state related factors. HRM is influenced by factors such as national culture and the people’s beliefs and traditions. Other factors that affect HRM include labor market and the set rules and regulations.

Each nation has its own national business system that affects the HRM practices within the country (Alon and John 2008). Some of the HRM practices such as the importance of an organization to attract and pay workers fairly are universal.

However, others are shared only within a certain region or country. The government in the US and UK is involved to a large extent in the people’s welfare as they work for various institutions. This usually happens through formulation of policies that favor workers.

Clear HRM Challenges for Entry in China Challenge in labor management practices

According to Bergsten (2008), differences in labor management practices and employment systems between China and the UK/US are also a major challenge to multinational companies. In the past, China did not have human resource management in various corporations. They operated under some practices that had replaced the conventional human resources management.

The government was involved in managing the operations of all companies during the industrial period. It would tell the managers of these companies what they were supposed to produce. However, during the 1980’s, this practice was reformed and the practice of human resource management was introduced.

This was mostly because of the foreign investors that were already investing in China. Young people were given jobs by the government and not by the human resource managers. These jobs were considered to be permanent and no one had the authority to remove these people from the positions they held, even if they failed to perform to the required standard.

Managers in Chinese companies were therefore, de-motivated because they received no incentives and were not in a position to discipline any worker who did not perform because the positions they held were given by the government and were permanent in nature. Due to lack of motivation, most managers in China lost interest in their work and their technical skills because they were not put into practice.

When multinational companies launch their operations in China, they face a challenge in human resources because it is very hard to find qualified managers to entrust with the operations of the corporation (Bergsten 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on International and Comparative Human Resource Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There has been a change in how multinational firms are viewed in China since they began their operations in the 1970’s (Alon


Health Education Development Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Background

Concepts of Group Theory

Factors Affecting the Group Health of International Students

Challenges of Working with International Students

Using a Strengths-Based Approach

The Ottawa Charter


Background The number of international students is on the rise in most institutions of higher learning. This comes from various factors including a global increase in the size of the middle class, increase in marketing of courses abroad, and the increase in number of scholarships and opportunities to participate in exchange programs.

This increase in the number of international student has some consequences because of the unique issues that come with living and studying in a new culture. While these issues have been present for some time, their magnitude has not been large because they affected a relatively small population. This has changed.

The specific issues that international students deal with include financial pressure, racism and xenophobia, and lack of family support, leading reduced social participation. Financial pressure occurs in students whose sponsors are unable to cater fully for both academic and living expenses.

Such students often try to find part time jobs to meet their needs. In the social front, the biggest pressure that international students face is racism and xenophobia. There has been a lot of progress in these two areas, but almost all foreign students especially from colored races have experienced some form of racism.

Xenophobia arises from the feeling that foreigners are using up resources that the host country can ill afford. Another source of social problems for international students is the lack of social support.

In most countries, the social fabric is stronger than in the west. For someone who grew up in Asia, Africa, or South America, it is quite challenging to settle in the less personal cultures of the west. These factors all combine to produce a set of international students who cannot participate effectively in their host cultures.

Concepts of Group Theory There are important lessons derivable from group theory to explain the reasons behind the quality of social health of international students. In particular, group process and group dynamics can help shape the thinking undergirding Health Education Development targeting international students.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Group process refers to the patterns of development of a group and the way in which relationships develop. These processes include observable issues and the inferred ones.

Observable factors include speech patterns, body language, and the content of discourses. Inferred elements include the silent aspirations of the group members at individual and group level, and in some cases, at subgroup level.

The group processes play several roles. They help the group members to adapt to the working conditions. They also have therapeutic value for the members. The processes are central to the formation of stable groups.

A number of theories attempt to model group dynamics. They all aim at explaining the stages that groups go through in their development. Groups that form voluntarily have greater elements of group loyalty compared to groups that develop from forced circumstances.

Most of the theories of group dynamics try to identify the specific stages that group development follows. The theories describe the characteristics of newly formed groups, the search for purpose and position, the place of acting out the group’s purpose, and in some cases, the point where the group disintegrates.

Group dynamics concentrate on the changes that take place in the communication patterns and the activities of the group as time moves on. One model describing the impact of groups is the social interdependence theory, which asserts that the actions of one individual have the capacity to influence the actions of other individuals.

Another one of the models, developed by Tuckman identified four stages in group-dynamics theory. The first stage is forming. Under this stage, the factors precipitating group formation come into play. They can be intentional and intended or they can be purely circumstantial.

We will write a custom Essay on Health Education Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second stage is storming, where differences among group members come into play as the group tries to clarify its purpose and its rules of engagement. Differences in personalities tend to show in frequent flare-ups. After this stage comes norming. During this stage, the group’s identity, purpose, and rules become clear.

The members develop realistic expectations of what the group can provide. The group goes to the performing the stage where the group settles into its active life, and later on dies as it enters the adjourning stage.

Factors Affecting the Group Health of International Students In light of group theory, there are factors that influence the health of the international students that are addressable through face-to-face health education. These are the factors mentioned earlier which include financial pressure, racism and xenophobia, lack of family support, which all result in reduced social participation.

The international students tend to coalesce when they meet in institutions of higher learning. These institutions, and host governments normally handle them as international students, distinct from the local students, hence the international students find that they deal with similar issues.

As they live and study in the new culture. International students become close because in many cases they have to deal with the same hurdles such as finding part time jobs, finding friendly accommodation, and identifying social activities. Since many international students come from very close-knit social environments, they tend to understand their social needs better.

The risk that comes with the tight relations international students tend to form as a means of coping with their practical and psychological needs is that they become a target for ridicule, racism, and xenophobia. Their groupings tend to have distinct social characteristics, which makes them visible and objective targets.

There is also the risk that by failing to integrate with the host culture, the international students develop a victim mentality, which makes them to over react to normal social experiences in the host culture.

The use of face-to-face health education sessions can help the international students to reduce the anxiety that comes with living in a new cultural setting and make them aware of the social support mechanisms they can plug into that will not make them too distinct in the new culture. In other words, the sessions can help them to fit in better in the new culture devoid of unnecessary anxiety.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Health Education Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Challenges of Working with International Students The most significant challenge that will arise when working with this group is trust. The reasons why foreign students coalesce are that they feel vulnerable and open to abuse and exploitation. They come together to offer each other psychological support and to have a feeling of security.

In this sense, they may fear that a particular program will exploit them in some way. They must receive assurance that they will get respect and that the program is a sincere effort to offer them support. In general, there will be an ongoing need to offer them reassurance to encourage them to participate effectively.

The second challenge that international students present is that they come from very diverse cultures that inform how they interact and learn. One example is the place of women in society. Some of students, especially from cultures embracing the Muslim tradition, may have a significant difficulty taking instructions from women tutors.

In some of these cultures, women do not wield any authority over men. Another cultural element is the fact that many cultures apart from the west use informal systems for social education. The west tends to use formal structures when it comes to education.

This may be a barrier when interaction with foreign students. Finally, there is the risk that some international students may not feel free participating in programs requiring self-disclosure simply because their cultures do not encourage public expression of emotions.

Using a Strengths-Based Approach Strength based approach requires that the educator uses the strengths inherent in the group of international student to facilitate face-to-face health education sessions with them. The strengths approach, “seeks to help client groups to build skills that can lead to achieving more power over their lives”.

This approach emphasizes the capacity of the group to use its established strengths to address its challenges. The role of this goal is to identify these strengths, affirm them, and help the group to mobilize them to address existing challenges.

The specific strengths inherent in the groups of international students include the fact that they are close-knit. Since the groups form because of shared concerns that do not end, they tend to last for a long time. The continual struggle to keep up with studies, maintain contact with sponsors, and to find a social support system, makes them very loyal once they join the groups of international students.

The second strength they have is a common sense of bewilderment regarding their new culture. This sense is really the result of new cultural practices, and norms in the host country. Thirdly, they have a better feel of their social needs.

Some of the groups of international students come from certain traditions with similar cultural practices. Such groups have the added benefit of understanding the specific social needs that the other group members have. It makes the group the best place to handle those unique needs.

In this situation, a health promotion educator should guide the group to find ways of meeting its primary needs by leveraging on its unique strengths, but also using those strengths to help them to integrate with the host culture.

Generally, most people enjoy cross-cultural experiences hence international students can use their culture as a point of developing strong relations with the host culture. The general strategy will be finding ways of making the internationals students better guests to the host culture for their own health benefits.

The Ottawa Charter The Ottawa charter sought to provide guidelines relating to the provision of healthcare. The charter came up as the final communiqué from a conference that sought to define the standards of health services provision in the context of public health.

The charter stressed the need to develop individual capacity to handle individual health concerns to reduce unnecessary dependency on healthcare systems. The charter also proposed the establishment of supportive environments to support patients.

The thirds element of the charter was to encourage the establishment of positive communities. This meant that it was important to have healthy communities for people to live in.

The relevance of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion becomes clear when looking at the issues in this discussion. The approach proposed here seeks to develop individual capabilities to handle emerging health concerns. Each student will have the capacity to deal with the pressure he faces regardless of its type.

It also aim at developing an environment where the students can get support. The environment includes the institution, the community of international students, and the larger society. On their own, they will have the same problems experienced by many international students because, “unskilled group members cannot cooperate effectively”.

In other words, they will have “positive interdependence” . Thirdly, it will make the community of international students strong by enabling it to act as a positive community.

It will also make the institutions create systems that will give new focus to health services touching on the international students. The overall result will be a better-adjusted community including both the locals and the international students.

It is clear that the international students experience several challenges as they settle into a new culture and society. With some effort, institutions of higher learning can help them to develop healthy coping mechanisms. These students, with just some institutional support, can develop healthy relationships.

References American Psychological Association. (1989). Contemporary Psychology. (E. G. Boring, Ed.) Michigan: American Psychological Association.

Chapin, R. (2010). Social Policy for Effective Practice: A Strengths Approach. New York: Francis


Otto Von Bismarck Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Background

Otto Von Bismarck

Bismarck’s nationalism

Otto von Bismarck, Gold and Iron

Bismarck’s role in establishing the German Empire



Background The status-quo that Germany was wallowing in and which was established by Metternich came to an end with the revolution that began in 1848. There was great need to have a strong and unified nation which would offer the kind of leadership that the region demanded.

After the revolution, instead of Prussia and Austria using their established positions in Vienna and Berlin respectively to play a unified role of shaping politics in Germany, they opted to make use of the German Confederation to assert their political interests and power in German affairs.

As a matter of fact, this was a strategic move by the two countries to gain control and power over the opposing camps. This made it impossible for the two parties to realize their endeavors of unifying Germany as it has been observed and analyzed by historians. Stern posits that the success of either Austria or Prussia in establishing a greater force in Germany required mediatization.1

This would be the only approach that would a positive difference towards their pursuit for unity. As a result, following the revolution of 1848, Prussia planned to corral both medium and smaller states in Germany into a unified body held by what many leaders had come to unanimously agree with.

This was the conservative constitution. The document provided guidelines on how the various parties who were in the union would interact and run their affairs in a more harmonious manner.

However, with issues related to different interests exhibited by arch-conservatives to have the conservative powers show national solidarity and the inevitable large scale European war, Prussia could not attain its ambitions of bringing about German national unity. On the other hand, it was compelled to sacrifice its plan to unionize Germany.

The consequence of the sacrifice as Tullock puts it in his publication was a massive defeat in managing its international affairs and in pursuing its interests in German politics.2 In any case, this proved to be a very tricky political arrangement among these states bearing in mind that each one of them had unique interests.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Austria tried to unify German by reconvening the Federal Diet and using the power of the president to have all institutions brought into a single executive body. Austria intended to have the executive body put under the Austrian tutelage. To achieve this, it had to ensure that the Federal Diet was expanded, a consideration which saw its involvement in the Prussian Zollverein.

This step of action by Austria is believed to have played an important role in establishing a strong unifying force in Germany. Nonetheless, it is imperative to note that this show of unity must have been contributed by myriad of other factors other than just the overlying reasons.

Political analysts argue that while all this was happening, including the desire to establish a status quo in political conservative status, some of the prominent interests by Austria that could be felt were its political and economical desires to use the national unity in Germany to subjugate others politically and eventually assume leadership roles in the politics of Germany.

According to Clark in his book A firewall to alms: a brief economic history of the world, such a move would only be interpreted as a source of political struggle which was entirely not founded on conservative solidarity, but whose dominant motif was indeed what could be fittingly described as political pragmatism.3

Otto Von Bismarck In his publication, Smith posits that many developments that took place in Germany and which led to its unification are considered to be the works of one of the most visible and vocal arch-conservatives and a prominent figure called Otto von Bismarck.

Scholars are quite categorical that Bismarck entrenched himself into politics as an individual who was strongly opposed to the Revolution. He was known as a formidable force towards the opposition of revolution. It is imperative to mention that his entry into German politics was through a conservative ticket.

However, his arch conservative reputation did not dictate his attitude towards the dualism exercised by Prussia and Austria or the path he took in German politics. This will be discussed in detail later in this paper.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Otto Von Bismarck specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Actually, during his early years of political involvement in the nation’s affairs, he strongly exhibited his willingness to depart from the ideals held by conservatives with little uneasiness over conservative national solidarity, in order to pursue similar interests to that of Prussia. This move was also meant to put himself at par with the politics of the wider German including that of Prussia.

One of the most important driving factors that made Bismarck pursue the political unification of Germany was to first ensure that the unfettered rights which Prussia had in Germany were met. In addition, it is worth noting that there were special interests which Prussia had reserved for German and which were supposed to be met.

Indeed, since Bismarck’s first entrance into politics in 1848, he strongly demonstrated his desire to see parity between Austria and Prussia, a consideration that even with a hard-wearing defense of the decisions by Olmutz, was seen to develop him into a tough statesman whose roles would eventually bring about the unification of Germany.

Crankshaw argues that even so, his willingness to come out of the conservative path was an act that completely depicted him as an individual who was not a great conservative preserver.4

His move as some critics concur with Crankshaw was a rejection of revolutionary and nationalistic tendencies, a departure from the maintenance role ensuring a conservative supranational solidarity and a break away from various tenants of conservatism.

While an individual may look at the actions of Bismarck against the greatest contributions of Emanuel Kant on perceiving actions taken as important ends and not means, and also oppose the move by Bismarck, it is imperative to underscore that Bismarck was driven by the need to create a sense of unity in Germany and Europe. In spite of the long period of time it would take.

In hindsight, Bismarck’s actions strongly gained massive support from utilitarianism proponents who believed that the end results justified the means.

However, it is clear that the desire that Bismarck had to preserve traditional power and order in Prussia were not motivated by political assumption that were similar those held by his arch conservative colleagues.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Otto Von Bismarck by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead, as Stelzel puts it, they were driven by practices of realpolitik which demanded his political allegiance to Prussian interests, ideals and ideologies regardless of whether they were liberal or conservative.5 This political desire by Bismarck appeared to be very tricky and challenging as well.

Bismarck’s nationalism Crankshaw indicates that on the matter of nationalism, Bismarck did not in any way give support to the Frankfurt’s parliament liberal effort of unifying Germany.6 He strongly believed that Austria and Prussia deserved to exist separately. His view extended to polish nationalism.

As a conservative, he argued that that Germany was made up of non-German lands in Austria such as Bohemia and Hungary and lands which Germany controlled such as Italy and Poland. While this view contradicted that which liberalists had on nationalism and which bordered on political institutions, national borders, language and culture, it was clear that Bismarck’s perspective on German nationalism was not aimed at creating unity, but was purely based on hatred of foreign occupation and oppression of Germans by foreign nations.

This perspective is indeed a sharp contrast in what was originally known to be the aim of Bismarck’s call for the unity of German. It is also against this backdrop that Prakke laments that according to Bismarck, nationalistic sentiments were found to have their existence on particularism in Prussia and Austria.7

One of the most important factors to consider when exploring nationalism from the perspective of Bismarck is the fact that it was not meant for Germany. Needless to say, it was largely meant for Prussia. Prakke notes that there were three critical factors which defined Bismarck’s view of nationalism in Germany.8

One of those factors was historical. According to most historical and political analysts, the latter factor was specifically meant for Prussia sine it had a direct impact on Prussia. Prakke continues to indicate that this factor was inseparably and strongly bound up with power political factors.

It is imperative to point out that Germany was historically considered as das alte Reich, an aspect that allowed one state to possess other territories including those that were non-German like Italy, Hungary and Poland.

The Prussian factor as Hiort indicates in his publication was to allow Prussia first at the European level and secondly in confederation level to deal with different states among which included Austria.9

The belief held by Bismarck which as a means in unifying Europe was that Prussia, a nation that was during that time a great power in Europe has all the rights to pursue power interests wherever it pleased.

Cherniaev points out that Bismarck and Hitler are related in the manner in which they implemented their totalitarian ideologies that were largely aimed at expanding their territories using any means available to them.10 Hitler and his ideologies fell within the valley of Bismarck’s focus of using force and authority to suppress the enemy and establish Germany as the greatest empire in Europe.

Cherniaev’s argument provides important insights on some of the elements that made Bismarck to be so ruthless ruing his era. It further creates the understanding that for a nation to move and strongly focus towards conflict and seeking to destroy its enemies completely, an illustrious past must have defined such moves.

As evidenced from Crankshaw’s resource, nations that fail to build institutional capacities and rely on personal aspirations as was the case with Bismarck and Hitler risk becoming unstable as each leader considers his views to be the best.11

Even with the constitutional restoration that took place during that time, individual aspirations from personalities like Bismarck could not allow stability to reign in Germany.

Indeed, it is evident that a country that is on the track of development, when distracted in the manner that Bismarck did to Germany, can easily deviate strongly from the voice of reason and get into the verge of destruction. This was seemingly a similar path which was taken by German.

Otto von Bismarck, Gold and Iron Bismarck’s speech on the unification of Germany is a reflection of the new orientation that Germany was taking and its aim and determination to use all means to gain control of the region.

In addition, Bismarck’s bold, aggressive and war driven motives when comparison is drawn between iron and blood, largely reflected the strength of Germany at the local and regional level in the late 19th century.

Having united Germany and making it as an empire, iron and blood was a turning point for localized focus towards war and external ruthlessness. This political scenario put German in an unfamiliar ground which later led to its instability in terms of political administration of the country.

Having served for a long period of time in the government of Germany, Bickford indicates that Bismarck appears to have learnt from history that Germany needed to equip itself with and of course get ready for military operations.12

He cites the need for German driven liberalism as opposed to inclination towards Prussia which he indicated required to prepare itself and get ready to fight and defend its territory and ideologies when the opportunity presents itself. The speech reflects Bismarck tough lessons from the past with some sense of bitterness as he expressed his determined move to use iron and blood for Germany.

The speech, which was highly speculative, appeared to underscore the critical role of preparing Germany for war. Through taxes which Bismarck argued were very critical in putting Germany at the international realm, the conclusion that use of iron and blood would be pursued at all cost indicate the ruthless model that Germany would use to conquer its enemies and strengthen itself.

Though Bismarck does not bring out the relationship that he would pursue with the enemies very well, he points out at there was infallible need for individual states to strengthen themselves. He indicated that Prussia should take away its liberalism and use it in strengthening itself.

In his view, Bismarck saw Germany to have adequate capacity in terms of manpower and resources to pursue its ruthless goals without necessarily involving the neighbors. By delivering this message to the government of the day, Bismarck intended to convince it on the need for more resources to prepare the country military.

Pointing that the treaty of Vienna had failed to anchor real politics, military as the real politics, according to Bismarck required additional taxes and resources.

Throughout Bismarck’s speech, there is strong relationship between his need for finances and his roles. Noting that Prussia refused to have the southern states in Germany to engage in the activities of liberalism reflected the need for national development and dissociation with neighbors.

Bismarck’s kind of leadership also reflected that real politics would not be determined by speeches and majorities by Gold and Iron. His relationship with Gerson Bleichroder as Stern posits in his book “Gold and Iron: Bismark, Bleichroder, and the Building of the German Empire“ is a clear indication of how much Bismarck needed funds to carry pout his operations of unifying Germany.13

His private banking transactions were carried out by Bleichroder who placed loans and carried out the transfer of credits on behalf of the German empire and the Prussian state.

Bismarck’s role in establishing the German Empire The revolution of 1848 saw the democratic and liberal character shifted to German nationalism under the pragmatic realpolitik led by Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck. Merritt indicates that Bismarck developed ideas of extending the hegemony of Hohenzollern in all the states in Germany.14

To achieve this, it was necessary for Austria, which had been a major rival of Prussia, to be eliminated and states in Germany become unified. In his mind, Bismarck had a picture of a Prussian dominated and conservative Germany.

These thoughts among other factors drove him towards initiating three distinct wars that made his endeavors successful. Merritt further indicates that the wars included that which was waged against France in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71, the 1866 Austro-Prussian war and the wear with Denmark in 1864 also called the second war of Schleswig.

It is worth noting that all these created bitter relationship between the opposing camps and was largely considered to be a betrayal by those states which had been sympathetic to Bismarck and German.

The consequence of the 1866 war led to the end of the German confederation with a split between the kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian empire, each with its own allies. Needless to say, such splits coupled with the subsequent formation of alliances harbored a healthy ground for the First World War and the Second World War that were to be fought later.

In the years that followed the 1866 war, different southern German states which had earlier been excluded from the North German confederation, were allowed to join via treaties. In 1870, the name of the northern German confederation was changed to the German empire.

Indeed, many authors attribute the success of Germany to be an empire to the role played by Bismarck. It is a fact that almost unanimously supported by many analysts that the most important legacy that Bismarck left in the history of Europe was the unification of Germany.

Ziblatt indicates that since the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany had existed as a collection of free cities and separate principalities with no one to unite them.15 Until the coming of Bismarck, many leaders and kings tried without success to unify the various states in Germany as a single nation.

The unification of Germany and the subsequent formation of a German empire made Germany to be ranked among the most powerful nations in Germany.

Despite many criticisms that have been leveled against Bismarck’s leadership style and which his paper has not looked much into, it is evident that some of the most important and valuable characteristics his leadership are his cautious, astute and wise leadership as well as his pragmatic foreign policies.

These factors played a pivotal role of bringing Germany to its unified state and its amiable diplomatic relationship with other nations in Europe.

Finally, it is worth agreeing with biography by Crankshaw who regard Bismarck as a political personality who had great skills, a transformational leader and an ambivalent character. His ambitions as a monarchist saw him bring Germany to an empire and silenced political opposition.

His tenure that lasted over 30 years witnessed his undisputed control over policies made by the government. It is also indisputable that he was instrumental towards the outbreak of several wars that were witnessed in Europe long before the major wars were fought.

Bibliography Bickford, Andrew. “Soldiers, citizens, and the state: East German Army officers in post- unification Germany.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 51, no. 2 (2009): 260-287

Cherniaev, Anatolii. “The unification of Germany: Political mechanisms and psychological stereotypes.” Russian Social Science Review, 40, no. 3 (1999): 50- 65.

Clark, Gregory. A firewall to alms: a brief economic history of the world. Oxfordshire, Princeton University Press, 2007.

Crankshaw, Edward. Bismark. New York, Viking Press, 1981.

Hiort, Pontus. “Constructing another kind of German: Catholic commemorations of German Unification in Baden, 1870-1876.” The Catholic Historical Review, 93, no. 1 (2007): 17-46.

Merritt, Richard. “Germany since unification: The domestic and external consequences.” Perspectives on Political Science, 28, no. 2 (1999): 107-107.

Prakke, Lucas. “On the rise and decline of the monarchical principle: constitutional vicissitudes in Spain and Germany.” European Constitutional Law Review, 6, no. 2 (2010): 268-292.

Stelzel, Philipp. “Working toward a common goal? American views on German Historiography and German-American scholarly relations during the 1960s.” Central European History 41, no. 4 (2008): 639-671.

Stern, Fritz. Gold and iron: Bismarck, Bleichröder, and the building of the German Empire. New York, Vintage Books, 1979.

Tullock, Gordon. “The legacy of Bismarck.” Public Choice, 139, no. 1-2 (2009): 3-3.

Ziblatt, Daniel F. “Recasting German federalism? The politics of fiscal decentralization in post-unification Germany.” Politische Vierteljahresschrift. 43, no. 4 (2002): 624-652.

Footnotes 1 Fritz Stern, Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichröder, and the Building of the German Empire (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), 25.

2 Gordon Tullock, “The Legacy of Bismarck.” Public Choice 139, no. 1-2 (2009): 3.

3 Gregory Clark, A firewall to alms: a brief economic history of the world (Oxfordshire, Princeton University Press, 2007), 40.

4 Edward Crankshaw, Bismark (New York: Viking Press, 1981), 78.

5 Philipp Stelzel, “Working Toward a Common Goal? American Views on German Historiography and German-American Scholarly Relations during the 1960s.” Central European History 41, no. 4 (2008): 639.

6 Crankshaw, p. 78.

7 Lucas Prakke, “On the Rise and Decline of the Monarchical Principle: Constitutional Vicissitudes in Spain and Germany.” European Constitutional Law Review 6, no. 2 (2010): 270.

8 Ibid, p. 271

9 Pontus Hiort, “Constructing another kind of German: catholic commemorations of German unification in Baden, 1870-1876.” The Catholic Historical Review 93, no. 1 (2007): 36.

10 Anatolii Cherniaev, “The Unification of Germany: political mechanisms and psychological stereotypes.” Russian Social Science Review 40, no. 3 (1999): 65.

11 Crankshaw, p. 60.

12 Andrew Bickford, “Soldiers, citizens, and the state: east German army officers in post-unification Germany.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 51, no. 2 (2009): 260.

13 Stern, p. 130.

14Richard Merritt, “Germany since Unification: the domestic and external consequences.” Perspectives on Political Science 28, no. 2 (1999): 107.

15 Daniel Ziblatt, “Recasting German federalism? The politics of fiscal decentralization in post-unification Germany.” Politische Vierteljahresschrift 43, no. 4 (2002): 642.


The differences between American and British English Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The English language spoken in the United States of America is what is referred to us as American English. The Americans born in this environment are considered the native speakers of this language.

On the other hand, the English language being spoken by the people living in the British Commonwealth countries is what is referred to us as British English. Although the English language may seem as just English to some people who are not native speakers, the American English differs considerably from the British variant in spelling, pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.

The first instance of differences in American and British English occurs in spelling. This is well portrayed in the way different forms of stressed and unstressed syllables are written.

For instance, in British English, the stressed form of the word ‘travel’ has a double ‘l’ syllables and is thus written as ‘travelled’, while in American English, the word ‘travel’ has a single ‘l’ in its stressed form and is thus written as ‘traveled’ in the stressed form (Hargis 64).

Grammatically, American and British variants differ in several ways. The differences normally come out in many ways; however, one in which these differences are the most evident is in the way collective nouns are applied in a sentence.

Collective noun being the general name for a group of people or things is normally followed by a singular or plural form of a verb, depending on the way the group is conceptualized by an individual. In British English, the collective noun can agree either with plural form of the verb or with a singular one.

However, in American English, the collective noun is always followed by a verb in a singular form. For example, in American English, one can only say “which squad is loosing?” while in British English, one says “which squad is loosing?” or “which squad are loosing?” (Bragg 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, American and British variants differ in pronunciations to a certain extent. The way certain words are articulated in British dialect is not the same as they are articulated in American one. The way American English sounds is called general American pronunciation; such as that heard over the radio (Bragg 1).

The British equivalent pronunciation is termed as the Received Pronunciation, such as that heard over the radio. One point in which the British and American pronunciation differs is the way ‘r’ is pronounced in words.

In the general American pronunciation, the letter ‘r’ is always pronounced and termed as rhetoric, while in the British Received Pronunciation, the letter ‘r’ is always silent and termed as ‘non-rhetoric’. Thus, in American English, the letter ‘r’ in the word ‘car’ will be loud and sound as ‘kar’, but in British English, the letter ‘r’ in the same word will be silent and thus pronounced as ‘kah’.

There is also a considerable lexical difference between American and British English. Some vocabulary use in the American context may differ in pronunciation, spelling and meaning. For instance, in the vocabulary used in transport industry, the use of some terminologies differs.

In the United Kingdom, the part of the road used by people is termed as a pavement, while in America; it is called a sidewalk (Blunt 59). Generally, there are some considerable differences in English spoken by Americans. These differences are associated with culture and environment that exist in Britain and the USA. However, despite the differences, English spoken by the two regions is generally understood by all.

Works Cited Blunt, Jerry. Special English words with American equivalents. New York: Stage Dialects Dramatic Publishing Company, 1994. Print.

Bragg, Rebecca. “The grammatical differences between American


Drumming in Haiti and Cuba Research Paper college essay help

Thesis Drumming is practised in a different manner among various communities depending with their corresponding traditions and music1. The subject of drumming in Haiti, its transition and assimilation in Cuba, as well as its general effect on Cuban music will be analyzed within this paper.

The existence of various instruments in these two nations and the rest of the world creates another area that may require exploration. In connection, the significance of the analysis is discussed within the paper and further details given with regards to how drumming is done in the country: This led to the development of Afro Cuban jazz.

Drumming in Haiti is a section of culture that has significantly influenced music in the modern setting. A proper understanding of this art helps appreciate the Haitian culture, as well as recognize its influence on music. An extensive knowledge on the history of drumming in Haiti, the transition process, as well as the influence on modern music is essential for analyzing this topic.

In that sense, this paper will cover the history of drumming in Haiti, the different types of drums used as well as their rhythm and meaning to the cultures in Haiti and Cuba. The study also looks at the transition and effect of the art in Cuba and how other cultures borrowed from this Haitian way of life.

Introduction Music involves the use of various types of instruments in order to bring out its desired elements. The drum is played either by the use of a stick or directly by the player’s hands.According to various sources, the use of drums for musical purposes is known as drumming.

Drumming in Haiti began as a normal practice during Vodou, which is a sacred performance linked with the henotheistic religion. However, the practice transitioned to Cuba with time and led to the emergence of afro Cuban jazz. From that point, many other cultures borrowed the custom, which is currently a common practice around the world.

Haitian Vodou Brief history

As a developing country, Haiti’s economy grew from the days of slavery that was conducted by slave dealers. The slaves fetched from Africa would have a stopover in this region bordering the Caribbean Sea and Cuba. The slaves had their way of worship.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this was considered backward by the westerners who imposed Catholicism to the slaves2. The slaves, for that matter, established ways of worship that would deceive the slave dealers in order to worship their gods secretively.

The African slaves used various types of drums to call on different spirits. In addition, the assigned names to spirits, and call on them for guidance and protection. More so, they consulted the spirits that are believed to grace their ceremonies, which resulted in the emergence of voodoo.

Drumming as a culture

Haiti is a country known for its emphasis on culture and the continued practice of various rituals borrowed from the ancient Haitians. Vodou, also referred to as voodoo is a practise commonly associated with Haitian culture.

The practice is normally considered an exotic perception associated with black magic due to its involvement with the spirit world. However, it is difficult to ascertain the validity of the statement as local participants refer to it as clean practice or culture.

Haitians use drumming as a method of connecting with the spirits with an aim of inviting them into their ceremonies. The involvement of the media in practice imprints this notion of black magic to various people. However, the practice of voodoo goes back to over 6000 years and has its roots in Benin, West Africa3.

The practice of music remains an integral part of the voodoo religion in Haiti. Voodoo as practised in Haiti has rich rhythms and beats that have characterised Haitian culture for ages. The religion remains an integral part of Haitian culture to-date despite the misconceptions from other religions.

It still incorporates the use of drums and various other instruments. However, it is necessary to note that the extensive use of different drums in voodoo ceremonies has helped to transform the culture4.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Drumming in Haiti and Cuba specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aspects of Haitian music Drums

The use of drums is symbolic in many traditional cultures. They were mainly used to mark religious ceremonies. In jazz, the use of the name “drum” refers to a host of drums used to produce a rhythm or used together in a certain performance.

Drumming as a form art practised in Haiti involved the use of various types of drums. They were mainly used for voodoo, a religious ceremony unique with the Haitians.

The drums used in voodoo integrate various techniques that are distinctive to the skill of play. For instance, the Siye is a technique used by the player in voodoo. It involves wiping a drum from an edge to the centre using the fingers to produce a distinctive moaning sound that adds to the rhythm.

These drums were divided into groups in accordance with the spirits they were used to summon. The drums commonly used include the Tanbou, Ti Baka, and Maman among others.

In a real life situation, each drum corresponds to the existing spirits; hence, determines the purposes attached for each drum. Some were played in singular while others were played in groups consisting of a number of drums.

For instance, there are groups that are referred to as:

The Rada Batterie

The Petwo battier

The conga drums

The Rada Batterie:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Drumming in Haiti and Cuba by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This assembly of drums includes three drums. These are the Maman, Boula and the Segon. This ensemble included other instruments. In this study, however, the focus is put on the drums. The similarity of the three drums is their conical and slender nature, which has also been replicated among several drums globally.

The Maman:

Maman is French word meaning mother. The Maman is the tallest, as well as the deepest sounded member of the three drums within the group. For that matter, it plays the leader’s role in Haitian drumming and specifically in this group of drums.

It is believed to take its cue from the ceremony’s officiating priests, as well as the present spirits. Over several decades, the drum has been used among the people; hence, it is recognized as one of the best drums within the region. In fact, its magnificent look has attracted several replications around the world.

The other uniqueness is its play in that the weaker hand of the player taps the drum directly while the stronger hand plays it with a stick (Baget) of different shapes to produce clicking sounds. While playing the instrument, the player uses both hands, or does it in intervals.

The Segon:

Segon is derived from a French word that means second. It was the middle drum in the group in terms of the role-played and size. It served to produce a base for the Maman to generate its counterpoint. The Maman, just like the Maman, was originally played with bare hands and a stick, but the style of the stick was noticeably different.

The evolvement of music led to the Segon being played with bare hands, specifically in the USA. Recent developments have also seen the Segon replaced with the conga (see picture 1) drums, which are a common feature in both Haiti and the USA today.

The Boula:

This drum remains the smallest in terms of size and the role-played in the assembly of the three. It serves to boost the rhythm by playing the famous ostinato pattern. The player uses two sticks to play the Boula unlike the Maman and the Segon.

The Boula produces an extremely high tone but in agreement with the other two drums. However, Boula’s parts look effortless as compared to the other drums. However, first-class knowledge is required to play it correctly.

The Petwo Batterie:

This group originally consists of two drums, which include the Ti Baka and Gwo Baka. The drums resemble the modern congas but are slender and have slightly tapered bottoms than the modern congas. Therefore, it takes a fully oriented person to identify the difference between some of these drums.

They two drums resemble in appearance; however, are of different dimensions. The skins for the drums have counter hoops made from stiff vines. Their function is to stretch the skin by aid of an existing rope. In addition, there exist wooden wedges lying inside the drum with an adjustable rope for controlling the tension of the skin.

However, the evolvement of music has seen the addition of a drum referred to as Kata to this group. As such, these drums produce a high tone and lead the other instruments in the ensemble. The player uses two sticks. This drum is claimed to hugely increase the rhythm of any music it is added to by the musicians and audience who have listened or played it.

The Tanbou:

This is one of the most common drums played in Haiti. This drum traces its origin to ancient African’s systems of Vodun6. It remains a key instrument in the production of various rhythms. In addition, the Tanbou is easy to play, as its techniques are straightforward.

It is a main indicator of the continued preservation of ancient Haitian culture despite the apparent modernization in other communities. The Tanbou is referred to as the Haitian drum due to its role in culture preservation5.


The rhythm emerging from the various instruments used is of enormous importance to the Haitian people. Therefore, the differences existing between these rhythms determine the drums that should be used for the various functions.

The rhythm determines the drum and not the other way round. The rhythms in Haiti remain classified and grouped in families according to their regions of origin. The main rhythms include the Petwo family, Dahomey, and YaYa TiKongo families.

The Petwo family:

This rhythm family originates from the southern and central regions of Haiti. The drums in this rhythmic family are played after heating in order to generate the required rhythm.Rhythms in this order include the Kita rhythm. The Kita rhythm involves playing of dual goatskin drums by the use of hands only.

Dahomey and YaYa TiKongo families:

These two families consist of rhythms originating from northern Haiti. The Dahomey rhythm involves the playing of triple cow-skin drums using sticks. Rhythms integrated in this family include the Wandjalé and Chasè among others.

Meaning of the drums and rhythms The drums and rhythms in Haiti are mainly used for voodoo ceremonies, which are prevalent within the country. The Haitians held such ceremonies with an aim of inviting the spirits that they worshipped so that they could receive guidance and protection from such spirits.

As such, it is correct to note that different rhythms generated from a variety of drum combinations were used to summon various spirits. However, several sources indicate that the Haitians use the drums and rhythms for a number of functions other than as an inducement for spirits.

Transition to Cuba Cuba borders the Caribbean Sea Haiti.. The slave dealers used these two regions to enhance slavery as a practice. These slaves brought various cultures from their different countries to Cuba. Haiti and Cuba interacted in various activities such as trade. The interactions of various slaves with various musical cultures led to the integration of practises found in the various ways of lives in both Cuba and Haiti.

In addition, these interactions caused the filtration of various cultural practises to either side of the countries with time. Key to these cultural practises is drumming.

The afro-Cuban jazz

The afro-Cuban jazz is a form of Latin jazz that originated from the fusion of different African musical cultures. Afro-Cuban jazz involves the use of various musical gadgets such as the piano, congas and drums. These drums came about from their use by the slaves in Haitian culture.

Musicians accepted and redeveloped this form of music to afro- Cuban jazz around 1943. Afro Cuban jazz remains a common practice in modern day. It is practised both in Cuba as well as other countries such as the United States if America6.

The spread of Haiti/Cuba drumming rituals The Haiti/Cuba rituals are practised in various countries in the modern world. The use of Haitian drums in countries such as the USA amongst others shows a filtration of the culture to other nations.

This happens due to the interaction of various cultures in multinational activities that such as sports, and many other activities. As a matter of fact, these drums prevalent in the modern world, and are frequently used for varying purposes7.

Conclusion Drumming is an art that is still practised in the modern world. Various cultures borrowed from this culture due to its rich history and uniqueness. The widespread use of drumming in religion in Africa and the rest of the world serves to cement the influence of this culture.

It is therefore realistic that the Haitian and Cuban cultural practices have had a significant influence on several societies, which have adopted the use of their instruments.

Bibliography Brill, Mark. Music of Latin America and the Caribbean. New Jersey: prentice hall, 2011.

Gebert, Lizabeth. Displacements and transformations in Caribbean cultures. Florida: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Geggus, David. The world of Haitian revolution. Indiana: Indiana University press, 2009.

Kallen, Stuart. Voodoo. Michigan: Lucent books, 2005. “List of Caribbean Membranophone.” Wikipedia. Accessed from

Manuel, Peter. Creolizing Contradance in the Caribbean. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.

Prahlad, Anand. The greenwood encyclopaedia of African American folklore. Oxford: Greenwood press, 2006.

Footnotes 1. Peter Manuel, Creolizing Contradance in the Caribbean (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009), 23-29. 2. David Geggus, The world of Haitian revolution (Indiana: Indiana university press, 2009), 55-66. 3. Anand Prahlad, The greenwood encyclopaedia of African American folklore (Oxford: Greenwood press, 2006), 102-107. 4. Stuart Kallen, Voodoo (Michigan: lucent books, 2005), 22-24. 5. “List of Caribbean Membranophone,” Wikipedia. 6. Mark Brill, Music of Latin America and the Caribbean (New Jersey: prentice hall, 2011), 33-34. 7. Lizabeth Gebert, Displacements and transformations in Caribbean cultures (Florida: University Press of Florida, 2008), 44-48.


The Changes in Interbank Lending Rates in China, India and Switzerland Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Central Banks in Europe, China and India


Reference List

Introduction Interbank lending is a market that exists among the banks, and it is all about banks lending money to other banks. Banks usually lend out money to other banks, but the terms of the loans are usually short term. The maturity period for the loans lent to the banks is usually one week. When one bank lends a loan to another bank, it usually charges a certain interest rate which is dependent on the period to maturity.

The interest rate charged is referred to as the interbank rate. At times, banks get in situations whereby they do not have adequate cash to satisfy the demands of its clients. In such a situation, the bank has to obtain a loan from another bank to satisfy the clients. On the other hand, a bank may have excess liquid assets to the extent that it can lend out the cash and earn an interest from the assets.

Such banks lend money to other banks (Navarro, 2011). Over the last one year, the interbank rates by the central bank have been reduced significantly in Europe, Asia and India. This article will discuss the changes in interbank lending rates in the continents mentioned. A country from each of the continents is to be investigated in the article. The countries to be investigated are China, India and Switzerland.

Central Banks in Europe, China and India The central bank plays a significant role in regulating the economy of a nation. When the economic growth slows down, the central bank lowers the lend rates so as to increase the flow of money to speed up the economy.

This causes the inflation rate to increase. In the recent years, there have been a slow down in the economy which has hit most parts of Europe and America. It has also affected other parts of the globe such as India, China and also Japan.

It has been reported that, for the first time since 2009, China has experienced a low growth rate in the manufacturing sector (Davis and Orlik, 2011). In the effort to counter the slow growth rate in the economy, China central bank lowered the cost of lending so as to boost the economy. The central bank of china has the reserve requirements for the banks (The Economist Newspaper Limited, 2012).

The action by the China Central bank came at a time when the same measures were being taken in Europe. The European Central bank also cut down the lending rates in the effort to ease the borrowing burden by the other banks. The European Central bank together with the Bank of England started taking actions to lower the cost of dollar loans to the European countries (The Economist Newspaper Limited, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several central banks in Europe lowered their lending costs. The Swiss National bank was one of the banks that took measures to lower their lending costs and also took measures to weaken their currencies.

Despite lowering its lending cost, the Swiss National Bank has accused other banks such as the European Central Bank and the Japanese bank of causing too much influence on the interbank lending cost. It accuses them of spreading the influence to other nations. The London Interbank Offered Rate is the one that sets the benchmark for lending rates by other banks in Europe and it is being accused of influencing these rates too much to benefit itself (Vaknin, 2012).

In India, the economy slowed down, and it grew with the lowest rates for the first time since the year 2009. This had substantial effects in the central bank and the other banks as well since it became difficult for them to lend out money due to the high rates which scared borrowers. In the effort to improve the economic growth in India, the central bank took measures to lower the interbank lending rates.

At the same time, it allowed international supermarkets into the country. This step was criticised by politicians since it brought too much competition in the internal market. Lowering the lending rates to the bank increases the growth rate and hence the Central bank of India was trying to boost the economic rate by lowering the interbank lending rates (Lucarelli, 2011).

Conclusion The banking crisis that hit most parts of Europe happened due to financial crisis, which started in the year 2007. In most parts of the world, the economic growth slowed down causing an economic recession. Banks went short of funds to meet the demands of their customers. The financial strains made it difficult for countries in paying the loans they acquired from other banks due to the high lending rates.

As a result, central banks took action to lower the interbank lending rates in the effort to rescue the banks and also to boost the economic growth which had slowed down. This did not achieve too much. Some countries have regained their economic strength, but others continue to suffer from the economic turbulence that was experienced. The government leaders need to embrace good economic policies to avoid the occurrence of a financial crisis.

Reference List Davis, B.


The Bank of Canada and Economic Issues Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Fiscal policy in Canada

Monetary policy in Canada


Imports and exports

Works Cited

The bank of Canada is central or national bank. Like in Canada, almost all countries worldwide have made sure that there is an establishment of central bank to help in dealing with monetary policy. Central bank does not help in managing the financial part of the economy (Bank of Canada 96, ).

The bank of Canada has several functions; issuing banking notes, implementing monetary policy, playing the role of a fiscal agent of the Government of Canada, and offering advice to the financial institutions in Canada.

Economy is composed of many consumers and producers who interact on a daily basis. They interact to determine which goods have to be produced, which producer is to supply goods, which consumer is to take commodities home, and what prices are to be paid for the goods provided (Wilson, Thomas , and Peter 135, 1993).

Governments in countries worldwide intervene in the microeconomics in order for them to improve the performance of their economy at large. There are two sections of the microeconomic policy that include fiscal and monetary policy. They both affect the economy of Canada.

Fiscal policy in Canada Fiscal policy is a collection of decisions made by the government, and they affect taxation, spending, and borrowing.

There is no way governments can lack this policy since they are able to raise revenue and spend it purchasing goods and services. There are a number of dimensions of fiscal policy of a government particularly the federal level (Soucy, Jean, and Marion 231, 2000).

Monetary policy in Canada This is a collection of decisions made by the government on the quantity of money in circulation, in the economy. This collection is through the government’s central bank. The monetary policy in Canada is conducted by the bank of Canada.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is only one monetary policy in Canada, “the instrument policy of the Bank of Canada is the set target for the overnight interest rate” (Revisiting the case for flexible exchange rates 7).

The bank is not in a position to set spending and taxation priorities. The changes in the overnight interest rate highly depend on the effect of monetary value to the economy. For the last two years, the central bank of Canada has been independently influencing the interest rates and the quantity of cash.

Inflation High inflation is demanding to the economy and costly to the Canadians. Also, the government has adopted inflation control and taken it as their main policy objective. The government objective is to participate in the Canadian economy that is successful and ensure the well-being of the people of Canada.

The government has been encouraging central banks in Canada to reduce unemployment. This caused a rise in the amount of income earned hence, higher standards of living of Canadians (Price adjustment and monetary policy 23).

In short, the Canadian government has its aim at maintaining economy with low inflation and a stable development. Environments with a stable inflation have individuals and firms that are able to spend, save, and invest.

Imports and exports These are elements that really affect the economy of Canada. Canada has been trading with the U.S. for a long period of time. Canada has been importing some commodities like machinery. This is an issue that also contributing to lowering the economy of Canada.

However, economy of Canada has been among the economies of the world. This is a clear indication that its government has helped in reducing the rate of importing in order to raise its economy including the living standards of the citizens for the last two years.

We will write a custom Report on The Bank of Canada and Economic Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Price adjustment and monetary policy: proceedings of a conference held by the Bank of Canada.. Ottawa, Ont.: Bank of Canada, 2003. Print.

Revisiting the case for flexible exchange rates: proceedings of a conference held by Bank of Canada, November 2000. Ottawa, Ont.: Bank of Canada, 2001. Print.

Soucy, Jean, and Marion Wrobel. Fiscal policy in Canada, the changing role of the federal and provincial governments. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Research Branch, 2000. Print.

Wilson, Thomas A., and D. Peter Dungan. Fiscal policy in Canada: an appraisal. Toronto: Canadian Tax Foundation, 1993. Print.


HIMSS Organization Success Research Paper essay help online

HIMSS is an organization that is dedicated to providing high quality and safe health care to people. It also ensures that the activities it engages in are cost effective. Since the organization is a non-profit organization, it adopts information management systems which enable it to provide people with quality and affordable health care.

The organization’s management comprises of a board of directors who are usually elected by the members of the organization. The management therefore ensures that the organization remains committed to achieving its objective of delivering quality health care services by adopting information management systems (Glaser, n.d).

The advancements that have been made in Information Technology have made the medical field to implement measures aimed at ensuring that the flow of information is efficient between the patients and physicians.

The ever increasing demand for health care services has made medical institutions to adopt health information systems in order to ensure that the services delivered to the patients are of high quality. The quality of health care matters a lot to patients. This is because quality health care makes patients to trust the services that medical practitioners offer to them (Friedrich, 2012).

The cost of providing health care is critical to any medical organization. Most medical organizations adopt information management systems in order to ensure that they incur less cost while, at the same time, providing the patients with high quality care. With the advancements in technology, organizations have been able to come up with initiatives whereby they have been able to carry out their operations efficiently at low costs (Ball, Smith,


IKEA Company’s Marketing Strategy Case Study essay help free: essay help free

Introduction IKEA is one of the worlds leading retailer of furniture and household fittings. In the course of its operation, the company has encountered a lot of obstacles. Therefore, to ensure that its operations are effective and efficient, the company has always been formulating strategic plans to ensure that its operations in the short run and in the long run are effective and sustainable.

To achieve this status and to ensure that it is maintained, IKEA has developed a strong organization culture and control systems that support its short term and its long-term strategies. This paper shall therefore focus on the organization structure of IKEA and its control system and determine impacts that they have on the companys strategies.

Organization and Control Structure of IKEA and their Impact on the Companys Strategies To ensure that the operations of the company are effective and efficient, IKEA has maintained a stable organization structure and culture. The managerial strategy of IKEA is formal, non-hierarchical and it is based on teamwork (Peters 9).

The manner in which the organization operates portrays the ideology of its founder, Ingvar Kampard (Peters 11). The operations of IKEA are designed to ensure that its mission is achieved. This mission is to ensure that IKEA makes life better for masses. To achieve this, IKEA has always been producing high quality goods and services to its customers at the most affordable price.

The non-hierarchical organization structure of the organization ensures that all the employees have a duty of care and respect for one another. As a result, employees at IKEA do not have titles. At the same time, they do not get special privileges with regards to the positions that they hold.

There is also effective communication among the employees. This ensures that the correct information if passed from employee to employee and from department to department. This ensures that operations within the organization are conducted in an effective and efficient manner. IKEA also believes in recruiting young employees who are innovative and innovative (Egan 22). This ensures that the organization has the best personnel in its staff.

This in turn ensures that the strategies and opinions that these employees come up with work to sustain the operations of the company in the short run and in the long run. This ensures that IKEA stands at a competitive edge over its rivals. The fact that the organization has adopted a decentralized organization structure ensures that information within the organization flows in all directions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This therefore gives employees at all levels a chance to contribute in innovation, strategy formulation and decision-making. Thus, a strategy like self-assembly that originated from Gillis Lundgren ended up being a culture in the operations of IKEA as it is practiced at all its outlets worldwide (Egan 30).

In addition, the organization does not believe in hiring experienced individuals. Instead, it recruits young people without prior experience and integrates them to its culture. In addition, promotions are conducted within the organization. This not only reduces expenditure on salaries but also ensures that the company remains the best in terms of creativity and innovation (Jugger 51).

Furthermore, this ensures that the people who work at IKEA have love and passion for their work thus they strive to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization are achieved as well as their own personal goals and objectives.

Conclusion The fact that IKEA has adopted a decentralized organization structure that is non-hierarchical provides a serine environment for all employees to participate in decision-making and strategic planning. This therefore ensures that the strategies that the organization comes up with put the company ahead of its rivals within the market. This in turn guarantees the sustainability of its operations in the short run and in the long run. As a result, the organization at a better chance of achieving its mission, vision, goals and objectives.

Works Cited Egan, James. Relationship Marketing. ã Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2000. Print

Jugger, Simon. “The Power of Consumers.” Admap 14.2 (2000): 51-55. Print.

Peters. Jameson. Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Strategy. European Edition, Mcgraw-Hill international, 2009. Print.

We will write a custom Case Study on IKEA Company’s Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Contingency Theories of Leadership Essay best essay help: best essay help

The contingency theory, as applied in leadership, considers various factors that contribute to a leader’s effectiveness by interaction with his or her leadership behaviour. According to contingency theories, there is not any particular leadership style suited for all the situations (Betts 2011, p.123).

A leadership style effective in particular situations may be unsuccessful in others. The evaluation of particular variables in a given environment such as the quality of followers, establishes the most appropriate style in a particular situation.

This phenomenon explains the observation of an effective leader becoming considerably unproductive when transferred to a different working environment or the prevailing factors in the old environment changes. Fiedler’s, Hersey and Blanchard’s, and the path-goal theories provide the three major approaches of isolating situational variables in leadership.

Fiedler’s contingency theory identifies the subordinates’ personality and attitude, task structure and the leader’s position in terms of power as the variables that influence leadership effectiveness. This model asses the performance of a leader by evaluating the output of the work group under the leader’s supervision (Brock 2012, p.1).

Moreover, the theory assumes that the level of favourability of a situation to a leader is dependent on the degree to which the situation permits the leader’s influence on the group members’ behaviour. This aspect of the theory defines effective leadership as the ability to influence others in the aim of achieving organizational goals.

According to this model, there are two categories of leaders. These are the task-oriented and person-oriented leaders. The task-oriented leaders’ main concern is the accomplishment of tasks with desirable outputs (Jarvis 2006, p. 106). In this regard, they fail to attain their results because they are less concern with the group members and thus cannot appropriately deal with ineffective teamwork.

The person-oriented leaders considerably value their team members, and this hampers their accomplishment of tasks due to minimal contribution of some members to the task achievement. These two types of leaders are effective under different conditions. The task-oriented leader achieves better results in both the extreme cases of favourable or unfavourable circumstances. On the other hand, the person-oriented leader achieves better results under moderately favourable conditions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Fiedler’s theory, effective leadership is factor of the personality and style of a leader and the working environment. These aspects considerably determine the success of leadership.

While Fiedler’s theory assumes that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change, and thus leaders must be placed in an environment that fits their leadership style, the Hersey and Blanchard model and the Path-goal theory assume that any leader is capable of adapting to new environments and display the required effectiveness in any given situation. He or she can adjust the leadership style to work efficiently in diverse situations (Williams 2011, p. 407).

Furthermore, Fiedler’s model stipulates that if the situation is not optimal for a particular leader, the situation require change or the leader should undergo a replacement in order to improve leadership effectiveness. The situation can undergo change to fit the leader through such means as task restructuring or minimising the leader’s power over various control factors.

The Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model focuses on three major leadership aspects. These are the task behaviour, relationship behaviour, and maturity. According to this model, leaders have to vary their emphasis on tasks and relationship behaviours in order to deal with different levels of maturity among team members. Concerning the task behaviour, the leader engages in a one-way communication by outlining each worker’s task.

In this aspect, the workers cannot give feedback to their leader. The relationship behaviour examines a two-way communication between the leader and the workers. In this aspect, there are channels for feedback and the leader can offer support and guidance to the subordinates and act as a facilitator. Maturity describes the readiness of an individual to take control of his or her behaviour considering that there are varying degrees of maturity among people about a specific task or objective in question.

Under situational leadership model, an effective leader should identify the different levels of readiness among followers concerning the performance of particular tasks and apply the most suitable style. This will enable the leader to respond with more flexibility and thus enhance followers’ maturity (Borkowski 2009, p.201). When the leader establishes a high level of a follower’s maturity, he or she can adopt the delegation style, which requires minimal interventions.

On the other hand, the identification of low levels of maturity in a follower requires the adoption of a style that emphasis on the particular task. Among other things, an effective leader will give instructions in scenarios where followers lack the capability or are unwilling to effectively accomplish the allocate tasks.

We will write a custom Essay on Contingency Theories of Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The leader should adopt styles that encourage followers to share ideas and thus gain more understanding and confidence regarding the task in question. This model enables leaders to acknowledge the need for continual followers’ skills improvement through training and other development measures (DeRue et al. 2010, p. 640).

The path-Goal Theory discusses the effects of four types of leadership styles on the subordinates attitudes and expectations. These are the supportive, directive, achievement-oriented, and participative styles.

By analysing various situational factors, an effective leader opts for the style that provides strong Path-goal indications and incentives. The leader should avoid a style that induces redundancy and aggravations within the environmental structure sources or is not congruent with the employee characteristic (Kotlyar


The Mineral Resource Rent Tax in Australia Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review

Analysis of the MRRT




Introduction The following is an essay discussing the Mineral Resource Rent Tax introduced in Australia with the aim of ensuring that the mineral resources in Australia benefit citizens. This is because; they have benefited the mining companies due to the increase in the price of minerals.

This has especially affected large companies that deal with mining of coal and iron ore. The tax law gears towards utilization of the resources in a way that is reasonable and helpful to both the country and the mining industry in Australia. This essay will look into the effect of Mineral Resources Rent Tax on the accounting policies of the affected mining industry prior to the introduction of the tax and after the introduction of this tax.

The essay will have a literature review on the effects of the mining industry on the life of individuals as well as accounting policies of the affected companies. The essay will have a critical analysis of the tax and its effect on the mining companies as well as on the life of the people of Australia. The final part of the essay is the conclusion on the way forward.

Literature Review The Mineral Resource Rent Tax is a tax proposed by the government of Australia on the mining companies, which extract non-renewable resources in Australia. Such minerals include iron ore and coal. The reason for this tax is that the mining industry is getting a lot of money due to the increased global prices of minerals.

The government of Australia therefore found it prudent to ensure that the taxes or revenues collected by the government from the Taxes reflect the increased revenues from this industry. The revenues generated from such activities will improve the country’s infrastructure as well as ensuring that every citizen has benefited from the mineral resources available in the country.

The government proposes to obtain forty per cent of the profits generated by these companies. This is because previously the companies were paying royalties to the government and they were smaller compared to the revenues generated (Mercer 2011).

The proposal to do this has led to huge public debate on the effects of the Mineral Resource Rent Tax on the accounting policies of the affected companies. This is because the tax policy will change the accounting policies of the affected companies. The main argument however is on the implication of these changes and their effect in future accounting of the affected companies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Previously, the mining companies were paying royalties to the government. The royalties were a fixed amount of money expected from the mining activities. These royalties are similar to federal taxes and they were not fully dependent on the amount of income generated from the sales of the minerals.

However, the new tax policy on mineral resources will ensure that the companies pay tax according to their earnings. This has raised concerns from stakeholders on whether the tax will apply on the gross income or on the net income (Price Water House Coopers 2012).

Concerning whether the MRRT is an income tax the Australian Accounting Standards Board interpreted the act as an income tax with respect to the previous Petroleum Rent Resource Tax because both are similar in many ways.

The MRRT is therefore an income tax as it proposes taxation on the profits earned after deducting qualifying expenditure from the gross revenues. This then makes the tax an income tax according to the Australian Accounting Standards Board (Price Water House Coopers 2011).

The other issue brought about by this bill is the accounting for transitional tax. This is because transitional tax requires accountability as well as time to ensure that there are no losses incurred from double taxation. MRRT tax requires the financial statements to reflect deferred tax accounting (Hughes 2011).

The other tax accounting issue raised in The MRRT is the mining companies starting base. The starting base is the value of assets required by the company in order to start making profit. The companies must submit their assets value and the methodologies that they have used to determine the starting base.

This aspect is raising a number of issues, as there is need for a standard methodology to evaluate the assets. This is because some of the companies may overvalue their assets with the aim of deferring their tax payment period.

We will write a custom Essay on The Mineral Resource Rent Tax in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since there is no formal starting base, it is wise for companies to start preparing their methodologies of calculating the assets and the starting base to ensure that there is appropriate response (Hughes 2011)

This also raises another issue where mining companies may use the starting base to defer tax for a certain period. This is especially in situations where the government may not have formulated clear starting base. This may provide the mining companies with a tax holiday where they are not obliged to pay tax until their assets value reaches a particular point (Hughes 2011).

When the market value methodology is used, the companies will be obliged to support their valuations as per the existing market value of their assets. It is necessary to note that the market value approach only applies to the existing projects. This means that the new projects will not feature as a starting base as soon as the bill comes into effect.

This is because some companies may engage in start up projects to defer their tax payments for unspecified period. This is necessary to support the deferred tax balances and to enable the company prepare market valuations. This calls for the company to have asset valuations to estimate assets before the financial enactment of the bill (Blanchard 2011).

The other issue raised by the bill regards the current treatment of the state royalties. Previously these royalties were pre tax costs deducted before as a pre tax cost. However, MRRT does not specify clearly calculation of these royalties. However, there are two options about how they may be treated. The first one is operational cost and therefore deducted as an expense before taxation. The other option that is very likely to apply is for the inclusion of royalties as part of the MRRT.

This will mean that the royalties charged by the state and federal government will be part of the tax. This means that the forty percent will be inclusive of the state royalties’ deductions. There is need for clarification on the way to handle this to reduce ambiguity (Blanchard 2011).

The other factor for consideration regards the market value of the assets as the market value is ever rising or falling. There is need for a mechanism to determine the value of an asset as per the market value. This is important to ensure that there is cohesiveness between the entity and the government methods of determining the market value (Blanchard 2011).

There is need for the preparation of tax sharing agreements between the taxpayers such that the company receives issues or regulations in a way that is responsible.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Mineral Resource Rent Tax in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The agreement preparation regard the time in which the organization prepares for its time and opportunity of raking in revenues. This is because there are smaller mining companies affected by the PRRT and MRRT in various ways. The first issue of necessity is that of the fact that there is need to establish how tax deductions will be done (Blanchard 2011).

Analysis of the MRRT The influence of Mineral Resource Tax has many ways of interpreting and calculating the payable taxes. This analysis will delve into the various points of view that are likely to occur resulting from the MRRT proposals with the first being deferred payments.

In respect to the start up base where the company must indicate the initial capital invested in the project, new projects are not considered as starting base. Only the existing or ongoing projects will have the advantage of inclusion in the start up base. This is because there are some companies, which may take advantage of this exemption to find ways of having new projects such that this start up base allowance goes higher. The mining companies can however adopt different policies to incorporate the start up allowances (Donaldson 2011).

The first view is that of the company treating the start up capital as a tax break. This is based on the interpretation that the start up capital of one million may mean that the company is exempted from paying taxes until it makes profit amounting to $ 1million. This view holds that the start up capital is a break or government allowances to enable the mining companies have their return on investment.

This affects the manner in which the accounting policies have operated in the mining industry, as there were no such breaks. Tax calculations relied on the net income after deducting the operational expenses.

It is imperative to note that the normal taxation will apply soon after the start up capital utilization. The period in which the company takes to get to the start up base income is the tax holiday (Donaldson 2011).

The other way in which the MRRT can apply is that the start up base may be a form of government grant to the mining industry to stimulate its performance. When viewed as a grant the companies may not defer their tax arrears but will continue to pay the taxes until such a time when the government refunds the tax to fit the grants given.

This will be one of the ways in which the government can make foreign-based companies that are dissatisfied with the laws and they are looking for other countries with lenient taxation measures to remain in the country. The grant means that although the company pays its tax, the government augments the tax paid and exempts the company from paying the tax until a future date (Donaldson 2011).

The question on how the MRRT will affect the accounting policies of the affected companies is important. The first effect of MRRT on the company’s accounting policies is creative accounting. There is high possibility that the mining companies will look for ways of sheltering their taxable income to ensure that they retain much of their profits.

The creative accounting will involve several ways of reducing the amount paid to the government. The first manner that will apply concerning creative accounting is increasing the operational expenses. The affected companies may increase the operational expenses than the previous expenses indicated.

The operational expenses such as the value of the machines and the value of the goods and services may indeed reflect a deduction in the manner in which the company operates. There is need for proper mechanisms concerning the financial reporting of expenses (Blanchard 2011).

The other major aspect of the effects of MRRT is on earnings management policies. Earnings management refers to a situation where the company manipulates its earnings in order to have a stable income projection aimed at boosting the investor confidence. Nevertheless earning management is likely to apply to the companies privately owned or not listed in the stock exchange.

Public companies will have to pay their taxes, as they will have to apply different accounting policies, as the interest of the public investor is to have higher dividends. This will mean that such companies may not increase their operational costs to reduce the payable income as the interests are in the dividends not the value of capital (Blanchard 2011).

While the company may increase their operational costs such as exploration and development, the Mineral Resource Rent Tax only considered the ongoing projects as exempt from the taxation. However, new projects may not qualify as a start up capital or operational expenses and they will therefore pay tax on such projects (Wood 2011)

The role played by the earning management involves inappropriate estimate of liability. This is where the company underestimated its actual liabilities which it owed to the banks and other institutions.

The companies may use excessive provisions to justify those practices in legal terms. This shows that the management irrespective of manipulating the figures are still within the legal provisions of the company and therefore they are not liable for of any wrongdoing. These legal provisions concerning the company assets and auditing structures create loopholes, which allow the manipulation of figures (Wood 2011)

The MRRT will therefore affect the accounting procedures of the company especially the bookkeeping procedures. The bookkeeping enables the company to track its expenses, and profitability and look for situations where the company may be making losses.

However, the earning management adopted by the companies to increase their operational expenses in order to benefit from the tax base assets may rob the investors their profits as dividends that accrue to the company from after tax profits. The book keeping policies of the company reflect the internal transactions of the company.

For the company to operate effectively the records must be authentic and reflect real transactions of the company. Without this happening, there is likelihood that the company will not have the correct financial statements (Wood 2011).

The other accounting policy that is important concerns the financial reporting procedures. This is where the MRRT policies will have effect. This is because the financial reports need to indicate the real financial position of the company in terms of the profits or losses. This is necessary to ensure that the policy benefits both the investor as well as the government (Eseinhardt 2011).

Recommendations The Mineral Resource Rent Tax is indeed complicated taxation mechanism, which requires the affected companies to prepare their policies and make the necessary adjustments to cope with the changes. The companies will benefit from the policies to ensure that there is proper governance and timing for the necessary changes to take place (Eseinhardt 2011).

The second manner of dealing with the MRRT is setting the assets base so that the company may benefit from the start up capital base. The investors in the mining companies are the greatest losers due to reduced dividend as a result of increased taxes.

For the public investors to benefit, the earning management or creative accounting policies intended to reduce taxes payable to the government must be abolished to ensure that the investors benefit. This is the major reason why the bill has received opposition from the owners of the companies especially the public investors as this will reduce the huge dividends that they have been generating from the venture (Eseinhardt 2011).

Companies must prepare and program themselves through training their accounting staff to handle the new accounting procedures as indicated by the MRRT. This is necessary, as it will ensure that the companies involved anchor towards ensuring that the company aligns with the taxation recommendations of MRRT. The training will enable the companies to cope with the intense and rigorous evaluation process that is going to come after the bill is effected (Clark 2004).

The company must also conduct prior valuation of their assets before the government comes in to value the assets to determine the start up base of the company. This is important in ensuring that the company has a proper estimation of its start up tax base before the financial year begins (Clark 2004).

Informing the investors is also a very important aspect of the way forward in ensuring that the company aligns with the new tax proposals. The investors have to make decision on whether they want increased cost of operation for the company or higher divided. The increased operational costs may increase the share value of the company while reducing the taxes paid to the government as well as the amount of money that the shareholders or the investors will receive as dividends.

It is therefore imperative for the mining companies to conduct meetings or seminars with their investors to inform them of the implications of MRRT on their entity. The shareholders then may decide the way forward, either to allow earning management or to pay the tax as it should be and continue to get more money (Clark 2011)

There are however two options concerning the implication of MRRT on the revenues collected by the government resulting from the measures and the accounting polices which different companies will have.

The first is that it may result to increased government revenues if the companies comply and treat the taxation recommendations as taxable income. Nevertheless, if the companies adopt earning management policies intended to make the companies shelve its income then the government will not collect as much revenues as anticipated.

The investors may also decide to invest their money elsewhere if they feel that the taxes are high in comparison with other countries such as Columbia and Latin America. This may lead to closure of many mining companies that have threatened to do so in protest of the taxation law.

This is because the tax will affect the cost of operation when there are state royalties that the mining companies pay to the state governments. The other aspect of consideration is that if the companies may decide to relocate there will be massive loss of jobs in mining as major industry in Australia (Clark 2011).

However, the law intends to ensure that every Australian benefits from the resources available in the country. Most of the mining companies located in Australia are foreign based and the profits that they obtain from the venture benefit foreign countries. The Mineral Resource Rent Tax is therefore a milestone in ensuring that the mining industry contributes to the infrastructural development of the country. However, it is important to ensure that there is more clarity concerning the manner of paying tax (Clark 2011).

Conclusion Taxation is a major part of accounting and the taxation measures and procedures adopted by a government determines the policies which the companies affected by the measures adopt. The taxation policies proposed by the Mineral Resource Rent Tax law will affect the terms of taxation policies especially on how to account for the start up base capital.

The other way is adopting the best means of ensuring profitability without increasing operational costs. The third way is reducing profits by increasing the company equity. MRRT will change the accounting policies of the affected companies. The investigations on the effects of MRRT on the accounting procedures of the mining companies are of importance to all stakeholders in the mining industry and the people of Australia.

References Blanchard, T 2011, Preparing for MRRT: Deloitte’s perspective, Deloitte Australia, pp. 4-11

Clark, T 2004, Theories of corporate governance: The philosophical foundations of corporate governance, Rutledge, London.

Clark. T 2011, Mineral resource taxes in information age, Long Range Planning Publication, pp.1

Donaldson. L 2012, MMRT on governance and shareholder returns, Academy Of Management Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 5.

Eisenhardt, K 2011, An assessment and review of MRRT, Academy of Management Review, vol. 14, pp. 57-74

Hughes, S 2011, Effects of MRRT on public shareholders, Earnest and Young Reports, pp.1-8

Mercer, P 2011, Australia new mining tax and its implications, International Resource Journal, vol. 11 pp. 2-3

Price Water House Coopers 2011, Complexity of MMRT on accounting policies, Price Water House Coopers Reports, pp. 1-17

Price Water House Coopers 2012, Complexity of MMRT on accounting policies, Price Water House Coopers Reports, Vol. 2, pp.1-8

Wood, L 2011, Implications of mineral resources rent tax, Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney.


Aspects of American Aviation Industry Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

American Aviation History

Positive Aspects

Negative Aspects


Works Cited

Introduction Aviation has increased mobility and made travelling to some of the places where other means of transport would reach an easy task. In conjunction with that, aviation has changed the way people conduct their lifestyles because, due to its speed and ability to navigate almost all places in the world, cultural factors and lifestyles can easily be transported from one place to another. But aviation has not only expanded but also impacted our society in different ways both positively and negatively.

American Aviation History Though airplanes were fast used by other countries for military purposes, America was the first country that used airplanes for commercial civil and non-military functions which were mostly aero-photography, crop spraying and delivery of mail. America was among the first countries where airplanes were discovered in early 1900’s but the government showed minimal interest, and the industry did not expand as fast as it did in other countries in Europe.

For years therefore, America remained behind technologically as Europe was improving its technology in the aviation industry. Fortunately, America started picking up in early 1930’s and by late 1930’s America’s aviation industry had expanded very much that America was the largest manufacturer and exported the largest number of aircrafts than any other country in the world (Crouch 314).

After World War II America’s aviation industry increased the rate at which it was expanding with the government injecting money for research and development leading to discovery of advanced aircrafts. By late 1980’s America’s technology had tremendously improved making the country the most advanced in the world in terms of aviation technology.

Positive Aspects Aviation expansion has helped in propelling economic growth in America because of the economic benefits that are associated with it. The number of passengers being transported has been improving from the years following World War II therefore, increasing the demand for air transport thus increasing revenue for airlines.

Aviation has also gone a long way in influencing the expansion of trade by making importation and exportation faster and convenient, hence boosting international trade and this has helped in increasing aggregate income of Americans (Verhovek 141).

The deregulation of the airline industry in 1978 enabled increase in competition and efficiency in the airline industry, leading to reduction of fares and increase in areas covered thus benefiting the stakeholders. In addition to that, aviation industry has led to the discovery of military jets that have put America in a good position to defend itself from enemies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More America has the most advanced and fast military planes which make it afford one of the most well equipped and strong military sector in the world. In conjunction with that, during 1980’s through to 1990’s America produced wide bodied aircrafts which reduced the costs of operation for airlines due to economies of scale and economies of scope (Crouch 531).

Furthermore, discovery of jet engines helped in increasing the speed of air planes and though the initial jet engines were not fuel efficient, advancement in technology led to emergence of piston engines which were more fuel efficient.

Negative Aspects The increase in aircraft operations has also led to some negative impacts in the American society. To begin with, airplanes release gases from their fuels when they fly thus contributing to global warming and ocean acidification. Carbon dioxide and other nitrogenous gases are released by airplane engines due to fuel combustion as well as from ground airport vehicles, emissions from energy demanding activities in airport buildings and in the manufacturer of aircraft.

Additionally, aviation industry contributes highly to greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to ozone layer depletion. Research conducted in 1997 showed that aviation industry contributed up to 3% of US greenhouse gas emissions from human activities, implying that aviation plays a significant role in depleting the Ozone layer (Wolfe 353).

On the same note, the growth in aviation has brought with it the effect of noise pollution. Aircrafts produce a lot of noise when they are taking off or landing and this highly affects people who are living close to airports. Besides the direct effects of noise pollution, it is also a financial expense since money has to be spent in combating and reducing its effects.

Since the end of the Cold war, the aviation manufacturing has been declining with manufacturers reducing to just about five manufactures from the once high number of 47 (Verhovek 98). Consequently, employment has reduced in the aviation industry by around half during the same period.

On top of that, the quality of plane produced in America has been declining in recent years, and in 2003 the secretary of the air force and the air force chief of staff general warned that their pilots were doing better if they were flying imported airplanes. This has been partly as a result of people viewing aviation negatively and also the lack of enough research. It has also been noted that in recent years the number of students who want to study aviation engineering is declining sharply (Wolfe 254).

We will write a custom Essay on Aspects of American Aviation Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Aviation industry has gone through testing times in America to gain the market share and public confidence it enjoys today. On top of that, aviation industry requires constant technological advancement therefore the government should be ready to invest in research and development so as the country may keep up with other countries. Nevertheless, aviation plays an important role in our economies and should therefore be given adequate attention.

Works Cited Crouch, Tom D. Wings: A History of Aviation From Kites to the Space Age. Washington: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, 2003. Print.

Verhovek, Sam Howe. Jet Age: The Comet, the 707, and the Race to Shrink the World. New York: Penguin Group, 2011. Print.

Wolfe, Tom. The Right Stuff. New York: Picador, 2008. Print.


Research Proposal /Autism Essay college essay help near me

Qualitative research design was chosen as the survey design appropriate for the study on autism. According to Strauss and Corbin (1990), qualitative research refers to as every type of study whose result is not based on any statistical approach or any other quantification method. According to (Patton, 2002, p.39), qualitative research produces findings arrived at from real-world settings where the “phenomenon of interest unfold naturally”.

This survey design was chosen because it sheds light on the study subject while allowing for in-depth understanding and extrapolation of the findings to other situations as opposed to a quantitative survey design that seek casual determination, prediction, and generalization of findings.

One normal method of improving the validity and reliability of research is through triangulation. Mathison (1988) asserts that triangulation has improved to become a crucial technique used not only in naturalistic and qualitative studies approaches, but also in evaluation so as manage bias and institute valid plans.

This is because the conventional scientific methods cannot be compared to an alternative way of doing a qualitative study provided by triangulation.

Golafshani (2003) supports triangulation technique because it makes a qualitative study strong. Despite the importance of Reliability and Validity as a measure for quality in quantitative studies, the terms Neutrality, Credibility, Dependability and Applicability are crucial measure for quality. Golafshani (2003) continues to argue that the use of the term “dependability” in qualitative studies is a close match to the idea of “reliability” in quantitative research.

Moreover, the author suggests that another method of improving the dependability of qualitative research is through the use of an assessment method called inquiry audit.

In this way, the reliability of a qualitative study can be assessed at process and product level. Similarly, (Fowler, 1993) approves of the concept of dependability with the concept of consistency or reliability in qualitative research. Through assessment of study items like raw data, data reduction products, and process notes dependability of data will be realized (Fowler, 1993).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This survey will be based on interviews with about 1,000 respondents, although many high-quality surveys are substantially larger because of the need to cover extensive areas, many subgroups of interest, and other considerations. However, a sample size of 1,000 has a margin of sampling error of plus or minus 3 percentage points, which is precise enough to suit the purposes of most researchers.

A sample of 1,000 cases also permit making of statistical comparisons among some sub-groups of the population, such as, comparing the responses among different gender categories (men and women) , with a margin of sampling error of about 6 points. In the case where the survey findings are reported to the press, the findings will produce good round number that captures the interest and possible support of news people and the public.

The population of interest will be defined as all the patients suffering from Autism in a particular hospital during a specific time period. The patient list to generate the sample will likely include information about the patient’s age, duration of stay, and reason for admittance. The parameters of time, age, hospital, and duration of stay will be used to limit the scope of the study.

Semi-structured questionnaires administered in an interview schedule will the preferred method of data collection in the qualitative study. In order to reduce bias, a list of patients (sample frame), will be subjected to randomization in selecting a sample that is representative of the whole population.

References Fowler, F. J., Jr. (1993).Survey Research Methods, 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-606. Retrieved from

Mathison, S. (1988). Why triangulate? Educational Researcher, 17(2), 13-17.

We will write a custom Essay on Research Proposal /Autism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Strauss, A.,


Video Report “China’s Capitalist Revolution” Essay (Movie Review) college essay help

Chairman Deng Xiaoping is the one who succeeded Mao after his death in 1976. After Deng Xiaoping became the Chairman of China, he has resisted the use of force in capitalist revolution for four months. He said that it was true that they needed democracy, but they had to ask for it in a calm manner. In the 17th of May, he agreed but was then reluctant to send troops to the capital city of China.

He asked his Prime Minister, Li Peng, to hold a last statement meeting with the school leaders to talk to their students to stop being violent. This did not work since the students refused to move from the Square until their conditions were met. The people’s liberation army was sent to the capital city on the following day.

However, pathways and roads were blocked by a large group of Beijing citizens. Most of them were demonstrators while others were army troops who gave up their uniforms and joined the demonstrations.

One of business leaders in China pleaded with the students to back off the demonstrations, but this did not work. The students were very angry. After the hunger strike, it became very difficult to organize things. It was beyond the control of the party leaders. The army and the demonstrators faced one another in a tense scandal.

However, the party of leaders made up again and was focused to end the crisis. By the end of the day, Deng had already ordered the army to clear the Square in the capital. An extremely large number of soldiers were gathered at the central of Beijing. Deng kept on telling the citizens of Beijing to stay in their houses.

He argued that democracy changes slowly by slowly. This is when the army troops started sending demonstrators back to their homes violently since they could not return peacefully. Some of them did not fear the army troops. Those who were on the front line of the demonstrators even mocked the troops telling them to go home and leave them alone.

These are the people who forced Deng to order the setting of fire in the streets. The work of ending the crisis was a serious event that caused death to a number of citizens. However, this was the only way that Deng could do to end the chaos in Beijing. In his exercise of power, farmers had started working in their farms that were returned to them as he only way to provide food to their families.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was corruption, inflation, and hardships. In addition, democracy was also an issue that led to demonstrations in China. All these caused the strike of workers, students, and other people of China. They confronted the government together with the Army. The army killed approximately two thousand people. This forced Deng to give the order on fire in the streets in order to stop the demonstrations.

According to the movie, in the nineteenth century, Chinese economy had deteriorated completely. This was contributed by very many factors. Maoism is the one that significantly contributed to this problem in China. There was poor leadership by Chairman Mao. Hunger was a disaster that seriously faced the Chinese citizens.

This was caused by taking away peasant farmers’ plots for farming. Therefore, Deng first dealt with this issue. He ordered the return of peasant farmers’ lands so that they could cultivate them and get food and money to cater for their families. Through this, he helped in reducing hunger in China.

This contributed to lack of relying on external relief for food in China. Therefore, he raised the economy of China and has been one of the greatest economies worldwide today. Hence, China’s today’s economy was initiated by Deng and is still there.

Despite the deaths that occurred during the elimination of crisis of demonstrations, the efforts have led to a well up economy where there is no hunger, lack of employment, no denial of rights to citizens, and many other issues that are found in a poor economy. Deng’s capitalist revolution has made China one of the most developed countries in the world.

The way Deng acted in dealing with demonstrators is a good way since he first pleaded with the citizens before he took the violent action to deal with the crisis. In his argument, when he told Beijing citizens to go back to their homes, he said that democracy is a thing that comes slowly by slowly. This is an event that clearly indicated his character of hard work and determination in reforms that have made the economy of China a great one until today.

The clearance of the army troops in the capital is a revolution that has brought a good change in Beijing until today. The students in Beijing did the right thing when they demonstrated violently. This made the government think on the issue of democracy in Beijing and start changing the way of exercising power to the citizens.

We will write a custom Essay on Video Report “China’s Capitalist Revolution” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Never Say anything a Kid Can Say Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

During the early days of his teaching career, the author of the article took a lot of time to prepare for his classes. He then taught with the conviction that he was making a difference in the understanding of the students, but they were often left confused. The principal commented that he was a good teacher although the students were capable of doing better than they did, so he decided to change his teaching strategies. This essay analyzes the article; never say anything a child can say.

In this article, the author is compelled by the low performance of the students to find out what is wrong with his teaching methods. After doing intensive research, he discovers that there is a fundamental flaw in his teaching methods and embarks on a journey to change them. He makes a list of strategies that work and ones that he revisits regularly.

He says that it is important to create a plan, share with students the reasons behind asking questions, be non-judgmental about responses or comments by students and avoid repeating the answers of students .

The author takes a strong position that, participation is not optional in the class room. Based on the long-term experience in teaching he has, participation is one of the strategies through which students can perform well. This is an expectation that he reminds the students every time for them to know that they are expected to contribute. It is a valid and useful position since through participation, he is able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the students. Consequently, the best ways of assisting them can be devised.

In my opinion, it is important for teachers to ensure that they do not teach for the sake of teaching. A teacher should be in a position to determine whether the students understand or not. The strategies of teaching well outlined by the author are very important and practical. I would therefore advise other teachers to follow them in order to ensure that students understand all the content taught.

Reference Reinhart, S. (2000). Never Say Anything A Kid Can Say. Web.


Fire Codes of National Fire Prevention Association Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The world Trade Centre Fire

Improvements in fire codes

Works Cited

Introduction There is a great reduction on fire deaths in the last 10 years. The government has come up with different solutions to curb fire impacts and fire control measures. Government has empowered departments concerned with fire fighting agencies shaping code formulation and enforcement of the formulated policies.

United States has recorded a significant decrease in the number of fires that has occurred between 1997 and 2009 from 3.2 million to almost 1.6 million. Civilian fire has followed suit and decrease by more than 50 percent. Fires in different places such as skyscrapers buildings, atrium buildings, nursing homes as well as fires experienced in assembly places.

These fires have brought substantial impact on fire services requiring the need to rewrite the fire codes. Different fires have brought considerable changes in fire codes. Such fires include.

The world Trade Centre Fire This fire resulted as a result of terror attack on 11 September 2001. This fire led to death of 2752 people and damage to millions of property. It resulted in much scrutiny in high-rise buildings. Building owners and fire fighting agencies realized that these buildings have become a target of terrorists.

This makes it worth to design New National Fire Prevention Association codes that can curb any fire challenge, which may be experienced in the future. Notable changes incorporated after this fire is the use of elevators as a means of evacuation. NFPA Annex B recognizes the use of elevators as a fast and efficient way to evacuate people incase a fire catch up.

The code stress on the importance of installing elevators, which are capable of withstanding fire without being damaged. This is argued that will make elevators to continue evacuating people for long hours in the fire, which is believed, will reduce the fatality rate.

New codes include provisions to ensure sprinklers do not jet water in the hoist ways. This is agreed to avoid contamination of hoist way a thing that may bring problems in the evacuation process. The provision in new code have highlighted a curbed ramp to ensure no water is found in the hoist way. There are also provisions meant to keep off smoke in the hoist way and elevator lobbies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More New codes also states that the stairways should be wide enough to ensure the number of people leaving flaming building is large enough. This is crucial as it will prevent stampede which mostly results to death of those leaving the premise. Widened stairways will provide enough space to fire fighting personnel to enter the building in a large number.

This is essential in order to minimize the time required put off the fire. The new codes require stairways to be easily accessible from elevator lobby. These elevator lobbies are required to contain barriers to prevent smoke from entering them. In every building, there is a need to have an elevator hardened against smoke and fire infiltration to be used for egress by responders who arrive first in the scene of a fire.

NFPA new codes states that high buildings need to leave the third floor empty. This is essential as fighters can use this area to curb fire comfortably. This area need to have ample space to allow many fire fighters and bright lighting as stipulated in code 101.

Tall buildings should ensure they install automatic water sprinklers in their buildings. The fire fighting equipments stored in the buildings should be in satisfactory working conditions. Staffs and occupants should be educated on ways to fight fires. Experts in fire fighting services should carry this out.

Improvements in fire codes After the Twin Tower fire NFPA, codes have gained much approval from the public. The codes requiring constructors to make wide stairways to facilitate fast evacuation of people in the building is implemented well. Building owners are not resistant to occasional analysis of their fighting fire machines approval tests.

Organizations have acquired loudspeakers to allow fast communication in case firebreak. NFPA code 5000, which has received much approval from different people. Builders have increased the number of arrows leading to fire assembly points (Ching, 312-342). Evacuation chairs are also improvised in tall buildings making it easy to rescue disabled people with ease.

Government has improved the implementation of codes by agitating that guests in motels should stay in hotels that comply with NFPA codes. The codes are widely recognized forcing hotel chains to comply with codes easily. NFPA 13R requires every occupational house above three storey building to install sprinklers systems in these buildings.

We will write a custom Essay on Fire Codes of National Fire Prevention Association specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The new code NFPA 750 which is an improvement of NFPA 13R. The new code agitates use of water mist fire protection system to curb fire cases. This system is effective and economical compared to the latter. It is superb in that damage related to water will reduce drastically. They act rapidly since they activate on smoke alarm making them fight fire when it is still small.

New codes require exits of high-rise buildings to always remain open with the exception of doors that open to dwelling units. The owners can adopt the use of fail-safe electronic lock release system as an option. Doors leading to residential areas are required to have self-closer and lock.

Moreover, it states that there should be no residential house should have a self-locking hardware. NFPA 471 has been revised to help curb hazardous material incidents in the best way possible. This is veritable importance to help fight fires caused by hazardous materials (Schnepp, 54-56).

Works Cited Ching, Francis. Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2012 International Building Code. Chicago: Wiley, 2012.Print.

Schnepp, Rob. Hazardous Materials Awareness and Operations. London: Jones


Causes and Development of Sociopathic Tendencies in Early Childhood That Would Be Carried Into Adulthood Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Over the past century, the study of human behavior has gained prominence. To this end, various scholars have formulated different theories that seek to explain how human behavior is developed from childhood to adulthood. One of the most influential theories in this regard is Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.

This theory aimed at explaining how different behavioral tendencies are developed through various developmental stages in ones lifespan. Research indicates that ones personality plays a pivotal role in determining the behavioral characteristics an individual will exhibit. Similarly, there is a general consensus among behavioral scientists, which indicates that personality is developed from childhood and consists of biological and environmental influences.

This paper shall set out to explore and describe the causes and development of sociopathic tendencies in early childhood that would be carried into adulthood. This shall be achieved by analyzing various theories and performing a literature review of credible sources focusing on this issue.

Sociopathic Behavior development: A brief overview Juvenile crimes have been on the rise over the past few decades. As such, most parents are concerned about sociopathic behaviors exhibited by children. In most cases, parents attribute these tendencies to defiance and aggression. However, research indicates that there is more to it than meet the eyes.

Johansson et al (2005) define sociopathic behavior as a product of personality disorders, which is characterized by total disregard for authority and social norms. From this definition, a sociopath can be described as a manipulative and exploitative individual suffering from long-term behavioral problems indicative of an antisocial personality disorder.

As mentioned earlier, sociopathic behaviors may result from biological or environmental influences during childhood and in most cases, individuals display these behaviors even in adulthood. Some of the common indicators of sociopathic behaviors include but are not limited to violence, aggression, sadism, vandalism, suicidal, and homicidal tendencies.

Causes of sociopathic behavior Biological causes

According to Siegel and Senna (2004), biological causes of antisocial personality disorder in children include abnormal development of the nervous system and genetics. Results from the Texas Adaptation Project indicated that a person’s tendency to exhibit certain sociopathic behavior is to some extent innate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The results conclusively suggested that sociopathic tendencies are inheritable. To support this statement, Pratt et al (2002) state that an average of eighty percent of all ADHD variations are transmitted genetically from the parents to the children. As such, a parent with antisocial behavior is more likely to pass the same to his/her children.

Siegel and Senna (2004) reiterate that in most cases (2/3), fathers of delinquent boys have criminal records and there is a high likelihood that if a father is a criminal, his sons may become criminals too. On the same note, research indicates that abnormal development of the nervous system may induce sociopathic behavior in children, which if not treated, may manifest in adulthood. For example, brain studies have suggested that there is a close link between abnormal secretion of serotonin and aggressive and impulsive behavior.

In addition, Johansson et al (2005) state that differences in brain functions may result in sociopathic behavior during childhood and later in adulthood. For example, the brain of a normal person react faster to emotional words such as love or hate than it does to neutral words such as house or car. However, the brain of a sociopath cannot effectively process these words. This means that a sociopath’s ability to process emotions is limited, which explains their apathy, callousness and lack of remorse towards others.

Environmental causes

According to Erikson, childhood is the most important stage of personality development. The theorist argues that during this stage, a child learns how to interact and adapt to his/her environment by observing and emulating different influences. As such, a child brought up in a loving, trusting and caring environment will most likely develop these traits.

On the other hand, a child who observes violence, hatred and mistrust emulates these traits even in adulthood. In the oral-sensory stage (below 1year old), the child develops trust. As such, if parents are consistent, reliable and loving, the child will trust them and view socialization as a positive thing.

However, if the parents are unreliable, inadequate or harm the child, he/she develops mistrust and withdrawal tendencies characterized by depression, paranoia and in some cases psychosis. Depending on how children are treated during this stage, they may learn to trust their bodies and their urges or develop withdrawal tendencies due to mistrust.

If this is not changed at the early stages, it may develop into a sociopathic trait even in adulthood. For example, a person with trust issues developed during childhood may try to hide from others and may find it hard to establish meaningful relationships with others even during adulthood.

We will write a custom Essay on Causes and Development of Sociopathic Tendencies in Early Childhood That Would Be Carried Into Adulthood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same note, Pratt et al (2002) state that peer influence has been linked to the development of sociopathic behavior. The authors attribute this to the fact that most children (teens in particular) are concerned about their identity. As such, they are more likely to be influenced by peers as they try to fit in. as such, if children associate with criminals; they are most likely to develop criminalistics tendencies. The same applies to children who associate themselves with sociopaths.

Additionally, Johansson, Kerr and Andershed (2004) assert that while environmental factors that cause sociopathic behavior in children remain unclear, child abuse has been cited as being the most probable cause. Child abuses include an inappropriate home environment, use of corporal punishment, inadequate emotional bonding between children and their parents and domestic violence. A child who grows up in this environment is more likely to develop sociopathic traits and display them even in adulthood.

Discussion and conclusion Rarely do sociopaths seek help at their own accord. As such, it is the duty of the parents to seek professional help whenever they observe antisocial tendencies in their children. According to Johansson, Kerr and Andershed (2004), antisocial personality disorders can be treated and managed effectively during childhood.

However, if the condition continues to adulthood, there is always the possibility that it will escalate thereby making an individual more dangerous to society. This paper set out to describe the factors that lead to the development of sociopathic behavior in children, which would continue manifesting even in adulthood. Using specific theories and a review of relevant literature, it has been revealed that genetics and environmental factors are the main cause of this antisocial personality disorder.

The characteristics of a sociopath have been highlighted and explanations as to why children may develop sociopathic traits discussed. Due to the severity of the issue, parents and other caregivers should look out for various indicators and ensure that their children get the best care in order to avoid the situation from escalating during adulthood.

References Johansson, P., Kerr, M.,


Rem Koolhaas and Jan Gehl Theories in City Planning Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

People take different positions when debating on a subject and this is not any different in the architectural world. The two architects presented in this paper have taken very different positions concerning how cities should be designed as outlined below.

Rem Koolhaas, in his interview with Spiegel Online titled An Obsessive Compulsion Towards the Spectacular, seems to be for the construction of large sophisticated buildings in the cities. For Rem, spectacular should be the main guiding concept when designing buildings in cities and not sustainability as being advocated for by environmentalists.

He asserts that experience and intellectual force are there in the world, for example in Middle East and the West, which can be utilized to come up with spectacular buildings. However, he is also aware of the challenge that exists in merging the experience from the West with intellectual from the Middle East (Koolhaas side 1). Rem seems not to like the idea of similarity in buildings designed by different architects, but also notes that it is sometimes inevitable.

He notes that the large architectural buildings in most cities are almost the same design. He, however, blames this on time limitation for research when designing buildings, which often force architects to borrow from existing buildings rather than coming up with new designs. He does not like this similarity, but also acknowledges that sometimes architects are forced by the customers to domesticate existing designs especially in air conditioned buildings.

This is because the owners of the buildings have pinned down the architects to what they want and not what the architects want to design (Koolhaas side 1). The constructions nowadays are meant to create ambiguity and complexity in order to escape the challenges that come with being explicit (Koolhaas side 3).

Jan Gehl, on the other hand, is also for large buildings in the city, but he insists that there has to be space put aside for people. In his interview with ASLA-The Dirt, Jan insists cities have to be planned for the people and that buildings have to be designed for the people to be able to live healthy lives (ASLA-Dirt side 3). Jan insists on sustainability as the guiding concept when designing cities. He notes that buildings have filled the landscape.

This has led to planning becoming a profession. Architects take care of the buildings and the planners do the planning. A building’s ground floor should be rich and the whole city will be rich. It should be designed to fit people’s interaction and communication (ASLA-Dirt side 2). He considers Pizza del campo in Sienna as a place where human care has been observed (ASLA-Dirt side 3). For Jan, similarity of buildings designed by different architects is not an issue so long as the buildings are designed with sustainability in mind.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two architects, however, have some converging positions. They both agree on the fact that there is a need for a people’s space in the cities. Rem acknowledges trying to design Dubai as a true public place. He wants to create a city in Dubai that has space for people and not the place you find in every city like shopping malls, but also maintain an urban life for the people (Koolhaas side 1).

He notes that urban centers are not lacking anything, but are confused in that they are too densely populated that in future the cities could be insecure to live in (Koolhaas side 2). This could make the European city a history since nobody will live there anymore. “Biggest not tallest” is the common phrase that people use nowadays (Koolhaas side 2).

The difference between a science centre and the development going on in Dubai is the political environment and the amount of freedom and latitude the architects are given (Koolhaas side 3). The two main typologies of buildings today are houses and towers unlike in the 20th century when there were many types (Koolhaas side 3).

He thinks that competition between buildings to be the tallest is just a ridiculous idea. He notes that length is becoming less of a concern as architects focus on size so that the building can be multifunctional (Koolhaas side 3). T

he factor of big multifunctional buildings makes people to always be in motion while the buildings are constantly being renovated (Koolhaas side 3). He notes that the larger the space, the better, but the buildings should have a place where people could meet to interact (Koolhaas side 4).

Just like Rem, Jan too feels that the cities are too much filled with buildings instead of being planned for the people. Nobody takes care of the people living in the buildings (ASLA-Dirt side 2). He says that it would be better to take care of the people than to take care of the buildings.

Cities should be designed in such a way that it facilitates a healthy life, for example, encouraging people to cycle to work not to just sit and move in motor vehicles (ASLA-Dirt side 3).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Rem Koolhaas and Jan Gehl Theories in City Planning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We should always build for human scale not for structure scale. It is, however, very difficult to build considering human scale while the buildings there at the moment are built to structure scale (ASLA-Dirt side 4). This challenge is worse in third world countries where cars and motor cycles increase by the day (ASLA-Dirt side 5). This makes it difficult for city planners as they are forced to constantly revise the plans.

Critical Discussion Rem’s point of view is good as it would lead to better developed cities with the best and most complex designs. This would also lead to better services and delivery of goods in an easy way as the infrastructure is well taken care of. However, the problem with Rem’s position is that his position does not concentrate on the most important idea of taking care of people and making cities secure for the people in the future.

Jan’s point of view is that the cities should be planned for the people, but also notes that buildings are an important part of cities. The weakness of this way of thinking is that there will be less development in terms of infrastructure especially in third world countries where cities are growing in population day by day. Leaving spaces for people in the cities would compromise city development.

The two positions can, however, be combined to make a wonderful idea. That is, combining spectacular with sustainability. Construction of complex buildings in cities can be encouraged so long as the architects have people in mind. This way, there will be more economic developments in our cities as the people are comfortable and healthy (ASLA-Dirt side 3).

Works Cited ASLA-Dirt. Interview with Jan Gehl. American Society of Landscape Architects, April 13th, 2011. Web.

Koolhasa, Rem. An Obsessive Compulsion Toward the Spectacular. Interview in Spiegel Online, July 18th, 2008. Web.


Management: Effective contemporary quality Management practices Report best essay help

Introduction Management is considered the most important aspect of operation in the organization. There are several factors that opt to be effectively managed and coordinated to ensure that the organization effectively and efficiently operates or function. There are several resources that an organization or company require to effectively and efficiently operate.

However, human resources are considered the most important resources in an organization. This is because human resources are directly in charge of execution of duties and achievement of results in an organization. Basically, human resources are in charge of formulation and implementation of policies in an organization.

Organizations require effective and realistic policies to efficiently operate. Furthermore, the human resources or employees must be competent to ensure that the formulated policies are effectively implemented. This is a report paper discussing or debating the relationship between employees’ competency and organizational efficiency.

Employees’ competency and efficiency in an organization Today, there are four major impediments that may affect the level of productivity in any given organization. These challenges include call to satisfy clients, need for innovation, call for a speedy response to the ever-shifting market requirements, and augmented levels of competition.

Consequently, both managers and workers ought to be committed to the attainment of a company’s objectives in order to overcome these impediments. It is therefore necessary for management to come up with effective strategies to deal with the issue at hand, for instance, management should ensure that all aspects of a company’s operations are supportive and encouraging to employees.

They can achieve this by first ensuring that the organization’s basic requirements are put in place. Such requirements may include high quality of goods and services that employees can easily advocate for. Generally, such requirements require competent employees to ensure that they are met.

Employee competency ought to begin with the top management and enforced among the junior employees too. Furthermore, an excellent system of delivery that guarantees that pledges and promises made to the customers are met, effective practices which are sincere, clear-cut and executed with honesty. Most importantly, management should consider the manner in which it should provide thrust to motivate workers as this influences their level of commitment to the company (Ferguson 36).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several factors that are considered while evaluating efficiency of an organization. These factors should be effectively coordinated and implemented to enhance efficiency of the respective organization.

Basically, an organization requires competent staff or employees to achieve its goals and objectives, and effectively and adequately respond to market changes, produce quality goods and services and create or enhance good relation between the company and the public and enhance consumers’ satisfaction.

Generally, efficiency of an organization is derived from the quality of goods and services it produces or offers in the market, its response to technological changes and market changes, consumers’ satisfaction and relation the company has with the general public among others. Therefore, an organization requires competent employees to enhance efficiency in operation. Furthermore, efficiency in organization is enhanced by competency of employees of the respective organization (Gowdy 28).

Even though technology is known to dominate the current corporate section throughout the world, a lot of focus has recently been put on employees as well as the manner in which they are handled by their seniors. Basically, relationship between the junior and senior employees is determined by competency of both the junior and senior employees.

It has been proved that competent employees professionally relate irrespective of their position in the respective organization leading to efficiency in the organizational operations. It is often said that the best managers produce the best results from their employees. As a matter of fact, throughout history, managers have devised several approaches and strategies which have been aimed at enhancing performance of employees.

In addition, a lot of research has been carried out with regards to employee engagement. For this reason, there is need to critically examine employee engagement and competency as well as roles played by managers and relationship between employees’ self-efficacy and managers’ effectiveness.

This will help to explain the impacts as well as benefits of enhancing employee competency through engagement. Moreover, it will help to illuminate on various ways that may be used to enhance employee competency through engagement in the respective organization (Bret 37).

We will write a custom Report on Management: Effective contemporary quality Management practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational objectives, organizational efficiency and employees’ competency Businesses or organizations are formed with objectives or goals. However, there are different types of organizations, for instance, profit oriented and non profit organizations. Though non profit organizations are not after maximization of profits, they require competent employees to meet their goals or objectives.

Objectives and goals are set by both profit oriented and non profit organizations. This is because objectives and goals govern operations of individual organizations in the respective industries and market where they operate. Basically, organizations require competent employees so that they can outline or set realistic goals or objectives that can be achieved within the stated deadline (Uche 35).

Objectives and goals set or outlined by an organization may lead to efficient operation of the respective organization or company. Achievement of the respective goals and objectives within the stated deadlines also reflects efficiency of not only the organization, but competency of the employees of the respective organization.

Therefore, an organization requires a competent staff or management team to set or establish realistic objectives. Furthermore, organizations also require competent employees or staff to achieve the respective goals and objectives within the stated deadlines. This is because achievement of goals and objectives requires competent employees who understand the nature of each objective and time required during the implementation period to achieve the respective goals and objectives (McCarthy 42).

Objectives and goals of an organization may also determine the efficiency of the respective organization. However, this can only be realized in case the respective organization employees competent employees to enhance realization or achievement of the respective goals or objectives.

An organization may establish effective goals and objectives, but the respective goals or objectives may not lead to efficiency of the respective organization. This can happen in case the organization lacks competent employees who can effectively implement the respective goals and objectives, and ensure their achievements within the stated deadlines by the respective organization.

Generally, an organization requires a competent human resource team that can formulate realistic goals and objectives, which can lead to efficiency of the respective organization. However, formulation of effective goals and objectives may not be useful to an organization in case it lacks a competent human resource team to implement the respective goals and objectives.

Therefore, an organization should develop and maintain competent employees who can effectively work towards achievement of the goals and objectives, and enhance efficiency of the organization by ensuring that the goals and objectives are achieved within the deadlines stated by the management team during formulation of the respective goals and objectives (Singleton and Singleton 52).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management: Effective contemporary quality Management practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Employees’ competency, organizational efficiency and technological changes In operation of businesses, management has to consider both internal and external business environment factors. Organizations have direct influence over internal factors, but not the external factors though both affect operations of an organization, for instance, technological changes.

There are several uncertainties in the business environment that organizations ought to effective respond to enhance efficiency in operation in the respective market and industry where they operate. Failure to adequately and effectively respond to these uncertainties may lead to losses or even closure of operation of the respective organization.

Technology is dynamic and frequently changes and this also affects operations of organizations irrespective of their line of business or nature of businesses they transact. Generally, technological changes affect delivery of services and production of goods by organizations and companies in the market or globally (Silverstone and Sheetz 48).

Organizations must effectively and adequately respond to changes in technology that directly affect their nature of business. Failure to respond to these changes may affect income levels of the respective organization. Furthermore, it may also affect operation of the respective organization.

Efficiency of an organization is determined by the response the organization has towards changes that affect their operation. Basically, failure to respond to technological changes may lead to production of goods using outdated technologies, and delivery of low quality services in the market.

Technology frequently changes due to developments and frequent research on technology. Furthermore, developments in technology influence production processes and delivery of services. Moreover, effective and adequate response of an organization to technological changes enhances efficiency of the respective organization.

However, an organization requires a competent human resource team to effectively and adequately respond to these technological changes. Generally, effective response to technological changes may enhance efficiency of an organization because it may lead to adoption of better production methods and delivery of quality services, which meet the market requirements and demands of the respective consumer in the market (Bret 44).

Effective response to technological changes is determined by competency of employees responsible for technological department in the respective organization. Employees need to frequently and regularly review technological changes and adopt or adjust to changes that directly affect their operation in the respective market or industry.

Effective review of technological changes requires a competent human resource team that can effectively and adequately review technological changes and effectively advise the organization on how to adopt the new changes and enhance efficiency in operation by meeting market demands and requirements.

Therefore, organizations require competent employees to effectively and adequately respond to technological changes that directly affect their operation in the respective market and industry. This can also enable an organization to meet demands of consumers by producing quality goods and offering quality services (Gowdy 55).

Ensuring that Employees’ competency facilitates the Achievement of an Organization’s Goals Managers should ensure that they connect the employee competency strategies with the realization of the company’s objectives. As a matter of fact, employee competency should be seen as a means to an end but not an end in itself.

Consequently, managers should ensure that they first establish the company’s main objective as it is pointless to have employee competency without linking it to the organization’s goals. Effective linking of the organizational objectives and employees’ competency may lead to increased efficiency in an organization.

This is because it can lead to achievement of the outlined goals and objectives by the management team within the stated deadline. An organization should ensure that competency of its employees facilitates achievements of goals and objectives leading to increased efficiency in the organization (Mouse 72).

In addition managers should ensure that they show their commitment to the ideas of competent employees, for instance, they should always make sure that they respond and act on employees’ propositions for improvement of the organization’s performance. It is indeed very exasperating to employees when they are asked for suggestions and their responses disregarded.

Competent employees may positively contribute to increased efficiency in an organization through suggestions of ideas that can lead to improved operations within the organization. Generally, competent employees may suggest effective strategies that can lead to efficiency in operation in the respective organization, if the suggested ideas are effectively implemented (Silverstone and Sheetz 82).

Moreover, supervisors should always volunteer to teach employees more about the business or organization itself. Employees can only contribute positive suggestions that can enhance efficiency in the organization if they are well versed with the organization where they work.

This is because lack of enough knowledge on how a company runs may influence employees to give unsuitable suggestions. Basically, employees’ suggestions in an organization may be used to enhance efficiency. Ideally, knowledgeable and empowered employees are likely to produce best outcomes from employee competency programs.

Employees are only empowered to give productive suggestions if they are competent and are well versed with their roles in the respective organization and how the organization operates too. Generally, employees’ competency can only contribute to the achievement of organizational goals and objectives if they understand the objectives and goals of the respective organization.

Therefore, for an organization to reap from its employees’ competency, management has to enlighten its employees on the goals and objectives of the respective organization, and how the organization operates (Hopwood, Young and Leiner 73).

Drivers of Employee competency Even though we can determine the level of employee competencies through employee surveys, we may not be in a position to identify necessary areas that need to be improved within an organization through surveys. It is therefore important for managers to consider a variety of factors, which are also referred to as drivers, which are said to improve general employee competency and enhance efficiency in the respective organization.

In case these drivers are effectively handled, a company can successfully deal with increasing employees’ degree of competency. These drivers include effective communication, performance intelligibility and response, organizational values, incentives as well as appreciation, excellent relationships between employees and managers, professional advancement prospects and familiarity of a company’s objectives are some of the major aspects that enhance employee competency hence enhancing efficiency in the respective organization (Hopwood, Young and Leiner 86).

Employee perceptions of his/her job and company According to a recent study, a worker’s attitude towards his/her work in a particular organization has a major influence on his/her on loyalty to the organization which has a tremendous impact on customer satisfaction. Generally, it is believed that competent employees have positive attitude towards their work in respective organization and effectively undertake their duties.

This may lead to improved services to customers and production of quality goods leading to increased customer satisfaction. Additionally, this may enhance efficiency in operation because individual employees understand and value their job in the respective organization.

An organization requires competent employees because competent employees understand their job leading to positive perception about their job and the respective organization where they work in case they understand the values and culture of the respective organization too. Therefore, positive perception about a company or job by an employee may enhance his/her competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization (Manning 75).

The clarity of job expectations in the employees In case the management’s expectations are not clearly outlined to employees, and the entire fundamental resources are not adequately provided, unenthusiastic feelings such as boredom or bitterness may crop within employees and they are therefore likely to shift their attention from the organization’s general wellbeing to survival mechanisms.

Employees should be well informed on the job expectation. This makes the employees prepared to carry out their respective duties. Better understanding of an organizational job expectation may also enable an employee to utilize his or competency in carry out respective duties in the organization.

Generally, employees may not be able to effectively utilize their competency if they are not aware of job expectation in the respective organization. However, if employees are well informed on the job expectations in the respective organization, they may easily utilize their competency towards improvement of the organizational efficiency.

Moreover, though an organization may hire competent employees, benefits of their competency might not be realized in case the organization does not effectively and adequately inform the respective employees on the job expectations. An organization’s management should enlighten employees on job expectations in the respective organization.

In return, this can enhance competency of the respective employees because they adequately understand their job leading to increased organizational efficiency. Therefore, clarity of job expectations may enhance employees’ competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization (McCarthy 63).

Professional development opportunities Research has shown that career improvement opportunities often have a positive impact on workers attitudes as it contributes to employee motivation. As a matter of fact, in many organizations, this is often suggested by employees and made effective through management. In most cases, career improvement has a positive impact on an organizations general performance.

Generally, professional development opportunities are meant to enhance employees’ competency in respective organizations. Employees enhance their performance by undergoing different trainings related to their area of profession. Organizational efficiency greatly relies on employees’ competency.

Since professional development opportunities leads to increased employees competency; therefore, it also contributes to efficiency of respective organizations that have established employee professional development plans or programs. An organization requires competent employees to enhance efficiency. However, employing and maintaining competent employees or staff may be difficult.

Organizations need to establish a professional development plan or program so as to enhance competency of the respective employees to enhance efficiency. Professional development plans or programs are essential in boosting employees’ competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization. Therefore, professional development plans or programs may enhance employee competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization (Lenox 45).

Regular and effective communication between employees and managers Management should always strive to present an opportunity for dialogue where employees air their views, are appreciated and reminded of management’s expectations. This way, employees are likely to develop a feeling of belonging and hence likely to influence their productivity positively.

Communication is an essential management tool that positively contributes to efficiency in organizations. Employees and managers should frequently and constantly communicate to enhance efficiency in the respective organization. This is because effective communication between managers and employees enables both the managers and employees to understand the organization better.

It may also enable the employees to understand changes in the organization and how to adjust to such changes without affecting operations within the respective organization.

Furthermore, regular and effective communication between and among employees may enable employees to decide on the necessary changes that the respective organization require leading to increased efficiency. Basically, regular and effective communication between managers and employees may enhance employees’ competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization.

Therefore, an organization requires regular and effective communication between junior and senior employees to enhance their competency leading to increased efficiency in the respective organization (Silverstone and Sheetz 74).

An effective relationship among workers and with superiors An effective relationship among employees and with their superiors is a vital ingredient ‘ in an organizations general performance. In case employees do not relate with their fellow employees as well as managers in a cordial manner, then they are not likely to perform at their best. As a matter of fact, employee adequate incorporation of their competency is a direct manifestation of workers feeling towards their relationship with their colleagues and superiors.

In addition, such a relationship moves management closer to workers and they are thus in a better position to understand workers grievances and respond to them appropriately. In such instances, management is able to depict when performance is not at its best in good time and thus act promptly.

In return, this may lead to increased efficiency in the respective organization. Efficiency in an organization can only be enhanced by performance of employees in the respective organization. Furthermore, competent employees are most likely to enhance efficiency in the organization because competent employees effectively perform their duties.

Generally, efficiency in an organization may only increase if employees effectively and professionally relate with their supervisors. This is because it leads to good working relation and enhancement of competency. In the long run, this may enhance efficiency in the respective organization (Mouse 94).

Perceptions of an organization’s culture and values An organization’s culture and values postulates a vital inspirational factor of employee engagement and competency. Absence of the two is likely to affect a company’s performance negatively. Organizational values and culture stipulates on the expected codes of conduct among employees in the respective organization.

This might enhance efficiency of the respective organization if employees adhere by the culture and values of the respective organization. An organization need to enhance employees understanding of their culture and values to enhance their operation in the respective organization.

This might also increase competency of employees in the respective organization leading to increased efficiency in operation. Therefore, organizations need to enlighten employees on their cultures and values so as to increase their competency in operation leading to enhanced efficiency (Uche 62).

Reward for competency In any organization, it is important for managers to reflect on the benefits that an organization stands to gain if they offer incentives to employees. This is an important way of improving employees’ drive and thus improves their engagement and competency.

In order to achieve this, it is important for supervisors to set sensible goals for employees, pick the most appropriate rewards for the incentive program, constantly address reward issues, come up with several and different winners and different rewards, support constant effort, present awards in a transparent manner and assess incentive programs on a regular basis.

Rewards to competent employees or best performing employees greatly motivate employees to work hard to be recognized by the organization’s management.

In return, this enhances employees’ competency because individual employees will have to work towards achievements of respective goals within the stated deadlines to be appreciated and rewarded accordingly. This increases employees’ competency hence enhancing efficiency of the respective organization (Singleton and Singleton 86).

Conclusion Organizations operate to enhance efficiency hence increase their market share and profit level. Basically, organizational efficiency relies on employees’ competency. There are several factors that an organization has to effectively respond to so as to enhance efficiency, for instance, technological change, market demands and requirements, service delivery and production of products among others.

Furthermore, there are drivers that may increase employees’ competency leading to increased efficiency in respective organizations, for instance, professional development plans or programs, competency reward system and regular and effective communication among employees among others. Considering relationship between employees’ competency and organizational efficiency, organizations need to promote employees’ competency so as to enhance efficiency in the respective organization.

Works Cited Bret, Sharon. Essentials of Human Resource Management, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.

Ferguson. Management: Effective contemporary quality Management practices. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2010. Print.

Gowdy, John. Organizational Efficiency and Employees’ competency, Chicago: CRC Press, 2010. Print.

Hopwood, William, Young, George, and Leiner, Jay. Management and employees’ Competency. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2011. Print.

Lenox, Marcel. Effective Management towards organizational efficiency. New York: Springer, 2009. Print.

Manning, George. Management: Organizational efficiency. Chicago: CRC Press, 2010. Print.

McCarthy, David. ‘Contemporary Human Resource Management: Competency Based Approach.’ Cambridge; Cambridge UP, 2011. Print.

Mouse, Mika. Management: Competency based approach. Indiana: Pearson Education, 2010. Print.

Silverstone, Howard and Sheetz, Michael. Employee competency and Organizational Efficiency. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.

Singleton, Tommie, and Singleton, Aaron. Contemporary Management, Organizational Efficiency and employees’ competency. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2010. Print.

Uche, Austin. Human Resource Management. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print.


Controversy Surrounding Immigration Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

For several years, debates have occurred on whether illegal immigrants should be allowed to stay in the United States. Laws used to regulate both legal and illegal immigration have caused debates in social and political settings. Some leaders have supported measures aimed at controlling the influx of immigrants.

Recently, republicans in Kansas differed on whether or not to extend work permits for some immigrants. The immigrants were required to have no criminal records in a period of five years (Ziegler, 2012).

The American population has a large percentage of immigrants from different continents. Europeans came to America several years ago in search of resources. Other immigrants were brought as slaves and others were allowed in through legal means.

There are benefits associated with immigrants in the United States. It is known that immigrants are a source of cheap labor. Most illegal immigrants do not have enough education.

Therefore, they have to do blue color jobs which are despised by Native Americans (Lynch and Woodyard, 2006). Most construction companies and farms rely on immigrants for cheap labor. Pessimistic economists argue that giving immigrants jobs, transfer wealth from Americans to foreigners.

Diversification of culture, food, customs, believes, religion and talent of Americans was contributed by immigrants. Today, people go to Chinese, Korean, Mexican, Ethiopian and Japanese restaurants to enjoy traditional foods. These foods and other traditional activities were brought by immigrants.

However, several people believe that immigrants jeopardize American cultures, customs and economy (Hirschman, 2006). On the other hand, several ideas which have been used in technology, medicine, politics, education and administration were generated by immigrants.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whether immigrants are legal or illegal, they have valuable attributes which are beneficial to the United States. Some technological developments which are currently enjoyed by Americans were contributed by immigrants. Technology has helped Americans to develop at a higher rate.

Immigrants have also contributed negatively. This has made Americans to have a poor perception towards immigrants from some regions in the world. What happened on September 11 was an unfortunate event in history of the United States. People who carried out the attacks were immigrants who had been trained in American institutions. As a result, most people changed their perception towards such immigrants (The New York Times, 2011).

Use of drugs in several states has been attributed to increased number of immigrants from foreign countries. Illegal immigrants are used by drug dealers to bring drugs to the United States. It has been argued that without illegal immigrants, use of drugs would be lower (Shah, 2008). However, some of the drugs in question have a positive effect in medicine.

Opiates have been incorporated into several pain killers which are prescribed by medical practitioners. It was initially brought from Asia as a stimulant but researchers used it to develop pain killers. Marijuana is illegal in most states but it is prescribed by doctors to patients who suffer from glaucoma and other chronic diseases.

This drug was introduced to the United States by immigrants from Central America and Caribbean countries. Some American people believe that illegal immigrants use social amenities without paying tax. This is not entirely true because when immigrants buy products, they pay taxes indirectly.

If they are accepted into the American system, they can pay taxes like American people. Government started keeping records of immigrants in 1820. The records show that over 80 million people have immigrated into the United States (Hirschman, 2006). Therefore, people should know that most Americans are descendants of immigrants who were despised during their time.

Works Cited Hirschman, Charles. The impacts of Immigration on American society: Looking Backwards to the Future. Border battles; the U.S. Immigration debates. 2006. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Controversy Surrounding Immigration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lynch David J., and Woodyard Chris. “Immigrants claim pivotal role in economy.” USA Today. 4 Nov. 2006. Web.

Shah, Anup. Immigration. Global Issues. 2008. Web.

The New York Times. “Immigration and Terrorism.” The New York Times. 5 Oct. 2001. Web.

Ziegler, Laura. “Controversy in Kansas over Proposed Immigration bill.” Kansas City Public media. 7 Feb. 2012. Web.


Experiences of Japanese Americans and African Americans Essay essay help

Living mainly in California and Hawaii, Japanese Americans traces their origin to the first group of Japanese who moved to the United States of America as contract laborers in the sugar cane plantations. Encouraged by treaty signed by Japan and the United States, the first generation of the present day generation of Japanese Americans arrived in Hawaii in 1869.

Their numbers continued to increased until after World War II and at the beginning of 1980s when Japan’s economy began to blossom presenting more employment opportunities and better living standards. Since the first Issei (first generation Japanese) arrived and settled in Hawaii and California in the 19th century, they have contributed immensely to the political, social and economic development of the United States of America.

This is still being reflected in all aspects of development of the United States even today. However, their predicament began as immediately they arrived in the United States. Their upsurge was not welcomed by some politicians fearing the occurrence Yellow Peril.

This set a stage for a racial discrimination trend against all immigrants from Asia including Japanese that has stood the test of time and civilization. The politicians proposed a variety of measures with the most radical being total blockade on any immigrants from Japan. Others argued that the immigration of the Japanese into the United States should be allowed but in a controlled manner.

To curb the Yellow Peril, the politicians passed laws barring the Japanese from marrying from other races while at the same time limiting their access to basic needs such as quality education and housing.

To further suppress their dominance, the laws passed mainly in the western states where they first arrived to work in the sugar plantations ensured that the Japanese Americans had as limited employment opportunities as possible.

They were also denied access to such public utilities such as bars and public parks and beaches. These Japanese were hardworking farmers thus many farmers in United States felt threatened as their agricultural ventures were growing at a very pace. Towards this front, the farmers pushed for oppressive laws to be passed to ensure that the immigrants do not advance agriculturally.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This reached a crisis level forcing the two countries to sign the 1908 Gentlemen’s Agreement. Together with the 1924 National Origins Act, the discriminatory laws were repealed with the borders of the United States being closed to the Japanese immigrants. However, these immigrants were still discriminated against and forced to embrace English as their language and Christianity as their religion.

Discrimination heightened when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor during World War II as many Japanese were tortured as they suspected to be spies of their motherland. They were declared enemies, taken to internment camps which had poor facilities and lacked privacy and denied citizenship1. Their condition only changed after Japanese American returned from the war with honors of valor.

Unlike the Japanese Americans, the ancestors of African Americans arrived in the United States as slaves. However, they also comprise of those individuals from Caribbean, Central and South American countries. Their first ancestors arrived in the United States in the 16th century as slaves to work in South Carolina in 1526. What followed was a steady flow of slaves whose numbers surged in the Southern States where oppressive laws were passed.

Despite their great contributions to the economic, social and political development in the United States, African Americans were one of the most oppressed minority groups in the United States right from the time their ancestors arrived in as slaves. They were denied access to quality education, social amenities, churches, banks and equal economic opportunities forcing many of them to open their. Moreover, they were not allowed to vote or vie for any elective pubic post.

They were segregated as they could not use the same services and amenities used by the whites while many lost their lives and were injured in racial attacks2. Interracial marriages between the African Americans were forbidden as they were only permitted to intermarry within their race and indigenous Americans.

Their chances for legal redress were made even harder since even the United States Supreme Court upheld these laws. All these were despite the fact that these African Americans have been on the forefront of every war including the American Revolution War, World War II and Civil War.

The Japanese Americans and the African Americans, even though living in different locations and their ancestors coming to the United States under different conditions and reasons, shared similar experiences during the mid-twentieth century. They were oppressed and discriminated with others losing their lives during racial attacks.

We will write a custom Essay on Experiences of Japanese Americans and African Americans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They were denied access to basic essential services and facilities while access to economic and educational opportunities where immensely limited.

Despite the continued oppression, the African Americans and Japanese Americans continued to contribute immensely to the development of the various sectors of the American society including sports, music, politics, army and economy among others. These laws, upheld by courts of law, where only repealed through activism activities of such great mean as, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. among others.

Bibliography Gruenewald, Mary and Michelson, Maureen. Looking Like the Enemy: My Story of Imprisonment in Japanese-American Internment Camps. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press, 2011.

Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dell, 1992

Footnotes 1 Gruenewald, Mary and Michelson, Maureen. Looking Like the Enemy: My Story of Imprisonment in Japanese-American Internment Camps. Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press, 2011.

2 Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dell, 1992


Domestication Essay college essay help

Discussion Domestication is a process where wild animals and plants are transformed in a genetic state to adjust to certain characteristics which benefit humans. In a simplest sense, it can be described as the early stage of human mastery of wild species of plants and animals.

The basic difference between domesticated plants and animals from their counterpart wild species is that they are produced by human activities to attain particular characteristics and are adjusted to the conditions of constant care from initial transition to full transition.

Certainly, wild animals must possess enough abilities to compete and survive in the wild and should often be on the watch for their predators. Wild animals should be fast and strong to safeguard themselves from their predators and must use their senses of touch, sight, and smell while searching for shelter, water, food, and to warn them from danger.

While domestic animals do not require all these abilities and senses to search for food and protect themselves from danger since all they need are provided by humans. Wild animals live liberally and are not reliant on human support, while domesticated animals are reliant on human interference. Most wild animals are either afraid or hostile to humans since they consider humans as dangerous killers.

The most significant outcome of domestication of animal species includes a rapid transformation in their seasonal biology. Most wild animals are distinguished by their precise seasonal reproduction and molting sequence, while most domesticated animals, in contrast, may reproduce themselves at any period or season of the year and may not molt at all.

The main deference between the domesticated species and the wild species of animals and plants is that wild plants and animals develop under control of natural factors and domesticated species evolve under control or influence of human factors or activities.

Certain behavioral characteristics may be changed through this process since human serves as the shield between the plants or animals and their environment. One example which is noticeable during the process is a decrease in responsiveness to changes in environments of wild species. Food availability and human’s regulation over the breeding system have decreased competition for essential resources and therefore allowed selection for the preservation of juvenile features.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The morphological variations between plants such as maize and its wild related species, teosinte, are somewhat intense since teosinte generates just 7 to 12 kernels in two with interspersed rows guarded by a firm layer. While the domesticated maize produces a cob which contains more than 20 rows with several uncovered kernels.

Actually, teosinte is extremely different from maize in the structure of its ear that most botanists were not successful to identify the close link between these species and another difference is their seasonal reproduction. The reproduction of the teosinte is strict and precise during the year, while maize reproduction is manipulated by humans and mostly depends on the rainy season.

Self-reproduction is another factor which makes these species to be deferent. The domesticated species only reproduce through human interference and the cultivated species mostly produce low seed shedding, produce more seeds, and rapid continuous germination. However, most wild plants has 50% to 60% harvest index, sum seed weight divided by sum plant weight, which is more than the domesticated plants. Unlike domesticated plants, wild plants rely on seed propagation to exist.


Deskilling Phenomenon in Modern Society Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Deskilling is a phenomenon that has come about due to agents of globalization such as technology, multinational corporations and increased bureaucratization, which are aimed increasing efficiency and effectiveness in both private and civil service. In other words, it is a process where workers in various organizations in both government and private sectors are eliminated due to the introduction of technology.

Due to technology, semiskilled workers are preferred since they can easily be controlled and can as well be paid peanuts. The organizations aim at utilizing resources maximally by reducing the human capital. Because of this aspect, workers have been reduced to paupers meaning that they cannot afford capital that can make their life better.

The owners of the means of production prefer working with the semiskilled since they cannot claim their rights as opposed to the skilled laborers who are always aware of their rights. However, due to deskilling, work has turned out to be mechanical since human skills are never applied in manufacturing goods and services.

In this case, the quality of goods and services are decreased. The consumers of goods and services are forced to take in substandard goods (Mossberger 14). The emergency of free market economy and ownership of property has even brought about serious problems as regards to employee importance.

This article traces the origins of deskilling, its effects to employees and how the issue can be addressed to bring back the skills of workers, which are required to achieve innovativeness and inventions. In government for example, the public is given a raw deal in terms of service delivery since those delivering services are not professionals. In other words, they are not imbued to service delivery. The capitalist society treats such workers in the same way as machines.

The modern society, an individual is deskilled in many ways. The process can be in terms of technology, work and leisure, and ideologically. The ruling class defines how leisure is utilized in society. In terms of technology, the ruling class owns it. The ruling ideology in society, especially in government, emanates from the ruling class.

In this paper, work and leisure will be analyzed as one of way of commanding conformity from the worker. Scholars criticize the way work alienates the worker from self and from other people in society. In this case, the works of Marx are frequently invoked to explain the plight of workers in society. In 1844, Marx posted his views regarding work and alienation in the capitalistic society. Workers in industries are forced to work for long hours without extra pay.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, employees in many industries and organizations lack time for leisure and self-fulfillment. As Marx had earlier observed, workers lack time for themselves implying that they are only left with little time for conducting animal related activities such as eating, sleeping and procreating. From this understanding, capitalism creates a passive consumer and also shapes the leisure activities of workers.

In the modern society, leisure is not meant to help the worker but it serves to provide a means of escape from the problems. In other words, workers are made to live with the problem but not finding the problem. The modern worker is alienated from his or her own work and leisure since he or she is not in control of the two variables (Life


Emerging issues – GASCO Essay essay help free

Introduction Various organizations uphold environmental protection obligations. In fact, they have enacted policies to steer and regulate their involvement in environmental issues. This is an important provision in the ecological context. This paper discusses Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Limited (GASCO), which is a natural gas manufacturing company based in Abu Dhabi, UAE (GASCO 1).

The discussions relate to its environmental protection policies, enduring impacts on the environment, legal obligation on environmental protection quests, rivals environmental policies, and whether the company is environmentally friendly. Other aspects of apprehension are whether its environmental concerns have any business benefits.

However, what is important is whether the company is environmentally friendly or not. Additionally, unveiling what benefits it gains from such missions is vital in this context. Evidently, most organizations have managed to consider various environmental issues in the realms of becoming energy efficient, observing the aspects of global warming, reducing hazardous gas emissions, managing pollution, and recycling wastes for a sustainable environment and preservation of energy resources.

These mandates are fostered by relevant and adoptable environmental policies usable in various contexts. As a component of its social responsibility, GASCO has enacted Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) movements to ensure that it attains its environmental sustainability mandates. Precisely, GASCO has a real commitment in improving the environment, embracing the safety of the people, and instituting appropriate environmental and health concerns.

GASCO’s Environmental Policies GASCO has realized the significance of a sustainable environment. Consequently, it has incorporated its aspects into its operations and mandates as an environmentally conscious organization. As indicated earlier, the company established HSE as a component of its visions, in the realms of HSE Policies as well as HSE Management System (HSE MS).

Precisely, the company has policies that allow it to uphold environmental sustainability discussed in this paper. Since it deals will petroleum gases, the company has policies that limits emission of hazardous gases into the environment. These environmental policies demand every employee to be observant and contribute immensely in the environmental protection quests.

Relevantly, this has helped the company to attain a massive market presence, competitive advantages, global limelight, and other lucrative provisions beneficial to its business endeavors. Policies meant to eradicate gas spillage and other dangerous chemical from reaching the environment are quite considerable in this context.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although most organizations participate in the environmental mission with the aim of marketing themselves, GASCO is genuinely environmentally friendly besides the need to have a comprehensive market share in the natural gas industry, both locally and globally (Oxford Business Group 125).

Through its HSE policies, it has programs of cleaning the environment, planting trees, sponsoring environmental programs, reducing hazardous emissions into the environment, promoting public health, and recycling wastes into useful products. These roles and mandates indicate how the company is environmental friendly and is able to enact viable environmental concerns to help the public. Contextually, the company has managed to uphold its environmental concerns since its inception decades ago.

This has been possible through the ratification of stringent environmental policies to help in governing the ecosystem and protecting the environment for sustainability as indicated earlier. From this context, it is possible to concur that environmental policies are coherent with the business strategies since they help in promoting businesses, enhance their brand names, and increase their market shares. Nonetheless, the business aspects of this should come second after attaining the environmentally targeted mandates.

Precisely, GASCO has policies that govern its HSE programs with the intent of attaining a sustainable ecosystem, uphold its business strategies, commit to the aspects of CSR, and promote its global presence. Additionally, the company has policies that govern environmental impacts of their operations.

GASCO’s potentiality in making a lasting impact on the environment Evidently, GASCO has a massive potentiality in making remarkable impacts on the environment. This is an important observation following its obligations, policies, and concerns over the environmental issues. Additionally, the fact that the company deals in the production of natural gases is a massive environmental concern.

Its mandates to protect its operations, limit gas emissions, restrict the use of harmful gases, enact safe gas transportation mechanisms, and safety concerns are of critical consideration. In fact, if the company observes safety and environmental issues, it will contribute considerable to the aspects of environmental protection and sustainability.

Its policies equally signify its long-lasting potentiality in conserving the environment. This is evident through its HSE programs mentioned earlier. It is important to recognize the criticality of its obligations in the realms of environmental protection despite the business provisions in it. However little its inputs are to the aspects of environmental protection, its contributions still matter considerably. From this concern, it is obvious that GASCO has the potential of making a lasting impact on the environment.

We will write a custom Essay on Emerging issues – GASCO specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both Business and environmental benefits of the policies Principally, the established environmental policies are mandated to offer a remarkable, sustainable, and safe environment to the entire community. It is through viable policies that an organization can attain its environmental mandates (through CSR) and involve other stakeholders towards the achievement of a sustainable environment.

Consequently, it is crucial to consider various aspects of these policies with regard to environmental protection. Conversely, there are business aspects of all these endeavors. An organization might aspire to demonstrate to the public that it is environmentally conscious (Oxford Business Group 125).

Consequently, it captures the attention of the public, build its market visibility, global presence, brand name, and enhance its operations and profitability in the long run. Through environmental concerns, the organization will obviously promote its operations, businesses, and enhance its marketplace acceptability.

GASCO competitors’ environmental policies- Is the firm doing more or less? Other competitors in the natural gas production industry (both in UAE and globally) have established similar policies to help in the promotion of environmental sustainability. It is from this context that the entire environmental protection emerges.

Additionally, other competitors like TAQA, ADNOC, and other firms in the oil and gas industry have managed to establish environmental protection programs and sponsorships to enhance their environmental friendliness. If compared, GASCO is doing considerably better in the realms of its environmental mandates and protection obligations.

Is the firm doing more than it is legally obliged to? According to the environmental laws and demands of the environmental activists, GASCO still need to do more in its roles to enhance environmental protection. From this context, it is evident that the law requires more than anticipated (GASCO 1). Despite the efforts to meet these demands, there are some challenges that might hinder the company from realizing its environmental obligations. Precisely, the firm is averagely doing what it is legally obliged to do. It still needs to do more.

Conclusion Conclusively, GASCO is environmentally friendly following its endeavors to protect the environment through its HSE policies.

Works Cited GASCO. Health, Safety and Environment. 2012. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Emerging issues – GASCO by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Oxford Business Group. The Report: Abu Dhabi 2007. London: Oxford Business Group, 2007. Print.


Social Media Issues Relating To Race and Religion Proposal best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Social Media

Social Media and Race

Social Media and Religion

Works Cited

Social Media Communication is one of the most important aspects of human being. Emerging technologies have completely redefined the way human beings communicate with each other. The internet has come out strongly as one of the most sophisticated tools of communication.

The social media is the most recent of the forms of communication. When Facebook came into existence in the year 2007, many critics thought that it was another passing wind, just as other technologies that never made it to see the light of the day (Luther


Google and Yahoo – Detailed Business Comparison Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Yahoo!


SWOT Analysis for Yahoo!

Reference List

During the drastic change in the United States economy, Google began to nose ahead of its prime competitor Yahoo. In 2007, Yahoo changed it processes, from its strategy to its mission statement. Historically Yahoo was the grandfather of search engines until 1998, when Google stepped in with simplistic focus and changed the path for technology.

Although Google and Yahoo have the same audience, it can be argued that they have taken completely different directions in the last 5 years. This paper will detail the current mission, vision, social responsibility and strategic planning of both companies. It will also compare the direction of the companies and indicate the suggested need of improvement. Lastly, the paper will conduct a SWOT analysis for Yahoo!

Yahoo! Yahoo!’s mission is to be the most essential global internet services company for consumers and businesses. The mission statement clearly defines the goals and objectives of the company.

According to the company’s investor relations website, its vision resonates around being the premier digital media company which is focused on creating deeply personal digital experiences that keep its customers and users connected to what matters most to them, across systems and around the world (Yahoo Investor Relations, 2011). The company’s vision is customer-centered, concerned with delivering the digital experiences the customer way.

This statement has been changed multiple times, since the company entered business in 1994. As technology continuously evolves, Yahoo! continues to rethink and reformulate its strategies, as well as update its objectives and strategic decisions. In recent times, the company has announced the laying off of over 2000 employees with the aim to restructure its business into 3 core components.

Yahoo! recently announced a new business direction with the view to intensify its effort in its core businesses and redeploy critical resources to its most urgent priorities in line with current competition trends. The ultimate goal of this alignment was prioritize the needs of users and customers (Carlson, 2012). In this regard, Yahoo has attempted to join social media services and the company is working hard to maintain its presence in online advertising business (Deka


Business Performance Measures Essay college essay help online

Introduction The world has become very competitive in almost all aspects of human life that has necessitated the need to boost performance in order for businesses to continue with their daily operations. Governments, non governmental organizations and individual firms have had to devise cost effective ways of ensuring their business operations are viable despite the high rate of inflation that seems to run out of control.

It is common knowledge that modernization has brought stiff competition in the quality and quantity of goods and services produced and those firms that meet the required production standards remain in operations. While some companies have taken to monopolization others have merged under different banners in order to increase efficiency in their delivery of services.

Regardless of the approach taken by a company to boost its performance there are various measures it must put in place in order to assess its performance. This essay outlines some of the performance measures a company may adopt, benefits such measures bring to the company and the actions it can take with regard to the outcomes of these measures.

Performance is a common term used in business to refer to the value of business out put that is used to assess the viability of any business venture in terms of profits or losses. It is measured in two ways in terms of the volume of goods and services produced and profits or losses generated from the sales made.

A measure is any approach taken towards realization of any goal by a business (Cokins 2009). Therefore, performance measures are steps taken by a business organization in the attempt of seeking to identify its position as far as business operations are concerned.

This discussion covers the human resource and product and service measures as essential tools of evaluating the performance of any business.

Human resource plays a very important role in the daily running of business operations in all organizations. Therefore, it forms an important aspect that can not be isolated from performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is due to the fact that human beings constitute a grater percentage of sources of labor in all operations and in areas where machines are used human beings are in charge of controlling them. Performance measures in terms of human resource has various dimensions that include, performance evaluations, productivity reports, turnover, absenteeism and employee satisfaction surveys.

Performance evaluations are important measures that businesses undertake in order to assess the levels of production of its workers. Performance is evaluated on the basis of worker’s academic qualifications, experience, interests and skills that are essential in ensuring workers deliver quality work (Luecke 2006). Any worker who does not have the required skills is more likely to deliver poor quality work while an experienced person stands high chances of better performance.

This is an essential tool of evaluation as it enables the management to identify the worker’s potentials and this helps them in allocation of duties and responsibilities according to the worker’s abilities to perform. A business may decide to train its employees further in order to increase their skills and knowledge by sponsoring their part time education programs and giving them more off duty allowances in order to attend their classes.

Timely and accurate information regarding employee’s performance will help the management identify its weak performance areas and plan on how to develop them in order to ensure all workers do their best.

Worker’s productivity reports may be prepared by the management as measures towards assessing business performance. It should be noted that every employee plays an important role in determining the productivity of a business regardless of the person’s position in a company. All positions in a business are created with a view of boosting performance and there is no department or position that should be treated as inferior to others.

The business is like a body while workers are like the organs that make the body to function properly and be healthy. Worker’s productivity reports help management identify the specific abilities of every worker and avoid generalization of workers performance (Cokins 2009).

Employees who consistently perform below the company’s expectations should be given essential advice and warned in advance but if they seem not to improve they should be laid off and other people with prospects of better performance hired. This measure helps management plan on future expansions of the company in terms of its work force and production.

We will write a custom Essay on Business Performance Measures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All workers are supposed to spend quality time at their work place in order to boost production and efficiency. It should be noted that time is a very important factor in the process of production and should be spent wisely (Luecke 2006).Therefore, employees should ensure they do constructive activities when at work. Work attendance records will help the management assess their employees in terms of the number of hours they dedicate to work.

Those frequently absent from duty should be sacked immediately as this shows laxity and lack of interest and personal initiatives by employees. This measure helps to identify the amount of work an individual is capable of doing in a given time. More time spent at work means more service or goods will be produced and vise versa. The company is able to plan a head with regard to production of its services or goods.

A company may also conduct turnover surveys to identify its ability to produce goods and services within a given time frame. This survey helps the company to identify its potentials and assess whether it is performing according to its expectations.

This measure will help the company identify areas that are productive and those that are dormant. It gives management an insight into future planning in terms of budgetary allocation to various departments to boost their efficiency in production.

The second approach of measuring performance is through the use of product and service measures. The first step in this approach is conducting surveys on the levels of customer satisfaction with regard to the quality and quantity of goods and services offered by a company (Cokins 2009). This may be done through questionnaires or through conducting interviews that aim to establish the levels of satisfaction their clients attain with regard to the company’s services.

This measure helps the company to identify weaknesses of a product or service and correct them as soon as possible. It helps a company in planning on how to avoid the occurrence of such errors in future. It enables the business to know the tastes preferred by clients.

Rates of returns help businesses asses their performance as it offers an insight to the level the product or service has penetrated the market. Through conducting this survey the management will identify the various marketing strategies that will enable it deliver its services to almost all regions accessible by it. Timely awareness of the problems arising from this survey will help a business change its marketing strategies or use different strategies to market their products.

A company may choose to asses its performance through surveying the product rates of failure that will enable it identify the effectiveness of its services. This will enable the company to know the reasons why the products are failing and analyze whether it is as a result of poor quality or lack of information on the use of the product and thus address the issues as soon as possible (Cokins 2009). Products’ rates of failure helps to eliminate future assumptions by correcting the client’s current perceptions regarding the quality of services offered.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Performance Measures by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The number of clients served within a particular period of time is an essential step in measuring the performance of any business. This measure offers relevant information regarding the volume of sales made in a given time. This survey measure will enable a company to assess whether the price of goods, timing of their sales, efficiency of employers or the volume of goods produced determine the number of clients served (Luecke 2006).

Timely and accurate information obtained through this survey will help the management plan ahead and decide whether to increase the number of workers to eliminate long queues of clients waiting to be served or extend the time of operations in order to serve many clients within the shortest time possible.

Conclusion All business investments are founded on the basis of utilizing all opportunities to make profits and at the same time offer quality goods and services to their clients. If essential steps are not taken early to monitor the performance of a business huge losses may be incurred leading to termination of its operations. Therefore, it is important that businesses conduct performance surveys to determine their viability.

References Cokins, G. (2009). Performance Management: Integrating Strategy Execution, Methodologies, Risk and Analytics (Wiley and SAS Business Series). New York: Wiley Publishers.

Luecke, R. (2006). Harvard Business Essentials: Performance Management: Measure and Improve the Effectiveness of your Employees. Boston: Harvard Business Review.


A Review of the Book Human Resource Management Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Summary and conclusion

Reference List

Introduction In the writing of a book, an author always has an objective in mind, which he hopes to have achieved by the end of the writing. This applies to both fiction and scholarly writing, classifications which make books meet the needs of varied audiences. This essay seeks to analyze a scholarly writing on human resource management.

To this end, a general overview of a particular book shall be provided before the discussion narrows on the key reasons that drove the authors to settle on the particular topic as well as the objectives that they intend to attain. The methodology that they use in the meeting of the objectives has also been given a critical mention, in the latter part of the discussion.

In the provision of support to various elements of discussion raised, a number of external sources shall be considered. These include other books and electronic journals. The contents of these sources shall, however, serve a reinforcement purpose, to give strength to the theories raised by the primary authors.

Rationale Human Resource management is a key component of all properly working establishments (CNN, 2009). This is because even for the most technologically savvy establishments there needs to be an input of human labor in order to get the systems to operate at utmost efficiency levels (Jonathan, 2010).

Over the years, it has come to the realization of various scholars that the human component of any given institution is the most vital in guaranteeing its stability (Conaty and Ram, 2011). This basically means that if the workers are not working up to the ideal optimum, then the inadequacy will be well reflected in the image of the company (Merkle, 2002).

In the book Human Resource Management, by Angelo DeNisi and Ricky Griffin, the authors seek to explain how a company’s manpower can be well managed through a combination of both traditional and modern approaches for maximizing output.

In their writing, the authors help the readers understand learn the functions of the human resource department in a company, which range from staffing to the enhancement of the motivation of the members of staff, as well as the addressing of payment and other associated benefits (DeNisi and Griffin, 2007). The targeted audiences of this book are individuals whose career focus is directed towards general management.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the authors ensure that all components of effective human resource management are covered including the proper management of diversity, and the fostering of proper relationships between the members of staff and the institution.

The authors argue that a healthy human resource department is the key to a well functioning company (DeNisi and Griffin, 2007). They support this assertion by providing practical examples, which show how companies properly weave the activities of the human resource management department into their key business strategies.

In the opening chapters of the book, the authors give an overview of the importance of human resource management as it applies in different areas across the globe. They then go ahead to outline how the recruitment of employees pans out to be a determinant of the success of the establishment.

Still in the early chapters of the book DeNisi and Griffin focus on the traditional strategies of managing the members of staff as well as the enhancement of performance within the enterprise. The categorically declare that all principles of traditional human resource management have to well entrenched

In the last half of the book, the authors focus on the theoretical items of human resource management including the writing of job descriptions as the advertisement of vacancies, as well as the conducting of job interviews (DeNisi and Griffin, 2007). Understanding the labor laws, in relation to their application in the proper running of human resource departments, has also been given prominence and it forms the base on which all other items in the book are founded.

The authors ensure that they explain the laws which apply in various business establishments, as well as illustrate how if the laws are well applied, they can help make the running of the institutions more fluid.

The authors of the book make it a point to note that by the end of the reading, students should be in a position to apply the theoretical concepts picked from the discussion in practical managerial situations. To make sure that this goal is met, they make it a point to arrange the components if the book in such a manner that one item explains the next, with the succeeding chapters offering solutions to problems identified in previous chapters.

We will write a custom Term Paper on A Review of the Book Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book, being targeted at a select class of individuals aims at meeting a number of specific goals and targets. These goals are as listed below:

To explain the relationship between the human resource department in a company and the general productivity.

To help the students understand the best strategies for the enhancement of the output of a company’s human resources.

To help the student understand the key concepts of human resource management, including the advertisement of available vacancies and the identification of the most deserving members.

To help the students develop a grasp of the techniques required in the drafting of technical papers such as resumes and job descriptions.

To help the students develop ways of applying learned concepts to practical situations.

In order to meet these requirements, a number of key objectives will have to be met.

First, the students should be in a position to indentify the extents covered by the human resource department, within the general institutional framework.

Secondly, the students should be able to list the best approaches in the running of Human resource departments such that the ultimate efficiency levels are met and sustained.

Third, the students should be in a position whereby they can draft vacancy announcements as well as conduct proper job interviews.

Finally, the students should understand the labor laws and illustrate how they can be used in the resolution of issues involving a company’s members of staff.

Summary and conclusion In summary, the book under review had set out to illustrate that no institution worth its name can operate efficiently if the human resource department is not well coordinated, and this agenda was met. The authors, in a stepwise manner, explained how the human resource departments of companies work and went on to detail the basic fundamentals required in ensuring that the offices work as per institutional desires.

Any individual, scholar or otherwise, going through the writing can easily be drawn to the conclusion that the human resource department is the one element of a company’s structure which must be stabilized if its mission and objectives are to be attained.

Reference List CNN. (2009). “Human Resources Manager”. CNN Money. 2009. Retrieved

Conaty, B.


United Federation of Teachers and DC 37 Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

United Federation of Teachers (UFT)


DC 37

Disadvantages and Challenges

Effect on Productivity and Performance in Schools


Works Cited

Introduction Unions are legally formed to serve as the voices of all workers in New York City or entire country. They act as representatives of public and private employees in several industries in the United States. Their main aim centers on cooperative negotiations in issues related to wage increase, workers’ benefits and better working conditions for their members and addressing other issues like disputes with administration about infringement of contract conditions.

Most unions in the United States are adjusted to one of two major unions, Change to Win Federation and AFL-CIO that was legally formed in 1955. These two unions represent or bargain guidelines and legislation as they represent employees in America and contribute a major part in the country’s politics (Moe 66).

The paper discusses the achievements of United Federation of Teachers (UFT) and District Council (DC 37), as well as their challenges and shortcomings that are involved in their membership. United Federation of Teachers has played a huge part in addressing the rights of teachers and nurses in New York City. Since its formation in 1960s, it has solved several issues related to educational matters, such as wage increase, workers’ benefits, and currently the reduction in class sizes.

They also take part in the political affairs through financing most campaign activities. Some critics have stated that American teachers’ unions undermine the performance and productivity of schools through disregarding the issues related to students, management, and parents, while serving as a voice for teachers.

Some studies have reported that increase in teachers’ wages does not improve the productivity and performance of students and schools in general. DC 37 has played an important part in matters of women’s rights and equal pay among all employees in public sectors.

United Federation of Teachers (UFT) Since 1960s, the management of United Federation of Teachers (UFT) has ensured that it portrays itself as union of expertise that exercises the rights and privileges of its members. UFT serves as a voice of more than 200,000 teachers, home daycare employees and nurses in New York City and consider that children are worth of secure schools, provision of social and health requirements, and appropriate instructions from the teachers and the government.

In 2005, there were around 18,000 paraprofessionals and 120,000 in-serves teachers in United Federation of Teachers, together with around 55,000 retired teachers and other participants. At the end of 2007, 28,250 home daycare employees selected to be part of the union, making the sum number of members to go by the 200,000 mark (Moe 66).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Achievements UFT was very active in decreasing the size of classrooms and directly intended and led to advanced teaching arrangement and system which permitted for professional association and teaching background. The union was also powerful in legalizing charter school acceptance policy to guarantee an unbiased assessment application procedure.

Currently, the union is in opposition to merit pay for its members and favoring seniority-based payment, but became involved in 2007 in approving a voluntary incentive system for performing schools with higher population and greater requirements.

The United Federation of Teachers does not favor a recommended reform of the seniority-based LIFO (education) policy. The union powerfully supports the lessening of class sizes for every grade stage and subjects in all public schools in New York City to provide quality and standardize education program.

In 2005, in the contract negotiations, the United Federation of Teachers effectively included language to the agreement that precisely safeguard teachers from experiencing penalty due to the planning of the classroom furniture, the arrangement of the bulletin boards, and finally the precise length of lesson units.

Annually, the union provides scholarship opportunities to undergraduate and graduates and around $1 million are awarded to these students according to their academic achievements and inability to finance their college expenses. In 2011, 250 high school graduates were awarded $5,000 each to gather for their higher education expenses (Haskins 116).

United Federation of Teachers has embarked to start charter schools of their own and there are some reasons why they want to begin this process. United Federation of Teachers claims that Charter schools permit teachers to innovate and experiment in approaches that are complex in common government schools. Charter schools operators are aware that their members have the privilege to create unions if they consider it important since organized and prepared teachers can produce valuable partnerships.

In the 1980s and 1990s, the lobar and civil rights which had experienced destruction and set backs during 1960s and 1970s were restructured as labor unions that came together to address the issues of quality and acceptable education for every student, standard class sizes, and provision of safety nets to families.

We will write a custom Research Paper on United Federation of Teachers and DC 37 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United Federation of Teachers was an active follower of landmark school aid court case recorded by the Campaign for Fiscal Equity in 1993, an alliance of education activists and parents who were concerned about the welfare of their children. The legal clash resulted in a decision forcing the state to offer not less than $2 billion above the normal in educational funding to public schools around New York City (Meyer 3).

Another field of which the United Federation of Teachers has shown well-built relationship with its structured members and has achieved its goals is with the Municipal Labor committee. This committee is an affiliate alliance for government employee unions that serve as a negotiating representative for health coverage with the New York City.

In 2011, the health insurance bargained for domestic daycare providers, who are members of United Federation of Teachers, in their initial contract with the city and will soon come to action. Family care providers are expected to obtain health coverage under the UFT Family Health Plus system, this is a health coverage project funded by New York City and provided completely to providers of United Federation of Teachers under health coverage of EmblemHealth.

Other than health benefits provided through this plan, providers engaging in this program will also obtain an influential medical advocate that will be under the United Federation of Teachers. Often, bargaining the medical coverage arrangement is challenging and this is the reason the union is regularly examining the UFT Health Care Plus plan keenly are prepared and accessible always to support every member in it who considers that he has not received or his rights are limited (Wright 4).

The benefits provided through this program are wide-ranging containing dental and inpatient hospital, specialty, and primary care, together with prescription medicine insurance to their members who need these services.

Remarkably, and regardless of the direct allocating of $700 million to decrease class size and significant projects of the community by United Federation of Teachers and its new alliance parties, the sizes of classes in the government schools in the city really improved in the years after obtaining this sum of money. Incensed, the union filed a case against the New York City DOE for not utilizing the funds allocated by the state to decrease the class sizes (Meyer 3).

The UFT applied the court case to inform the people, especially the parents, about the inability of City Administration to utilize taxpayers’ monies appropriately. The initial rulings in the lawsuit, during the mid 2010, were showing positive potentials.

The first achievement of UFT was in 1969 when they successfully won the privilege to represent around 11,000 government school paraprofessionals in the state of New York. Even though different AFT (America Federation of Teachers) locals had served as the voice of most librarians, school nurses, and other members of education structure, the United Federation of Teachers election officially inaugurated the first main growth into non-teaching staff (Wright 4).

Not sure if you can write a paper on United Federation of Teachers and DC 37 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More DC 37 Launched in 1944, District council 37 (DC 37) has expanded from union of not more than a thousand members in the state’s health care, business, and parks to the national biggest union of government workers, with above 130, 000 employees participating in state’s cultural and agencies organizations.

In 2005, the officials of DC 37 wrote to the mayor addressing the challenges that the members of DC 37 are undergoing. Working jointly with the mayor, and some banks, DC 37 generated the MEHP, the earliest and the greatest widespread labor-sponsored reasonable priced housing projects among all other states. With the help of DC 37, the members received mortgage and the union housing plans provided comprehensive services, which includes mortgages, development loans, and other services for the city employees who are experiencing shortage of housing.

The members of the union can qualify for the funds and mortgage support to buy co-ops, second home within the city, and even condos. In November 2010, DC 37 started contract bargains with the New York City for a new economic accord and has examined the budget of the city and revealed the intensive contracting-out misuse and corruption. For instance CityTime, along with the policy of the city, did not intentionally receive particular taxes and charges to which it is warranted.

Some of the major important activities executed by DC 37 in 1980s were in the area of rights of women. In early 1980s, the court ruled that the New York City Employee Retirement System might no longer locate specific points for gender for pension compensations and donations, and this disagreement had taken a decade to be decided. Women municipal employees who had been ordered to pay more due to their anticipated permanence were repaid some of their earlier pension donations.

Another success of rights of women appeared also in mid 1980s with a case presented by DC 37 opposing the lower wages of mostly women 911 workers in the Police Department as matched up to the raised wages of men’s Fire Department workers executing comparable tusk. This successful case filed by DC 37 simplified the process of paying workers and presented equal pay for both men and women executing comparable tusk, even when the titles of their job are different.

DC 37 contributed a major role in this movement and led the first demonstration in the country due to the pay equality matters; along with a successful court case in opposition to the Washington state who had won a case to pay women low wages in their titles, but this was overruled after an appeal. Employers were forced to include gender pay equity in their new contracts and this success was mainly contributed by DC 37 (Budd and McCall 479).

DC 37 continued to fight for the benefits of members that included raised protection for temporary employees, pension for workers on part-time basis, and policies directing admission of on-the-job protection risks to employees.

The union went extra mile to celebrate Black History Month and acknowledged different ethnic cultures, and created a Disability Advisory Committees to address the issues of disability within and outside the union. In 1985, they participated in activities related to Women’s History Month and were engaged in national position in agreement to gay rights.

Disadvantages and Challenges The drawback of being a member of United Federation of Teachers union and DC 37 is that the members have limited expressions in processes of educational institutions they work in and the procedures of teaching they intend to execute. They also have to contribute some money to sustain the union.

Teachers’ unions available in America, especially United Federation of Teachers, are most influential and well structured in issues related to education policies and politics. However, they take advantage of their powerful position to block reforms required to advance the country’s education system through placing their emphasis on teachers instead of focusing on the children or students. Unions, sometimes, are blockages to school selection and other important policies.

In all the issues that unions, such as DC 37 and American Federation of Teachers, express about students, their concerns are more to their adults and dues-paying constituencies. Teachers’ unions have been seen as big businesses handling huge finances with real political powers. United Federation of Teachers, DC 37 and other unions in the country have been greatly contributing to political campaigns and using most of their funds to support the contenders who think they will support them later.

DC 37 experienced various challenges at the end of 1990s, when surveys by Manhattan District Attorney exposed different cases of fraud within the council and its members. Particularly, very serious cases were disclosures in 1998 that top-most officials of the union had fixed an endorsement vote on the contentious 1996 contract that contained payment freezes for the opening two years. This led to restructuring of the top officials of the union after some members revealed that they were involved in the corruption case (Cannato 572).

DC 37 experienced some significant challenges in 1970s as most cities were facing huge fiscal crisis, where public employees underwent decrease in benefits, wage freezes, and work termination. Regardless of these demanding periods, the council, however, was successful to go beyond the 100,000 membership mark in 1975.

All through history, DC 37 has dynamically held social movement unionism through connecting its efforts for better pay and benefits to other matters related with political economy and social issues. DC 37, represented by some delegation, participated in various other strikes in opposition to segregation and inequality, the council and its partners demonstrated also in opposition to the Vietnam War.

Effect on Productivity and Performance in Schools Haskins (116) did research on the connection between teachers’ unions and education systems. The research concluded that teachers’ unions hamper the productivity through raising the institution inputs as they reduce the performance of the students. The existence of unions of teachers and other unions in employment sectors are likely to raise school funds and that the raised finances are dedicated to superior standard wages and reduce class sizes.

Actually, the raised salaries for teachers may not raise the performance of students and quality of education. The Unions should address also the issue of performance and quality of education to portray their quality representation to both the teachers and students. Some have argued that teachers’ unions take reform control away from management, students and parents, together with exploiting the city’s resources as they only address the issues experienced by teachers.

Conclusion Unions in the United States have reported significant achievements since they were established in 1950s through addressing the issues affecting teachers and other members, such as nurses and home care providers. From above discussion, we can conclude by stating that unions, such as United Federation of Teachers and DC 37, have played a significant role in resolving some issues that were traditionally experienced by employees in their workplaces, including benefits, wage increase, reduction of class sizes, and other school-related issues.

There are various disadvantages faced by employees who are members of these unions. Their members have limited expressions in development in their educational institutions and the way they should teach in schools. They also contribute huge sum of money to maintain or finance the activities of these unions that they are later contributed to various political parties.

Works Cited Budd, John and Brian McCall. “The Effect of Unions on the Receipt of Unemployment Insurance Benefits.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 50 (2007): 477-491.

Cannato, Vincent. The Ungovernable City. New York: Basic Books, 2002. Print.

Haskins, Justin Trask. Saving America: From Global Warming to Immigration. New York: Lulu, 2007. Print.

Meyer, Heinz-Dieter. “Trade, Profession or Entrepreneurs? The Market Faithful Raise Important Questions about the Future of Teacher Unions.” American Journal of Education 112 (2005): 1-7. Print.

Moe, Terry. Special Interest: Teachers Unions and America’s Public Schools. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2011. Print.

Wright, Carol. “Unions and Teachers: Differences in the State of the Nation.” ALSB Journal of Employment and Labor Law 10.2 (2001): 1-12. Print.


An Effective Manager Needs To Be an Effective Leader Essay college essay help

In a formal setting of an organisation, managers oversee the execution of duties by other people in the organisation. The theory of management is arguable among experts. There are several theories on how to become an effective manager in an organisation.

The classical theory advocates the perspective that there is a single way to run an organisation. According to this theory, a manager either has to be a strict manager in the organisation, or has to adopt leadership as a means of guiding the organisation to its success.

The use of strict and coercive management tactics is supported by the theories regarding management styles. Two antagonistic theories analyse the concept of work, and help identify the two major styles of steering an organisation to success. One theory supposes that work is unpleasant for any individual.

This means that an individual will only work due to the necessity to fulfil personal needs, and that majority of individuals are not self-motivated enough to take on their tasks without coercion. Due to this theory, some experts maintain that strict management practices are always necessary to realise performance in any organisation (McGregor, 1960).

Another theory postulates that work is a natural phenomenon and that in the right environment humans can be motivated to work towards organisational goals without any form of coercion. This theory advocates that for people to work towards the organisational goals, they just need a leader to instil a sense of direction in them.

In that case, the leader does not provide the motivation directly, but creates a vision for the subjects he or she is leading (McGregor, 1960). In “The theory of social and economic organization”, Weber and parsons say that the organisation must gain the trust of the workers for in to get maximum output from the labour force (Weber


The International Federation of Football Association Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Introduction The world has undergone various transformations that have made it easier for people from various regions of the world to meet and share many aspects of their cultures. Modernization has forced almost all countries in the world to share common beliefs and practices that identify them as one block.

The use of modern technology in communication and other aspects of human life have made it mandatory for people from different countries to adopt similar practices to enhance their interactions and boost relations among nations of the world. This has led to the formation of international bodies that oversee interactions in various fields are carried out with minimal barriers.

These bodies have been set up to ensure all member countries enjoy same benefits without oppressing others on grounds of their levels of development. One of these organizations is the International Federation of Football Association commonly known as FIFA. This research paper explores the structures, membership, functions and benefits of this association to member countries and individuals.

FIFA is an international association that governs all the sporting activities that involve football and soccer played on the beach by men and women. Many countries in the world are members of this association. It is estimated that two hundred and eight nations are registered members. The headquarters of this association is found in Switzerland and is headed by Sepp Blatter (Elvis 2010) who is considered the president of this association.

This association is responsible for coordinating and organizing various tournaments including the World Cup and continental tournaments which are events known world wide and command majority of the population as fans. It is believed to have begun in the twentieth century when there was great need to have one institution to handle and coordinate football matches that were gaining popularity all over the world.

Therefore, in 1904 this association was formed by four countries including France, Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands with its structure run and managed by the FIFA congress which is in charge of forming rules and regulations governing world football and the operations of FIFA. These members have their meetings annually but they may also have some emergency sessions when need arises (Tumlin 2006).

It has a wide international organizational structure that consists of other sections that are supervised by the supreme organ. In addition, FIFA has six components that oversee the progress of football activities in all continents and act as a link between FIFA and other nations of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, FIFA has a total of three hundred and thirty seven active football teams of which one hundred and twenty nine are women’s teams while two hundred and eight are men’s teams from various regions of the world. FIFA plays a major role in promoting football in all parts of the world through awarding nationals and individuals with various prestigious gifts and recognitions.

Through these awards nationals as well as individuals are motivated to do their best as far as playing football is concerned. It also plays a vital role in ensuring that national teams are managed properly and that governments do not interfere with the running of its grass root organs and also suspends teams in cases where these organizations failed to do their work.

FIFA plays an important role in ensuring that referees, players and coaches exercise the highest levels of discipline. FIFA being a world association means that it requires huge amount of money to run its activities effectively throughout the world.

Therefore, it seeks assistance from multinational companies in order to boost its financial position for effective running of internal and external operations. Many companies have offered to partner with FIFA in the process of providing essential football services to office holders, referees, coaches, players and football fans.

They include; Coca-Cola Company that deals with soft drinks, the Adidas Company that specializes in sports wear, the Emirates Company that deals with air transport, Hyundai-Kia Motors that deals with the manufacture of automobiles, the Sony Company that deals with electronics and the Visa Company that deals with funds transfer services. These companies provide essential services like sponsoring teams to international and local matches, construction of stadiums and sponsoring players to other teams.

FIFA provides its members with immense benefits ranging from the advantages a country gets by being a member of FIFA to individual benefits gained by players. Nations affiliated to FIFA have good football teams since the association oversees their management and running of their programs.

It ensures that national teams are accorded all the necessary material and financial support in order to meet the international standards outlined by FIFA. The existence of stiff penalties to member states that do not follow the stipulated laws acts as guidelines as to how football activities should be conducted.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The International Federation of Football Association specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also plays an important role of ensuring that all football players get the benefits they are entitled to and at the same time uphold the highest standards of morality (Menary 2007). FIFA plays an important role in ensuring that the standards of football are improved world wide. It is a unique association due to the fact that it operates on the principle of hard work and transparency.

It is an international association that strives to bring equality among states by offering equal opportunities for them to showcase their talents through competitive fixtures. It is a non political association whose main aim is to improve the standards of football in all regions of the world without overemphasizing on profit making.

Even though it offers avenues for countries to compete these competitions are vital in promoting regional and international relations among people from different backgrounds. FIFA contributes immensely to the development of economies in almost all regions of the world. The most common way of promoting economies is through organizing matches where millions of fans pay to watch live matches played in stadiums or through millions of televisions in their homes and movie theatres.

All these fans have to pay for tickets that permit them to enter the stadiums or cinema halls to watch football matches. Hundreds of thousands of people earn their living through direct or indirect contact with football. Football players are among the best paid in the world making football a highly ranked profession. Millions of traders deal with sports items like boots, kits and balls from different manufactures and this helps in reducing the problem of unemployment.

In addition, many countries of the world where major football events are held benefit greatly through construction and renovation of infrastructure to be used when competitions are about to start. South Africa is one of the countries that benefited from the 2010 World Cup competitions that were held in a number of its cities. It is estimated that she got a 30% infrastructure boost from the many stadiums and roads that were constructed and renovated prior to the commencement of the competition.

Therefore, it plays a great role in developing Saudi Arabia due to the possibilities of offering jobs to thousands of people who trade in sports gears. It also promotes cultural exchange between citizens of Saudi Arabia and those from other regions of the world.

This means that there will be open spaces for foreign investors in the near future as there will be high prospects of international tournaments being held there. In addition, Saudi Arabia is developing its road, air and railway transport system that is aimed at providing reliable transport services to its citizens and foreigners.

The main programs offered by FIFA include training current and upcoming players as well as coaches and referees in order to improve football standards in Saudi Arabia. Attraction of World Cup to Saudi Arabia takes two approaches that are necessary in shaping the world’s perception regarding this country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The International Federation of Football Association by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first approach is through peace promotion that will aim at portraying citizens as friendly and social to strangers unlike the past that has been tainted with perceptions of war and unending conflicts. The second approach is promoting football popularity through boosting the performance of the national team to be recognized among the best performing teams in the world.

The government should also be encouraged to invest in football in order to boost the morale of football players, coaches and fans. FIFA can play an important role in promoting any upcoming business through advertising it during matches that are aired in millions of televisions world wide. It can also promote a business through advertising it in billboards and posters located in major highways and in stadiums that host major sporting events.

The major strengths that are accredited to FIFA include their ability to influence governments to promote local football teams and this encourages career developments (Mason and Pierre 2005). It controls the running of its affiliated organs and encourages transparency in affairs that involve players, coaches and countries (FIFA 2007). Discipline among football coaches and players have improved due to the presence of stiff penalties for those who break football rules.

However, cases of corruption abound in the management of the association and this discredits its value. In addition, election malpractices have been reported in many instances and this threatens fairness in the running of their programs. The association has failed to control internal wrangles in many of its affiliate associations therefore making football teams from these countries perform below their abilities.

This association has also failed to create a balance between all teams of the world resulting to great rifts between well paying teams and poorly organized teams. Lastly, the association has been linked with application of double standards as far as sanctions and other disciplinary measures are concerned making some members to feel neglected and discriminated against.

Conclusion FIFA is an association that has brought justice and sanity to football in almost all regions of the world. It enhances interactions among individuals and states that in turn promotes peace in the world. Even though this association is facing challenges that threaten its effectiveness it is still ranked among the best international associations.

References Elvis, M. (2010). 2010 Fifa World Cup South Africa Official Book. New York: Carlton Books.

FIFA. (2007). Official Rules of Soccer. New York: Triumph Books.

Mason, T, and Lanfanchi Pierre. (2005). 100 Years of Football: The Fifa Centennial Book. New York: WN Publishers.

Menary, S. (2007). Outcasts: The Lands that FIFA Forgot. Kansas: Pitch Publishing.

Tumlin, R. (2006). FIFA Levies and the Collection of Judgments in Georgia. New York: AuthorHouse.


Exchange Rate Market Report college admission essay help

Executive summary Our corporate J was a large financial company in Australian doing foreign exchange business. For doing the gambling business we need to change money to US dollar and EURO. We started trading with an amount equivalent to $400 AUD. This was to be used in purchasing and thereafter selling of foreign currencies in accordance to the fluctuating rates and tap the difference to earn profit from it.

This led to an in depth analysis on the currencies we were to trade in and the economic implications to these given currencies that might lead to the fluctuating prices. We analyzed among other factors Exchange rate expectations, International speculation and investment, Commodity prices, Relative interest rates and Purchasing power parity and Relative inflation rates.

These factors were to influence our trade in the currencies. We invested the amount and traded as we thought best but ended up making a loss of $1,025,444. The net loss was due to some wrong decisions that were arrived at after an analysis of the above mentioned factors. (Barro 2008)

Introduction Jupiters corporate j objectives

The objective is to figure out how to raise EUR 480m in addition to raising USD 200m for purchase of gaming equipment. This is only possible if we make right investment for purposes of future profits for the company. Analysis of the movement in the market was very critical before the market opened in order to come up with a trading strategy to make profits and knowing the right time to sell. (Blanchard 2008)

Market view

The inflation rate at this time is not very high and the purchasing power parity was generally average. However, the demand for the Great Britain pounds fell to a very low point (Mankiw 2006). This was due to the inflation experience in this Great Britain. The spot rate we were dealing with indicated an exchange rate of about 1.6130.

The selling and buying influenced the price leading to slight fluctuations depending on the commodity currency that the exchange rate would be conducted in. Generally, the prices of GBP reduced and were selling at a lower rate. The USD on the other hand performed better, while we started at $0 we ended up with $207,638,640. This is because of the high demand of the currency both as a commodity and terms currency.

It may be used to indicate that the American economy was doing well with the purchasing power at stable position. A similar scenario was reflected at the Euro, the demand for the currency was high and this lead to a high price giving us a good profit margin. Having started at £0, we ended up with $583,424,646 which is generally a good margin. A complete analysis of these transactions is provided below at the strategy employed section. (Beins 2004)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A high inflation rate in the commodity currency host country would lead to a fall for demand for the products produced in the host country leading to the lesser demand of the currency and the value of the same would fall. This lead us to taking serous considerations to the inflation rates of the commodity currency host countries in order to make informed decisions on how to trade on the same. (Mcneill 2009).

The factors that influence exchange that we considered included: Ask and Bid/offer factors

Asking for a price of a given currency from a bank influences the success or failure of the exchange rate. When one rings a bank and asks for a quotation for a given currency and the bank agrees on a given quotation, the decision to buy the given amount of currency at that rate relies on the buyer in this case us. And as such, we were at liberty to choose where and at what price we would buy the currency.

For the bid/offer factor, the bank also aims at selling at the highest price and buy at the lowest price in order to have a bigger spread since the exchange market does not have discounts (Krugman 2009)

Relative economic growth rates

An increase in the economic growth rate of the commodity currency host country would lead to a higher demand in the commodity currency and hence higher prices. For instance, if the Australian economy was to increase at a higher rate than most of the world economies, it would mean that there would be a higher demand for the AUD currency to purchase the imports since there is a higher purchasing power among the Australians.

This leaves the market with less AUD and hence an increased demand for the AUD and a limited supply leading to the shift of the prices of the currency. The economic growth rate therefore informed an important part of our decision on whether and when to sell or not.

We took a research on the economic growth rate on host countries of the currencies we were to deal with. These included the United States of America, Australia, Great Britain and the European Union. (Cohen 2007)

Purchasing power parity and Relative inflation rates

A high inflation rate in the commodity currency host country would lead to a fall for demand for the products produced in the host country leading to the lesser demand of the currency and the value of the same would fall. This lead us to taking serous considerations to the inflation rates of the commodity currency host countries in order to make informed decisions on how to trade on the same. (Mcneill 2009)

We will write a custom Report on Exchange Rate Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relative interest rates

This is formed our biggest mistake in the factors that we considered affecting the exchange rates. We assumed that a higher nominal rate would translate to higher investments into the country and therefore a rise in demand of the country’s currency value this should in turn lead to a rise in the value of the currency in question. However, the real situation is not as we thought. We ignored the fact that a country with a high interest rate would also have a higher inflation rate (Cohen 2007).

Australia cut the interest rate from 4.25 to 3.75. Once the interest rate decreased, the expert return is getting lower so that the demand of AUD is getting lower. This is because of the reasonable assumption that the real interest between countries is constant. The increase of nominal interest rate of Britain from 7.5% to 9% which attracted our interest and lead to believe that real interest had arisen.

But we ignored that inflation rate had risen from 4.5% to 6.2%. This meant that the inflation rate had really hampered the real interest rate which had reduced by 0.2%. It reasonable since if this were not the case, capital would flow to the country with high interest rates until the interest rates are constant in the world.

It is however important to realize that nominal rate is different from real interest rate. Since normal interest rates do not take into consideration the inflation rate in the given country’s when coming up with up with the rates while real interest rates do. i.e.

Real interest rate=Nominal interest-inflation rate

As such, considering only the nominal interest rate of a country and making trading conclusions about of it is dangerous. In our analysis of the various countries and their interest rates, we only considered the nominal interest rate and did not calculate the real interest which we were to consider in making decisions on the trade. (Mankiw 2006)

Commodity prices

An international change in the prices of a commodity would lead to a change in the demand of that commodity. If this commodity is an export of the given country, due to a higher inflation in that country, the prices of that commodity will rise in the international market which will eventually lead to a reduction in the demand for that commodity and as such reduce the demand for the commodity currency of the given host country. A reduction in the demand for the currency will also lead to a reduction in the price of that currency. This is a factor that we took into consideration while conducting our analysis. (Arnold 2010)

International speculation and investment

Global speculation influences the price of currencies as investments drive it. For instance, speculation on the default of the US economy has lead to the preference of the Australia as an alternative investment destination. This leads to a rise in the demand of the AUD and therefore a rise in the price of the currency. In however leads to a reduction in the price of USD as investors shift their focus to more friendly economies. (Krugman 2009)

Exchange rate expectations

Another very important factor we took into consideration was the exchange rate expectation. This has been known to influence the market a great deal. When investors expect the price of the currency to fall, they will sell the currency to avoid making loss of selling the currency later. This will increase the supply of the currency in the exchange market and hence reducing the price of the currency. The reverse is also true. (Barro 2008)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Exchange Rate Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Trading strategy and performance analysis

Opening Position Open Pos in AUD Net Trades Current Pos Curr Pos In AUD Change AUD $143,097,090 $143,097,090 -$140,636,019 $2,461,072 $2,461,072 -$140,636,019 USD $0 $0 $208,926,000 $208,926,000 $207,638,640 $207,638,640 EUR $0 $0 $454,312,772 $454,312,772 $583,424,646 $583,424,646 GBP $425,000,000 $681,417,348 -$406,299,070 $18,700,930 $29,964,637 -$651,452,711 JPY $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Trading strategy

The following are the trading strategy we employed when trading in each of the currency traded. The factors considered and guided the trade are the speculation that was surrounding each of the currency, the economic situation of the commodity currency’s economy, interest rates economic growth rates and commodity prices in the given countries (Mcneill 2009). We embarked on the activity of getting to know who our sellers were and analyzing their offers against others.

We would also target the lowest offer by the banks and the RBA on the average prices of the currencies and identify the lowest bidders from which we would then buy from. Getting the lowest bidder in the market demands a very good knowledge on the sellers and their prices. Being the price takers, we would have to wait for the price of the currencies to be fixed and then identify who was selling at the lowest price. (Cohen 2007)

Performance Analysis As a corporate, a price taker, we started with a good attitude from the market. Most of our clients were from our gambling games recommended us to other people, cooperate and banks. We went therefore to buy at the lowest prices offered price by the bank since we are a price taker and sell at the highest of prices to our clients.

We had a team of two people (Arnold 2010), one of us would be engaged in looking for buyers that we would sell the currencies to while the other would focus on looking for the lowest bidders to whom we would sell the currencies. The first thing we had to do was to analyze the factors that shape the prices of the currencies and speculate on most likely prices of the currencies.

We would then call banks and take the lowest prices they offered to us since we are a price taker. At the instance, the prices for the currencies exchange rates were standing at USD=1.0682 EUR= 0.8016 GBP= 1.6130. The USD increased to 1.1202 and the EUR was selling at 1.2101. This helped us gain profit as we called banks and they were really interested in buying at our price of 1.10 for the EUR and 1.0 for the USD.

We sold a considerable amount of the currencies and gained a total of about $791,063, 286. This boosted our earnings and motivated our trade. Due to the hype, we started selling the GBP even though their prices had fallen to 0.999. This was because of the increase of nominal interest rates of Britain from 7.5% to 9% which attracted our interest and lead to believe that real interest had arisen. But we ignored that inflation rate had risen from 4.5% to 6.2%.

This meant that the inflation rate had really hampered the real interest rate which had reduced by 0.2%. We speculated that their prices would go down further due to the rising inflation in Britain. We had to sell all of them at a loss of about 0.614 leading to a loss of -$651,452,711.

The next day it turned out that we were right as the prices of the GBP went on declining. We however learnt that before buying any of the currencies, it is important to keep sober and analyze all factors that might shape the shift of the prices in the future (Krugman 2009).

Lessons and Possible Improvements

The float of exchange rates are influenced by inflation rates a big deal. When inflation rate rises, prices of the commodities from the commodity currency country rise above the normal price prompting buyers of these commodities to shift and purchase such commodities from other competing countries which in turn reduces the demand for the currency. A reduction on the demand of the currency means a reduction in the price of that currency.

As such, we learnt that inflation is an integral part of that determines the prices of currency and should therefore be carefully considered. The demand and supply of the currency in the exchange market also shapes the price. When the RBA reduces supply of USD for instance in the market, the prices of the USD will rise due to the forces of demand and supply.

Forces of supply and demand are determined by the supply and demand of the same by the RBA. The RBA comes in as a player to regulate the prices of the currencies depending on the current rates. High exchange rates might lead to inflation in the country and therefore to protect the economy, the RBA comes in to buy or sell currencies in order to stabilize the prices (Barro 2008)

We learnt that it when trading nothing should be taken for granted and that every factor should be considered into the finest of details. One should not assume that member states of given unions have an identical economy to the union itself, e.g. one should never assume that the economy of Britain is performing similarly to the European Union economy simply because Britain is an active member of the union.

When considering the nominal rates, one should always subtract the inflation rate and remain with the real interest rate on which one should make their decision. The real interest rate should be the basis on which decisions are anchored (Blanchard 2008).

Conclusion Even though we made good trades in most of the currencies we traded in, we made a mistake and placed a risk where we shouldn’t have leading to the loss we had. The Great Britain Pounds made us have a huge loss that could not be compensated by the profits we made from trading in the American Dollar, AUD and the Euro. (Trochim 2006)

References Arnold, A 2010, Macroeconomics, Cengage Learning, Chicago.

Barro, R. J 2008, Macroeconomics: A Modern Approach, Cengage Learning, Chicago.

Beins, B 2004, Research Methods: a tool for life, Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, Michigan.

Blanchard, O 2008, Macroeconomics, Pearson Hall, Carlifonia.

Cohen, L 2007, Research Methods in Education, Routledge, Washington D.C.

Krugman, R. W 2009, Macroeconomics, Worth Publishers, New York.

Mankiw, G 2006, Macroeconomics, W H Freeman-Usa, New York.

Mcneill, P 2009, Research Methods: Third Edition. Cengage Learning, Chicago.

Trochim, W 2006, Research Methods Knowledge Base, Cengage, Chicago.


Promotional Program at Skyways International Airlines Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Skyways International Airlines had registered a net loss over the past three years. This prompted the company’s chief marketing executive, Eric Hale, to act on a program that would reverse the situation. This move by Skyways was intended to bring about expansion through increasing international flights to the South Pacific routes as Australia, New Zealand and also domestically within the United States.

Although the South Pacific route operated on a net loss, the management of Skyways was hesitant in terminating its operations along this route. Their argument was supported by current substantial cash flow from the South Pacific which was much needed for sustaining the company’s business position.

This was the driving force behind realization of the airliners’ marginal costs. Growth prospects especially from New Zealand and Australia due to Olympic Games scheduled for 2000 in Sydney was, according to Hale, an opportunity for making profits.

Competition was however, seen from other airline service providers plying same South Pacific routes. Among key players in the industry were United Airlines, Qantas and the third competitor was Air New Zealand. These competitors relatively found market favour due to their superior machinery and travelling programs.

Having both direct and indirect flights to the South Pacific cities of Sydney, Auckland and other feeder cities within the region was a major boost for them. There was more comfort for passengers using the Boeing 747-400 aircraft, a more superior plane series offered by Skyways’ competitor companies. This meant that customer preference was favouring the competitors to the disadvantage of Skyways.

An advantage that Skyways enjoyed over the three competitors was back in its domestic setting, within the United States. It was a result of better network for feeder flights which linked to Los Angeles as a collection point before setting for the South Pacific regions.

Skyways initially had no direct flight from Los Angeles to Sydney or Auckland but with the introduction of McDonnell-Douglas aircrafts, this achievement was made possible. The improvement started its operation four years ago and this meant that planes would not have to take a break at Honolulu for refuelling.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to prepare an appropriate promotional program for Skyways, Eric Bale had to sample some of the company’s research findings on marketing studies. From these reviews, he fund out that the company commanded 15% market share for flights from the United States to South Pacific cities. Further in-depth analysis showed that the flights were at peak during the season of Northern Hemisphere winters with the majority of passengers being rich couples travelling for pleasure.

Determinants of this transport activity were air ticket price, travelling schedule, place or intended destination and nature of travel agents. 1990s was a bad time for Skyways as well as other airline operators due to frequent flight deregulations, low traffic, Asian depression and exorbitant costs.

An incentive by Skyways to reduce its fares was matched with an immediate response by competitors forcing Eric Bale to formulate an effective promotional program. Describing South Pacific region as a growing market important for the future of Skyways, Bale believed in a special promotional approach.

This evoked mixed reactions from company executives with others suggesting the improvement of service delivery to attract more customers. Comprehensive promotional program proposals for the coming year were to be presented by Eric Bale to the company’s president within two weeks.


Strategic Planning at the Multistate Health Corporation Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The Multistate Health Corporation religiously directed to provide health services to the unprivileged in society. Its headquarters located in Michigan; it owns four secondary establishments and thirty hospitals located in seventeen states, with more than 10000 employees.

The Multistate Health Corporation centers on providing health care to the less privileged in society. The Multistate Health Corporation hospitals denoted as divisions, and each division has a Chief executive officer who reports directly to regional executive vice president (Blanchard


Concept of Millennial Generation Research Paper argumentative essay help

Generation y, also referred to as the Millennial Generation, Echo Boomers or Net Generation describes the demographic group succeeding generation x (Hira 1). The date of the start and end of this generation has been a matter of speculation with some suggesting that its birth occurred between the mid 1970s and the late 1980s. Some individuals argue that the generation comprises of individuals born in the early 21st century (Hira 1).

In all definitions, the term Net Generation is specifically used to refer to the age group of individuals born between 1983 and 1988. It is argued that a child born in the early 1980s was mature enough to father an offspring before the beginning of the millennium (Hira 1). Within this period, it is quoted that the US Census Bureau referred to this generation as Echo Boomers since it brought along a drastic increase in the birth rates from the early 1980s to the late 1990s (Hira 1).

The generation y attributes varied based on the region, economic and communal conditions. However, one autonomous attribute concerning this generation is the extensive use and familiarity with modern technologies, media, and communications. In the political arena, the generation witnessed an increase in neoliberal advancements.

A Similar approach was also realized in the economic sectors although their effects on the environment are unclear. Overtime, there has been a great deal of facts and misinformation in the media regarding generation y with newspapers, journals and books focusing more on the generation than any other generation.

Background of generation Y In the media fraternity, the tem generation y initially appeared during the onset of the early 1990s (Maxwell 1). The term was a succeeding term to generation x. Generation x specifically comprises of individuals born between the early 1960s and the late 1970s.

This generation can be said to have witnessed the cold war and contributed to the rise of technology and the internet (Maxwell 1). The end of generation x in the late 1970s paved way for generation y that comprises of more than half of the world’s population currently. This generation is considered to be in the youthful stage of life.

Characteristics of generation y In an attempt to define generation y, the media has come up with several attributes distinguishing the generation from other generations. Currently, the bulk of the generation y individuals are in their 20s. They are just joining the workforce (Kane 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With a population of up to 70 million, they are the fastest growing group in any organization’s workforce. As companies and Industries compete for the available talent, employers cannot ignore the generation’s needs and talents. The generation’s characteristics are distinct from other generations in a number of ways (Kane 1).


Generation y can be considered tech-savvy as its members grew up in an era of new technologies. The group heavily relies on technology to perform daily tasks (Kane 1). Armed with sophisticated gadgets, phones and laptops, the generation is considered as best suited to tackle the current tech-savvy issues in the workplace (Kane 1). Another major attribute of this generation is its form and means of communication.

Unlike generation x, which preferred face-face communication, the group fancies e-mail and text –messaging (Kane 1). Online technologies such as online learning, marketing and telecommuting techniques are more preferred by the group as compared to generation x. Similarly, generation y professionals are able to operate with flexible work schedules, work better and receive huge earnings from their fewer billable hours (Kane 1).

In my opinion, the media’s description of the group is valid as market research indicates that most buyers of modern electronics and technologies are the persons between the ages of 20 and 30 years. This age group comprises of the generation y individuals (Kane 1).

Achievement oriented

As the media asserts, generation y parents can be considered as individuals who never compromise on the previous generation’s mistakes while bringing up their children (Kane 1). Thus, the generation can be considered as confident, determined and goal-oriented unlike generation x. In the workforce, the generation has high expectations, confront new challenges, and act and ask questions with authority.

Unlike generation x, individuals belonging to generation y are known to have changed workplaces more often (Kane 1). However, in my opinion I disagree with the media views describing the generation as more goal oriented. In the contemporary society, generation x members can be considered to be more focused on their achievements than generation y. Thus, the media’s perception is not entirely through on this generation.


The media suggests that generation y spent its early years preoccupied with team sports and numerous group activities. In this regard, individuals in this group have grown up to become people who value cooperation in their daily activities. Unlike other past generations, the generation can be considered more loyal, committed and team oriented (Kane 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Concept of Millennial Generation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my view, the media’s attributes on generation y regarding cooperation and teamwork is true. Evidenced by the continuous involvement of the generation in team buildings and social networking, the group can be considered more team-oriented than any other generation.


Children belonging to generation y have experienced a more diverse society than any other generation. The society has increased its multicultural values altering the traditional family believes and values. As a result, the generation and their families have witness several sexual alignments in the society. In the early 1980s, at the birth of the generation, homophobia was rampant in the American society (Kane 1).

On the contrary, today’s society is less opposed to the homosexual behaviors. This is because of the increased number of less conservative and diverse generation y individuals in the society. Researchers have noted that the greatest achievement brought about by this generation in the American society is the diversification of American cultures (Kane 1).

The generation has overturned the older generations’ believes as it has redefined its own cultural styles, permissions and linguistics. In its lifestyles behaviors, the generation has appeared to be more tolerant to cohabitation, single parenting and comprehensive families unlike generation x. Similarly, in the political arena, generation y has proved to be more democratic and liberal than the past generations (Hira 1).

To hold up to the media’s views, I do think the generation diversity is undoubted. This is true because the generation’s lifestyle is unique and assorted unlike any other generation indicating its diversity.

Social evolution for generation y Generation y individuals are responsible for the global evolution and spread of information technology (Ponce 1). With the drastic social media evolution, technology has become part of the daily activities. Businesses and other related workforce have undergone a major restructuring in order to position themselves at the competitive edge (Ponce 1).

In the workforce, generation y has facilitated communication and networking through mediums like Facebook, Twitter and other social channels of communication. Challenging the use of the old means of communication, and appreciating and accepting the generation’s technologies, ideas, and concepts will significantly enhance companies’ workforce (Ponce 1).

Currently, companies that have adopted the generation’s social tools and concepts have a greater chance of gaining new knowledge, enhance teamwork, save time, communicate, and overcome information gaps (Ponce 1). The generation’s attitude coupled with its creativity and ambitiousness has revolutionized the workplace. Therefore, I consider the media’s analysis on the contribution of this group to be valid.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Millennial Generation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, in my view, through the evolution of the social media instigated by generation y, business ventures have had improved productivity coupled with efficient workforce. As seen from the human resource shift to social media as a tool for recruiting generation y workers, the social media is a successful and innovative product of this generation (“Interview Questions” 1.)

Conclusion In my opinion, the media’s definition of generation y is appropriate. This is because the media’s method of specifically distinguishing this generation from other generations is fully substantiated (Joella 1). Thus, one can easily identify and distinguish a generation y individual from other generations.

Due to its current immense contribution in various sectors ranging from economic to technological sectors, the group’s contribution is undoubted. Thus, it is appropriate for companies and business ventures to allow the generation y labor force into their premises if they want to remain viable and increase productivity in the current market system.

Works Cited Joella, Annabelle. “English Investigative Journalism: Newspaper Articles: Gen Y more gracious than Gen X: Survey AND More giving to charity from the grave.” English Investigative Journalism. Version 1. no publisher, 2012. Web.

Hira, Nadira A. “Generation Y – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. wikipedia. Web.

“Interview Questions


Financial Challenges in Companies Expository Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review



Introduction Though managing an organisation involves long-term thinking and careful consideration of the organisational dynamics, many corporations cannot handle untimely alterations of the business environment. This is because the global monetary crisis comes at an unprecedented time, making it difficult for some organisations to put their operations in a manner that helps them cope with such financial challenges.

Despite the reality that financial challenges have hit global business operations in one way or the other, and at different times, the horizon at which the companies operate has not been so proactive (Gustavo, Michaely


Income Inequality in Marxism, Structuralism, Neoliberalism, and Dependency Theory Essay college essay help

Table of Contents The Institutionalisation of Inequality in the Context of Marxism

Structuralism and the Aspects of Economy

Dependency Theory and the Factor of the Economic Inequality

Neoliberalism as the New Approach to the Economic Inequality

Reference List


The peculiar features of every country’s development should be discussed from the point of the character of the economic relations within the country and from the point of the country’s position within the global economic environment. Thus, one of the main criteria according to which it is possible to analyze international relations theories in their connection with the sphere of economy is the notion of income inequality.

Such theories as Marxism, Structuralism, Neoliberalism, and Dependency Theory discuss the notion of economic inequality according to their specific concepts which differ from each other and have a lot of variations. That is why inequality in the sphere of economy is a multidimensional concept which can be analyzed in various contexts with references to different international relations theories.

The Institutionalisation of Inequality in the Context of Marxism Examining the economic inequality as the main criterion to determine the major aspects of Marxism, it is important to pay attention to the fact that in the case of Marxism the inequality is discussed at the country’s level. The distribution of the necessary means among the population in the Marxist’s society is based on the individuals’ needs1.

This principle of distribution makes people be rather equal in their economic status within the society. However, the opposite approach to the distribution of means is the base of the Capitalist’s society where class relations function. Thus, the economic inequality is the main condition for the development of the class relations. The ideas of Marxists were further developed by Structuralists with determining the additional categories.

Structuralism and the Aspects of Economy Basing on the Marxist’s ideas on the class relations as the key factor of the domestic economic development, Structuralists focus on the global economic progress and make accents on the position of the country within the world context. From this point, the world is divided into the developed and developing countries, and there are definite relations of dependency among them which are connected with the issue of class relations2.

The developed countries have the fundament of their economic progress in following the principles of capitalism which is based on the economic inequality of classes and individuals. The income inequality as the economic injustice is the main characteristic feature of the Capitalistic society.

The distribution of the world resources between the developed and developing countries is unequal and contributes to the progress of the economic polarization within the global market. That is why it is possible to state that according to the principles of Structuralism the world relations are based on the rather unjust rules provided by the Capitalistic countries which impose the relations of inequality at the global arena. Such relations provoke the dependency of the developing countries on the economic state of the developed countries. This aspect becomes the key one for working out the Dependency Theory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dependency Theory and the Factor of the Economic Inequality Dependency Theory operates the notion of the economic inequality at the world level and discusses it as the global inequality which is realized in the unequal relations between the developed and developing countries3. According to the Dependency Theory, it is almost impossible to speak about the notion of justice in the relations between the classes within states and between the definite countries because there are always dominant countries and the dependent ones.

In this situation the relations of dependency are based on the fact that the developed countries are inclined to enrich their potentials using the developing countries with the high level of poverty which emphasizes the notion of global inequality4.

Neoliberalism as the New Approach to the Economic Inequality The principles of Neoliberalism are often discussed as the possible measures to restrict the level of the poverty in the developing countries5. Thus, Neoliberalism argues any governmental restrictions and barriers between the countries as the ways to limit the economic possibilities of the individuals and states6.

That is why the only way to the economic progress is the establishment of the free markets and free trade between the countries. It is the first step to the globalization when the low income of the societies of the developing countries can be explained by the fact of the existing barriers which separate these countries from the global market7.

Economic inequality is the category which determines the peculiarities of the development of the countries as an independent state and the part of the global market. In spite of the fact the notion is characteristic for all the international relations theories in connection with the sphere of economy the approaches to its discussion are rather different.

Reference List Devetak, R, J George