Table of Contents Durkheim’s idea of Anomie
Merton’s Theory of Anomie
Evaluation of Anomie Theory
Modes of Adaptation
Tests of Merton’s Theory
Durkheim’s idea of Anomie Durkheim studied various components of society in order to understand how each part related to another. This was an attempt to look at society and establish how it works. A stable society operates smoothly with its functional, social arrangements.
Such a society reflects consensus, cohesion and cooperation. Conversely, if arrangements of a society threaten the social order, then a society is dysfunctional. For instance, a class-oriented community is always in conflict (Durkheim, 1982).
Durkheim developed a structural-functionalist perspective in order to understand abnormalities of society and crime. Durkheim believed that explanation for an individual’s misconduct does not lie with him or her, but with the group and social organisation a person belongs to in society.
In this regard, Durkheim introduced the idea of “anomie” i.e. “the breakdown of social order as a result of the loss of standards and values” (Durkheim, 1982).
Durkheim tries to analyse effects of social changes in society. As a simple society progresses into modernisation, relations required to maintain a common set of norms reduces.
Fragmentation of groups occurs, and when common rules are missing, expectations of different groups in society may differ with those of other people in another group. Behaviours become unpredictable, and systems gradually collapse creating a society in a state of anomie (Agnew, 1992).
Strain theory People occupying disorganised inner-city feel isolated, frustrated, separated from the mainstream economy, despair and finally express annoyance. These feelings results into criminal activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to strain theory scholars, crime results directly from hopeless and despair, and annoyance among the low-income members of the society (Akers, 2009).
This is because chances of achieving personal success depend on a stratified socioeconomic class. The upper class does not experience much strain because it has access to vocational and educational opportunities.
Societies with disorganised structures experience strain because all means of achieving success are not available, or blocked (Mueller and Grekul, 2008). Thus, in an attempt to relieve strain, people engage in deviant behaviours like criminal activities in order to achieve their goals and values.
On the other hand, others become aggressive and tough and reject socially recognised behaviours. In short, strain theory posits that a crime occurs because lower-class citizens cannot accept these conditions and choose alternative means of achieving success, which are criminal in nature. They can also choose to live as socially responsible persons by accepting strains in society (Henslin, 2010).
Merton’s Theory of Anomie Merton used Durkheim anomie theory to develop his theory of strain. In this regard, Merton notes that a society with class orientations has unequal distribution of opportunities that enable individuals to get to the upper class.
Thus, a few members of the lower class hardly get there. This led Merton to focus on two crucial elements in society: culturally defined goals i.e. what individuals believe are worth striving and achieving, and socially approved means of obtaining them (Merton, 1968). These elements of society relate with each other resulting into anomic conditions in society (Siegel, 2011).
Any society should strive to achieve these two conditions. A society should create means by which individuals can achieve goals that are crucial to their success in society.
We will write a custom Essay on In what ways did Merton develop Durkheim’s idea of Anomie in the creation of Strain Theory? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, when there is a gap between goals and means, then frustration occurs, which causes strain. Merton’s theory looks at “criminogenic, or crime-producing nature of the interaction between social structure and socialisation processes” (Merton, 1968).
For instance, any society emphasises the goals of achieving power, wealth and success. Socially acceptable ways of achieving these goals ranges from education, hard work and wise use of resources.
Merton observes that most societies have stratified means of achieving material success across status and class lines. Therefore, individuals with no or little formal education and economic resources find out that they are unable to acquire wealth legitimately.
If goals that societies view as mandatory are the same and their access depend on the status and classes, then the occurring strains create anomie among the lower classes who have no legitimate means of accessing success. This may result into development of delinquent behaviours or criminal solutions as means of attaining goals and values (Burke, 2009).
Some scholars use Merton’s theory to analyse crime in most cities. They observe that wide disparities in income level among different classes are responsible for increasing crime rates.
Studies have also indicated that such disparities exist. In addition, the rich classes continue to acquire more wealth than their poor counterparts. In fact, there is a negligible rise in status among the lower classes.
Evaluation of Anomie Theory Anomie theory indicates that social differences lead to perceptions of anomie. In order to resolve elements of goals and means interaction in society, some individuals resort to deviant behaviours to relieve their sense of strain. These behaviours may involve theft, drug and alcohol abuse, joining religious cults, revolutionary groups and stealing.
Scholars note that Merton’s developed theory of anomie is one of the most influential and enduring sociological theory that attempts to explain causes of crimes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on In what ways did Merton develop Durkheim’s idea of Anomie in the creation of Strain Theory? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Theory shows a link between criminal behaviours and success goals that have control over an individual’s behaviour. In this context, anomie theory tries to provide an explanation for conflict which results from an individual’s frustration and criminality.
Merton’s extension of anomie theory acknowledges that society does not legitimately distribute means of achieving success. Therefore, anomie theory provides an explanation for the existence of high-crime areas and clearly illustrates a predominance criminal and delinquent behaviour among the lower class (Cohen, 1965).
Merton insists that crimes occur as consequences of social conditions, and not as a result of personalities of individuals. Many organisations adopted Merton’s theory in their attempts to reduce crimes in 20th century.
However, Merton’s theory of anomie meets some criticism with regard to types of crimes individuals commit. For instance, some individuals decide to be thieves while others choose to join religious cults.
Merton’s theory may provide explanations for differences in crime rates among different social classes. However, it offers no explanations as to why an individual may stop criminal behaviours when he or she is an adult.
These observations have created opportunities for strain theorists to ask whether perceptions of anomie declines with age.
Modes of Adaptation Not every individual who has no means to access society’s goals and values becomes a criminal or deviant. Thus, Merton developed fives ways in which individuals try to cope with the goals and means of society.
He notes that “individuals’ modes of adaptations or responses depend on their attitudes towards cultural goals and institutional means of achieving goals” (Merton, 1968). Modes of adaptation include rebellion, conformity, retreatism, innovation, and ritualism.
These modes of adaptations do not explain why individuals choose different crimes, but they explain why crimes are higher in some groups than in others (Mueller and Grekul, 2008).
Conformity among people is the most common mode of adaptation in relations to goals and means. Mueller and Grekul observe that “individuals conform to both the culturally defined and prescribed means for achieving goals in society” (Mueller and Grekul, 2008).
For instance, in India people have conformed to the requirements of their caste systems. Consequently, individuals attend schools, work, save and follow the legitimate means of acquiring wealth.
However, not all people who conform to the requirements of society will achieve their goals. Some will excel whereas others will achieve reasonable success as others probably will not.
Innovation characters will accept the adaptation of innovation. However, they have few legitimate means of achieving their goals. Consequently, they come up with their own methods of climbing the social ladder. This category engages in criminal activities such as robbery, burglary, embezzlement, or other possible criminal activities.
Youths who have no forms of any parental restrictions are prone to deviant behaviours. These youths have no encouragement to attend school, and no means of achieving success. In turn, such youngsters turn to streets to achieve recognition.
It is crucial to note that illegitimate innovations do not only occur among the lower class but upper class too. Upper class attempts crimes related to embezzlement, manipulation of figures, evading tax payments, or sales defective materials, among other forms of crimes.
Some individuals adapt by ritualism. They abandon their earlier goals and aspirations and resign themselves to their ordinary lifestyle. This category has learnt to follow rules of society, do their middle-level jobs, or follow safe routines of achieving their present status.
This is where many workers belong. For instance, people who do a given job for more than 20 years every day, and have forgotten why they work, but except to earn a living. This group only finds relief in their vacations and holidays.
Retreatism individuals have given up all the goals and the means of achieving success. These individuals believe that they cannot make it and hence, not need to try. These people end up in drugs, alcohol, and other forms of abuses.
These people have internalised and mastered the value system and are under internal forces not to innovate. Retreatism provides an escape window for this category of individuals into non-productive and non-striving lifestyle where drugs and fate take control.
For instance, when individuals find pressure in society, they may opt out because there no acceptable opportunities. Thus, they turn to drugs and alcohol, or occult religions.
Rebellion is another mode of adaptation among members of a group. This group rejects both the cultural goals and legitimate means of achieving success.
Majorities develop their own goals by abandoning society’s established goals as well as means through protests (Cohen, 1965). This group develops their ill-defined alternative schemes and new social structures.
This is where most militia groups belong. This group has lost faith in legitimate systems of society and are trying to make their quasi-systems to define goals and means for society. This has become a leading cause of conflicts in most countries.
Tests of Merton’s Theory Merton’s theory has provided challenges to social researchers for several decades. Merton has argued that society will find most crimes and criminals among the lower class masses because they have few opportunities of achieving their goals legitimately.
Most researchers focus on various propositions of strain theory in attempts to explain the relations between delinquent behaviours and social class. There are mixed results.
Some studies indicate string inverse association i.e. as class goes up crime rates reduce. Some scholars find no relations between these two elements of study.
Social class and crime relationships generate controversy when researchers begin using self-report questionnaires. These researchers find serious, and frequent crimes among the lower-class youths than among the upper-classes.
Other scholars note that class has no relations to crime. In addition, others clarified that class differences contributed little in explaining variation in self-reports of common, deviant behaviours.
These scholars argue that society and agents of the crime controls are likely to report crimes of lower-classes such as mugging, prostitution, drug trafficking, and assaults, among others.
On the other hand, the upper-class individuals commit white-collar crimes behind the closed doors. No one is likely to detect such crimes and report them to the police.
Hence, they are not a part of statistics police officers have that explain crime prone areas and incidences between difference classes. For instance, the police is likely to arrest a street drug peddler or a prostitute that a fellow manipulating stock figures or embezzling company’s resources behind a closed door in his or her office (Braithwaite, 1991).
Some scholars argue that connection between lower class and crime will only lead to additional questions. For instance, if disparities in social classes create crimes, then how come not every person in the lower class drop out to join militia groups, drugs and alcohol and other forms of crimes.
It is obvious not all persons in lower class engage in criminal activities. Therefore, these scholars conclude that Merton’s theory has limitations in explaining the casual relationship between crime and social class.
Reference List Agnew, R 1992, ‘Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency’, Criminology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 47-87.
Akers, R L 2009, Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ.
Braithwaite, J 1991, ‘Poverty, Power, White-Collar Crime and the Paradoxes of Criminological Theory’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 40-58.
Burke, R H 2009, An Introduction to Criminological Theory, 3rd ed, Willan Publishing, Cullompton, Devon.
Cohen, A 1965, ‘The Sociology of the Deviant Act: A nomie Theory and Beyond’, American Sociological Review, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 5–14.
Durkheim, E 1982, Rules of the Sociological Method, Free Press, New York.
Henslin, J M 2010, Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, 9th ed, Allyn
Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems Essay college essay help online
Honorific is considered as an address form which portrays respect towards the addressee and are classified according to addressee’s title. Suffix endings such as Professor, Mister, Coach, Officer, Captain, Sir, and so forth are some examples which are commonly used.
Every language has these kinds of honorifics and Asian societies have honorifics which are essential elements of their cultures and the language. Asian societies are fixed to a Confucian value arrangement which underlines diffidence, humbleness and respect towards older people (Brown, 2011, p. 65). Most honorifics are applied when attending to kings, queens, landlords, and some respected persons.
The dislodgment of honorific is extraordinary in Asian languages; while both Korean and Japanese have preserved their Honorific forms and this paper would compare and contrast honorific languages in these two communities.
In Japan, traditionally, respect and honor is mostly treasured since both are still traditional joint country. Thus, honorifics are essential elements while addressing other people, where they have agglutinative language which they usually do not recognize gender. Nouns are also not considered and conjunction is not reflected.
Japanese languages contain three stages of respects which are applied: Keigo (Advanced Plain), Teineigo (Simple Plain) and, lastly, Kudeketa (Plain); these are stages of respects which are essential than the prefixes or suffixes which accompanies (Backhouse, 2005, p. 25).
Teineigo level is more inflectional arrangement and commonly applied for a person who is being spoken to, while Keigo are split into two different languages, Sonkeigo and Kensongo. Kensongo are usually used when addressing the group which may include sister or brother or workmate.
Sonkeigo is a polite speech used for somebody being talked about which may include bosses or a customer. Regular and irregular verbs are contained in Kensongo and Sonkeigo and they as well apply the prefix ¨o¨ or ¨go¨ to create a term honorific (Backhouse 2005, p. 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different from Teinogo, highly inflectional arrangement, both ¨ükagau¨, contained in Kensongo, and Sonkeigo apply interchange verbs to turn into ¨ükagau¨ in Kensongo and ¨ïrasshar u¨ in Sonkeigo and all stages of the languages possess its particular verb endings and vocabulary.
They considered that it is not the way you end the language that makes it very complex, but it important to understand which stage to use for a particular person. If a person needs to introduce the boss to another person of the same status with the boss, he or she would utilize the Kensongo to introduce the boss.
Another case is that a kid needs to apply Sonkeigo when addressing his grandmothers, but would apply Kensongo when introducing her to somebody else. The application of each of them relies on the idea of “Out groups” and “In groups” (Hasegawa, 2010, p. 140).
Hence, this language stage is corresponding with someone or situations which are being addressed or talked about. These language stages are distinguished by extended polite phrases like ¨¨ motasete itadaku¨¨ which can be translated as ¨¨can I kindly be permitted to carry…¨ in Kensongo (Hasegawa, 2010, p. 140).
On the other hand, Japanese usually has an inclination towards brevity, and this is shown in their sentence structure. Children are not provided to learn use of honorific language and they are usually expected to apply it, but it is just during their employment when he or she is openly taught.
Korean and Japanese languages share complex arrangement of honorific speech levels and they normally applied with Korean aristocracy (Yang bang). They contain prefixes like Sir, Doctor, etc. and also expressions for kinship. The suffix ¨¨ nim¨´ may be attached to a noun to create it more honorific and nouns can as well be substituted with these honorifics (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
Contrary to honorific, polite words are there also and some verbs contain particular forms and terms like ‘I’ or ‘we’ pronouns utilize form. Speech levels are very significant in Korean language and these levels are applied to bring up narrators’ or authors’ addressees, while honorifics are mainly used for a subject.
We will write a custom Essay on Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gender group, he or she, is required to settle on honorific and speech level to apply, hence, not just the addresser who has an option regarding speech level, but gender group as well may select to attach the honorific.
Subject and predicate have to match while using honorifics and it is impossible to attach a marker to the predicate when the subjects are categorized as group of nouns which are not in agreement with the marker.
For instance, ¨¨ sensaennim I cip e ka-si-eyo (the tutor has gone home) has corresponded with verb ending and honorific subject, while “haksean I hakkyo e ka-si-eyo” (the learner has gone to school) is inappropriate in Korean language since the subject is not allowed to have honorific ending and it is not corresponding with the verb used in the sentence (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
Korean language has more than seven speech levels and every speech level has a particular distinct arrangement of verb endings to show the level of requirements. Politeness and respect are represented by three ordinary levels of speech and the first one is ‘ta’, usually used to address somebody younger than the addresser.
Second one is polite (yo), normally used to address somebody older than the addresser such as employer, stranger with same age or older than addresser, older relative, and superiors. Third one is deferential (su), commonly used to address somebody who is superior to the polite yo (Sohn, 2006, p. 132).
The number of levels remains unknown but the bilingual persons argue that there are around seven distinct speech levels and these levels would be briefly discussed below. The first five speech levels are combined as jondaemal, whereas the last two speech levels are grouped together as banmal and every speech level has a particular distinct arrangement of verb endings (Bruno, 2011, p. 33).
These seven different speech levels portray respect and politeness to addressees and in Japanese language these speech levels as well make “In groups” and “Out groups.” In Korean language, honorific arrangement is exceptionally complicated and the issues are present in three distinct ways.
First, each expression must be marked for the triad engaged in dialogue, receiver, referent, and reporter and second, the guidelines need cautious choice of highly linguistic pieces (Bruno, 2011, p. 33). Third, addressers can change speech levels at any moment (Bruno, 2011, p. 33).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Korean and Japanese Honorific Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, if somebody desires to bring in a dialogue, he or she is required to choose which speech level to apply and the addresser is required to settle on status and age with the aim of selecting proper speech level to use.
Different from Japanese honorifics, which are classified as relative, Korean kinds of honorifics are considered as absolute and are applied not considering the person the speaker is talking to. Honorifics are also attached irrespective of “In groups” and “Out groups.”
Conclusion Language is just like something which undergoes evolution and changes and it is astonishing to observe the manner in which political and cultural transformations may change certain language. It appears that these honorifics originated from minor societies where people staying in those societies recognized everybody’s social status.
Japan appears to be experiencing much bigger problem regarding preservation of honorific language and it appears, from my view, that the Japanese are troubled as they preserve ¨face¨¨, the function of respectful language which is more influenced by changing western society and culture.
On the other hand, Korean seems not to be influence by the change of the western society regarding honorifics and appears that their honorifics, which are absolute, create it easier, while in Japanese language, honorifics are compared with the situation creating it slightly complex to apply.
Permanent honorific application, in Japanese language, will rely mainly on the way government is strict implementing its use in their newly introduced guidelines.
References List Backhouse, E 2005, The Lexical Field of Taste: A Semantic Study of Japanese Taste Terms, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bruno, L 2011, Asian Honorifics, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Philadelphia PA.
Brown, L 2011, Korean Honorifics and Politeness in Second Language Learning, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam.
Hasegawa, Y 2010, Soliloquy in Japanese and English, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Philadelphia.
Sohn, H 2006, Korean language in culture and society, University of Hawaii Press, Hawaii.
Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Flow Next to High-Rise Buildings in Hong Kong Due to Air-Conditioner Heat Rejection Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The article under consideration is titled “Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to flow next to high-rise buildings in Hong Kong due to air-conditioner heat rejection”. It is written by Bojic M., Savic S., and Nikolic D. in 2008 in the International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy.
This article presents the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the situations when the Window Air-Conditioners reject condenser heat.
The authors of the research wanted to consider how the situation is going to develop under the particular conditions in order to prepare the basis for the further research connected with solving the problem of Window Air-Conditioners rejecting condenser heat and predicting its consequences. The article consists of several sections.
The introduction, the mathematical model: Computational Fluid Dynamics development, the simulation, the results with several subtopics (“flow and temperature field in the recessed space”, “flow and temperatures of the bulk flow in the recessed space”, “horizontal development of flow and temperature field with depth of a recessed space”, “bulk flow with depth of a recessed space – vertical development”, “flows to condensers with depth of a recessed space – vertical development”, “influence of plates on the bulk, buoyant airflow inside the recessed space”, and “influence of plates on the flow – flow of air through condenser units”), and conclusion.
The article is supported with the abstract, keywords, biographical notes, nomenclature, and reference list. The article is presented in the
The main idea of the article is to conduct a simulation of the situations when the Window Air-Conditioners reject condenser heat by means of the Computational Fluid Dynamics. The results of the research have provided two outcomes which lead to two results.
Thus, if the mass-flow rate is lower than the nominal condenser, however, the outdoors air temperature is higher, the energy losses are considered. Otherwise, if the mass-flow rate is higher than the nominal condenser and the outdoors air temperature is higher, the energy benefit is observed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These results allow to make sure that the depth of the recessed space does not have any connection with the average mass flow rates and at the same time does not impact the average temperatures.
One of the main ideas of the research was to extend the results presented in the Bojic, Lee, and Yik (2001, 2002,
Reward or Recognition Plan Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Rationale for Change
Reward and Recognition Plan
Safe Environment Creation Plan
Introduction As evident in numerous occasions, organizations experience different types of changes that include organization-wide versus subsystem change, transformational versus incremental change, remedial versus developmental change and planned versus unplanned change.
This piece seeks to address describe the current situation in organization, explain the rationale for change, design a reward plan that includes milestones and create a safe environment for change.
The paper focuses on implementation of a new process to deliver services affiliated with SunClean, which will serve as the case study. The company focuses on cleaning services for households and corporate bodies.
Current situation The contemporary operations of the company indicate that there is a request for customers to fill forms in a manual way before a customer care representative attends to them.
After this, they have to wait for three working days for them to access the services requested. Consequently, poor public relations become manifest and company profits reduce.
A survey conducted on customer satisfaction depicts that the majority of clients complain about length of time it takes to get services from the company. Furthermore, laxity amongst employees to serve customers is equally evident.
It becomes difficult for them to attend to clients because the company does not have suitable employee reward scheme. There is feedback from customers suggesting that customer care representatives ought to change their attitude.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is also lack of appropriate measures by Company Y management to impress clients and ensure their loyalty through various customer loyalty programs. Additionally, there are no discounts for customers who are still loyal after experiencing poor services.
Rationale for Change Change process starts with the identification of changes that ought to be made by the company, determination of major issues that need to be considered, obstacles that can arise in change implementation and accessing key stakeholders who will experience the change (Jellison, 2006).
Conversion of service forms from manual to electronic forms in order to save clients’ time. Additionally, customers will be contented as evident in the time taken to deliver services to customers and improving the quality of services offered by the company.
Indeed, filling forms online; thus, ensuring minimal interaction between customers and representatives who could still be rude after implementation change in the company is vital.
The forms shall be brief as compared to the previous manual ones. These will not require customers to fill unnecessary details that waste time.
Instead of clients waiting for three working days for the delivery of cleaning services to their homes and offices, delivery time will be short.
Clients who place cleaning orders over the weekend will have their places cleaned concurrently unlike previous times since they had to wait for the working days. There will be an improvement of quality of cleaning services and discounts offered to all premium customers.
We will write a custom Essay on Reward or Recognition Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, there shall be replacement and upgrading of current washing equipment to competent machinery. In addition, premium customers shall have discounts every third time they place cleaning orders at the company.
Reward and Recognition Plan According to Spitzer
Ethics of Death Penalty Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Do we need the death penalty?
Doing away with the death penalty
Analysis of the arguments and personal opinion
Introduction Every society must be guided by laws and regulations, and distinguished philosophers such as Kant have been quoted (Avaliani, n.d) to have said that no state or society can exist in the absence of laws. Violation of these laws attracts punishment.
Most states and justice systems employ the death penalty as punishment for crimes that are considered to be serious. Crimes such as murder, treason and most recently terrorism attract the death penalty. Many ethical issues are raised about the death penalty (Mosser, 2010), and this paper examines and analyses the ethical arguments for and against the punishment.
Do we need the death penalty? It is only the state that has a right to execute a person, and this execution must be premised on the decision of a court (O’Neil, 2012). The debate surrounding this issue is not about its legality but on whether it is ethical or not.
Most people agree that a person who violates the law must be punished, even those who argue against the death penalty. Kant argues that a society that does not punish those who violate its laws becomes the offender’s accomplice (Avaliani, n.d). Every individual has a right to life. Why then, should the state sanction the willful taking away of life by its agents?
Everyone who commits a crime against society puts himself in debt, and this debt must be satisfied in full (Vollum, Mallicoat,
Are Correctional Boot Camps Effective? Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Lack of Follow-up Support
Introduction Boot camps were introduced so that it can act as an alternative to jail for young offenders or criminals. Several studies have reported that the frequencies of recidivism for juvenile offenders who have been admitted in teen boot camps are extremely high, above 85% (Vito, 2005, p.65).
Boot camps may appear like the correct option for young people who have gotten involved in unlawful acts or are engaging in inappropriate conducts.
In Boot camps, they consider that terrifying and punishing the teens might discourage them from participating in illegal activities in the future, but this may be wrong. Most boot camps are considered to lack follow-up support, ineffective, and contain physical abuse.
Lack of Follow-up Support When teens have shown the signs of rehabilitation, they are allowed to go back home from boot camps. After that, boot camp providers would not make a follow-up so that they can help the teens create sense of what they have experience in the boot camps.
This lack of follow-up raises the chances of the teens or young people reversing into the previous conducts. Mostly, boot camp providers avoid follow-up so that they can reduce expenses.
Since children are instructed to follow and respect seniors or boot camp providers who use noisy and violent tones, it has been reported that after going back home, many teenagers would have difficulties adjusting to normal superior’s leadership ways.
Their teachers and managers usually are not aggressive to students and workers and many former boot campers experience trouble in respecting them since they do not scream and threaten them (MacKenzie, Wilson,
“Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge Essay college essay help online
Andrew Bridge’s memoir “Hope’s Boy” has been ranked as a leading bestseller by the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Publisher’s Weekly, and The Washington Post. It is a moving memoir that illustrates the flaws that exist in the U.S foster care system.
The Memoir explores a childhood filled with horrendous sagas which are hardly spoken by many openly. The story is intertwined to bring out what the young in foster homes undergo while growing up.
This paints an elaborate picture of the America’s society dark side. Bridge was transferred to a foster home after experiencing her Schizophrenic mother, “slit her wrists and paint his name with her blood” (NPR 2008).
By then, Bridge was only six years and, according to the circumstances, he was placed under foster care for the remaining part of the blossoming childhood.
Despite the woes he underwent and witnessed in the foster care, Bridge fueled childhood influence in the university. Currently, Bridge has become a fulltime lawyer who specializes on matters concerning the welfare of children.
The memoir “Hope’s Boy” portrays the childhood experiences of Bridge which depicts the U.S foster care as one which is adversely disoriented.
Bridge, who lives in Los Angeles, has continued to fight in the war to ensure that kids under foster care receive proper treatment and even have conduct with the social workers if they cannot get in touch with their biological parents (Bridge n.d). Personal experiences greatly influence the future career choice of individuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Personal background and atrocities can fuel the desire to pursue a certain career (Dietrich 1). For instance, Bridge is portrayed as a child from a poor family filled with devastating events.
For example, at the age of less than three years, his father and mother are jailed and, at the age of four, his father demands a separation (NPR 2008).
By the time Bridge was six, he was placed under foster care. Bridge having his childhood and parental love has vowed to fight for other children who undergo the same problems during their childhood.
This can be supported by the personal experience of Debbie Black, a parole officer, who notes that her family, experience and conflicts from within, shaped her career (Black 2008).
Having undergone divorce, living in the streets, and facing a difficult marriage, the experience is almost like Bridge’s. Although the life of Debbie was infringed when she was mature, the experience is the same as both face social injustices.
Bridge’s past has dictated the path to follow to ensure that no other child will have the same experience he had when he was young.
Anger and emotional feelings drive people to do what they think is right in their lives as a way of shadowing their past. For example, the childhood of Bridge is filled with anger and hatred for losing the only person who cared from him, his mother.
We will write a custom Essay on “Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is depicted on the title of his memoir “Hope’s Boy”. Hope is the name of his mother in which he has dedicated his work to, despite the fact that she was not there but was willing to raise him.
The anger of his childhood leads to the belief that there is a hope that the future can be better. This drives Bridge to study law with the hope he can represent other children who undergo the same childhood as he did.
Bridge’s career choice has prompted him to give back to the society what he lacked love when he was a child. From his memoir, Bridge believes that “we can best keep kids with their own families’ safe and together with the folks who know and love them best” (NPR 2008).
The belief that something can be done right is what fuels people to choose certain careers. For example, Bridge believed that the best love a child could receive is from family members.
He believes that children can be loved best if they lived with their parents or folks. For this reason, Bridge has been championing for the welfare of foster children to live with their parents or, at least, get to talk with the social workers allocated to them once a month (NPR 2008).
From a personal point of view, some people follow intuition in order to make sure that they can solve problems in life. In other words, they believe that they are the ‘saviors’ who can speak out on the behalf of other disadvantaged persons in the society.
To sum it up, personal past experiences contribute a lot to the choice of career path they choose to undertake, the way people have been raised, the life they have been exposed to, and the belief that one can change the world.
Emotions fueled by anger, drive people to take careers to ensure that other people are not exposed to the same atrocities or past they underwent.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Hope’s Boy The memoir” by Andrew Bridge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is portrayed in the Hope’s Boy memoir which shows how the past can fuel one to develop a career that addresses the problems in the society. The same is shared by Debbie Black who strives to help others.
Works Cited Black, Debbie. 2008. Personal experiences influence career Choice for Debbie Black. 2008. Web.
Bridge, Andrew. Hope’s boy: A memoir. n.d. 2012. Web.
Dietrich, Cindy. “Decision making: Factors that influence decision making, heuristics used, and decision outcomes.” Student Pulse 2.2 (2010): 1-3. Print.
NPR. ‘Hope’s Boy’ a memoir of childhood in foster care. 2008. Web.
Solar Panels in China Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The growth of the PV industry has been on increase due to technological advancements and the support the industry has been getting from governments.
The industry has also witnessed remarkable growth occasioned by concerns on global warming. It has been projected that solar energy demand will continue to grow in China and other parts of the world (Tiwari, 200).
However, the energy form has still been expensive in comparison with other forms of energy. This is because the industry has been grappling with a shortage of raw materials used in producing the energy. For instance, demand for silicon which is used in the manufacture of solar cells has been increasing.
Background China has plans of developing large amounts of hydropower, wind power, biomass and solar photovoltaic by 2020. In order to accomplish this mission, the country requires at least 267 billion USD for it to invest in renewable energy sources.
Investment in renewable energies such as biofuels and wind energy has been slowed down by concerns of global warming. China has projected that by 2020, an estimated $ 40 billion would have been invested in solar energy. As part of the plans to have enough energy, the country has embarked on the use of solar energy.
Analysis The gross domestic product in china has been growing significantly thus stabilizing the country’s economic forecasts. As a result of this increased economic growth, the country’s demand for energy has been increasing thus prompting the government to come up with renewable sources of energy.
Due to the popularity of solar energy and its domination in the world market, it has been the most appropriate option for the country. This has led to stiff competition among several companies providing solar energy in the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, in 2007 four Chinese companies paved their way into the market and made huge profits. In 2006, two more companies had raised more than $ 500 million after joining the list.
These companies have been attracting investors since their prices have been lower than the prices offered by Western manufacturers (China solar, 2004).
The Chinese government has taken important measures in improving the environmental condition of the country. New laws on renewable energy sources have been enacted to emphasize on cleaner energy technologies.
The country has a target of raising the number of people who use renewable energy to 16% by 2020. The new law has various stipulations that should be followed by the companies involved.
To begin with, the energy authorities have been mandated to implement and manage renewable energy development. Secondly, the government establishes a renewable energy development that provides support including financial support to the relevant industries.
Thirdly, the government has been involved in setting the prices of renewable energy and supporting the generation of grid-connected renewable energy
Due to the sustainability of sola energy in china and its advantages over other alternative sources of energy, the Chinese government has embarked on constructing resource efficient villages.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Solar Panels in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The largest portion of domestic PV market in china which constitutes more than 40 % is rural electrification. The program aims at making electricity accessible to more than 20 million Chinese who live in 20000 rural villages.
10 million people out of the 20 million are residents of the Western provinces. The rural electrification program impacts millions of people living in rural areas by empowering them through access to energy. As a result, solar energy has been one of the most common and widely used renewable energy n China .
Argument Against Despite the widespread use and popularity of solar energy in China, there has been a negative side of the renewable energy resource. Constraints in the supply of silicon have remained one of the most challenging hurdles.
The silicon market has been so tight thus creating a disadvantage for a large number of players who have been unable to secure feedstock supplies.
The downside has been particularly experienced by the small scale solar dealers who have not succeeded in getting silicon supplies. This has led to lower rates of utilization, lower profits, and unmet growth plans.
Domestic polysilicon producers also have been facing problems such as less beneficial technology which uses 2-3 times the energy used in production of an equal amount of raw material than its oversees peers do.
Domestic polysilicon manufacturers have also been smaller in size when compared with the international players, something that has made it difficult for them to leverage the economic scales.
Initially, the overseas competitors were reluctant to transfer the knowledge to Chinese natives forcing the domestic enterprises to employ a high degree of innovation and independence in their work (Source guide, 2012).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Solar Panels in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Announcements have been made by companies with emerging technologies or commercial ambitions expressing their interest to venture in polysiliscon manufacturing.
However, such ventures have been faced by commercial, technology, safety and environmental risks. The commercial risk is that there has been a high degree of competition from famous and well known producers who have been in the business for long.
The technology risk comes in due to the presence of the well established and fully characterized Siemens which has been operating in the country.
There has also been a safety risk in that most of the intermediate gaseous chemicals used in the production of silicon can result into a spontaneous fire when in contact with air.
This is something that has caused fatal accidents in the past. Finally, there has been the environmental risk in that although production of silicon has been for green products, chances of pollution are also possible .
Despite the fact that China has been capitalizing on the lucrative IPO and the heavy investment, the market has been criticized of fatigue, especially at the mid heading downstream, while companies that have not been listed have found it difficult to differentiate themselves.
This has been recently indicated by the poor performance of some of the stock prices for the enterprises. However, it has been said that the market is yet to be exhausted since some Chinese silicon manufacturers are yet to join the market.
Recently, the grid companies have not been showing quick response to solar energy owing to its high cost. Alternatively, wind power has remained popular and a stronger substitute. The domestic market will not receive sufficient stimulation unless there is reduction in the cost and favorable subsidies provided.
Conclusion Solar energy is a green trend that has found popularity in Chinese market in recent days. The rapid economic growth in the country has increased power requirements prompting companies to look for ways of investing in alternative sources of energy.
Solar energy has been highly preferred because of its environmental friendliness as opposed to other forms of energy. The country has since embarked on projects of spreading the energy form to rural areas through rural electrification.
However, there have been concerns that solar energy is still very expensive when compared with other energy forms such as wind energy. As a result, more attention has remained on the other energy forms that are considered cheaper.
References China solar. (2004). China Solar Energy. Retrieved from http://www.chinasolarenergy.com/
NBSC. (2012). National Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/
Solway, A. (2009). Renewable Energy Sources. New York: Heinemann/Raintree.
Source guide. (2012). The Source for Renewable Energy. Retrieved from http://www.sourceguides.com/
Tiwari, G. (2009). Solar energy technology advances. New York: Nova Publishers.
Zheng, S. (2006). Solar Energy in China. Retrieved from http://www.ceibs.edu/
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender
Introduction This article examines how religion and family produces the idea of gender. It presents an initial literature review on religion and family as these factors relate to shaping gender ideology.
Case studies are used in the article as reference to elaborate how family and religion interrelate to influence gender ideology.
How Religion and Family Produces the Idea of Gender Gender is the way society creates, patterns, and rewards our understandings of femininity and masculinity, or the process by which certain behaviors and performances are ascribed to women and men.
Gender is a form of social institution of sexual difference (Susan
Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Various Interpretations of Biblical Laws and Justice
The Four Assumptions of Biblical Laws and Justice
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to evaluate Wray’s essential aspects of Biblical Law and Justice in light of what it offers religious educators for the classroom study of justice. A large portion of the Bible has been dedicated to the issue of law and justice.
Therefore, religious educators who teach about justice in classrooms today must go back to the Bible and look at biblical legal codes and justice.
Justice has become a matter of concern for many people in modern societies. Nevertheless, it is a concept that is socially constructed, meaning that it is subject to contextual interpretation.
Various Interpretations of Biblical Laws and Justice Wray has conducted an extensive study on the subject of social justice and suggests that students taking any course on law or social justice must go back to the origins of these laws and justice, in this case the Bible.
He maintains that biblical laws and justice should be taught in the classroom in a bid to tackle some of the prevalent issues affecting modern societies, including laws, prohibitions and injunctions (Wray, 2011, p. 161).
Indeed, the quest for social justice has been highlighted by many social philosophers for many centuries since the emergence of enlightenment and industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution and the emergence of capitalist economies gave rise to social decay and the erosion of social values as most people were subjected to hard social and economic conditions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The world is divided between the haves and the have-nots. In theory, social justice is an attempt to address the question of equity and fair distribution of income and resources.
The theory of justice implies that people should be treated equally (Miller, 1999). The concept of social justice is widely used today to refer to the fair distribution of resources amongst the members of the society.
For many centuries, this concept has been applied in various societies, but it is evident that even today discrimination of the poor from the market economy still continues (Miller, 1999).
However, regardless of what has been researched, written or formulated as part of our social policies, justice is far from being realized. Perhaps it can be argued that humanity have rejected the origins of these laws and regulations and came up with mere philosophies that does not address the real problems.
The best model for social justice is in the Bible which in Borg’s view is the foundation for political and personal transformation. Any attempt to fight for social justice must be based on the word of God because the Kingdom of God is the heart of justice (Borg, 2003).
Borg also argues that although the American society promotes the principles of individualism, all humans are part of a wider social-economic, political, cultural, and faith systems that promotes social lives in the community (Borg, 2003).
Borg goes back to the biblical account to show God’s passion for social and political justice. He maintains that Jesus’ teaching about the Kingdom of God in the New Testament is all about justice (Borg, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, views have been expressed by O’ Donohue who states that the biblical concept of justice is intrinsically connected to human relationship.
He argues that God demands for justice that does not appear in abstract, but the kind of justice that exists within our human lives. True justice emerges from the relationship between humanity and God and fellow humanity. It starts with the individual then moves on to society (O’ Donahue, 1977).
This is the line of argument that Wray has followed. In his view, biblical law and justice should be the main text for students studying social justice and other law related courses.
The most important part of these texts is that which deals with Torah on the Old Testament and the Kingdom of God in the New Testament.
These texts contain the golden rules upon which we derive our mannerism and ways of treating other people. The purpose of the biblical laws was originally given to regulate human behavior in a manner that was intended by God from the beginning (Wray, 2011).
Consequently, these laws have become the cornerstone for legal codes that governs modern civilized societies. This is not to say that the modern societies are perfect.
But regardless of their levels of civilizations crime, injustices and immoralities are still the order of the day. We still have many cases of rape, murders, theft, slandering, corruption, fraud, and lying, even as the bible prohibits such behaviors.
Our jails and prisons are full of people have been locked up for going against these laws. These laws have governed the world since the days of ancient Israel when they were first given to control humans but their behaviors are still the same (Berger, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Justice: Wray’s Essential Aspects of Biblical Law and Justice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This does not imply that these laws are ineffective. In fact, they are still unique and effective if applied appropriately. Wray laments that most religious educators and preachers do not discuss biblical justice with the laws of Israel.
This means that one cannot teach about observing the laws without first developing a relationship with the lawgiver, who is God. For instance, treating other people fairly, defending the poor and the weak can only demonstrate the existing covenant relationship with God.
The Four Assumptions of Biblical Laws and Justice Wray also outlines four main assumptions connected to the interpretation of the biblical laws and justice (Wray, 2011). The first assumptions that are commonly held by many people purports that the Ten Commandments were given by God and therefore God’s people are obliged to abide by these rules and regulations.
In Wray’s view, the ten commandments should be treated like’ formulaic prohibitions’ that controls human behaviors and legalizes how the community needs to relate with each other (2011, p.162).
He continues to suggest that the interpretation of the law should not be confined to the Ten Commandments only, but should include the entire Torah including other 600 laws.
However, there are divergent views concerning the interpretation and practice of Torah (biblical laws from genesis to Deuteronomy) between various Christian denominations and other world religions (Wray, 2011).
The second assumption suggests that when one breaks these laws then they are subjected to punishment which in Wray’s view has given birth to retributive justice.
The interpretation of this concept has brought lots of complications to the understanding of crime and punishment, commonly referred to in the bible as an eye to eye.
Wray claims that biblical laws are divided into two areas, the apodictic laws which include the Ten Commandments which in most cases are prohibitory nature.
He argues that this group of laws does not contain any elements of punishment attached to them, rather they were meant to deter the offenders from committing the offence.
In other words, they are precautionary or preventive rather curative. They are unique and different from any other laws found in Ancient Near Eastern regions (Wray, 2011).
However, Wray indicates that the second type of the laws can be grouped as casuistic because they are more of case laws which were common in the Ancient near eastern societies and commonly used in court cases in even in those days.
From his assessment of these two types of laws, Wray concludes the entire Torah were specifically give to the Children to regulate their devotion to God and control how they behave towards their human beings (Wray, 2011).
According to Wray, the third assumption supports and advocates for Golden rule. This rule suggests that we should treat others fairly and then expect the same in return.
He argues that the Golden Rule promotes justice and fairness in the society. It addresses the notion of fairness and justice and especially to the weak, oppressed and poor.
While the fourth assumption purports that justice is about caring for those people in the society who are less fortunate, socially disadvantaged and marginalized (Wray, 2011).
Conclusion This paper has attempted to evaluate Wray’s paper which suggests that the essential aspects of biblical law and justice must be taught to classrooms for those studying justice and law related a subjects.
Social justice is still a major concern for many societies and the solution is to go back to the basics. The author argues that justice is socially constructed; meaning that its interpretation differs from one society to another.
Wray argues that the biblical laws upon which our modern legal code and social values are based were originated given by God to govern human behaviors and regulate how they relate with God and fellow humanity.
Therefore, true justice must start with the individual’s close relationship with God and then be reflected and translated back to the society.
This implies that our view and practice of justice must begin with the individual person and stream down to the society. Furthermore, it supports the argument that religious educators must teach the individual students to change their own views and attitudes as individuals before they can go out there and transform the rest of society.
Reference List Berger, R. M. (2007). What the heck is social justice? Sojourners Magazine, 36(2), 37.
Borg, M. (2003). The kingdom of God: The heart of justice. In The heart of Christianity. pp. 127-148. San Francisco: Harper Collins.
Miller, D. (1999). Principles of social justice. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
O’Donahue, J. (1977). Biblical perspectives on justice. In Haughey, J. (Ed). The faith that does justice. pp. 68-112. New York: Paulist Press.
Wray, T. J. (2011). What the Bible really tells us: The essential guide to biblical literacy. Lanham, Md: Rowman
Business Memo: Impact of Technology on Quality of Work Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Implication of Technology on Work Quality
The current paradigm shift in technology has enabled organizations to be effective and efficient (Suematsu, 2004). Organizations can now compete favorably in the market as technology has enabled them to gain a competitive advantage.
Decision making in the workplace is now easy and information can easily flow from top management team to the subordinate staff. In addition, the information required can be generated and disbursed across several departments simultaneously.
Other than these benefits associated with the adoption of technology in the workplace, technology has other impacts on the quality of work both negatively and positively.
Implication of Technology on Work Quality Although the emergence of technology has major benefits, it compromises the quality of work (Suematsu, 2004). For instance, the social media networks like Facebook and twitter are among the leading addictive sites with nearly every employ spending some time chatting with friends and spreading office gossip (Turner, 2010; Balderrama, 2010).
This makes technology a problem as employees spend hours that could have otherwise been utilized to generate good ideas that would benefit the organization. Instead, valuable time is wasted carrying out tasks that are not related to office affairs.
As a result, the quality of work is compromised; time wasted, and resources wasted too. Office gossips through social networks or spread of rumors and lies may create disharmony in the workplace.
Chaos can arise which can easily be fuelled through the social media networks. For example, employees can plan and execute strikes and stoppages through the social media which may compromise the quality of the work (Turner, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology adoptions in the workplace jeopardize the privacy of the employees and that of work projects. Through information systems management, information on employees’ private life like salary, home address, marital status, credit card number, and benefits can be stored in the organization database.
The information can be accessed from any point in the organization hence compromising the employees’ privacy. In the event that data or information lands on private hands, then the information can be used for malicious issues.
Also, technology enables management to monitor all what employees are doing in the workplace. The quality of work can be affected by this as some employees do not perform as required under supervision (Blish
The Role of the Government Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Liberal vs. conservative
Introduction The paper is a critical analysis of the opposing views of the role of the government held by the liberals and the conservatives. It is evident that these two groups ideally hold varying views with regards to the role of the government as well as other important factors in governance.
Liberal vs. conservative Conservative is also known as the right or right-wing in the context of the United States. As suggested by Schneider 98 individuals in this category strongly believe that the government should work with the people and not over them, stand by their sides and not riding over people.
The government should have limited influence when deciding things. The key to prosperity is personal responsibility. This can be seen in the eyes of government trying to craft laws that would encourage Foreign Direct Investment between her and other friendly countries (Schneider 89).
This has seen to it that the citizens of involved countries seize the opportunities and set up businesses in other foreign countries. Another example can be seen when upon taking office President Bush called the Congress to pass laws and policies that would relief Americans from heavy taxation.
Ideally conservatives believe that the government should actively indulge and other relevant stakeholders before arriving at any conclusion particularly with regards to laws that directly or indirectly affect individuals.
It is the role of the government to ensure that right policies are in place so that the citizens feel secure. Similarly conservatives are of the view that once people exercise personal responsibility and the government has ensured desired freedom, the pie will be much bigger for everyone.
The government does not solve the societal problems; this is the role of citizen since the government has provided the desired degree of freedom. It is the role of the government to ensure that things remain the way they are or even returned to the previous state (Ballou 129).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, liberals are sometimes referred to as the left or left wing. Liberals are of the view that “it is the duty and responsibility of the government to achieve equal as well as equality for all” (Scott 74).
On the same note liberals hold that it is the duty of the government to direct resources and efforts towards eliminating the various social ills such as theft, murder and prostitution so that individuals are protected and human rights standards upheld.
It is worth noting that liberals see the government to be responsible in ensuring that no one is in need. The policies to be developed fully emphasizes that it is the role of the government to solve societal problems be they economic, social, environmental or political (Scott 42).
Decisions are usually made by the government without thorough consultations with other relevant stakeholders. A typical example of how liberals believe the government should work is by passing laws and policies that will help deter some social ills such as corruption, prostitution, murder among others.
It is no doubt that liberals believe that the government need to force individuals as well as organizations to comply with existing laws and policies (Scott 201).
Conclusion It is evident that liberals and conservatives hold varying views with regards to the role of the government.
Whereas liberal strongly believe that it is the role of the government to solve problems in the society, conservatives strongly believe that government should play a minimal role of only ensuring that the desired freedom is in place to ensure that individuals can realize their goals. Individual should exercise personal responsibility and solve problems.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of the Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ballou, Olivier. The Graphic Guide to Conservatism: A visual primer on the conservative worldview. London: Sage, 2011. Print.
Schneider, Gregory. Conservatism in America since 1930: A reader. New York: Wiley
“When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell Essay (Book Review) college essay help: college essay help
When the State Trembled presents a comprehensive study of the history of the Canadian working class, labor strikes, and the country’s most famous industrial conflict .
The book is about the 1919 Winnipeg general strike that created a heat wave in the legal and historical arena regarding its impact on the nature of collective bargaining and a phase of social revolution.
The other strikes that the book discusses are the Regina Riot of 1935, Asbestos Strike in Quebec of 1949, and many other such movements in the Canadian labor history.
Kramer and Mitchell unearthed a large number of new archival records that helped them reconstruct the events during the strike in a completely new way.
The authors went on to analyze the Citizens’ Committee of One Thousand that comprised most of the powerful men of the city, used their power to bring into disrepute the strike.
The book uses the state “trembled” to represent two meanings: first is the threat posed by the unified city workers who went on a strike against the state machinery through their refusal to continue normal work and second, the congregation of the powerful businesspersons of the city who apprehended state authority to defeat the strikers.
The book, When the State Trembled, is about the famous Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. The event involved more than 30,000 labors and is considered to be Canada’s most famous strike.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the State Trembled presents the story of the strike from a different angle that had not yet been seen in the labor history i.e. through the point of view of the Citizens’ Committee of 1000.
The intention of the Committee was to regain normal working. However, the Committee, comprising mostly of the business class elites, failed to see the sentiment behind the strike, employed stern anti-strike measure, and ended up stigmatizing the strike as a criminal action. The root of the Citizen’s Committee lay at the pre-war antiunion mobilizations.
The Committee that was formed by all major businesses in Winnipeg, however, it was the core group of the Committee that directed the operations and decisions of the Citizens’ Committee.
Three lawyers who, through their legal knowledge, guided the Committee chiefly directed the Committee. Of the three, A. J. Andrews was the most influential and prominent leader. The book shows that it was A. J. Andrews and his tactical maneuvering helped the Committee attain victory.
Kramer and Mitchell in the book showed that the Citizens’ Committee took two distinct paths: first, are their similarities with the common Winnipeggers and the second, is the political wallop created by the federal policymakers.
The first consisted of the public propaganda conducted to discredit the strike. The authors unearthed the daily newspapers that were used by the Citizens Committee as a medium of propaganda during the strike e.g. Winnipeg Citizen.
They pointed out at powerful discourse of antistrike strike propaganda available through this particular newspaper. The authors point out the idea that the newspaper propaganda that could definitely demonstrate the actions undertaken by the Committee: “And only the Citizen could suggest the citizen’s best course of action.”
We will write a custom Book Review on “When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main idea behind the book is represented by the single most ideal of the Committee to create a uniformed public opinion through the powerful discourse and project the strike as a harmful thing.
The authors have identified powerful discourses such as starving babies in order to prove the unconstitutional and derogatory status of the strike.
The presentation of the public documents by the authors is undeniable. The ignorance of the labor leaders led to their projection and comparison with those in Europe where a strike did lead to a revolution.
Handling problems such as food distribution and hampering of public health and work due to the strike led the Committee to replace the constitutional authority and negating the rising rhetoric in the pre-strike period of the downfall of capitalism.
Therefore, it was the strong discourse or propaganda of the led to make the strikers as communists and the Committee made racist attacks on the pro-strike war veterans accusing them of masterminding the strike.
The analytical approach of the authors also unearthed the private correspondence between A. J. Andrews and Arthur Meighen, the then acting minister of Justice:
Historians have mistakenly characterized Meighen … as the author of reaction, the antagonist in labor’s story. … However, during the Strike, Meighen and Andrews communicated regularly, and with the release (under the Access of Information Act) of the Meighen/Andrews correspondence, which previous historians had no access to, we can tell the full story of the Citizens’ Committee of 1000.
The private correspondence between Andrews and Meighen show that the federal government actually agreed to support the Citizens’’ Committee position of negating any form of negotiation with the strikers as it believed that the strike was a path to the European style revolution.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “When the State Trembled” by Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This led Meighen to give “loose” power to Andrews to deal with the strikers by appointing Andrews as the slackly defined delegate of the justice department to deal with the strikers.
This gave the Committee the leeway to decide on the actions to be taken against the strikers. Andrews took the opportunity to strongly deal with the strikers by doing what he and the other Committee members actually wanted i.e. to destroy the union.
Their main aim was to suppress the socialist extremism that was creeping into the working class of Winnipeg. Though Andrew regularly sent reports to Meighen regarding the proceedings and progress in dealing with the strike, he carefully manipulated the information he passed on in order to avoid any political awkwardness.
These letters of correspondence between Meighen and Andrews showed that the former was completed unaware of the ground realities and therefore, lacked control over the handling of the strikers. A communication of Andrews shows his judgment of the non-acceptable material:
Certain members of the Winnipeg Western Labor News Special Strike Edition have contained objectionable matter in that it is seditious, inflammatory and inciting to riot and this publication must be discontinued. NO more issues of this publication must be printed or circulated.
Andrew on the other hand was dedicated to finding evidence that would help in prosecuting the strikers. Andrews, determination to demolish the strikers, went ahead with the prosecution of the strikers under criminal law when the Immigration Act requested by the Committee proved to be too limiting.
He, singularly, convened a meeting of the Committee members and called upon a few government officials in order to make the list of the strike leaders to be detained.
Without any authorization given to him from the federal government, Andrews went ahead to arrest several leaders of the strike and started their trials.
Therefore, the authors point out that the private business houses had actually seized the wheel of state machinery and had started acting on their own accord to meet their own interests.
This therefore shows that the state was arrested by the private business houses comprising the Committee who wanted to do away with unionism and therefore, used this situation to meet their ends.
The most interesting part of these trials was that the federal government did not have any jurisdiction to arrest and put the strikers on trial.
Hence, these became private trials and neither the Committee nor the government wanted to explain such actions to the public. Therefore, the authors called Andrew as the “agent” of the government to hit against the strikers.
Kramer and Mitchell’s chronicle of the strike shows that it was the outright initiative of Andrews and few of his legal friends to be the reason why the Winnipeg Strike turned out to be the way it did.
By the end of the day, Andrews was a representative of the government but he ended up controlling the proceedings. Though his legal tactics were unconstitutional and unethical as he ended up fabricating a story of seditious conspiracy against the government and public long before the strike occurred.
The account presented by Kramer and Mitchell shows A. J. Andrews as the villain of the Winnipeg Strike who conspired and manipulated incidents, communication, and power to bring down a strong hand on the strikers to result in their consequent defeat.
Andrews was the mastermind behind the twisted stories, discourses, and manipulated communication to the Ministry of Justice demonstrating that the strikers were actively conspiring against the government.
The story of the Winnipeg strike is the most well known piece of Canadian labor history. Therefore, the question of its uniqueness in demonstrating a new angle to the strike is pertinent.
Does the book say anything new about the strike? Yes, the book does point out to a new aspect of understanding the greatest strike in Canadian history.
The book is different from the other accounts of the strike because Kramer and Mitchell re-write the story of the strike keeping the Citizens’’ Committee of 1000 at the heart of the events and making A. J. Andrews the leader of the anti-strike Committee.
The book presents that Andrews and two other colleagues Isaac Pitblado and Travers Sweatman, were lawyers but they had very close connection to the elite business class of Winnipeg.
Therefore, Andrews and the other’s neutral professional background helped them to pull a façade and helped in imposing bourgeois hegemony during the strike.
Andrews was a sharp trial lawyer, respected and feared, not so much because of his legal knowledge – which, as we will see, was sometimes faulty – but because he understood people.
Winnipeg’s leading businessmen would buttonhole him, looking for advice. When the General Strike dropped on Winnipeg, it wasn’t surprising that the acting minister of justice, Arthur Meighen – a lawyer … friendly with Andrews and Pitblado – would soon buy Andrews’s analysis of what sort of hell had broken out.
The intervention of the lawyers during the strike occurred at different levels. It was ideological, legal, as well as political and it was through the book it can first be observed that the success of the Committee, and mostly Andrews was in intervening in prosecuting the strikers and ending it.
The Committee achieved their goal of crushing the strike and prosecuting the strike leaders. Therefore, it reaffirmed the triumph of capitalism in a state economy.
The previous books on Winnipeg Strike of 1919 have usually been told through the point of view of the strikers and had focused mainly on workers, the leaders of the strike, and politicians.
This book shows how a strong elite public Committee (opinion) could manipulate the end of the strike. The Committee was a largely influential, but hitherto, unknown force in demonstrating the power of influence of the elite in negotiation with the strikers.
The Committee, which was previously an unknown side in the 1919 strike history, emerged as an important figure in the multi-sided interaction and communication between the federal government, intelligentsia, police, courts, and the strikers.
The book also shows that though the Committee was called Citizens’ Committee of 1000, there only a handpicked few who really enjoyed the real power and say in decision-making, and one of them was Andrews.
The book shows that in order to deal with a politically volatile situation it is important to undertake manipulation of the people with whom the real power vests; in this case, it was the two federal ministers Meighen and Gideon Robertson.
Andrews actually led a delegation to the Fort William and told the Meighen that a socialist style revolution was being staged at Winnipeg.
Andrews even persuaded Meighen to revise the Immigration Act to deport the British born strikers. The book recounts numerous stories of the Committee taking an active role in manipulating and influencing the decision against the Winnipeg strikers.
Are the claims of Kramer and Mitchell that the Citizens’ Committee of 1000 was the key influence to deal against the strikers overstated?
Probably note, as the members of the federal government were eagerly waiting for lobbyists and elites like Andrews and they secretly shared the same views.
The book presents the ideal setting for understanding lobbying, ideology, rhetoric, and power and how these can be successfully employed to negotiate with a striking community.
The book therefore, makes a compelling case of the state not managing the affairs of the bourgeois, but the other way round. They present a lot of primary sources to make a convincing story of the Committee successfully manipulating the government.
The Committee is demonstrated as a secret weapon of the business class elites who, through the core members like Andrews influenced the government and public opinion against the strikers.
This was done through the loose power vested by the government on a few members of the Committee who used it to demonstrate the strike to be a disorder, which was actually a “fictitious” fabrication.
The book closely relates to the course module as it presents a new way of looking at labor history in Canada. The book presents the real villain of the 1919 strike through the authors refuses to call Andrews as the villain as he worked with immense manipulative intelligence and insight.
The book presents a new light into the role played by lobbyists like Andrews who helped the business houses to meet their desired end by manipulation. The book is important for the course as it helps in unearthing the true story behind the relationship between the labors and business class elites.
Works Cited Kramer, Reinhold and Tom Mitchell. When the State Trembled: How A.J. Andrews and the Citizens’ Committee Broke the Winnipeg General Strike. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010. Print.
Diversity within Unity Essay best essay help: best essay help
Overview and Introduction Cultural diversity is a source of strength as well as weakness for many societies around the world. A multi-cultural society has the advantage of having a rich cultural environment but this diversity in culture can also be a source cultural tension and conflict (Fisher, 1994).
Educational institutions are the most affected by the potential negative impact of a multi-cultural environment, thus, creating the need to implement policies for dealing with cultural issues in schools (Freire, 1985).
The aim of this paper is to analyze critically the ways of dealing with cultural diversity issues facing educational institutions as presented in the article Diversity within Unity by Banks, Cookson, Gay and others.
The Concept of Diversity as Discussed in the Article Diversity in the article refers to cultural, ethnic and language differences in the context of the American society. The cultural landscape in the US is becoming increasingly diversified mostly due to the high number of immigrants that join the nation each year (Feagin, 1994).
This number is estimated to be around one million. Most of the immigrants are Africans and Asians who have different cultural and language backgrounds from those of the natives of the US.
A high percentage of the immigrants are youth who join educational institutions in the country including high schools, colleges, and universities and they only use English as their second language (Dahl, 1998).
Though this influx of new cultures has the positive impact of enriching the nation’s cultural environment it also harbors the potential effect of dividing the country along cultural lines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is need, therefore, to emphasize the common aspects of all the different cultures in the US in a bid to foster cultural cohesion and create a united nation.
The best way to achieve this unity would be through encouraging multi-cultural cohesion in schools through both instruction and by emphasizing inter-cultural interactions among students (Fine, 1991).
Analysis of the Philosophical Perspectives Advocated in the Article The article identifies various principles which the management of educational institutions in the US should implement in order to promote cultural cohesion amongst students. These principles are as follows:
Professional Development Programs for Teachers
The article advocates for teachers and educators to undergo professional development programs in which they can learn how culture, language, ethnicity and social classes affect students’ learning and behavior.
By taking such programs, teachers and educators will be in a good position to prevent the negative influence that culture, ethnicity, social class and language background may have on learning.
Offering Equitable Opportunities for Learning
The article calls for schools around the US to offer equal learning opportunities to students irrespective of their cultural, ethnic or social background in order to foster a sense of equality amongst students.
According to the article, the current curricula that are being taught in the US schools should be changed and new ones developed which embrace all cultures including the minority groups. The current curricula are biased towards the majority groups in the country.
We will write a custom Essay on Diversity within Unity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Providing Equal Opportunities for Extra- and Co-curricula Activities
Extra- and co-curricular activities such as sports and academic associations enhance students’ learning and performance. Students of all cultures, races and ethnicities should be encouraged to participate in these activities so as to promote cultural interactions as well as learning.
Creation of Super Ordinate Groups
Super ordinate groups are groups whose purpose would incorporate all cultural groups. Such groups could be based on grade levels in school, age, sex, etc. Super ordinate groups create cohesion among different cultures.
Teaching Students about Stereotypes
Stereotypes result from categorization of people into groups and the belief that a person’s group is superior to other groups. It is crucial to teach students about the fallacies of stereotypes and how they develop so that students can avoid believing in them.
Teaching Common Cross-Cultural Values
There are some values which are shared by all cultures such as justice, equality, and fairness. Teaching these values to students in a multi-cultural environment promotes the sense of egalitarianism amongst them which enhances social cohesion.
Imparting Social Skills on Students
Helping students to acquire social skills is one of the best ways of promoting inter-cultural interactions. Teachers should encourage students to learn and understand the behavior of other cultures as well as how to resolve and mediate intercultural conflicts amicably.
Implications of the Principles in a Specific Educational setting According to the above principles, promoting cultural cohesion in educational institutions is necessary to avoid inter-cultural conflict. The way to achieve this is by emphasizing on the common aspects of different cultures and playing down the differences.
Recommendations and Conclusion Cultural diversity is beneficial to a society by virtue of cultural richness but at the same time it could be a source of conflict and social tension. This situation is most apparent in schools where cultural diversity is depicted at its best.
There are various strategies that could be used to promote cultural cohesion in educational institutions not only in the US but around the world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Diversity within Unity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These strategies or principles should focus on emphasizing the similarities between different cultures and underplaying the differences.
References Dahl, R. (1998). On democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Feagin, J. R.,
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector of Angola Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector
Management of Oil Reserves
Introduction Corruption is one of the big problems in various developing countries that are rich in oil. It has been considered to be pervasive and an important element of resource curse. Corruption has always been extreme in Angola and Nigeria and billions of US dollars have been disappearing.
Most of the disappearing billions are from kickbacks, and this has led to the concentration of the wealth into few hands. Since the countries are endowed with resources, they are said to suffer from the resource curse. Angola is considered to be the second oil produce after Nigeria.
Angola receives a lot of money from various oil companies in the form of signature bonuses that are received before the signing of contracts. The oil wealth has been to line and oil the wallets of the elite and political class within the society.
Unbridled corruption is the norm in the oil economies. In Angola, the aid agencies have estimated that billions of dollars have been lost in royalty payments through corruption.
Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector A lot of oil revenues have disappeared from government coffers according to the reports by the Human Rights Watch and Global Witness. There has been evidence according to studies undertaken in France and Switzerland about the bribes that are given to the president of Angola Eduardo Dos Santos, and it is by no coincidence that he is the Richest Angolan.
Corruption is the main bane of the Nigerian development, and this has eroded the benefits of oil wealth. Corruption is endemic in the Nigerian economy with oil serving to distort the oil structure. The Nigerian domestic refineries have been laid into waste due to the rampant cases of mismanagement and corruption.
It is by no coincidence that Nigeria is ranked as the third most corrupt country in the world. The corruption in Nigeria is manifested in various media sources and tribunals that have been established to investigate some cases of financial impropriety on the government officials (Jerome, Adjibolosoo
Social Influence on Bullying in Schools Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction There is no globally agreed definition of bullying. Tattum (1993) defines bullying as, “the desire to hurt or put someone under pressure”.
Bullying is the most malicious and malevolent form of deviant behavior widely practiced in schools and yet it has received only scant attention from national and local authorities (Tattum
Calambra Oil Company Case Study essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The marketing mix
Plan for the 1994 remaining oil
Introduction Frank Lockfeld faces the dilemma of deciding on the number of olive oil gallons to manufacture for the year 1994. Besides, Lockfeld has not assessed the viability of market of the preceding year sales, and thus has to rely on assumptions.
As such, this manuscript mulls over Calambra Oil Company, thereby assessing measures that Lockfeld may apply to minimize losses in his recent business endeavor.
The marketing mix The 4P’s of the marketing mix entails preparing the right goods and services, considering the needs of customers. It is evident that Calambra manufactures the best oil, as it has been voted in California severally.
Besides, the products ought to be at the most apposite price, whereby the intended consumers can pay for. This is a challenging issue for Lockfeld thus forcing him to make a well-informed decision in order to avoid looming losses.
In addition, the products ought to be in a proper place for customers to have adequate access. Additionally, business people ought to promote their products in order to have a niche, in the competitive market.
California offers a viable market for Lockfeld’s olive oil. Besides, he endeavors to expand the market to North California, along with other places.
In my opinion, Lockfeld has successfully applied the correlation of the 4P’s in the marketing mix. Though he has not assessed the 1993 sales, it is evident that his company’s name has created its name in the available market. As a result, this has given him a major boost in the competitive Californian market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Market Viability The Californian population provides a steady market for the Calambra Company olive oil due to its excellent quality, owing to the use of the premium black olives. Besides, the oil acquired the first position, beating 21 competing oil manufacturers.
However, stiff competition still poses a great challenge for the firm, since it places its products at a high price. Fortunately, the firm boasts of steady and loyal consumers thus giving Lockfeld a niche over his competitors. Besides Lockfeld’s accentuated that the oil is from California, boost his markets, owing to the fact that local people are willing to promote more local products.
Gallons Quantity The number of gallons that Lockfeld should produce poses a serious dilemma to him, since he dreads incurring losses in his new endeavor. As such, he has to make careful and well-informed decisions. His decision on the quantity of gallons to order will be based on various aspects.
For instance, though he has not received the 1993 sales information, he may project on the current 1993 sales. Moreover, he ought to project on the current 1994 market viability. Lockfeld plans to purchase about 3000 gallons as part of the viability test, based on his projection.
Plan for the 1994 remaining oil It is clear that the firm will not sell all its oil. As such, it is crucial to pre-plan for the remaining oil. This will aid in playing down the losses that it may experience. Lockfeld should set preservation measures for the remaining gallons. Besides, they may be sold at a lesser price and thus reduce the involved reduced earnings.
The Profit and Loss Assumption