Instructional Media: Selection And Use Expository Essay College Essay Help Online

Instructional media can be defined as the tools that are used by educators to convey knowledge to learners. This is because learning cannot be conveyed through word of mouth and therefore, it is important for every educator to have them at hand (Scalan, n.d).

The tools include chalk boards, compact disks, films, and handouts, among many others. These tools are used by educators to enhance the understanding of learners with regard to the topics that have been taught in the classroom.

Instructional media are used for various reasons in the ISD process. The first one being that they attract the attention of the learner. If an educator stood in front of learners and gave lecturers without instructional media, the lesson could be boring and most learners can be distracted by other events.

A few writings on the chalk board go a long way towards drawing the attention of learners. This is because when a leaner sees that the educator has written something on the board he/she will focus on what is being said about those writings.

Additionally, instructional media makes learning interesting. When there are films and compact discs the learning process is enhanced because films and videos, in particular, integrate entertainment into the learning process.

Besides, when there are computers involved learners can perform other tasks due to the multitasking ability of computers such as playing a computer game or watching a movie.

Scanlan (n.d) argues that this gives them freedom and thus they do not feel confined in the classroom. This can have a positive impact, especially among young learners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When learning becomes interesting, the learners can hardly skip classes and this causes their performance to improve. Likewise, the media contains insights from different persons and thus, can be understood better.

The language that is used in instructional media is sometimes appealing to the learners and this makes them accept the concepts that are explained by the media. In essence, instructional media such as compact disks provide convenience for the learners such that they can revisit them any time regardless of their location.

In this regard, an educator does not just choose instructional media; there are several considerations that drive him/her towards choosing instructional media.

The first issue revolves around the availability of the media. An educator could be willing to employ instructional media, but then if the institution he/she works for does not have such materials he/she has to carry on without them. If the materials are available the educator will choose the ones he/she is familiar with.

Consequently, if the available materials are sophisticated, he/she will avoid using them because he/she does not have the skills required to use them. For instance, if an educator is not computer literate he/she will be reluctant to use computers even if they are plenty in the institution.

Furthermore, Russell et al. (2000) outline that the mode of learning influences the use of instructional media. For instance, learners who are in virtual classes, or in other words, distance learning require instructional material because the distance between them and the learning facility becomes a barrier.

There are several guidelines that are applied when selecting instructional media. First, the educator has to find out whether the environment favors his/her preferred media.

We will write a custom Essay on Instructional Media: Selection and Use specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because it would be insane to recommend the use of computers and films to learners who hail from locations that do not have electricity. In addition, the educator has to consider whether the media can accommodate all his/her learners.

For instance, if handouts are to be used he/she should check that they are enough for everyone. This is because if they are scarce the learners may hesitate from using them, probably due to lack of money.

Similarly, the educator should ensure that the learners are acquainted with his/her preferred instruction media. If they do not know how to use it, the educator’s objective will not be achieved.

References Scanlan, C. L. (n.d.). Instructional Media: Selection and Use. Web.

Russell, J.D. et al. (2000). Instructional Technology for Teaching and Learning: Designing Instruction, Integrating Computers, and Using Media (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merril.


Prepaid Wireless Industry Research Paper college essay help near me

Technology has totally revolutionalized the manner in which we carry our day-to-day activities. The communication industry seems to be one of the greatest beneficiaries of the advanced technology since there are so many changes that have taken place.

Life has become easier and simpler with the technological advancements. The prepaid wireless industry is one of the industries that has emerged as a result of advancement in technology. This industry is highly competitive and this has seen many companies come up and stiff competition that is characteristic of this industry and has ensured that customers benefit greatly due to the high quality services being offered.

The focus of this discussion will be on some of the key players in this dynamic and highly competitive industry. The companies in focus are epay and This discussion will also look at some of the advantages that each of these services has and which of the companies is stronger.

Epay. Com is an international company whose main business is the distribution of payments solutions electronically. These services are instrumental in helping providers of various services reap maximally from the sales of their services as well as products.

With more than half a million selling points in various countries of the world like Spain, Ireland, Italy, India and Germany, has continued to deliver highly innovative and specific tailored services as far as making of payment by electronic means in concerned (Epay 3).

The advantage of the prepaid services provided by is that customers are able to access an array of gift cards which are branded. With this concept of prepaid, retailers are able to come up with categories and destinations that are fully supported by experts from epay. Retailers also have the advantage of being able to distribute their services throughout the network. on the other hand is a company that operates globally whose main services include the making prepayments globally as well as value transfer market. This company operates in more than 30 counties in the whole American region and part of the African and Caribbean region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The retail points supported by are estimated to be about 46,000 with annual payment of the dollar being estimated to stand at $1.4 billion with estimates of transaction transacted by the company being estimated to stand at 180 million.

Some of the advantages that has included allowing international as well as domestic distribution of various products which are prepaid in nature and services that involve payments. Retailers, ISOs, service providers and carriers using also have the advantage of getting robust revenues.

Currently, is said to be leading as far as proving prepaid services is concerned. One issue that distinguishes from other companies is the fact Eureka has partnered with most of the well established carriers throughout the world and this has enabled eureka to a great extent to create a reliable network which has proven helpful to clients throughout the world.

This company also caters for long distance prepaid services and this has brought about convenience and customers are able to get value and the revenue goes up.

Any retailer or service provider who has subscribed with emida will also be in a position to offer all their customers, cost effective, convenient and safe options that they can implement to ensure that their financial needs are well managed.

Under the financial services provided by emida, your clients will comfortably be able to purchase stored value cards as well as prepaid debit and also foot their bills. Through these services, it will also be possible for them to make transfers of money to family and friends in convenient hassle free manner.

The kind of services that you will receive from Emida will ensure that the portfolio of your products is well built (Emida 2). It is common knowledge especially in the world today that payment of bills especially if they are hefty can prove to be very risky.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Prepaid Wireless Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides the risk, the hassle involves is nothing to write home about. Having paid full recognition to the challenges that consumers experience in payment of bills Emida has come up with a way of making it easy for clients to foot their bills which is not only easier but also more reliable and convenient.

The payment solution provided by Emida ensures that you gain access to numerous billers from telecommunication to providers of utilities, insurance among others.

With this pay bill solution, all one needs to do is to make payments at a local shop and this helps eliminate the risk factor as well as one is saved the hassle of making the payments and also one is able to save time that would have been wasted in making queues.

For those customers who have subscribed to AT


Joint Venture of Business in Finland Report (Assessment) online essay help: online essay help

Finland sits in the European Union that it joined in 1995 and is continually attracting the international market (US commercial Service 2005, p. 12). Geographically, Finland has a 900 miles border between it and Russia.

In addition to its location, it is strategically placed in the growing market that is contributed greatly by its proximity to Russia, Scandinavia and the Baltic States, which have a market size of close to 80 million consumers (“Doing Business” 2005, p. 12).

As compared to other countries, there is a misplaced conception that Finland is a member of the large Scandinavian region but in contrary; Finland has its own specific monetary mark with the Finnish mark in it.

To be the highly coveted market in the European region it has the most developed industrial economy and it places it as the leading competitor in the telecom market (US commercial Service 2005, p. 12).

Economic factors The economic factors that affect investment of a business in a region could be inflation rate, exchange rates, monetary supply policies and licensing policies that affect investment of companies in the region (Pajunen 2006, p. 1). The affected investors will look at the performance of other related companies in the region and determine if they will be able to establish themselves in the market.

In relation to this, Finland has the highest mixed market. The reason as to why it has been a perfect target for business venture is as a result of the country having currently attracted the largest size of international market (Pajunen 2006, p. 1).

The international market currently makes a third of the country’s GDP where companies from European region makes 60% of the total investment in the land (Pajunen 2006, p. 1). The other important aspect about Finland is the fact their trade policies are controlled by the European Union, thus they are not continuously fluctuating and this helps in increasing market reliability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Financial statistics show that Finland has a lowest inflation rate that is at 1.2% as at 2010. There is also the lowest rate of unemployment that was also reported to be at around 8.1% according to the 2010 reports on the economic performance of the country.

The other important aspect is the fact the country currently has a labor force of close to 3 million workers making it a suitable place for investing since there is a readily available labor (Pajunen 2006, p. 1).

The country is capable of spending within its means since it has a revenue income of close to 66.6 billion dollars and it spends close to 65.3 billion dollars making it the best country since they can be able to budget for their expenses (Rouvinen 2001, p. 350).

The surplus in their revenue makes it have a stable rate of taxation. It has the lowest lending rates and the exchange rates of the currency are stable due to the low rate of inflation (Pajunen 2006, p. 1).

Legal factors When looking at the legal factors that affect trade investment in Finland, they vary depending on the type of investment that the organization intends to venture in (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1). Most of the legal factors are set out by Finland as a country and supported by the European Union, which it is a signatory.

Some of the regulations are import tariffs. These are the taxes that are levied on goods at the point of entry to Finland (“Legal Environment” 2011, p. 1).

The revenue paid on the goods depends on the original value of goods that are being imported. In most cases the importation tax rates range from 0-17% which is considered rather a considerable amount that most companies and investors can work with in the field of importation.

We will write a custom Assessment on Joint Venture of Business in Finland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other factor is the trade barriers. Trade barriers are meant to control trade relationship between Finland and other European countries and other non-European countries (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1). Finland is reported to have introduced a different turnover tax with the value added tax by June of 1994 (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1).

The review of the taxation criteria has seen most of goods and other commodities that were not previously subjected to taxation are nowadays being taxed at a lower tax rate. The country has the basic VAT rate at a very considerable rate of 22% which was reviewed from the old turnover (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1).

They have special taxes placed for food stuffs that are taxed at 17%. In a different case, there are other special taxes for goods that are meant for entertainment, medicines, books, performances and sporting events, museums and other institutions that are taxed at a fairly low rate of 8%making the cost of living to be fairly low and considerate (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1).

Another legal requirement is the importation requirements and documentations. The country has put up regulations that require some goods to be accompanied by special documents to make sure that their quality and safety can be authenticated (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1960, p. 1).

These mostly apply on consumable goods and other goods that have a direct consumption by the consumers.

Other legal dispensations are a temporally entry that allows a free entry of some goods but only for a short duration (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1960, p. 1).

The other regulation is including special labeling and marking of goods for some products (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1960, p. 1). The labeling shows the manufacturer and the chemical composition of some of the products; hence, in case of any further explanation they can be contacted.

Hofstede Framework for Cultural Issues in Finland A number of theorists argue that culture is a civilization or the refinement of the mind and it results from factors such as refinement, education, art and the literature that is available for the society (Ailon 2008, p. 885).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Joint Venture of Business in Finland by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Hofstede, he refers to culture as mind software; meaning that it is based on the mind and it dictates the way a group of people behave or conceptualize the world (Hofstede 2005, p. 214).

Culture is adopted but one is not born with it hence, it is not in the genes of the individuals. As stated earlier, culture is shared by people who have a similar social contact or rather are living in the same region (Ailon 2008, p. 885). Also, culture can be adopted according to their social class that individuals belong to.

According to Hofstede, it is important to distinguish culture from human nature and individual’s personality (Hofstede 2005, p. 214). While venturing into the Finnish market, it is important to understand that culture can manifest itself in different ways that includes values, rituals, heroes and symbols (Hofstede 2005, p. 214).

When venturing into a particular country, it is important to understand all cultural symbols that are used by the natives as well as understand their meaning (Higgs n.d, p.1). Understanding culture will help in coming up with less offensive symbols.

There are some words that are used by Finland natives that have a cultural history into them hence; carrying out such a research is important to the success of a newly venturing company into the country (Hofstede 2005, p. 214). In the case of heroes, the investing company should be sensitive to associate with the type of heroes that are recognized by the society that is targeted by the company (Higgs n.d, p.1).

Rituals are other components of culture; the companies that are coming into Finland should have done research to establish etiquettes and organizational cultures that are in line with the culture of the natives (Ailon 2008, p. 885).

What and/or if the Government Has Done to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) The Finnish government has put in great effort in encouraging foreign direct investment. To attain this, the government has removed regulatory limitations that depend on the acquisition (US commercial Service 2005, p. 12).

There are no controls on the mergers and this has been the rules to make sure that the European market is highly infiltrated (Rouvinen 2001, p. 1). The other effort that the country has made is to ensure that there is proportional competition from privately owned corporations and the government owned organizations (US commercial Service 2005, p. 22).

However, there are regulations that require all foreign owners of companies venturing into the Finnish market to provide to the government for processing of taxes (Rouvinen 2001, p. 1).

In conclusion, the Finnish government has created the best conditions for starting business ventures. The economic stability acts as the barometer to tell how the country is ready for foreign investments.

References Ailon G 2008, ‘Mirror, mirror on the wall: Culture’s Consequences in a value test of its own design’, The Academy of Management Review , vol. 33, no 4, pp. 885-904.

Higgs, M n.d, Overcoming the problems of cultural differences to establish success for international management teams. Web.

Hofstede, G 2005, Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011. Web.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1960, ‘regulatory reform in finland: Enhancing market openness through regulatory reform’, vol 2, pp. 34- 45.

Pajunen, A 2006, Tuloerot Suomessa vuosina 1966-2003. Web.

Rouvinen, P 2001, ‘Finland on top of the Competitiveness Game? The Finnish economic and society 4/2001’, ETLA and EVA , pp. 345-356.

US commercial Service 2005, ‘Doing Business In Finland: A Country Commercial for US companies’, pp. 2-30.


Reform-women’s Rights and Slavery Cause and Effect Essay college essay help online

A reform is a social movement aimed at making gradual changes in the society. Slavery began as a form of punishing criminals in the society and recovering debts. The two main reforms that Americans struggled for were racial justice and gender equality.

The movement began in 1830s in the countryside and towns of the north. The people involved came from rich and religious families. They believed that slavery was because of injustice and unfair treatment of human beings.

The colonizers felt that the movement was threatening their business and status in the society and began to ridicule and attack the families of the abolitionists. Nevertheless, the abolitionists did not loose hope. For example, William Lloyd Garrison, a Massachusetts printer and editor, struggled to liberate slavery by publishing the first issue of The Liberator, which formed the foundation of women right in New England.

He also formed the New England anti-slavery society to strengthen the movement. This movement was formed later in America in which unified west, New York and New England.

Later 1830 and 40s, the movement became stronger and began to gain support from many people. Unfortunately, the movement collapsed due to individual differences. Then later, women coming from prominent families began their movement on antislavery and equality of women.

Writers supported the abolitionist women by producing children books, hymns, and stories that encouraged the younger generation to prepare to fight for their rights and freedom. The women in the abolitionist group started to spread the need for women to speak publicly about their rights.

Sarah and Grimke became the first women lecturers. They began to write and speak on women rights to condemn the message from the General Association of Massachusetts about forbidding women from speaking in public. In 1870s, women were excluded in the right to vote during the amendments of the constitution. They continued to struggle but it took 50 years to be included in the amendments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Change in the attitude of slavery, led to its decline in 1800s. The slaves began to seek for education, jobs and establish churches since were forbidden from interacting with the white people. This helped them improve their living standards and awareness of their capabilities. Samuel Cornish and John Russworn became editors. They started the first black newspaper, Freedom Journal in 1827.

The slaves began to cause threat, the country representatives decided to return some of the slaves to their homeland. Most of the slaves felt that United States was their new home. They became encouraged to put more efforts that resulted to many succeeding. They improved their status in the society and many white people began appreciating them as people with rights.

Today slavery is illegal in all countries except in Africa, Asia, and South America. The incidences are punishable by law hence it is in secret. Today women have acquired personal freedom and can involve themselves in any kind of job in the society.

Women deserved to gain equal rights since they suffered a lot in the hands of the colonizers. Women worked in the fields alongside men but did not rest as men since they performed all the household chores and weaving before going to bed.

Those who worked as house slaves had to stand through out when their masters are in the house, are starved, and forbidden from visiting their husbands. Pregnant women beatings increasing the chances of loosing their babies and when they gave birth, their children sold as slaves.

Conclusion Social activists play the role of identifying and enforcing reforms. Slavery began to benefit the white people in farming, to punish the criminals in the society and to recover debts but it ended up going against the human rights. Law without mercy should punish anybody involved in this business today.


Academic Achievement among International Students and Associated Issues Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Introduction In the last six decades, the number of International students has been steadily increasing across many parts of the world. In the United Kingdom, this increase has particularly been awesome (Beckhridnar and Vickers, 2007 p4).

Academic achievement among the international students can be described as both successful and less successful in a number of parameters. While there exists success stories that can be reported home with a number of factors determine this, it is also true that these associated factors have also functioned to impede or delay the success portended.

Adjustment to foreign culture by international students is always a challenging experience, more so given that they have to deal with different cultural settings, education systems, and language differences.

In most cases, international students have to deal with various groups of people including the co-national, multinational and local friends.

This kind of interaction is always beneficial to the foreign students, more so in relation to learning host culture; however, they experience a slight resistance, if any, to that culture, but the most important aspect is the provision of a fertile ground for ‘cultural shift’. It has also been observed that when the international students interact with their local friends, their cultural adaptability important (Brislin, 1990).

This paper seeks to address the academic achievement among the international students within the confluence of a number of issues in colleges and universities.

These include economic conditions, the extent of the students’ success, and the effect of peer programs on International students in terms of their adjustment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the paper seeks to illuminate on impact of multicultural interaction on international Students, focusing both on the positive and the negative.

Further, it seeks within this to give specific attention to the issue of friendship formation as a key factor in determining the extent of international student’s interaction within their social ties and what these mean in enhancing adjustment, academic performance and psycho-social well being. Additionally the paper zeroes down on the expectations that Universities have of the International students.

Impact of Peer Program on International Student Adjustment and Performance It has been repeatedly asserted that international students usually experience adjustment issues and problems when getting into foreign institutions of higher learning particularly the United States.

Broadly speaking, these problems are many, ranging from language issues, different educational system, and individual personal issues for instance experience of homesickness, as well as the physical distance from those they are familiar with (Gonzalez, 2004). Other problems are tailored around culture shock associated with unfamiliar and new social norms (Abe et al, 1998, p1).

In fact, studies have indicated that social norms and social interaction are the major problems experienced by such students (Kaczmarek et al, 1994). A number of studies have suggested that social interaction and the adjustment of international students are closely related to the social interaction and their adjustment.

Other studies have particularly suggested that Asian students particularly experience more of these problems than any students coming from other parts of the world, more so in relation to acquisition of second language (Andrade, 2009).

This is particularly in line with them trying to make friends and their adjustment to campus life (Ward, Bochner


Martin Luther King’s “I Have A Dream” Speech Analysis Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

“I Have a Dream” is the most famous speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It is also considered as the best and greatest speech that was proclaimed in the history of the United States. It gathered more than 200,000 Americans of all races at the Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963.

The speech is an excellent example of persuasive rhetoric filled with many expressive means and stylistic devices, such as metaphors, repetitions, allusions, epithets and persuasive constructions. The speech has become a symbol of a new era of freedom and symbol of the American civil rights movement.

“I Have a Dream” is a representation of the “America Dream” about a free and equal society. As Leff


What can the U.S. president do to help or hinder the economy and thus the well-being? Term Paper essay help online free

Macroeconomics concerns the understanding of economic factors that result to fluctuations of national income in the short-run and in the long run. There the field involves an aggregation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), price indices and unemployment levels in the country.

Since macroeconomics has the national income as its basis, the government plays a key role in providing an enabling or disabling environment for other sectors of the economy.

The president who appoints a qualified and loyal team to help run it leads government. They include treasury and departmental heads of various government institutions. The government affects business cycles that alter the national income in two ways, by fiscal policy and monetary policy.

The president of the United States plays an important role in formulating the government’s strategy of fiscal policy, which is the main source of government revenue and impacts directly to the aggregate demand in the economy. The government uses fiscal policy to direct spending in a certain sector of the economy.

For example, reducing taxes charged on certain products will theoretically result to an increased consumption of the product, all other factors remaining constant. While the tax policy affects the level of demand, government may also alter the focus on spending in the economy and how resources are allocated.

In order to reduce the unemployment rates in the economy, the president may direct his government to take actions that lead to a reduction on capital expenditures in favor of labor-intensive investments. This achievable using tax rebates for economic sectors and corporations employ a large number of workers in the economy such as the Detroit motor industry.

The U.S. government spends money it collects from the economy by financing several national and regional sectors such as public education, healthcare, infrastructure development and security. The amount of spending for a given in the specific sector of the economy depends on the directive of the president as the leader of government.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Massive spending on infrastructure inspires innovation in the private sectors as introduces costs of doing business and increases the competitiveness of the given sector. On the other hand, an increased military spending at the expense of other development sectors of the economy drains aggregate demand in the economy and leads to a stagnation of most industry that may even cause a recession on the overall economy.

Other than taxes, the state will obtain funds from deficit financing and this impact on the available money in the economy that is left to finance other development and trade of the private sector.

When deficit financing is through borrowing from bonds and treasury-bills then it serves as a withdrawal of funds from other uses in the economy to finance government spending.

When the withdrawal is excess, it leads to a decreased supply of money in the economy and therefore the price equilibrium of the cost of credit shifts upwards. It becomes increasingly expensive to obtain credit that forms the lifeline of business transactions.

The president leads the government intention of providing a robust environment for the private sector to thrive and as a result increase the national income. Monetary policy of the government determines the rate of money supply in the economy.

The president will seek to increase the supply of money in the economy is in a recession to prompt businesses to expand and thus reduce the levels of unemployment. The money supply in the economy may be increased by lowering interest rates. This mandate is given to the federal reserve bank that works in close relationship with the state headed by the president.


The role of the state in defending and/or infringing Native Indian Civil Rights in United States Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

States Defense of Native Indian Rights

State Infringing on Native Indian Rights




Introduction Native Indians have had a turbulent past with the United States in general and the states within which they reside in particular. Their history is marred by significant events such as Indian wars and failed attempts by the federal government to dismantle tribal governments and assimilate Indians (Wunder 2000, p.13).

These events have culminated to the realization that limited self-determination in Indian Country is the best solution. American Indians have therefore emerged as a unique group of Americans who have some limited form of self-determination in Indian Country.

Even though American Indian countries are largely unconstrained by the US Constitution, the State government exerts significant influence on the lives of American Indians.

As such, the State government has the power to influence the civil rights of the tribal communities. This paper will set out to critically evaluate the role of the state in defending ad infringing Native Indian Civil Rights in the United States.

The paper will demonstrate that the State has to a large extent played a positive role in defending the Civil Rights of the Native Indians.

States Defense of Native Indian Rights The State allows the Native tribes to exist within their boundaries with some amount of autonomy. Riley (2007a, p.1050) notes that Native Indians have their own “nations” within the borders of the US and this “nations” are free to maintain policies, procedures and rules that are inconsistent with those of a liberal democracy.

This means that Native Indians are largely unconstrained by the US constitution and the tribes can set up policies that they deem most appropriate for the natives (Johnson 1999, p.45).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This policy by the Federal government to allow the Natives to set up their own rules helps the natives to preserve their indigenous values. Riley (2007a, p.1051) asserts that tribal sovereignty assists in the preservation of differentness “even when tribal laws are seemingly inappropriate to American civil rights norms”. The State therefore promotes the rights of Native Indians by allowing tribal governments to exist.

The Federal and State government has championed religious freedom as a fundamental right to the American Indians. This has been through the 1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) which states that religious freedom is an inherent right of all people and further recognizes that religious practices form the basis of Indian identity and value systems.

Michaelsen (1994, p.42) asserts that this congressional act was based on the resolve of the US government to protect and preserve American Indians’ right and freedom to believe and exercise their traditional religions.

Before AIRFA, American Indians had had their religious freedoms abused to a great extent. Sacred sites had been destroyed by governmental action such as the flooding of the Cherokee burial grounds following the completion of the Tellico Dam.

Sacred grounds had also been desecrated, and access to these sited denied or greatly limited to the American Indians. AIRFA presented a way through which State government could redress American Indian religious concerns (Michaelsen 1994, p.42).

AIRFA contains many affirmations which call upon federal agencies to reform their practices so as to respect Indian religious freedoms.

The educational system of a society is fundamental to the development and ultimate advancement of the entire community. Through the first quarter of the 20th century, the federal government embarked on a mission to assimilate American Indians into mainstream society through educational programs that sought to reorient students (Reyhner


WIT by Margaret Edson Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Wit: review

Interpretation of the play’s ending


Works Cited

Introduction Wit is a play that was written by Margaret Edson. The play’s main character, Vivian, who is an academician, is diagnosed with ovarian cancer. She tries to hide behind her intellectual cover but shades it off at the end to face the reality as presented in life through her medical complication.

This paper seeks to discuss a personal interpretation of the ending of this play. This paper will with this respect review the play and critically examines how it ends. An interpretation of the ending of the play is given with the impact that is felt as a result of the play is brought light.

Wit: review The play as written by Margaret portrays Vivian as its main character. Vivian enters the scene as a patient who is dressed in a hospital gown. As a patient, Vivian is not presented in good health condition as she has lost her hair to her sickness and has similarly lost her weight.

When she was earlier diagnosed with the disease, Vivian responded with some level of lack of emotions portraying her professionalism as an academician.

She is introduced as a professor in poetry who holds on to ideas of her former professor, Donne. Owing to her academic background, Vivian receives the news with neutrality as though it was one of the elements in her professional works.

Her doctors in the hospital, one of whom is her former student also expresses their academic obsession by recommending an experimental treatment for Vivian and consequently treats Vivian as a tool for experiment.

Owing again to her academic professionalism, Vivian consents to be used for experimental research and in addition chooses to go for the treatment without enlisting support from any relative or friend in terms of company and care.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The intellectual characteristic of Vivian is so intense that upon receipt of the actual status of her sickness, she was not concerned about how, or whether or not she will be cured, but she rather meditated on undertaking a personal step to read about ovarian cancer, giving the disease the level of consideration that she had been giving to subjects in her academic career (Edson 1-9).

In the process of her treatment, Vivian expresses herself as a strong woman through her personal claims. She exposes her pride and gives the assertion that she does not shy away from any sort of problem that faces her. In the process, a theme of death is introduced into the scene through a feature of Vivian’s former professor and mentor.

Two characters, Susie and Jason, are then introduced to Vivian as her medical attendants. Suzie exhibit humane characteristics while Jason is majorly concerned with the experimental treatment that is being offered to Vivian.

In the process of her treatment, Vivian is subjected to high dosage of drugs which induces significant negative impacts on her. She however holds on to her escapist feature and declares that she is adjusting to suffering and still refuses to admit to her real situation.

She on the contrary perceives her situation as an academic article’s worth. One of her doctors, Jason is also portrayed to poses Vivian’s inhumane approach to her sickness as he attends to her (Park 1).

As the play approaches its end, the medical condition of Vivian deteriorates due to the drugs that are being used on her. Besides, the doctors don’t want her to die and keeps on resuscitating her.

Susie, following her empathy towards the patient, is however opposed to this treatment and prefers that Vivian be allowed to die. After holding on to her intellect as a cover to her fears, the patient finally faces the reality and becomes scared.

We will write a custom Essay on WIT by Margaret Edson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She realizes that contrary to intellect, only “human kindness and empathy” (Park 1), traits that she can only receive from Susie, are able to help her out of her fears (Park 1). After Susie’s efforts that Vivian be allowed to die, Vivian admits that “life requires more than intellect and wit” (Park 1), she comes to sense and admits to “letting go of Donne, language, and intellect” (Park 1) as though she now recognizes them as vanity (Park 1).

Interpretation of the play’s ending As the play approaches its end, the author relays one of her theme of isolation. Isolation refers to the aspect of being apart from others. It can also in broader terms be used to explain restraint from association. Larsen and Lubkin defined social isolation as “the objective state of deprivation of social contact and content” (Larsen and Lubkin 88).

Though only admitted by Vivian at the end of the play, the theme of isolation and more specifically social isolation is witnessed through out the play. It is as dominant in the entire book just as much as it dominates the end of the book. Vivian is portrayed to be in self denial of the circumstances around her life.

She is for example faced with sickness which she fails to recognize as an issue in her life, but on the contrary perceive it to be a case that requires academic research like the topics that she deals with in her career. She also fails to enlist support form either her family members, if she had any, or even her friends who could include her colleagues at work.

This also represents a level of isolation from people who could help her. She also generally isolates herself from nature by refusing to admit her own state and condition, and resorting to her intellect as a cover to the reality around her life.

She however comes to at last realize that social aspects such as kindness and empathy are necessities of life. This admission is a reflection of Vivian’s life which had been isolated from such social aspects.

My interpretation is therefore that isolation, regardless of its degree or the elements that an individual isolates him or herself from, is a dangerous thing in life, especially socially. This follows the bitter lesson that Vivian is made to learn in the play.

Conclusion The play, Wit, is based on an academic professor who is diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The professor who is so much absorbed in her career and literacy ideologies fails to notice her infection at its earlier stage. She also has a poor social background with no caring friends and relatives.

Not sure if you can write a paper on WIT by Margaret Edson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Her experience in life as she approaches her death leads her to the realization that social relations are important to people’s lives especially when they are compromised and need human care. The impact of the movie at a personal level is its influence towards more social interactions that can yield necessary support in times of need.

Works Cited Edson, Margaret. Wit. New York, NY: Nick Hern Books, 2002. Print

Larsen, Patrick and Lubkin Ian. Chronic illness: impact and intervention. Sudbury, MA: Jones


How to generalize learning associations to other things within emirates airlines, and why this is important to marketers Essay essay help free

Introduction The Emirates Airline is one of the major airlines within the Middle East; it is known to be one of the top ten best carriers and the seventh biggest airlines worldwide.

Setting up lucrative business organization and making it stabilize within the airline industry proves very risky. However, the people working for Emirates Airlines counters the risks involved by setting up appropriate strategies through the use of Five Forces for the purposes of analyzing business environment.

Generalization of learning associations to other things is done within Emirates Airlines through the use of Porters Five Forces Strategies used to analyze the market environment.

The company ensures that their employees undergo frequent training programs within various departments to ensure continuity of excellent service provision within various business circles (Nicholas, 2009).

Learning strategies are important to marketers since they are enabled to form appropriate pictures on the kind of market and industry they are operating.

This ensures that marketers apply appropriate principles and strategies for the purposes of protecting the business from outside threats owing to high competition.

Implementation of appropriate strategies makes it easier for marketers to develop Emirates Airline as one of the market leaders. Studies done on the marketing strategies of competitive businesses prove vital since competition could be realized from other businesses not related to the airline industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The presence of close substitutes makes it easier for customers to switch alternatives owing to differences in prices, resulting into what is known as high elasticity of demand.

Several factors determine the company’s ability to attract customers, these include; the cost switching tastes, perceived level of product differentiation and relative prices (Nicholas, 2009).

Description and explanation of an airline example related to Emirates Airlines One of the examples related to Emirates Airlines is Northwest Airlines which is one of the domestic airlines with the ability to serve large market segmentation across nations.

Its ability to provide excellent domestic services has been made possible through close operations with other commuter airlines. There is a link provided between NWA and other airlines which provides easy connection channels for jet services within the country of operation.

The overall merger makes NWA have superior technical and operational services just like Emirates Airlines hence boasting of established common operation and maintenance points (QuickMBA, 2011).

Such strategies have been utilized by the marketing department ensuring that NWA competes favourably with major airlines owing to their up-graded and up-dated services.

The marketing department has further resorted to integrating their flights and operations. Connections between air link carriers and Northwest have been shown with clarity as online rather than interline transfers, whereby less time and lower cost on fares are involved to facilitate connections.

We will write a custom Essay on How to generalize learning associations to other things within emirates airlines, and why this is important to marketers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These strategies have made NWA just like Emirates to obtain better competitive advantage hence commanding good part of the consumer base (QuickMBA, 2011).

The prime role of NWA is assisting customers in obtaining the best services that are safe and profitable to the company. The operations are reinforced through application of modern computerized systems helps in supporting necessary working systems, providing customers with efficient customer care services.

The various customer needs are easily met through installation of computerized technology system which provides customers with variety of choices on the kind of services and products they require (QuickMBA, 2011).

Is there a difference between classical and instrumental conditions? Identify each and explain the concept within Emirates Airlines As one of the several rapidly growing airlines, Emirates Airlines operates brand new fleets of long-range. Their classical conditions operate hand in hand with instrumental conditions.

The designs of their aircrafts appear unique for classical service purposes. They use wide body aircrafts within which they offer finest services and accommodations.

Emirates operate the largest passenger jets which includes giant Airbus A380 aircrafts for the convenience of consumers. They offer superior in-flight services and limousine services on the ground.

In-flight services comprises entertainment, private suites within first-class and operate large spas with ability to accommodate families. They ensure that travellers are granted quality experience on long flights both in business and economy classes (Nicholas, 2009).

Description of things which customers and marketers could learn by observing other behaviours Emirates Airlines have put a lot of faith in their employees and goes extra-mile to safeguard their jobs by giving them handsome pay. This enables employees give extra contributions towards ensuring that the company operates within the best realms in the market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How to generalize learning associations to other things within emirates airlines, and why this is important to marketers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company organizes for several training programs for their employees which ensure that they continue in good shape. Emirates Airlines operates in business circles whereby financial reports are made independently, the company serves ten destinations continuously within India, dozens of cities in some Far-East and Middle East countries.

Their services extend to Africa, more than twenty cities both in Europe and Asia. This shows how dynamic their marketing strategies are since there is non of the European Airlines covering such wide market outside Europe, the same with American Airlines (Nicholas, 2009).

Conclusion Consumers respond either positively or negatively depending on the kind of services offered by various airlines. They crave for convenient and professionally managed airlines which are concerned with comfort and safety of passengers. The focus should be in-flight services, seat designs, availability of luggage area, sanitary requirements and also entertainment systems.

References Nicholas, K., 2009. Emirates Sets the New Standard for Airlines. Web.

QuickMBA, 2011. Global Strategic Management. Available at


Ecotourism and Voluntourism Strategies and Recommendations Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ecotourism and Voluntourism

Ethical and sustainable considerations

Strategy and Recommendations


Works Cited

Introduction Conservation is the process of human beings utilization of natural sources in order to produce the maximum sustainable benefit to current generation at the same time upholding its responsibility to achieve and ensure that the same resources are reserved for future generations.

Conservation therefore entails maintenance, preservation, restoration and sustainable utilisation of natural surroundings (

Ecotourism and Voluntourism Ecotourism and voluntourism are types of tourism that have recently emerged; ecotourism is a form of tourism that entails travel to serene and uncontaminated natural regions that preserve the surroundings and develops the welfare of the local community (

Ecotourism involves travelling to natural region where there is slightest impact on the surroundings resulting from tourism activities. As such ecotourism creates environmental consciousness and supply direct financial support to the local community, helps maintain individual rights and demographic travels and respects the local people’s culture.

Ecotourism aims to preserve the cultural and natural diversity of biological areas by protecting the local ecosystem and it is actually intended to encourage sustainable employment of the neighbouring biodiversity through supplying employment to local people (

On the other hand, voluntourism is type of travel where the traveller gets actively involved in various charitable activities in combination to their vacation activities.

This means that the vacation/trip must be well planned in advance and reservation made so as to accommodate all the extra activities that the tourist will be involved in apart from the vocation itself.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, both ecotourism and voluntourism creates a win-win state for both the people and the environment; the local people and the environment benefit from the natural resource organization, not simply biological resource preservation but also tourist destination attraction, sustainable monetary growth and poverty mitigation.

The optimal economic models present extra holistic method to growth that is contrary to typical neoliberal viewpoint; the voluntourists identify themselves with the community where minority groups of people live.

Ecosystems are viewed as nation’s natural resources from which financial or economic reimbursement can be produced. Cooperation and partnership are important amongst stakeholders in producing shared non-financial and financial benefits for everyone, supported by preservation of the ecosystem as sustainable source of income.

Nevertheless, the derived benefits must be allocated to the local people and awareness programs conducted to inform and promote cooperation amongst the stakeholders.

In the present scenario, WARF rely on assistance and donations from its collaborators and the local people to provide the man power needed in taking care of endangered flora and fauna and managing educational programmes in communities.

Additionally, they rely on students as volunteers to research on the animal diseases and their behaviour in order to empower conservation efforts. These volunteers are engaged by travel bureaus or through the internet to generate steady revenue for WARF future programmes and other required resources (West, Ford and Ibrahim 527).

In conclusion educational, non-financial and financial benefits plus the need to improve the local community are the main reasons that motivate ecotourists and voluntourists.

We will write a custom Report on Ecotourism and Voluntourism Strategies and Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ethical and sustainable considerations Ethics is the theoretical study of acceptable value of an individual conduct, policies and directives that should preside over and which constitute moral beliefs.

Sustainability on the other hand is the process of developing the worth of a person while at the same time strengthening the capability of supporting ecology.

The stakeholders such as WARF, ecotourists, voluntourists and the local communities are concerned with the environmental conservation and generation of revenue from the preservation activities which involve conservation of the natural habitat and the wild animals.

This creates sustainable benefits that are both non-financial and financial for all participants involved in carrying out of the educational programme together with the ecotourism functions.

WARF in Thai produces sustainable income flow from the ecotourists and voluntourists who charge a fee to toil willingly with the local community and take care of the wild animals at the place of protection by the environment reserves.

WARF provides habitat and care for rescued animals before sending them back to the wild. Thus, the wildlife preservation is important because the endurance of the saved animals rely on the environmental state of the natural surroundings from which the wild animals were freed.

For this to be possible combined effort of stakeholders is necessary whose contribution produces shared non-financial and/ financial benefits.

Upholding high-quality association amongst stakeholders is the right approach of managing these ecosystems and this close association is preserved through mutual activities such as (GRP) Gibbon Rehabilitation Project and Volunteer Network Program (West et al 527).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ecotourism and Voluntourism Strategies and Recommendations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The GRP was established in 1990 at Bang Pae Waterfall, Phuket and Tambon Pa Klok with the mandate to save adult gibbons; this scheme is a tourist attraction in Phuket since the local people used to poach the gibbons from the Island of Phuket in order for tourists to be photographed with them for fee and were abandoned at maturity as they stopped being attractive (West et al 527).

Abandoned gibbons are saved by the GRP as one component of rehabilitation and shifted far from human inhabitant; the project overall objective is to stop the poaching of the young gibbons all together (West et al 527).

To do this the volunteer Network Program relies on donations and support from the participant; the human resources are provided by the local community such the students who carry out research on the animal diseases and their behaviour.

These volunteers comprised mainly of students later on become donors and this gives them a chance to be in contact with the animals. In Cambodia, the conservation project entails endangered species protection and poverty alleviation through the growth of sustainable income flows, particularly ecotourism (West et al 527).

The Cambodian populace is high and subsist in intense poverty; the last decade saw raised restrictions of prohibited logging, forest fires and poaching (West et al 527).

The stakeholders build a sustainable defence arrangement for the Cardamoms responsible for building up alternative employment of the local community.

While the stakeholders such as NGOs that have local information are accountable for strategies preservation, community growth, and project implementation.

In this arrangement the University of Victoria is accountable for scientific contribution, plans and execution while the Jetwing Eco Holidays is liable for controlling ecotourism functions and making it easy to market the general project and Community Based Ecotourism (West et al 527).

The government hold on to specific features of the area conservation, community growth and execution; the government has the responsibility to conserve the forest but it is financially incapable of doing so, this lead to holding up of the project for months, at this particular time ICEBV was taken in to build up a financial way out.

The financing was generated through a mixture of income from ecosystem services, grants and equity investment. Project performance started in August 2008 and ends in 2043 to produce revenue for the investors, these income flows are situated on land owned by ICEBV mostly on the perimeter of the forest.

The ICEBV is progressing to expand and research extra income flows from fee ecology services, together with fee generated from biodiversity and watershed services balance.

Jetwings Eco Holidays, Wildlife Alliance and ICEBV formed an accord by which incomes are shared amongst them and absorbed towards the suitable part of the plan.

To develop ecotourism assets in the growing markets it is important for ICEBV to make sure that public and private projects for investments are complete. ICEBV has provided financial structuring of the activities and the firm has productively supplied private finances for the opening out of two lodges.

Formation of a complete project team is a critical step in building up booming ecotourism assets, based on this ICEBV propped up its team by pulling together a globally renowned medium to small sized hotel workers, an architecture group that determined ecological plan of visitor lodgings and internal administration to make sure that the scheme yardsticks were achieved in a well-timed manner.

By conducting careful due diligence and research on the area which ecotourism plans were going to be developed and by identifying the market to concentrate on which will supply income, the firm was capable of moulding its procedure to the project in general.

Through all these ICEBV is functioning to develop the financial, social capital and ecological of the local society and the project collaborators (West et al 528-529).

Ecotourism is not enough in succeeding to preserve the environment as it is extremely a consumer-centred action and the ecological preservation is a way to advance economic development.

Though ecotourism is designed for small teams, still a reserved increase in populace, though short-term, places additional weight on the local surroundings and demands the expansion of extra amenities and infrastructure.

The building of sanitation facilities, water treatment facilities and accommodations come with utilization of non-renewable power and constrained local resources. The translation of usual land to tourist infrastructure is meant to be a method of deforestation as well; this is apart from ecology deprivation where the infrastructure, general population pressure leaves pollution and garbage behind.

Though ecotourists assert to be educationally refined and environmentally apprehensive, they seldom understand the biological cost of their vacation and how their daily activities constraints the surrounding environment. Therefore, ecotourism actions are issue in ecological impact since they upset fauna and flora ecosystems (West et al 531).

In conclusion, natural resource administration can be used as expert instrument necessary for the expansion of ecotourism; there are numerous places all over the globe where the quantities of natural sources are plentiful but with human being intrusion and habitation these sources are diminishing.

Because of lack of proper knowledge on the use of specific resources, these resources are ruined and the species become wiped out. Therefore, plans and appropriate management action can be initiated with the intention of preserving such resources.

Strategy and Recommendations In Thai, the stakeholders are concerned with the environmental conservation and generation of revenue from the preservation activities which involve caring for the natural habitation and the wild animals.

This creates sustainable benefits (non-financial and financial benefits) for all participants and also the educational programme together with the ecotourism which benefits the locals.

WARF in Thai is therefore able to produce sustainable cash flow from the ecotourists or voluntourists who pay a fee to work willingly with the local community and take care of the wild animals at their place of protection in the environment reserves and WARF provides houses and care for saved animals.

While in Cambodia, the preservation project entails species defence and poverty alleviation through the growth of sustainable cash flows, particularly ecotourism.

The stakeholders have built a sustainable defence arrangement for the Cardamoms with creation of alternative employment for the local community. The stakeholders such as NGOs that have local information are accountable for strategies preservation, community growth, and project implementation (West et al 530).

On the other hand, Kerala, India sunrise industry has developed and trades in local ornamental fisheries; the government has actively promoted the trade in local ornamentals and is advising local people to work extra so as to earn income from the booming export of tropical fishes.

This mind-set by the government is extremely disappointing and negatively affects the ecosystem of the area. In addition, there is poor comprehension of legal issues of possession and harvest in this section of the globe, as the fisheries for the local ornamentals are wide open, plus deceiving restrictions and quotas and no rules or regulation that governs harvesting of local ornamental fisheries and the government has not made any effort to stop this.

Sufficient time and inclination for supervising and doing research has not been available, which unfavourably impact the planning and functioning of preservation and administration strategy for the local ornamentals.

The stakeholders (local people) dwell in forest and have relied on natural resources together with fish, as source of revenue. To conserve the environment, captive breeding is a key instrument for the preservation of endemic and endangered fish, nonetheless, small-scale and captive breeding aquaculture may operate as an option to wild set or fishing which is conditional to providing sufficient inducements in form of income to relocate and not increase the wild gathering.

Implementation of rearing technologies and captive breeding will lead to a negative impact on the local community who depend on fisheries, since this will raise supply and reduce prices.

Recommendations Preservation of rare species in developing nations is a costly mission and opportunity cost of ex situ and situ preservation strategies may possibly be high; this makes its economical therefore to have cost-effective strategies like ecotourism areas and protected places which can be promoted to preserve holistic resource administration strategies in order to benefit the communities and natural resources.

Management traditions that are in place needs to support the business and fishery in to a sustainable venture; this will require fishery administration strategy control, ecosystem based administration, technical measures and indirect economical tools that can be utilized with required adjustment to suit regional necessities.

Rules and regulation that govern harvesting of these resources can be achieved by issuing licences but entry rights may be the best strategy that can succeed in the current scenario.

The procedure of giving export licenses and gathering permits ought to be centralized and the amount of orders given out must be severely synchronized by the concerned government organization.

The facts on population volume and biological allocation of rare and widespread natural resources must be reinforced by taking for granted widespread micro regional research.

The familiarity with area of allocation and information on micro-regional traits of the inhabitants of economically sensitive fishes will contribute to preservation efforts of rare species and other aquatic reserves.

Techniques must therefore be industrialised for captive breeding and brood-stock growth of fishes that are of financial importance and which have to be benchmarked with the case for Thai and Cambodian.

Finally, examination on the persistent nature of unusual species in the usual habitats must be approved with a view of finding out what numbers of the species can attain natural breeding populace and how their feeding habit relates with the indigenous species. This requires the performance of committee created under the government of India to monitor and control the rare species preservation to be more effective.

Works Cited “Ecotourism or Voluntourism”, 2011. Web.

West, D. Ford, J. and Ibrahim, E. “Strategic Marketing: Creating Competitive Advantage”, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.


Monetary Policy: Increasing of Interest Rate Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Effects of Increasing Interest Rate

Consequences of Not Increasing the Rates

Smart Options

Works Cited

An increase in interest rate is one of the approaches used by governments to control the level of inflation. Countries like Britain have a target inflation rate of 2%, but currently the rate stands at 4%. This explains why the British pound is the strongest currency.

Raising and lowering interest rates influences many sectors of the economy. This is because the Bank of England is the central bank, and thus distributes money to other financial institutions.

As illustrated in the flow chart, the rate offered by the Bank of England influences the rates in other fields such as borrowing and money markets. It is just like in an ordinary market place where the retailer sets the price according to the prices offered by the wholesaler.

For instance, if a fisherman increases the prices of his fish, then the fish monger will also increase the price at which he sells to the consumers and vice versa.

Effects of Increasing Interest Rate When the Bank of England increases its lending rates the financial institutions must reflect this increment by adjusting the rates at which they issue loans.

Pettinger points out that this action causes people to hesitate from applying for loans because they know they will pay a lot of money accumulated as a result of high interest rate (1).

However, the money that is kept in the banks accumulates commendable interest and hence people choose to withhold the money they have kept in the banks. In such a case, the financial institutions would have to increase the repayment period.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alternatively, having low interest rates induces people to take loans because they are certain that they will repay in due time. The increase in rates also affects companies in the housing sector because the increase in rates leads to a decline in the number of people who apply for mortgages: the opposite causes more people to apply for mortgages.

This is because people consider the rate of accumulated interests and the repayment period. Mortgage companies adjust their rates because the swell in interest rates causes the price of building materials to increase, and thus if they ignore the changes in the market there will be no profits.

The people who had taken loans prior to increment of interest rates feel the pinch because they will pay more money than they expected. In such a case, it is the creditors that benefit because they will get more returns.

An increase in interest rates is also an influential factor in foreign exchange because it causes the value of the local currency to increase against those of foreign nations.

Mueller argues that this attracts foreign investors because they know the returns they will earn from doing business in UK will be much more when they convert the money into their respective currencies. An increase in foreign investment causes more money to be circulated in the economy. Besides that, it causes the costs of international products to decline.

Additionally, increased foreign investment causes people to minimize their expenses due to the sudden increase in the price of products and services. This swelling is caused by an increase in importation duties, and thus when the products are brought to the market their costs are inclusive of the levies that were charged on them.

This is necessary because if the merchants do not extend these charges to the consumers they probably would not make any returns. However, this increase on import duties is advantageous to local industries because they discourage people from importing goods that are available locally.

We will write a custom Assessment on Monetary Policy: Increasing of Interest Rate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stock market is also affected by the increase in interest rates because it causes the cost of shares to go up. This means that a few pounds can buy many items, and thus people will spend more. Similarly, an increase on interest rates encourages people to import more products because they spend less money because the value of sterling pound is much higher than other currencies.

High interest rates cause the national debt to swell, and thus the government of Britain would have to increase the rates of taxation. This is because when the national debt swells more money is used to offset the national loan, and hence the government has to look for alternatives of generating revenue so that it does not cut back on its expenditure.

Furthermore, the increment of interests causes unemployment to reduce and the employees get a better pay. This rise in the number of employed persons generates a lot of revenue for the government because those people will be taxed.

The payments issued to pensioners would have to be increased, but this is done after evaluating the rate of inflation. The employees who earn constant salaries suffer the most because the money that is used to sustain them becomes useless, and thus they have to negotiate for a salary increase, which can cost them their jobs.

Sometimes, it is not the central government that causes the interest rate to hike. This implies that there are other forces behind the rise in interest rates. For instance, when the people are in great need of loans – this raises the demand and hence the interest rates go up because the number of people who need the funds outnumbers the available funds.

Consequences of Not Increasing the Rates The Bank of England keeps an eye on the economy, and raising the interests is used to prevent inflation, which can lead to civil unrest. This happens in cases where the public is certain that the inflation has been engineered by cartels.

This is because when employers find out that they are making losses they sack their employees, causing the level of unemployment to increase. When interest rates are low it can cause inflation and people may purchase the commodities that are mostly affected in bulk, and thus result in shortage of those products. This can result in a bigger crisis especially if the commodities are basic items like food stuffs.

The changes in interest rates puzzle potential investors because they are not sure whether they will gain from the seeds that they will sow at that time. This forces them to pull back their resources until they are guaranteed about the safety of their investment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Monetary Policy: Increasing of Interest Rate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The people who benefit from increment of interest rates are the people who are focused on short term investments. This is because they will benefit from the high returns that would be obtained from their businesses.

For instance, in stock market the prices of shares may increase, but it is only for a short period. This suggests that if the prices drop it will take many years for the same increment to be realized.

Smart Options When interests go up people do not have to lead cheap lives, but should instead be smart. This means that one should weigh the options that are available and settle on the most flexible option.

For instance, if keeping money in the bank generates an interest that is less than the rate of inflation, it would be wise to withdraw the funds and put it into other constructive use. It is advisable to get a mortgage on a fixed rate because that way one will be cautioned from the future changes in the market.

When purchasing items, people should give the first priority to the items that are needed most. Investments should be made on durable items such as land and houses because their value can hardly decrease.

Works Cited Bank of England. How Monetary Policy Works. Web.

Mueller, Jim. How Interest Rates Affect the Stock Market. 2006. Web.

Pettinger, T. Interest Rates Explained. 2007. Web.


Analysing a community development Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction Community development is necessary in every community. It is the process through which change is achieved. Old and obsolete activities and practices are abandoned and other upgraded and better practices are adopted. It is because of community development that communities improve and grow in various sectors.

Community development entails the joining of various forces to help in promoting the well-being of a community. It should be effectively planned out to avoid failure and wastage of resources. This paper will give a practical view of community development with regard to helping the youths in Clunes with the intention of attaining community development.

Discussion The word community may have different definitions but, the definition that a community is a group of two or more people with a common goal/interest befits the definition of Clune’s community. Clune’s community is situated in Clune’s village and is within the local government area of Lismore.

Clunes is named after an early engineer in the dairying industry going by the name Robert Mortimer Clunes. The median age of Clune’s community is 36 with aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander as the people believed to reside in this village.

The highest population comprises of those aged between 40-59 years and they account for 28.8% of the total population, those aged between 0-14 years are 24.8% of the total population, those between 15 and 24 years make up of 10.7%, those aged 25-39 years make up 21.8% of the entire population while those with more than 60 years are 13.85% of the total population (Shantz, 2004).

Clune is situated on a hilly but attractive countryside where macadamia and coffee are widely grown due to the enabling factor of volcanic soils found in the nearby Mount Warning. The figure below shows a view of Clunes during the mid afternoon and it is no doubt that the region is indeed attractive (Your information guide to Clunes, 2008).

The various fine but ancient Australian churches in Clunes have led to the nicknaming of the village as the “Holy City”. There are a wide variety of ideal local services within the region that include a petrol station, general store and an antiques shop. The area witnesses a large population due to its numerous and attractive North Coast federation houses (Shantz, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lismore is the regional centre of Northern Rivers in New South Wales and has got a population of around 43,386 people. People in surrounding areas come into Lismore to utilize the wide range of services and facilities in the area.

Lismore has however managed to experience steady and balanced population growth over the years regardless of the variation during the 1996-2001 census years. The census results showed a reduction in population growth and this was attributed to escalated growth of coastal shires within its vicinity (Shantz, 2004).

The 2001 increase in cost of housing in the coastal shires was associated with an increase in population growth rate and since then, the population growth rate in Lismore has continued to be high (Shantz, 2004).

According to the ABS 2001 census, the regional population of Lismore was approximately 262,216 and has progressively increased over the years since according to ABS 2006 census; the population had increased by 6.6% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007a).

Lismore population is predominantly a young population with average of 35.9 years as indicated by Shantz, 2004. Lismore has continued to experience high unemployment rates coupled with low-income levels as the main socio-economic pressures for this locality (Shantz, 2004).

The Northern Rivers are associated with unemployment rates that are above the state’s recommended rates where Lismore has the highest unemployment rates of 12.9% compared with other regions in the Northern Rivers.

There are various communities within Lismore and the Clunes community is one of them. Clunes is a village located along the Lismore to Bangalow road, and is approximately 20km northeast of Lismore. Youth activities and centres are of very great need to the villagers because 15-18 year aged young people are evidently seen idling about around the shopping centres.

We will write a custom Essay on Analysing a community development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This idling is not healthy because it predisposes this young generation to fighting, graffiti and substance abuse, which are a deemed as a great menace to the peace, tranquillity and development of the community (Shantz, 2004).

The youths are an integral part of any general population and therefore, they should be adequately assisted to keep them away and safe from unacceptable behaviour such as engagement in theft/robbery, murder and such related heinous activities that disrupt the peace and tranquillity in any community.

In Clunes community, it is perceived that they require a strategy that will help to confine the youths within the area and subsequently help them to be economically independent individuals. In addition, a correct approach is required to ensure that the youths are busy and away from idle mind, which as is commonly believed to be the devil’s workshop.

Therefore, there is the need to ensure that the youth in Clunes community are assisted so that they engage in constructive activities that would support the economic development in the region and strengthen the peace and relations between the people.

It is important that I carry out a needs assessment from the Clunes community to confirm the existence of the problem perceived to prevail in the region hence, avoid wastage of resources. This also helps to address the relevant problems with regard to community needs but in order to achieve this; a bottom-up approach where the community is actively involved should be adopted.

The needs assessment will entail the use of questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Key informants will be selected to provide the required relevant information. The community members, represented by the key informants, will be the channel through which the problem will be identified.

In assessing the problem, I will look at the causes, magnitude and population affected by the problem. This assessment will also help to come up with the most applicable strategies that can be used to address the problem.

The youth, referring to those aged between the ages 15 and 18 years old, in Clunes needs to be indulged in economic generating activities so that they get busy and become economically independent to avoid harmful behaviours such as theft. The fact that graffiti is evident among the youths is an indicator that they are talented in far as art and painting is concerned thus can be helped to nurture this kind of talent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysing a community development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This way, they will enjoy doing what they love best and it will not be perceived as though one is imposing an activity on them. In addition, it will be important to include a counsellor or a person to guide so that they can embrace the correct morals and avoid harmful demeanour such as substance abuse.

Despite the fact that graffiti is deemed as vandalism, it can be used to help these youths both socially and economically. It is a talent being used in the wrong way but if properly nurtured, can be of great benefit in the community and among the youth members with regard to community development.

A youth centre can be established and these idle youths brought together to work on their talents. Nurturing the graffiti talent however cannot be done without some form of planning on how to implement the planned intervention and bring about community development. Helping these youths nurture their talent will require the participation of various departments so as to ensure cost-effectiveness and efficiency of services offered.

Sensitizing the youth to realize that their idleness is a menace to the community is very important. This can be done by holding meetings with the selected youths or holding group sessions with them. Subsequently, it is important to come up with the right intervention strategies by seeking their opinions since they better understand how their needs.

Funds are a very integral component of the entire development process. It will be very essential for me to develop a proposal that will help to lobby for funds and related resources from donors and sponsors.

The causes related to idling of the youths are varied therefore, it is important to handle each individual in a special way. Some of the youths could be from very low-income families thus have stopped going to school and the shopping centre seems to be the only place where they can seek solace and vent out their problems.

Others might be in the streets due to other reasons but, all this boils down to treating this group in a special way if positive results are to be obtained. The funds and resources obtained would help to come up with a centre that would help the youths to nurture their talents.

They would work in close association with a counsellor or social worker who would help them to deal with personal problems in the most dignified manner. This would to enable the youths to develop and embrace amicable ways of dealing with problems rather than turn to alcohol and drugs as an alternative.

The development process would entail purchasing materials and equipment that would be used by the youth to nurture their talent within the centre. In the case of drawing and painting, an arts instructor would be hired and he/she would help these young people to develop their drawing and painting abilities.

The youth would then learn how to make good use of their talents to produce idyllic products. These products would then be used to bring about economic empowerment to the youth once they had been sold. The process would kick off as an informal gathering and later develop into a formal organization with a name like, ‘Clunes Youth Centre’ once the building had been set up.

The centre upon construction would consist of various divisions all aimed at ensuring optimal functioning of the centre. Divisions that would be included are such as the social worker division, counsellor section, customer relations coordinator division, administrative division, as well as the office of the director/manager.

The centre would provide the youth with something to do and help them to become productive people in the community. They would gain necessary skills to help them change lifestyle with regard to demeanour and attitude.

This transformation process in the name of community development might seem to be a simple task, but in reality the entire process is very difficult and challenging. This is because, Clunes is a unique community with its structures and systems in place hence, the idle young people have a certain perception with regard to their community and practice.

It would therefore be difficult for anyone to penetrate and change the demeanour and attitudes of these youths. I would have a hard time trying to get my way through and actually get to interview them, engage them in focus group discussions or make them to fill in questionnaires. Getting acceptance from these youths therefore would be a very difficult task.

The challenge of facing rejection can be counteracted by first getting in touch with the people who really matter in the community like the head of Clunes as an administrative unit, prominent people in the community and church leaders.

The use of highly held persons in the community would help me as the developer to gain the confidence of the youths hence, it would be easier to convince them to accept and take part in the project at hand. These key persons would help to organize for meetings and come up with a plan that would incorporate relevant and effective activities.

Bureaucracy and political interest are another factor that would impede development. Political figures in the community would seek to gain recognition in such a project yet they have not made any contribution in as far as the project is concerned.

It is necessary that all the stakeholders fully understand that the project in not meant to fulfil personal political interest or whatever interest of whatever nature that a person may be having. Therefore, as a way of counteracting this, I would ask the stakeholders to come up with rules against which projects events and behaviour would be evaluated.

Transition to change has never been easy and therefore, I would not expect this to be any easier. The youth might have gotten used to their behaviours in the streets such that change would be a very difficult process to them.

Out there in the streets, they are free to do whatever they feel like since no one is looking after them but in the centre, they have to follow laid down rules and regulations and this would be such a great challenge. The youth centre would be synonymous to be a rehabilitation centre for starters and it would not be a surprise if the youths kept on going back to the streets because they had gotten used to that environment.

This challenge can be addressed by adequate sensitization and creation of awareness among the youth (15-18 years). Change does not happen overnight. Instead, it is a gradual process that requires patience and step and step training and discipline.

That is why; these youths would be treated with patience to allow them time to realize that being in the streets was incomparable to being in the youth centre. In addition, there was need to handle them delicately because a slight maltreatment would mean going back to the streets.

Conclusion Community development has always been the backbone of any development in a country. It can be a very successful process if carried out effectively and efficiently however, it can be a total failure if ineffectively and inefficiently carried out. As a community development officer, it is important to clearly understand a problem before embarking on any intervention strategy.

This helps to avoid addressing the wrong problem, and wastage of resources. In addition, the community should be fully involved with regard to community development because no other person is better informed about what the community than the community members themselves. It is very important therefore to ensure that the process of community development is carried out effectively and efficiently through effective planning.

References Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007a. 2006 CensusQuickStats. Canberra: Australian Government.

Shantz, T., 2004. Community Profile: Lismore Local Government Area. Web.

Your Information Guide to Clunes, 2008. Available at .


Internal Business Processes Perspective Wal-Mart Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

To improve the response time to customer request and speed up times transactions. The company is adapting to internet shopping and has set up a separate subsidiary to handle the internet purchases. This is in addition to the company policy of having more than one register open at a counter so that payments by customers are handled faster.

Reduced transaction time is targeted at increasing the efficiency of the company business operations as indicated in its vision of achieving excellent operational efficiency. The company will rely on the customers’ value for efficient service that will drive them to the Wal-Mart store rather than individual online supply stores.

The company has to ensure that its inventory management and shipment of goods purchased online are synced and backed up to provide a robust system that builds customer’s trust. To this end, the company is includes an order tracking feature and a gift return option ([email protected], 2000).

To enhance its internal control department to be able to control the company’s growth imperative so that they company suffers less from problem associated with its big size. The company can measure its success in controlling the company growth through an audit on its return on investment.

Investments that make business sense and increase Wal-Mart’s overall aim of operational efficiency impact positively on the internal business processes of the company. These investments are impact on the organizational aspect of the business eliminating losses of time or equipment.

For example, technological investments leverage on the overall business strategy of being just in time, like the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags to track inventory from suppliers to consumers that eliminated any blockages along the supply-chain management system.

The placement of RFID tags on inventory also reduces the tendency of employees to steal from the company because the technology improves and speeds up tracking (Malhotra, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Abolish all excesses, through reduction, recycling and reuse of all supplies that moves into the company’s stores, by 2025. To achieve this objective Wal-Mart intends to reduce the level of packaging within its store supply chain by five per cent by 2013.

The company is developing sustainable packaging solutions in conjunction with its suppliers. In addition, the company has implemented a strategy that persuades customers to buy reusable bags for shopping.

The objective has targets customer satisfaction in a green conscious environment and aims at increasing the overall efficiency of the companies operation, which reduces costs in the long term that would otherwise be attributed to waste management. Reusable bags will assist the company to cut its plastic bag excesses by a third by 2013.

The company is incorporating various environmental sustainability efforts such as making dog beds out of tattered plastic bottles. The company runs fifteen supply trucks on biofuel out of the grease collected from its chicken roasters.

In addition, the company seeks to test four new types of fuel-efficient trucks. Other notable actions include the installation of solar power system on its Mexico store and adoption of a new sustainable design of its stores that incorporate recycled chimneys and use of soya beans instead of plastics to create floors (Environmental Leader, 2009).

The objective on reducing waste adds to the financial objective of cutting expenses because it saves on costs on the excess purchases. Recycling also lowers costs for purchase of new material and saves the company of legal requirements on sustainability.

Increasing the company’s presence on the internet and making the online shopping system robust builds customer satisfaction and results to word of mouth advertising that is a boon to the profitability of the company as it increases overall purchases.

We will write a custom Essay on Internal Business Processes Perspective Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Environmental Leader. (2009). Wal-Mart Wants to Eliminate All Packaging Waste by 2025. Web.

[email protected] (2000). Round Two: Jeanne Jackson Does Some Remodeling. [email protected] Web.

Malhotra, Y. (2005). Integrating knowledge management technologies in organizational business processes: getting real time enterprises to deliver real business performance. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(1), 7-28.

Objective Measure Target Action To improve the response time to customer request and speed up times transactions. The company will rely on the customers’ value for efficient service that will drive them to the Wal-Mart store rather than individual online supply stores. The company is adapting to internet shopping and has set up a separate subsidiary to handle the internet purchases. This is in addition to the company policy of having more than one register open at a counter so that payments by customers are handled faster. Increasing the efficiency of the company business operations as indicated in its vision of achieving excellent operational efficiency. The company has to ensure that its inventory management and shipment of goods purchased online are synced and backed up to provide a robust system that builds customer’s trust. Inclusion of an order tracking feature and a gift return option.

To enhance its internal control department to be able to control the company’s growth imperative so that they company suffers less from problem associated with its big size. The company can measure its success in controlling the company growth through an audit on its return on investment. Investments that make business sense and increase Wal-Mart’s overall aim of operational efficiency impact positively on the internal business processes of the company. These investments are impact on the organizational aspect of the business eliminating losses of time or equipment. Use of technological investments that leverage on the overall business strategy of being just in time, like the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags to track inventory from suppliers to consumers that eliminated any blockages along the supply-chain management system. The placement of RFID tags on inventory also reduces the tendency of employees to steal from the company because the technology improves and speeds up tracking. Abolish all excesses, through reduction, recycling and reuse of all supplies that moves into the company’s stores, by 2025. Leader, 2009). To achieve this objective Wal-Mart intends to reduce the level of packaging within its store supply chain by five per cent by 2013. The company is developing sustainable packaging solutions in conjunction with its suppliers. In addition, the company has implemented a strategy that persuades customers to buy reusable bags for shopping. The objective has targets customer satisfaction in a green conscious environment and aims at increasing the overall efficiency of the companies operation, which reduces costs in the long term that would otherwise be attributed to waste management. Reusable bags will assist the company to cut its plastic bag excesses by a third by 2013. The company is incorporating various environmental sustainability efforts such as making dog beds out of tattered plastic bottles. The company runs fifteen supply trucks on biofuel out of the grease collected from its chicken roasters. In addition, the company seeks to test four new types of fuel-efficient trucks. The installation of solar power system on its Mexico store and adoption of a new sustainable design of its stores that incorporate recycled chimneys and use of soya beans instead of plastics to create floors. Relationships to other objectives The objective on reducing waste adds to the financial objective of cutting expenses because it saves on costs on the excess purchases. Recycling also lowers costs for purchase of new material and saves the company of legal requirements on sustainability. Increasing the company’s presence on the internet and making the online shopping system robust builds customer satisfaction and results to word of mouth advertising that is a boon to the profitability of the company as it increases overall purchases.


Three Levels of Products Theory Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Kotler’s theory

Core product level

Actual product level

Augmented level



Introduction An economist in the 1960s by the name Philip Kotler developed a theory of evaluating the efficiency and benefits of products referred to as the three levels of product theory. This theory simply evaluates the benefits of any product or offer from general to specific and unique qualities of a specific product.

Kotler’s main objective in developing this theory was to improve the way producers marketed their products this was to be achieved by expounding and clarifying the meaning of marketing. Before Kotler’s work, marketing was viewed as barely the physical process that resulted to the transfer of goods and services from producers to consumers (Answers 1997, pp1). His expounded definition of marketing included the satisfying aspect that the goods contain and all actions that marketers engage in.

He also recognized a more complex process that involves the emotions of both the marketers and the consumers. This is in accordance with what I quoted earlier i.e. the theory looks at something from general to specific facts. He defined marketing as “a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others” (Five Products Level, 2005. pp1).

According to Kotler, products have no value it’s their benefits that makes them valuable. For instance, a desktop computer or a bed has no value but the value is in the services, entertainment and comfort, they offer (MMC learning, 2009, pp1). Kotler’s theory can also be used by consumers when choosing between two offers as in the case of this essay.

His theory will help compare two offers an IKEA TROMSÖ Loft bed frames with desk top and a Monash Sport (Caulfield) Gym Membership (plus Group Fitness membership). Kotler’s theory is discussed in details below

Kotler’s theory His theory suggests that any product should be view from three levels i.e. the core product level, the actual product level, and the augmented level (Learn marketing 2010, pp 1-3).

Core product level This level represents actual direct benefits of any product in other words it represents the services offered rather than the product itself. It is an intangible part of any product but it’s the main reason why people buy things. As we had seen earlier this is also what gives products their value considering our two offers they all have different value and they serve very different purposes but their core product aspect is what enables us to prefer one to the other.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is evident that everyone always wants to sleep in a nice and comfortable place and a good bed helps a lot in achieving this. A desktop can also be of much help to a college student due to the fact that it can be a reliable source of information this would help him a lot in conducting his research and doing assignments. It is also a source of entertainment and storage for old memories i.e. in photos and video clips. These in other words are the core benefits of a desktop and a bed.

On the other hand a Monash gym membership can also be of much benefit especially to one’s health and good physical appearance. Every college student desires for good looks hence this may convince them to choose the membership instead of the bed and the desktop. The good looks and good health are the core benefits of the membership. In my opinion to a college student this is not fun compared to the entertainment and comfort offered by a desktop and a bed respectively.

This is due to the fact that entertainment to them is more valuable compared to physical exercises done in the gym. One may argue out that a student who is good in sports may prefer the membership but unfortunately if one is a game player it is most likely that he is offered free membership to the gym. This means that it is most probable that he would go for the desktop and the bed.

Actual product level This is the tangible part of a product e.g. a bed, the gym or a computer. Ones needs are the one that make him buy some products. However, buying does not satisfy his needs it’s the services that the products offer that satisfies ones needs (MMC learning 2009, pp 3) as discussed above.

This level does not impact a lot on ones decision in choosing between two things but the one that provides the services. In a nutshell, the actual product provides the service that is required by individuals and the service is the one that is valued. Therefore, if there is no actual product definitely there will be no service.

Augmented level This level takes us back to the intangible part of a product. Its main focus is on the psychological satisfaction that a product offers. The assurance and the trust that one develops concerning the reliability of a product is what makes this level equally important to the other level.

It is at this level is the level that one tends to consider the little unique benefits of an offer by asking questions like ‘why this instead of that?’ ‘What does this have that the other does not have? It is in this level that one considers the brand name or the organization involved.

We will write a custom Essay on Three Levels of Products Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If one was to choose between two offers that we were considering, then his decision may be greatly be affected by the little unique qualities of the individual offers. For instance, it’s not just a bed that is being offered but an IKEA TROMSÖ loft bed. The loft aspect is what may make choose this instead of the gym membership.

In simple terms, everyone in Monash has got and sleeps in a bed but the loft aspect of it changes everything i.e. not everyone sleeps on a loft bed. The specifications and additional features of the desktop may also impact a lot in ones decision e.g. if it comes with free preinstalled software and games. The brand and model can also have an effect.

The gym membership also is affected by this by the fact that it is not membership of any gym but its Monash sports gym membership. If one was to choose between a loft bed plus a desktop and membership in a small privately owned gym then he would not think twice he would definitely go for the first one.

The added offer of group fitness membership in the gym as just meant to convince one that this is a better offer. This is in real psychological game and choosing it from the other offer is the winning point.

Conclusion In conclusion, Kotler’s three level product theory considered all aspect of a product starting from its main purpose to the simple advantages that it has others of the same or different kind.

References Answers. (2011). Marketing: Marketing American Heritage Dictionary- Marketing (pp 1). Web.

Five Products Level. (2005). Description (pp1). Web.

Kotler et al. (2004). Products, Goods, services and experiences Chapter 11: (p. 384-3910). Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Three Levels of Products Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Learn marketing. (2010). Three Levels of a Product/Augmented Product Concept. (Pp1-3). Web.

MMC learning. (2009). Product. (pp 1). Web.


Business Ethics Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction As described by Harless (2004), human behavior is often thought of as erratic, unpredictable and as a result prone to sudden inexplicable changes that at times defy conventional thought (Harless, 143-147). Despite such behavioral nuances people still continue to conform to societal rules and conventions in what can be described as “norms of behavior” dictated by an individual’s inherent ethical and moral standards which ascribe to a behavioral standpoint of harmonious interaction with other members of a community.

As noted by Leach and Oakland (2010), these ethical and moral standards dictate how individual members of society perceive what can be considered adverse or positive aspects of certain behaviors and methods of decision making and as such are utilized as a means of determining how they should proceed with a particular action (Leach and Oakland, 197 – 201).

The culmination of such methods of decision making are what are known as ethical theories which help individuals come to terms with all aspects of a problem and how best to proceed with what can be considered an ethical compromise to resolving them. It is based on this that this paper will explore the concepts of “The Golden Rule” and virtue ethics in order to resolve the ethical case study that was given for consideration.

Ethical Issue The ethical issue in this particular case is whether or not Alice should report the apparent mistake in Mark’s nutritional report to the company or whether she should tell Mark that she looked through the report despite it being marked confidential and explain to him the mistake she saw.

As noted by Jing-Ping (2011) ethical decisions are often made based on either conformity to a generally preconceived societal notion (i.e. crimes are bad hence the fact you should report a crime in progress) or based on inherent ethical or moral code (i.e. treat people as you want to be treated) (Jing-Ping, 21 – 31). In this particular case it can be seen that Alice has to decide whether to report the case or admit to Mark that she looked through the files, in either instance such as decision will definitely impact her friendship with Mark in some way.

Case Study Facts The following is a brief outline of the various facts in the case presented which should shed some light in what ethical course action should be followed. First and foremost it must be noted that Mark and Alice have been best friends for quite some time and they even graduated from the same university.

This establishes the fact that they have a close personal relationship which should be taken into account when Alice will make a decision regarding whether to inform the company or not. It was also noted that in the case study Mark has a family to take care of and was barely making enough to support them as is, a fact well known by Alice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the scenario in the case example clearly states that Mark is a good worker and has actually performed exceptionally well during his 3 years at the company. If Mark were to be fired from his job due to the error in the report not only would this have marred his 3 exceptional years working for the company but NC would lose a great worker.

What must be understood is that NC actually little tolerance for mistakes and as such should the mistake be discovered it would more than likely result in Mark being fired. Underpinning all of this is the fact that Alice violated Mark’s trust by looking at the sealed files, yet if she didn’t the mistake wouldn’t have been found out until it was too late.

Analysis Utilizing the Golden Rule As stated by James Want (1999), the Golden Rule can be summarized into two distinct principles: that a person should treat others in the way that they themselves would like to be treated and a person should not treat others in a way that they themselves would not like to be treated (James Wang, 415). Basically the Golden rule is a concept with reciprocal action as its basis wherein people treat others in a positive manner due to the assumption that they themselves will also be treated similarly.

When utilizing this particular theory as means of analyzing the ethicality of a particular set of actions it is always the case that an individual takes into account how they would like to be treated should they be placed in a similar situation where they will feel the ramifications of a particular decision. In this particular there are two viewpoints to take into consideration: the viewpoint of Alice putting herself in Mark’s situation or in her placing herself in the situation of the company.

Viewpoint where Alice Places Herself in the Situation of Mark

From this viewpoint if Alice were to report the mistake to the company it would most likely result in Mark getting fired. It must be pointed out though that the Golden Rule only leads an individual towards making the best decision only if they fulfill the requirement of being highly ethical. Furthermore, it also makes the assumption that those who are affected by decisions are also highly ethical individuals.

While it must also be taken into consideration that Mark has a family to support, has performed admirably over the past several years and that he is Alice’s best friend the fact remains that under the Gold Rule of decision a highly ethical person wouldn’t ask nor expect a friend to lie for them thus if Mark and Alice are highly ethical individuals Alice would report Mark and Mark would accept the consequences of his actions if he was a loyal employee of the company.

Viewpoint where Alice Places Herself in the Situation of the Company

It must be noted though that from the perspective of the company Alice has a responsibility in ensuring the best interests of the company are followed through. If through inaction Alice allowed the actions of Mark to continue then this would result in possibly adverse consequences for the company in the future.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Business Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taking the Golden Rule into consideration, if the roles were reversed Alice herself would want her employees to ensure the continued survival of the company by making sure that problems are prevented from occurring rather than knowingly allowing them to happen. As such if Alice didn’t report Mark to the company she would be complicit in allowing the company to experience a moment of failure.

It is based on these two perspectives that is likely that under the “Golden Rule” Alice would report Mark to the company.

Analysis using Virtue Ethics Under the concept of virtue ethics decisions are made based on an individual’s inherent character or virtues wherein personal integrity and moral character are taken into consideration before making a decision. What must be understood is that from the perspective of a virtue ethicist the decision to tell a lie or not actually depends on how that decision reflects upon an individual’s moral behavior or inherent character.

When looking at the situation of Alice and Mark what must be taken into consideration is how would telling the company reflect on Alice’s moral character when she could still tell Mark about the mistake and have him fix it? In the case provided it was not stated that the mistake could not be corrected, the only thing standing in between the mistake being corrected is Alice admitting to Mark that she looked through the report marked “confidential”.

In this situation there are two possible outcomes: Alice would tell Mark that she looked through the documents, which would call her moral integrity into question since she should not have looked at them, or Alice would not tell Mark and report him to the company despite there being the opportunity to still correct the mistake.

Based on the fact that the virtue ethics perspective considers primarily the actor’s character, motivations, and intentions it can be seen that the best course of action would be to tell Mark about the mistake and have him correct it.

When Alice looked through the documents she was not driven by any malicious intentions or self-serving motivations, she was just curious, if she were to report Mark to the company despite there being an alternative means of resolving the problem this would call into questions her own moral character. Thus, taking the virtue ethics perspective into consideration, Alice would tell Mark about the problem and have him fix it.

Recommendation Based on my analysis of the “Golden Rule” Alice should report Mark to the company however based on virtue ethics Alice should give Mark a chance to correct the mistake in the report. If Alice were to merely report Mark without giving him a chance to fix the mistake this would violate the principles of virtue ethics since she would knowingly cause an action (Mark getting fired) despite there being an alternative (having Mark fix the mistake).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, if Alice were to inform Mark about the mistake yet he still doesn’t fix it under the “Golden Rule” Alice has the ethical responsibility to the company to report Mark for his mistake.

Works Cited Halwani, Raja. “Care Ethics and Virtue Ethics.” Hypatia 18.3 (2003): 161. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Harless, William. “Who’s Afraid of A Brave New World? An argument for the genetic manipulation of human behavior.” Boulevard 20.1 (2004): 143-150.

Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

James Wang, Qingjie. “The Golden Rule and Interpersonal Care–From A Confucian Perspective.” Philosophy East


Art Therapy With Women Who Have Suffered Domestic Violence Report college admission essay help

With the current rise of domestic violence cases around the world, it is very important to undertake a program for providing therapy to women who have suffered the ordeal. As much as there are many probable proposals for the same, the use of art therapy is much effective. This is because art therapy does not involve verbal intervention as many women find it difficult to express their feelings and experiences on domestic violence in verbal form.

A good therapy proposal should be based on its ability to get the women to relieve away their secret pains and mental trauma. Art therapy includes a more indigenous perspective of practice rather than the modern psychological approach. Art therapy is very significant in the healing process of any type of abuse especially on women who have been faced with domestic violence.

One of the most significant benefits of art therapy is the fact the patients get to understand and interpret their own situations which puts them in a better position to creatively participate in own healing process and in a culturally accepted manner. Art therapy also allows room for creativity pursuits which keeps the participants in an active state.

This helps drive away the experience and trauma associated with it. Through art therapies, participants are able to share their experiences with each other and this gives them the hope of living positively. Besides sharing of abuse experiences, community members are able to meet and share knowledge and skills with the possibility of engaging in community building through art practice. Art therapy is a safe way of relieving oneself from depression and other symptoms of mental disturbances.

A good proposal for art therapy on women faced with domestic violence should have all services consolidate into the following:

A comfortable and safe accommodation for those who flee their homes due to domestic violence,

Constant support and advice for the victims

Established services such as sporting activities and amenities, materials for other socio-cultural practices.

Besides the three core provisions, a well established art therapy program should have national recognition through employment of professionals at all levels. Since such programs have a great number of volunteers, providing professional services to them would be an ideal conduit towards the success of the program. Financial resources need to be well developed since these programs get most financial help through fund raising and charities. A good management and/or leader are equally important in these programs.

Amongst the services which should be provided in an ideal art therapy center should include;

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Counseling services by professional psychologists to provide clear understanding of the victim’s situations

Recreational activities where the actual art therapy comes in. this should not only involve sporting activities but also other activities such as weaving, gardening, bead and clay making and other recreational activities especially those that interest women most since most victims of domestic violence are women even though some men may fall as victims as well.

Occasional shows to present and celebrate the arts that the participants have made. This may as well involve giving presents, if necessary and affordable.

The main aim of art therapy on women faced with domestic violence is not only to help them in the healing process, but also to empower them through practice as well as providing them with safe and caring environments to work out their experiences.


Marketing Mix: Surf Excel and Unilever Research Paper college essay help online

Introduction Marketing is a combination of strategies and methods used by companies to identify, build and maintain gratifying relationships with customers therefore, benefiting both the customer and the marketer (Amity Institute of Higher Education, 2011). For a successful marketing strategy, a marketer needs to combine, in a balancing manner, the right elements and processes. This is dependent on the nature of the products, services or ideas that the company wants to market.

It also comprises the decisions the management make in the implementation of the positioning strategy and in line with the achievement of the company’s overall objectives. Moreover, a marketing mix will involve the marketing tools the marketer uses to achieve these goals in the target market according to Armstrong


Performance-Based Pay for Executives Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction Background

The contemporary reward system for top management is mostly performance based, also known as pay for performance. The idea behind this reward system is that through the recognition of performance by the executives, their interest merges those of the shareholders of the company hence bridging the principal-agent gap. This reward system is American-based and has attracted a lot of debate from human resource scholars as well as from other relevant stakeholders.

This paper is a research report prepared by business analysts (BA) who have been instructed to conduct research for a client company and write a report regarding McDonald’s (the client) foreign direct investment project in China, which is the largest emerging economy. Based on the fact that the provision of professional HRM consultancy was part of the contract, there were instructions to conduct a research and give recommendation in terms of a report on whether McDonald’s should use performance based pay for executives in the new venture in China.

McDonald’s Corporation is the largest fast food restaurant in the world. The giant chain has continuously expanded internationally for a long period of time opening stores in different countries across the globe. In China, rivalry among competitors is severe and hence this food chain is facing a lot of competition from other established chain stores. In this country, Colonel Sanders and Mao have more popularity than McDonald’s which makes the competition here very severe.

This explains why McDonald’s need to invest in good strategies when opening their venture in China. The company projects that by the year 2013, it will have added more than 700 outlets to the 1300 that are already in existence (Jie, 2008).

Despite the normal challenges, McDonald’s is not lagging behind in its quest for expansion bearing in mind that the chain is opening new restaurants at a high rate. The motive behind McDonald’s venture in China is the desire to maintain its worldwide market position as the biggest fast food chain. The company plans to add its presence in China by ensuring that it operates 1500 to 2000 fast food outlets. It is alleged that half of these new stores will actually be drive-through outlets.

The giant burger chain is also said to be planning on remodeling over 80% of its stores in China by the end of 2012 to be able to offer the latest menu that is more health-conscious. For McDonald’s, China is one of its strong regions as far as growth opportunities are concerned. Majority of its restaurants that have been open for a period of at least one year have recorded a 12.7 % rise as compared to 5.3% in the US. The stores in China are estimated to be around 1100.


This report is predestined on evaluating the effectiveness of performance based pay, also known as pay for performance for executives. It lays its focus on determining whether performance based pay for executives at McDonald’s China project is worth being implemented or not.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scope

The report focuses on various views that have been raised by different scholars in regard to the use of performance based pay for employees at different levels. This paper evaluates the pros and the cons of performance based pay. It explains the strategic reward system in details and gives the reasons as to why it should be used for the McDonald’s project in China as a way of motivating the executives for increased performance.

Besides this, the report also examines the extent to which the reward system will not breach local corporate governance laws within China in addition to a detailed explanation of the structure and details of the reward system.

Strategic reward system Strategic reward system has two basic elements; financial rewards and non-financial rewards. The financial rewards consists of pay incentives, base salary and employee benefits. On the other hand, the non-financial rewards include intrinsic rewards that are work-based and other rewards such as recognition, praise and time offs. In the performance-based pay, pay is treated as a variable cost (Towse


Media and the War in Iraq Report essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Session A: Cultural studies

Session B: The Toronto school

Session C: Critical Theory



Session A: Cultural studies The cultural studies approach to the effects of media and media related aspects suggests that there can be three main hypothesis and explanations. The first of such hypothesis uses capitalism as the basis of segregation of the society into subgroups and alienated groupings.

These groupings are based on social economic ethical and physical characteristics such as race, nationality sexual orientation education as well as political opinion. In every such division there exists a further subdivision between the majority and subordinate groups of individuals (Deakin University (DU). 2009).

The subordinates are therefore assimilated by the majority opinion that is advertised and marketed by the media. The assimilation occurs through constant aggressive and determined media coverage of a series of events. For instance as suggested by the key note address, the media due to the motivation and funding of the majority who were for pro war ideology was able to bring the war to the living room.

Those against the war were left with little option but to sympathize with the sites of suffering pain and agony of the victims (Hall 1996). In effect, they became slowly naturalized to the idea that there had to be a war. The naturalization is achieved through a hegemony process.

This is a process that involves the calculated and planned winning of the consent of the subordinate groups to an ideology of the dominant groups. The ideology of the dominant need not be the actual feasible and beneficial ideology but rather that which appeals to those who matter.

The majority therefore need not be in numbers but in influence. The subordinates are easily swayed by a clever advertisement that sways their loyalty. This therefore means that there is a certain category of persons who are really influenced due to either lack of knowledge or insufficient knowledge. The media was manipulated strategically positioned and stage-managed into a smooth selling narrative with a pro war agenda (Sparks 2006, p89).

Session B: The Toronto school Technology and by extension the media as a whole has a great bearing on the rate and direction of social change (Fitzgerald 2001). Technologies are readily available to for the use and manipulation of society depending on the nature and use of such technology. The direction and bearing of technology as a driver of social change however relies and depends on several factors such as economic social and political values.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The undeniably significant role of the media in directing and guiding opinion and ideas in the Iraq war is evident in the key note address where the war is marketed and sold in the form of a smooth selling acceptable and fluid narrative. The individual approach to the war depends on the various perspectives and opinions that were put to the individual about the war. In essence, the soldiers fought an entirely different war from the war that they are congratulated and remembered for.

The media packaged the war into a justified and inevitable consequence of provocation and a series of unjustified injustices. As White ( 2011 ) puts it “the war you saw depended on where you lived and the different angles, stories and perspectives you were subjected to” the societal determinism approach therefore embraces this aspect of media influence.

The world has transitioned from the media to the mass media eras to get to the multi-media age where the world is no longer divided in geographical regions in as far as media information and connectivity. McLuhan (1969, 53-158) explains of the global village concept as the unification of the world into a “massive, modern day tribal community” held together by the power of instantaneous communication (Sparks 2009, p241).

This has increased the stake that the media has on the general world opinion. It has raised the amount of interest as well as the role that the media plays maintaining order and or disorder. Even further, the presentation of a message greatly influences the actual message. Therefore the message may be common but the manner in which it is presented determines heavily how it will be received and interpreted.

A picture and a cartoon of the same will give different perceptions of the same picture (Cunningham and Flew 1997, p23), the quality and manner of the presentation of the information determines the message that will be conveyed. The severity or otherwise of the actual war and the broadcasted war differed a lot. The media war was more severe and painful to the viewers than the actual war was to the soldiers despite the fact that they were supposed to be of the same idea.

The war as it was broadcasted though various media mechanisms differed greatly in severity and magnitude and therefore there were varying ideas conceptions and opinions of the same war. It was convenient for the 71 % media sources to report a severe and more punitive war in furtherance of their opinion even if it involved infiltration of the actual events and happenings of the war. As Sparks (2009) puts it, the media motivated and cultivated one big group emotion (80).

Session C: Critical Theory The media plays a great and fundamental role in influencing and directing public interest. It is the states responsibility to secure and safeguard public interest. This therefore creates an interdependent relationship between the government and the media.

We will write a custom Report on Media and the War in Iraq specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This interdependence creates room for the government to pollute and manipulate the media to suit its convictions whether they are for or against public interest. As it were, matters of public interest are highly scrutinized by the public since they affect a great number of people and therefore stir up great emotion.

The media therefore possesses a great power in the public domain that is often polluted and abused by governments to further self interest. The media therefore develops a mysterious or fictional perspective that is convincing and appealing to the public. In the key note address it was clear that there existed other alternative viable options as against the attack of Iraq.

There was a considerable and available option of international interventions thought the international community (Gordon 1997). Bodies such as the United Nations had the capacity to interpretively and comprehensively investigate the claims of possession weapons of mass destruction. The united nations had commenced a weapons investigation in to the claims but due to the polluted media coverage and reporting the united states by passed these alternatives and went on to launch a defensive war (Fiske 1992, pp. 284–326).

The government however abused their power by giving little regard to this option and proceeding to weaponize and subsequently attack Iraq.

Conclusion The keynote address does not solidly subscribe to one theory or school of thought. It is however best explained in great respects by the Toronto school.

The critical responsibility that is borne by critical journalists and key note presenters maintains a continuous and viable force that drives the mass media movement in a consistent and stable direction. The media has however been corrupted and literally employed to serve specific interests.

The media left the anti war activists to be marginalized and choked by the dominant thought. This therefore means that the pentagon made a strategic and planned media strategies that moved beyond the mere public relations developing the attack of Iraq as a sweet narrative that presented Iraq as the problem and an attack as the only solution.

The plans were highly funded and motivated with media being given hints and leads that compromised actual proper reporting (Schechter 2004). Individual reporter’s rights such as the BBC news reporters were violated and not reported in Bagdad to secure their offices (12). This therefore means that the fancy for a war was up and motivated and there was no turning back. This led to the subsequent attach and death of thousands of citizens and innocent persons.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Media and the War in Iraq by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Cunningham, S


Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Abstract Smart Mobile devices have become very popular both in the social and business world. This paper seeks to discuss the effect of these devices among people in the social as well as the business settings. There will be in-depth discussion on the devices’ effects of people’s lives at work, private social life, in government and education.

Introduction Since the industrial revolution, technology has been characterised by stativity, well apart from a few applications like the wheel, the train, the automobile and the airplane. Given the bulk of the equipment used in the above-mentioned inventions, stativity was not much of a choice.

Telecommunication gadgets like the Morse code and the telephone were grounded as well and their sizes and modes of operation did little to enable much movement. Two centuries later, technology experts are of the opinion that mobility displayed by telecommunication gadgets today is likely to get out of hand and possibly impact negatively on human life. Of particular importance to this discussion are the developments characterising the information and communications technology sector.

The last two decades have experienced some of the most effective ICT inventions in human history. The technology boom of the last decade of the 20th century provided the platform for the development of mobile technology that today has changed the ways of communication (Gallagher 2005, et al, p. 67). Technology nowadays is so mobile that business and individuals who fail to adapt to it risk being left behind, literary. Nothing in the 21st century captures the very spirit technological mobility as the mobile phone does.

The smart phone stands out nowadays as the epitome of synchronisation and mobility of technology. While its benefits cannot be overstated, there is genuine concern that the overall, especially adverse effects of this very technology have been grossly overlooked.

Which therefore begs the question; will the ever-increasing number of smart mobile devices (i-Phones etc) impact on the way we conduct our lives (work and private)? The answer to the above question is to the affirmative. The specifics of the answer will therefore form the main content of this discussion.

This paper will address the particular impacts on both work and private lives of human beings of smart mobile devices. It’s important to note that the impacts that will be discussed will touch on both the negative and positive sides of smart mobile devices. Besides, the above, there will also be a discussion on how smart mobile technology impacts education as well as government.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this paper, the words; business and work will be used interchangeably but will have similar meaning in the same context. Also, the words; smart phones and smart mobile devices will be used interchangeably.

Before the analysis is carried out however, it’s important to have a brief look on general effects of smart mobile devices, an enhancement of the affirmative answer given above

Smart Mobile Devices Impacts Human life According to Salt (2011, p. 152), the advent of advanced technologies like the smart mobile services has drastically altered human being’s work, life and relationships. However, Salt (2011, p. 152) singles out the mobile phone, social media such as Facebook and Twitter and smart phones as some of the technologies that are increasingly defining how people work and form relationships in the social arena.

The smart phone technology is undoubtedly influencing the formation of protocols and strange social behaviours that all lead to addiction. Through addiction to smart mobile devices, people are fast becoming slaves to the gadgets which dictate them what to do while defining every sphere of their lives.

As evidenced in the figure below, there are currently close to 500 million smartphone users in the world. That number is set to increase by 32.4% to 1.2 billion people by the year 2015. The growth of the smartphone usage by the above margin is likely to net more people to the addition that currently is being experienced. In turn the effects; both negative and positive will trickle down to the populations.

Fig 1.0. Projected growth in Smartphone usage, Source: Gartner and Berg Insight

Impact on work/Business Business communication is nowadays technology oriented (Stockard 2011, p. 153), letters, memos and reports have been replaced by technologies such as NetMeeting and LiveMeeting. Additionally, business communication is increasingly relying on the telephone especially Smartphones such as Blackberry and i-Phone (Stockard 2011, p. 153). Stockard adds that because phones can nowadays send messages as fast as the PC, business communication has become easier and quicker.

We will write a custom Essay on Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For a long time the business world has relied on the PC for conducting business. The PC still maintains its rightful place in the day-to-day running of organizations and conduction of business. However, the advent of the smart phone is increasingly diminishing the importance of the PC in business transactions.

This is because the smart mobile gadgets like smart phones and tablets have what the PC doesn’t; mobility and portability. The above features coupled with the presence of integrated PC features in smartphone makes them attractive and addictive to business people. The addiction and effect of these devices on work lives can be capture through a Ring Central online survey that was carried out in the year 2010.

Increased reliance on Smart mobile devices for conducting business In the survey, respondents ranked the smartphone and intimate life both at 40% as the two most important things that they can’t do without in their lives. Additionally, the majority of respondents totaling 79% cited the smart phone as the main business tool for conducting business easily beating the home and office phones (Trade 2010).

This is in contrast a few years ago when laptops were the main gadgets through which business was conducted remotely. The smartphone however easily beats the laptop as the primary preference in conducting remote business especially because it enable people access the physical tools that were only found in the office.

Some business people (34%) admitted to using the smartphone for business more than the computer (Trade 2010).

Levels of addiction of the smartphones, Source: Ringcentral Online survey

People are now increasingly addicted to productivity Many business people and those that are in both formal and informal employment admitted that they are addicted to the smart mobile devices for the sole purpose of improving productivity in their respective work areas. Again, the ability to conduct business from any location came top among the reasons the respondents gave.

To that effect, 40% of respondents ranked smart phones as being significant as intimate relations. Hypothetically, therefore these people cannot easily choose between their social lives and the gadgets they are holding (Trade 2010). This therefore shows a worrying trend where people may rank non-living requirements like gadgets ahead of social and personal development.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a nutshell, business people as well as those that are working in the formal sector have demonstrated an unmatched passion for smart mobile devices. The fact that it has changed their way of life as shown above underscores the critical role these devices play and the depth of their effect.

Of more importance however is the dynamism that these gadgets have brought to the business world. They have reduced overreliance on the PC and the business phone as the main tools of conducting business. Mobility and speed have now become the norm thanks to these devices.

Impact on Private Life Many academics and political critics have conceded that the smart mobile devices like the BlackBerry can result into negative impact on the balance between work life and family life (Sweeny 2009, p. 190).

Addiction to mobile smart devices has not only affected business/ or work relationships of the users. There is sufficient reason to believe that the addiction has extended to the private or social lives of many people that use them.

Increasingly, people have found themselves in the awkward position where they need to split their time between their social lives and business. This effect will be captured through a presentation of different social scenarios that are aimed at showing the skewed devotion and commitment to family and relationships due to the use of mart mobile devices. In all the scenarios, the use of the gadgets is a deviation from the norm as we know it.

Less family time Nowadays, many people are devoting more time to business than to family. It’s not uncommon for people to conduct business while on a weekend or holiday alone or with family. Smart mobile devices come in handy in when one needs to check on the developments in the business world.

During this time, people split their time between being with family and communication various business issues. People with the smart gadgets find it difficult to keep to themselves without referring to their devices in social functions such as funerals and weddings and children’s outings. Subtly, and without realizing, these actions indicate lack of attention on the family and other social relationships which takes its toll in the long-run (Powell, p. 181).

Less privacy According to Furnell et al (2011, p. 50), the use of smart phones by people with no or little technical knowledge exposes them to the risk of being attacked through the use of their gadgets as security or attack vectors. In fact, most people who use these devices have little or no technical knowledge on measures that mitigate these risks.

Many of the smart mobile devices have been fitted with advanced microchips which make it easier for surveillance of the holder. The log installed in the smart devices can record all the places the holder has been to and sometimes the activities they have been up to.

Additionally, it’s easy for the parent companies and other interested parties to monitor the devices remotely illegally or otherwise. No matter the circumstances under which the surveillance takes place, the privacy of the holders of these devices is compromised. It’s no secret that surveillance information from these devices has led to the collapse of many social relations of the holders.

Social Networking One of the biggest impacts of smart mobile devices is social networking. Butler (2010, p. 100), quoting Comscore, says that over 30% of smartphone users access social networking sites like facebook and twitter using their phones. It’s now possible for people from different locations to communicate and participate in social events without necessarily meeting physically. The social networking impact can be positive or negative depending on the function it plays.

Impact on Government/ Administration Andersen et al (2011, p. 278) does not entirely see the effects of smart mobile devices as being negative. According to them, mobile communication especially through smart devices positively influences mobile business which in turn reinforces social media. Mobile business and social media therefore reinforce each other in a form of co evolution that has positive consequences (Andersen et al 2011, p. 278).

Through the use of these devices, both commerce and government have been forced to adopt technological changes for better communication and business procedures in the technologically mobile world (Rhomobile 2011, p. 23). On the same note, there is a feeling among many scholars that these gadgets have played and will continue to play a crucial role in social media growth and evolution.

As such they come in hand in the implementation of changes in government and in society especially through participation of citizens in e-democracy. A good example is role smart devices have played in the political crises of North Africa and the Middle East.

Impact on Education Education is one of the fields that have evolved with time. There is a marked difference between ancient and modern universities. Though there has been considerable adaptation of technology in education, the advent of smart mobile devices is likely to have a major impact on education. Smartphones aide students in accessing online textbooks while connecting them with databases and libraries online when doing research (Wright


The Engineering Change on the Shop Floor Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

From the case study, ‘The Engineering Change on the shop floor’, it is apparent that there is no clear change management framework, which is the core source of the problem.

Here, it is important to note that change management is very critical in various aspects of organizational projects aimed at leading, managing, and enabling the workforce to change from one operational process or technology to another (Ott, Parkes,


The Political landscape Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help

The Political landscape holds that the American government has made it possible for all its citizens to access both jobs and services. It is believed that everyone enjoys equal opportunities.

The political landscape discusses the key issues that challenge the American government, and what has been done to stop them. The issue of ethnocentrism is discussed. The journal states that times have changed for the American nations, and they have come a long way in battling with discrimination among its people.

America has diversity of culture, since people from all walks of life are seen in this great nation. In the past, the African-Americans were treated as inferior people.

There was a long fight before they were recognized as American citizens and access education. They were also not allowed to ride in the buses the white people took to work. The battle for equality has been a long and tedious one, but it has brought liberation to the African-Americans. However, it is not over, yet, because, in certain institutions, they are still considered second-class citizens.

Women, on the other hand, have also made their mark in the professional industry. In the past, they were considered to be homemakers, but with time they have also been allowed to learn alongside their male counterparts and compete for similar jobs. Women have also been liberated since they have also been empowered by the laws that allow them to access and use family planning. This means that they are allowed to make the choice of whether they can have children or not.

To some level, this is true, but there is no reason why most of the affluent estates are mainly occupied by white people. There is also no explanation why majority of the top jobs are taken by males, yet these jobs should be shared equally between males and females.

In addition to that, if the laws show that all citizens are equal, then what would be the account for the Native Americans being marginalized or located in reserves while the government imposes their laws on them? There is also no explanation why the Mexicans are viewed as drug dealers yet; not all Mexicans are engaged in drugs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More America has also shifted from agricultural to industrial and to post-industrial economic jobs. The older people are also more involved in politics than the young generation. This might be because they had first-hand experience in the First World War and World War II. They, therefore, value their freedom and democracy.

For the younger generations, they are less involved in politics and voting. Education is seen as a tool that is to empower students. They get more information on their American history, and this would serve to make them understand the fight of their forefathers for freedom. This is in an attempt to make the students appreciate their history and more so to make them more patriotic to their nation.

In conclusion, the American nation is rich in culture since it is composed of people from all walks of life. It has also come a long way in trying to incorporate all these people. Much has been done but much is still yet to be done since the nation is still crippled by some degree of racism ethnocentrism. Women have been empowered in writing, but in practice, they are still being viewed as being unworthy to compete for the same opportunities as the men (Connor and Sabato 1-24).

The federal government is one that allows states to develop independently, but they are governed under the same laws and regulations. States are, therefore, allowed to make their economic decisions on their own but at the end of the day they are answerable to the federal law. Business and commerce should be the ruled by state law. This gives the different states the chance to explore their opportunities.

They get the chance to experiment, and this even gives them a competitive edge. The federal government serves to regulate states so that tyranny is not propagated. The national government has the authority to control the revenue. The constitutional government allows states to have authority to punish the member of the states when they commit offences, and this is applicable in cases where someone goes against federal law.

To make laws in all states equal, when members of one states cross the boundary and go into another state, they are supposed to be governed by the laws that govern the host state. States also share laws with other states, judicial proceedings among other things. It also is stated that a fugitive who flees into another state has the right to be deported back to the state where he or she is wanted.

The federal law holds the right to govern the welfare of its members, and if it deems it right, it can take measures to regulate security, commerce and laws of a state. For instance, the federal government decided to build a military station in Hawaii after it decided to increase security.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Political landscape specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was followed by unceasing protest from the state leaders who felt that they were supposed to rule themselves. The Hawaiians also feel that the federal government has also been actively involved in their displacement, and they have been forced to reserved areas and they feel oppressed.

In other instances, the federal law comes into play when there is trading between states or when states trade with countries of other nations. Since most of the times, the laws governing one state are the same laws presiding over another state; the states are allowed to share laws.

However, in certain situations, certain laws may be considered repugnant and they are unworthy of being made uniform. For instance, the Hawaiian law legalizing same-sex marriages was considered unacceptable, and the federal government decided that it would only remain legalized in Hawaii alone.

For most nations, they would want independence from the federal government because sometimes it curtails their freedom. However, as much as it seems like the enemy, it is also involved in offering financial aid and grants to states. It may also regulate the activities of states; partially or fully preempt the states from their debts with the federal fund.

In conclusion, the federal government acts as a body that acts on behalf of the welfare of its people. It ensures that the people under its rule are treated equally under the law, but they are allowed to explore different endeavors, as long as, they are within the federal law. This also ensures that there is an equal opportunity for growth and experimentation (Connor and Sabato 90-110).

Works Cited Connor, Karen, and Larry Sabato. American Government: Roots and Reform. New York: Pearson Longman, 2009.


Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research design

Population, sample size and sampling design

Data collection methods

Validity and reliability

Data analysis

Ethical considerations


Introduction A research method is a procedure for collecting and analyzing data in a way that combines the research purpose of the study and the economy. Research studies in psychology are carried out in accordance with scientific methods standards. This encompasses both quantitative and qualitative statistical modalities that generate and analyze explanatory hypothesis regarding a psychological phenomena.

There are various methods that are used in qualitative research. Some of these methods include explorative approaches as well as observing the participants and recording the behaviors. In addition, it is possible to use interviews, which can be made to be made to be structured.

Through such qualitative methods, it becomes possible to get data which would otherwise be hard to get if quantitative approaches were taken. Quantitative methods in psychology incorporate use of statistical techniques to analyze data about human behavior.

This paper will be comparing research methods used in two peer-reviewed articles that focus on emotions and motivation. The paper will review an article by Jianzhong on “Homework Emotion Management Reported by High School Students” published in 2005.

The paper will also review an article by Xiang, Bruene, and McBride on “Achievement Goals and Their Roles in Students’ Motivation and Performance in Physical Education Running Programs” published in 2005. Specifically, the paper will compare and contrast the research design, target population, sampling design and sample size, data collection methods, data analysis and ethical considerations.

Research design Kothari (2004) indicates that a research design is a blueprint of a research project that comprises of a research procedure which makes the research study efficient, yielding maximum information while reducing the expenditure of effort, money and time. Different research studies that are commonly used in research include a survey method, a case study and descriptive design.

In both research studies the researchers used a survey method as their research design. A survey method involves interviewing the participants on their feelings, views and experiences in relation to the research objectives and hypothesis. A survey method is appropriate in psychological research since it helps the researcher to collect data on a subject that is not directly observable. Motivation and emotions cannot be observed and hence they can be measured best using a survey research method.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Population, sample size and sampling design A population refers to a group of items or individuals with a common attribute under consideration in a field of enquiry. The target population in Jianzhong (2005) research study was 1,869 students while the target population in Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) was 461 students.

Both research studies were done in schools. Jianzhong (2005) combined both purposive sampling and random sampling to select their sample sizes. Purposive sampling was used to select English classes. Purposive sampling is a non random sampling method which helps the researcher to select a sample of people, events or settings who have predetermined characteristics.

The researchers had observed that they were required by all students and hence purposive sampling was appropriate. However, the sample size was still large and hence simple random sampling was used to select a total of 10 English classes; five in grade 10 and five in grade 9.

Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used purposive sampling to select their sample size. In both studies, the researchers used purposive sampling but Jianzhong (2005) also used simple random sampling. The sample size in Jianzhong (2005) research study was 205 students while the sample size in Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) was 461 students.

Data collection methods Primary and secondary data can be used in a research study. Data collection methods used in collecting primary data include mailed questionnaires, structured questionnaires, semi structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, structured interviews, semi structured interviews and observations.

In both studies the researchers used questionnaires to collect their data. Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used a close ended questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale in each and every question. In Jianzhong (2005) study, possible responses to the questions were: strongly disagree which was scoring, disagree which was scoring two, ‘agree’ which was scoring three, and strongly agree which was scoring four.

Structured questionnaires are preferred by most researchers since they are economical in terms of cost, and time as compared to other data collection methods. In the two articles the researchers used quantitative data to answer the research questions.

We will write a custom Essay on Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Validity and reliability The accuracy of data collected mostly depends on the validity and reliability of the data collection instruments. Validity is the extent to which the results obtained after analyzing the data represent the study’s phenomena. Validity of the data collection instruments is achieved by pre-testing the research instruments in order to identify any ambiguous offensive of awkward questions and make changes where necessary. In both research articles the researchers did not do a pretest.

Reliability measures the degree to which a research instrument yields consistent results. Jianzhong (2005) in his study tested the reliability of his data and found that Alpha reliability coefficients were.81 for extrinsic reasons and 86 for intrinsic reasons. Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) did not do a reliability test in their study.

Data analysis Quantitative data can be analyzed by three statistical data analysis tools: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics and test statistics. Inferential statistics helps the researchers to make conclusions and predictions in relation to the properties of a population using the information from the sample size. Descriptive statistics helps the researcher to obtain information about central tendency, kurtosis, skew and dispersion and of data. Inferential statistics also help the researcher to obtain information of on the relationship between variables.

Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used both inferential and descriptive statistics to analyze their data. In inferential statistics they used MANOVA test while in descriptive statistics they used mean.

In his study Jianzhong (2005) used both descriptive and inferential statistics. Jianzhong (2005) used descriptive statistics to describe levels of education and his dependent variable (homework emotion management). In his inferential statistics Jianzhong (2005) used Zero-Order Correlations to establish the correlation between his dependent and independent variables. He also used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to analyze variances in homework emotion management which was his dependent variable.

Ethical considerations Minja (2009) described ethics as norms that govern the conduct of a human being and has a greatly impacted human welfare. Research studies should always have ethical consideration in relation to the respondents or organizations.

Researchers should therefore assure the respondents and the names of the respondents should not be disclosed when analyzing the data or when discussing the findings. In his study Jianzhong (2005) shared information on his study with an assistant school principal to seek approval to conduct. In their study Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) did not consider any ethical consideration.

References Jianzhong, X. (2005). Homework emotion management reported by high school students. The School Community Journal, 15(2):21-36.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited Publishers.

Minja, D. (2009). Ethical leadership practices. KCA Journal of Business Management, 2(1):1-15.

Xiang, P., Bruene, A.,


Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development Exploratory Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction The concept of growth denotes either physical or mental change in size. Growth, as discussed in this paper, will concern both manifested physical growth and external growth associated with progress in careers, personal relationships, and existing networks with friends and colleagues. Motivation plays a tremendously pivotal role in growth; in essence, many employees and workers that engage in their various endeavors that result in growth in their careers usually require a dose of motivation to achieve growth.

Alderfer’s ERG Theory of Growth The ERG theory of growth states that a person’s most salient aspects have to do with the person’s existence, relatedness and growth. The existence needs concern the person’s concerns for bare survival. These include the need for food, the need for clothing and shelter. As concerns relatedness, the theory states that a person needs to have satisfying relationships with others in his or her social circle in order to have a sense of self and be ready to embrace growth.

Finally, the element of growth in this theory relates to an individual’s need for personal development. The need for personal development occurs in a person’s private and professional setting. Personal development, thus, involves a sense of increased maturity as well as development in a given career that an individual may choose.

Growth and development in employees, as stated earlier, requires motivation that may be co-opted from different sources. According to Peterson et al, characteristics such as hope, optimism and resilience are powerful motivating factors for employees.

In their study, Peterson et al found that when employees and workers gain these characteristics and attitudes (hopefulness, optimism and resilience) towards their work, they become highly motivated and attain higher levels of career growth (2010, p.428). The onus is thus on employers and managers of various organizations to ensure that such characteristics are imparted in their employees.

This impartation can happen through various means to ensure that employees develop a proper and positive attitude towards work and achieve a level of growth in their respective posts and careers. Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth thus aligns with the findings of the study, since to develop the positive characteristics mentioned here requires that these employees’ needs concerning the existence and relatedness are met.

Before an individual becomes hopeful, optimistic and resilient, his or her basic need for food, clothing and security has to be fulfilled first. Additionally, the individual has to feel that he or she has positive relations with members of family, coworkers and friends. After these two needs are met, then, through training and positive reinforcement, the individual can easily become hopeful, optimistic, and resilient. These are the characteristics necessary for individual and professional growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Professional Goal setting And Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth An individual’s own characteristics also play a crucial part in one’s professional growth. According to Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth and development, an individual’s need for personal development features prominently in his or her growth needs. The most successful professionals in their various fields usually have a high rate and level of personal development.

Baum and Barbara state that, highly successful entrepreneurs usually exhibit a high level of their sense of self and belief in achieving what an ordinary person would deem impossible (2010, p.398). According to their study, successful entrepreneurs are highly goal driven. These entrepreneurs set goals and then take the necessary steps to achieve the set goals.

Similarly, personal and professional development is achieved through setting goals and striving to achieve them at various points in an individual’s life. Personal development goals range from an effort by one individual to lose weight or the set target of another individual to start a business. The common element in personal development goals is that they are set to improve or change the current socioeconomic, bodily, financial or other status of the individual.

Informal Personal behavior and Alderfer’s ERG theory of Growth and Development An individual’s personal behavior draws entirely from the characteristics that the individual acquires and develops over a period. The environment in which a person grows, as well as the nature of parenting undertaken play a significant role in the development of an individual. For instance, children that are raised with single parents are more likely to engage in crime and other social vices compared to children raised by two parents (the father and mother) (Ricciuti, 2004, p. 196).

Therefore, an individual’s personal informal behavior is a function of both nature and nurture. According to Alderfer’s Theory of growth, when an individual’s needs for existence and relatedness are not met – for instance by neglectful parenting, the individual will lag behind in his or her rate of personal development. The personal behavior of such an individual will also exhibit signs of neglect, and the person may be socially withdrawn, aggressive or acquire other such extreme characteristics.

However, although the nature and nurture are strong factors in an individual’s personal development – and thus his subsequent behaviors, persons who undergo severe trauma, regardless of their upbringing, exhibit signs of unfulfilled existence and relatedness needs.

Such persons require training and goal setting lessons in order to achieve personal growth – and thus exhibit appropriate personal behavior. According to Lerner and Blow, soldiers who engage in battle usually exhibit signs of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

We will write a custom Essay on Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These signs resemble the signs of individuals whose relatedness needs have not been met. Lerner and Blow state that through positive training on the need for setting goals that bring personal development – for instance re-joining a previous career, or engaging in volunteer work – these veterans eventually eliminate PTSD signs (2011, p.40).

Therefore, personal development training is also a decisive factor in creating positive characteristics in individuals. Interestingly, research on biological processes of growth reveals an almost similar pattern. Bhagia et al, in their study of persons suffering from brain injury, discovered that, when the individual was injected with a growth hormone, recovery was quicker and more holistic (2010, p.565).

Therefore, just like personal and professional growth and development, biological growth also benefits from induced, targeted growth stimulation.

Social Policy and Alderfer’s ERG theory of Growth and Development With the understanding of Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth, social development policies enacted in society should ensure all polices aim to fulfill the existence, relational and growth needs of all the members of society. A lack in any of the above needs creates a sense of loss in an individual, and such an individual is likely to engage in behavior that causes harm to the rest of the members of society.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Growth

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory states that, an individual has needs that need to be fulfilled at various levels for the individual to achieve personal and professional development. These needs are physiological needs (food, shelter, security), social needs (friendship and intimacy), self-esteem needs (belonging) and self-actualization.

According to Maslow, when an individual’s physiological needs are not met, the person will not be able to apply himself or herself fully to any task at hand, and the pattern holds as the different needs at different levels are explored. Therefore, an individual can be motivated with the promise of fulfillment of higher needs. For instance, an employee whose pay enables him or her to meet only physiological needs can be motivated with the promise of a higher pay that will enable him or her fulfill his or her social needs.

Maslow’s Theory of Growth and Informal Personal Behavior

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, whenever a given level of needs is not met in an individual, the individual will exhibit this lack in certain antisocial behavior. For instance, a child who is neglected by the parents- thus the safety needs are unmet, will most likely develop a sense of inferiority towards his or her peers. Similarly, an adult whose self-esteem needs are unmet is likely to resort to self-destructive and harmful behavior such as drug abuse in an attempt to fulfill the need of being respected by peers.

Maslow’s Theory of Growth and Professional Goal Setting

In a professional setting, especially in organizations with employees at various stages of their career growth, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory is useful in ensuring that employees remain motivated to perform their tasks and achieve personal and professional growth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory enables individual employees examine areas of his or her personal life that do not align with the theory, and adjust accordingly.

That quarrelsome manager may be suffering from a simple lack of professional appreciation, and may feel that he or she is simply not getting the respect that he/she deserves, and thus their tendency to pick a fight over unnecessary issues may be a manifestation of the need for professional appreciation.

Similarly, the guard who is always unmotivated may be exhibiting signs of a person whose pay does not fulfill both physiological and social needs. Thus, the management of an organization can use the theory to ensure that the workplace becomes a place of wholesome and appropriate rewards for all workers and managers involved (Benson,


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Essay college admissions essay help

Abstract Autism is a serious disorder that has the potential to disrupt the success of people living with it. This report shall set out to explore various aspects regarding this disorder. To this end, an overview of the symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment shall be offered. This shall aim at expanding our understanding regarding this disorder so as to enable us to be better prepared to handle it whenever the need arises.

Introduction Autism has been noted to be among the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder. Kuder (2003) denotes that in the USA, an estimated 2.1% of the population aged between 8 and 17 is affected by autism in its various forms.

Autism is manifested by varied behavior but it is chiefly characterized by inability to communicate, lingual deficits, lack of a sustained attention, low level of activity, temper tantrums, sleep disturbance, aggression inadequate motor control and other non-compliant behavior. These behaviors are detrimental to the social and educational endeavors of the people involved.

Biological and genetic aspects of autism Spectrum Disorders Autism spectrum is a medical term that is used to describe children and adults who experience difficulties in motor coordination, socializing, communicating (verbal and non-verbal) and language acquisition (Tager-Flusberg, Paul and Lord, 2005). The authors describe autism as a neurological disorder that stems from the brain’s inability to carryout some functions normally.

The causes of Autism as well as the reasons why it affects lingual and communication skills are not entirely known though there is a close linkage between Autism and genetics.

Studies indicate that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is inherited between family members. A study conducted by the American Psychiatric Association (2000) indicated that there is a 3-6% chance of getting autism amongst siblings.

However, Korvatska et al (2002) state that the difficulty experienced by scientists in pinpointing the genetic aspects of autism emanates from the lack of extended family histories. In most cases, autistic individual become more detached socially that they rarely marry or have children. As such, finding a family that has detailed genetic information regarding autism is difficult.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On a brighter note, twins have been used to explore the genetics behind autism (Beaudet, 2007). One study indicated an 82% likelihood of an autistic identical twin having the same disorder. This is in contrast to the 10% likelihood indicated by results from fraternal twins. More sophisticated studies have in the recent past concluded that 90% of autism related behavioral phenotypes are as a result of inherited genes (Happé


Giving Advice about Treatment Report best college essay help: best college essay help

Patients, who need psychotherapy care needs to be handled with a significant amount of care. This is because such patients are delicate and that the way they are handled may deteriorate their condition. Choosing the right kind of psychotherapy is part of handling such patient.

This is because psychotherapy does not function in isolation and is dependent on other factors. These factors include the type of the relationship established, as well as the technique applied. While these two variables are useful, there are basic fundamental principles which facilitate the success of psychotherapy.

Moreover, generalized clinical solutions may not necessarily work for individual patients. As such it is vital to provide evidence based healthcare, which facilitates individualized treatment programs for the patient. In this case where the patient feels the need to make the right choice, there are certain basis issues that need to be put into perspective. This will enable the client identify the most suitable form of psychotherapy plan

There has been numerous research studies conducted on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Within these research studies, the researchers have focused on numerous variables that can alter the findings.

Despite the varied opinions of these researchers, they have all arrived at one conclusion: that psychotherapy works and that there is no any significant variation in psychotherapy outcomes, whether it is accompanied by medication or not (Butcher, Mineka and Hooley, 2010).

This implies that the patient should take psychotherapy which is not accompanied by any form of medication. This is due to the realization that medication does not alter the efficacy of psychotherapy.

Moreover, medication for such clinical conditions may have side effects, thus the need to avoid it at all cost. Research studies also reveal that a majority of patients who need psychotherapy have multiple problems which need complex solutions (Butcher et al., 2010). In this regard, it is not wise for patient in this case to exclusively choose any type of psychotherapy such as cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychodynamic therapist among others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because such approaches to psychotherapy are limited and are only suited to treat certain types of psychological issues. General psychotherapy is aimed at evaluating, analyzing identifying related conditions. For the patient to receive comprehensive diagnosis it would be wise to avoid any special type of psychotherapy.

It is important to recognize that each patient has special needs and that each of the clinical condition is unique in every patient (Butcher et al., 2010). As such patients seeking psychotherapy treatment needs to understand that their needs are uniquely personal and that general remedies may not necessarily be effective for that particular condition.

In this case the biggest question for his patient is how to access evidence based patient care; evidence based healthcare requires that the clinician maintain contact with the patient for long duration, as the clinicians studies the development of that patients condition. The need for evidence based care is to allow the clinician to have sufficient time to diagnose and categorize the patient as either complex or worse.

Furthermore, the clinician, using the evidence based method will be able to categorize the particular patient condition as either mild moderate or complex. The psychotherapy patient will benefit from this type of healthcare since the clinician will be able to develop tailor made psychotherapy.

Furthermore, the clinician will be able to assess the efficacy of the treatment plan for and make adjustments according to emerging needs, should there be any. Such individualized treatment plan will also enable the patient to gain a deeper understating of the condition, and as such the patient becomes actively involved in the treatment process.

Despite the findings that the outcomes of psychotherapy are not varied by the presence of other types of medication, it is imperative to state that psychotherapy does not work in isolation of other variables (Butcher et al., 2010). This implies that there are other factors that influence the efficacy of psychotherapy.

Generally psychotherapy revolves around the relationship between the patient and the psychotherapist. There are a number of factors that determine this relationship. These include the warmth and comfort generated during the process of psychotherapy. This implies that the effectiveness of tailor-made psychotherapeutic plan for the patient in this case is highly dependent on the type of relationship that evolves between the patient and the psychotherapist.

We will write a custom Report on Giving Advice about Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is difficult to predict the nature of relationship that there might evolve between the patient and the clinician while at the stage in which the clinician is being chosen. However, it is still possible to track the development of the patient clinician relationship by evaluating the patients comment about the clinician.

If the patients voices dissatisfaction, any form of disapproval of the clinician or any method of treatment prescribed, it thus becomes necessary to withdraw the patient from that particular psychotherapist. Such kind of disapproval is an indication of the fact that the patient has lost faith in the clinician and since research suggests that such factors affect that the outcomes of psychotherapy, then it will be wise to seek an alternative.

Suffice to say that the patient clinician relationship plays a very significant part in determining the nature of the outcomes. Thus, it is vital to keep alternating clinicians until the right kind of patient clinician relationship is established. Furthermore, developing this type of relationship is part of tailor-made psychotherapy plan.

The purpose of seeking psychotherapy is to facilitate therapeutic changes in the patients. As explained earlier, the relationship between the patient and the psychotherapist plays a significant role in facilitating therapy. Furthermore, techniques of therapy such as cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychodynamic therapist have been found to be ineffective.

This is not to mean that the role of technique in facilitating therapy should be downplayed. To some extent these techniques also motivates successful therapy. The question however is not on which of the two; relationship and techniques, is more effective than the other.

This implies that for this case, it is vital to identify the basic principles which facilitate successful therapy. For instance if it is found out that the psychotherapist is too involved (in the relationship) instead of acting the patient will be withdrawn as this type of relationship is unhealthy.

Choosing a psychotherapist is not just a mater of locating one who will be able to handle the patient in question. It is imperative to note the while choosing a psychotherapist for the patient in this particular case, it is vital to consider a number of fundamental issues. These issues are vital since they facilitate individualized and patient based care. This will be to the advantage of the patient since the treatment plan will be focused on the patient. As such the efficacy of psychotherapy will be achieved.

Reference Butcher, J. N., Mineka, S., and Hooley, J. M. (2010). Abnormal psychology (14th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn


The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Social Networking Sites

Privacy in Social Media at Workplace

Ethical considerations while using social media

Social media and computer security




Introduction Social media plays an important role at work places. Importantly, it is increasingly gaining popularity among different users as compared to other media like radio and television (Patel, 2010, p.60). By making use of computer networks in communication, social media plays an important role in helping organizations to communicate with their new employees (Sims, 2010, p.157).

In addition, it provides an interactive platform, whereby, individuals can converse uninterrupted. Unfortunately, this has resulted into misuse of the media, for instance, some users can express their ill motives or influence the public, or post information that they could not convey in a real life encounter.

Privacy of the employees at a given workplace should be given priority when using social media. Primarily, ethical codes of conduct should be observed in communication through the social media. Here, individuals should understand the feelings and emotions of the recipients of the information.

There is also a need to ensure security of the information contained in these media, since some of the information is essential for smooth running of the organization. The access to such information by unauthorized parties such as competitors of an organization would be very detrimental to the realization of the objectives of the company.

The Social Networking Sites These are websites used for social interaction in the cyberspace. They include Facebook, MySpace, Opera, Yahoo, Twitter, Livejournal, Classmates, Myblog, and Linkedln among others (The Arabian Affiliate, 2011). Facebook has had a significant subscription recently, with a figure of over 500 million users by 2010 (Lyncheski, 2010, p.32). In most of the sites, a user is required to develop a profile (The Arabian Affiliate, 2011) by signing up in the network. Other individuals then get to know more about this particular user.

Privacy in Social Media at Workplace Individuals have a right to privacy, and there are legal provisions that protect this right. Similarly, employees of an organization have the right to privacy of information. Unless it is necessary, employers need not to get into the private affairs of employees. To some extent, the kind of communication between the employees and the allies should be of little concern to the employers.

However, while using social media at workplaces, the company has the capacity to check into the content of such information. Ordinarily, the company retains the ability to monitor communication through the facilities at workplace (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011). Importantly, organizations have private policies enacted to protect their operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because some irresponsible employees could use the social sites to influence the behavior of other employees or leak information to the wrong individuals. Indeed, information concerning an organization’s operational strategies is crucial and thus it should be kept secret (Guerin, 2011, p.260).

Thus, it is apparent that, even though it is necessary to respect the privacy of employees, the information shared in the social media sites at workplaces need to be assessed by the company. Employers are often interested in checking if the employees are doing a good job (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011). However, the retrieved information should be revealed only in the event that it is deemed dangerous to the operations of the organization.

Ethical considerations while using social media Using company resources for individual purposes is considered a good working condition that motivates employees. However, this is acceptable if the employees use the resources responsibly. This can be achieved through ethical consideration by the employees. Firstly, the sender of a piece of information should take precautions to ensure that the information will not hurt the recipient. In addition, employees should respect the privacy of their co-workers and provide identity only under the authority of the organization (Guerin, 2011, p.260). Indeed, a good understanding of the emotions of others enables one to identify a piece of information that is likely to hurt others.

It is also important to consider the diversity among the users of the sites. Different people understand life differently. When providing some information, an individual often believes that, his/her opinion is right and acceptable. However, the sender should acknowledge the fact that other individuals could have different opinions on the same subject.

Similarly, employees should be send proper and meaningful information. Retrieving information from these social sites is expensive; therefore, the information so received should be of some significance to the recipient. Observing the organizational values and codes of conduct will enable the employees to operate smartly towards the realization of the company’s objectives.

The employers often expect that the employees will use their employer time doing the assigned duties. However, studies have shown that a substantial proportion of employees often visit social media sites during employer’s time (Lyncheski, 2010, p.32).

Ethical concerns should also be exhibited by the employers. Some employers do not notify employees of the monitoring processes, and the latter only realize this during evaluation (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011). In fact, it is unethical to monitor the activities of employees without their knowledge. Therefore, the organization should inform employees of the privacy policy, and that it has the right to monitor their activities while using the company’s facility (Lyncheski, 2010, p.33).

We will write a custom Essay on The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social media and computer security Computer security is increasingly becoming an issue of global concern, more so given that cases of new strains of computer viruses continue to threaten computer users in different institutions (Yale University, 2009). By joining the network within an institution or the larger WWW, an individual exposes his computer to attacks that would lead to loss of information stored in the machine (Yale University, 2009).

Given that the stored information is of importance to both the employees and the management of the organization, it is important to protect the information from loss. Indeed, all operating systems are vulnerable to such attacks (Yale University, 2009).

To improve on the security, users should stay informed of the latest developments registered in fighting computer viruses for a given operating system. In addition, software manufacturers often detect and provide alerts on possible attacks. Therefore, users should often consult with the manufacturers to fix the problem.

Security can also be improved using anti-virus (Yale University, 2009). This software checks updates, and prompts the users to fix the latest vulnerability that is discovered. Moreover, the use of a hardware-based firewall can also improve on the security (Yale University, 2009).

Conclusion Social media plays an important role in workplace communication. Therefore, moral values and ethical considerations need to be observed, as they affect the effectiveness of such communication. Ordinarily, any conversation should be conducted in a similar manner it would be communicated in a real life situation.

Moreover, it is desirable that all the users of social media sites should show some sense of maturity, just like in a real life encounter. In this sense, they will avoid conveying information that would hurt the recipients of such information, or any other party that has access to such information.

Moreover, it is important to convey substantial pieces of information; however, the privacy of employees and the company should be respected while using the sites.

Appendix Communication is essential in different settings including workplaces. Social media has had an increasing significance in enhancing effective communication among members of an organization. The management teams of business organizations often want to pass some information to their stakeholders including the customers, suppliers, the employees, and the public.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effective communication is essential in the supply chain management in a business organization. Similarly, non-profit organizations also have a lot of stuff to communicate to their stakeholders, while employees of such organizations also have a lot to share among themselves.

References Guerin, L. (2011). Smart Policies for Workplace Technologies: Email, Blogs, Cell Phones


Psychology of Gender Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Gender Identities in the Different Cultures

Gender Attitudes Studies


Reference List

Introduction Gender issues such as equality between men and women and gender roles evoke strong reactions in the contemporary world. Much like race, ethnic, and class stereotypes, gender stereotypes, exclusion, and discrimination are central to politics in many countries.

In particular, issues of feminist exclusion and discrimination characterized by a relatively low political participation of women remain unresolved and often elicit negative feelings in many societies. Additionally, these issues shape a society’s politics especially the policies of left-wing parties and feminist activist groups. For this reason, gender issues in contemporary societies require a cautious approach when addressing them.

Gender issues, particularly gender equality, roles, relations, and political participation are common stereotypes despite the massive awareness campaigns and legislations on these issues. Ideally, studying gender aims at promoting knowledge about gender exclusion and discrimination as well as encouraging the respect of rights of minorities (Spence, 1993, p. 632).

However, the high sensitivity and politics of gender issues with respect to economic, cultural as well as social inequalities are obstacles to studying gender. In addition, sample participation in gender studies is low; thus, decisive conclusions cannot be made. Future research should focus on understanding the gender roles within social contexts rather than on inequalities.

Major Challenges to Studying Gender

Most scholars studying gender issues focus on gender roles, as opposed to studying the broader gender identity along with its cultural, social, and economic aspects. In particular, social roles of each gender vary across culture; therefore, studies should focus cultural aspects. Stet and Burke study analyses the causes of social oppression against women as well as ways of fighting discrimination (1996, p.210).

In addition, other studies focus on social feminist movements and analyses the causes of feminist political activity as opposed to focusing on the social, cultural and political background of gender disparities. In my view, the ever-increasing interests on gender roles face stiff opposition from cultures, which hamper effective study of gender issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, masculinity and femininity are not only based on sexes but upon cultural and social conditions of an individual. Burke’s study shows that observed differences in social behaviors between women and men result from the cultural and cultural expectations of each gender (1991, p.838).

Traits and temperaments that are normally linked to one sex are, in fact, present in all the sex groups. In addition, far more variability in roles or identities does exist within each gender. Burke’s study concluded that, the “patterns of temperament vary among societies” (1991, p. 841). In most societies, male exhibit active and competitive temperaments while females are more cooperative and expressive.

However, according to Burke and Cast, in some societies the males show cooperative and expressive temperaments while females are more competitive (1997, p. 287). Consequently, their social roles are different compared to other societies. This shows that gender studies should be a function of social and cultural factors. In my view, studying gender should be in the context of the prevailing cultural and social factors in a given society.

Gender Identities in the Different Cultures Gender studies also face a challenge of defining gender identity in social and cultural contexts. The gender identity phenomenon has many aspects. Certain behaviors, attitudes and attributes are exclusive to either male or female. However, the underlying issue is the society’s view of the qualities of being feminine or masculine.

Culturally, physical attributes, traits, and occupational preferences reflect masculine or feminine gender identities. A study by Burke and Cast established that individuals base their personal qualities on culturally defined gender characteristics to “define themselves as feminine or masculine” (1997, p. 278).

Moreover, gender identities tend to be more variable depending on the internalized behaviors that the individual engages. The behaviors then shape their identities and by extension their social roles (Drass, 1986, p. 301). In this regard, studying gender faces the challenge of defining gender identity in the context of a given culture.

In my opinion, studies should use a multidimensional approach as gender roles relate to gender identities, which are both dependent on social and cultural factors. In addition, gender inequality and underrepresentation in any given society influence gender studies. The politics and gender polarization in contemporary societies, in my view, hampers objectivity in gender studies with regard to political participation and representation in leadership.

We will write a custom Essay on Psychology of Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my opinion, future work on gender should focus on how societal institutions including political institutions, religion and economic structures can modify gender identity. Among the greatest challenges of studying gender, is the issue of gender identity in the context of cultural structures.

In this way, socialization can be improved in many social settings. Secondly, gender studies should focus on cross-cultural and sub-cultural differences in order to understand the meaning masculine and feminine roles and identities in the context of that culture. Since such roles or identities are not universal, the studies should provide insights on a society’s division of labor, power structure and responsibilities as well as help to modify the challenges of defining gender identity and roles.

Gender Attitudes Studies Gender attitudes involve common views associated with an individual’s gender and are variable across cultures. In most cultures, masculine attitudes reflect justice while feminine attitudes in most situations tend to be in terms of care. In particular, the gender-role attitudes shape the gender roles and identities (Spence, 1993, p. 625). By extension, the gender-role attitudes influence the reproductive behaviors, family relationships, and the political participation of each gender in any given society.

Accordingly, children develop their gender-role attitudes from their experiences with social structures including the family and society. From these early experiences, the children identify the appropriate masculine and feminine roles within the society (Drass, 1986, p.298). The gender-role attitudes can be traditional, such as men providing for the family and female caring for children, or untraditional, where roles are assigned based on ability or circumstances regardless of gender. Additionally, the untraditional gender roles differ from culture to culture. As a result, gender attitude studies should be done across cultures, in order to draw meaningful conclusions.

Gender attitude studies conducted involving the Caucasian middle class adults alone cannot be conclusive. Firstly, the studies involve adults instead of children or adolescents whose present gender-role attitudes has an impact upon their roles in adulthood. Secondly, in my opinion, the gender-role attitude studies should involve societies with a history of gender inequality and discrimination. In particular, the studies should involve the African-Americans whose attitudes on gender roles has implications on gender participation in public affairs.

Conclusion Gender studies in contemporary societies often face challenges from underlying social and cultural factor. Precisely, the gender roles and gender identity are dependent on cultural and political constructs of a particular society. In addition, these factors determine the political participation of either gender and are variable across cultures. In my opinion, studies should focus on understanding the gender roles and identities and how they are shaped by gender-role attitudes across many cultures.

Reference List Burke, J. (1991). Identity Processes and Social Stress. American Sociological Review, 56, 836-849.

Burke, J.,


Company analysis-Harley-Davidson Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Harley-Davidson Inc. was established during the first ten years of the 20th century in Wisconsin. It is one of the major motorcycle manufacturers that was not hard hit by the Great Depression. It has also survived stiff competition from Japanese motor cycle manufacturing firms due to its high quality and competitive products and services.

The external analysis of the company reveals that Harley-Davidson Inc. is one of the companies that are highly recognized and admired worldwide. One of its notable marketing strategies entails excellent academy for training individuals who desire to learn riding motorcycles.

Issue I: Competition On the basis of internal rivalry, the company inevitably faced competition from firms which manufacture similar products as well as enjoy larger market share and stronger financial bases. For instance, Yamaha Company is one of its close market rivals. Consequently, just like Harley-Davidson, the three other competitors also concentrate on production of heavy weight motorcycles.

These competitors include Honda, Yamaha and Suzuki which are all Japanese companies. In addition, Honda Company which stands out as the major competitor of the company in the United States of America enjoys a larger market share (Grant, 2005).

Causes of stiff competition

It is imperative to note that Harley-Davidson products are highly priced and therefore, it locks out customers who are of low-income levels. Additionally, in some European nations, the company has problems in attaining larger market share. In the markets that are considered big and diverse such as India, Harley-Davidson has failed to venture and exploit the same. Finally, the company has not met the requirements of the production process by analyzing the future of their product’s market segment (Bloomberg business week, 2011).

Impacts of competition

Competition has been heightened by the fact that most of the competitors have larger market segment, diversity and financial capabilities. Following stiff competition the company is likely to experience a fluctuation in its market share if no action is taking to retain and attract new customers. Apparently, los of market share due to increased competition also translates to a decline in the company sales and subsequently a reduction in profitability (David, 2010).


It is highly recommended that the company should penetrate the market by obtaining a larger market share from the existing ones such as UK, U.S and Japan. It can attain this by employing advanced marketing techniques such as online advertising and intensive use of social media. The fact that the company has a well established brand name, it can viably compete with other market rivals. Moreover, due to the fact that there is high level of competition in US market, the company can achieve more as a result of market penetration (Reuters, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issue II: Reduced threats from potential entrants In regards to potential entrants into the market, the company faces minimal threats since most entrants are quite often deterred by high amount of capital investments required in establishing Motorcycle Company. Furthermore, the motorcycle industry has already reached what may be referred to as maturity stage. Therefore, there are only four players in the market segment who are also major competitors.

The small number of players can also be attributed to the fact that optimum profitability may only be enjoyed when manufacturers take advantage of economies of scale.


One of the important elements in the operations of Harley-Davidson is the presence of substitute products or services. The main substitutes of Harley-Davidson products are cars, scooters and sports bikes.

This is because the company concentrates on production of luxurious motorcycles. Hence, it has fewer substitutes. In addition people who want to purchase heavy weight motorcycles produced by Harley-Davidson do not consider buying the existing substitutes. Consequently, lack of substitutes reduces the threat of entry by potential competitors.


Barriers to entry imply that Harley-Davidson operates to nearly oligopolistic competition whereby they the power of suppliers. It has a large number of suppliers and hence if a supplier increases base price, the company has the option of switching to others without necessarily affecting production process.

The only materials that Harley-Davidson seeks from the suppliers are electrical and steel equipments in addition to shipping process (Bloomberg Business Week, 2011). The same significantly impact on the financial position of Harley-Davidson (Pahl


Effectiveness of the Group Minds Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Group Minds


Works Cited

Introduction People normally depend on one another starting from the time they are born. When a child is born, he/she has to completely depend on those people around him/her for a number of years. But still, even if people grow up and become mature, they do not progressively become independent from one another but they instead turn out to be interdependent.

In the course of living, people come to make up a large number of relationships which are set up on “give-and-take” basis with those around (the community, family and friends) as well as the culture. Human beings have turned out to get used to this for the reason that they are biologically formed in such a way that they live in groups and also work and grow in groups.

Doris Lessing pointed out in her article “Group Minds” that, a small number of people take joy in being alone and people are in constant search for groups to associate themselves with. In this paper, a critique of Doris Lessing’s article “Group Minds” is going to be carried by considering what other authors say about group mind.

Group Minds Human beings are social creatures and this obviously gives them power to come together in order to set up something that is stronger as well as more adaptive and inspired than any individual human being and that is, the group.

The general concern that Doris Lessing has in her article “Group Mind”, is that human beings have a lot of information available to them but they are not ready to use it to bring improvement in their social structures as well as groups and thus, they live their own lives.

This author is right to a significant level. The moment human beings come to a realization of the exact level to which groups control their lives; they can now start examining how to set up group minds which boost just love alone and the well-being of the society in general.

There is a strong believe within the society that human beings are “free individuals” who engage in thinking and speaking for themselves each day. However, this is not true because people’s actions are, in an unconscious way, under the continuous influence of groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whatever relationship that exists between two people, or even more, who have the same views in regard to a particular issue offers a good example of the way groups are easily and unconsciously formed among people. Human beings would like to think of themselves as individuals, but the question is, are they actually aware of their group minds?

Doris Lessing points out that, as on one hand human beings living in the free world present claims that they have the freedom to live as well as hold beliefs the way they wish, on the other hand, they are negligent in being aware of the way the opinions they have develop from the influences of other people (Lessing 333).

Having such social groups as the family and work groups among other social groups as being a quite significant part of the “American lifestyle”, Lessing points out that it is quite normal for human beings to stay in groups and gather together in groups.

This author presents an argument that a very small number of people are willing to live in absolute isolation and they are of course, in constant search for groups to identify themselves with. Lessing goes ahead to point out that, whereas each and every person has experiences of “group pressures”, people rarely depict themselves as “someone who lives and thinks similarly of those in groups” (Lessing 333).

According to Lessing, the moment a person joins a group, in most cases this person changes his or her way of thinking in order to go in line with the group and “there is nothing harder than trying to maintain your own opinions while being a group member” (Lessing 334). This author draws a conclusion that “the reason why an individual never challenges the opinions and affirmations of a group is because they are developed by the entire group mind, and challenging these might cause the entire group to collapse.

Human beings brand themselves as individuals, but they fall short of understanding the way groups exercise their influence over them. Even in the conditions under which people are aware that they are wrong and should not certainly go in line with the group they, in most cases, go on following through with the group mind.

Lessing pointed out that “it is almost impossible to stand firm on your beliefs while taking part in a group….some of our shameful memories are how often we might have said black was white just because other people were saying it” (Lessing 334). A most important example is given by another researcher, Stanley Milgram, who set out to carry out the determination of the level to which “traditional individuals” would have obedience for the evidently morally wrong order of an “authority figure”.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Effectiveness of the Group Minds specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Milgram carried out tests about the way particular individuals would give a response to imposing pain on to another individual for the reason that they were told to do so by another figure. He set up an experiment in which a person was required to engage in the studying of words that were paired in a list.

Another person was given instructions to ask the learner concerning the words in the list. Every moment the learner was not able to remember the paired words in the list, he was exposed to the electric shock as a way of punishing him. The strength of the electric shock was even increased every time this individual missed the “pairing word”.

The individual who had been assigned to inflict the pain (shocks), in a surprising manner, was not in any way very much disturbed at having to give out electrical shocks to the victim up to the time the victim turned out to be clearly uncomfortable, a point at which these individuals inflicting pain over and over again sought after “bailing the experiment” (Milgram 43).

But the “authority figure” in this experiment that was being carried out would give instructions to the one who was questioning the “learner” to go own regardless of what was happening.

Amazing enough, the one who was questioning would generally go on a few more times before they would stubbornly cease sending more electric impulses to the learner. Initially, the theory was that a large number of individuals would cease from carrying out the experiment having the awareness that the individual to whom they were sending the electric shocks was actually being inflicted but this notion was proved not to be true (Milgram, 43).

Those who were involved in the Milgram’s experiment held a belief that the scientist was very much aware of what he was doing and following this, the assumption they had in their mind was that they too, were doing a thing that was as well acceptable, although at the back of their mind, they knew this was not right.

The subjects surrendered the free will to choose that they had for the reason that an authority above them gave them instructions to do so. This is a clear illustration that gives evidence that going in line with an authority figure or a group in not the best choice at all times.

Lessing poses a question that “if we are truly individuals then why do we not stand up for our own morals and values?” (Lessing 334) This just gives out an indication that human beings hold a belief that the authority figures and large groups have all the possible answers and they have to act in a manner that goes in line with the ‘authority figures’ or groups’ wishes.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effectiveness of the Group Minds by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although human beings can think for themselves, they ensure they conform to the authority’s decision and this is for the sake of the “group mind”. An explanation is given out by Milgram of his results in the experiment that “for many, obedience is a deeply ingrained behavior tendency, indeed a potent impulse overriding training in ethics, sympathy, and moral conduct” (Milgram 44).

A large number of human beings show obedience to the authority figures without much thinking. However, there are situations in which disobeying may be helpful to an individual in regard to achieving safety and maintaining one’s morals and values. Lessing, in her article, gives out a discussion about the dangers that come out from being obedient and these are also illustrated by another author, Shirley Jackson, in the short story “The Lottery”.

In this story, the villagers depict the observation that was made by Doris Lessing that “it is the hardest thing in the world to maintain an individual dissident opinion, as a member of a group” (Lessing 334). The villagers in “The Lottery” as well portray how lack of a vision as a member of a group can be quite harmful. Lessing observed that “the majority will continue to insist and after a period of exasperation the minority will fall in to line” (Lessing 334).

Solomon Asch in his article “Opinions and Social Pressure”, points out that “the assumptions are that people submit uncritically and painlessly to external manipulation by suggestion or prestige, and that any given idea or value can be ‘sold’ or ‘unsold’ without reference to its merits” (Asch 307).

What this author is putting across is that a large number of people do ignore their values as well as their virtues without ceasing to engage in thoughts about whether they actually needed to be ignored. Asch and Lessing “tie together” to give an illustration about the way a group can be very powerful and how considerably a group can have an effect on the mind of an individual within the group.

Human beings give in to the external pressure that comes from the authority figures as well as from the peers. Basing on what Lessing points out, there is actually nothing wrong for an individual belonging to a particular group. The problem comes in only when individuals do not understand the “social principles” which serve to control groups as well as control individuals. It is quite clear that groups are an integral part of the society.

In Jackson’s “The Lottery”, the group behavior was actually dangerous to each and every individual that was involved. Other than the clearly seen threat of the “lottery winner” dying after being stoned; this was a tradition of the village. Any individual who had thoughts that could not conform to the group was insulted and regarded to be foolish (Jackson 3). Following the mentality of this group, the direct effect that came out of this was individuals killing the fellow members in the society without any indication of he practice being stopped.

To avoid this practice, it could only require a single individual in the society standing up and protesting, regardless of whether this is a decision of the group or of an individual. By one person in the society boldly giving out his or her opinion, this will serve to change the way people in the group look at things or situations. Since human beings are conscience and aware of themselves, they have the power and ability to positively utilize the group mind in order for them to be able to renew the human condition.

Conclusion People in the society depend on each other and they find themselves unconsciously forming groups with which they identify themselves. Human beings label themselves as individuals, but they fall short of understanding the way groups exercise their influence over them. It becomes hard for individuals belonging to particular groups to come up with individual decisions that may go against the group and therefore they end up doing what they might be aware that it is not right.

According to Doris Lessing there is actually nothing wrong for an individual to identify him or herself with a certain group. The problem comes in only when individuals do not understand the “social principles” which serve to control groups as well as control individuals. It is quite clear that groups are an integral part of the society. Once people get to find out the exact level to which groups control their lives; they can now commence on looking for ways to set up group minds which boost love alone and the well-being of the society in general.

Works Cited Asch, Solomon E. “Opinions and Social Pressure.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005. 306 – 312.

Jackson, Shirley. “The Lottery”. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 2000. 1 – 9.

Lessing, Doris. “Group Minds.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Pearson Longman, 2000. 333 – 335.

Milgram, Stanley. “The Perils of Disobedience.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 2000. 41 – 47.


The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help

The Affect of Group Minds on Behaviours The effect of group minds on behaviors implies the general influence group minds have on individuals’ thinking and opinions. The term “group minds” refers to joint intellect with regards to a conception in sociology and philosophy. This term in science fiction is widely explained as shared awareness.

In the book ‘‘group minds’’ by Doris Lessing, she brings out the fact that many people all over the world live in groups. Some of these are social and work groups not forgetting the family and the very minute percentage of the population that is contented by living in solitude. Such people are viewed in a negative way as to be either bizarre or egocentric. Lessing (12) portrays the ideology that people opt not to live alone for a lengthy period of time rather, they tend to look for groups to belong.

A hazardous fact is not belonging to a group but rather the lack of understanding of the social laws that rule groups and those that govern people individually. Group minds tend to think alike or in a better term, people in a group are ‘like-minded’ nevertheless, the challenging aspect of it is having a clear individual mind as an affiliate of a particular group.

Doris Lessing expounds on group minds by caring out an experiment where an individual is separated from a group and he /she is not given clear instructions on the task ahead which entails the comparison of different lengths of wood that have a slight difference from each other yet the group of people are collectively asked to perform the same task.

In the outcome, the majority group will stubbornly confirm that the lengths are equal while on the other hand, the minority, that is the individual who performed the task alone, will state that the pieces of wood differ in length. However, the group will continue persisting that right is wrong and after a period of enragement and even frustration, the minority will change their stand and join the majority thus most people give in to the major opinion hence the term “obey the atmosphere”.

The affect of group minds is usually strong and many agree that the most challenging thing is to differ with one’s group in opinion. A large number agree that they often side with the majority just because it is simply, the majority, even in situations where it is wrong.

A group mind is one major underlying hypothesis that goes unnoticed in a group and members of a group not only submit to the group but they also hardly notice that they have a collective mind and never have a difference in opinion and to them, other people not belonging to their group seem insignificant.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Members of this group are so resistant to change that no debate about their postulations can be held. Only 10 percent of the total population of the world can be called natural leaders since they have independent minds and do make their own decisions by themselves without influence from majority groups. In individual thinking, a person differs and rings out that one factor that is often overlooked by a group of people and this issue of overlooking by the group is brought about by the group thinking that they are right.

According to Lessing (56), when you analyse the way a stance towards a particular book is viewed by everyone, people say the same thing whether positive or negative until there is a drift in opinion: this may be an element of some wider social drift. She gave an example of a women’s movement where a publishing house governed by women re-assess the work of women writers who have been disregarded by the community due to the ‘group thinking’ of the masses.

In some cases, a shift of the general opinion occurs due to a person standing out against the general opinion and other people join him hence creating a new ideology that subsequently becomes general. When a well respected person of the society says that something is good yet someone who isn’t known in the society thinks it is not, it is difficult to differ and better yet, it is more difficult to differ when quite a lot of people say the opposite.

The external pressure that people undergo and succumb to often comes in form of groups such as patriotism, loyalty groups, beliefs and needs. However the hardest pressure that is difficult to control is the internal one which stresses that you follow the majority. An experiment popularly known as Milgrma is used to illustrate the group thinking phenomenon whereby, people who are randomly chosen were put in one room and an opaque screen divides the room.

In the second part of the room a number of volunteers are put in and they are wired to a machine that is used to run electric shock up to a point of killing a person similar to an electric chair. That machine gives them indications on how they are to react to the electric shocks either with a grunt then groan and screams and finally with a plea to cease the experiment.

Those people who were randomly chosen and put in the first room actually thought that people in the second half of the room were connected to the electrocuting machine. They were instructed to administer shock gradually increasing and hence ignore the grunts from the other side.

Out of this sixty-two percent of them continued administering shock up to 450 volts level and at the voltage of 285 the guinea pig had already become silent after giving an excruciating scream. Those that administered the shocks had a firm belief that they had given the painful shocks at their best and they experienced a great deal of pressure though they kept on increasing the volts of electricity.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the experiment many of them found it incredulous that they had the capability of such actions and some of them said that they were only following the instructions given to them. This experiment very openly and clearly shows how majority of people follow orders issued to them regardless of their degree and nature even if atrocious in order to obey the authority above them. Such an example is the German Nazis who did not question the orders given unto them.

‘Group mind’ is an element of the general human behavior. Doris Lessing points out that by a person joining a group in the name of finding people like themselves, the chances of that group changing the views and opinions of that person are usually high. She also warns that if a person does not think for himself/herself, that person is a part of a group and may end up never having the opportunity to be a standalone individual with his/her own views (Behrens and Rosen 96).

Solomon Asch, the author of “Opinions and social pressure”, carried out several experiments to demonstrate the effect of group minds in human beings. In one of the experiments, college students were asked to give their views regarding various issues and at a later date they were asked the same question but this time around they were first given the views of the authorities and majority of their peer groups on the same issues.

In the outcome, many of the students changed their views towards the direction of the opinions of the majority. This proves the extent to which group minds has affected the society as a whole. The fact that a particular group has the majority rule tends to shift views even in the event of there being no argument for other views.

People should strongly criticize the power of social pressure since an affect of group minds causes uncritical submission to members of a group. According to Asch (105), the capability of rising above group thinking and the phenomenon of group minds through independent thinking is a factor open to human beings.

In another experiment a group of about eight to nine students were put in a room for a “psychological experiment”in visual acuteness. The experiment was about giving the comparison between lengths of lines where two white cards are marked by a black line. One card had a single black line while the other had three which had varying lengths.

The students were to make a choice on which vertical line had the same length as the one that was on the first card. Initially their answers were to be given in the order in which they were seated and they gave the same matching line and in the second round they gave a common answer. However, in the third round one person differed from the rest in his answer and he looked surprised by the disagreement and on the fourth trial he still disagreed while his colleagues are unanimous on their decision.

What was duly noted was that the more he disagreed in the other trials, the more he got worried and hesitant and one occasion he paused before giving his answer and spoke in a low tone of voice or he grinned in an embarrassed manner. The experimenter had given instructions to the other members of the group to give wrong answers unanimously and the dissenter had no idea about this.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The dissenter who was also the minority had actually given the correct answer but he was opposed by a majority group that was giving the incorrect answer in unanimity. Out of 123 people put to this test, a large number of them followed the majority group due to group pressure that resulted from group minds. The minority shifted their answers to the majority which was out rightly misleading them in 36.8 percent of the varieties.

Although the individuals differed at some point, a quarter was independent and hardly agreed with the majority but at some other point some students affirmed with the majority in almost all the occasions.

This experiment conclusively shows that those students who followed the majority could not free themselves as the ordeal went on and on while the independent did not end up following the majority as the trials continued. Those that followed the majority did so because their suspicions failed to free them at the moment of making a concrete choice.

In addition, an experiment was carried out and it gave the conclusion that when an individual is subjected with only one person giving a contradictory answer to his, that individual is only influenced slightly. But as the trials continue and the opposition is increased to two people, he starts experiencing pressure and doubt on his answer.

In a case where the minority number keeps on decreasing where the members shift their answers and join the majority. So long as the minority subject has a person siding with his answer, he has invariable independence but immediately that person defects, the chances of the dissenter following the majority in the next trial increases sharply.

Philip Zimbardo in his book, “The Stanford Prison Experiment,” studied the psychological effects of a person as a prisoner or as a prison guard. He carried out the Stanford Prison study where his subjects were 24 college students who were allocated duties to be either “prisoners” or “guards” in a model of a prison situated in the Stanford Psychology Building at the cellar.

In this experiment, the volunteers knew they were participating in a study but they did not have a clue when it would begin. When they were arrested at random and taken to the prison they were in a placid state of distress. The “prisoners” underwent humiliation where they were undressed, shaved and searched and just like in an actual prison they wore uniforms, ID numbers and given an escort to the cells by the guards.

It was difficult for the prisoners to show any individual personalities due to the changes they had undergone which had brought isolation to them. The psychologists in this experiment did not issue any instructions to the guards on how to treat the prisoners all they were to do was to maintain order in the replica prison. The volunteer prisoners portrayed signs of shock and uneasiness and they ridiculed the guards as they tried to reclaim their individualism (Zimbardo 123).

The guards formulated a tactic to fight back so as to maintain order and discipline to the disobedient prisoners who had rebelled. The prisoners who had started the rebellion were stripped and put in a solitary confinement by the guards while those that had no involvement in the riots were given the privilege of laying in their bed, bathing and food while their colleagues lacked those three things.

But after sometime even those prisoners that obeyed were also subjected to punishment to a point where visiting the toilet was an advantage to that particular prisoner.

At this point the prisoners thought themselves to be actual criminals and both themselves and the guards took to their roles and acted way beyond their jurisdiction of what was expected and thought of them hence leading to psychological suffering.

Many prisoners had been emotionally disturbed and five of them were removed from the study earlier on when it was concluded that a third of the guards portrayed vicious trends.

After the experiment, the volunteers, that is, both the guards and prisoners were assembled into the same room for assessment so as to put across their feelings to each other and evaluations were drawn to the Milgram experiment. Due to the distress the participants underwent, the study ended within 6 days as opposed to the planned two weeks.

The aim of this experiment was to test the philosophy that personality characters of prisoners and guards were swiftly the key to understanding offensive prison circumstances. The experiment was terminated by Zimbardo when Christina Maslach who was conducting interviews opposed the horrendous conditions of the prison. Out of more than fifty people who had seen the prison, he noted that only one of them had raised the issue of its ethics and that one person was Christina Maslach.

In the excerpt from Ian MeEwan’s novel, ‘Atonement’, he states the German Luftwaffe had raided soldiers who were retreating and those on the beaches without the Royal Air Force(RAF) responding to this hence, they followed orders and followed the majority. This shows the affect of group mind in the military.

Atonement is a British film that revolves around romance, suspense and war and it is generally described as “redemptive and astounding”. In the film, Turner tried to maintain order on the movement that was before him a thing that he almost succeeded. A short man who worked with Royal Air Force (RAF) was cornered by the crowd and received a beating from some members of the crowd. The man was a minority while the crowd had the majority rule.

The crowd laughed at the man as he was kicked and no one questioned them. A sense of individual responsibility eroded the crowd as they circled around the short man as the members of the crowd got reckless and irresponsible. Turner took the assumption that he could not do anything to help the man because if he did so, he would be risking getting lynched by the mob. The factual threat that had occurred to Turner was the ‘righteous state of mind’ of the mob.

As a man decided to whip the short man, Mace tricked the crowd to thinking that he was going to drown the man an idea that the crowd was so excited about. In this, the minority which was comprised of Nettle ,Turner ,Mace and the wounded man ended up winning through their wise thinking whereby, instead of trying to stop the crowd they coerced it since the multitude had “group minds” (MeEwan 89).

Conclusion Group minds on behaviors greatly affect human behavior and regardless of human beings having sufficient information about themselves, they do not use it to develop their lives. This aspect greatly influences the actions of a group whereby whatever the group has decided as a whole cannot be questioned and each and every member of the group does not have the power to think individually.

It is therefore appropriate and correct to state that group minds negatively impacts the lives of those belonging to a particular group. On the contrary, individual thinking enhances progression in people’s lives and it defeats the illusion behind democracy where people have the capacity to assess situations before following a group and its views.

Works Cited Asch, Solomon. Opinions and social pressure. Prentice Hall Inc., 1955. Print.

Behrens, Laurence and Rosen, Leonard. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. New York: Longman Pub Group, 1996. Print.

Lessing, Doris. Group minds. Toronto: Knopf Canada, 2001. Print.

MeEwan, Ian. Atonement. New York: Nan A. Talese, 2002. Print.

Zimbardo, Philip. Stanford prison experiment: A simulation study of the psychology of imprisonment. Philip G. Zimbardo, Inc., 1972. Print.


Steps Involved in Decision Making Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Steps in Decision Making



Introduction Decisions constitute a major part of our everyday lives. The way we make these choices determined the very quality of our lives and whether we succeed or fail in our endeavors. These decisions are not only at a personal level but extend even to the realm of business where simple decisions impact on the lives of many and the course of an economy.

Yet all decisions follow a similar pattern and learning to use the right model is the key towards an effective decision making habit. Take for example my decision to pursue a major in human development and a minor in Special Education from this university. This decision was highly influenced by cost, sacrifice and practicality in a world of unlimited choices and limited resources.

Steps in Decision Making There are many factors which influences an individual’s choice of both the university and university program. For me, the process was influenced greatly by circumstance and passion. The end of high school education brings a need to apply for college depending on performance and financial capability to pay for the cost of one’s choice.

My choice of disciplines was due to passion and demonstrated skills in the subject matter which constitutes the field of human development. Like many other students, an Ivy League university would have been the better choice but the cost of tuition in such institutions is way beyond the reach of many. So the process involved identifying the opportunity, evaluating the pros and cons of joining a particular program in a particular university and choosing the most practical option.

Bateman and Snell (2002) identify the following as the steps of making good decisions. Identifying what the problem is. The person faced with a decision must have the will to solve the problem and have the opportunity or resources to do so. First, one must brainstorm or identify possible solutions to the diagnosed problem.

Then evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of generated alternatives to choose one with higher probability of maximizing one’s welfare. This must be followed by making the decision of which alternative to adopt. Best to make a decision which has the greatest potential to better one’s circumstances. However, sacrifice is sometimes needed depending on circumstance and the available alternatives. The chosen alternative must then be implemented. Once a choice is made it should be enforced with total commitment. Finally, one must look back and evaluate the effectiveness of the chosen alternative. It is clear that the decision to enroll in this university was the right one and the knowledge of this decision making stages would not have altered it.

Bateman and Snell emphasize the need to make decisions based on the consideration of cost. The cost of implementing any decision with the corporate world is one of the major tenets which managers have used to make corporate decisions (Bateman and Snell, 2011). These decisions have far reaching consequences since the cost of any project might determine the level of innovation, quality and even productivity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This in turn reflects greatly not only on the conduct of the managers but also on the company and might determine future profitability or lack of it in the future.

Bateman and Snell (2011) have one major theme behind all their decision models and that is the need to deliver results by creating collaboration and better leadership within organizations. My decision to forego one of the major Ivy League universities was based on consideration of cost and here lies the similarity between the influence of cost advocated by Bateman and Snell and my university choice.

Conclusion This paper makes it clear the effect choices have on us and others. The way we make these choices becomes important if only to gain the ability to make good ones and refrain from making classical mistakes which lead us to misery. Needless to say that knowledge gained here will aid in making decisions which will shape our future for a long time to come.

References Bateman


“Fight Club” by Fincher David Essay best college essay help

The film Fight Club, which is based on the novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk, presents an evaluation of modern consumerist culture and social values. To a great extent, this movie urges people to regard goods as necessities rather than those things that define an individual or indicate his/her status in the society.

One of the major characters, Tyler Durden acts as a conveyer of the authors’ views on contemporary culture. It is possible to say that this person advocates the values of a hunter-gather society which tends to be simpler and more egalitarian, at least from economic point of view.

There are several examples that illustrate this argument. First, we can refer to the conversation between Tyler and the narrator. Tyler expresses the idea that modern people view themselves primarily as “consumers” whose sole purpose is acquisition of property. He even accuses the narrator of being too focused on material values overlooking the fact that the protagonist lost virtually all his possessions.

More importantly, he emphasizes the point that the majority of these goods are not essential for the survival of a person. More likely, they are used to underline high prestige of an individual. Such worldview is unacceptable for him. His ideas bear close resemblance to a hunter-gather society.

Its members acquire goods such as food or clothing only to feed their families or sustain themselves. In such social and economic environment the main purpose of labor is survival or subsistence but not profit or prestige. People, who live in such communities, do not derive pleasure from mere possession of property or goods.

This lack of highly sophisticated needs or desires greatly appeals to Tyler and, in part, to the narrator. Additionally, acquisition of property can be the underlying cause of inequality in the society. This is another reason why Tyler cannot accept consumerism. Hunter-gatherer community becomes his ideal mostly because it is more egalitarian. However, he overlooks the drawbacks of such social system.

Another example, which shows Tyler’s rejection of consumer culture, is the destruction of other peoples property. For instance, the members of Project Mayhem burn computers, smash vehicles, and even bomb the office of some unidentified company or corporation. This sabotage originates from their rejection of consumerism. In this way they attempt to demonstrate that property is not critical for the survival of a human being.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The people are guided by Tyler’s philosophy which relies on the premise that acquisition of property cannot be the only driver of human behavior. Again, we can say that this ideology stems from hunter-gather society. Finally, the members of Project Mayhem bomb the buildings of credit card companies in effort to erase debt records.

These bombings can be explained by their desire to recreate primitive or hunter-gather society in modern America. Nonetheless, the main characters of this film, especially Tyler, forget that other people may disagree with their views on contemporary culture or their willingness to transform the world through violence.

Fight Club is a rich social commentary on various social, economic, and political issues. This movie is aimed at showing the shortcomings of contemporary capitalism and consumerism.

Yet, its characters fail to find solutions to the problems of society; instead they try to return to primitive culture with its simplicity and alleged egalitarianism. Tyler does not care to explain the reasons why modern world moves toward consumer culture and this is the main limitation of his worldview.

Works Cited Fincher David (dir). Fight Club. 20th Century Fox. DVD.


Evaluating performance through motivation Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Employees are a significant asset to the organization; therefore, it is crucial to motivate employees and resolve conflicts wisely within an organization to achieve remarkable performance. Different organizations apply motivation theories differently to stimulate the interest of employees.

It is essential to understand the theories of motivation first, before determining their application in different organizations. Abraham Maslow explains that employee motivation comes through a hierarchy of needs. The highest point of motivation for employees is the point where management meets the self-actualization needs of employees (Cofer,


Fast Forward’s Continuous Improvement Process Report online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Continuous improvement process review

Review communication to stakeholders

Future planning for Fast Forward


Works Cited

Introduction Continuous improvement process entails all effective changes undertaken in an organization to ensure that the organization maintains a sustained growth and value for customer. It involves instituting measures, techniques and performance indices that are used to assess, evaluate and take appropriate actions to sustain the life of an organisation. Fast Forward’s continuous improvement policy serves as a frame of reference in delivering courier services to its clients (Bartol et al. 17-35).

Continuous improvement process review Following a decline in Fast Forward’s performance including loss of Build With Us, a key corporate client, due to dissatisfaction with service delivery, a review of the following service segments is essential to revitalize Fast Forward’s business: Customer feedback, service monitoring system, staff mentorship and coaching programs, firm’s communication system and channels, performance review and operation’s structure.

Customer feedback: A mechanism should be put in place to collect, evaluate and respond to customer feedback. This will involve designing and distributing questionnaires to the firm’s service points to be filled by its customers about their complaints and complements.

A customer service feedback task team should be formed to ensure that customer’s feedback is handled appropriately including making follow-ups to enhance development of a strong relationship between business and clients (Bartol, et al. 17-35).

Service delivery monitoring system: The departure of Build With Us is attributed to the current manual system of monitoring and recording of mail deliveries which is slow and inefficient. Owing to this, an elaborate IT system should be instituted to enhance fast recording and information tracking to ensure customer retention and high business efficiency.

Staff mentorship and coaching: Mentoring is providing guidance and support to help a mentee, to find a direction of doing something on his own while coaching is giving directives and guidelines for someone to follow to enhance his/ her potential. Mentoring and coaching differ in the sense that mentoring is long term and often leads to a relationship as the mentee looks at a mentor as a role model to emulate while coaching is short term and does not require the coach to necessarily be a role model (Rummler’s and Brache’s 10).

The firm will assume a rigorous mentorship and coaching program in which professional mentors and coaches will be sourced from within and outside to facilitate staff motivation and growth. Such mentors and coaches will be expected to have good communication skills of message precision, time consciousness, proactivity and mindful of employees’ efforts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication systems and channels: A good and effective communication system will be instituted to ensure effective flow of information in the firm’s hierarchy through meetings, noticeboards, office telephones, firm’s intranet and e-mail system. There will be effective weekly meetings and trainings at all departmental levels and monthly meetings involving management.

Performance review: To ensure high performance, targets will be set for all employees and key performance indicators put in place to measure their productivity. Following this, there will be monthly and annual employees’ performance appraisal.

To ensure effective monitoring of the company’s operations, the operations department will be structured into task teams each assigned a specific task to ensure high service delivery and customer retention. Such teams will hold regular meetings to report on the progress of their assignments (Samson and Daft 7-21).

Review communication to stakeholders Following the above described reviews, a communication will be made to the firm’s employees, shareholders, customers and top management including directors through suitable channels as described: Internal stakeholders will be communicated to through office-mails, intranet uploads and noticeboards.

External stakeholders such as customers and shareholders will receive communication through global e-mail system where appropriate, newspaper notices and annual stakeholders’ meetings among others.

Future planning for Fast Forward The future plans of Fast Forward will entail measures to expand business territories, and to maintain a growth in asset portfolio and profit margins.

The following progressive improvements are essential in meeting the future of the firm: Firstly, I will ensure a sustained growth in human resource with respect to growth in business; secondly, I will ensure integration of ideas of all employees in business planning including customer feedback in making business decisions, thirdly, I will invest in IT systems to meet business expansion and modern communication challenges.

We will write a custom Report on Fast Forward’s Continuous Improvement Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, I will invest in staff motivation and mentorship to motivate employees to work for the common goal and philosophy of the company.

Conclusion From a general perspective, the decline in business performance of Fast Forward is due to laxity in implementation of its continuous improvement processes and policies. The above described reviews should help revitalize the company’s performance. Staff motivation is of essence in ensuring effective implementation of these reviews as this will change them from being reactive to proactive.

Works Cited Bartol, Kathryn e tal. Management:A Pacific Rim Focus. 5th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2008. Print.

Rummler’s G.A and A.P. Brache’s. Improving performance 2nd edition :How to manage the white space on the organization chart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass publishers, 1995. Print.

Samson, Danny and Richard Daft. Fundamentals of management. 2nd ed. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2005. Print.


The Australian Ecomony Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Abstract Australia is a steadily growing economy that can attribute its success to the economic policies that have been applied. This report evaluates the macroeconomic setting in economic growth, unemployment, inflation and trade. The investigations will discuss the performance after adoption.

Issues surrounding the macroeconomic policies will be discussed. Two major policies have been adopted and have been successful. The monetary and fiscal policies are most effective when applied within a short period. They have been implemented in creation of more water resources, expansion of the port, communication infrastructure, transport network and education. The policies have seen reduced rates in taxation, privatized the governmental enterprises and changed the structure of the enterprises.

The main challenge is that the electorate and the legislature have sometimes used the policies for their own interests. Another challenge is that employment is sometimes unsustainable. To overcome the challenges, reports on the implementation of the policies need to be documented and availed for analysis. This will also allow for transparency. There is also need to form independent groups to be in charge of the fiscal policy and monetary policy.

Introduction The Australian government has been keen to attain economic growth, reduce the levels of inflation create sustainable employment and create opportunities for future, in terms of market. Due to the dynamics of the market, Australia has adopted policies that control the economic prospects in a changing market. This is a report on the macroeconomic policy settings for economic growth, unemployment, inflation and trade currently being applied in Australia.

The current macroeconomic setting in Australia The economy of Australia receives greater revenue from mining and agriculture than from other services. In line with Travel Document Systems (2011, p. 1), government has benefited from exporting raw materials as well as manufacturing them.

Manufacturing therefore, is causing gradual economic growth and creating more trade opportunities while creating more employment. Redding


The US Constitution Essay essay help: essay help

The book by O’Connor and Sabato (2011) is valuable, and deserves special attention. Its second chapter examined the US Constitution. The US Constitution is the product of many years American political, economical, religious, and social experience. Following O’Connor and Sabato’s book (2011), one may see that this document cannot be changed in an easy way.

From colonies to the United States, the country had passed a long challengeable way. Only the best juridical practices stroke roots on the abundant US land. The ideas that resulted in the creation of this legal document addressed the problems and demands of a changing nation (O’Connor and Sabato 30). Thus, the US Constitution has gathered those laws and legal norms that reflected the country’s historical experience.

The authors’ book (2011) describes key events that led to American independence. These events are connected with the swift development of the thirteen colonies, intense foreign policy, and the Civil War. However, the book presented Boston Massacre of 1770 as one of the most notable events that led to the independence. The incident that happened in Boston (the encounter of the American citizens, disappointed with unfair tax policy with the British authorities) resulted in the removal of the British military from the town.

Six years later, on July 4, 1776, the Americans declared independence: the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress (O’Connor and Sabato 33). Since that time, the US Constitution became the supreme law that cannot be broken with impunity by each American citizen.

The adoption of the Constitution was accompanied with participation of numerous notable individuals: George Washington (in 1789, he became the first US President), John Adams, James Madison, and others. The book (2011) says that such notable figure as Benjamin Franklin signed the most essential US document of all times. He is believed to be the founding father of the US Constitution (O’Connor


Intellectual Property Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction This paper discusses the inception of intellectual property (IP) and its associated features. The concept of Intellectual property emerged after the foundation of the “World Intellectual Property Organization” (WIPO) in 1967. There is increase use of this term by diverse groups seeking to safeguard their intellectual knowledge and cultural heritage.

This paper also examines the recent “Wai 262 claim before the Waitangi tribunal” in order to identify the issues at stake (Waitangi Tribunal 2011). Furthermore, it presents the advantages and shortcomings of using Intellectual property model in protecting local people’s traditions and knowledge. Additionally, it presents the possible alternatives to the language of intellectual property. These discussions focus on New Zealand and the citizen’s relation with Maori people due to their cultural distinctiveness.

The Wai 262 claim before the Emergence of Waitangi Tribunal The Waitangi Tribunal recorded the claims on 262 occasions. This gave rise to the name Wai 262 claim. The preliminary recording took place on 9 October 1991 and the petitioners included six people. This is in addition to the iwi who were complaining against the New Zealand Crown (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

The claim was referred to as the living things claim because of the underlying issues. Furthermore, it had extensive coverage of additional issues regarding civilizing and intellectual property. The claimants recognized the existence of the New Zealand decrees and the government rules but questioned the place of Maori people’s customs, distinctiveness, and customary knowledge within the setting (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

Furthermore, the claimants wanted to know the entities that would manage Maori cultural art and the unique surrounding that created Maori identity. The claim was also concerned with questioning the place of Maori cultural importance in New Zealand, especially the responsibility of the natives towards guarding their culture (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

Further, claimants wanted to know the responsibility of the natives in caring for the valuable cultural materials that determined their identity, including artwork, historic sites, vegetation, and animals.

Issues at Stake in the Wai 262 Claim The petitioners argued that certain legislations enacted by the government contravened the Waitangi Treaty. This diminished chances for Maori to implement their political right basing on indigenous knowledge and environment. Further, it also limits their rights regarding traditional knowledge and intellectual property (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 66).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They argued that foreign powers affected the Maori through legal guidelines, which were contrary to the Waitangi Treaty provisions. These issues were evident in the decision-making process that influenced commercialization, management, and conservation of diverse ecological resources.

Issues entailing the integration of the Maori people in the determination of cultural rights in the application of the original environmental endowments were evident (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67). Further, the Maori required opportunities to conserve, improve, and transmit the indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) basing on environmental materials (WIPO 2011, pg. 8).

There was an issue concerning the right to ecological sustainability that was possible through sustainable use of customary resources. The Maori also needed to participate and achieve benefits basing on contributing opinions on the application, improvement, and trade of indigenous environmental endowments (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).

There were also concerns about the associations that existed between Maori and the Crown. Furthermore, the significance of improving the relations in the presence of emerging regulations was at stake. Discrimination basing on racial relations also existed between the Crown and Maori because of the native’s cultural identity (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

This necessitated the search for ways of resolving historical conflicts that emerged because of the way that the New Zealanders handled the Maori. This resulted in relationships that awarded governance rights to the Crown over Maori cultural pieces while the natives held their power (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

The Maori also noted that enacted decrees marginalized them against exercising full management rights over their primary resources. There was also an ongoing unlawful exploitation of Maori intellectual property and related resources.

Intellectual Property The emergence of Intellectual Property (IP) coincided with the founding of WIPO in 1967. IP concept gained escalated application over the recent years in protecting people from losing their original creations. According to the “New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development”, IP means a nonspecific term for the variety of property privileges that safeguard knowledge (MED 2008).

We will write a custom Essay on Intellectual Property specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More WIPO argues that IP entails original creations that emerge from people’s minds including “inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs”, which are used in trade (WIPO 2011). Furthermore, IP differs in two classes, including industrialized property together with copyright.

The industrial property includes “patents, trademarks, and industrial designs” (WIPO 2011). Copyright property includes literary, creative materials and drawings. The cultural expressions that fall under fictional and creative works include novels, poems, plays, films, musical works, and artistic works that entail drawings, paintings, photographs, monuments, among others.

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) include the privileges that people who invent or create new things enjoy because of the protection they receive. These rights offer control over diverse processes that may be used by other entities (MED 2008). However, such privileges last for a short period.

The privileges and rights are defended by the idea that creators and inventors of ought to profit from their activities. Further, the owners of such property receive incentives for generating ideas or property that would have not taken off (MED 2008). The benefits that emerge because of inventions compensate for the costs incurred by societies.

Intellectual property is linked to the affairs of the indigenous people. This is because of their cultural, knowledge and environmental resource endowments, which generate specific intellectual property characteristics. WIPO differentiates these aspects of IP regarding indigenous people according to traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) and TK (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).

These are differentiated according to their relations with IP among native communities. It is noteworthy that indigenous people have diverse TCEs that are protected as their IP. These TCEs includes productions that contain characteristic essentials of the cultural inventions developed and preserved by indigenous communities (WIPO 2007, pg. 8).

The cultural expressions occur in diverse forms, including verbal, musical, and activities, among others. The inventive heritage of indigenous people has substantial social, belief, and cultural functions. Furthermore, they are also exploitable for commercial functions.

Native people also have diverse knowledge systems collectively named TK. These include knowledge regarding customary methodological know-how, conventional environmental resources, scientific or health understanding (WIPO 2007, pg. 6). These knowledge systems can also be linked with TCEs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Intellectual Property by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because some conventional pieces that symbolize TK can also refer to inventive expressions. This uniqueness makes different groups of indigenous people argue that TK and TCEs are indivisible (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).

Furthermore, IP advocates require rule-makers to recognize the inseparability of TK and TCEs basing on their significance to different aspects of indigenous peoples livelihoods and cultural identity. The economic importance of indigenous people awareness and TCEs cause their exploitation by third parties. In some scenarios, these exploitations occur unlawfully, thereby necessitating their protection as IP.

IP in Relation to Indigenous Peoples using the Waitangi 262 Claim Maori who is indigenous people of the New Zealand advanced the Wai 262 claim. It contained concerns regarding IP of their green resources, including living things. Furthermore, it also concerned seeking responsibility for the management of Maori TK that entails arts, sculpture, history, verbal expressions, music, and traditional healing systems and surroundings management.

Collectively, these were named taonga because their continuation and improvement signified continued Maori uniqueness and well-being. According to Waitangi Tribunal (2011), Maori IP included their TK and aspects of culture that signified their identity. The continued undermining of Maori by the New Zealand Crown necessitated their claim actions that were necessary for safeguarding and maintaining their IP.

The inappropriateness of the IPRs that protected Maori conventional knowledge and cultural wealth marginalised the natives from their indigenous property. Furthermore, the idea that IP offers owners privileges to determine the use of their materials and Maori was not available in this provision (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

They had complications in gaining IPRs that would facilitate their interest in preserving or economically exploiting their conventional knowledge. This is because the existing rights had inconsistencies with the native’s property (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).

The native’s interest included preserving their property against third-party exploitations while rights limited the period and provisions for public disclosure (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67). The requirements that include originality and recognition of certain individuals or companies as inventors limit Maori’s protection since it culminates in marginalization.

The claimants noted that the rights are unfavorable to indigenous people’s traditional information, cultural materials, and green endowments. This means that third parties can obtain rights regarding certain inventions. This means they can apply them commercialisation processes (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).

Furthermore, certain rights eventually result into successful trade activities, but the claimants recognised that they might not benefit because of inadequate sharing. The claim called for the patenting of diverse fauna and petitioning unlawful registering of brands using Maori pictures or writings. Intellectual property is a form of legislation and the New Zealand’s enactments together with other global requirements affected Maori rights (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).

Advantages of using the Language of IP for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Culture

The recognition that indigenous people’s customary and cultural wealth is significant for their livelihoods and identity necessitates protection of these aspects (WIPO 2007, pg. 13). This is because the protection avoids their erosion and ensures that indigenous people continuously enjoy their endowments (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).

Furthermore, it enables owners of inventions to benefit economically and preserve native’s cultural materials and ideas. The monetary benefits occur when owners apply their inventions in generating commercial outcomes or through sharing gains (WIPO 2007, pg. 8). Cultural resources and ecological materials generate financial development through enterprises creations, skills development, and tourism expansion.

Safeguarding IP also facilitates continuity of cultural wealth and environmental endowments. This leads to escalated information access and safety. Further, IP protection ensures that future generations appreciate aspects of their preserved culture (Zogfaros, 2010, pg. 69). It enables native people to utilize their knowledge systems in encouraging sustainable exploitation of their cultural expressions and ecological endowments.

Disadvantages of using the Language of IP for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Culture

Using intellectual property for the conservation gives rise to inconsistencies regarding ownership and exploitation tactics for such endowments. Additionally, it does not offer genuine solutions to the predicaments faced by indigenous people in protecting their wealth (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).

Further, the related concepts also affect the preservation and improvement of cultural and environmental materials among some native groups. It rarely facilitates maintenance of indigenous people’s valuable materials under conflicting legislation and customary awareness systems.

Furthermore, inadequacy of distributing benefits poses disadvantages to inventors of original materials or indigenous groups. The idea of collectively referring to aspects of native and ecological materials as intellectual property interferes with their safety. This is evident in the holistic nature of this group. Evidently, within such collections, certain beneficial aspect is not preserved (Waitangi Tribunal 2011). The ineffectiveness of enforcing legislation is disadvantageous to minor individuals or indigenous groups.

Incorrectness of IP Joining diverse aspects of culture that are related and referring to them as intellectual property is erroneous. Instead, single cultural and ecological aspects ought to be labeled as distinct issues. Lumping “trademark, copyright, and patent” laws and referring to them as IP also displays incorrectness (Stallman 2011). This is because these laws emerged disjointedly, advanced differently, possess diverse provisions, and are concerned with separate public policy matters.

The use of intellectual property generates different meaning in separate situations (Stallman 2011). This is because specialists in these knowledge areas understand the varied dynamics.

The use of intellectual property also lies about key issues regarding inventions. Furthermore, the concept instills distorted thinking’s among people making them focus on harmony other than specific guidelines (Stallman 2011). IP also causes issues generated according to understanding of different laws to disappear. This is because people tend to disregard issues that are fundamental to different laws.

Alternatives of IP The notable alternative to Intellectual property is evident when indigenous people initiate new property models and reject the current provisions and designs (Stallman 2011). The efficiency likely to arise from this tactic is evident in diminishing bio-colonization by civilized societies.

The inconsistencies regarding intellectual property, culture and related aspects make it difficult for indigenous people to preserve their resources (Zogfaros 2010, p67). The alternative to this situation would entail endorsing parallel worldviews that facilitate continuation, improvement, and transfer of these knowledge systems to emerging generations.

Furthermore, achieving political independence can also free indigenous people from disguised protection through intellectual property (Stallman 2011). The exploitative intellectual property should embrace processes that enable them to protect native people from abuse.

Conclusion In summary, intellectual property is use in protecting inventive people from third parties interested in exploiting their creations. The concept also protects indigenous community’s cultural identity through preserving their values, customary expressions, and ecological endowments. Maori marginalization by New Zealand Crown in the control of environmental resources, customary knowledge, and cultural expressions contributed to claims.

The Wai 262 claim focused on resolving these issues basing on the IP legislation that New Zealand had enacted. Application of IP in the preservation of the traditional understanding and cultural aspects exude different advantages and shortcomings. Furthermore, intellectual property is an incorrect term because it lumps diverse society’s innovations and refers to them as IP. This presents challenges in the protecting communities’ traditional understanding and cultural identity materials.

List of References MED 2008, What is Intellectual Property. Web.

Stallman, R. 2011, Did you say ‘intellectual property”? It is a seductive mirage. Web.

Waitangi Tribunal 2011, Time to Move beyond Grievance in Treaty Relationship Tribunal Says, Web.

WIPO 2007, Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions/Folklore, Web.

WIPO 2007, Intellectual Property and TK. Web.

WIPO 2011, What is Intellectual Property. Web.

Zogfaros, D. 2010, Intellectual property, and traditional cultural expression, Cheltenham:Edward Elgar Publishing.


Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free

Executive summary Having a strong, cohesive organizational culture is perhaps the most important strategy that an organization can implement to cope with the current aggressive competition, declining economy and ever increasing internal challenges. This report shall set out to elaborate different concepts used to define, explain and justify organizational culture.

To this end, an overview of what culture entails shall be provided and benefits that an organization can accrue from adopting a strong culture outlined. Different theories and principles shall be used to recommend the best course of action that can be taken by BSG to address its behavioral and cultural issues.

Introduction In today’s business environment, members of any given organization are expected to behave in a manner that enables them to achieve the set organizational goals and objectives. To ensure this is done, rules, regulations and guidelines are designed and implemented to act as a framework through which activities and operations can be carried out.

As a result of these frameworks, organizations develop practices, attitudes and norms that define how organizational practices are carried out. These practices, attitudes and norms form the organizational culture. Wilderom et al (2004), state that organizational cultures play a pivotal role in unifying and motivating employees to perform better, and commit to the organization. As such, it can be argued that by having a strong organizational culture, business entities can perform better and more efficiently.

Purpose of the report In all organizations, there are internal and external factors that influence the ability of the organizations to perform efficiently. They include but are not limited to: leadership, management and motivational factors among others.

Regardless of the category, organizational culture seems to play an integral role in the determination of how members of an organization carry out their duties and responsibilities. In response to these undertones, this report shall set out to define and elaborate various concepts of organizational culture. In addition, the benefits of having an organizational culture shall be discussed and justifications for these benefits provided.

Scope of the report De Long (1997) argues that organizations have different organizational cultures. Some may adopt a competitive culture, while others may choose a collaborative culture. It is therefore important to understand the culture that an organization has. This understanding can only be achieved by examining the values, practices and beliefs that are held by the members of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this report, the cultural and behavioral characteristics of BSG Pty Ltd shall be analyzed. This shall be done by deducing these characteristics from the scenario given and identifying the cultural and behavioral issues that affect the organization’s success.

Background of the report Over the past few years, the profitability of BSG Pty Ltd has been significantly declining against the expected projections mainly due to aggressive competition and economic hardships that characterize the market. In addition, results from a recently conducted cultural/employee attitude survey indicated that BSG Pty Ltd employees lack cohesion, motivation, commitment.

More importantly, employees at BSG Pty Ltd seems to have significantly low levels of job satisfaction, team work, trust (among themselves and the management), and expectations for future advancements (promotions and rewards).

On the same note, there was a 30% increase in pilfering of company resources as evidenced from the analysis of company data. The 15% increase in last year’s staff turnover is also an issue that needs to be addressed. In light of these issues, the C. E. O of BSG Pty Ltd strongly suggested that there is need for change if the company is to survive the current unforgiving market and economical trends.

This he attributed to the fact that the current culture adopted by the company was the root cause of the poor performance exhibited by the company. As such, this report has been necessitated by the need to identify, analyze and solve the cultural and behavioral issues that affect BSG Pty Ltd.

Sources and methods used in this report Evidently, BSG Pty Ltd has numerous cultural and behavioral inadequacies as has been identified in the currently gathered information. We shall use this evidence as the basis of the report.

Relevant academic sources and concepts shall be used to analyze these issues and recommend viable solutions for the same. Literature related to theories, principles and models used to address the aforementioned cultural and behavioral issues shall be applied as necessary.

We will write a custom Report on Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational culture: A Literature Review De Long (1997) defines culture as the values, norms and practices that are followed by members of a given organization. According to the author, values refer to the beliefs held by an organization in regard to the worthiness of what it does and has. Practices in this context are associated to the routines (formal and non-formal) that organizational members follow to accomplish their tasks.

According to the author, norms are the shared belief that organizational members’ have regarding proper working behavior (De Long, 1997). From this definition, it can be argued that organizational culture is rooted in how people act, their expectations to each other and how they interpret the actions of others in an organizational setting.

On the same note, organizational culture has been defined as particular practices carried out by organizations that evolved over time (Kostova, 1999; Wilderom, 2004).

These practices reveal the competence and shared knowledge in an organization. In this context, organizational culture can be described as the shared perception that members have in regard to the correct or wrong organizational work practices. Such practices may differ from one organization to another.

From the definitions stated above, it is evident that values play a significant role in defining culture. This is further accentuated by Hibbard (1998) who defines culture as a set of beliefs and values that are strongly shared by members of a given organization. Despite the logic behind Hibbard’s (1998) definition, research conducted by other scholars presents a strong case against this criterion.

Wilderom et al (2004) argue that the greatest disparities between organizations are strongly based on practices than they are on values. The authors reaffirm this fact by stating that the cultural difference exhibited by different organization is deeply rooted in the organizational work practices that are adopted by the personnel.

These authors contend that values are constituents of practices. As such, using values as the basis of defining organizational culture creates a problem when it comes to measuring culture in an organizational context.

Cohesive culture: A Brief Overview Cohesion broadly refers to collaboration and unity. Using the definition of culture proposed earlier, a cohesive culture can best be described as the work practices that promote unity and inter-departmental collaboration. They include but are not limited to knowledge sharing, trustworthiness, team work, effective communication and commitment among others (Luca, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bolman and Deal (2008) state that a cohesive culture refers to harmony experienced in an organization as a result of clearly defined practices and values that are shared by an organization’s personnel. The authors argue that an organization that adopts a cohesive culture is bound to succeed. This means that a cohesive culture leads to success and it is not always the other way around.

Benefits of a strong, cohesive organizational culture Bolman and Deal (2008) state that a strong culture is pivotal towards the promotion of team work in an organizational setting. When the members of an organization share the same values and practices, they are better placed to work together as a team. This is in contrary to a situation whereby employees compete against each other for recognition and personal gratification.

In addition, Palmer (2008) contends that team work is guaranteed by the presence of a vision. An organization envisioning harmony gives its employees a glimpse of what to expect from the organization and they judge the organization by the principles that govern it (Cartwright


Trends and Issues in Nursing Expository Essay a level english language essay help

The nursing role is shifting from good cooperation with other medical professionals to managed care. This is because the most valued education and training are those that focus more on clinical experience in nonhospital settings.

The training, other qualifications, and advancement statistics indicate that the higher levels in nursing education emphasize on furnishing the nurses in areas that are somewhat outside the actual therapy (USDL, 2011). These include areas on psychology, nutrition, and management. Indeed, other qualifications involve personal attributes that promote interaction between a nurse and the patients. On the other hand, it is easier for a nurse who has nursing experience than one with technical savvy.

It is a fact that the demand for nurses is more than the supply and this trend is expected to continue. Job outlook statistics indicate that the employment of nurses is glowing such that employers are unable to retain nurses. Technological advances are playing a big role in expanding the role of nurses.

The more the nurses learn on the emerging needs, the more the opportunities to work in other related fields. Moreover, the scarcity of qualified nurses will continue as the aging workforce leave the profession and the failure for the education facilities to be sensitive about the nursing education (USDL, 2011).

A new fact learned from the nursing statistics is that the nursing professionals earn lower wages than any other medical profession in the United States. Looking at the earning statistics, the nurse wages is almost half that of the physicians. This might affect not only individual nursing professions, but the entire health care.

Now that the nursing fraternity is becoming the center of the whole healthcare system, individual nurses will have to work more. Under the same pattern of pay, individuals like me might consider shifting from employment to working independently.

Nursing education Nursing education is facing new trends that affect both the curriculum taught, the nursing professions, and the delivery of the nursing services. These trends emerge as the healthcare climate evolves as a result of political and policy consequences, fueled by factors like the economy and new policies being set by sensitive legislature.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rapid technological growth is triggering an evolution of the information systems in healthcare industry which brings about the need to expand technology training in nursing education. In the current information age, nurses must be prepared during their education to face the needs that emerge with the increasing use of technologies within healthcare facilities.

In addition, nursing education is required to prepare nurses for the complexities involved with population-based care. Allen (2011) observes how older people with specific medical problems are causing a new shift in health care delivery focus on population-based care and away from the conventional pattern of individualized care.

As the trend towards population-based care becomes more apparent, nursing education is required to provide nurses with interdisciplinary knowledge. Managed care involves more than just working cooperatively with other medical professionals.

Furthermore, a new trend emerges as the continued shortage of nurses, impact deeply on the quality of healthcare in acute and long-term settings. Hence, nursing education is tasked with the creation of awareness about this shortage, work to prepare quality individuals into the profession, and change the lingering discernments about the role of nurses.

Nevertheless, nursing research field has continually failed to provide valuable data on the provision of quality care (Judd et al., 2010). It is the role of nursing education to inspire nurses to carry out relevant research in order to improve health care outcomes. The positive change in the nursing research paradigm should be reinforced by nursing educators through continuous support of the research initiatives.

References Allen, J., E. (2011). Nursing Home Administration. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Judd, D., M., Sitzman, K.