Importance Of Knowing Yourself And Your Enemy Essay Online Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Know Yourself

Homer’s Odyssey

Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex

Gospel of Mark

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction In about 500 BCE, the Chinese military general Sunzi wrote the following in The Art of War: “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat.

If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.” This statement may be applied not only to the war, but also to any type of a contest. Moreover, it is possible to give supportive arguments and examples in favor of this statement from fiction and even the Bible as the phrase is correct and no one even tries to contradict it.

Know Yourself One of the main priorities of this statement which proves that it is correct is that if a person knows his/her personal abilities, he/she is able to range whether he/she is able to cope with the particular difficulties or not. People should be aware of what they can do as this is guarantee of their success. When people know how to react to a particular situation, when they know for sure whether they are able to cope with a specific task or not they already know whether their attempt will be in vain or not.

Dealing with people and trying to combat them, it is important to be aware of their abilities as the outcome of the battle also depends on whether one knows the strengths and weaknesses of an opponent. In case of wrong correlation between the powers of n opponent, one risks either suffer looses or be defeated at all. Each person should be aware of personal skills and the skills of an opponent.

As it has already been said, there are a lot of examples when the aware of personal abilities and the ones of an opponent brought a victory to a person. Therefore, referencing to such pieces of world literature as Homer’s Odyssey, Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex and Gospel of Mark it is possible to use the examples from these literature works and prove the statement of Chinese military general Sunzi. This statement was said centuries ago, but it still remains up to date now.

Homer’s Odyssey Reading this epic poem, it is possible to come across a lot of specific examples when being aware of personal abilities and danger a rival can cause, Odyssey managed to become a winner in the battle. For example, the very idea of the epic poem presupposes that Odyssey does not know the whole power of his enemy as he is unable to return home for 20 years. Having Poseidon as an enemy, Odyssey is constantly driven back by different storms.

Being under the supervision of other Gods, Odyssey manages to cope with most of the problems, however, the battle with Poseidon is not what Odyssey can cope with as he is unaware of the enemy and does not know that Poseidon hates him. This is the best example which proves Sunzi’s statement that “If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat”, still Sunzi does not say that such situation may also lead to defeat.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, there is another example in this poem which shows that the awareness of personal power and awareness of the enemy may lead to victory. The situation with Cyclops is an illustrative one. Being captured by this giant, Odyssey does not know what he has to do in order to escape. Having evaluated the situation and measured personal power, it is obvious that Odyssey may run away only if he defeats an enemy.

Being aware of Cyclops’ weakness, Odyssey y blinds Cyclops with a wooden stake and escapes. This is one of the best examples which illustrate the correctness of Sunzi’s statement. Being aware of personal power his ability to blind Cyclops Odyssey is also sure that this is going to defeat his enemy.

The assuredness of the main character may be considered in the phrase, “Cyclops, if any one of mortal men shall ask thee of the unsightly blinding of thine eye, say that it was Odysseus, that blinded it, the waster of cities, son of Laertes, whose dwelling is in Ithaca” (Homer 81).

Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex Oedipus is the best representation of Sunzi’s writing that “If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.” The story presented in this tragedy is devoted to Oedipus, a man who had to kill his father and marry his mother according to a prediction. Trying to omit such a destiny, Oedipus’s parents do all possible to make this prediction come true.

However, having an intention to kill their son something goes wrong and Oedipus remains alive. His father does not know the level of danger and it leads to his death. The unaware of the enemy and his possibilities leads to such result. Speaking about the unaware of personal abilities, the character of Oedipus should be considered. He knows nothing about the prediction as well as he knows nothing about his role in the situation. When he gets to know about it, all the crimes are committed,

Aa-ahh! Now everything’s coming clear!

O light – the last I’ve ever see, I stand

We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Knowing Yourself and Your Enemy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Exposed, all wrong in parents, those with whom

I lived and him I murdered, wrong, all wrong (Sophocles and Mulroy 74)!

Judging this situation from the point of view of the mentioned statement, it is possible to conclude that neither the victim nor a killer knew about their power over each other. Oedipus was unaware of the fact it was his destiny to kill his father, therefore, he knew nothing about himself.

At the same time Oedipus’s father was also unaware of danger from his son and as it appears from the tragedy from his enemy. Even thought Laius learns “of an oracle that he would die at his son’s hands, [he] ordered the baby Oedipus to be exposed on a mountain and drove a spike through his ankles” (Sophocles and Mulroy), destiny is more powerful.

Gospel of Mark Gospel of Mark is one more source which may be used to support the phrase. The whole writing is devoted to life and death of Christ, his gospel and teaching. There is no need to tell about the day when Christ was crucified and when he was betrayed by this fried, as he believed. This is exactly an example when a person in defeated because he/she does not know who is an enemy and how he/she can affect a person.

It is essential to refer this moment to the phrase as in case Christ was aware of the situation beforehand, this moment could be avoided. Moreover, this situation may be considered from the point of view of Judas who being Christ’s friend betrayed him. It may be considered as the inability to know oneself. Judas was Christ’s friend, however at the moment of danger he understood that he could betray. I believe he could not even expect such an action from himself, still he did.

This is an example of unaware of his own power. This means that Judas did not know himself and as a result he betrayed his friend. Looking at the situation from another angle, it is possible to see that just before the crucifix Christ knew that Judas would betray him, however he remained calm. He new that he would resurrect, therefore, he also knew that Judas’ betrayal would not affect him this is an example how being aware of personal and enemy’s power one remains a winner.

Conclusion In conclusion it may be stated that to become a winner one should be aware of personal powers as well as about the powers of others. It is essential to be aware of strengths and weaknesses of an enemy as in this case one can consider whether his personal powers can bet an enemy or not.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Knowing Yourself and Your Enemy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such position is a winning one as those who know for sure what they can do and what an enemy can do are able to forecast the future. Strategic planning is a guarantee of success in any affair as trying to predict an outcome one involves all possible measures. Therefore, Sunzi’s statement is a correct one and the examples from the literature support this point of view.

Works Cited Edwards, James R. The Gospel According to Mark. New York: Inter-Varsity Press, 2002. Print.

Homer, Butcher, Samuel and Andrew Lang. The Odyssey. Stilwell: Digireads.com Publishing, 2005. Print.

Sophocles and David D. Mulroy. Oedipus Rex. London: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2011. Print.

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Mercy Otis Warren Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Mercy Otis Warren lived from 1728 to 1814, when women were not free to express themselves in public as their views became undermined. However, Warren was so bright that her views could not be ignored. She identified herself as a liberal woman and explorer.[1] Similar to male writers such as Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson, Warren wrote on the subject of America Revolution. She expressed her observations, feelings and thoughts, in her writings, and entrenched her ideas into the minds of many people.

Warren saw the birth of America since she associated with outstanding members of revolutionary community. James Otis was her brother while James Warren, a Massachusetts politician and successful landowner was her husband. [2]

She was a creative writer and reporter. Warren did not seem embarrassed for being a woman, in her work. Rather, she used her femininity to structure her intellectual inquest in an area that experienced male domination. Warren used her writings at the time of the American Revolution, together with semi-public correspondences, to show that women deserved a better placement.

At the time of Warren’s birth, women could only stay at home carrying out domestic chores. Women could not get education opportunities as men dominated the society. However, Warren did not get satisfied with just staying at home and carrying out domestic chores.

She tried to educate herself and became the earliest woman to take part in the revolutionary war against the English rule. Warren’s desire for knowledge was unquenchable, and her curious character made her put her ideas on paper. However, the process was hard for her since she was a woman.

Warren’s place, as a woman, gave her plenty of time to consider the activities of the revolution and offered a keyhole, which allowed her to record the events of the war. She explained how the happenings of the revolution entered her “quiet cottage and brought to observation a mind that had not yielded to the assertion that all political attentions lay out of the road of female life.” [3]

She held that nothing could stop her from pursuing her goals. She also spoke to those who felt that women belonged to an inferior race, and they could not do other tasks apart from domestic chores. She reminded them “every domestic enjoyment depended on the unimpaired possession of civil and religious freedom.”[4]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Warren accepted her woman identity. However, she differed with those who felt that women could not take part in political affairs. She also argued that the activities of the revolution touched all corners of the society including domestic affairs. Warren let her femininity create her expression and perceptions on history apart from just introducing herself as a woman in the prologue of her work.

She likened a woman who wrote to a teacher in class. Warren’s work was full of evidence that showed her belief on the role of a historian. She felt that her role as a historian was enlightening her readers about politics and virtue.

Warren often communicated with her female friends through letters. These communications were full of political views and expressions. Their correspondence came from a deep sense of association with posterity although they never wished for publication of some of the things they wrote.

Warren reserved these letters and edited them for grammar and spelling mistakes. [5]She wrote letters having the future generation in mind. She wanted other generations to refer to her work, as patriotic documents, with an eye to future generations that would read her letters.

Warren also used letters as an informal forum from where she could build her political and historical responsiveness. Warren managed to express her views on intellectualism and gender, through these forums. Warren, in a letter to Winthrop, expressed her reasons why women should take part in politics.[6]

She explained how men, who were husbands and sons, became killed in conflicts as mothers continued with their domestic chores.[7] Warren described herself as a mother and a wife. She lamented on seeing how the controversial environment of the colonies influenced her feminine sphere of domestic and social life. Warren, also, communicated her apathy towards those who thought that only men could take part in political activities.[8]

Warren symbolized the Republican motherhood as she supported Republican loyalty and civic virtue. She wrote a letter to James Warren, her son, when he was a student at Harvard University. In the letter, Warren warned her son against immorality. She told him to refrain from wild passions and not to have friends with questionable characters.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Mercy Otis Warren specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She also encouraged him to know how to interact with the world as books alone were not enough in the walk of life. “But the knowledge of us my son is a value of higher importance.” [9] Warren encouraged his son to delay his natural appetites so that he could be valuable in the society, eventually. She showed Rush’s virtues on moral steadfastness and civic duty, in the letter to her son.

Warren discarded the notion that political affairs were outside the field of female notice although she found her identity in the domestic chores of a colonial woman.[10]She also felt that both men and women needed liberty in expressing their political ideas.

As episodes in America approached a breaking point, Warren approached Catharine Macaulay for advice. [11]Catherine was a renowned historian, in Britain, and the two started a long relationship in which ideas of historical and political nature formed key areas of discussion.

Warren, in one of her letters, discussed the events that took place as Americans approached the British in an armed conflict. Warren described her transmission of the modern policy as a “faithful historian.” [12] Warren thought about her future when she called herself the faithful historian during the revolution.

Letters by Warren showed a passionate and intellectual reaction to the revolution. Besides, her connection with other like-minded women showed the exceptional environment of the American Revolution since women participated rationally and philosophically with public matters.

Warren created historical theories from letters that she got through correspondence. The informal correspondence allowed Warren and women from other colonies to engage rationally with political and historical notions. The American Revolution gave women a chance to communicate on the crucial events taking place in their different colonies. Their communications showed how Warren and other women tried to restructure and streamline their civic character as women.

In conclusion, Mercy Otis Warren lived at a time when women were not free to express themselves in public as their views became undermined. She dedicated her life to change how women became viewed during the American Revolution. While she lived in a world dominated by men, she always made efforts to see that her voice was loud enough. She took advantage of her woman nature to complete her historical project on femininity during American Revolution.

Warren showed that women could serve as mothers, wives and take part in political activities, or activities outside the domestic sphere. Warren showed, through her writings, the exceptional place of women during the revolution. Warren was a writer whose work came from the heart. She depended on her senses to expressing a history that had a deep impact upon future generations. Her patriotism made her tell the story of American Revolution.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mercy Otis Warren by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Anthony, Susan Bronwell, Matilda Joslyn Gage, Ida Husted Harper, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Eds. History of Women’s Suffrage:1848-1861, New York: Fowler

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Personnel recruitment and Retention Report essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Analyzing staffing needs

Skills and talents required

Support and motivation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Strategic staffing is an integral part in any organization since it ensures that members of staff selected are competitive and able to work for the good of the organization. Employees are an important part in any organization since they are the ones who make the vision of the organization to come to pass.

Irrespective of how good the management and strategies in the organization are, poor staffing will make it difficult for these strategies to be implemented. This calls for a good investment in the human resource department in terms of both personnel and technology. There are a number of strategies that have been adopted to improve the staffing process.

The first one is automating the whole human resource department, second is using centralized control procedures to reduce errors and third is providing motivation and training to the members of staff frequently (Elmuti, 31). The fourth strategy involves an establishment of compliance by way of implementing effective reporting procedures. In order to attract relevant talent and employ productive staff, there are a number of things which need to be put into consideration.

Analyzing staffing needs One of the things to consider is workforce planning which involves analyzing the organization’s staffing needs in line with the nature of business. This will ensure that relevance in adhered to both in terms of the current strategies and the strategies intended to be implemented in future (Phillips and Gully, 26).

As a result of this, the management is sure that they will not need to replace the staff frequently since a high rate of staff turnover is one of the hindrances to organizational success. An example of this is the position development strategy employed by Cornell Cooperative Extension in their bid to increase employee productivity.

To achieve this, the management in their search for a nutrition educator decided to set the position at the entry level in order to attract young talent. This position was created as an internship and the candidates were selected from college graduates since the job mainly involved an interaction with this age group.

Skills and talents required The second important consideration is the kind of talent required for the position. Different positions in any organization need people with different talents. Sales and marketing departments, for example, require people who are talkative and tolerant, while accounts and finance departments mostly call for people who are good with numbers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This explains why most organizations carry out interviews in different stages such as telephone interviews, psychometric tests and finally the oral face to face interviews (Grogan and Eshelman, 21). Some even go to the extent of having a practical interview involving role plays in order to determine exactly what a candidate is good at and what they cannot handle. From such interviews, it is even possible for the management to retain some candidates for future position when they do not fit the current one.

In the case of CCE, the candidate for the extension director position was interviewed in different stages just like is stated in the description above and during the visits to the company’s office for the interviews, she was able to gauge the distance from her home town and this enabled her to make plans prior to beginning the job. In the search for relevant skills, the organization required a face to face discussion with the candidate and this worked both for the organization and the candidate.

Support and motivation The third consideration to be made in any organization in the bid to attract talented personnel is providing support to the existing and incoming staff. This includes remuneration, training and other forms of motivation. When members of staff are trained frequently, they develop new skills and are able to be more innovative.

These trainings include both internal and external training with the latter involving the sponsoring members of staff to attend workshops and seminars organized by different organizations (Bechet, 128).

Though this, they are able to understand the market better and also get to know the challenges their counterparts in other organizations are facing. The result of this is the development of an all rounded staff body who appreciate their working environment. This also ensures growth, that is what most people look out for when moving from one organization to another.

Besides this, motivation also includes engaging in fun activities such as team building trips and retreats. This ensures that members of staff have an avenue for releasing any kind of work related as well as personal tensions. It also ensures healthy employee relations which eventually lead to good working relations and environment. Whenever people are able to relate well outside work, it becomes easier to work together and this explains the importance of carrying out such activities ones in a while.

In addition to that, members of staff are also able to develop a relationship with the management hence ensuring an easy environment at work (Bechet, 51). A working environment where people relate without reservations is considered healthy since everyone has the freedom to express themselves. This also ensures the flow of ideas from all members of staff. Such an environment will not only encourage employees to remain in the organization, but it also attracts more people therein.

We will write a custom Report on Personnel recruitment and Retention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion As a result of all these factors, the management is able to raise their job requirements bar hence attracting more talent into the organization. Remuneration also plays a major role in attracting talent into the organization. Employees who are well paid are motivated to work hard and are also empowered to acquire more skill (Sears, 213). They are, for example, able to advance their education and as a result increase productivity.

This also attracts the best brains in the market hence ensuring organizational success. From the case of CCE, the organization was able to provide financial support to the candidate even while she was still an intern. This gave her the motivation of even working harder and as a result of this, she also agreed to the job offer that followed the internship. CCE therefore modeled the candidate to be what they needed for the position and ensured that they gave her the best treatment and support such that she did not have any reason to leave.

Works Cited Bechet, Thomas. Strategic staffing. New York: AMACOM. 2008. Print.

Bechet, Thomas. Strategic staffing: A comprehensive system for effective workforce planning. New York: American Management Association. 2008. Print.

Cascio, Wayne and John Boudreau. Investing in people: Financial impact of human resource initiatives. Upper Saddle River: FT Press. 2011. Print.

Elmuti, Dean. “Managing diversity in the workplace: An immense challenge for both managers and workers”. Industrial Management, 35.4 (1993): 19-22. Print.

Grogan, Sarah and Barbara Eshelman. “Staffing Strategies for a More Diverse Workforce: Case Examples from Cornell Cooperative Extension”. Journal of Extension, 36 (1998): 1. Print.

Phillips, Jean and Stanley Gully. Strategic staffing. Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Personnel recruitment and Retention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sears, Dorothy. Successful talent strategies: Achieving superior business results through market-focused staffing. New York: AMACOM. 2003. Print.

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Analysis of the ‘Triumph of Bacchu’ Painting by Nicholas Poussin Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction In this painting, Nicholas Poussin depicts the Triumph of Baucchus, the God of Wine. It is actually a copy of Poussin’s original piece at the Nelson Art Gallery of Art museum, Kansas. The action centers on Pan, a deity that causes the action of even the spectators who are not interested or even looking at him.[1] The characters in the foreground, as well as the ‘river god’ depicted at the bottom right of the picture, are cerebrating Baucchu’s victory.[2]

The piece of artwork is a good example of Poussion’s series of French Baroque paintings. Arguably, the use of color, texture, light and dark and the theme makes the painting one of the best examples of Poussin’s distinguished pieces of work that depict his style as both a Baroque art and a Venice renaissance, where Poussin appears to use a cool, cerebral, detached and intellectual style to create unique piece.

Poussin: Historical content The genre of work

The ‘Triumph of Bacchus’ is a historical painting that depicts non-recurring events. These events are primarily religious, literal, classical and allegorical sources, which are the products of the Italian Renaissance of 15th and 16th centuries. These paintings contain religious themes or presentations of recent activities, but they are mostly associated with classical topic.[3]

The element of color

Poussin’s ability to apply the three basic attributes of color (hue, saturation and value) is evident in the painting. He uses color to develop different meanings and communicate the themes in his work. First, the viewer is attracted to the figure in the middle left of the painting, which depicts Bacchu sitting on a chariot. Poussin has concentrated bright white color on the body of the god, which appears naked on its right side.

He is sitting on a bright red chariot, while the rest of the chariots body is light brown. The contrast in the three colors gives the god a clear appearance.[4] It creates a contrast of colors between the god’s body, his chair and the lower parts of the chariot. In this way, Poussion is easily attracts the eye of the viewer. Apart from the god, the horse drawing the chariot as well as its rider is depicted with a good application of hue.

The horse has a whitish color, but its head, which appears to take the shape of a man, is brownish red. The white color of the rider creates a contrast between the body of the horse, its head and the blue clothing he is wearing. Other figures on the background assume a dark color, which further creates a contrast that creates the difference between them and the main characters on the foreground. In addition, bright white and brownish grey colors are used to depict the nymphs, and other creatures.

Element of motion

The element of motion is evident in the painting. Poussin has used motion to describe the vigor and agility shown by the characters. In particular, the human-headed horse and its rider are in vigorous motion, while the characters in front of the horse seem to be fleeing away from the horse.[5] However, the characters in the background seem to be in a more calm motion, probably cheering the arrival of the god from victory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Element of exaggeration

Baroque paintings are normally a part of European Renaissance revolution, mainly made on oil and canvas. Poussin preferred oil on canvas for his works. In addition, the French Baroque and Italian renaissance aspects are evident in this piece of artwork because the effect of light, dark and shade are real. In particular, his paintings often feature some exaggerations of light, intensity of emotions, restrain and sensation.[6]

Exaggeration of light, dark and intensity of emotions are some of the main features of Baroque paintings. In fact, the exaggerations seek to capture the viewers’ attention in explaining the imaginary and exaggerated theme. The paintings do not depict lifestyle of the people at the time of their development, but they reaffirm the existence of the religion at the time they are made.[7]

Purpose of the work

The Catholic Church can trace the purpose of the work by Poussin to the recognition of his work. At around 1635, Poussion, living in Rome, received a prestigious commission from Paris, when Richelieu, the Cardinal of Paris, ordered a set of Bacchanals to cerebrate the specific antique gods. [8] By the end of 1636, Poussin had produced three of the required works- the Triumph of Bacchals, the Triumph of Pan and the Triumph of Silenus, which were placed at the Cabinet du Roi Richelieu’s chateau in Poitoui.[9]

Themes

Poussin’s Triumph of Bacchus shows the victory of Bacchus, the God of Wine. Here, the god is depicted on the left side of the picture, and is seated on a magnificent chariot. A number of satyrs, centaurs, putti and nymphs lead the chariot. Among these creatures is the famous Pan, who is carrying his pipes.

In addition, Hercules is shown carrying a tripod, a cause of disagreement in the ancient Greek mythologies about Hercules and Apollo.[10] Here, Apollo is shown among the clouds that are leading the chariot. On the lower right side of the scene, Poussin has made a magnificent river god that has an inverted amphora beside him.[11]

According to analysts, this figure could have been associated with the Indus River and India because Bacchus is an Indian mythology.[12] This depiction proves to be one of the best examples of Poussin’s mythological depictions in his work. In his mythological composition, the artist focuses on the narrative sequence, but at the same time, he has placed an emphasis on the influences of classical styles of paintings.

In addition, he has shown the presence of Italian Renaissance in his work, especially the equilibrium and naturalistic movements developed by Raphael.[13] The use of warm colors and as well as romantic atmosphere is characteristics of the paintings from the Venetian Renaissance. Moreover, the lively movements as well as gesture are an indication of the vigor and counter-balance of classical baroque.

We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of the ‘Triumph of Bacchu’ Painting by Nicholas Poussin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The change in location is perhaps one of the reasons that change the understanding of the work in the modern context. Since the piece is now located at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in London, it is evidence that viewers will likely develop a difference perception of the work from its original themes.

For instance, in the modern context, competition between Catholicism and Protestantism is no more, and one would not take the painting as an influential piece in religious wars. In addition, if the piece of work remains at Poitoui, it would be possible to associate it with ancient religious issues. However, it is still a good example of Baroque paintings, and provides modern viewers with an insight into the pattern of development of art in Europe.

Bibliography Andersen, Liselotte. Baroque and Rococo Art. New York: H. N. Abrams, 2002.

Bazin, Germain. Baroque and Rococo: Praeger World of Art Series. New York: Praeger, 2004.

Carrier, David. Poussin’s Paintings: A Study in Art-Historical Methodology. London: Springer

Mahon, Denis. “Nicolas Poussin and Venetian Painting: A New Connexion-I.” The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 88, no. 514 (1996): 15-20

Footnotes David Carrier, Poussin’s Paintings: A Study in Art-Historical Methodology (London: Springer, 2008), 21

Denis Mahon, “Nicolas Poussin and Venetian Painting: A New Connexion-I,” The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 88, no. 514 (1996): 16

Carrier, 58

Carrier, 62

Bazin, 44

Bazin, 63

Liselotte Andersen, Baroque and Rococo Art (New York: H. N. Abrams, 2002), 67

Carrier, 76

Mahon, 16

Carrier, 88

Andersen

Mahon, 17

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Sampling Techniques in Education Essay a level english language essay help

Random sampling is a sampling technique where all elements in a population have an equal probability of being selected to form the sample. It means, therefore, that elements are chosen arbitrarily without following any formulae (Babbie, 2010). This technique is unbiased and it gives true representative statistics, especially when the sample size is large.

In addition, the technique requires minimal prior knowledge of the population. Similarly, it is simple to use since it does not require one to have complex mathematical knowledge (Babbie, 2010).

Systematic sampling on the other hand requires arrangement of the population in a given order. The first element is chosen randomly while the subsequent elements are chosen after certain regular intervals. It should be note that this type of sampling gives every element an equal chance of selection. This type of sampling is easy to use and check incase need arises.

On the same note, since the technique arranges the population in a systematic order, sampling is quick which saves time and labor (Babbie, 2010). In addition, when the frame used in systematic sampling is modern, the technique is efficient compared to random sampling.

Convenience sampling refers to a sampling technique where researchers are free to choose sample elements using any method they deem fit. There is no laid down procedure as to how the elements should be sampled thus, it neither applies probability nor judgment. The technique is easy to use for investigators because they choose the sample that is useful to their study (Babbie, 2010). It is good when one has no time and money to gather a large population, because it does not require specific rules to be met.

In stratified sampling, researchers group the population into different groups using differentiating characteristics. The researcher will then randomly select elements from each stratum using the size of the stratum in relation to the population to determine the number of elements to be picked from each stratum. The elements are then combined to form the sample (Babbie, 2010). The technique allows study of each specific group which might not be possible in a generalized population.

In cases where different segments of the population need different degrees of accuracy, stratified sampling is more applicable. Moreover, the resulting sample is more representative and gives more efficient statistics. Furthermore, stratified sampling gives room for investigators to use different types of sampling methods for each stratum as and when they deem fit (Babbie, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, cluster sampling involves the grouping of the population into groups called clusters. A few clusters are then selected randomly and all the elements in the selected clusters are used to form the sample (Babbie, 2010). The advantage of clustering is that it greatly reduces costs of travelling as well as administrative costs. On the same note, this type reduces variability of the statistics observed as compared to other methods of sampling (Babbie, 2010).

Multi-stage sampling involves combination of two or more sampling techniques. Initially, the researcher divides the population into large clusters. The researcher then subdivides few selected clusters into sub-clusters. The clusters to be subdivided are selected either randomly, or using information collected from elements in the first clusters.

The process is repeated until the elements in the sub-sets are few enough. Finally, the researcher uses any other sampling technique to select sub-sets whose elements are used as a sample. The method is beneficial in cases where it is difficult to get a complete list of the population. It is an advanced form of cluster sampling (Babbie, 2010).

Multi-stage sampling is accurate compared to cluster sampling when the same sample size is used. Moreover, multi-stage sampling is a more convenient way of finding a sample. On the same note, the method is more cost effective and in many instances the survey can be done quickly compared to other methods (Babbie, 2010).

Reference Babbie, E. R. (2010). The Basics of Social Research. Stanford: Cengage Learning.

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Treating Psychosocially Based Sexual Dysfunction Research Paper essay help site:edu

There are various types of psychosocially-based sexual dysfunctions that people face. Some of these problems include premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, painful intercourse and lack of desire to engage in sexual intercourse. Erectile dysfunction is one psychosocially dysfunction that has affected men over the age of 40 year (American Psychological Association 2012, para. 2).

It is caused by abnormalities in the hormones, medications in psychological problems, vascular insufficiency and neurological diseases among other complexions. These dysfunctions cause psychological distress among men and therefore, require treatment to enable them recover from this anguish. Different kinds of treatment are administered to different categories of dysfunctions.

Lack of sexual desire in men causes distress and problems in relationships, leading to psychological problems among the victims. To treat this problem, it requires multiple steps and processes (Schover et al. 2002, p. 2397). The first step towards its treatment is for the therapist to help the clients recognize their negative approach towards sex, and to stress the origins of the negative thoughts.

They also help them to find alternative ways to think about sex, after which they focus on the behavior, whereby, clients may be required to keep track of their thoughts and imagination about sex (Schover et al. 2002, p. 2397). They may also be required to develop fantasies or watch movies that are erotic (American Psychological Association 2012, para. 2). The aim of exposing them to such movies is to make them begin to develop desire to engage in sexual intercourse.

The clients are also taken through a one-on-one program whereby, relationship problems and issue are discussed. This conversation is aimed at making the client change his perception about a bad encounter in relationship that might have affected his sexual desires. After sometime, the client is expected to develop desire towards opposite sex hence resulting to healing.

Another psychosocial dysfunction is erectile dysfunction, whereby, the penis does not erect, rendering sexual intercourse impossible (American Psychological Association 2012, para. 2). This is normally caused by sicknesses such as diabetes or side effects due to medication and anxiety after first experience in intercourse. The treatment of this dysfunction is aimed at reducing anxiety and administering appropriate medication aimed at healing or correcting the dysfunction (American Psychological Association 2012, para. 2).

The treatment of this dysfunction will basically depend on the cause of the problem. However, in most cases, the first step of action is to take PDE5 inhibitor drugs such as Viagra, which helps to stimulate the blood vessels causing a person to have an urge to engage in sexual intercourse (Schover et al. 2002, p. 2398). In other cases, treatment may involve administration of prostaglandin-type of tablets that are injected in the urethra in the penis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The penis can also be exposed to frequent exercise to make it strong and to increase its sexual fantasies (Schover et al. 2002, p. 2398). In cases where all these methods have failed to produce positive results, then surgery can be done. Here, a procedure is done on the prosthetic implants that result to insertion of certain types of rods in the penis to make it stronger to allow for penetration.

Premature ejaculation is yet another psychosocial sexual dysfunction that occurs in men. This scenario causes an emotional stress to a man because it makes him feel incapable of sustaining his sexual desires and satisfying the partner sexually. In many of the cases, women complain of such incidences and therefore, this tends to disturb men emotionally (Gregoire, 1999, p. 315).

The cause of this dysfunction is not clearly known by researchers in the field. This dysfunction can be treated through observance of various measures. However, in most cases, therapists who provide medical treatment to such dysfunctions focus more on behavioral training.

The client is required to seek assistance from his partner in piecemeal on how to withstand stimulation. After some period of time, the client learns how to control ejaculation for a longer period of time. This requires great psychological input on the man’s side to be able to sustain the stimulation. Furthermore, the woman can also help a man by reducing the level of stimulating through reduction of movement or thrashing.

Another psychosocial sexual dysfunction is painful intercourse. This is also referred to as dyspareunia and normally causes persistent or recurrent pain in the genitals of a man, which this causes problems in the relationship as well as distress (Gregoire, 1999, p. 315). This dysfunction affects both the partners but is more prevalent in men.

The treatment is provided by a gynecologist or an urologist who carries out diagnosis and proposes a relevant medication to the problem. In women, the dysfunction is treated by putting a lot of emphasizes on the training on relaxation. Women are required to relax during sexual intercourse to avoid the pain.

In conclusion, there are various psychosocial sexual dysfunctions as discussed in the paper. These dysfunctions cause emotional distress to the victims because of the fact that they hinder an individual from normal functioning. Most of the dysfunctions have treatments that if well followed and administered, can help the victims alleviate them. However, these treatments are not similar and therefore, appropriate treatment should be adopted for a particular dysfunction.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Treating Psychosocially Based Sexual Dysfunction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References American Psychological Association, (2012). Treatment of sexual problems. Web.

Gregoire, A. (1999). ABC of sexual health: assessing and managing male sexual problems. BMJ, 318:315.

Schover, L., Fouladi, R.,

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Body Modification Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The human body modification is represented in its physical transformation. Research has proved that body decoration reflects identity, ideology, and lifestyle of a person. As a result, whichever change is made to one’s physical appearance to reflect spiritual, fashion, social, as well as personal self-expression and identification, it may be classified as body modification.

This comprehensive term includes piercing, tattooing, earlobe stretching, branding, and cutting. Additionally, there are more peculiar ways of body modification, such as dental, facial, or breast implants.

Anthropological study on the history of body modification revealed that many people all over the world have been decorating their body with a selection of artistic designs ever since the ancient times. In spite of the fact that the style in which body modification is done differs, there are common attributes shared by many cultures. Some of which are still practiced in the present day. This research paper will discuss the global history of body modification and its current position in the modern world.

What Is Body Modification?

Body modification can be classified as the art of modifying the body by manipulating color, texture, scent, sounds, and taste or by decorating the body with some painting or jewelry.

Types of Body Modification

The term ‘body modification’ refers to several methods of body transformation which include piercing, tattooing, branding, cutting, binding and inserting implants to alter the appearance and shape the body.

History of Body Modification

Body modification is undoubtedly distinctive feature attributed to the masses. This process has been in the use dated back 30,000 years. Throughout the human history, individuals in many cultures have deliberately altered their physical natural appearance for aesthetic reasons.

There is a general belief which implies that body modification was a mode of one’s expression and identification even in ancient times. However, regardless body decoration which involves painting, tattooing, and other skin modification, people have also ornamented their bodies with piercings, which may be jewelry. In line with this, body piercing has been widely spread during the last ten to seventeen years, but the general society may still view it as dishonor and some inappropriate practice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although, what majority of the world populace do not understand is that piercing of the body (excluding ears’ piercing) originated centuries ago, back to the Biblical era, and has cultural and emblematic meaning contrary to the feeling of distress and dishonor.

The creative designing of human body (known as body modification) has been a customary way of human mode of self-expression and identification since the era of the ancient Egypt. This denotes that body modification and ethnicity are linked.

Although ethnicity and ethnic group seem to have clear references in relation to body modification, they are “among the most complicated and charged words and ideas of body modification or supplement in the lexicon of social science” (Nash 1).

According to the history of body modification or supplement, the Egyptians restrain piercing of the navel from the general masses. According to their belief, navel piercing can only be done by the royalties (the pharaohs). However, the Egyptians do not regard the art of body modification as fashion or beauty but as a form of showing their social hierarchical position and status.

On the other hand, the pre-Egyptians developed and improved their skulls and employed an easy method of creating tattoos. Afterward, the ancient Egyptians introduced ear piercing while the prehistoric South Americans, like the Mayans and Aztecs, ritualistically practiced the process of tongue piercing as a ritual of the sacrificial offering of blood to their Gods (Noya, 2005).

Furthermore, Native Australians also performed penile surgical incision and lengthening of the labia as a form of body modification. Native North American and the Inuit (an aboriginal group living on the territory of the modern Canada and presently referred to as Canadians) practiced the piercing of the lip and put on a decorative piece made of bone, which is presently reproduced as the labret stud. Besides, for generations, the aborigines of PacificIsland employed the practice of body modification.

Despite the fact that body modification is not well acknowledged in the Western culture, it has been a custom in many ethnic groups and eastern culture for a long. As an example, the insertion of nose rings in the left nostril originated in India, and symbolizes easier parturition process for Indian women (Noya, 2005).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Body Modification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Romans had their own body modification traditions. They also believed that all their actions served a purpose, hence, to them, body modifications reflected a practical reason (Roberts, 2004). The ancient Romans believed that their centurions pierced their nipples in order to give them men strength.

Another historical example of body modification popular among the Romans is piercing of the genitals. According to the history of body modification of the archaic culture of the Romans, it was compulsory that the Roman gladiators pierced the head of their penises because they were slaves. The Roman traditional piercing of the gladiators’ penises was made for two reasons.

This form of body modification was for the purpose of pegging their genitals during a gladiator combat, as well as

piercing of gladiator’s genital organ was as a means of preventing them from engaging in sexual activities without the consent of their master (Sanders, 2005).

In Sub-Saharan Africa, there are tribal marks that people carry not as a form of body modification but also as a symbol of belonging to a certain community. In Sub-Saharan Africa, body modification dates back to ancestral era when it was made as a cut on the face used to identify one’s tribal affiliation.

Africans viewed their tribal marking as an extension of their native selves, a fleshly embodiment of tribal customs and rich histories. In some cases, the process of scarification marked a coming of age, which is performed as a part of the ceremony in which a young man or a woman ascends to the rank of being adult.

During the period in history between traditional antiquity and the Italian Renaissance, the art of body modification became progressively weaker than it had been in the past, as it was considered by the early church as a sinful act. This is, perhaps, why most of the Western societies have a negative perception of body modification contrary to that of the eastern or African societies (Sanders, 2005).

Body Modification in the Modern age

There are many different methods of decoration that men and women (mostly teens) from all over the world beautify their skin today, they range from tattoos and body piercings to branding and scars. As the world civilizes and encourages the development of the individual, body modification (piercing, tattooing, etc.) is once again revived or brought back to the scene as a way of self-expression.

In the modern era, due to the wide popularity of ear piercing, it became a way for women to proudly display their diamonds and riches, and it has gradually become less exceptionable for men to pierce their ear. Tattooing is also widely spread having successfully entered into the modern culture.

In the modern age, body modification (piercing and tattooing in particular) is of interest to teens who want to explore their identities by experimenting with their body appearances.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Body Modification by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is an accepted belief that physical appearance generally reveals one’s inner self, beliefs, values, and hopes. As a result, body modification can, therefore, be seen as a means for the expression of the inner self, as a communicative medium of telling others what lies within. For some, body modification is considered simply decorative, much like fashion tendency. For the others, it symbolizes momentous transitions in life, indicates group membership, or declares love or some other feelings.

Some people get memorial tattoos to mark the death of friends and family members; for others, body modification offers a means to declare a sense of ownership via their bodies. For girls, body modification often signifies independence and self-asserting action, making an attempt to undermine or challenge more traditional feminine attributes, such as dependence and passivity.

Conclusion Although many people pierce, decorate their body with tattoos simply to follow certain style and fashion or modify their appearance for a great variety of reasons. Some people are motivated by the desire to show that they are not under somebody’s control. They believe they are able to decorate their bodies as a manifestation that they are free to do what they want and are not obliged to explain or justify their choices.

Some claim that body modification represents who they are and emphasize their individuality and creativity. However, others, sometimes called “modern primitives,” want to establish a link with ancient people or traditional cultures as a way to show that they perceive Western society as a superficial one.

Works Cited Nash, Manning. The Cauldron of Ethnicity in the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1989. Print.

Noya, Charles. History of Body Piercing. 2005. Web.

Roberts, Lucy. P. The History of Body Piercings-Ancient and Fascinating Around the World. Sept. 12. 2004. Web.

Sanders, Diana. A brief history of body piercing in the U.K. 2005. Web.

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Time management for nurses Essay essay help free

Not only do nurses work to gain patients’ trust, but also patients expect nurses to give clinical care (physical, technical, and procedural) and personalized care. According to Dr. Groopman (2005) explains that finding time for patients by health care providers is a therapeutic process, as well as an outcome which requires time and effort.

This involvement involves a process of knowing patients and a dialectic synthesis, through which they can integrate subjective and objective data (Groopman, 2005). They process information subjectively from direct observations of patients and from patients’ representations of their situations.

Time management strategies that work best for nurses include analyzing the workday and prioritizing the workload. Depending on the individual situation, available resources, and safety concerns, different strategies may be selected and implemented. Time may be managed successfully through the use of checklists, delegation, planning ahead, and by dividing large projects or tasks into smaller, more manageable undertakings.

However, creating time for patients by health care providers may differ depending on the practice setting. For example, in home health care, Groopman (2005) identified six time management strategies: take control of your calendar, minimize time spent in office, tame the telephone, simplify documentation, plan ahead, and save time for others.

Knowing patients has been described as a complex, interpersonal process requiring a number of nursing actions. The process of perceiving /envisioning patients help nurses actively transform observations of patients’ behavior into a direct “perception of what was significant in it” (Groopman, 2005).

It is important for healthcare professionals to find time for patients because of identifying their needs and to know what can be done to improve the situation (Groopman, 2005). It allows health care practitioner develop skill in understanding patients’ subjective perceptions and objective clinical status. It allows practitioners expand and revise their knowledge about patients by obtaining direct data about patients’ bodies.

Furthermore, spending time with patients helps nurses to understand their concerns about fears and anxieties, their personal preferences, their styles of coping, their stressors, and how to gain their trust (Groopman, 2005). It also builds on the partnership and relationship principles of trust, respect, support, communication, and commitment. The principles of spending time with patients can be used to build all types of partnerships, not only partnership with the patients.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the health care sector, creation of time for the patients is a model that creates structures, tools, standards, and paths to accomplish the goal of healing and promoting wholeness.

The impact of finding time for patients is that when patients get the responses they want, they feel good about their encounter with healthcare providers, and their need for positive interaction is satisfied. When patients feel good about their experiences, they are more willing to cooperate and are more likely to repeat their contacts with the practitioner.

If their experience is negative, however, they are likely to avoid and limit further treatment. Depending on what is required to complete their care, patients’ avoidance may have very serious consequences. It may cause them to avoid getting needed help, or it may cause them to ignore the healthcare instructions they have been given.

Finding time for patients is to establish a therapeutic relationship, which is directed at gaining an effective outcome from care that is centered on the person person’s needs and life perspectives.

Reference Groopman, J. (2005). Finding Time for Patients. Web.

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Child Rearing Psychological Patterns in Japan and the United States Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction The Science Daily (2008) confirms that spanking has been on the decrease for the past thirty years. Nonetheless, spanking is the most prevalent way of punishing children in our society. A study by Chang, Pettit and Katsurada (n.d.) states that scholarly information on physical punishment is limited. Nonetheless, there are major differences between child rearing patterns in Japan and the United States.

For that reason, physical punishments in these two countries differ in a number of ways. For instance, the circumstance under which spanking is applied in Japan is different from that in the US. Moreover, the part of the body spanked also differs. In addition, spanking is a divisive topic. Some people argue that it is an effective way of instilling discipline in children. However, others feel that it is the most ineffective method of disciplining a child.

In addition, there is proof that spanking affects a child psychologically. Therefore, parents should try other behavioral modification methods to correct children behaviors before reverting to spanking. This paper examines the differences in spanking between the US and Japan. In addition, it also tries to find out if spanking actually works and whether it has any potential psychological impacts on its recipients

Attitudes towards Spanking in the United States and Japan Most studies have shown that there are major differences between spanking practiced in the US and that practiced in Japan. These differences are a reflection of the cultural backgrounds of the two countries. For that reason, the attitude towards spanking differs depending on the culture.

Therefore, country of origin greatly determines whether a parent spanks a child or not. Japanese parents emphasize on conformity to group values while parents from the US encourage independence and individualism. Cultures that prefer conformity in child rearing are more likely to use corporal punishments than those preferring independence. For that reason, it can be concluded that spanking is more prevalent in Japan than in the Unites States.

A national survey in Japan indicated that more than half of Japanese parents agree that spanking is necessary in rearing a child. In addition, about half of the parents interviewed admitted that they sometimes spank their children. These parents argued that children feel loved by their parents when spanked.

However, most Japanese believe that use of physical punishment depends on the situation. For that reason, not all mistakes, made by children, are punishable by spanking in Japan. On the other hand, spanking in the United States depends on certain factors. Examples of these factors include race, religion, education, gender and age. Many studies show that mothers are more likely to physically punish children than fathers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, religious people practice spanking more than non-religious people. For instance, the Baptist Church is known to be a strong defender of spanking. Therefore, spanking is a common occurrence in conservative religious families in the US. Interestingly, in the US, girls are less likely to be spanked than boys.

What a given culture refers to as a being abusive to a child may be condoned in another culture. Therefore, the context and type of spanking differs between Japan and the US. For instance, in the US, parents administer spanking on the bottoms and hands. On the other hand, in Japan, parts of the body that are frequently used in spanking are the head and face.

Effectiveness of Spanking as a Way of Correcting a Child’s Behaviour The effectiveness of spanking has always elicited a heated debate. A more recent debate, on this topic, was conducted by CNN. In this debate, Zeidler (2012) sought to find out whether spanking really works. The debate, however, proved that spanking is a divisive topic. For that reason, it had its supporters and critics. Some parents believed that spanking, when applied in a non-abusive way, is an effective tool in the upbringing of a child.

These parents believe that children have to be taught discipline in order to function well in the society. Therefore, spanking is occasionally required to teach them a few lessons in life. However, some parents maintain that any form of physical punishment is abusive to a child. To them, physical punishment fills a child with shame. A child feels embarrassed after being spanked. Moreover, this feeling is translated into low esteem or aggressiveness. In addition, shame results into depression and anxiety.

However, effectiveness of spanking depends on the age of a child. For instance, a two-year old child may believe that a spank means that he should discontinue the behaviour that led to the spank. However, older children are used to these spanks. For that reason, spanking is meaningless to them. The CNN discussion concludes that it has never been proven that any style of discipline produces results in all children.

Therefore, spanking and other forms of disciplines sometimes work or amount to nothing in other circumstances. However, Rochman (2012) claims that a decade long research found out that spanking does not produce long-term results. In the short-term, it may transform the behaviour of a child, but affects a child negatively in the long-run.

Psychological Consequences Spanking Spanking has serious psychological impacts on children. Zeidler (2012) states that spanking leads to psychological problems such as drug abuse, mood and anxiety disorders and personal disorders. In addition, Castelloe (2012) states that spanking reduces developmental growth and the intelligent quotient (IQ) of a child. Therefore, spanking results into cognitive impairments and developmental difficulties in children.

We will write a custom Essay on Child Rearing Psychological Patterns in Japan and the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For that reason, debate on spanking should now revolve around medicine. People have dwelled too much on the ethical dimensions of spanking. There is proof that the gray matter in the brain is diminished by spanking. Grey matter determines the intelligence and the learning capabilities of a child. Moreover, it affects parts of the brain that control emotions. This explains why spanked children are high-tempered or physically aggressive. Children prone to spanking are also vulnerable to depression.

Furthermore, spanked children also conduct themselves in an anti-social way. Spanked children are also six times more likely to be physically aggressive than those who are not spanked. Additionally, they have high probabilities of being juvenile delinquents, drug addicts and abusive to their spouses in adulthood. Spanking also makes children believe that learning takes place through punishments. Therefore, spanking teaches a child that conflicts are resolved using violence.

My Personal Opinion on Spanking There is a proverb that states that “spare the rod and spoil the child”. Therefore, if children are not aware that a given society has rules and there are punishments for bad behaviors, they will grow up as unproductive members of that society. For that reason, they adopt a culture that condones lazinenes and disrespect to other people. Accordingly, spanking should be used to deter behaviors that are extremely bad.

However, spanking should not be done in anger. Moreover, a child must be asked to explain why he is being spanked. If he fails to do so, then, a parent or a guardian must explain to the child why he is being spanked. This helps the child maintain a relationship with the person spanking him. Moreover, this enables a child understand that the spanking is justified. However, some parents abuse spanking by overdoing it. In this regard, they leave permanent injuries or scars on a child.

Nonetheless, I do not believe that spanking should be an immediate option in punishing a child. Expression of anger towards a child is detrimental to his growth and development. Physical punishments such as spanking are ways in which a parent expresses anger on a child.

Some parents express their anger and frustration on their children through spanking, but pretend that they are disciplining them. The Science Daily (2008) links spanking to physical abuse. For that reason, spanking increases the likelihood of child abuse. For instance, parents who spank their children also use other harsher punishments on their children. However, I only relate spanking to child abuse when a parent uses an object to spank a child.

Parents cannot teach their children not to hit others when they occasionally spank them. For that reason, a child grows knowing that hitting others represents authority. Furthermore, when a parent hits a child, he instills fear in him. This affects his future dealings with the child.

Subsequently, a child sees his parent as a mere source of power rather than a source of love, care and inspiration. In addition, spanking brings about inferiority complex in children. Moreover, spanking hardens a child. For that reason, a child becomes used to the spanking and develops a hardcore behaviour. This child is, therefore, likely to become a juvenile delinquent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Child Rearing Psychological Patterns in Japan and the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To me, spanking should be used only when parents have exhausted other methods of punishing a child. There are other effective punishments that are less injurious to a child. Examples of these punishments include reduced pocket money and grounding. Children are also more likely to learn when calm. Therefore, instead of frightening them with spanks, a parent should try to talk them out of trouble using more peaceful means. In this way, their brains will be more alert than when stressed.

Moreover, instances of psychological disorders will be minimized. Additionally, children should be provided with alternatives to their bad behaviors. Grounding or spanking them without giving them alternatives does not help them in any way. In fact, there is a high probability that they will repeat the mistake. Therefore, involving a child in modifying his behaviour instills discipline in him and leaves his self esteem intact.

Conclusions Spanking practiced in the US differs from that practiced in Japan. Additionally, spanking has serious psychological effects on a child. Spanking leads to low self esteem, reduces trust between a child and his parents and breaks communication. Furthermore, in the long-run, spanking leads to criminal or other undesirable behaviors.

Therefore, spanking results to behaviors that parent strive to avoid in their children. Although spanking stops certain behaviors in children, it is less effective than other methods of correcting a child’s behaviour. Therefore, parents must use it as the last option in parenting.

References Chang, I. J., Petit, R. W.

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Elijah Muhammad Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Elijah Muhammad

Nation of Islam

Leadership

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Elijah Muhammad is one of the history makers that America has come to appreciate especially in the 20th century. This is manly based on the fact that he mentored several senior people like Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan.

His association with the Nation of Islam equally put him to the limelight, as he headed the movement from the year 1934 to 1975 when he died, leaving his legacy and philosophy enshrined in the history of America (Wright 47). This paper explores the life of Elijah Muhammad and his association with the Nation of Islam. To achieve this, the research paper will source relevant information from authentic academic sources.

Elijah Muhammad Elijah Muhammad was born in 1897 in Sandersville, Georgia, to poor parents, who were sharecroppers. His father, William Poole was a preacher and had thirteen children with Mariah Hall, who was a homemaker (Halasa 23). Due to poverty, Elijah failed to complete his studies, and dropped out of school when he was in his fourth grade.

He opted to help his parents as a sharecropper because of his tender age. At the age of sixteen, Elijah decided to look for employment in various factories and businesses, moving from city to city. During his early years, Elijah Muhammad witnessed a host of social injustices, which mainly targeted black people in America (Massaquoi 78). At the age of twenty-two years, Elijah married Clara Evans, with whom they had a total of eight children.

With an aim of finding a better life for his parents and family, Elijah relocated to Detroit in 1923, where he secured a chance to work with an auto factory. It is believed that his relocation to Michigan was quite significant; that is where he met his mentor, Wallace Fard, who was the pioneer of the Nation of Islam, a separatist association. Elijah succeeded Fard in 1934 as the head of the movement and led it until the time of his death in 1975 (Halasa 82).

Throughout his life as the president of the Nation of Islam, Elijah was well-known for his contentious preaching, criticizing social prejudices, and the bad economic state of the nation. His fame grew significantly, and gained supporters and followers like Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan. He was arrested and imprisoned in early 1940s, even though this did not deter him from advancing the ideologies of the Nation of Islam and reclaimed the leadership of the movement immediately after his release in 1946.

Nation of Islam As mentioned before, Elijah met Wallace Fard in Chicago, and joined efforts in fighting for the rights of the Black Americans. Before taking the religious path, Fard had worked as a salesman and was now addressing numerous problems facing Americans through his radical sermons. For Elijah Poole to be effective, he changed his religion to become a Muslim and was named, Elijah Muhammad (Halasa 81).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This step marked the beginning of a new life for Elijah as he got assimilated into the culture and ideology of the Nation of Islam. In fact, some of the principles proclaimed by Fard, like cosmology were never interpreted as they recognized black people as the original human race while whites were viewed as “devils” (Muhammad 11). Several teachings by the Nation attracted various blacks, including self-reliance, elimination of different forms of oppression, and clean living.

Leadership Wallace Fard was imprisoned in 1934 and mysteriously vanished, leaving a leadership vacuum in the movement. As a result, Elijah Muhammad took the leadership mantle even though there was opposition from another group of Muslims within the movement (Halasa 81).

This led to the fragmentation of the group, forcing Elijah to relocate to Chicago, where the Temple of Islam No. 2 was constructed. This temple served as the religion’s new head office as Elijah continued to propagate the philosophy of the Nation of Islam, attracting new members who had not heard about the movement.

Elijah Muhammad served four years of imprisonment between 1942 and 1946, for defying the registration of the draft, during WWII. This draft required men between the age of twenty one and thirty five to register with local boards. These men later served in the military during the Second World War (Halasa 112).

During his life in prison, the Nation of Islam was led by the movement’s trusted aides and Elijah’s wife who secretly transmitted messages from Elijah to the members. Upon his release in 1946, Elijah resumed the full leadership of the movement, propagating its ideas and reaching out to new members (Pipes 31).

Elijah argued that the founder of the movement had lived in the form of Allah and that he was serving as his messenger, relaying relevant information to his people. For more than three decades, Elijah worked towards strengthening the Nation of Islam, making it to grow from a small group of Muslims to a large and complex organization (Halasa 176).

The group’s prominence grew beyond doubt and drew controversy from its ideology. Throughout his sermons, Elijah emphasized the need for financial stability among Black-Americans. Besides this, Muhammad also focused on racial separation as opposed to integration. In other words, he believed that blacks and whites were not supposed to mingle because of their racial differences and originality.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Elijah Muhammad specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, the Nation of Islam encouraged a tight code of ethical behavior, which was necessary in instilling morality among its members, and differentiating them from the rest of the world. This was equally inclined towards detaching blacks from whites by eliminating possible avenues of assimilation and integration (Muhammad 11).

Even though Elijah is known to have mentored Malcolm X, their differences grew beyond reconciliation. The controversial enrolment of Cassius Clay into the Nation of Islam marked the climax of their incompatibility, forcing Malcolm to break-up from the movement to establish his group (Halasa 173).

However, he was denounced by several loyalties of the Nation, who believed that Elijah Muhammad was Allah’s messenger. Among these was Philbert, Malcolm’s brother. Malcolm was shot by gunmen, who were believed to have executed the orders of the Nation. Despite the allegations, Elijah distanced himself from the murder of his rival. At the time of his death in 1975, the Nation of Islam had more than 250,000 followers with several financial enterprises. Elijah was succeeded by his son, Deen Mohammed (Halasa 194).

Conclusion In summary, the history of the Nation of Islam clearly tells the life of Elijah Muhammad, who led the movement between 1934 and 1975. Importantly, Elijah was largely influenced by the social injustices, which he witnessed when he was young. His relocation to Detroit played a major role in connecting him with Fard, the founder of the Nation of Islam.

Works Cited Halasa, Malu. Elijah Muhammad. Los Angeles: Holloway House Publishing, 1993. Print.

Massaquoi, Hans. “Elijah Muhammad: Prophet and Architect of the Separate Nation of Islam.” Ebony 25.10 (1970): 78. Print.

Muhammad, Elijah. The Genesis Years: Unpublished

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The Theme of Liberation from Racism in Two Plays by August Wilson Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents August Wilson

Fences

The piano lesson

Relevance

Conclusion

Works Cited

August Wilson is a successful author who is known for proper relation of his short stories to reality. Almost all Wilson’s plays involve aspects of his life in precision to racism and issues closely related.

The essay will focus in the theme of liberation from racism. Comparison in relation to effects of racism and approaches of liberation between two plays by Wilson will be made. Further, the feasibility and relevance of the short stories in the life of Wilson will be well outlined. The essay will focus on two plays namely; Fences and The Piano Lesson.

The different ways perceived as possible freedom from racism will be discussed in regard to Wilson’s perceptions. Further, the essay will highlight instances where the theme of racism liberation is not well brought out in both stories. The discussion will outline the clearer way in which the author could have better presented the theme of liberty and effects of racism. Consequently, the discussion will highlight the different ways in which different characters interpret liberation from racism.

August Wilson Wilson was born in a poor family that was exposed to racism. Wilson’s parents were immigrants and faced discrimination due to inferiority of black race. Poverty was due to racism as blacks were not allowed to work in better paying jobs. His life was greatly influenced by racism and the journey to become an author was subjected to many challenges including that of dropping out of school at the age of sixteen.

Wilson was accused of plagiarism simply because he was black and was not expected to come up with a complicated essay. Wilson hid the issue of expulsion from his mother because he did not want her to feel disappointed. In the schools he attended before expulsion he was abused and maltreated because of his race. As a result of racism, Wilson ended up in unskilled jobs due to constant discrimination that was accorded to the black race (Little 8).

Wilson differed with his mother who wanted him to become a lawyer while he dreamt of being an author. Career pressurization was a result of racial discrimination. Wilson thought that when he became an author he would be able to mitigate the effects of racism. His mother on the other hand thought that the effects of racism could only be dealt with by law career development.

The conflict between Wilson and his mother resulted to disunity and Wilson was sent away from home. Wilson joined the United States army and later left it for unskilled jobs. His writing career begun shortly after his father’s death and it escalated rapidly (Little 9).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fences Fences was written by August Wilson in 1983 and has secured so many awards ever since. The play is based on racial discrimination that black Americans survived due to existence of the gap between them and the white superior race.

The essay focuses on the effects associated with racial discrimination and the approaches used in liberating the black Americans. In the play, Troy is the main character who acts as a bread winner of his family which constitutes of Rose and Cory. Troy works in the unskilled jobs industry as a garbage man since black Americans are not allowed to work in well paying jobs.

The menial jobs are very similar to the situation of Wilson after he was expelled from school. Troy cannot work in a better job since black Americans are discriminated. Similarly, Wilson ended up in the menial jobs after he was discontinued from school. Plagiarism accusations were based on black race discrimination. The play illustrates how black Americans like Wilson were discriminated and approaches they used in liberating themselves from effects of racism (Wilson 12).

In the play Troy participated in basketball but was unsuccessful due to racial discrimination. Troy was not allowed to play in the prominent leagues that would open up success opportunities. Racial discrimination has long term impacts as evidenced by the way Troy discourages his son from participation in football.

Corey however, persists and registers with a football club. Troy’s persistence secures him a place to work as a truck driver. Troy is involved in an affair with Alberta and they bear Raynell. Alberta dies as she delivers and Troy convinces his wife Rose to accept Raynell. Rose accepts Raynell but promises that she will not be a dutiful wife. Troy sends Corey away from home in the excuse of making him responsible and independent. Corey ventures in the military career and returns home at the funeral of his father (Wilson 8).

The piano lesson The play features the effects of economic instability on African American immigrants in 1930s. The black Americans were discriminated and enslaved by the white race. Enslavement involved forced labor and maltreatment in prisons.

The black Americans were forced to work in the land owned by the white race and were fed in exchange of their labor. The play features Willie the main antagonist who wants to sell a family piano so as to liberate himself from slavery. Notably, racial discrimination leads to slavery which the victims want to be freed from.

We will write a custom Essay on The Theme of Liberation from Racism in Two Plays by August Wilson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The play starts with the arrival of Willie and Lymon in Charles Doaker’s home. Willie and Lymon have a track of watermelons that they want to sell. However, Willie is affected by the great gap that exists between black and white races. Willie is stigmatized and wants to sell the family piano so as to liberate himself from racial discrimination and inequity. Willie attributes racism to poverty and slavery that his ancestors endured. According to Willie the piano should be sold so as to own the land that his ancestors worked as slaves (Wilson 4).

Bernice is Willie’s sister and main protagonist of the play. She believes that the piano should not be sold since it is the only existing legacy for the family. According to Bernice, the piano should remain intact so as to ensure that their ancestors are constantly with them. The blood and tears shed and rubbed on the piano by Bernice’s mother represents the suffering endured by the black Americans during slavery.

Since her parents always played the piano Bernice felt that the legacy of their family should be maintained. However, Bernice did not want to play the piano any more after the death of her parents to avoid waking the spirits. The Sutter ghost is mentioned throughout the play and it represents the white man who owned Charles’s family during slavery. Despite the advice of selling the piano to stop haunt of spirits, Bernice still refuses to sell it (Wilson 10).

Willie is persistent on selling the piano and moves on to find a potential buyer. Charles Doarker and Bernice warn Willie that the urge to sell the piano is a trap set by the spirit of Sutter so as to kill him. Willie disregards the advice and attempts to move the piano. The ghost of Sutter appears and blessings by Avery Brown are fruitless. Bernice rushes and plays the piano as a way calling for help from her ancestors. As Bernice plays the piano the spirit of Sutter disappears and Willie leaves (Wilson 11).

Relevance The two short stories are crucial in eliciting effects of racism and different approaches used to mitigate them. In all scenarios racial discrimination led to conflicts and hostility among the black Americans.

Wilson differed with his mother when he wanted him to become a lawyer and was sent away from home. In Fences, Troy sent Corey away from home since he wanted to venture into football, which was against his father’s wish. In the Piano lesson, Bernice differed with Willie on the approaches of liberating themselves from discrimination (Little 8).

Poverty was a common effect of racial discrimination that had black race on the receiving end. The parents of Wilson were poor since they were only allowed to work in unskilled jobs. Wilson worked in menial jobs because he could not be allowed to work in high rank jobs. Troy worked as a garbage man for a long time since black Americans could not work in better jobs. Willie was poor because he worked in farms that did not belong to him. The parents of Bernice and Willie lived in slavery which made them poor (Wilson 13).

The victims had different perceptions as far as coping with effects of racial discrimination was concerned. Wilson wanted to become an author because he thought that it was the best way to deal with racial discrimination. On the other hand, his mother wanted him to become a lawyer.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Theme of Liberation from Racism in Two Plays by August Wilson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His mother associated freedom from discrimination with the career of law. In fences, Troy sent Cory away from home due to his persistence in playing football. Troy asked the referee of the football team to stop Cory from playing. Troy actions are based on his experiences of racial discrimination.

The author fails to elaborate on this point intensely. Wilson should have highlighted the interpretation of the different victims who were subjected to racial discrimination. For example, he could have explained the reason for the persistent discouragement of Troy on the participation of his son in football club. Troy could have wanted Cory to adopt a career that would liberate them from effects of racial discrimination (Spradley and Mccurdy 11).

Stigmatization was also an impact of racial discrimination and had the black Americans as the victims. Wilson felt stigmatized due to the fact that he was expelled from school and accused of plagiarism. Due to stigmatization Wilson hid the expulsion from his mother and instead opted to work in the menial jobs.

Further, his family was forced out of a house where they lived together with the white race. Wilson studied in three different schools all of which he was maltreated because of his race. In Fences Troy was irritated and stigmatized by the fact that black Americans cannot work in better jobs. Further, Tory was devastated when he was denied the opportunity to participate in prominent basketball leagues.

One reason why Troy discouraged Cory from participation in football team and club was to prevent him from experience of stigma that he underwent during his youth (Little 12). In Piano lesson, Willie feels stigmatized by the slavery and is determined to be equal with the white race. According to Willie, racial equity would only be established if he owns land like the white race.

Maltreatment is an effect of racial discrimination. In the two stories Wilson talks of the ways in which the black Americans were maltreated. Wilson left one of the schools because he was being abused. Troy worked as a garbage man because that was the job offered to black Americans.

In Piano lessons, slavery is the main theme. Willie was imprisoned to work in a farm that was owned by a white person. The spirit of Sutter shows how the white race restricted and maltreated the black race. Bernice refuses to sell the piano because she feels that it would be like throwing away the legacy that her parents had labored for, all their years in slavery (Burbank 119).

Conclusion The effects of discrimination and coping strategies adopted by black Americans are well scrutinized in the short stories done by Wilson. As a matter of fact, the stories depict the experiences of Wilson in his journey to become an author who was free from racial discrimination. The short stories play a significant role in reduction of racial discrimination.

The negative impacts associated with racial discrimination have been outlined so as to discourage its spread. The success by the victims in the end of his stories encourages those who are subjected to any form of racial discrimination. Determination of the victims helped them realize their set goal. Efforts should be directed towards reducing the margin that exists between races.

Works Cited Burbank, Surgei. “The shattered mirror: what August Wilson means and willed to mean.” College Literature 36.2 (2009): 117-129. EBSCOhost. Web.

Little, Johnathan. Twentieth-Century American Dramatists: Second Series. Detroit, Michigan: Gale publishers, 2000. Print.

Spradley, James, and David Mccurdy. Conformity and Conflict: Readings In Cultural Anthropology. New York: Pearson Education press, 2009. Print.

Wilson, August. Fences: A Play. New York: Plume, 1986. Print.

Wilson, August. The Piano Lesson. New York: Plume, 1991. Print.

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The Importance of Immigrant Workers on the U.S. Economy Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Literature Review

Data and Methodology

Results

Conclusion

Works Cited

Immigration is a contentious issue in the United States of America because it is a First World country, and the dream destination of immigrant workers desperate to earn a living. Immigration is a contentious issue when viewed from an economic perspective. The fear and apprehension of many Americans is rooted on an economic principle that resources are always limited. Therefore, an increase in population means that there are more people competing for the same limited resources.

However, there is a need to re-examine the issue further and determine the exact impact of immigrant workers on the U.S. economy. It is imperative to find out if immigrant workers strengthen or weaken the U.S. economy. With regards to these issues, the proponent of the study would test three hypotheses using information from the U.S. Bureau of Census, the U.S. Department of Labor and peer-reviewed sources.

Literature Review There are contending views with regards to the presence of immigrant workers in the United States of America. There is therefore the need to look at the macroeconomic level and figure out the impact of immigrant workers in the lives of native-born Americans.

It is therefore imperative to cite a Harvard University study in 2004 that says, “immigration – both legal and illegal – reduced annual earnings for American-born men by 3.7 percent, or nearly $1,700 … for those without a high school degree, the effect was double that, with wages down 7.4 percent” (Quintanilla 1).

The said study underscored the fact that there are some native-born American citizens who are negatively affected by the presence of immigrant workers in this country.

Those who are affected were native-born Americans who do not have high school diplomas and do not possess specialized skills (Henderson 1). Aside from those who did not pursue higher education, possess special skills, there are other people groups that are affected by the influx of immigrant workers and they are African Americans and native-born Hispanics (Henderson1). The said research findings were able to demonstrate that not all Americans were negatively affected by the influx of immigrant workers.

There are economists who pointed out that American consumers benefit from low prices of goods because of the low wages paid to immigrants (Isidore 1). In addition, “lower-wage labor helps create more work for higher-skilled, higher-paid workers who are generally native born” (Isidore 1). These findings provide a counter-argument for those who oppose the presence of migrant workers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data and Methodology Data used for this study was taken from the U.S. Bureau of Census. In 2005 the U.S. Bureau of Census conducted a survey that enabled this particular government agency to determine the number of illegal immigrants in the country. Another set of data was taken from the U.S. Department of Labor.

The said government agency was able to figure out how certain businesses benefited from the contribution of illegal immigrants due to their low wages. Aside from related government agencies, pertinent information was gathered from peer-reviewed sources.

There were three hypotheses that were formulated based on the research question. The three hypotheses were used as a guide for the investigation of the true impact of immigration to the U.S. economy. The three hypotheses were listed as follows:

Hypothesis 1: The presence of immigrant workers is problematic to the U.S. economy. As a result the economy is weakened such that there is significant loss of productivity. In addition, the immigrants compete for the limited jobs that are in the market.

Hypothesis 2: The presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy. Immigrants possess skills that could enhance the U.S. labor market.

Hypothesis 3: Illegal immigrants weaken the U.S. economy because they compete with limited jobs that are available in the market. As a result, many Americans could not find work.

The data gathered would be analyzed using a framework based on the three hypotheses. The proponent of the study would like to determine the impact of both legal and illegal immigrant workers in this country.

We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Immigrant Workers on the U.S. Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Results Hypothesis 1: The presence of immigrant workers is a bane to the U.S. economy. As a result the economy is weakened such that there is significant loss of productivity. In addition, the immigrants compete for the limited jobs that are in the market.

As the population increases, it is logical to expect that resources would be depleted. As a consequence the U.S. government established immigration laws that served as a means to regulate the number of immigrants that could pass through the country’s national borders.

It is understandable that the U.S. government should regulate the entry of immigrant workers but it is not easy to understand why there is a need to perpetuate the fear brought about by the presence of immigrant workers. Those who strongly oppose the influx of immigrant workers always point to their impact on the country’s economy.

Aside from the stringent measures designed to significantly curtail the entry of immigrant workers to this country, there were also tough laws that were designed to deport and forcibly remove undocumented aliens. The way some people treated immigrants was based on fear and not facts.

It has to be pointed out that there were numerous studies conducted to determine the impact of immigrant workers, and in those studies, it was revealed that immigrant workers did not only utilize available resources, they also contributed to the enhancement of American culture (Hall 1). At the same time their industriousness and ingenuity were one of the reasons why the United States became an economic superpower (Hall 1). There was therefore enough information to show that not all immigrant workers could weaken the U.S. economy.

It is also interesting to point out that the opinion regarding the negative impact of immigrant workers must be scrutinized even further. There is also the need to re-evaluate economic principles used to judge the advantage or disadvantages of the presence of immigrant workers in this country.

The insight gleaned from the study of pertinent information revealed that immigrant workers could help enhance the economy and some cultural aspects of the country. However, the proponent of the study could not ignore the data that says there are certain demographic groups that were negatively affected by the influx of immigrant workers.

These movements of immigrant workers were instrumental in reducing wage rates. It has something to do with the economic principle contained in the law of demand and supply. In other words the presence of surplus labor means that there would be intense competition for a particular position. If there are many qualified workers willing to accept a job offer with a reduced pay rate, then, the impact could translate to lower wages for all the workers in the said industry.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Immigrant Workers on the U.S. Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hypothesis 2: The presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy. Immigrants possess skills that could enhance the U.S. labor market.

In order to appreciate the importance of immigrant workers, consider the contribution of the first wave of immigrants to the United States; they were the Italians, Irish, Scots and others who came from the European continent. According to one study that was specifically designed to understand the contribution of Italian immigrants, the researcher said, “These people were on the whole, peaceable and industrious, and improved the trades in which they engaged” (Hall 55).

Aside from the Italians, families of immigrant workers revolutionized different sectors of American society such as sports, film, food, telecommunications, Information Technology, engineering and many more (The Wall Street Journal 1).

One of the best examples is the contribution of Information Technology specialists working in Silicon Valley. Many of the brilliant minds in the IT industry came from Europe and Asia. One can just imagine the loss to the industry if these people were not given the chance to migrate to the United States.

It is still possible to have cutting-edge technology in this field but their contributions clearly spelled the difference in the creation of software and technology that radically altered the way people perceive Information Technology. It is impossible to measure the economic benefits through IT related technology and products that were produced in this country because of the contribution of foreign-born researchers and scientists.

The United States is a melting pot of culture. Imagine the type of food available to Americans if they did not allow Italians, French, Chinese and German immigrants to settle in this country. Due to the culinary influence of the various people groups that came from foreign lands, the United States gourmet experience was transformed to include food that were not part of the typical American diet. There is no way to measure the economic benefit of the various food products introduced by immigrant workers to this country.

The unfounded assumption that immigrant workers would negatively affect the U.S. labor market requires deeper analysis. According to one report, the decade between 1960 and 2000 was the time period when “working-age native born U.S. residents without a high school degree fell to 12% from 50% of the population” (The Wall Street Journal 1).

This data reveals that the U.S. population is highly literate compared to the past two centuries. As a consequence there are many native-born Americans who are highly qualified and would never agree to work for low-paying jobs.

The second major implication of this data is the fact that the U.S. economy would not thrive without immigrant workers because it needs people who can take care of menial jobs and other workload that does not require a college degree. There are certain industries that could only thrive if business owners could lower the cost of production. For example, orange juice products could remain competitive only if prices remain low.

Prices could only remain low if the firms managing orange orchards could tap a relatively cheap labor force. The only way to hire fruit pickers with low wages is to hire immigrant workers. There is no other practical way to hire immigrant workers than to tap a labor force that is close to the U.S. border. In other words it is practical to hire immigrant workers from Mexico. However, the idea of hiring workers from Mexico may not be acceptable to many Americans.

Regardless of the opinion of many Americans, the hiring of immigrant workers made sense in terms of lowering the cost of production. Aside from the existence of a cheap labor force available to employers, there are also immigrant workers that contribute knowledge and experience into various U.S. based industries. Some of the significant innovations in science and technology as well as knowledge in research and development could be traced to the contributions of immigrant workers.

It has bee made clear that overall the U.S. economy benefited from the influx of immigrant workers. However, it is also important to point out that uneducated Americans may suffer from competing forces.

Those who compete for low-paying jobs would be severely affected. Native-born Americans without a high school diploma may find it extremely difficult to work in the manufacturing and construction sector. However, it has to be reiterated that the number of Americans without a high school diploma continue to decrease on a yearly basis based on the research data (Wall Street Journal 1).

Hypothesis 3: Illegal immigrants weaken the U.S. economy because they compete with limited jobs that are available in the market. As a result, many Americans could not find work.

The issue with regards to the impact of immigrant workers must be clarified even further. There is a need to find out if dislike for immigrant workers is linked to illegal aliens and not the legitimate workers with working visas. It has to be acknowledged that the influx of illegal immigrants to this country reached alarming levels in the past few decades.

The influx of workers coming through the borders that separate the U.S. and Mexico for instance is due to the powerful economic incentive that pushes Mexicans to risk their lives in order to live in a land of opportunity.

The argument against illegal immigration was based on the following principle: “a surge of low-skilled immigrants should increase the supply of such workers, driving down wages at the expense of working-class Americans” (Henderson, 1).

The fear that illegal aliens would steal jobs away from native-born Americans was also based on the interpretation of the data released by the U.S. Census Bureau. In their March 2005 survey, there are at least “11.5 to 12 million illegal immigrants and of that number 6.2 million from Mexico and about 2.5 million come from the rest of Latin America” (Forbes, 1).

The significant number of illegal aliens must not be overlooked. However, there is another way to interpret the said data. According to one analyst, the US economy will collapse without immigrant workers (Quintanilla 1). In the said report, immigrant workers were crucial to the U.S. economy because “they do jobs most Americans wouldn’t take, for wages they wouldn’t want” (Quintanilla, 1).

There is a need for dishwashers, housecleaners, factory workers, messengers etc. A waste management facility would not thrive if there were only managers but no garbage collectors. Native-born Americans prefer white-collar jobs but the economy would fail without the help of gardeners, furniture movers, fruit pickers and other jobs that require low-wage workers (Quintanilla, 1).

It has to be pointed out that, “lower-wage labor helps create more work for higher-skilled, higher-paid workers who are generally native born” (Isidore 1). The following report from the U.S. Department of Labor strengthens this argument: “at least half of the nearly 2 million crop workers in the United States are illegal aliens … the cheap labor they provide is crucial to the $30 billion U.S. farm industry” (Parker 1).

It is impossible to imagine how major U.S. industries could be sustained without illegal immigrants. There is therefore the need to relax restrictions or legalize the status of illegal immigrants.

In another report, it was determined that, “the Hispanics alone represent 25% of workers in the meat and poultry industry; 24% of workers in the drywall and ceiling tile installation industry; and 24% of dishwashers in US restaurants (Grow 1). It could be argued, “some US industries have become so dependent on illegal labor that a wholesale expulsion would be crippling” (Grow 1).

Another argument that supports the lowering of restrictions is linked to the idea that the presence of illegal immigrants could be used to deter the relocation of businesses abroad. According to an analyst, “the easier it is to find cheap immigrant labor at home, the less likely that production will relocate offshore” (Cowen 1). It would create a ripple effect if US-based companies need not relocate their factories to China or Thailand.

There is a need to review laws concerning illegal migrants. Nevertheless, the New York Times reported a surprising development; the article says, “Mexican migration has sputtered to a trickle due to various factors such as improving economic conditions in Mexico, border crime and economic slowdowns, and immigrant crackdowns” (Cave 1).

If this trend continues native-born Americans would soon find out that the U.S. economy needs immigrant workers and there are certain industries that would benefit from lowering the standards for entry in order to legalize the status of illegal aliens.

Conclusion Hypothesis 1 was proven to be false because the presence of immigrant workers was a positive force for the U.S. economy. The fear that immigrant workers would compete with available jobs was based on assumptions and not fact. In reality, immigrant workers simply took jobs that were unattractive to native-born Americans. At the same time, immigrant workers were instrumental in the creation of new jobs and the best example are the businesses that sprouted in Silicon Valley because of the contribution of IT specialists from Europe and Asia.

Hypothesis 2 was proven to be true because immigrant workers brought at least two positive things to the country. First, immigration brought talented and hardworking people who were instrumental in the creation of innovative products and solutions. Second, immigrant workers provided a cheap labor force for certain industries. Hypothesis 3 was proven false because the existence of a cheap labor force was critical in many industries.

There are certain industries that could not survive without the ability to hire low-wage workers. Native-born American must reconsider their position with regards to immigrant workers because they would never consider such low-paying jobs. They also want their food products to remain cheap. They want to pay for inexpensive landscaping, gardening and other services. It is not possible to maintain a certain lifestyle without the help of immigrant workers.

Works Cited Cave, Damien, Better Lives for Mexicans Cut Allure of Going North. The New York Times, 2011. Web.

Cowen, Tyler. How Immigrants Create More Jobs. The New York Times, 2010. Web.

Forbes. Immigration’s Impact. Forbes, 2007. Web.

Grow, Brian. Embracing Illegals: Companies are getting hooked on the Buying Power of 11 Million Undocumented Immigrants. Bloomberg-Businessweek, 2005. Web.

Hall, Prescott. Immigration and Its Effects Upon the United States, New York: Adamant Media Corporation, 2005. Print.

Henderson, Nell. Effect of Immigration on Jobs, Wages is Difficult for Economists to Nail Down. Washington Post, 2006.

Isidore, Chris. Illegal Workers: Good for U.S. Economy. CNN Money, 2006. Web.

Parker, Serena. Immigrants: US Economic Savior or Social and Economic Burden. Voice of America, 2 May 2005. Web.

Quintanilla, Carl. The Economic Impact of Immigration: Do Illegal Workers Help or Hurt the Economy? MSNBC. 2006. Web.

The Wall Street Journal. Immigration Out of Sight: Ignoring Immigration Policy Does not Favors for the U.S. Economy. The Wall Street Journal. 2009. Web.

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White Collar Crimes Against Troops in Iraq Essay cheap essay help

Halliburton Company was known as the provider of clean, safe water for cooking and drinking for U.S. troops in Iraq. However, there were no actual testing procedures approving the high quality of water. In fact, the water was extremely contaminated. What is more threatening is that the military were not informed about potential risk this water posed to their health.

The soldiers and other employees involved in military actions used this water for drinking and showering with no awareness of the diseases by which they can be infected. With regard to the violations by the company can be regarded as white-collar crime because Halliburton committed illegal business operations aimed at gaining profits.

A white-collar crime refers to the illegal monetary gain that is committed by individuals taking privilege social positions. The main causes of violations committed by legal individuals are connected with threats to human health and safety. In this respect, in case the entity ignores these issues for the sake of gaining profits, it can be considered as an illegal act against the employees.

In addition, a white-collar crime also refers to the cases of unequal treatment of employees predetermined by their social position. Finally, the consequences of white-collar crime are not purely financial because they negatively affect the physical and mental welfare of the employees. Being ignorant of the company’s activities, employees are under the risk of losing their positions in case they refuse to perform certain tasks.

With regard to the above-presented features, Halliburton Company can be accused of white-collar crime against military troops in Iraq due to several reasons. First, the company gained high profits at the expense of employee’s health by providing contaminated water and low quality food provision.

Second, their business operations created a serious threat to safety and health of U.S. employees because of the conditions under which they lived, as well as contaminated water they provided. No testing procedures have been introduced to ensure that the water is safe to consume. Finally, Halliburton Company introduced services whose pricing was much higher than it should be. For instance, the soldiers needed to pay $ 99 for laundry instead of $ 3 that was an accepted price (WeAreONEBigFamily).

The company also provided troops with foods whose expiration date had passed. The Halliburton managers gave order to their workers to remove bullets from packages in trucks to give the food to unaware soldiers. The costs for various products and services had been tripled due to the increased taxes imposed on consumers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The evidence suggests that the company’s breach of established regulations were crucial because managers failed to introduce social corporate responsibility that would ensure safety and protection of their consumers.

Gaining profits, therefore, was not acceptable as soon as the health and welfare of consumers were concerned. In fact, Halliburton executives actively ignored the cooperation with government auditors in the United States, as well as failed to warn the soldiers and providers of potential dangers of transporting goods and medicines.

In conclusion, it should be stressed that the Hamilton committed a serious white-collar crime against military troops in Iraq by violated their consumer rights. The case refers to ignorance of quality standards in delivering food, water, and other products, which threatened employees’ safety and health. Finally, all the business activities were aimed at gaining profits by increasing costs and raising taxes.

Works Cited WeAreONEBigFamily. “Halliburton Poisoned Their Own USA Soldiers in Iraq! Ex Marine Speaks Out”. Online video clip. YouTube. 8 Sept. 2011. Web.

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Human Capital Management: Personnel Strengths and Weaknesses Essay college essay help online

Introduction The responsibility of management in human capital is to assist businesses in analyzing personnel strengths and weaknesses, while searching for and developing the strategies, which allow business executives to proactively manage human resources. By offering a holistic analysis of one’s personnel, the answer gives one steady and accurate responses required for tactical decision-making (Jago, 1982).

Benefits of human capital management include:

Improving and measuring personnel efficiency,

Reducing risks by modifying probable endings,

Organizing for future personnel needs,

Encouraging venture performance development.

Features of human capital management are:

Logical human resources data representation,

Pre-defined investigation,

Information administration,

Data allotment and release.

Small corporations have a less likelihood of performing some human resources practices, which may be considered avoidable or extravagant when implemented. This is in contrast to large corporations which are considered more probable to officially perform human resources activities as compared to other small businesses. Simultaneously, large businesses have started to frequently influence expertise in order to comprehend their personnel as well as th areas where talents are required (Northouse, 2007).

Leadership is the procedure in which an entity sways a collection of persons to attain the same purpose (Northouse, 2007). Excellent leadership is based on admirable character as well as unselfish service to one’s institute. In the workers’ eyes, leadership is referred to everything the leader does that influences the objectives of the organization as well as its welfare.

Managers ought to recognize their task in creating and sustaining the culture of an organization. The values, attitudes, and behaviors of an organization start with its management. This is achieved by means of communicating and role modeling at every level (Jago, 1982). Managers should not undervalue the importance of being constant, when conveying these values, attitudes, and preferred behaviors. In cases where one or several of these constituents happen to be feeble, the organization has the tendency of eventually suffering failure.

Even as there is a need to find an appropriate transformational leader to alter the institute, the group being led is to understand that all the members should adjust to change in a certain way to follow their leader. In certain respects, subsequently, the people become the transformation product. Transformational leaders have the tendency of being charismatic but not as selfish as real charismatic leaders, who thrive through having an exaggerated opinion of themselves (Jago, 1982).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Merely because a person considers himself or herself to be right, it is not a clear indication that that individual is indeed correct. Ironically, the same energy that makes people active can as well lead them to giving up.

Transformational leaders also have the tendency of seeing big picture; however, they fail to see the small aspects, thereby causing problems. If they lack people responsible for this kind of job, handling the details, most of the time, they fail (Jago, 1982). Finally, transformational leaders, by definition, are transformational seekers.

In cases where the business does not require to be transformed and the workers are contented the way they work, then frustration is bound to occur to such a leader. However, when the right condition is ensured, they do their best, and most of the time, they can be individually accountable for saving the entire corporations, in which they work (Northouse, 2007).

References Jago, A. G. (1982). Leadership: Perspectives in theory and research. Management Science, 28(3), 315-336.

Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

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Argument on secularization and its challenges Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Secularization, effects and relationship with religion

Challenge of secularism

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Secularization is a historical process through which individuals fail to recognize the significance of religion values in their social, cultural and political settings. It threatens to erode the noble human values that shape political and social activities in various societies. That is it is a systematic process through which religion has been losing its social and political importance.

This is evident in most nations such as US where religion is not regarded as a fundamental factor that influence the development of political parties and their operations. As noted by scholars, secularism has been in the increasing end due to the evident changes in various aspect of engagement.

The changes have made most individuals to focus on monetary issues and engagement in activities that please them with disregard to religious ideals. They tend to conform to the worldly lifestyle by doing what enable them to achieve their immediate needs, but fail to focus on what is necessary for their holistic development.

Indeed, religion that equips individuals with pertinent human values has been losing its absolute authority in most settings. This trend is causing immense fear with scholars asserting that it would facilitate mistrust, unfaithfulness and lack of cohesion. This would compromise social, economic and political integration that is significant for meaningful development.

Secularization, effects and relationship with religion As indicated, secularization is a systematic process through which religion has been losing its imperativeness socially and culturally. It also describes how the world is continuously deviating from recognizing the noble ideals of religion that have been instrumental in shaping individuals lifestyle (Welcker 2).

In US, religion and politics are regarded as distinct entities by some individuals. They assert that religion has no bearing on political activities and does not influence operations of political parties. They state that effective leadership is not dependent on religious ideals but on an individuals skills and competence. They seek to quell the notion that best leaders are the ones with strong religion background. This explains why individuals with secular beliefs assert that religious principles do not present immense influence to political processes.

However, another school of thought holds that politicians who have a strong attachment to religious ideals and practices are more generous than secular leaders. They tend to understand the plight of the citizens and try to mitigate their needs effectively through formulation of viable policies (Welcker 12).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They offer more viable, practical and realistic solutions to various complications that affect the electorate in the nation. Indeed, religious leaders and politicians are credited for their role in enhancing peace and cohesion among citizens. They use their political power to influence the public to embrace moral and spiritual values that are integral in fostering democratic processes.

Evidently, the relationship between religion and secularism, their significance and how they influence human development socially or politically has been drawing mixed reactions from various individuals. Christians hold that the current social discomfort and political animosity in most nations is caused by irresponsible behavior that is a result of secularization.

They state that secularization is eroding the noble human values and virtues that foster cohesion (Welcker 18). It has also been impeding understanding, living by faith and building of trust between individuals. In US, secularism has been identified as key issue that would degenerate the country’s economy if not addressed.

Challenge of secularism Secularization is a practice that presents a lot of challenges that are bound to affect political integration process in various settings (Welcker 18). This is apparent since its principles does not give much cognizance to Christian or religious ideals, the existence of a supernatural being and the role of religion in shaping individuals political practices. Firstly, it is bound to affect political activities even though it is said that it has no direct link or bearing on politics.

This is evident since in this era or century nations need politicians who are trusted, faithful and determined to developing favorable laws. The leaders should be of high moral standing and hold noble values that foster cohesion among society members. This is essential in ensuring that secularization that can corrupt one’s mindset does not find room in the current setting.

Secondly, secularism also poses a challenge of eroding moral values and principles that are vital in building sustainable political practices. Morality is an integral aspect that is achievable through intense religious teachings and guidance. It requires determination and proper understanding of decent human values that secular individuals may lack (Welcker 20).

They only focus on activities or principles that please them or accelerate them in meeting their immediate needs. They lack key principles such as respect, integrity, honesty and kindness that define moral values in the political arena. Therefore, secularism is a practice that is draining moral values or causing moral decay in our societies. It also impedes spiritual growth and advancement among politicians thereby leading to the development of incoherent laws.

We will write a custom Essay on Argument on secularization and its challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Indeed, religion provides basic incentives that ensure that noble values are inculcated in individuals. The values are set with an aim of ensuring that peace, understanding, cohesion and trust is enhanced among individuals. Therefore, communities that aspire to grow socially and politically should embrace religious principles.

Works Cited Welcker, Lowell. Asecular Society. New York Times. 21st Mar 1984. Web. Mar 2013.

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Concept of Living Constitution in “Essential of American Government: Root and Reforms” a Book by O’Connor, Yanus and Sabato Essay essay help

O’Connor, Yanus and Sabato, in their book (Essential of American Government: Root and Reforms), described the concept of the ‘living constitution’ as a document that is flexible and has the ability to change. During the development of the constitution, there was need to consider the changing society over time.

Therefore, the constitution had to be made in such a way as to allow its evolution in order to accommodate the needs of the society. It is also argued that the constitution was written intentionally to be flexible and broad. This was in order to allow for technological and social changes that occur over time.

Thomas Jefferson argued that institutions and laws must not lag behind as changes occur in the human mind. He suggested that people become more enlightened and more developed. New discoveries are made and new ideas and truths unfolded. Therefore, there was need to accommodate these changes of circumstances in order to keep pace with them (Scalia and Gutmann 133). He explained how it was impossible for a grown man to fit into the coat that he once wore as a boy.

The constitution may be described as a living document in three ways. Firstly, it may be viewed as living due to the way in which formal amendment are made. It could also be said to be living based on the informal amendment process. The custom, tradition and usage of the constitution also make it a living document. The formal amendment process describes how changes are made to the document.

There are two ways in which an amendment may be proposed and two ways in which it may be ratified. These methods have been highlighted in Article V of the constitution (Goldford 150). This section has played an important role since it has allowed Congress to enact an amendment. Since a three-fourths majority of the votes is required for the amendment to be approved, it ensures that the Congress remains honest. This has also kept it constantly growing.

Informal amendments can also be made on the constitution in various ways. Congress may pass them as basic legislations. They can also result from court decisions or executive agreements. The Congress may pass legislations as it desires.

Executive agreements, which are contracts made between the head of state and head of foreign states, are used by the president when he needs to deal with foreign issues (Rehnquist 473). Court decision have for a long time been used to make constitutional changes in that they have led to the coming up of new laws.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The customs, traditions and the various ways in which the constitution was used in the past have greatly shaped the activities today. An example of a custom that has dictated how certain things are done today is the delivering of the State of Union Address annually. It is usually done at almost the same time every year.

However, there is nowhere in the constitution where the individual responsible should do it at a particular time and in the presence of the press. However, it has traditionally been done that way and it has become a custom. Changes have also arisen from the use of certain portions of the legislation. A good example is the War Powers Resolution of 1973. It has never been formally enforced. Only parts of it have been used occasionally. Not a single president has stood completely by the resolution’s provisions.

Another application of the living constitution may be in the reference made by the Supreme Court (James 49). In the eighth amendment, it talks of ‘evolving standards of decency’. It defines the constitution in broad terms. Therefore, it states that the court shall interpret the situation with the current societal conditions in mind. It recognizes that the society is constantly changing and so are the standards of decency.

Constitutional Amendments O’Connor, Yanus and Sabato also discussed the several amendments to the U.S. constitution (350). Some of these amendments were not passed due to one reason or the other. One the amendments proposed to the U.S. Constitution was the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This amendment was proposed with the promise of guaranteeing equal rights for the women (Nicholson 254). It was meant to take effect two years after its ratification.

It was originally composed by Alice Paul and was brought to the Congress. Several decades after it was first introduced to the Congress, it passed both houses of Congress (Moore 78). It was then taken for ratification in the state legislatures. However, it failed to get the required number of ratifications before the deadline. In addition to this, conservatives opposed the Equal Rights Amendment (Mansbridge 79). Therefore, it failed to be adopted.

I would support this amendment since I believe in gender equality. I believe that men and women should be treated equally unless there is a sound biological reason to warrant different treatment. The government should provide equality in law and ensure that there is equality when it comes to social situations. Both men and women should have equal democratic rights.

In terms of employment, both should also be paid equally for equal work and have the same opportunities when it comes to growth (training) and promotions. Women should also be allowed to pursue careers and get into positions that have always been occupied by the men. In many countries, women have been allowed to serve in the army. Some work in the police force and fire departments. Women should also have equal opportunities when it comes to the occupation of political positions or top management positions in organizations.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Living Constitution in “Essential of American Government: Root and Reforms” a Book by O’Connor, Yanus and Sabato specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gender equality should be observed in all aspects including the home setting. For example, activities such as cleaning, childcare and nursing should not be considered as exclusively the women’s. Men are equal to the task and should take responsibility. The Equal Rights Amendment should have been passed in order to ensure equality of both men and women.

The Every Vote Counts Amendment was another proposed amendment in the U.S. It was meant to change the way in which the president and the vice president are put into power. It provided for the popular election of the two individuals (Bugh 32). Therefore, this would mean that an electoral system is used in place of the Electoral College (Edwards 122).

The two positions would be filled by the individuals who gunner the most votes from the citizens. Citizens from the different states and the district would elect a leader of their choice. The Electoral College have for a long time elected the president and vice president of the United States.

I favour the passing of this amendment because the process in which the president and vice president are put in power is credible and appropriate. The choice of the leaders of a particular country should be made by the individuals to be led. This means that the citizens are the ones to select their own leaders.

The Electoral College is made up of few individuals who may not necessarily represent the desires of the entire population. Therefore, all the citizens should be given the opportunity to vote in the leaders of their choice. This way, they would be responsible for the kind of leadership that the elected persons exercise. Voting should be regarded as the right of every individual.

Federalism The American government was initially thought to be run under the system of federalism (Kelly, Harbison, and Belz 321). This is a term that was derived from the Federalists. It expressed the idea that the governmental power was divided between different units. These included the central government (national authority) and the states. There are several forms of federalism described by O’Connor and her colleagues. Some of them include cooperative federalism, fiscal federalism, dual federalism, new federalism and creative federalism.

Dual federalism

This is the theory of shared power in the U.S. government. The federal constitutional law assumes that power is divided into two different spheres. One of the spheres of power is in the possession of the federal government. The other belongs to each of the states.

Both spheres are equally powerful and are limiting to the other. In this case, the provisions of the constitution are interpreted and applied differently in such a way as to give authority to the governments within the particular sphere (O’Connor, Yanus and Sabato 247). However, it also works in such a way as to limit its power over the other.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Living Constitution in “Essential of American Government: Root and Reforms” a Book by O’Connor, Yanus and Sabato by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fiscal Federalism

This involves the division of the functions of the public sector and funds among the various parts of the government. There is an emphasis on the need for improved performance of the public sector.

Proper alignment of the fiscal instruments is also required. A focus and the maximization of welfare are important to the optimization of jurisdictional authority. However, economic considerations only cannot be enough to ensure optimal jurisdictional authority. Political considerations must also be considered since it helps shape the fiscal relations between governments in most of the federations.

Creative Federalism

This form of federalism was popular during the 1960s. One of its characteristics was that the federal government was responsible for the determination of the states’ needs (Lowi 147). During this period, the federal government served the state directly and provided its needs, which included social services. There was need for liaison between federal government and the state government in order to plan how to achieve the set objectives.

Cooperative Federalism

This form of federalism assumes that the state and federal governments have equal power. The local, state and national governments work together to solve common issues (Hills 907).

New Federalism

This was created in order to ensure devolution of power. This form was deemed necessary after the state governments lost power. Loss of power was associated with the enforcement of civil rights in U.S. and President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal (Zavodnyik 166).

There was a push and pull between the states and the federal government and this prompted for some change in policies. It led to the transfer of power back to the local and state governments. It involved the provision of block grants by the federal government. Revenue sharing was also returned to the lesser governments.

Civil Rights and Liberties

O’Connor, Yanus and Sabato mentioned the rights and liberties enjoyed by every American. However, some have been jeopardized today. One of the rights of the American people that have been jeopardized recently is the rights to privacy (communications privacy). This may be seen in the way the private communications of innocent citizens are intercepted by law enforcement agents. The USA Patriot Act, in particular has led to such violations.

The act came about in response to the September 11th terrorist attacks. This act reduced the restrictions placed on agencies as they gathered intelligence within the United States. It also allowed for the deporting and detaining of immigrants who were thought to have terrorist intent. Therefore, there was an enhanced domestic security against terrorism. This led to the enhancement of surveillance procedures by the particular bodies. Surveillance and wiretapping were extensively used and at some point caused conflict.

The Electronic Privacy Information Center, for example, opposed the surveillance of packet switched networks. This is because the content in the address information would be exposed. There was also expansion in search warrants as the FBI could access voicemails. Only a search warrant was required in order for one to get access. The agents could also perform a ‘sneak and peek’ search. This was to be done without prior notice. This notice also prevented anyone from resisting any search even if it was wrongfully done.

These practices threatened the citizen’s individual liberties since they thought it was ironic that their freedom was shacked and yet the main terrorists (such as Osama) walked freely. I chose to discuss this issue because it is controversial. From the book by O’Connor, Yanus and Sabato, I have learnt that the efforts of the government to safeguard the United States from terrorism have come with a cost and the citizens are the ones to pay. Going through people’s voicemails and emails infringes the right to privacy and this should not be the case.

Another right that has been in jeopardy is the freedom of speech. The Democracy Is Strengthened by Casting Light On Spending in Elections Act (DISCLOSE) was opposed by several parties since it jeopardised the citizen’s rights and liberties (Kiang and Murray 41).

This bill was introduced in order to prohibit foreign corporations from influencing the election results through campaigns (Kolodny 154). This meant that the corporations were not allowed to make political contributions or provide access to certain information (financial) to its members or the public.

This, in a way, restricts some institutions from exercising their rights (free speech). Just as the American citizens were starting to express their rights to free speech, the democrats geared up for a vote on the new bill that would undermine the First Amendment. With the amendment of the bill, the playing field would not be levelled since the opposition would have been literally silenced. The funny thing is that the amendments were to be made only five months to the elections.

This bill was opposed and criticised by the American Civil Liberties Union. This was due to its ability to cause unnecessary damage to the freedom of speech rights (Warburton 176). In addition to this, it did not consider protecting the privacy of the citizens. One of the negative impacts that would have been caused by this is the lack of donor anonymity.

Some opposed it arguing that it would violate the principle of fairness and equality. I chose to discuss this case since freedom of speech should be enjoyed by every citizen in the United States of America. From what I have learnt from the course, I can rightfully say that laws that act in such a way as to prevent free speech should not be passed.

Works Cited Bugh, Gary. Representation in Congressional efforts to amend the presidential election system. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishers, 2010. Print.

Edwards, George. Why the electoral college is bad for America (second edition). New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2011. Print.

Goldford, Dennis. The American constitution and the debate over originalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.

Hills, Roderick. “The political economy of cooperative federalism: Why state autonomy makes sense and dual sovereignty doesn’t.” Michigan Law Review 64.4 (1998): 813-944. Print.

James, Leanoard. The Supreme Court in American Life. Chicago: Scott Foreman, 1964. Print.

Kelly, Alfred, Winfred Harbison, and Herman Belz. The American constitution: Its origins and development (7th ed.). New York: W.W. Norton

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Economics Reforms in China Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

China is a nation located in East Asia. It is one of the most populated nations in the world with a population of about 1.5 billion. Despite this, China is known for its ancient civilization. In fact, China was recently rated the world’s fastest growing economy with regard to the high percentage of the world’s total exports. The fast growth in China’s economy is attributable to the expedient policy implementation by the Chinese government.

In addition to this, China has an effective leadership that spearheads all sectors within its economy. A market-oriented economy is one of the recent adoptions of China’s economic strategies, which has indeed quickened economic growth. As such, China adopted measures with the aim of coming up with policies aimed at reforming the previously closed economy. This paper is therefore an in-depth analysis of the reforms made by China that have made it outdo the United States of America in terms of economic growth.

China’s economic growth came as a surprise to many. A macroeconomic analysis of China in the last century indicated a low income per capita. However, the pace at which China’s economy has grown in the recent past is something to question. Some analysts have even argued that China’s economic growth has been overrated.

The World Bank statistics have indicated a ten percent annual growth rate in China’s GDP. The statistics further indicate that the growth is sustainable given the increase of China’s fixed investments in overseas markets. Unlike most of the other nations, China has made huge investments in physical capital. Thus, China boasts of a high flow of net income from foreign nations.

This is evident because of the good investment environment that China has created with its trading partners. The investment environment was among the reforms that were initiated by the Chinese government. In the reforms, China implemented policies that provided efficient policies for trading with foreign nations. This is one of the methods used by China to capture most of the trading partners of the United States.

Despite having low production from its agricultural sector, China has developed bilateral relations with other nations that have raw materials for its industries. This has significantly enhanced industrial growth in China.

China also boasts of a high growth in human capital, which caters for the high demand for human capital in the industries. Thus, unlike other nations, China does not have to import human resource. China has also been keen to make reforms in its public sector as one way of making sure that national resources are effectively governed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because the public sector plays key roles in the economic, political, and social sectors of a nation. Reforms of the public sector in China began long ago after the Second World War. The reforms initiated good governance thus improving service provision in China’s society. Through accountability, China has been able to improve its service provision to the public. This has had a positive impact on the economy because the people are motivated to work harder.

Finally yet importantly, China has made Japan one of its important trading partners given the fact that is developed in terms of technology. This relationship is bound to be of benefit to China by helping it improve the quality of itsr electronics, which have been disregarded on grounds of poor quality and imitation.

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Exploring the Specifics of a Group Mind: Into the Depth of the Philosophy of the Crowd Essay college essay help: college essay help

Though it is generally considered that people should come up with their own solutions to the problems and that it is unreasonable and even absurd to make decisions based on what the others tell one, it cannot be denied that the opinion of the crowd matters much when it comes to the deciding point.

Therefore, the idea of crowd thinking is rather vague and ambiguous; while its negative aspects are well known, its advantages are also often mentioned. In addition, the very definition of group thinking stretches from taking the opinions of others into account to making a mixed decision based on what the entire group thinks is right. An issue truly worth researching, group thinking is the focus of the given paper.

There have been many attempts to describe the phenomenon of group mind or at least to show how potentially destructive group mind can be in every meaning of the word. One of the most famous and by far the most controversial researches on the topic, Zimbargo’s The Stanford Prison Experiment offers a number of opportunities to find a definition to the phenomenon of a group mind.

A research that involved a prison simulation has shown that people quickly accept the attitudes and the behavioral patterns that a newly acquired social status offers them; moreover, once one of the group members starts acting in a certain way, the rest of the group members considers the given behavior acceptable.

The given change cannot be attributed to the group members’ aptitude to violence: “Rather, the subjects’ abnormal social and personal reactions are best seen as a product of their transaction with an environment that supported the behavior that would be pathological in other settings, but was “appropriate” in this prison” (Zimbargo 742).

As Zimbargo’s research shows, the people who were supposed to play the role of the “guard” were not instructed to be violent and harsh towards the “prisoners”. However, because of a range of factors, starting with the choice of the uniform for the “guard” and the “prisoners” and up to the fact that the prisoners were not supposed to have names, the group mind made the “guard” change their attitude towards the “prisoners” and became even more violent. Judging by the given example, it can be concluded that a group mind is a phenomenon that makes people within a certain group develop a common type of behavior that can help them stay in a leader’s position.

Another peculiar study worth taking a glance at is Doris Lessing’s “Group Minds.” Unlike the previous study, the given one offers a definition to what a group mind actually is; As the author explains, “When we’re in a group, we tend to think as that group does” (Lessing, 1989). Therefore, group mind is a phenomenon that makes every single member of the group follow the group’s choice. However, putting the issue the way in which Doris Lessing has put it raises even more questions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, In Zimbargo’s study, it was clear where the moods that were brooding in the group came from – the social roles of a guard and a prisoner already have an underlying idea of punishment, which results in a violent attitude towards the “imprisoned.” In Doris Lessing’s essay, however, there is no setup – the author does not provide any specific situation, merely stating the obvious.

Therefore, in Lessing’ understanding, there will always be a factor that predetermines the mood of the group and the course of decisions that it is going to take. Hence, the definition of a group mind can be taken to a different level; group thinking can be defined as people’s aptitude to come to a single decision or manner of conduct within a certain group disregarding the specifics of the individuals’ personalities.

A slightly different idea of a group mind is offered by Ian McEwan in his Atonement. As the previous experience with Lessing’s story showed, the course of group thinking can be changed by different factors; however, Lessing does not define these factors. McEwan, on the contrary, almost shoves these factors in the reader’s face from the very beginning; called Obedience to authority, the chapter from Atonement makes it crystal clear that under the influence of authority, group thinking can be bent any way possible.

Every single sentence in the novel stresses the influence that the crowd has on a personality; the idea of a group mind is exercised mostly through the images of a physical pressure of the crowd, which makes the idea even stronger: “The exultant crowd exploded from the bar like champagne, hurling Turner and Netty aside” (McEwan 749).

Judging by McEwan’s work, a group mind is a power that can be controlled only by an authority and that takes no account of the opinion of an individual member of the crowd. Adding a final touch to the collection of definitions for the group mind, Solomon Arch’s essay on opinions and social pressure helps define a group mind by discussing the impacts that the choices of a group mind have on an individual (Arch).

In fact, the phenomenon of group mind can also be interpreted from a different position. There is actually a definition of the group mind phenomenon that does not involve the presence of a person who is supposed to control and channel the group mind into performing a certain action, accepting certain types of behavior, etc., in contrast to the theories above.

Aliva has analyzed in great detail the works of Freud, Le Bon and McDougal, the man who actually coined the term “group mind,” to come to a conclusion that a group mind is an intersection of every single individual mind of a specific group. Aliva claims that “individuals’ minds are like affluent rivers feeding the common ocean of the group mind” (Aliva, 2010, 262). Hence, a group mind does not necessarily need a controlling agent – unless it has one, it creates one by itself.

We will write a custom Essay on Exploring the Specifics of a Group Mind: Into the Depth of the Philosophy of the Crowd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Summarizing the ideas that the authors of the five readings discussed above are trying to convey, one can conclude that a group mind is a phenomenon that occurs within a group of people and presupposes that they are going to make similar decisions – or, in case of a group decision, forcing the rest of the members to follow the crowd, – exercise similar behavioral patterns and develop similar attitudes.

Group thinking means that none of the group members considers the personal opinion of another member; moreover, it presupposes that the members do not have their personal judgments. Instead, they choose the easiest or the acceptable manner of conduct and are very easy to control.

Despite the fact that the phenomenon of group thinking is rather widespread, it is very hard to nail down the essence of group thinking. According to the results of the discussion above group thinking can be defined as the decision-making process that is carried out within a group and that presupposes that each member of the group follows the rest of the crowd blindly.

Therefore, a group mind is an intrinsically scary phenomenon that cannot be controlled and, therefore, can lead to the most deplorable results, which the works above display in the most graphic way.

Works Cited Aliva, L. A. (2010). Psychosomatic symptoms and the “group mind.” Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 83, 255–271.

Asch, Solomon. Opinions and Social Pressure. 1955. Web. .

Lessing, Doris. Group Minds. 1989. PDF file. Web. .

McEwan, Ian. From Atonement. n. d. PDF file. 745-750. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Exploring the Specifics of a Group Mind: Into the Depth of the Philosophy of the Crowd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Zimbargo, Philip. The Stamford Prison Experiment. n. d. PDF file. 732-743. Print.

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Discussing Production and Offshoring Essay best college essay help

Business must be one of the most fast-changing spheres; what used to be the key principle of running a business might prove completely inefficient in several years, and the recent innovations date within a millisecond. Taking a closer look at such parts of business process as production and offshoring will help understand what has changed over the past few years and what new tendencies have appeared.

Before going any further, one must define the key terms offered in the UNCTAD report. The first issue to deal with will be core business. According to the UNCTAD report, a core business is a set of activities that involve such stages as establishing a more effective internal division of labour, freeing scarce resources to be used in other segments of its value chain (Non-equity modes of international production and development, 2011, 125).

Interpreting the given definition, one can assume that core business is the kind of business that focuses on the key issues, i.e., labor, resources and losses/benefits that the owner of the business can possibly take on the way to conquering the existing market and attracting target customers. Moreover, the concept of a value chain should also be integrated into the given definition; therefore, promotion should be included in the basic set of activities.

Another important issue to be defined is global value chains. According to the definition provided by the UNCTAD report, global value chains are the mechanisms that offer an opportunity to “increasingly control and coordinate the operations of independent or, rather, loosely dependent partner firms, through various mechanisms” (Non-equity modes of international production and development, 2011, 124).

Therefore, it can be concluded that global value chains are the methods that allow to promote a certain facility or product not only within the boundaries of a specific country, but also in other states (Van Dijk

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The Sequences in the Films “Red Sorghum” and “The Road Home” Essay college essay help: college essay help

The sequences in question (taken from Red Sorghum and The Road Home) reveal the moment when two men meet two women. The sequences show the moment when certain feelings are born. Exchanging glances is central to the sequences. It is necessary to note that the sequences under analysis are characterized by different settings and quite different cinematographic tools used. The differences as well as similarities are justified by the ideas the film director, Zhang, wants to convey.

Thus, Zhang conveys the idea of tension and passion in sequence A (Red Sorghum) and he reveals first pure affection in sequence B (The Road Home). Since the two types of relationships between the man and the woman are so different and quite similar at the same time, the film director uses a variety of tools (camera movement, color, sound, facial expressions) to unwrap the very nature of these relationships.

Admittedly, relationship between a woman and a man start with exchanging glances which show certain interest. In both sequences, the protagonists unveil their interest. There is a specific eye contact which can be regarded as a start of the relationship. More so, the protagonists seem to be talking without using words.

Their eyes say more than words could tell. The use of the “dialogue-free exposition” helps to reveal the protagonists’ feelings (Pramaggiore

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History of Texas and Its Accession to the USA Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Territory expansion

Cultural differences

Slavery

The revolution

Conclusion

The Texas revolution took place in the 19th century. The revolution led to the battle of San Jacinto and since them many reasons for the war have been discussed. Some blame the loss of Texas from Mexico on the Anglo Americans.

The Anglo Americans are blamed for taking over Texas through any means necessary. On the contrary, some blame Mexico for losing part of its territory on its dictatorial rule that led to the revolution and eventual annex of Texas. This paper will discuss some of the reasons and heroes associated with the Texas revolution.

Territory expansion Many reasons led to the Texas revolution. First, the United States had been expanding its territory plan and a number of Americans crossed over to Texas. Texas bordered Louisiana, and its land was fertile and desirable to the Americans. Texas was home to about four thousand Tejanos- people of Spanish heritage- and Pueblo and Plains Native Americans.

The Spanish settlers encouraged more settlers to come to defend Texas against the Native Americans and people from America. Thus, to attract people the Spanish government offered land for sale in Texas and Moses Austin took that opportunity to ask for permission to start a colony. He got the permission on condition the settlers followed Spanish laws.

Cultural differences However, after Mexico gained its independence, he had to renegotiate the terms of his colony under the Mexican government. The settlers had to become Mexican citizens, and follow the Roman Catholic Church. He attracted many settlers, but they did not live harmoniously with their neighbors.

They had great cultural differences, and the Americans resisted learning Spanish and preferred to use English. They also rejected the Mexican laws. Tension among the people living in Texas started to build up as the different cultures prevailed. The mistrust among the American settlers and the Tejanos escalated and took a racial turn as the different communities thought the other considered themselves superior.

Slavery The other reason that led to the revolution was slavery. The Anglo Americans had slaves back in the United States, and brought them to Texas. Later, Mexico started measures to abolish slavery, and the Americans did not like the new laws. They had many slaves working in their lands, and could not afford to lose their source of labor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They started to wish for freedom from Mexico to continue practicing slavery without restrictions. Owning slaves was very important to them and the thought of losing the laborers was very emotive, and led to a buildup of tension that contributed to the Texas revolution.

The revolution Consequently, the Mexican government moved in to curtail the tensions and introduced taxes to the Texan people. The new requirement to pay taxes led to angry protests, and Austin took recommendations to the Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to allow Texas to govern itself. He was loyal to the government, but a letter saying if the government rejected the recommendations he would break away was intercepted, and he was jailed for rebellion.

Moreover, Santa Anna increased his troops, and Sam Houston took charge of the Texas army to fight for their freedom. The number was small and James Fannin led four hundred and twenty men. William Travis led a hundred and eighty three men. Travis passed a message to all Americans and told them there would be no surrender or retreat. However, the Texan troops lost the war at Alamo. Later on Houston led his men to the San Jacinto war and they defeated Santa Anna’s men, and he had to sign a treaty that gave freedom to Texas.

Conclusion After Texas become independent, it was called the Lone Star republic led by Sam Houston. The Anglo Americans living in Texas, had strong ties to the United States, and they still considered themselves as Americans. They wanted to become part of the United States, and eventually Texas was annexed to the Union.

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Clean Energy Technologies Essay college essay help near me

According to Ryley and Chapman (2012), climate change refers to the long-term variation in weather patterns that has the possibility of lasting up to one million years.

Climate change can occur across different areas on the planet, or may be felt only in specific regions. It is worth to mention that climate change can also be caused by persistent anthropogenic variations in the atmosphere. Zycher (2011) notes that clean energy technology refers to the end-use or energy supply technology that has the ability to generate lower levels of green house gases or pollutants in a given lifecycle.

The amount of liquid or solid toxic wastes generated by a clean technology should also be minimal. This paper explains the influence of climate change on the demand and development of clean energy technologies and how clean energy technology is likely to impact the current global economic situation. In addition, the essay discusses the US position in the development of clean energy and the impact of this technology on the US economy.

The historical record of climate change reveals that climate undergoes natural variations that largely depend on the time scale. Moreover, it is vital to note that factors such as volcanic eruptions, changes in solar radiation as well as the massive industrial revolution of the modern age have been identified as major elements that worsen climate change.

The current climate changes being experienced in different parts of the world cannot be understood well by relying only on the natural causes. These researchers believe that warming can be understood well by exploring the various human activities. There is a high likelihood of attaining either success or failure in all the operations that entail the management and control of climate change menace.

For instance, the process of statistical analysis of data obtained from a scientific process may significantly determine the success rate of the end result since there are myriads of limitations that can be encountered. However, the introduction of climate change science has facilitated the creation of an interdisciplinary approach that can be used to gain a better understanding of the environment (Cahill

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McDonald’s Company Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

History of the Company

Goods, Services and Operations Management at McDonald’s

McDonald’s Value Chains Management

Measuring Operational Performance at McDonald’s

Operation Strategy of McDonald’s

McDonald’s Forecasting and Demand Planning Style

Inventory Management at McDonald’s

References

Introduction The McDonald’s Company is the globe’s largest restaurant chain specializing in serving hamburgers among other fast foods. The chain of restaurants serves about 68 million consumers every day across the 119 countries with McDonald’s’ outlets. The McDonald’s Corporation has its headquarters in the USA (McDonald’s, 2013a). The company was started in 1940, originally as a barbecue center operated by Maurice and Richard McDonald.

During 1948, the proprietors reorganized the business, changing the restaurant into a hamburger. In 1955, businessperson Ray Kroc joined the business as a Franchising agent. Later, Kroc took over the business from the McDonald’s brothers and then expanded the business to a multinational enterprise (McDonald’s, 2013a). A restaurant under the name of McDonald’s is ran by the company. This can also be run as an associate outlet or a chartered outlet.

History of the Company The McDonald Company started in 1940. Initially, it was operated by the McDonald brothers. The initial business was based in San Bernardino, California. The restaurant was the first to introduce the speedee service model during 1948, later leading to the contemporary fast-food place (McDonald’s, 2013a). The McDonald’s symbol was first used in 1961.

However, it was adjusted towards the end of 2009. During 1961, the company registered the logo of an overlapping M symbol (McDonald’s, 2013b). In 1962, the double M symbol was changed for a single arched M. The single M symbol was not used until it was trademarked in 1968 (McDonald’s, 2013b).

The present McDonald’s was born from the opening of the McDonald’s franchised restaurant in Des Plaines by Ray Kroc. Later, Kroc acquired the business from the McDonald’s. The San Bernardino outlet was destroyed in the 1970s before being sold. Since the start of its international expansion, McDonald’s has been viewed as a model of globalization and a mark of the American lifestyle (McDonald’s, 2013b).

Goods, Services and Operations Management at McDonald’s Operations management at McDonald’s is the key method employed during the conversion of inputs like information, materials and labor into outputs like goods, services and value-added products. The operations management of McDonald’s includes the practices of capacity planning, forecasting, managing inventory, scheduling, motivating employees, assuring the quality, and control of activity.

Through the practices covered under operations management, the company improves the areas of product development, quality improvement and responding to change sin demand, among other functions that affect operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through operations management, the company develops models of employing the most efficient use of the company’s resources towards the delivery of the finished food services required by their customers. Operations management also ensures that the company provides services and the products developed by the company in a cost-effective manner and at the right time.

Product planning and management are some of the main practices in goods and services planning. Product management entails the development of new product lines, which helps shape the future of the McDonald’s Company through increasing their reputation, market coverage, and the revenues obtained. In the case of the McDonald’s, the addition of new product forms a major component of the future-looking strategies.

The efforts of offering new products help direct the business of the company towards areas that satisfy the needs and wants of the company to a higher level. An example of these moves includes the account of Gasparro and Jargon (2012), which discusses the McDonald’s company planned to launch vegetarian-only outlets during 2013.

The shift in product and services management towards offering foods that are more health-friendly has resulted from the constant pressure to consume healthy food, among the modern-time consumer (Ashbridge, 2007).

McDonald’s Value Chains Management The value chain of McDonald’s comprises of a number of aspects including the firm’s infrastructure, the human resource base, the technology employed by the company and the procurement process.

The inbound logistics of the company include the sourcing of raw materials and other fresh supplies like vegetables from pre-defined suppliers. As a result, the suppliers continue increasing their labor and capital needs as their production continues to increase from time to time (McDonald’s, 2013c). The McDonald’s does a vertical, backward integration as an effort to reduce its suppliers.

This is aimed at cost reduction and ensuring that they offer high quality products. Some of the products in question include milk and beef, which they source from the company’s farm. The McDonald’s checks the operational standards of their overseas suppliers in New Zealand and Australia by ensuring that they comply with the standards set for American supplier plants. The standards include food safety, animal welfare and testing.

We will write a custom Essay on McDonald’s Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The practices ensure that the consumer of the end product gets a high quality product. The McDonald’s Company operates many of its restaurants centrally, where central management system checks whether the different restaurants are stocked with all that customers may need including wrappers, food supplies and cups (McDonald’s, 2013c). The effort improves the efficiency of the supply chain of the company in different areas like buying policies, capacity and technology deployment.

The McDonald’s ensures that value is delivered at its different operational outlets, whether suppliers, employees or franchises. They do that by setting standards of cleanliness, product quality, and the superiority of service, waste management, energy conservation and sustainable packaging. The company employs all efforts to invest in green operations, regardless of investing in contemporary technological models (McDonald’s, 2013c).

Measuring Operational Performance at McDonald’s The operational performance of McDonald’s is evaluated on a number of standards. These include the company’s performance in the supply chain, the satisfaction of customers, and the company’s progress towards strategic goals.

Other areas where the performance of the company is perceived include the gauging of operational and performance operational performance in the different areas of business. The other indicator used to show the performance of the company is the financial level of the company following their management structure (GAPbuster, 2009).

The supply chain standards used to gauge the performance of the company include the responsiveness of the company to the needs of its customers. The indicators of good performance for the company in this area include stock out probability, lead time, and the fill rate of the different outlets. For instance, in the case that an outlet is not able to supply the products and services required by the customers for a given day, it marks a negative indicator regarding the performance of the outlet and the central management model (GAPbuster, 2009).

An example is the gauging of product quality at McDonald’s, where emphasis is placed on the performance directly related to the company’s strategic goals. For instance, the reduction in the system resources of the company is likely to affect the supply chain management of the company negatively. Among the areas that mark the competitiveness of the company is the introduction of innovative products, including health foods, service reliability, continual product supplies and flexibility in service delivery (Ashbridge, 2007).

Another area that marks the competitiveness of the company is the measure of customer satisfaction. The customer relations managers of the company are tasked with the role of collecting customer satisfaction information so as to employ corrective strategies for service improvement.

The evaluation of customer satisfaction is done during the time of service, and talking to the customer during service delivery. The company also collects customer satisfaction information through letters or faxes from customers that had visited their outlets; talking to loyal customers for their feedback in order to identify complaints and possible problems (GAPbuster, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on McDonald’s Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Operation Strategy of McDonald’s The business structure of McDonald’s is founded upon geographic placement: the company has divided their market into five operational centers. The centers include US, Asia/Pacific and Middle East, Canada, Latin America, and Europe.

However, the major business area for the company is the US where they cultivate control while at the same time expanding to reach other markets (Mourdoukoutas, 2012). As a result, the company’s strategy is characterized by retaining its prominent role in the US market, as well as other global markets. The company has also realized that different groups in the newer markets, as well as the US market, have varied requirements and tastes.

As a result, they have adopted the operational strategy of product differentiation by target consumer groups as well as including varieties of products and services to meet the needs of different groups. An example is the case of India, where the McDonald’s is starting vegetarian-only outlets, compared to their traditional offering in the US and other areas (Gasparro and Jargon, 2012; Ashbridge, 2007).

Through the strategy, the company has realized the customer needs satisfaction as well as local development. The strategy of the company is also characterized by price differentiation, on the basis of the area of operation and products delivered by the company. The strategy of McDonald’s is also characterized by quality service, fast service, delivery of similar value at the different markets and cleanliness (Mourdoukoutas, 2012).

McDonald’s Forecasting and Demand Planning Style BBC (2012) reported that McDonald’s, the second biggest food seller has shifted to opening vegetarian outlets. The company is renowned for its control and major stake in the fast food industry, but it is adopting drastic changes so as to meet the changing demands of customers.

The changes are also adopted, as a way of ensuring that the needs of emerging markets are met (BBC, 2012). According to the reports, the major market where the company is investing in vegetarian outlets is India and Muslim countries, where meat-free dishes are preferred.

For instance, at the Indian market, it is believed that cows are sacred, which makes the target population a non-meat consuming group (BBC, 2012). On the other hand, in Muslim countries, pork is believed to be unclean, which results in the presence of meat-free diets. In forecasting the needs of the Hindu consumers at India, McDonald’s plans to open vegetarian restaurants during the mid of 2013. The outlet will be located next to the Golden Temple.

This is found in Amritsar City, Northern India. From the demand style planning of the company, the company was optimistic about capturing the wide vegetarian market. The spokesperson reported that, during 2012, the company operated only 271 restaurants, which marks a very small coverage (BBC, 2012).

The company plans to take advantage of the visits taken to the Hindu pilgrimage center at Kashmir, where they plan to open a vegetarian outlet. From the evaluation of the forecasting and the demand planning of the company, it is clear that McDonald’s plans their business in response to variations in customer needs. The strategy has been very successful for the company as it has allowed its entry into the Indian market successfully.

Inventory Management at McDonald’s Inventory management is a critical aspect of the company’s operations. Inventory management is the chain of practices that control the flow of the stocks required to control the company.

The McDonald’s Company employs the first-in-first-out rule in controlling its inventory (Rungfapaisarn, 2011). This method is effective for the company as it handles fragile items, which requires the company to handle or change the available inventory once or twice within any given week, depending on the area of collection and the business of the outlet.

Additionally, the company has invested in storage facilities, including refrigeration storage, where the inventory managers of the company, so as to ensure that the food items held as inventory are kept fresh. The company has adopted a just in time (JIT) system, which entails the supplying of products, immediately they are ordered. For instance, after visiting a McDonald’s outlet, it is then that the staffs begin assembling and preheating their products (Rungfapaisarn, 2011).

The inventory model is critical in offering high quality products and delivering better customer service. Based on the JIT inventory model of the company, the company can hold the costs required to purchase products like beef, cheese, bread, and chicken, due to their highly perishable nature. Further, the money held by the company is available for current usage, which allows the company better liquidity at all times. Also, the model allows the company to source for better raw materials, at the time of need (Rungfapaisarn, 2011).

References Ashbridge, I. (2007). McDonald’s milk goes organic. Web.

BBC. (2012). McDonald’s opens vegetarian-only restaurant. Web.

GAPbuster. (2009). Mcdonald’s Training Manual 2010: McDonald’s Company. Web.

Gasparro, A., and Jargon, J. (2012). McDonald’s to Go Vegetarian in India. Web.

McDonald’s. (2013a). Getting to Know Us. Web.

McDonald’s. (2013b). McDonald’s History: Travel Through Time With Us! Web.

McDonald’s. (2013c). Sustainability Supply Chain: Focusing on the 3E’s: Ethics, Environment and Economics. Web.

Mourdoukoutas, P. (2012). McDonald’s Winning Strategy, At Home And Abroad. Web.

Rungfapaisarn, K. (2011). McDonald’s introduces new inventory/menu management. Web.

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New Technology for Energy Saving and Better Use of Energy in Air Conditioning Systems Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Centralized air conditioning systems

Decentralized air conditioning systems

The refrigeration cycle

Water-cooled chillers

Air-cooled chillers

Precautions working with air conditioning systems

Conclusion

Introduction Environmental protection and sustainable development calls for energy conservation in all operations of the hospitality industry. Poor productivity in the industry can be attributed to working conditions in the hot environment due to heat generated by mechanical equipment.

This has necessitated the need for a cooling system that is convenient. The invention of the cooling system was by Willis Havilland Carrier in 1902 and before that, man had used fans for cooling. The advent of this technology of cooling led to the invention of refrigerators and freezing equipment that operate on the same principle.

Any cooling system must incorporate airflow and cause changes in the temperature of the surrounding environment. Most cooling systems use a refrigerant gas that blows over a pipe that has cold water. In the actual sense, a cooling system has conditioned air and is not air conditioned as most people think. This is so because the air in the system is conditioned to ensure human comfort.

Reduction of energy use in the hospitality industry saves money, enhances corporate reputation and helps in the fight against climate change – one of the emerging global challenges.

Energy conservation became an issue of concern since the energy crisis in the 1970s. This issue greatly shaped the policies of every country. Most of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air conditioning) in the hospitality premises need to be operated for 24 hours a day and the systems must be as efficient as other systems. Such systems include an office operated at only the office hours.

In the hospitality industry, businesses should ensure that fresh air is circulated within the premises in order to ensure comfort of the clients. Apart from being an advantage in that it promotes customer satisfaction, it is also a legal requirement. This is according to the health and safety regulations.

Energy is required to heat or cool an indoor environment. Therefore, efficient ventilation systems are required to save energy. Furthermore, open windows and spaces within the building might contribute to loss of energy. Therefore, more air should be brought in order to ensure a cool environment while at the same time saving on energy. Buildings should employ methods that would help reduce air loss in order to reduce on costs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order for hotels to minimize costs, they adopt the use of water-cooled chillers to replace the original air-cooled ones. The optimization of air supply temperatures and the recovery of energy from the condenser tanks is an approach to energy efficiency in hotels. A decrease in pressure in the units implies an increase in the thermal efficiency. The cooling coils can then operate efficiently.

Centralized air conditioning systems This is also referred to as the traditional air conditioning system. This system requires high energy and space. There is production of cold air in a central position and then the air is ducted to the various rooms in the building. The distribution to the individual rooms makes it possible for local temperature control to operate as the local system shuts down.

The advantages of this type of system are energy efficiency due to the conditioning by the air outside, heat recovery at the lowest possible cost and full conditioning at the lowest possible cost. There is allowance of alternative air conditioning options in this system.

This system has lower efficiencies that are associated with the fan motors making the system expensive and complicated. However, heat recovery is possible if the heat recovery uses the plate type heat exchangers (heaters or coolers). The regenerators in the system should have rotary mass storage heaters or coolers. There are high costs in this type of air conditioning as a result of the high airflow and the long distribution system requiring high energy for transportation.

Decentralized air conditioning systems This is also called the partial air conditioning system and it offers a solution to both heating and cooling in buildings. The system allows for a high flexibility degree and individual control, differing from the centralized system. The advantage of this system includes the easy distribution of the cooling capacity. There is individual room temperature and the volume of air flowing can easily be adjustment. This system is less costly in structural costs as compared to the centralized system.

The challenge in this system is the air balance due to the wind pressure at the façade of the building. This leads to changes in pressure between the inside and the outside air. Subsequently, this causes fan operation-point changes. This calls for proper engineering to correct the problem in the decentralized system. Heat recovery is possible but only in restricted applications.

When the decentralized systems are fitted with pre-heaters, they require the least amount of time and energy. However, it should be noted that heat recovery is not a solution to energy conservation but it may result in higher demands. In this case, a suitable control system is required to solve it. Some of the decentralized units require package terminal air conditioning (PTAC). They are fitted in a sleeve on a wall and the device can be removed and replaced but the sleeve on the wall is permanent.

We will write a custom Essay on New Technology for Energy Saving and Better Use of Energy in Air Conditioning Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They have a heating and cooling system. They can be a split system where the evaporator is located inside the building and the compressor is placed outdoors. Heat in the refrigerant is transferred to the outside by the condenser, which is normally placed outdoors in most of the commercial buildings such as hotels and offices. The placement of the condenser outside the building increases the energy efficiency of the air conditioning system.

The refrigeration cycle According to the Boyle’s law, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure upon it at constant temperature. This has lead to two principles on which the refrigerator operates. On heating, liquids change to gases and gases, on the other hand, give off heat when changed from gases to liquids.

Efficiency in the cooling system is attainable if a refrigerant is used. The air compression follows through certain processes that form a cycle commonly referred to as the vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The processes include compression, condensation, expansion and evaporation. These occur in a close circuit.

The refrigerant works in such a way as to displace heat from certain areas into other areas. When it comes into the compressor, it is usually in low pressure. However, it is compressed in the compressor and released at high pressure. From this point, the gas moves to the condenser. This is whereby the gas is condensed into liquid form. Since this process requires energy, heat is given off into the surrounding environment. This fluid then flows into the expansion valve.

This is done under high pressure. However, the valve blocks the liquid from flowing back. It also lowers the pressure as the liquid flows out. This fluid flows into the evaporator. Here, it is converted into gas as the heat is absorbed. The refrigerant then moves in form of a gas. At this stage, it is hot and at low pressure. Finally, the refrigerant moves back into the compressor. The cycle then repeats itself.

Water-cooled chillers Water-cooled chillers are devices for removing heat from a liquid through vapor compression. The chilled water is distributed to heat exchangers or coils. There is then the redistribution of water back to the chiller to be cooled again. This process facilitates the transfer of heat from the air to the cold water.

As the surrounding air is cooled, it becomes dehumidified. These chillers may come in two forms. One of them is the closed loop system. This is whereby it is contained in a single unit. It may also be a spit system. This is whereby the components are located in different areas.

The chillers that are cooled using water incorporate the use of cooling towers. This helps improve the thermodynamic efficiency. However, this is not the case for the air-cooled chillers. Therefore, they are appropriate for indoor installation and operation. They have a separate condenser for the purpose of cooling. It is usually connected to the outside cooling towers in order to transfer heat to the atmosphere.

Not sure if you can write a paper on New Technology for Energy Saving and Better Use of Energy in Air Conditioning Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cooling load that a given hotel requires may be affected by the occupancy level and this calls for a need for an automatic control system. The flow of chilled water in the chiller must be controlled. In the past, this new technology was not available. Therefore, this was done using valves.

Today, the chillers have frequency inverters that reduce the pump energy. They also ensure precise control of the rate of flow of water. The chillers usually have a large refrigerant capacity. Their efficiency also makes them appropriate for large applications. They are mainly used in commercial complexes in the hospitality industry since these buildings need huge air conditioning systems.

The control system: One of the systems used for ensuring efficiency in energy use is the programmable Logic Controller (PLC). It collects signals from the temperature, pressure and flow-rate sensors. Therefore, they control the operation of the chillers and pumps. In the hospitality setting, temperature sensors are situated outside the hotel building.

Pumps: Technology has made it possible for new pumps in most of the HVAC systems to be fitted with frequency inverters in order to cater for large variation in the cooling load. It also ensures that the flow rate of the chilled water is adjusted continuously. The frequency inverters ensure a constant pressure at the highest point with optimal efficiency.

Capacity and temperature: Energy efficiency is maximized in the chillers by having a small cooling capacity to ensure the chillers operate at full capacity. The temperature of the chilled water should not be too high. This would reduce the efficiency of the chillers. The temperatures of the water should be observed so as to determine its efficiency.

The control set point of the supply temperature of the cooling water should be properly set so as to avoid energy wastage through fan power. The water-cooled chillers have several advantages. One of them includes a long service life. They also have large output capacity and are highly efficient.

Air-cooled chillers Air-cooled chillers function best in outdoor operations. These chillers are cooled directly by air. Air flows and circulates in the condenser coils providing a cooling effect. They do not require cooling towers as in the water-cooled chillers. Air-cooled chillers have some advantages such as requiring a small area for installation and less maintenance. They also do not require any condenser pumps or cooling towers and they have a low installation cost.

If the water-cooled chillers and air-cooled chillers are compared, air-cooled ones function without any condenser water pumps. Therefore, they require no initial installation and maintenance costs. Since they have a low condensing temperature, this compensates for the high costs of installation. Heat transfer is more efficient on wet surfaces than dry ones and this means that the air-cooled chillers require more power than water-cooled ones.

Precautions working with air conditioning systems The systems require regular cleaning to increase their efficiency. Dirty equipment usually leads to inefficiencies, which leads to extra costs and greater risks. One must ensure that the filters are clean. This is necessary since dirty ones prevent airflow. To ensure a better flow of air, ensure the system is placed away from other objects.

Ensure other appliances in the building that may affect the functioning are placed away from the air conditioning system. For example, cloth dryers should be placed away from the air conditioning system to prevent increase in the heat demand and minimize the efficiency.

Insulation of the coil fins in the system with a masking tape is necessary to minimize the loss of heat to the surrounding environment. The coils fins must also be straightened to prevent blocking the flow of air in the air conditioning system. The coolant levels in the system must be checked to ensure that they do not fall below the required level. This is necessary to make the air conditioning system efficient. A dead band should be set. Heated and cooled air should never be passed through the system at the same time.

Another way of increasing efficiency is through recycling heat from exhausted air. This is necessary since it usually costs a lot to heat air within a building. Therefore, exhausted air should be re-circulated into the room while at the same time ensuring that the quality is not compromised. Variable Speed Drives (VSDs) are also important. They reduce the speed of the equipment in order to correspond to the needs at a particular time. Reduced speeds imply saved energy and reduced costs.

Conclusion The complexities of most hospitality buildings require a flexible room layout and an effective thermal mass storage. The building materials used (such as glass) increase the solar gains and thermal load and this is further increased by the technology inside the building. Critical comfort requirements of air quality and room temperature are achievable if the latest air conditioning technology is put in place.

There is a need for cost reduction due to the escalating energy prices or government controls to limit primary energy consumption in a country. Energy saving potential from heating and cooling recuperation is a possibility in the hospitality business. Heat recovery is a possibility and this implies saved energy and lower energy costs.

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New School Program in Seattle Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The USA has been an example of a democratic society where people have equal rights and opportunities. However, the US equality has often been questioned. Admittedly, there can be no equality in a segregated society. The Civil Rights Movement is regarded as a successful campaign.

Though, segregation is still in many areas (or rather most areas) in the USA. Rosenthal and Mayo (2012) claim that a new Seattle school plan contributes to the increase in segregated areas in the city and its suburbs. Clearly, such racial groups as African Americans will not be able to pay for buses to attend schools in better areas (noteworthy, these schools are also considered to be better than those in poorer areas).

These children will have fewer educational opportunities and this will inevitably lead to fewer job opportunities for them in future. Therefore, it is possible to note that the new school plan can negatively affect development of the city as it will contribute to development of a highly segregated society.

To consider the impact of the new school program, it is necessary to take a closer look at such theoretical perspective as urban ecology. This theoretical perspective helps better understand the processes and trends existing in the city (Crowder, n.d., p. 3). According to this perspective, some social groups tend to dominate certain areas. Historically, more well-to-do areas have been dominated by the white population, while poorer areas have been populated by African Americans.

In this respect, it is obvious that it is vital for African American young population to have an opportunity to leave the poorer neighborhoods. Young African Americans can go to better schools in other areas so that they have more educational opportunities in future. Admittedly, schools in more prosperous neighborhoods tend to provide better educational services and students of these schools often enter colleges and/or universities, and this, in its turn, helps them get better jobs.

Nonetheless, the new program deprives children and young people from poorer neighborhoods of such educational opportunities (Rosenthal

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Ludwig Van Beethoven Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ludwig van Beethoven’s early life

How Beethoven established his career

Beethoven’s Character

Beethoven’s Music

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Music refers to the arrangement of sounds in an artistic manner within a certain period. The music industry grew from monophonic in the Middle Ages to polyphonic common during the 9th century. It then developed to homophonic before developing to classical music in 18th century and eventually to romantic music in 19th century.

The 21st century music involved random noise and electronic sounds. Consequently, music composers have come up with their various compositions. Lonel power, Walter Frye, Henry Purcell, Mauro Giuliani, and Ludwig van Beethoven are amongst the famous artists of the world. With this highlight of the music industry and various composers, the paper provides a detailed research of Beethoven with the sole goal of showing how he established his career as a musician. However, the paper begins by a brief highlight of his early life

Ludwig van Beethoven’s early life Beethoven was born in a family that had music orientations. Beethoven’s grandfather Lodewijk Beethoven was a famous classical music artist. According to Cooper, Lodewijk was a musician who was employed at Elector of Cologne as a singer (407). In fact, Beethoven’s grandfather had grown in music ranks to become a music director.

Ludwig van Beethoven was born in a place called Bonn. His father Johann also worked at elector of Cologne court as a musician in the tenor divide. Cooper asserts that Johann was also a music teacher. Johann taught how to operate the piano and violin.

Beethoven’s mother was Magdalena Keverich. The actual date of Beethoven’s date of birth is not known. However, there exist records that Beethoven was baptized on December 17, 1770. This information can be used to trace his date of birth to 16 December 1770 since children were baptized at the age of one day in that era. His biological father who was a musician initially taught Beethoven music.

However, he was a harsh teacher. In most instances, he forced his son Beethoven to learn music in tears. Other music teachers that made Beethoven a lead musician included Gilles, Tobias, and Rovantini. Beethoven had a music talent that was realized at a very tender age. His father Johann wanted to make Beethoven a leading example of gifted musicians in the country. He even went on to lie about the age of his son when he made his first public appearance. Beethoven made his first music performance at the age of seven.

According to Thayer et al, Beethoven began his music classes in 1779 in Bonn (67). His teacher at that time was Gottlob Neefe. Thayer et al. say that Gottlob was very influential to the music life of Beethoven (14). Gottlob taught Beethoven how to write and compose music. Thayer et al. posit that Gottlob helped Beethoven in writing his first music publication (56). Beethoven began working for the Electors court together with Neefe who was the deputy organist. Initially, Beethoven worked as an unpaid pianist in 1781.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was later employed in 1784. Beethoven made his first sonatas publications for Fredrick Maximilian who was the Elector in 1708. This Elector realized that Beethoven was talented in music at his early age. Thayer et al. affirm that Maximilian encouraged Beethoven to better his music talent and studies (32).

When leadership changed hands from Fredrick to Franz, various changes in the field of arts and education were witnessed. As a teenager, Beethoven was highly influenced by these dynamics. Since Neefe (his teacher) was a member of Illuminati, Beethoven also became a member.

According to Cooper, Neefe and other people that were close to Beethoven were members of order of Illuminati (15). He therefore became a role player in the freemasonry. After the death of his mother, Beethoven’s father became a deep alcoholic thus leaving Beethoven with the role of providing for his younger siblings.

In fact, Thayer et al. confirm that it was due to his father’s drunkenness that Beethoven went to court and obtained a court order to receive half of his father’s salary in order to enable him provide for his family (57). During this period, Beethoven worked in the Court and made friends with influential people. One of such friends was one of his financiers Ferdinand Waldstein (Thayer et al. 105).

How Beethoven established his career Beethoven’s music career began at a tender age of seven years when he did his first public performance. According to Cooper, Beethoven became an ally to Joseph Haydn when he stopped at Bonn in 1790 on his way to London (35). Due to this friendship, Beethoven got a scholarship to study in Vienna.

In 1792, Beethoven went to Vienna. Unfortunately, his father passed on at around the same time. While in Vienna, he was financed by Prince Joseph, Prince Karl, and Swieten (Cooper 53) to sharpen his music talent. In Vienna, Beethoven became famous for his ability to improvise music. It was also in Vienna that he studied how to play violin professionally under the instruction of Salieri. He leant Italian music and its composition.

By 1793, Beethoven had established his career as an expert in playing piano: a piano virtuoso. In fact, Cooper argues that, due to this expertise in playing piano, his publications of 1795 had a great effect (53). In 1795, Beethoven did his first public performance in Vienna. From this point, performances by Beethoven earned him a lot of profit. His first composition was dedicated to his Vienna patron Lichnowsky (the prince).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ludwig Van Beethoven specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Between 1796 and 1800, Beethoven was able to compose six quartets that he published in the year 1801. At this point, people rated Beethoven as the third king of music after Mozat and Haydn due to his powerful composition. According to Cooper, Beethoven’s music became prominent due to its character, emotional depth, originality, level of ingenuity, and manipulation of tone (82). During this period, he composed the Septet that has been very popular in the world.

Although this composition was very popular during his lifetime, some critics observed that Beethoven disregarded the soloist hence making it unprofessional. Beethoven’s music has also been criticized of being more like the music composition of Mozart. His music career got another promotion in 1800 because of his overwhelming demand. This demand was especially coming from music publishers and patrons (Cooper 97).

At the height of his career, Beethoven taught a good number of famous students of music. For example, he taught Anna (a daughter to the countess of Hungary). He also taught Ferdinand Ries who later became a famous composer and writer. It is believed that the song “immortal beloved” that Beethoven did in 1812 was dedicated to Josephine after another man married her. However, in 1796, Beethoven began having a problem with his hearing ability.

This issue resulted from severe tinnitus that made him hard of hearing. After his hearing loss became profound, he stopped public performances. This situation happened when he failed to perform a piano concerto in 1811. Later on in 1827, Beethoven died in his bed due to a thunderstorm. His death has been attributed to alcoholism, syphilis, sarcoidosis, and lead poisoning. In 1862, his remains were exhumed for analysis.

Beethoven’s Character Beethoven grew up as a vibrant musician with a likeable behavior. The health problem that Beethoven suffered from greatly impacted on his character. Since Beethoven experienced deafness and abdominal pains as early as in his early twenties, his character was unstable to a certain extent. At is also argued that Beethoven contemplated suicide due to these problems. According to Cooper, some of Beethoven’s allies argued that he suffered from bipolar disorder.

However, Beethoven had a strong personality that kept him moving despite his health problems. Due to his appealing character and ability to make many friends, most people moved in to help him during his final days. For several months that Beethoven was bed ridden, he garnered much support from many people who had earlier recognized him as a figure whose work was worth emulating.

The other strong character of Beethoven was respect for the authority. In fact, in most instances, Beethoven would stop his performance when he noticed that his audience was not according him full attention (Cross and Ewen 43). This stance made his audience to have great discipline, which in turn contributed significantly towards their understanding and liking of Beethoven’s music.

The other character that was so eminent in the life of Beethoven is his outstanding capacity to do planning and organization. This was evident based on his refusal to perform when he was hurriedly invited to do so. According to him, it was uncouth to do any performance that could not appeal to the eyes of his audience due to lack of proper planning and organization. Therefore, he preferred missing opportunities than having them only to displease his viewers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ludwig Van Beethoven by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Beethoven also advocated for social coexistence between people. He composed many songs that he dedicated to various persons. This strategy portrayed his passion for peace and love within humanity. It is also worth noting that various people sponsored Beethoven in his pursuit for music education. Beethoven also loved to learn. He went in search for more education even when he knew that he was talented in music.

Beethoven’s Music Beethoven is a famous talented composer in the classical music world. He is among the great founders of classical music. Other founding talents include Brahms and Bach. These artists are the founders of the classical music in the world. In fact, Beethoven brought in the art of education in the classical music.

He made it possible for artists and fans of the classical music to seek more knowledge in the form of theory and practical skills. Beethoven played a great role in maintaining the classical music in the lead at the turn of the 18th century. He championed the change of traditional classical music to romanticism.

This kind of classical music became more appealing to the people hence making it a preference for them especially the youth. The music that Beethoven did was unique in style because Beethoven took his time to learn in addition to being talented in music composition. He spent quite a considerable part of his life learning how to play instruments like the piano, violin, and the flute. His music became more appealing due to the use of instruments.

Beethoven was also a good pianist. In fact, he was employed in the Electors House during his early years. His dedication to music was also demonstrated by his acceptance to work in the Electors court as a pianist without being paid. This gesture gave him an opportunity to learn from his teachers.

Beethoven also made many piano sonatas. He also made short compositions of classical music. According to Cross and Ewen, Beethoven’s music ran across various genres. In fact, in almost all of them, he came out outstanding. It is also worth noting that Beethoven’s music involved the use of instruments, which he also excellently played. Beethoven wrote orchestra music, symphonies, operas, chamber music, and soloist led songs.

Conclusion In conclusion, Beethoven was a great classical music composer and an artist. Beethoven came from a family that was rooted in music. Both his father and his mother were musicians. It was out of learning from his father and the teachings of local teachers that Beethoven learnt the art of music. Other volunteers also sponsored his career. Beethoven’s appealing personality made him shine in the music industry.

He was able to make great friendship with sponsors in an attempt to manage his music life. Though he suffered from hearing loss, he was able to maintain a stable character. Beethoven played and wrote classical music. He is also credited with overseeing the change of ancient classical music to the romanticism classical music. In his music, he also added the accompaniments that made it very outstanding in comparison with the traditional classical music.

Works Cited Cooper, Barry. Beethoven. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

Cross, Milton, and David Ewen. The Milton Cross New Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and Their Music. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1953. Print.

Thayer, Wallen, Henry Krehbiel, Hermann Deiters, and Hugo Riemann. The life of Ludwig Van Beethoven vol1. London: The Beethoven Association, 1921. Print.

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Comparison of Two Sequences Essay college essay help near me

The sequences taken from the films To Live and The Road Home can present a different use of formal elements; however, one can argue that both of them eloquently portray the despair of women who has lost people extremely dear to her.

This paper is aimed at discussing and comparing the way in which different techniques are used by film-directors in effort to highlight the experiences of these characters. Close attention will be paid to such aspects as non-diegetic sounds, the movement of camera, and its distance since they help the authors to explore the feelings and emotions of people. They can be regarded as tools that evoke the empathy of a viewer. These are the main issues that should be examined in greater detail.

One of the main similarities that can be identified is the use of non-diegetic sounds that play an important part in both movies. They are supposed to intensify the visual effect of these sequences. The source of these sounds cannot be identified by the viewer and it cannot be attributed to any physical phenomenon that can be observed in the movie.

Overall, they are supposed to highlight the emotions experienced by the female characters who have to accept the idea that their beloved ones can never be returned. They have to reconcile themselves with this idea. This argument is particularly applicable to the final shots in the sequence from the movie To Live. It seems that music prompts the viewers to feel even deeper compassion for a mother whose child passed away. The music reminds that the woman comes to the grave of her son and brings dumplings.

This is one of the details that produce a strong impression on every person who watches this film. Similar approach can be observed in the film the Road Home. In this case, non-diegetic sounds are essential for demonstrating the despondency of a woman who has to be departed by the man whom she loves. Close attention should be paid to the scene when she stumbles down and understands that her chase was futile. This is one of the similarities that can be identified in these sequences.

Additionally, one should speak about the functioning of the camera, especially its distance. It is possible to choose those cases, when the directors prefer to take close and straight-on shots in order to emphasize the feeling of loss that the female characters had to overcome. This technique is particular useful when the director wants to show the facial expression of a person.

It is possible to argue that in each of these sequences both music and camera distance are supposed to show the emotional distress that the female characters try to overcome. These are the main similarities that can be identified. The film-makers apply these techniques to make the scene much more vivid.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, there are certain differences that should be taken into consideration by the viewers. One can speak about the movement of camera in these sequences. One can say that the authors prefer to move the camera in different ways. For instance, one should mention that in the movie The Road Home the director decides to rely on tracking shots that are done with the help of a camera dolly.

This technique is particularly suitable in those cases when one has to depict moving objects. It seems that this technique is quite justified because in this way the film-makers were able to illustrate the desperate effort of a girl who tries to catch up with her beloved. Moreover, the viewers can look at this character from different angles.

Furthermore, this method makes the sequence more dynamic. This is one of the main distinctions that can be identified. In contrast, the movie To Live is based on a different technique. The cameraman focuses on the woman who mourns the loss of her son. This sequence consists of rather long shots that can last for approximately ten seconds. Furthermore, the camera is almost not moved in any way.

Additionally, when a new shot is taken, the cameraman takes a sufficient amount of time to show the facial expressions of the characters and their jestures. Overall, these examples suggest that formal elements can help film-makers express very complex ideas. Additionally, one can say that by paying more attention to formal elements, viewers can gain a better understanding of these movies and the ideas that the authors attempted to express.

The movies discussed in this paper can differ dramatically in terms of plot, genre, or cinematographic techniques. Nevertheless, each of these films shows that cinematography can explore the experiences of people who have to struggle with emotional distress. The sequences which were analyzed have several similarities.

For example, one can say that music and camera distances assist the film-makers in portraying the emotions and feeling of different characters. In turn, the movement of camera is one of the differences that can be identified in these sequences.

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Ethics in Computer Hacking Essay essay help online: essay help online

According to hackers, hacking is the art of checking anomalies within a network or website or computer system for points of entry, to exploit it to the hacker’s advantage. Ethics is the moral conduct of an individual, the conscience to judge between right and wrong. Hacking by no means follows ethics; the infiltration is to the benefit of hacker and loss of users of computer system, network or website. (Erickson 1-3)

Ian Murphy was the first hacker convict. In 1981, Ian Murphy under the pseudonym Captain Zap, hacked the AT

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Police Minority Killings Essay argumentative essay help

A prejudice is a personal bias against an individual. While everybody has a freedom of expression, when a prejudice leads to a criminal activity, it becomes a legally defined as a hate crime. It is of significance to differentiate a hate crime from other criminal activities due to the fact a hate crime has a life of its own as it intends to create fear among those facing prejudice.

Hate crime is a criminal activity, with a prejudice motivation. Prejudice exists between race, class, disability and sex orientation among other forms. Hate crime operates along these conflict lines. Hate crimes are criminal offence inspired by existing (In the Shadows of The War on Terror: Persistent Police Brutality And Abuse Of People of Colour In The United States 2007).

Police brutality in the USA is historical from brutality against Native Americans slaves, black racism and recently, Muslim profiling. The racial profiling and abuse at the police force has been at the heart of killings of minorities in America. With the police force behind its officers in face of police brutality, police involved in hate crime cases face reduced sentences and mostly get their jobs back after cases brought against them (Community Relations Service U.S. Department of Justice 1999).

Hate crimes must meet some prerequisites in order to be classified as such. The first prerequisite is that the hate crime is a criminal activity, which has a legal recognition as a criminal activity. Secondly, it should have a prejudice motivation. The murder of Jonny Gammage, a Black-American, at the hands of police did satisfy these prerequisites (Levinand and McDevit 2008).

Jonny Gammage, on October 12, 1995, was driving irresponsibly leading to police pulling him over. What had been a normal arrest for driving haphazardly took a turn for the worse when he died for resisting arrest. The events on that given day, took place as follows. After Jonny came to a halt, the arresting police gave an instruction to alight the car he was driving, a Jaguar Sedan. Although resisting, he did as asked and alighted with a phone in hand.

The police had a mistaken assumption that the phone was a gun and with aggression, they pounced on him. It is at this moment that he turned violent; therefore, to arrest him, police retaliated with excessive force among them, John Voltas who was the first to hit him. After they were unable to restrain him on the pavement, Voltas along with fellow police officers continued attacking him.

This was the view of the police of the occurrence of events on the fateful day, but it is far from the truth. Jonny drove a Jaguar Sedan, by any means a reasonably expensive car. What was unexpected, was a driver of such a car slowing as they approached a police car on standby at the roadside and accelerating thereafter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was suspicious, which prompted the police officer to follow the car. Lieutenant Milton Mullholland requested back up of John Voltas. Jonny was instructed to exit the car, which he did and the items he was holding fell after being hit by a torchlight. Jonny hit the torchlight, which Voltas responded by with help of Mullholland to wrestle him to the ground. He was sat on as he was being hit by torchlight after 7 minutes he was dead (CNN 1996).

The four arresting police were all white. The court jury that participated in the acquitting charges of manslaughter by Voltas and his team was all white. Voltas eventually got back from his suspension to go back to his job. The violence meted against Jonny Gammage when it went to court in 1996, the Brentwood police force was fully behind their fellow police officers.

The police force was at trial and the evaluation of facts impartially was out of question. It was, after all, outstanding police officers who just had a slight blot in their career; which they would learn from (John Volta’s words). The African American Coalition of Justice was at hand with fellow African Americans in protesting the verdict during the trial but to no avail.

References Levinand, J.,

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Marketing: The Product and the Factors That Enhance Its Popularity. Median Income, the Associated Traits and the Relevance to the Product Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction: Skechers’ Shape Up and its Current Rates Promoting sportswear is not an easy task; even though sport has become an integral part of many people, a great chunk of the population still considers sport as something to be taken professionally. Therefore, promoting sportswear is quite a complicated task; however, with a careful marketing plan that involves the analysis of the related factors, one can possibly come up with a marketing solution for such a brand as Skechers’ Shape Up (Skechers, 2012).

Customers’ Age and the Existing Marketing Opportunities

When considering the target audience among which Shape Up is bound to enjoy the highest popularity, one should sort the potential customers according to their age. The given solution seems most reasonable, since it would be reasonable to suggest that the younger people are, the more actively they take up sports. However, according to the existing evidence, sport has recently become more popular among people over 50, which is also to be remembered for developing a marketing campaign.

Age and the Related Issues: The Appropriate Ways of Shaping up

Even though age is of great importance for making the list of possible customers, it should be also mentioned that personal characteristics also play great role in shaping people’s attitude towards sport and sportswear. When defining the best ways to promote such sportswear as Shape Up to different target audience, not only age, but also possible social and personal issues must be recognized.

Lifestyle traits and the customers’ age: it is hard to keep fit

When splitting the customers into age groups, one might consider lifestyle traits as a noteworthy issue. While some people may be inactive by the time when they reach their thirties because of their lifestyle, others, who prefer more active way of life, remain physically active till they are in their late 60ies (Finch, 1997).

Shaping up and demographics: sports and the city

Demographics is another important issue to consider. As for the chosen city, its population rates are rather low (21,177 people). Studies show that in the areas with low density of population, people are more apt to taking up sports (Arditti, 2012). Therefore, the age statistics should be related to the demographics when promoting Shade Up.

Concerning the specifics of personality

The last, but definitely not the least, personality plays a great role in people’s attitude towards sports. Unfortunately, it seems hardly possible to find a way to split the customers into groups according to their personality types. However, it is possible to adapt the future marketing strategy to suit all four personality types. For example, it will be a good idea to come up with four different legends behind the brad for four different personality types (melancholic, choleric, sanguine and phlegmatic ones).

Conclusion: There Is Still a Long Way to Go

Therefore, it is clear that, to promote Skechers’ Shape Up in the given area, it is necessary to take careful account of the customer’s age in the first place. The classification, however, should not be restricted to splitting the customers into age groups solely – it is also necessary to take account of such important factors as health state, occupation and interests. Once the Skechers learn to incorporate all these factors into their marketing strategy, Shape Up will become a highly popular and recognizable brand.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reference List Arditti, D. (2012). Dr. “Natural Causes” Patel struck off. Retrieved from http://www.voleospeed.co.uk/2012_08_01_archive.html

Finch, H. (1997). Physical activity “at our age.” Retrieved from https://www.nice.org.uk/

Skechers (2012). Shade-ups. Retrieved from https://www.skechers.com/en-us/

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Literature Analysis on “Girl” Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The narrative “Girl” is a piece written by Jamaica Kincaid concerning a mother‘s attempt to teach her daughter about a woman’s role in society. The author’s intentions are evident through her feminist activities, familial relationship as well as the structure of the narrative. This short story is a feminist critique of the contradictions and tensions inherent in womanhood development; it sets out to show how women perpetuate gender inequality.

Analysis The author –Jamaica Kincaid – is an immigrant from the West Indies who entered the United States in her teens. She had a poor relationship with her mother and despised the societal structures that caused this rift. As an only child, Kincaid enjoyed the love and attention of her mother, but this changed dramatically when three brothers came into the picture.

The mother redirected all her affections to the boys and ignored her daughter merely because she was female. It is likely that this experience affected how the author perceived gender subjugation. While the Caribbean islands were immensely patriarchal, it was the woman who was used as a tool to perpetuate oppression against her own kind (Bailey 111).

Kincaid’s choice of structure is a hint on this theme of female disempowerment by women. First, the narrative is lengthy and fluid; it appears like a monologue although the daughter responds once in a while. Kincaid wrote her piece in such a manner in order to demonstrate that it was a lecture.

Instructions are often one sided, long and do not consider the view point of the recipient. At one point, she states that “always eat your food in such a way that it won’t turn someone else’s stomach;” (Kincaid 350). In this case, the mother rants continuously without pausing or asking for her daughter’s feedback.

When the girl tries to ask a question about something, the latter immediately victimizes the girls and makes it look like she is at fault. For instance, she tells the girl how to test bread in order to ascertain that it is fine. The girl asks what to do if the seller won’t let her touch it. Her mother asks her why she would have a character that is not worthy of the seller’s trust: “you mean to say that after all you are really going to be the kind of woman the baker won’t let near the bread?” (Kincaid 351).

The author wanted to show how gender was constructed in this setting. Women were instruments of gender inequality because they did not even give a voice to one another. Patriarchal societies often prevent women from talking back to men or having an opinion. Sadly, this starts with women’s interaction with each other as seen through the condescension and ridicule of the mother in the story.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is particularly interesting that the narrative contains no real male character. The mother only refers to men in general and her husband in particular. It is likely that Jamaican Kincaid wanted to emphasize women’s role in gender inequalities within her society.

One can deduce Kincaid’s inclinations from her background as an activist. Jamaica has started a group that supports President Obama because he believes in women’s reproductive right to choose. Such leanings form a basis for her rejection of gender instructions and stereotypes about women in the narrative.

Conclusion Women in the narrative could not enjoy the freedoms that men did. Someone had to transmit these expectations to younger generations; Caribbean societies chose women as their tools. They taught young girls about subservience, passivity and domesticity. This theme is evident from the author’s work as a feminist activist and her relationship with her mother.

Works Cited Bailey, Carol. “Performance and the gendered body in Jamaica Kincaid’s “Girl” and Oonya Kempadoo’s Buxton Spice.” Meridians 10.2(2010): 106-123. Print.

Kincaid, Jamaica. “Girl.” Fiction: A pocket Anthology. Ed. R. Gwynn. NY: Pearson Education, 2011. 349-351. Print.

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Cultural differences in arranged marriages Essay college admissions essay help

Some cultures across the world have been practicing arranged marriages for several decades. Even in the modern age, some communities are still cherishing this tradition. All the successful marriages arranged by parents largely depend on the personality of the individuals who are getting married.

There are many challenges faced by couples who are forced into marriages. Divakaruni (2) is quite categorical that there are some forced marriages that work in spite of the prevailing cultural differences. The arranged marriage of Jiang is a typical example of such unions. Arranging a marriage is not a smooth process at all. Both parents have to consider quite a number of factors before choosing a lady that they want their son to marry.

Arranged marriages are often done between members of the same caste. This may be a limitation depending on the geographical location of the two parties. For instance, the Hindus and Indian communities often organize marriages for their children. Before bringing the couples together, their differences have to be harmonized. This is done by assessing the differences and similarities between the two families and confirming that the two can match each other in a lasting relationship.

The parents of the couple adequately investigate the other family. This ensures that the lady is going to be married to a reputable family and that the son is from a respected family as well. All these investigations are done in a process called arranged marriage. All the expenses of the marriage are taken care of by the parents of the couple.

The reason why arranged marriages are encouraged among the Hindus is that there is utmost respect compared to marriages arranged and planned by the couples themselves.

The elders often claim that they are not pleased with marriages embedded on love. Most women in this case are usually not worried about the men as their future husbands. They trust that the parents will choose the best match for them. Despite the differences that are likely to be witnessed, arranged marriages still work in many societies.

Most cultures in the western world allow unmarried couples to look for their own marital partners. This ensures that the couples fully understand each other and are ready to live together in lifetime bondage. It reduces the risks of divorce or misunderstandings within a marital set up.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the Indians believe that marriages based on love are bound to fail. Since the arranged marriages are between people of the same caste, cultural practices are the same. This helps in fighting any cultural differences and problems that may crop up during the marital union.

Research studies indicate that most of the arranged marriages are less likely to fail compared to love marriages. This is due to the fact that most divorce cases are often common among couples who were married based on love for each other. Before getting married in the arranged mode, the young couples have to be obedient and marry the partners that their parents have chosen for them without complaining.

The only problem that is likely to occur is in cases when the two fail to fall in love with each other. When a marriage is arranged, the couples do not know each other, neither they are familiar with their likes and dislikes. This may be one of the major causes of disagreements between such couples when they will finally be living together. However, differences may be settled by the fact that they believe that marriage is all about commitment but not love for each other. Feelings towards their partners develop as life progresses.

The latter is the key ingredient towards their survival. The partners have a reason to hold on to the marriage and stay together. Another challenge posed by arranged marriages is the aspect of dependency. When the marriage partners have been sought by the parents on behalf of the partners, they are more unlikely to make decisions on their own.

The couples do not trust in their abilities. As a result, they may regularly go back to their parents to seek advice even in regards to less complicated matters. If problems and disagreements between the couple arise, they put the blame on their parents for choosing bad partners for them. It is not surprising for a couple to stay together in a marriage where emotions towards the other fail to grow because love and feelings take the second position in this kind of marriage.

When parents arrange a marriage for their children, chances of interfering with the relationship are high. When problems in the arranged marriages occur and the couples notify their parents, the parents solve the problems in the absence of the couple. This might bring additional challenges to the relationship (Allerndorf and Dirgha 6).

According to Xiaohe and King (2), cultural differences are inevitable. However, arranged marriages have their benefits. The parents of the couples get a partner from a family that is financially well off. This provides financial security since wealth and property are in abundance in the family.

We will write a custom Essay on Cultural differences in arranged marriages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arranged marriages also help in keeping culture alive. Mrs. Pritchett is one of the characters who is not happy at all with her arranged marriage. She complains that her husband has completely failed to demonstrate any love in their union (Divakaruni 3). Their marriage is indeed troubled.

When couples from the same cultural and religious backgrounds marry each other, they extend the same cultural and religious values to their families. Most of the young women who are married through the arranged marriages are in most cases considered to be sexually pure since culture insists on the importance of abstinence and preserving personal respect for their future husbands. This offers a viable solution to problems that are usually brought about by relationships prior to marriage.

Works Cited Allerndorf, Keera and Ghimire Dirgha. Determinants of marital quality in an arranged marriage society. 2012. Web.

Divakaruni, Chitra. One Amazing Thing. New Delhi: Hyperion, 2010. Print.

Xiaohe Xu and Martin King. Love Matches and Arranged Marriages: A Chinese Replication. Journal of Marriage and Family 52 (1990): 709-722. Print.

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Individualism vs. Collectivism Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction This paper discusses the ideals of individualism and collectivism. There exist cultural disparities in social behavior caused by ideals of collectivism and individualism. Individualism is the notion that life is individualistic and thus, everyone has a right to live as he pleases (Sampson, 2001).

This ideal also holds that a person ought to act on his individual opinions, pursue the values of his preference as well as utilize and maintain the creation of his effort. Besides, it is the thought that the person is an end to himself, independent and the basic component of moral concern (Kim, 1994). This represents the principle that Americans expressed and endeavored to launch when they formed the Constitution that safeguards a person’s rights to freedom, rights to live, right to own possessions, as well as the individual quest for happiness.

On the other hand, collectivism is the thought that a person’s life belongs to the entire community and that he does not possess any rights (Kim, 1994). Rather, the idea holds that an individual should forfeit his goals and values for the good of the larger group.

From the perspective of collectivism, the society forms the fundamental element of moral concern, and a person has to serve the group to get value (Kim, 1994). In other words, the only rights that an individual possesses are those that the society bestows. From when a person is born to the day of his demise, the community allows him certain rights and denies him others. This ideal values the welfare, preservation and happiness of the entire community.

Collectivism and individualism have a strong attachment to the society and thus, they shape our identities and behavior. The two ideals shape our values, attitudes, understanding, communication, socialization, as well as attribution.

Normally, intellectuals use individualist behaviors to describe people in Western parts of the world, including North America and Western Europe, while they use collectivism to describe people from other parts of the world such as Africa, South American, and Asia.

The majority of Europeans and North Americans have a sovereign perception of the self as a unit that is self-sufficient, unique, independent and gifted with exclusive characters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in countries like Africa, Asia and Latin America, citizens embrace a mutually dependent perception of the self as a component of a bigger social system that comprises the family, colleagues as well as others to whom we have social attachments. As per se, Americans are more apt to articulate ego-focused sentiments such as pride and resentment. Conversely, Japanese who are collectivist often announce feelings of gratitude to somebody, familiarity to somebody and association with someone.

Resolving the Conflict between Individualism and Collectivism The issue of individualism vs. collectivism is a source of main conflict in America. American scholars and politicians seek to know with certainty whether an individual has total rights over his life, or whether individuals belong to societies, from where they should derive their moral values.

Those who support individualism use ideas of metaphysics, to support their claims. They argue that people that we see in the environment exit as entities and not groups. While they recognize that people may be in groups, they say that we see indivisible beings that have their own bodies’ minds and life. In their interpretation, groups are just individuals who gather for their self-interests. They assert that the fact that people exist as entity beings is an observable truth that does not need debate.

Individualism, Collectivism and Culture Several factors determine whether a culture assumes the collectivist or individualistic nature. The first is the wealth of society. As citizens start to thrive, they become economically independent from each other, and this also encourages social independence, mobility in addition to a focus on individual and not collective ends.

The second factor is the complexity of society. People exist in more multifaceted modern societies, as opposed to the nomads, they get more groups to relate to, and this makes them to have a larger focus on individual rather than collective goals, because they have less loyalty to these groups.

Another factor is heterogeneity. Homogeneous or tight societies are apt to be rigid and intolerant of those who behave in unacceptable ways. Factors that characterize such communities include shared religion, language and societal principles. Heterogeneous societies, which have many cultures coexisting together, tend to be more tolerant, creating room for further individual expression.

Individualism stresses personal autonomy and accomplishment. Hence, an individualist culture honors social status depending on individual undertakings such as significant innovations, inventions, artwork, or charitable work and all dealings that make a person noticeable collectivism, in contrast emphasizes on connectedness of persons in a bigger group. It supports conventionality and disheartens individuals from rebelling and acting distinctively. African development serves as a good illustration of collectivism.

We will write a custom Assessment on Individualism vs. Collectivism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Africans treat productive persons with distrust and force them to share their extra wealth with the community. Therefore, collective reprimands exist to punish the affluent. Such reprimands take the form of social exclusion, loss of status, or even violence. For instance, communities have often used witchcraft allegations to punish gluttony and covetousness in addition to ambitions to travel to other areas.

At the rear of these reprimands is the fear that the connectedness of the society will be destabilized and that a person who seems more flourishing will depart the community or will not reallocate any extra products, or food. In most African communities, people with huge savings tend to keep this as a secret from other community members at all costs, for fear of retribution.

Measures of Collectivism and Individualism Hofstede (1980) came up with a conventional measure of collectivism and individualism. He utilized studies of IBM workers in thirty countries to draw conclusions. His idea was to study people with equal jobs in diverse nations in the same firm in an attempt to gauge cultural disparities. To evade cultural prejudice in the framing of questions, a team of English and native language speakers participated in the interpretation of the survey into native languages.

Recently, Hofstede’s gauge of individualism extends to about 80 nations. The gauge of individualism in other methods other than Hofstede’s index utilizes a wide selection of survey queries to create cultural standards. To sum up construct indices and information, they use factor analysis.

The index of individualism, in Hofstede’s study, is the primary factor in queries concerning the significance of autonomy, personal time, as well as fascinating and satisfying work. This factor loads negatively on significance of collaboration, associations with seniors as well as harmony and positively on valuing accomplishment, personal liberty, prospects, recognition and progression.

Discrepancies of Individualism and Collectivism among Persons Attitudes towards collectivist and individualist ideals are not mutually exclusive. For instance, they can exist together on the personal level, since people have both sovereign and co-dependent attitudes. Besides, collectivist and individualist approaches can be set off as a function of social associations and communal perspectives. Thus, we can say, individualist associations are regular with a number of people or in certain circumstances such as in business dealings, while with others the association is collectivist, such as with relatives.

There exists variation in collectivist and individualist attitudes in diverse forms of associations for instance, with a parent, fiancée, neighbor, or colleague. Thus, people belong to certain groupings of collectivist and individualist attitudes.

Development of Individualism and Collectivism among different Countries Americans perceive individualism as a good thing. Nevertheless, the term individualism seems to have its origin remote to the North American sphere, specifically in the French Revolution. It seems that America used individualism to portray the negative effect of personal rights on the interests of the commonwealth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Individualism vs. Collectivism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The growing surge of the individual rights group was apprehensive. People thought that individualism would quickly make the society fall apart into the power of individualism (Burke, 1973). From this perspective, individualism portrays a worldview opposed to society and communal social organization.

In fact, there is an extensive Western custom of differentiating collective and individual spotlights. For instance, Emile Durkheim utilized the words mechanical and organic cohesion to compare the provisional associations formed in multifaceted communities among different others.

From this perspective, organic solidarity describes a personal focus and the lasting bonds created among parallel others in traditional communities. Mechanical solidarity, on the other hand, is the communal focus. In addition, Weber (1930) differentiated Protestantism with Catholicism to show the difference between individualistic and collectivists. Catholicism believes in collectivism, while Protestantism believes in individualism.

He explained how Protestantism promoted self-reliance in addition to personal interests, while Catholicism supported lasting and hierarchical associations. Weber’s explanation on collectivism and individualism resembles the relationship between the collective rural villages and the individualistic urban societies.

For the last 20 years, the notion of differentiating communities depending on dissimilarities in individualism has augmented in status, in a big proportion due to the very prominent work of Hofstede. Hofstede (1980) distinguished individualism in countries from masculinity, power distance and uncertainty avoidance.

In his descriptions, the particular questions utilized to evaluate individualism centered on the place of work, differentiating the level that employees esteemed individual time and preference with the level they esteemed career trainings and job security. During the Study, Hofstede (1980) assessed likely experiences and inferences of these job-related aspects for communities.

While he was not the first social scholar to center unequivocally on culture, Hofstede’s concepts were significant since they prearranged cultural diversities into distinct patterns, which eased comparative study and instigated a swiftly growing organization of cultural and inter-cultural exploration in the following 20 years.

Typically, researchers depict collectivism as the opposite of individualism, particularly when differentiating East Asian cultural structures and European American (Chan, 1994).

Researchers in social science believe that individualism is more widespread in developed Western societies than other traditional communities in emerging nations are. The process of civic liberation and Protestantism in Western democracies brought social and public structures that supported the position of personal freedom, and self-actualization and individual preference (Sampson, 2001).

Scholars believe that these practices resulted in a Western civilizing center on individualism that is further outstanding in nations and cultural societies with a Protestant legacy. They also relate the thought of Western individualism to both in country and cross-regional relationships of ethnic societies with diverse cultural legacies.

Therefore, in America, it is usually understood that European Americans are less in collectivism and much into individualism than other people in ethnic minority groups elsewhere. Overall, present hypothesis in cultural psychology depicts the most individualistic group to be European Americans. The first thought that comes into one’s mind when dealing with European Americans is their individualistic nature. Since 1835, Americans have been individualistic.

Individualism in America relates to restricted government, as well as equality and individual freedoms. American individualism is also associated with the American frontiers, the Puritans and the origin of their market economy.

Individualism in America For a long time, Americans have taken liberty, life and the quest for happiness with much significance. Besides, Americans are known to carry out themselves as independent individuals, who are detached from others. They do not expect to receive any free thing from others, and they do not give out their things. They believe that they are individually responsible for their destiny.

In fact, contemporary American cultural idols maintain to express their faith in individualism. Individual privacy as well as personal rights and liberties are celebrated. Besides, independence and individual happiness are highly esteemed.

The truth is that every American endeavors to create a private, special and distinctive self (Sampson, 2001). Besides, Americans perceive individualism as an exclusively American feature that forms a fundamental element of their culture. Nevertheless, despite the apparent consent that European Americans are the model that depicts individualism, there is no logical prove of the principal postulation that European Americans act, or are more individualistic than other societies.

Besides, there exists an obvious tension between the supposition that European Americans are exclusively low in collectivism and more inclined to individualism. Another area of contention is the supposition that the psychological frames built within the cultural ideals of attribution, self-concept and associations are collective frameworks and not just structures resulting from and pertinent to an individualistic perspective.

According to Baumeister (1998), recent American psychological inquiry is mainly focused on an individualistic perspective and may not essentially act as a common form of human behavior to the degree that other individuals or states of the globe are stridently dissimilar from Americans in collectivism and individualism. For instance, focus on self-esteem and the principle that achievement of personal happiness is a fundamental motivational force acts as a guide to explorations on self-concept.

Similarly, construal of cognitive processes and individual perceptions happens with regard to even traits, while equity is the foundation for flourishing relationships (Triandis, 1995). Such models of research can only be in shape with individualistic, but not collectivistic, ideals of the world. According to Triandis (1995), it is true that there exists disparities in individualism and the power of cultural structures is evident for the spheres of acknowledgment and relationality than all other areas.

Psychological Consequences of Individualism According to Triandis (1995), it is possible to distinguish psychological effects of individualism in relation to self-concept, relationality and attribution. First, self-concept makes individualists to focus on making and sustaining a positive sense of self. In addition, self-concept makes individualists to feel good, to strive for individual success, and hold many unique individual views and attitudes. As per se, abstract characteristics, and not communal, descriptors are central to self-conceptualization

Moreover, it is possible to distinguish psychological effects of individualism in relation to well-being. Individualism calls for open expression of sentiments as well as accomplishment of personal aims. Individualists view these two aspects as vital sources of life satisfaction and well-being.

Furthermore, individualism calls for a personal orientation when it comes to reasoning and judgment, since the cause of the problems or issues is perceived as an entity. Therefore, individualists’ style of reasoning does not consider specific circumstances, or context. Rather, the style presupposes that social information is not connected to the social context.

Lastly, the effects of individualism on relationships are quite tentative. People need relationships and affiliations to groups to achieve self-relevant ends, although relationships are expensive to sustain. Scholars imagine that individualists use equity standards to poise benefits and costs associated with relationships (Kim, 1994).

They postulate that people step out of relationships when the costs exceed benefits and join new relationships that may lead to achievement of personal goals. Thus, theorists suppose that individualists form temporary relationships and group affiliations (Kim, 1994).

Psychological Consequences of Collectivism A key component of collectivism is the supposition that groups collectivism aims at keeping members of the communal system leaning toward in-groups and afar from out-group. In this case, in-groups include the clan, family, as well as ethnic and religious groups. According to Triandis (1995), collectivism is a varied construct, bringing together culturally dissimilar foci on diverse types and stages of reference groups. Thus, collectivism can denote a wide range of attitudes, values and actions than individualism.

While at times seen as plain opposites, it is possibly more precise to conceptualize collectivism and individualism and as concepts that vary in the issues, they make prominent.

Sampson (2001) explains that collectivism is found in communal societies typified by disseminate and mutual duties as well as prospects deriving from attributed statuses. In such societies, social components with similar objectives and values are centralized. The individual is just a part of the social, making the group that the person lives in the main component of focus.

It is easy to identify possible psychological effects of collectivism. Some of these effects relate to welfare, self-concept, attribution and association. First, with reference to the self, collectivism denotes that belonging to a certain group is an essential feature of identity. On the same note, collectivism requires individual traits to mirror the objectives of collectivism, for instance, keeping harmonious interactions and sacrificing for the ordinary good of other members.

Second, with reference to emotional expression and welfare, collectivists explain that satisfaction in life comes from accomplishing social obligations and ensuring success as opposed to failure in those areas. Besides, collectivists call for moderation in expressing sentiments, but not direct and open expression of inner emotions.

Third, with reference to decisions, attributions and causal thinking, collectivism calls for consideration of the social environment, situational restraints, as well as social responsibilities. Collectivism contextualizes meaning and the memory of collectivists contains details that are richly rooted.

Finally, with reference to relationships, collectivism calls for significant group memberships. Every member in a collective society must belong to a certain group. Members within the groups have certain limitations. In addition, exchanges inside the groups should follow the principles of generosity and equality.

Case study of China China is a country that has had ideological evolution from a more collectivist society to a more individualistic society. China now embraces capitalism in its economy as opposed to socialism. Capitalists promote individualism (Weber, 1930). They believe that there is always a reward for individual effort and these rewards benefit an individual. On the contrary, socialists promote the well-being if the group rather than the individual.

For a long time, China was a socialist economy. However, China experienced economic transformation in the last two decades and it transformed to a capitalist society. While the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) goes on with its activities in the disguise of socialism, it should continue to turn away the surfacing of values like individualism, whose affiliation is in developed, Western democracies such as America.

We all know that China is slowly embracing some aspects of individualism, although CPP does not announce it loudly. Nevertheless, this transformation to an individualistic society has led to realization that each citizen has some personal responsibility for his or her failure and achievements.

Conclusion In conclusion, collectivism and individualism are cultural aspects that have a strong attachment to the society. Both aspects shape our identities and behavior. They also shape our values, attitudes, understanding, communication, socialization, as well as attribution. Individualism stresses personal autonomy and accomplishment.

Hence, an individualist culture honors social status depending on individual undertakings such as significant innovations, inventions, artwork, or charitable work and all dealings that make a person noticeable collectivism, in contrast emphasizes on connectedness of persons in a bigger group.

It supports conventionality and disheartens individuals from rebelling and acting distinctively. African development serves as a good illustration of collectivism. Africans treat productive persons with distrust and force them to share their extra wealth with the community. Americans, on the other hand, embrace individualism. Every American endeavors to create a private, special and distinctive self (Sampson, 2001).

They perceive individualism as an exclusively American feature that forms a fundamental element of their culture. In fact, Americans take liberty, life and the quest for happiness with much significance. Besides, Americans carry out themselves as independent individuals, who are detached from others. They do not expect to receive any free thing from others, and they do not give out their things. They believe that they are individually responsible for their destiny.

Collectivism requires individual traits to mirror the objectives of collectivists. Collectivists explain that satisfaction in life comes from accomplishing social obligations and ensuring success as opposed to a failure in those areas. They also call for moderation in expressing sentiments, but not direct and open expression of inner emotions. On the other hand, individualists focus on making and sustaining a positive sense of self.

They call for open expression of sentiments as well as accomplishment of personal aims. Furthermore, individualists call for personal orientation when it comes to reasoning and judgment, since individualism treats causes of the problem or issues as an entity. Therefore, individualists’ style of reasoning does not consider specific circumstances or context. Rather, the style presupposes that social information is separate from the social context. Therefore, both collectivism and individualism shape our identities and behavior.

References Baumeister, R. (1998). The self. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske,

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Picasso’s Blue Period Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The famous Picasso’s Blue Period was the name used to explain the painted works of art that were done using blue color. These paintings were mainly famous from 1901 to 1904. This was a significant period in poetry and art because it marked a building block of a new era in art (Ravin, 2004).

The artist by the name Pablo Picasso was one of the ancient pioneers of such modern paintings. It is the main reason why the period was named after him. The blue period is the duration when Picasso illustrated his lowest moments in life. Most of his inspirations were from Spain, but the drawings were done in Barcelona and at times in Paris. The great works of Picasso, despite the blue period, are still felt to date.

Ravin (2004) adds that marketing his arts was a major challenge for the first time until a time when he attended several exhibitions in Britain and gained outstanding medals leading to his fame. The exact time of the day that the blue period began has never been known.

Most researchers argue that it was a time during the spring season in 1901. He was praised for the different styles that he had as well as the different shades of blue that he artistically applied to make the paintings attractive. During this period, there were few artists. However, Pablo emerged the best. The artist was prominent and made perfect painting when he was as young as twenty years. He made a lot of money when his painting career was still on.

The Picasso’s blue period was a time of personal expression and emotion. This happened at a time when one of the artist’s greatest friends decided to commit suicide due to frustrations in life. This was a tough time for Picasso but the artist soon recovered from the trauma that had left him seriously depressed.

He got several topics and issues to base his paintings on. He made several paintings that showed resentment and painted them using a gloomy blue color. The different shades that he used brought out mood and expression of feelings that clouded the region during that particular time. This was one of the blue times that the artist’s reports faced (Ravin, 2004).

In the tenth month of the year 1900, Picasso together with a close friend relocated to Paris. They settled in a residential area secured for artists and researchers. He went through several moments of sadness that formed a strong basis for more paintings. For instance, he faced dire poverty in the early times after settling in Paris.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Again, the fact that most of his paintings reflected his blue moments, these themes discouraged potential shoppers from buying the paintings. This was another contribution to his poor living standards. Paris remained a favorite place for his artistic works. However, the artist continually went to Barcelona until 1904 when he made Paris his permanent residence (Jansen, 2009). His friend lived most of his life in Paris as well. His friend (Casagemas) had also made several paintings featuring important aspects of the artist’s life.

These were paintings depicting the pain that Picasso went through after the loss of his great friend. These pictures were also constituted in the blue period despite the fact that the blue shade that Casagemas used was bright and did not bring out clearly the sorrow that Picasso had gone through. In one of the paintings, Casagemas had shown some part of a burial while the other one was a marriage ceremony.

The two contradicting events were explained very well with the use of light blue and dark blue colors respectively. The paintings were collectively called evocation, the burial of Casagemas. Picasso used to describe the blue period evolved between love, prostitutes, beggars and drunkards. Visiting different regions in Spain and the self murder of his great friends were top on his list of themes. Among the saddening moments that colored the blue period were the deaths of his two greatest friends (Jansen, 2009).

Casagemas took his life away by shooting himself to death. This happened after a woman he really adored rejected his proposal. The proposal was made in a cafeteria in Paris. After this occurence, Picasso added another series of pictures to his gallery. He was not in Paris when Casagemas took away his life.

Upon returning, the news was devastating and he spent his mourning period in one of the Casagemas studios. During this time, his painting work did not come to a halt at all. He prepared great paintings that were to be displayed in an exhibition that was to be held later in Vollard. Picasso felt very lonely during that period of mourning and the paintings that he did during that time depicted sorrow.

He painted them using bright blue color. One of the paintings was that of his friend Casagemas in his coffin. According to Jansen (2009), this was in the year 1901 and it is a period when he went into deep depression. People were not ready to hang gloomy pictures in their homes. Hence, it led to poor sales of the paintings. The main drawing that Picasso made was of Casagemas standing next to a lovely lady and a woman who held a child in her arms, probably the child’s mother.

Jansen (2009) explains that Casagemas was painted with a blue color that symbolized life. The young lovely lady in the picture was shown with one leg almost reaching on to Casagemas. One of her fingers pointed upwards. It was a sign that despite the fact that Casagemas surrendered his life for love, he was not defeated. This was a major point in the blue period. These paintings are still in museums due to the great roles that they had played during that period.

We will write a custom Essay on Picasso’s Blue Period specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The two titles of paintings namely ‘life’ and the ‘evocation’ had a theme that clearly showed that Picasso had wished his friend all the best. This is well depicted in various paintings in these albums. In the two themes, the pictures show Casagemas in the company of beautiful ladies and explain the main reason why he lost his love life. Picasso also adds pictures of the great family that he wished his friend would have.

Most of these paintings can be found even today in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Other paintings were plain portraits of Casagemas in a blue and gloomy mood. Prominent in his paintings was the theme of blindness as well. Another painting was that of a blind man seated in a table with a woman who could see. In the same set of paintings were paintings of naked ladies or women who had children either in the back or simply in their hands.

The blue period was not an easy time for Picasso. He chose the color blue to depict the sorrow that life had left him to go through. These paintings were his best and he had decided to have a different color to paint his pieces of art. In this case, he chose pink. The period that followed was named the rose period. According to Jansen (2009), most of his paintings after this trying moment were pink, a color that he decided to use to mark the end of his sorrowful moments.

It did not imply that he was over with his sorrows. There was a time when Picasso visited one of the female prisons in Paris. The prison was called St. Lazare and nuns were the guards of the prison. From this visit, he made different paintings of some of the prisoners as well as nuns and at times painted the two parties in the same piece of art. Different hues of blue were used to distinguish the nuns from the prisoners since one party was free while the other remained completely locked under bars.

The paintings of the prisoners depicted a lot of sorrow in the faces of the women prisoners. It was very difficult for him to erase the life stressing moments that he had gone through. Pink was used to bring a different theme to the great paintings that he had in his gallery. During the end of the blue period, Picasso had demonstrated social aspects of life were clearly evident.

References Jansen, M. (2009). Blue period 1901 – 1904. Web.

Ravin J. G. (2004). Representations of Blindness in Picasso’s Blue Period, special article. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/416257

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How the aftermath of the war of independence affected the lives of African slaves in the North and South Cause and Effect Essay essay help

Africans in the north and the south reacted to colonialism with a lot of resistance. For this reason, they started their struggle for independence. The lives of the Africans were affected by the aftermath of the war of independence. The Africans had been enslaved in their own countries.

The colonialists had deceived the Africans that colonialism would put an end to slavery although it was not the case. Quite a number of activities and events occurred during the period of their search for independence. Those people who supported colonialism for the Africans had reported that Africans were ready to be colonized. To some extent, this strategy worked. When they were colonized, it marked the end of the war between the Africans in the south and those from the north.

Several wars were fought by the Africans before they gained their independence and freedom (Higginbotham 84). The colonists had conquered the Africans’ efforts of trying to resist colonization. By the end of the First World War; all Africans were under colonial rule. During this period of time, the Africans remained at peace with the colonists before the struggle started again.

They had a number of grievances that they wanted the colonists to address urgently. For instance, the Africans were not happy with the prejudice and bias that they received from the white colonial masters. This resistance came mostly from the Africans who were educated since they had better understanding of the effects of colonialism to Africans (Conway 76).

When the Africans obtained their freedom, several things changed in their favor. The slaves were now given equal opportunity in their countries. They were also no longer treated inhumanely and discrimination cases were taken as criminal offences. The slaves were free at last.

They formed organizations and unions that fought for their rights. South African National Congress and the West African National Congress were some of the organizations that ensured that the rights of the Africans were observed to the letter. The slaves also enjoyed their freedom of worship and practiced any type of religion of their choice. African priests and clergy wanted religious discrimination to be stopped. Hence, it became a reality after the Africans were given independence.

Christians were not given freedom to worship and all their religious meeting places had been abolished by the whites. New churches were formed. Christians gathered together to worship and give thanks to their creator. These churches played a very important role in ensuring that justice was done to all Africans. It made these churches to acquire great numbers of followers. Some of their founders were later imprisoned but the churches still grew.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most slaves were forced to work long hours in the mines and ports. This was another reason for opposition by the Africans. Freedom from working long hours without pay was another effect of the aftermath of the war to the slaves. Africans were also allowed to own land. During the time of slavery, their lands were grabbed and worse still, they were forced to work on them for the benefits of their colonialists (Conway 39).

The Africans now had the freedom to control the factors of production as well as the market for their cash crops. Since all their demands had been fulfilled by their colonial masters, freedom of the African slaves was the main impact of the struggle (Higginbotham 69).

Works Cited Conway, Stephen. The War of American Independence 1775-1783. New York: E. Arnold, 1995. Print.

Higginbotham, Don. The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763–1789. New York: Northeastern University Press, 1983. Print.

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The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation Essay (Book Review) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction A Pulitzer Prize-winning book called The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation is written by Joseph Ellis. The literary work focuses on the interactions among individuals of various origins who had a profound impact on the evolution of a new nation and culture, the United States of America. In particular, the account relates to the group of gifted individuals, including Franklin, Jefferson, Burr, Hamilton, Madison, Adams, and Washington, who managed to create a new union and survive in a new world.

In the book, the author highlights the realities of the end of the eighteenth century during which the Founding Brothers, also known as Founding Fathers, sought to define the practical underpinnings of our government, as well as create the content and ideals for the Constitution and Declaration of Independence.

Summary The work focuses on the six significant historical episodes, including Burr and Hamilton’s deadly encounter, Washington’s Farewell Address, Adam and Jefferson’s correspondence, Franklin’s endeavor to make Congress consider the issue of slavery and Madison’s resistance to his attempts, and, finally, Adam’s political administration and cooperation with his wife.

In the first chapter entitled as The Duel, the scholar introduces personal and political encounter between Burr and Hamilton, leading to the deadly duel predetermined by the challenges of the Revolution. While looking through the prism of historical events, the duel is considered one of the most significant and famous encounters known in American history.

The rivalry resulted in Hamilton’s injury and death whereas Burr’s experienced indignation and disapproval on the part of society. The main conflict between the politicians was premised on the discrepancies in personal outlooks. The second chapter narrates the secrete negotiations resulting in the selection the Potomac River location for building the new national capital.

Such a decision is made in exchange for Virginia’s advocate of Hamilton’s financial plan. The plan referred to the development of states debts that should be acknowledged by the federal government. In Chapter Three called The Silence, the author uncovers the confrontation between James Madison supporting the postponement of slavery discussion and Benjamin Franklin who signed the petition that withdrew the importance of slave trade and slavery for the welfare of the union.

The fourth chapter of the book is called The Farewell and discloses the Presidents George Washington’s Address in which he presented his view on the political and social reforms that were vital for prosperous development of nation. The speech represents the classic message of republicanism through which the former presidents warn American society about the political hazards they must avoid to maintain and develop the nation’s veritable values.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Collaborators is the title of the fifth chapter, in which two important relationships are discussed. The first one involves the political partnership between John Adams, the second president of the United States., and his wife during his administration period. The second partnership is dedicated to the evaluation of cooperation between James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in the course of the same historic period.

The first partnership is connected with the rise of the discussion on the Atlas of Independence, as well as of the revolution of the British policy. Madison and Jefferson formed another coalition whose main purpose was to create Democratic-Republican Party and write the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions to denounce the Alien and Sedition Acts.

The final chapter – The Friendship – introduces the active correspondence between Jefferson and Adams who strived to revive the lost friendship. While elaborating on this period, Ellis provides a unique account on the romanticized version of the correspondence on history, challenges, and politics. The correspondence can be interpreted as the attempt of both politicians to expound their outlooks on power and politics.

Historic Evaluation and Personal Analysis Historical Perspective

While looking the book through the prism of historical events, it should be stressed that the correspondence between Adams and Jefferson touches on the question of whether history is represented either as a lived experience or as a recollection of the past.

At this point, Jefferson’s role as the founder of the Declaration of Independence became the underpinning for American history whereas Adams’s role is confined to his personal experience, which assumed sophisticated origin to the document, as well as the restricted importance of the drafter.

At the same time, different versions narrated by their followers about the events happened at Weehawken between Burr and Hamilton focus on the tragic fate of the latter, which is also perpetuated in the United States history. While choosing this perspective, the author unveils the content as a critical, thoughtful, and superior approach to evaluating the main facts from history throughout his work.

In response to Ellis’s account, Young and Nobles argue that the author strived “…to portray the leading figures of the Revolutionary era as individual actions within an enclosed circle of political insiders, all smilingly isolated from the social and political turmoil”[1].

We will write a custom Book Review on The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To support this argument, it is purposeful to cite Ellis’s statement about collaborations and personal encounters among the politicians. In particular, the author stresses the importance of analyzing the “marginal or peripheral people whose lives are more typical”, but their significance to the history and political reforms is incredibly small[2].

Indeed, Ellis withdraws the importance of humble population; instead, his attention is paid to transcendence of the natural rights of the political elite. Within this perspective, all central events represented in the book are of political origin. These achievements bear historical significance due to their role in shaping the history of the United States.

Organization

The author organizes his book by evaluating particular events during the decade, including the 1787 Constitutional Convention to demonstrate the main constructs of American history, with no explicit data about outcomes.

In particular, Ellis does not construct the book in a comprehensive or systematic manner; rather, he focuses on several historically significant political figures – Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and James Madison – who are represented in a number of provoking episodes, testifying to such themes as the friendship, cooperation, convictions, and philosophical outlooks on the future development of the United States. The main emphasis in the book is placed on revealing thematic and experiential visions of the history rather than on chronological account.

While deliberating on the book structure and organization, Young and Nobles explain, “this emphasis on individual character and political connection …is, after all one basic approach to biography”[3]. Such an approach is perceived critically by other book critics who believe that lack of comprehensive manner constitutes the major shortcoming of the book. Nevertheless, such an approach is beneficial in terms of highlighting the main personalities and leaderships styles employed by the famous historical figures in American history.

Author’s Significant Assumptions

By describing and accounting the major experiences, feelings, and attitudes experienced by the Founding Fathers, Ellis encompasses all propitious events, as well as practices the skill of narrating. In particular, the description of the duel event, the author insists, “the stigma associated with the Burr-Hamilton duel put the code duello on the defensive as a national institution”[4]. In addition, the book ignores the politicians’ origins because the New World provides people with equal opportunities for gaining power and freedom.

While depicting and assessing the historical events, the author frequently refers to the importance of collaboration and interaction among the politicians, leading to the formation of new concepts, regulations, and principles in a new union. At this point, the role of personal approaches and political visions is amplified because these interactions do not only contribute to political growth and evolution of the union, but also serve as an underpinning for constrains and contradictions among the politicians.

Thus, the correspondence between Jefferson and Adams, the duel between Burr and Hamilton, and the confrontation between Madison and Franklin are bright examples of how political and personal relationships can influence the creation of social and economic environment in the country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At this point, the author argues, “the key point is that the debate was not resolved so much as built into the fabric of our national identity”[5]. Looking through the prism of personal encounters allow the author to define and predict the development of the Unite States as a series of confrontations.

Apart from shaping the American nation’s identity, the interactions among the Founding Fathers also affected the content of such famous documents as the U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. This is of particular concern to Washington’s Farewell speech, which is considered as a transcendent document, leading to the adoption of the Declaration.

Under this chapter, the author discusses such themes as national unity, struggle for political power, independent foreign policy, and disapproval of factions. The extensive overview of these topics provides a fresh insight into the history of the United States and creates a new pattern in understanding political and social life at the end of eighteenth century.

Logic in Developing the Thesis

Based on the book’s main idea and argumentative thesis, the author relies on a handful of direct quotes that specifically relate to the correspondence between the above-mentioned politicians. Using this approach in interpreting the history allows the author to link the thematic nodes in all six chapters, beginning from betrayal and confrontation of personal interests and ending with author’s attitude to friendship.

In general, addressing the interaction between notable historic and political activist creates a fresh insight at the American history and explain the existing biases and conflicts in a contemporary society. It also sheds light on the formation of cultural and national identities in the United States, as well as defines the perspectives for social development.

In fact, using a narrow-focused personal vision of the political situation at the end of eighteenth differs much from the social history perspective that is heavily used by most historians for describing American history. Ellis’s decision to confine the list of characters only to eight people contributes to developing a new context in which all historical events occur.

Use of Sources to Support Author’s Assertion

The book can be compared with other biographic books dedicated to the American founding. In particular, in the book called Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries, Richard Morris focuses on defining the role of historic figures in shaping the destiny and future development of the new nation[6].

The work by Donald Philips called The Founding Fathers on Leadership: Classic Teamwork in Changing Times sheds light on a range of leadership styles that were practiced in the New World and were used by the Founders[7]. From this viewpoint, Ellis’s book is considered a mixture of Phillips and Morris texts, although it has much in common with Morris’s book in terms of use of sources.

As a proof, the author presents a quote from the correspondence between Adams and Jefferson that refers to their friendship: “The Friendship shoulder-to-shoulder against the Tories, served together in Europe as a dynamic team, then returned to serve again in the new national government”[8]. Thus, despite all the hardships and challenges that emerged among the Founding Fathers, they all were united by a special bond.

Audience for the Book and Language Used

The target audience of the book is relatively vast because it can be used for educational purposes and for personal inquiries. Due to the fact that this account is premised on experiences and biographic information, it simplifies the process of reading and comprehending the material because no theoretical framework are presented.

Absence of pedagogical approach makes the work even more compelling and interesting. References to first-hand documents are also beneficial because they provide a deeper insight into the realities of the time. Most importantly, the book manages to skillfully combine the historical flashback with the current trends in development of American society.

Bibliography Columbus, Frank H. Book Reviews on Presidents and the Presidency. US: Nova Publishers, 2008.

Ellis, Joseph. The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. US: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2000.

Young, Alfred Fabian and Gregory H. Nobles. Whose Revolution Was It? Historians Interpret the Founding. NY: NYU Press, 2011.

Footnotes Alfred Fabian Young and Gregory H. Nobles. Whose Revolution Was It? Historians Interpret the Founding. (NY: NYU Press, 2011) 140.

Joseph Ellis. The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. (US: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2000), 10.

Alfred Fabian Young and Gregory H. Nobles. Whose Revolution Was It? Historians Interpret the Founding. (NY: NYU Press, 2011) 141.

Joseph Ellis. The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. (US: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2000), 20.

Ibid., 16.

Frank H. Columbus. Book Reviews on Presidents and the Presidency. (US: Nova Publishers, 2008), 56.

Ibid., 56.

Joseph Ellis. The Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. (US: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2000), 212.

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Prohibition and the rise of Organized Crime Essay online essay help

Introduction In the 1920s, the United States was facing worrying rates of crime that called for the intervention of the Congress to avert the situation. Different ways of ensuring control of the society and effective prevention of crime were tried. The attempts were faced with numerous challenges that needed to be addressed.

It was a time when the rate of crime was increasing and a solid solution grounded on the established legal mechanisms was sought. The United States Congress had long been consulting to remedy the situation. The solutions were triggered by the fact that gangs at the time looked more organized than the government. In 1920s, a considerable number of the American citizens sought refuge from crime.

An extensive evaluation of the situation and the viable solutions were submitted to the Congress. Prohibition was proposed and an amendment to the constitution was thereby proposed. Subsequently, the Eighteenth Amendment of the United States constitution was put into place. The rationale of having the amendment effected was to control and completely manage crimes related to alcohol.

To further strengthen the Amendment, the Volstead Act was enacted, which imposed stiff penalties to those who disobeyed the Eighteenth Amendment (Cressey and Finckenauer 15). The prohibition period is one of the remarkable eras in the history of organized crime, having sowed the seeds of some of the most infamous crimes today as crime networks proved stronger than state agencies. This essay will show how prohibition encouraged the rise of organized crime.

The period of prohibition derived authority from the United States constitution and the Volstead Act. From the strict wording of the amendment, the rate of alcohol consumption was anticipated to go down. The period of prohibition simply meant that the manufacture, transportation, export, and import of alcohol were unconstitutional and subsequently illegal.

The law was geared towards creating an environment of low crime and corruption. In addition, prohibition was thought to be a clear solution towards massive reduction of social problems. The country was facing high rates of taxes that were used in supporting prisons. Health care and hygiene was expected to improve with the establishment of the prohibition.

It was a strategy to reduce overcrowding in jails by people suspected to have committed alcohol related offences. The effects of prohibition were not imagined during the time of the amendment. The duration preceding the enactment of the Volstead Act and the Eighteenth Amendment had less demand for alcohol. The prohibition eventually increased the demand for alcohol and a chain reaction became inevitable. Vertical monopolies were created by the growing number of mobsters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These monopolies were mainly set up to control the production and distribution of alcohol. Throughout time, the monopolies became powerful and much of the income earned in the distribution of alcohol was channeled to both legal and illegal businesses. The markets for selling alcohol were largely controlled by the mobsters. Crime rate took a different turn. Groups would gang up and form mobs that were very popular in urban areas (Woodwiss 8).

Crimes were left in the hands of able gangs. Consistent wars between the gangs in the streets were evident fighting to maintain control. The fights would focus on affirming control in the markets. It occurred that the new gangs would license people to sell illegal drugs and alcohol. A set tax would be paid by the seller to the gangs.

The control of urban centers and other key places of interest questioned the authority of the United States. There are states that were notoriously known for mobsters, for instance in Chicago whereby Al Capone used to manage a big gang that controlled alcohol markets. On the same vein, it should be noted that prohibition was inadequately managed, and it directly fostered the rise of organized crimes.

The rise of organized crimes occurred at a time when there were many temperament groups seeking to better the society. The movement had taken shape since 1800. Their founding goals were to reform several aspects of the society. The issue of alcohol being a source of social instability was part of the movement’s aim. Though its leadership was mainly religious, the Temperance society had a distinct mission from that of religious leaders.

The most notable aim was to support the society from the rate of insecurity and other crimes in that period. The prohibition period was largely ineffective since Americans continued to access the prohibited alcohol. Organized crimes took over legitimate saloons; hence stamping their authority in bigger areas than the neighborhoods they controlled.

The mobsters made policies of selling alcohol, which were directly against the prohibition promoted by the government. In other cities, some of the well known leaders enriched themselves during the time of prohibition by supplying liquor in areas with high demand. Smuggling of alcohol from other parts of the world was equally evident. The situation aggravated to a worse situation than it was before. Crimes unknown before such as smuggling were rampant (Woodwiss 8).

Prohibition prepared the ground for the significant increase in violent crimes. One of the famous violent crimes that was committed in the infamous incident of St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, whereby the quest for territory led to death of many individuals.

We will write a custom Essay on Prohibition and the rise of Organized Crime specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Valentines Massacre was one among many crimes that took place in major cities in the United States. The increase of crimes in America hit a thirteen percent mark. This was contrary to what supporters of prohibition had expected. Though the prohibition efficacy was highly questioned, other crimes such as swearing and vagrancy were dealt with.

Prohibition was geared towards reducing the number of people serving in prisons; to the contrary, prisons ended up being congested. State prisons received enormous number of prisoners. The financial burden was heavily felt in all levels of government. More tax revenues were needed than before. The economic situation in 1920s was affected by the prohibition period.

The response to prohibition led to certain establishments that served alcohol illegally. Though the operation of the said establishments was illegal, it was clear that corruption in the police department aided these establishments. In some instances, the police department was used by gangs, whereby the police informed the gangs in advance during raids. Doctors’ prescription of whiskey as a medicine triggered a million gallons of liquor in a year.

The prohibition law stated that alcohol was permitted three miles off the coast, which was capitalized on by state-owned shipping agencies. The state-owned agencies served alcohol over water since the law did not prohibit such a practice. Brewing of alcohol was rampant in homes. The practice was largely illegal. Prohibition lacked a moral backing since many public officials disregarded prohibition (Lyman and Potter 16).

The prohibition campaign failed in its entirety since it created a worse state, instead of controlling alcohol consumption. Its attempt to stop consumption of alcohol was met by maximum resistance. Both national and federal governments were affected in a way that they did not anticipate.

The Volstead Act is said to have had a direct contribution towards crime prevalence in the United States. The organized crimes evidenced after the prohibition were placed in different categories. The most dominant of all was bootlegging. This involved the sale of black market alcohol.

It became a booming business that became remarkable with profits. The bootleggers hiked the price of alcohol to gain vast amounts of profits in a short duration. The bootleggers were extremely vigilant in making sure that they were not caught by authorities. The competition between the mobs was untamed, making it very unhealthy and dangerous. The wars over control of liquor markets were fought in the streets with sophisticated weapons (Cressey and Finckenauer 12).

The acts of the gangs in the 1920s fit in the confines of the definition of an organized crime. In its definition, organized crime entails a systematic illegal or unlawful activity by an individual or a group of individuals. The crime could be in a city, interstate, and in some instances at an international scale.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Prohibition and the rise of Organized Crime by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The aim of organized crime unlike other types of crimes is that it is for profit making. The profit making element introduces the modern day crimes on corporate criminal organization. In the criminal organization arena, the essence of keeping secrets in illegal operations is encouraged.

The gangs in organized crimes have to be systematically organized for them to be termed organized. The structuring of the groups for criminal intents is known as racketeering. Supporters of the prohibition had overlooked the fact that criminal organization has major support from the society. In the society that the organization exists, rooted support helps in keeping the group.

It has been established that the law did not make it a point to set strict offences for those who aided or abetted operations of gangs. It was a miscalculation of the law drafters, whereby they were not alive to the fact that mob groups were part of the society. With time, the groups were committing crimes under the watchful eyes of the police. The police were paid to look away, and in some instances they benefited directly from the illegal activities (Woodwiss 8).

Members of the judiciary and the legislature were compromised through blackmail or bribery, giving birth to a situation where the gangs were powerful and deeply rooted. There were mutual beneficial relationships through illegal businesses that were created by leaders of the gangs and public officials. It was extremely impossible to anticipate prosecuting corrupt official since law societies closely shielded them.

The gangs were integrated in the government, whereby revenue from narcotics and extortion was accepted in the revenue. In addition, organized crimes such as labor racketeering were inevitable. There was a rampant organized labor that introduced exploitation to the laborers. Lack of reasonable working conditions was very evident. Employers were subjected to bullying, whereby they were forced to pay employees who did not work.

Money was paid to the corrupt officials to guarantee labor peace. The mobsters were paid more retirement incomes than other employees. The organized crimes in the labor sector were widely used to exercise control. Crimes would recur, whereby labor officials who did not go as per the orders of the gang were killed. The period was marred with a lot of blood shed and unlawfulness (“Prohibition: As Bad Now As It Was During The 1920’S” 3).

There are other crimes related to immigration that emerged during the time of prohibition. Immigration groups that did not trust the police and other authorities formed powerful groups to further their mission. These groups mainly engaged in crimes such as drugs and corruption.

Several organizations in the United States were formed. Federal agents lacked the right mechanisms to use in fighting the growing number of crimes. The raiding of speakeasies was met with an equal measure of resistance since the crime syndicate had both national and international connections.

The formation of the 1930 Wickersham Commission inquiry was to investigate why the crime rate was going on. The inquiry showed that there was political corruption in the institutions. The environment created during the prohibition period was felt later. In 1933, the law prohibiting sale of alcohol was repealed, which made the gangs to choose other means to continue exercising control. Trafficking of narcotics became very pronounced in 1920s to supplement the repealing of the Prohibition Act.

Gangs still remained intact and major differences in suppressing them made it hard to do away with the crime rate. Major crime kingpins had sufficient political connections, which made it easy for them to draw demarcations based on the control of some cities. The move by the Congress to neutralize the crime rate had profound effects on the national economy. Various commissions were set up to investigate the prevailing situation of organized crimes.

In 1972, the Knapp Commission indicated that there was a very close link between the kingpins of organized crimes in New York and the department of police. There were severe economic effects witnessed as a result of the gangs’ operations in key cities in America. Another report conducted in 1988 showed that massive bribing was taking place in the public service sector. The interstate links to organized crimes played an increasing role in defining the modern forms of organized crimes (Casper 837).

The rebirth of a moment whereby organized crime could not be stopped has been explained through different ways. There are those who have averred that the Prohibition Act aided the eradication of public consumption of alcohol. Prohibition era was an intervention intended to deal with the problem of alcoholism in America.

Its repercussions were a direct contrary situation from the government. It was in that era that organized crimes unknown before started to surface. The critics of the Prohibition Act and the era have observed that the situation was created by the drafters of the Act.

Crimes such as setting forests on fire became common. The twists evidenced in the crime cycles today have greatly borrowed from the period after the Prohibition period. The seeds of organized crime sowed during the era have continued to blossom everyday in the world. The failed intentions of the Prohibition have formed a golden age of crime. New ways of evading tax and black mail were adopted. It should be noted that organized crimes are committed in various ways, but they are based on the same theory (Abadinsky 12).

The theory developed after the prohibition era clearly explained the reasons why crime rate increased after the prohibition was passed. The cause of organized crimes has been based on the basis of supply and demand. It has been observed that demand for illegal goods makes it impossible to rule out criminal syndicates.

The syndicates are geared towards maintaining a constant supply. In most cases, the market is confined to small powerful syndicates who protect it at all costs. The power in the criminal syndicates is based on the ability to suppress public morals, while at the same time neutralizing the law enforcement agencies.

The syndicates depend on using corrupt means that are intended to blackmail public officials. Infiltration of the legal economy is the most appropriate weapon developed after the prohibition period. The countermeasures taken to avert organized crime have often been met by enormous weaknesses, making it hard to deal with the criminal syndicates in the world today.

There are four components that are imperative in dealing with organized crimes. The four components can be effective in dealing with organized crimes if well managed. They include government, society, illegal markets, and availability of readily organized markets. The issue of organized crimes can be ably addressed with proper coordination of the government and the society.

The main stumbling block is the fact that criminal syndicates are well funded, and in many instances they get support from the societies that they are established in. With support of the society, it becomes clear that the government may not find it easy to deal with such a group. The fact that the criminal syndicates are well grounded makes them an organizational entity that uses many resources to maintain their status quo. The government should put in place strict measures to deal with the criminal syndicates.

Illegal markets that are widespread should be dealt with before the government can competently handle organized crimes. In advanced cases, patron client networks have been defined to help in organization of the crimes. The networks have remained in interconnected social and economic environments. Organized crimes largely depend on the existing systems. They employ effective communication to counter the enforcement agencies (“The Wine of Violence” 20).

Conclusion The prohibition era was a period when laws were introduced to deal with alcoholism. The period was backed with the constitution amendment famously known as the Eighteenth Amendment. The amendment outlawed importation, production and distribution of alcohol.

The rationale of the laws was not realized, thus several consequences came up. The period was marked with organized crimes, with crime groups taking control of major cities in America. The groups operated in a time whereby law agencies were marred with rampant corruption. State agents were either bribed or black mailed.

Control of illegal markets was the main interest of every group. The authority and control used to be through street fights, whereby the group that won would control the market at that time. The dynamics of demand and supply used to play a critical role in keeping one group stronger than the other. The popularity of each group was essential in affirming authority. Undoubtedly, the prohibition era was a period when organized crimes took shape and many illegal transactions took place at the time.

Works Cited “Prohibition: As Bad Now As It Was During The 1920’S.” Electronic Ardell Wellness Report (E-AWR) 351 (2006): 3-3. Print.

“The Wine Of Violence.” Saturday Evening Post 204.46 (1932): 20-20. Print.

Abadinsky, Howard. Organized Crime. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

Casper, Juliet M. “Organized Crime–United States.” Journal of Criminal Law

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Single-parent families Proposal college application essay help

Introduction and Rationale The growing number of single-parent families has become a matter of the growing professional concern. The most influential psychologists tried to explain its causes. The current state of empirical research has greatly improved the public and professional knowledge of single-parent families.

Nevertheless, many processes inherent in single parenthood remain poorly understood. The society is concerned about single parenthood for at least three reasons. First, the growing number of single-parent families has profound implications for the society’s economic wellbeing: single mothers and fathers often find it difficult to work full-day or spend long hours at work (Elwood

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The world of business Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Setting the scene

Friction

Focus

Communication

Behavior

Measurement

Leadership

Change

Innovation

Pathway

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Michael Syrett is the author of this invaluable handbook in business management. It gives a detailed chapter by chapter analysis on winning strategies that are intended to keep business goals on target. The folly of most companies lie in their failure to track their performance against their set long-term goals.

Syrett’s in-depth analysis is aimed at giving theoretical strategies with practical applications using real life companies as case studies (Syrett, 2007). The facts and anecdotes from these case studies set the backdrop for other companies to implement what works for them.

Setting the scene Having a vision alone for a company normally does not propel it to success. Vision goes along with execution. Execution of strategy is not complicated. It simply requires that one develops an idea and carries it through to fruitition.A case study of Hewlett-Packard and British airways shows how the management made a complete turn-around of the companies using well-known ideas such as budgetary cost-cutting, breaking down barriers, focusing on the main goal, workforce empowerment and setting high standards for performance.

Friction Despite the concept of breaking down boundaries being a contributing factor in success strategy, it may not always be easy to achieve. This is shown through the case study of General Electric’s relative ease in breaking into the American Market.

On the contrary, they had a problem breaking into the Hungarian market due to culture and economic traditions. For a business to become ‘boundaryless’,considering the needs of the workforce is paramount in creating a united front so as to avert friction.Co-ordination is a winning strategy that ensures working together towards achieving the same goal.

Focus The previous chapter on friction reiterates that everyone must be assigned their roles that when executed, works together in achieving a common goal.However,this freedom to perform roles works as many parts of a machinery that is focused to do one job. Focus is imperative in setting up objective company goals and sticking to them until success is achieved.

The right focus gets people engaged. The focus goals must be clear and allow for individual employee input, right from senior management down to the lowest employee. Having a clear focus ensures that everyone understands their roles and takes responsibility over them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This sets a foundation for accountability that ensures transparency. The style of leadership is also an important strategy in enabling command of the team. The leader delegates roles and has to ensure that there effective communication and mutual respect for the chain of command.

Communication Communication is an important business strategy. Investing in effective communication is a tried and tested way of motivating the workforce into delivering the business objectives. Effective communication wins the trust of the business stakeholders, right from management, employees to investors.

Communication also involves keeping in touch with the current trends in the market and responding to them. A good example is social networking. This is true especially in this age of fast changing technology. Subtle gestures, such as rewards for exemplary tasks that meet company objectives in order to motivate the workforce are also effective ways to communicate success to the team.

Behavior How a company handles itself sets precedence for its success or failure. It is common knowledge that competition undermines business performance. However, positive competition is encouraged in a case where employees are to be motivated and also to set employee attitudes such as sharing the company values and commitment to the company. Consistency in these positive behaviors is a winning business strategy.

Measurement Measurement techniques are the key drivers for gauging the performance of a business. Such tools as corporate cartography are used to measure the extent of achieving strategies in line with the business goals. The results of these measurements will show how successful a business will be.

Leadership Good leadership is an essential tool in executing business strategies. Leadership roles go beyond the senior management levels and involve focus, resource allocation and collaboration.

Change We are living in a fast changing world of technology. The winning strategy involves shifting with the current trend as circumstances demand (Kourdi, 2009). Change can take place within an organization to structure the company towards focused goal achievement or externally, to merge with the trend. Some of these changes can be extreme, like in the case of mergers, but they may ultimately turn out to be profitable for the company.

We will write a custom Essay on The world of business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Innovation Using old knowledge to create new ways is the basis for innovation. This goes hand in hand with change, where businesses are expected to conform to the market expectations in order to come out winners.

To enable innovation, it is paramount to have all the other strategies in place, namely resources, good leadership and operational freedom so as to cultivate creativity, all aimed at achieving he company goals and objectives (Economist, 2009). Taking risks is encouraged as they are unavoidable and success can only be achieved by those who try and fail, but still have a winner’s attitude of trying until they succeed.

Pathway A pathway to successful strategy execution is like creating a roadmap to the success of a business. There has to be focus on the right strategic goals, and the workforce given the chance to participate, share and make innovative decisions aimed at a common goal. This is why good leadership is required to spearhead effective strategies.

Conclusion Generally, this book makes an effective guidebook for businesses as they make strategies that they hope will chart them forward into success. It is also a good learning platform from the failures and successes of highlighted case studies right from top-level management to the ground.

Reference List Economist, T. (2009). The world of business. New Jersey: John Wiley

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Influencing of Suppressing Thoughts on Dreams Essay a level english language essay help

For a long time, there has been a common belief that thoughts suppressed during daytime are likely to be dreamt during the night. This is according to the research done on the suppressed thoughts and their influence on the dreams at the University of Texas, San Antonio (Wegner, Wenzlaff and Kozak, 2004). The purpose of this research article is to find whether suppressed thoughts have an influence on what is being dreamt by an individual.

In this regard, the research questions were as follows. Do suppressed thoughts have an influence on dreams? Are there explainable theories behind suppressed thoughts and dreams? What is the connection between surprised thoughts and mental control?

The research hypothesis is based on the theory that suppressed thoughts can be accessed through dreams. Brain activities evidenced by rapid eye movement (REM) are an indication of brain activity in trying to access suppressed thoughts. Pre-sleep waking thoughts also influences dreams.

However, this is only known as a psychological theory and its factual statement is yet to be tested. The access of suppressed thoughts has recurrently been explained in the theory of ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, Wenzlaff and Kozak, 2004). Basically, the suppressing of thoughts and then activating them later in dreams have been viewed by psychologists as a way of controlling mental states.

For this to happen, there must be a conscious process that tries to access the desired state of mind. In addition, this process is also supplemented by an unconscious process that automatically tries to access the contents of the desired state of mind. An example of such interactions is given by an individuals desire not to think about eating a chocolate bar.

In such a process, a person will be forced to suppress his or her thoughts towards other important issues such as dieting and dangers of cholesterol. According to theory of ironic processes, suppressed theories are more likely to be evidenced in dreams compared to immediate thoughts before sleeping or waking. Psychologists allege that such can be evidenced by rapid eye movement (REM) exhibited in a person during sleep.

Basically, the rapid eye movement is a sign that certain memory functioning is taking place, preferably the deactivation of suppressed memories. Dreaming of past events such as traumatizing events are viewed as suppressed thoughts and are sometimes deactivated through dreams.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research methodology used the following design and procedure. First, the research participants were undergraduates sampled from the University of Texas, San Antonia. The research sampled 202 women and 128 men. The sample population had a mean age of 20.36 years. Moreover, the participants were required to have at least attended the psychology introduction course offered at the university. Other important aspects of the research participation and design included offering the sample population with the following condition.

3 (instructions: suppression, expression, mention) × 2 (instruction target: crush vs. non-crush) design.

The research procedure was as follows. The research participants or sample population were given some materials in envelopes and were only allowed to open them before they got to bed that very night.

The first procedure involved thinking about two previous crush experiences they have had before and one non-crush experience. In this case, the material described a crush as a person one thinks romantically about, but has never had any romantic contact with. A non-crush is a person one thinks fondly about, without romantic feelings.

These crush and non-crush people were to be identified by initials. Another procedural task was to suppress the above thoughts for at least 5 minutes, and later think anything beside the initial thoughts. The participants were then required to record their afterwards consciousness as target thoughts. Basically, the participants were to record every detail of the target thoughts and sleep. The same procedure was to be repeated upon waking in the morning by recording all dreams.

The following morning the research findings were that 16 of the total participants dreamt about alcohol drinking. Nonetheless, the dreams of all participants were to be rated for further analysis.

Basically, the rate analysis had to consider the conditions, hypothesis on consciousness streaming and reports on crush and non-crush targets. In addition, the rate analysis also considered emotional intensity, eroticism of dreams and the valence aspect. From the research findings, it was evidenced that reliability of the ratings was a significant 0.93 in all the test variables among 19 participants.

We will write a custom Essay on Influencing of Suppressing Thoughts on Dreams specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The results of the research found that the concept of manipulation effectiveness were to be passed by emotional response among the participants, when they thought about the targets. The aspect of dream–self ratings was also used to assess participants dream content and the influence of pre-sleep task on dreams. Finally, the dream reports were used to assess the coded report by participants on emotional intensity, eroticism and emotional valence.

The discussion of the research article agrees with the research experiment that pre-sleep task have an influence on dreams. For example, the participants dreamt with their pre-sleep suppression thoughts about their crush and non-crush person. However, dreaming of a crush experience did not necessarily mean that a person was emotionally attached to the crush.

According to the research, it is also possible that any rebound dreams that occurred were as a result of changes in brain activation. This could be evidenced by REM as the participants slept. It also means that REM and other brain activities can cause rebound dreams.

The research on suppression of thoughts and their association with dreams is well thought. In fact, the research is essential in giving insightful information regarding dream theories. Although, the research is not lengthy and only involves a simple concept of the dream theory.

The research is a foundation to an in-depth analysis on rebound dreams. The strength of this research is the inclusion of a target thought in analyzing the impact of suppressed thoughts in dreams. A thought on a crush is psychologically involving and is part of a crucial process in growth and development of young people. In this aspect, thoughts of emotional attachment to another person are a good example of some of the suppressed thoughts. This makes the research non-ambiguous and objective.

However, the research on suppressed thoughts association with dreams is non-conclusive. In fact, the current research provides a lot of generalization about dreams and does not describe how dreams are formed. The science behind the activation of suppressed thoughts as evidenced by the REM is non-convincing.

There are other reason that could result in brain activation and REM, and the results on the research could as well be imagined. In fact, the REM activity is an indication that there are mental processes, which are yet to be known. Therefore, this research could focus its research on theories that explain the ironic monitoring processes, the science behind brain activation and stress simulation theory.

In this regard, the research on activation-synthesis theory is significant in interpreting brain processes. Therefore, more research modification on the same and updating of activation-information-mode theory is critical. These theories are integral in interpreting and describing formation of dreams, as the fundamental principles behind suppressed thoughts and even rebound dreams.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Influencing of Suppressing Thoughts on Dreams by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, this research raises other important aspects of the same research. For example, the concept of threat stimulation theory and other brain activities while sleep raises more question on the influence of suppressed thoughts on dreams. Therefore, this research requires further analysis and improvement on the same.

Reference Wegner, M. D., Wenzlaff, M. R.,

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Plato’s Philosophy Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Plato’s Theory

Allegory of the cave and reasons to mistrust majority

Plato class system

Motivation of Plato’s philosophy

Works Cited

Born around 427 BC in Athens, Plato was an ancient Greek philosopher. His father (Ariston) and his mother (Perictione) were members of a noble society of Athens. Despite the fact that he travelled to Italy on several occasions, most of his life was spent in Athens. Being born of a noble family, although much literature does not exist about his early life, Plato acquired the finest education as reflected in his collection of philosophical works reflecting the tragedy and politics of his time.

While Socrates was his teacher, Aristotle was his student. Plato’s writings explore themes such as equality and beauty coupled with a discussion of aesthetics, cosmology, political philosophy, language philosophy, and political philosophy. He was the founder of one of the oldest philosophy academy in Athens in the western world.

Plato lived in the synthesis age. He had an acquaintance with Socrates (his teacher) between 469 and399 B.C.E. Socrates altered the life of Plato. In this perspective, Kahn reckons, “the power that Socrates methods and arguments had over the minds of the youth of Athens gripped Plato as firmly as it did many others, and he became a close associate of Socrates” (67). Following the death of his father, Plato’s mother married Pericles’ friend.

This move made him connected to both democracy and oligarchy systems of politics. After the Peloponnesian war came to a halt, his uncle and mother persuaded Plato to join the Athens oligarchic rules. However, he objected. He preferred becoming a student of Socrates. In the Socrates academy, he developed his principles of being an opponent to relativisms coupled with Sophist’s skepticisms.

He dwelled on values as opposed to physical science. While describing the works of Socrates, Aristotle paid immense credits to Socrates’ emphasis on moral questions coupled with his precise definitions of issues. A careful scrutiny of Plato’s works evidences that he absorbed these lessons from the Socrates’ class.

The philosophical positions held by Plato made him neither a friend to thirty tyrants (404-403 BC) nor to Athenian democracy upon its restoration. He deployed critical interrogation methodology to alienate them. As Kahn informs, in the 399 BC, Plato was “brought to trial with capital crimes of religious impiety and corruption of youth where he was convicted and sentenced to death” (22). One of his friends offered to have him freed through payment of a fine as opposed to the imposition of the death penalty.

Referring to this experience, Kahn writes, “Plato tells us in the Seventh Letter after Socrates’ death that he became disenchanted with all existing political regimes and felt that the only salvation of politics would require that either true or genuine philosophers attain political powers or the rulers of states by some dispensation of providence become genuine philosophers” (39).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He founded his school around 387 BC in Athens. In effect, the school served as a higher education institute specializing in philosophy, astronomy, physical science, and mathematics. In this school, Plato delivered lectures. Unfortunately, the lectures were never published.

Dion, Dionysious II’s uncle, invited Plato to Dionysius school thus securing him a voyage to Sicily. He was trapped in the Syracuse until 360 BC. After several misunderstandings between Dion and Dionysius II’, Dion entered Syracuse in 357 B.C.E. The move culminated to the overthrow of Dionysius.

In the seventh letter of Plato, he recounts his roles in the death of Dion although, “the deepest truths may not be communicated” (Kahn 34). When Plato traveled back to Athens, he continued being the president of his academy until his demise in 347 BC. He died at the age of 80 years.

Plato’s Theory Plato postulated that people live in an imperfect state. This position was opposed to the position held by Athenians who held that their polis was perfect with regard to cultural and military achievements. His skepticism can perhaps be traced from his role model, Socrates, who taught him to be skeptical about a society, which pays no attention to inclusion of people with political expertise in the running of states.

In the Republic, Plato proposes an ideal state having the capacity to deal with the imperfection in the real state such as corruption. Plato theorizes the realization of the ideal state as encompassing three waves aimed at eroding corruption coupled with bringing about new principles and ideals.

The first wave consists of the ruling class, which, rather than being composed of the perceived most intelligent people, it constituted “only philosophers-kings” (Jackson 93). Plato defined philosophers as people “who have a great love of knowledge believing that knowledge was the key to a successful ruler” (Jackson 93). Kings ought to be philosophers while philosophers ought to become kings.

The second wave in the Plato theory for ideal states entangles the guardians who are principally a mix of women and men. Unfortunately, at his time, women were not permitted to engage in political processes. This argument meant that Plato was not only knowledgeable on political issues surrounding the ancient Greek history but also on modernization standards.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Plato’s Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Opposed to the prescription of roles for engaging in battles among people belonging to the guardian class, Plato saw such roles as irrelevant in his theory of ideal states since the manner of operation of the third wave gave no room for conflicts.

In the third wave, guardians would have no wealth, would share all they had, had no private property, lived together communally, envy would disappear in theory, and issues of class rankings disappeared. This argument means that disagreements would not arise on issues such as who should have what since all people would have the same things. A perfect society would thus be created.

Allegory of the cave and reasons to mistrust majority The allegory of the cave can serve in revealing some of the key reasons to mistrust the views of the majority. The allegory of the cave presents a description of a complex philosophical world. Plato “described symbolically the predicament in which mankind finds itself and proposes a way of salvation” (Kreis 1). The salvation advocated by Plato is influenced by the theory of freedom of mind that was advanced by his teacher, Socrates. According to Plato, the manner in which the world is revealed to us is not a real copy of it.

Unfortunately, majority of people live in the unreal copy, which is characterized by various class systems. Since the world presented to us is not real, it inappropriate to trust the majority of the people living in it with their minds trapped by unreasonable norms of various class systems.

This argument is evidenced by Plato’s theory that is advanced through the allegory of caves in which he held, “the universe ultimately is good, his conviction that enlightened individuals have an obligation to the rest of society, and that a good society must be the one in which the truly wise are the rulers” (Kreis 1).

Philosophically, the wise are the people who have freedom of thought and people who do not open their own minds to prejudice in search of what is real and accurate beyond any reasonable doubt. This argument drives at the first reason why people should not trust the majority.

Believing the majority implies contending on a universally acceptable way of thought, which is not acceptable since the world is not real. Hence, everything presented to us by it is open to doubt. The unrealistic nature of the world is perhaps evident by consideration of descriptions of it in the allegory of caves.

In the allegory of the caves, Plato provides an analogy of how people live in the unreal world by describing a situation in which people live around a cave situated underground. An opening is located at the top of the cave. A shadow is casted due to burning fires. The people living in the cave are chained thus making them only be able to see the wall.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Plato’s Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, they are not able to turn around. Since people in the cave cannot only see the wall, in case an object passes by the fire, a shadow is cast on the wall. People are not able to see the real object. Hence, the only thing that they comprehend to exist is the shadow of the object (Plato 747). Luckily, one the people in the caves gets off his chains and manages to wander around in the exterior of the cave (Plato 748).

What he sees flabbergasts him. When he reports to the rest of people still chained in the cave about what he saw outside the cave, they (majority) think that he is mad. They indeed plot to murder him (Plato 749). This evidences that the majority has a deeply ingrained fear to come into terms with reality. This primitiveness of the true nature of majority of the people serves to advance and promote ignorance. Thus, it is dogmatic for a rational thinking being to trust the majority.

Plato class system In the Republic, tantamount to the allegory of caves, Socrates is the central character. However, Republic is “less a dialogue than a long discussion by Socrates of justice and what it means to the individual and city state (independent states)” (Kahn 51).

According to Plato, class systems comprised three elements. These are guardians, rulers, and workers. These state classes are analogous to the three elements of the soul: rational, impulsive irrational, and less rational. Each of the elements of the state classes has different roles in society. Rulers do not comprise ruler’s families.

Rather, the class is made up of people who stand out in the society as the most intellectual and gifted. Just as rational component of the soul is the chief decision maker based on reason, the rulers are charged with the roles of giving direction to the rest of the class states. Surprisingly, this class is composed of the fewest number of people in the population.

The class that compares with the less rational components of the soul is the guardians. In the Plato class systems, guardians are charged with the roles of maintaining order in the society and handling governments’ practical matters such as engagement in battles. While the guardians would make certain decisions in the execution of their roles in the class systems, their actions are in the better part dependent on the decisions made by the rational element of the state (rulers).

The main roles of the workers are engagement in labor to ensure that the whole runs in a smooth manner. This last class of people in class systems comprises the majority. Compared to the elements of the soul, the class is analogous to the impulsive irrational (Kahn 57). Hence, the larger the numbers of people in class systems, the more their roles are less driven by their own rationality.

Borrowing from the argument that people should choose to act in a manner that justifies one’s rationality at arriving at a decision to act in particular ways, trusting majority is detrimental to one’s capacity to think rationally. This assertion justifies the actions adopted by the majority of the people in the allegory of the cave to kill the person who had information about the reality of the world.

Motivation of Plato’s philosophy Various issues including experience motivate the development of philosophies of various people. This section argues that Plato’s philosophy is relative to his culture and experience. This argument is evidenced by the vivid descriptions of people living in caves in confusion. In his era, people lived in a society where they never questioned the authority.

They did what was required of them without thinking through the appropriateness of what they did. Yet, those who objected to comply were treated as enemies, and were subjected to punishment. This experience is reflected in Plato’s allegory of caves when he informs that, when one of the people tied in chains in the caves got an opportunity to learn about what the real world was like, the other people planned to kill him.

Considering his personal experience in political systems, it is evident that his allegory of caves reflects the ignorance of ruling class state to incorporate the knowledgeable in the governance of the states. Indeed, philosophers who Plato perceives have incredible knowledge and are able to view issues from true and real dimensions were treated with dismay. In this context, Jackson reckons, “Athenians saw Plato’s kind as rogues and useless individuals who thought themselves as better than the rest of the society” (81).

This argument underlies the reason why Plato maintains that kings need to be philosophers and philosophers need to become kings in the Republic. This way, kings would have an understanding of how philosophy would aid in helping them to develop an ideal state: free from conflicts.

Plato’s philosophies reflect various arguments on the manner in which material distribution should be done to realize an ideal society. His theory on the political society is a depiction of historical materialistic conceptions evident in his society.

In this perspective, Jackson notes that, since Plato was born in a strict social class, his works reflect ideas of Karl Marx that the “nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production” (99). The argument is evidenced by his argument in the Republic that ideal states would have to be docile as a matter of condition defining when they were born and how they were raised.

According to him, the nature of people in the ideal states would have to be defined by their surroundings- the society. Indeed, he wonders, “How can any society that has such a strict social code and classes ever be successful?” (Kahn 77). This interrogative is a depiction of well thought ideas about how societies are supposed to be constituted based on Plato’s cultural experience.

The advocating for people to think rationally and independent from the ill conception of people in the society reflects the contempt held by Plato for a society that delinked his departure of ways of thought based on rational judgment. Now, it is important to retaliate that this same society executed his teacher- Socrates- for his failure to submit his mind and power of reason to prejudice.

As argued before, Plato was born in an era when compliance was vital to fit in a society. This compliance impaired rationality of people. Hence, people could not perceive the reality. This experience is reflected abundantly in the allegory of caves. Readers of the allegory of caves know too well that puppeteers behind the prisoners used wooden and iron objects, which liked reality in the form of shadows.

In the context of Plato’s cultural experience, this development is critical since what is insinuated as reality from the time he was born was now exposed to doubt since it could be “completely false based on our imperfect interpretations of reality and goodness” (Kahn 78). The point of argument here is that people use names to describe physical representation of what can only be grasped by the mind since appearance may be deceptive. Hence, the things defined in Plato’s society and political systems as right may not be right or good.

Drawing from the above argument, in the development of an ideal society, the problem is to define what is good because what one may perceive as good may indeed be an imitation of the reality. Hence, rulers create their own meaning of what is good. With the flawed definition of good, a challenge of doing ‘good’ emerges.

Deeply ingrained knowledge is required to come up with what is good for the society. Concerning Plato, only philosophers are able to think freely and evaluate various issues far from just in the context of face value. This argument explains perhaps why he says in the Republic that philosophers need to become kings.

Otherwise, ‘good’ would just remain being a word but not a representation of what is appropriate for the whole society. This argument is congruent with the position held by Jackson, “in a society like Athens where society came first, it would not matter if citizens thought they did well because, if they did not do well for the polis, then that “good” did not matter” (101). Based on this assertion, the allegory of caves reflects a society (Athens) whose reality is constructed by other people beyond the reach of the majority.

Only few people who are able to escape from the chains can understand the reality. Unfortunately, the ignorant people who are not able to unveil their reality threaten the lives of those few witty people. Such people who have escaped the wrath of ignorance represent people like Plato and Socrates, his teacher.

Works Cited Jackson, Roy. Plato: A Beginner’s Guide. London: Hoder and Stroughton, 2001. Print.

Kahn, Charles. Plato and the Socratic Dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.

Kreis, Steven. Plato republic, Book VI: the allegory of the cave. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.

Plato. Republic VII. Collected Dialogues of Plato. Ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Princeton: Princeton University Publishers, 1982. Print.

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Hart-Landsburg and Burkett Argument Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Since the late 1970s, China has been experiencing a tremendous growth in its economy. In 1978, the Communist Party of China commenced an economic reformation program that aimed at enhancing the economic growth and performance of China (Hudis 112).

This program aimed at enhancing the management of state owned enterprises (SOEs) as well as encouraging the development of privately owned enterprises. Thus, in addition to attaining high rates of economic growth and attracting foreign direct investments, the main aim of this economic reform was to transform the Chinese economy to a socialist market economy (Kraus 361).

The aim of this ideology was to ensure that this economy is primarily controlled by state owned corporations. With this strategy in place, it was believed that every individual in China would benefit from the results of economic development as the profits earned by SOEs would be evenly distributed within the population.

At the present moment, China is one of the nations that exhibit high economic growth rates in terms of GDP. However, from a critical angle, it is evident that the Chinese market is based on the capitalist system. It is due to this fact that Hart-Landsburg and Burkett argue that perhaps China has failed to achieve its economic reform goals that were set over four decades ago.

Thus, the measures that were put in place after the implementation of the market reforms only led to the growth of capitalism. Despite the fact that SOEs were dominant during the 1970s and the 1980s, the growth of private entrepreneurship started to flourish during the late 1980s and in the 1990s.

Consequently, the Chinese government passed several legislations that not only encouraged the privatization of SOEs, but also played a significant role in attracting foreign direct investments which led to the growth of the private sector. In 1993 for instance, the labor law was passed in China. This law eliminated the control that the government had in the selection and recruitment processes and paved way for the free labor market.

This new concept used the demand and supply mechanism to determine the availability of jobs and the remuneration of employees. As a result, China has now been regarded as one of the main sources of cheap labor. Thus, many firms have moved their operations in this nation to enjoy the low costs of production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this analysis, it is clear that the reformation program that was initiated by the Chinese government to rejuvenate socialism within China has failed. The results of this program have led the Chinese economy into a totally different path. The Chinese market is now based on capitalism.

Consequently, most of the market industries and segments are dominated by foreign owned companies (Hart-Landsberg

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Let the Sky Fall: Sequestration as the Practice That Should be Abandoned Once and for All Essay a level english language essay help

There is hardly anything that people take for granted as easily as the state budget. Indeed, what the state budget is being spent on, as well as what cuts it is supposed to undergo and due to what factors does not interest an average citizen of the USA in the least. When it comes to cutting on the bare necessities and the everyday facilities, as well as raising the costs for services, the results sequestration become obvious, which leads to another bunch of economical, financial and political problems to solve.

Although demanding that a person should pay for certain services and pay the debts that the person has made is a rather legitimate demand, the idea of sequestration is still too severe a measure to impose on a person. In addition, some of the aspects of sequestration can lead to people questioning its actual usefulness and the reasonability if sequestering the state budget.

Despite the fact that currently, the U.S. government and the President insist on the need to sequestrate the budget, the results of the given procedure may turn out even more drastic than expected. Even though budget sequestration might lead to getting financial help for the state to cover the expenses, the costs that the USA will not be worth the effort.

To start with, the process of sequestration needs a definition. Described as “a process of automatic, largely across-the-board spending reductions to meet or enforce certain budget policy goals” (Saturno and Heniff 17–4), sequestration does not seem a fabulous perspective for the U.S. economy.

One of the most often expressed concerns about the sequestration concerns the way in which the budget cuts are carried out. According to what Larsen says, these are not just the cuts in budget that the U.S. state authorities talk about, but the cuts in the rates of the budget growth. Therefore, not only the current budget, but also the whole budgeting policy of the United States is threatened once the policy of sequestration becomes an integral part of the American reality.

The given event can be the point at which the U.S. economy starts going completely downhill. With the current spending levels as the basis for the future budget to be planned on, the government of the United States will practically reduce the future growth rates of the federal budget (Shick 82). Reconsidering the possible effects of the sequestration policy, one can assume that it might lead to the same deplorable economical situation as the one that the United States faced in 1990 because of the missteps taken in 1980 (Schick 82).

To its credit, the sequestration policy has certain positive aspects. No matter how scanty the obtained financial resources will supposedly be, it is still necessary to admit that the state government is still planning to use this money for the greater good. As the state report says, the budget cuts and the money obtained as a result of the sequestration are going to be used for a noble cause.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To start with, the cuts will serve the purpose of enhancing the state defense program, which is crucial in the light of the increasing tension in the relationships between states. As the report says, 10% ($55 billion) are going to be used for enhancing the defense program. Another important issue that the state is going to address as soon as the state budget increases is the concern for the citizens’ health.

Medicare will receive 2% of the revenues in addition to the money that is annually provided to the Medicare by the government. Making $11 million, this money will certainly be of great use for Medicare, helping the latter provide the U.S. citizens top-notch medical services (Congress 4969). It goes without saying that medical services must be improved in accordance with the latest advances in medicine and technology.

Therefore, from the given perspective, the sequestration process can be justified. The last, but definitely not the least, the development of educational facilities all over the country is a crucial process that must be encouraged. Though sequestration is not the only way to get the funding for education process development, it is admittedly helpful for education at present.

Still, the policy of sequestration does not seem to hold any water. For instance, the governmental authority and the ideas voiced by the President should be brought up when considering the sequestration issue.

Although there is sufficient evidence that the sequestration procedure as a result of defaulting on one’s payments seems rather threatening, the actions that the U.S. government is currently undertaking makes the given threat rather doubtful. According to Larsen’s judgment, “And all of those threats that the president made earlier about who won’t get paid, and what services would not be provided, are just that: empty threats” (Larsen).

Therefore, in addition to all the problems that it causes in the economical and financial spheres, the sequestration legislation does not make the U.S. government look good, either. Hence, another argument against the sequestration reform appears; for the U.S. government to keep its authority and remain trustworthy in the eyes of the American citizens, it is necessary either to keep with the sequestration policy fully, or to reject the given policy.

Given the absurdity of some of the existing governmental projects, such as “Moroccan pottery classes, an empty airport at Lake Murray State Park in Oklahoma, a robot squirrel funded through the National Science Foundation, or the Alabama Watermelon Queen Tour” (Larsen), it must be admitted that enhancing the policy on sequestration is not the best way for the U.S. government to prove its reasonability and regain its authority.

We will write a custom Essay on Let the Sky Fall: Sequestration as the Practice That Should be Abandoned Once and for All specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the aspect of trust in the American government is not the only reason for the latter to change their policy on sequestration; as the recently obtained data shows, the money that the sequestration process brings to the state authorities is quickly dispersed among several departments, split into rather small amounts (Dewhurst and Rausch 67).

Therefore, the value of the money that has been obtained in the process of sequestration reduces; being split between several departments, this money can hardly buy a required tool or pay for the long-awaited project. Bringing little to no profit for the government, this money can hardly help improve the situation regarding the federal debt:

The rest of the outlay reduction of $1.2 trillion triggered by the sequestration will be applied over the next ten years. But even with that reduction, the federal debt is projected by the Congressional Budget Office to be a staggering $26 trillion. (Larsen)

Because of the drastic situation with the Federal debt, even the results of sequestration will not help improve the financial situation and solve the existing problems (Mauro 36). While using the money that have been sequestered from the mortgage owners does allow for sufficient financial support for certain projects, the amount of the Federal debt is still too great to be handled with such little sum of money that can be extracted from individuals.

As Larsen put it, “It’s going to hurt individual people and it’s going to hurt the economy over all” (Larsen). While the individuals are going to suffer, their possessions being taken away from them and government leaving them with little to no means of subsistence, the needs of the state are highly unlikely to be addressed anyway.

Addressing the issue of sequestration, one must admit that it does not lead to immediate satisfaction of the person who has suffered from a certain offence; moreover, in certain situations, the cost of the sequestrated property is not enough to cover even a half of the losses that have been taken.

In their turn, people suffer greatly. Apart from the aspect of humanity, the numerous economical issues are worth bringing up. For instance, the loss of the above-mentioned 1.2 % spending that the Wall Street financial markets will take as a result of the sequestration process is also quite a debatable issue (Naco).

Moreover, the fact that the sequestered amount of money will disperse among the numerous departments and will hardly suffice for completing any project that bears any significance, is rather disturbing. Taking everything that has been mentioned above into consideration, one must admit that the sequestration law is highly unreasonable and must not be adopted on any account.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Let the Sky Fall: Sequestration as the Practice That Should be Abandoned Once and for All by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Congress. Congressional Record. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2010. Print.

Dewhurst, Robert E. and John D. Rausch. Encyclopedia of the United States Congress. 2009. Print.

Larsen, Richard. Sequestration 101, The Sky Is not Falling. n. d. PDF file. 1 Mar. 2013. Print.

Mauro, Paolo. Chipping Away at Public Debt: Sources of Failure and Keys to success in Fiscal Adjustment. New York, NY: John Wiley

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Kuala Lumpur Overview Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Kuala Lumpur is a region in Malaysia, which is a good example of urban dynamics. The population growth of the Kuala Lumpur region varies from the core of the city to the suburbs. The population growth in the core of the city is extremely high and is approximated to have doubled between 1980 census and 2000 census.

By the year 2010, the increase in population had tripled that of the year 1980. There is a great difference in percentage growth in the suburbs and in the core of the city. As much as there is a high population growth in the core, the growth of the population in the suburbs has been more rapid, nearly six times that of the city. At the current growth rate of the region, the population could approach 10 million by 2025 (Bindloss

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A Defence of Thrasymachus Concept of Justice Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Life of Thrasymachus

The Concept of Justice according to Thrasymachus

Defence for his Conception of justice

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Everyone deserves to be treated in a just manner. However, and unfortunately, the concept of justice seems to mean different things to different people. This essay seeks to explain and defend the concept of justice according to one Thrasymachus.

Life of Thrasymachus The exact year of birth of Thrasymachus remains unclear. Dionysius intimated that Thrasymachus was younger than Lysias. Dionysius wrongly believed that Lysias was born in 459 BC. According to Aristotle, Thrasymachus lived between the times of Tisias and those of Theodorus although he did not state the exact dates. Cicero indicated that Thrasymachus and Gorgias lived around the same time.

Aristophanes seems to give an exact reference for Thrasymachus life in the mention of his play, Banqueters which was performed in the year 427 BC. It is therefore probable that Thrasymachus had been a teacher in Athens for some period before the play was performed. In his writings, Thrasymachus makes reference to Archelaos, the King of Macedonia between 413 and 399 BC. Rightly so, Thrasymachus was on the scene in the fifth century BC (Rauhut).

The Concept of Justice according to Thrasymachus Other than his date of birth being unclear, his philosophical ideas are also not clear. Some people believe that he was a Sophist. It is in the Book One of Plato’s Republic that Thrasymachus becomes visible. His encounter with Socrates is dramatic and emotional as he attacks the position taken by Socrates that justice is a vital good (Rauhut). Thrasymachus asserts that ‘injustice, if it is on a large enough scale, is stronger, freer, and more masterly than justice’ (Rauhut).

As they argue with Socrates on the issue of injustice, Thrasymachus says that justice “is nothing more than the advantage of the stronger” (sparknotes). In other words, justice for the poor does not exist. As we know it, justice is a preserve of the stronger. This could be stronger in terms of wealth or power.

According to him, it pays not to be just and it is not the person who behaves justly who benefits but the person who acts unjustly. The assumption here is that those in power are always unjust but they access justice at the expense of the weak. The only just thing that we can do to justice is to ignore it in totality.

From the long discussion with Socrates, three major issues are raised by Thrasymachus, three attempts at defining the concept of justice. Thrasymachus sees justice as the advantage that the stronger have over the weak. By strong is meant those in power, the rulers, and the rich and so on. Secondly, Thrasymachus perceives justice as an imposing laws on people; obedience to the laws of the land. Lastly, Thrasymachus sees justice as that advantage that one has over another.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Defence for his Conception of justice Let us start with the first conception of justice: advantage of the stronger. The stronger refer to the ruling party, the government of the day, the leaders and any other person who is in a privileged position either due to power or affluence. In every society, it is the same people who make laws which always work to their advantage. The weak will call it injustice but to the strong, it is just to follow those laws that favor them (sparknotes).

It is not so clear why the weak must always follow the rules set by the strong and why such following is always in the interest of the strong. Some scholars, among them Wilamowitz, Zeller and Strauss have treated Thrasymachus as a natural right crusader. The scholars argue that it is only natural that the weak are ruled by the stronger (Rauhut). This is rightly so in almost every society.

Another group of scholars comprising of Hourani and Grote have dealt with the second conception of justice by Thrasymachus. According to them, justice is all about obeying of laws.

They seem to vouch for legalism and accordingly, Thrasymachus is portrayed as a relativist who believes that justice cannot be thought of outside the body of laws. It is all about observing existing laws. As such, any good deeds performed outside the set rules cannot be seen as elements of justice. One wonders where acts like obedience to parents fall if it is not defined as justice.

The third group of Kerferd and Nicholson observes that the third conception of justice by Thrasymachus is his main part in the justice issue. In this regard, Thrasymachus is “an ethical egoist who stresses that justice is the good of another and thus incompatible with the pursuit of one’s self interest” (Rauhut). This qualifies Thrasymachus under ethics more than in politics. In other words, Thrasymachus thrives more in ethical arguments than political ones.

Taylor and Burnet look at Thrasymachus as an ethical nihilist. According to them, the cardinal aim of Thrasymachus is to prove that justice does not exist. This argument can lead to a back and forth argument. If Thrasymachus believes that justice does not exist, are we to take that as the truth? This would go against the Principle of Non Contradiction (Cliffnotes). The mere mention of justice implies that justice indeed exists.

Barney and Johnson have suggested that Thrasymachus should not be taken for what he is not. He is a sociologist cum political scientist who offers observable facts that equals to a “cynical commentary on those who follow a traditional, Hesiodic conception of justice (Rauhut).

We will write a custom Essay on A Defence of Thrasymachus Concept of Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, another group treats Thrasymachus as a confused thinker. This arises from the fact that even his own conceptions of justice do not marry, they don’t support each other yet they are from once person (Rauhut).

Thrasymachus may have been treated as seen in the above discussion yet his input cannot be wished away. His ideas are very crucial in ethical and moral theory. Where ethics is concerned, his views have majorly been seen as the “first fundamental critique of moral values” (Rauhut).

In addition, he seems to foreshadow Nietzsche when he insists that “moral values are socially constructed and are nothing but the reflection of the interests of particular political communities” (Cliffnotes). He is seen as propagating cynical realism in political theory that states that might is right.

Conclusion Thrasymachus is such a pillar in ethics and political philosophy. He cannot be wished away, he can only be studied deeper from his fragments so that a better understanding of Thrasymachus is sought and used to enhance the said fields of ethics and political philosophy or theory. Strong people have the courage to do wrong.

Works Cited Cliffnotes. Republic by Plato: Summary and Analysis. 1 March 2013. 14 March 2013

Rauhut, Nils. Thrasymachus (fl. 427 BCE). 9 August 2011. 13 March 2013 sparknotes. Republic Book I: Summary. 5 February 2013. 13 March 2013

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Affirmative Action Research Paper writing essay help

Society is differentiated in several categories and everybody cannot have the same opportunities to advance him or herself. Some people are disabled and therefore are unable to compete effectively when it comes to some issues. In some societies, culture has defined women as being weak people whose duty is only to give birth and take care of children. They are therefore given minimal opportunities to economically empower themselves.

There are also places where people from given racial backgrounds are given an upper hand in economic and societal matters as compared to others. However, it is just fair that every person is treated equally and given equal opportunities in society to develop. Consequently, the government has initiated policies that are meant to ensure equality in society. Affirmative action is among the efforts that have been taken to see to it that each person stands the same chance in the society.

Affirmative action refers to the measures that are taken by the government to ensure that discrimination against people on the grounds of sex, color, religion or nationality is eliminated. It is important to note that these measures are usually applied in employment areas. The measures have been taken so as the help mitigate the effects of historical discrimination that has led to various disadvantages to the affected groups (Tittle 237).

Moreover, the argument has been that every group of people needs to be fairly represented in institutions especially if the institutions are within the society where the groups reside. However, various institutions are bound to be unfair if they are left free to act on their own initiatives. As a result, affirmative action is necessary to ensure that institutions are compelled to include everybody.

Despite the good effects that affirmative action has to the society, it has not gone without opposing arguments. To begin with, there are those people who view affirmative action as being a form of reverse discrimination. In their view, affirmative action leads to discrimination against the majority in favor of the minority.

In the case of Riccci v. DeStefano, a group of white people went to court complaining that affirmative action had been used to discriminate against them. This argument is based on the fact that some criteria for various actions are disregarded so that affirmative action could be applied.

Moreover, there are those people who argue that it would be better if merit and qualifications were the criteria used to give people various positions (Sharma 89). According to this group of people, affirmative action requires use of some features which people have no control over like, gender and race in selection of people. This is being unfair to other people who cannot change their background.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With or without affirmative action, there are other qualifications that must be met. These include academic or job experiences that one must have before being allowed to even attend an interview. In this regard, people have argued that affirmative action does not help people or women from lower classes but only those who happen to come from well to do backgrounds.

Minority and women from lower classes do not even have the opportunity of getting a good education that can allow them to stand a chance of being considered for interviews (Sharma 95). Consequently, some people have argued that affirmative action leads to further class discrepancies.

Another argument against affirmative action is based on the fact that people might be unwilling to work hard knowing that the affirmative action will favor them to get employed. Moreover, affirmative action will only increase racial tension because people favored by affirmative action will be viewed negatively by others.

Furthermore, other people argue that discrimination is illegal in law and each person will try as a much as possible to avoid discrimination on any grounds. With this in mind, affirmative action is useless since everybody is trying to use merit in choosing students or even employees. In addition, affirmative action is seen by opponents as some form of quotas which are not healthy to the society.

On the same note, the problem of discrimination on grounds of gender, race or any other factor is not present in any society nowadays, leave alone in American society. As a result, it is useless to use affirmative action to fight a vice that is no longer existent in society (Fischer 20).

Moreover, provided there is affirmative action in place their will still be some form of stigma to minority groups. As a result, affirmative action only helps to foster prejudices towards some groups of people. Arguably, people need to be evaluated as individuals and not as groups in which they belong. By and large, though affirmative action is linked to minority groups there is scanty evidence that the groups which need affirmative action really benefit from the same.

Not everybody is against affirmative action. There are people who have brought forward quality explanations of why affirmative action is essential to the society. Firstly, the society is made up of different racial groups some of which have been discriminated against for a long time now. Moreover, communities that are considered as minorities are increasing in number (Tittle 240). Whether we like it or not, these people will form our country’s workforce in the future.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Affirmative Action specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, it would help to equip everybody from now to ensure that the future workforce will be well prepared. On the same note, it is a fact that there are some communities who due to their racial background have been disadvantaged. These communities are unable to compete effectively because they lack the necessary qualifications. One way of assisting these communities is by addressing the historical injustices and finding a way of reversing the same. This is what affirmative action aims at doing.

Moreover, if the community does nothing, most institutions will be dominated by the majority groups. These will lead to further disadvantages to the minorities. Therefore, affirmative action is important to ensure that minorities are empowered by ensuring their representation in schools and work places.

In addition, ensuring a level play ground in itself will not help to give equal opportunities to everybody (Fischer 12). The major groups which have several advantages over the minorities will always have an upper hand. Therefore, affirmative action is very essential in helping people with various disadvantages thus ensuring that everybody has equal opportunities.

Opponents of affirmative action argue that race and gender should not be used as a basis for giving people opportunities. Proponents argue that affirmative action is not used to make employers and schools take unqualified people.

On the contrary, affirmative action is meant to ensure that minorities and women who qualify are given an upper hand in these institutions. Similarly, diversity in opinion which has been found to be very beneficial in any institution stems from diversity in composition of workforce.

It is important to note that diversity leads to ingenuity and competitiveness in the workforce. In this regard, affirmative action is very essential because if helps to foster diversity in selection. It is also evident that there is a huge gap in education, especially higher education, between whites and color communities. This gap can never be eliminated if deliberate measures are not taken to ensure that the minorities have a fair share of opportunities in institutions of higher learning.

Moreover, research at the Michigan University depicted that people needed exposure on how different races view the world in order to integrate with people without problems (Sharma 76). On the same note, people who have experienced diversity are more likely to succeed in life because they are more able to approach various problems from an objective perspective (Fischer 9).

It is, therefore, the argument of proponents that affirmative action is not intended to discriminate against the majority or be unfair to any group. On the contrary, it is meant to ensure that all people are pulled up to the point where they can be able to compete equally with other people.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Affirmative Action by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Affirmative action has found great support from the government in form of policies as well as various decisions from the courts. In the case of Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), the court held that institutions can use race as a factor of admission to achieve race diversity in the composition of their students. This is because adoption of color blind policies will only favor white students due to the fact that they get exposed to education systems early in life.

In the case of Griggs v. Duke Power co., the court decided that the employment requirements were discriminating because promotions were not done fairly on the ground of job performance. The government also helped to enforce the affirmative action in 1979 when President Jimmy Carter issued an executive order which led to the creation of National Women’s Business Enterprise Policy (Tittle 253). This enhanced implementation of affirmative action thus enabling women to prosper in entrepreneurship.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is also among the measures that have been taken by the government to help in the efforts of affirmative action. This Act ensures that people with disabilities are given equal treatment as any other person during employment or promotion process. The review of affirmative action that was ordered by president Clinton in 1998 found that affirmative action is very crucial. However, the review suggested continuous evaluation to ensure that any negative effects are eliminated immediately.

It is important to note that there are also efforts to stop the enforcement of affirmative action. The most recent include the case of Fisher v. University of Texas. In this case the plaintiffs are arguing that they were discriminated against when they failed to get admitted to the university.

They are citing the university’s application of the affirmative action as the cause. The future of affirmative action in learning institutions depends on the ruling of this case. If the court overturns or affirms the ruling of Grutter v. Bollinger is matter that we can only wait to see. It is paramount to note that there have been successful petitions against affirmative action in the past. In the case of Hopwood v. Texas (1996), it was held that the university could not use race as a factor of admission (Sharma 117).

Opponents of affirmative action argue that it is ethically wrong to favor some people in society. The argument is that affirmative action is a way of punishing innocent people from majority communities who were not there when discrimination was taking place. Moreover, it is unethical to just wait until people are grown up to give them favors (Fischer 4).

From the time of birth, minority communities should be given equal chances so that they may stand a good chance of competing effectively with the others. However, it should be noted that there is everything ethically correct in trying to favor people who have been pushed to the back in various societal aspects. If people agree that segregation was ethically wrong and immoral, then affirmative action is ethically right because it addresses the effects of segregation.

The minority and colored people still comprise a very minimal percentage when it comes to various economic sectors. Unemployment rate among black people is double that of white people. There are still huge disparities in terms of education levels between Black-Americans and White-Americans.

The effects of segregation have not yet been fully addressed. Moreover, it has been depicted that without affirmative action these disparities will escalate.

Many people will avoid women workers or the disabled due to reasons well known to them. It is, therefore, important to have affirmative action in place to help in addressing issues that equality policies cannot be effective in tackling. Nevertheless, it would be vital to ensure that affirmative action policies are well formulated to minimize any negative effects that might arise.

Works Cited Fischer, Katharina. Advantages and Controversy of US “Affirmative Action” Concerning African-Americans. Munchen: GRIN Verlag, 2010. Print.

Sharma, Arvind. Reservation and Affirmative Action: Models of Social Integration in India and the United states. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publishers, 2005. Print.

Tittle, Peg. Ethical Issues in Business: Inquiries, Cases, and Readings. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2000. Print.

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The Problem of Internet Piracy in Modern Society Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Online piracy is one of the major problems that the entertainment industry faces. Online piracy makes the industry lose billions of dollars annually. It has led to significant reduction in the number of music CDs that record labels sell annually. Record labels have undertaken several strategies to reduce online piracy.

Litigation against companies that engage in online piracy is one of the strategies that record labels use to reduce the vice. In addition, record labels have set up legitimate websites where customers can download music online. However, these measures have not been successful. The Pirate Bay was one of the companies that engaged in online piracy of music. The company enabled users to access an unlimited number of pirated content.

The Pirate Bay was primarily a business. Therefore, it had to make a profit to remain in operation. The company generated its revenue from advertisements. There were various advertisements on the company’s web page. Companies that advertised on The Pirate Bay’s web page paid a premium price for the service. Since most people who pirate music online are between the ages of 14 and 21, the advertisements were very effective.

This is because people in this age bracket are more responsive to various online advertisements. Therefore, the business model of the company is the advertising revenue. The Pirate Bay did not charge customers to download music from the site. In addition, The Pirate Bay did not store the pirated music. The company was a search engine that enabled its users to access pirated content expediently from other providers. This enabled the company to gain popularity quickly.

P2P networks that operate without corporate sponsorship may repackage and sell pirated content to generate revenue. The networks usually sell the repackaged content at prices that are much lower than the recommended market prices. However, P2P networks do not remit the payments they receive from their customers to the music companies that own the copyright for the repackaged content.

P2P networks may also sell subscriptions to private networks. Certain P2P networks may generate revenue by advertising to users of the networks through spyware and adware programs that have pop-up advertisements. Users download the spyware or adware when they download software from the company. The spyware and adware may send unsolicited e-mails from parties that pay for the service.

There are many social and legal implications of piracy. Various people argue that P2P sites deny musicians and record labels valuable income. This reduces the profitability of the record labels. In addition, reduced income may reduce motivation of artists and record labels. However, there are arguments against this opinion. Record labels do not benefit musicians.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their only aim is to make money by exploiting musicians. Musicians make a sizeable percentage of their income from endorsements and concerts. Therefore, it is wrong for the record labels to claim that they are protecting the music industry when in fact they are only protecting their own interests. Record labels should not shut down P2P sites since they are simply a means of accessing pirated music.

They do not engage in piracy directly. Shutting the P2P sites would not eliminate piracy. It would only make it hard for people to pirate music using P2P sites. However, people would ultimately find other means of accessing pirated content. The only solution is for the record labels to develop new platforms of promoting and distributing their music. In addition, record labels may target parties that provide pirated content to P2P networks.

The ruling of the Swedish court would not reduce illegal sharing of music files over the internet. In addition, the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision on sharing files over the internet would not reduce internet piracy in the US. The decision of the courts would make people devise new means of pirating music.

These methods may be more creative and innovative. This may make it hard for authorities to detect piracy. Therefore, the only solution is for record labels to develop new promotion and distribution channels that may help in countering piracy. Facebook and Apple are some of the companies that have developed innovative ways of distributing music. These companies have experienced tremendous success due to the innovative music distribution channels.

People who are more than 21 years old are usually more cautious than people who are much younger. This is because these people may have various responsibilities. Therefore, they would not like to engage in activities that would put them at risk. Therefore, legal action against people who engage in piracy may deter people who are more than 21 years old from engaging in piracy.

Legal action due to piracy may put their jobs or families in jeopardy. In addition, people who are more than 21 years old have a source of income. Therefore, they may be unwilling to download pirated content since they can pay for the original version. In addition, people who are more than 21 years old may not have time to search for pirated content, which is not easily available on the internet.

On the other hand, people who are between 14 and 21 years old may engage in piracy since people in this age bracket are carefree. They may not have a clear understanding of the consequences of their actions. In addition, people in this age bracket may download pirated content due to lack of money to buy the original versions.

We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Internet Piracy in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the modern world, record labels do not perform roles that justify their huge revenues. Record labels engage in the promotion and distribution of music.

However, technology has availed various tools that musicians may use to distribute and promote their work. Social media is one of the major technological tools that musicians may use to promote and distribute their music. The major advantage of these technological tools is that musicians would only use a fraction of the money that record labels would use to distribute and promote their music.

Various bands have launched their music careers using YouTube or other internet based platforms. These platforms enable artists to earn more income than what the record labels may be willing to pay them. Record labels still use the business models that they were using during the 1980s prior to the invention of the internet. Therefore, it is vital for record labels to embrace these tools. Failure to embrace these tools would make record labels lose their competitive edge in the market.

Piracy is one the problems that make the entertainment industry lose vast sums of money. It is vital for record labels and other legitimate companies in the industries to formulate new methods of promotion and distribution of copyrighted content. Suing companies and people that engage in piracy would not solve the problem. This may make the culprits devise more innovative ways of engaging in piracy. This would increase the severity of the problem.

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Sylvia Plath’s poetry Essay best essay help

Sylvia Plath’s poetry, as many researchers have pointed out, is strewn with pictures of the holocaust. The influence of her personal life on her poems is self-evident as many of her works are semi-autobiographical in nature.

The influence of her father, Otto Plath, in her poetry is unmistakably clear (Butscher 3). Otto’s life and especially his death right before Sylvia’s eighth birthday left a profound imprint on her imagination and nurtured her style as a poet. The presentation and the poetics of torture so evident in Plath’s poetry, I believe, has stemmed from her personal life and her ancestry.

The connection between the private and the public that Plath so subtly made in her poetry has been critiqued handsomely in poetics research. Plath used her private live as a medium to make it a public show, where the personal dissolves completely, to form a ludicrous public show of the body (Butscher 11). Therefore, in this essay I will discuss Plath’s poems, Daddy and Lady Lazarus, where she uses death to recreate the self.

Both the poems are of confessional nature, are semi autobiographical, and meddle in the private life of the poet. The paper is arranged in three sections. First, it discusses the life and philosophy of Sylvia Plath. Second, the essay discusses the style of Plath’s works. Thirdly, it will discuss two of her poems that demonstrate a public show of the private life.

The first aim of the essay is to understand life of Sylvia Plath. She was an American born writer and poet of German origin. She was educated in America and then married the British poet Ted Hughes in 1956 and had two children. Her adult life was strewn with bouts of depression and her inclination to commit suicide.

She finally committed suicide in 1963. Plath gave birth to a new genre of poetry, which has been termed as confessional poetry. Both the poems discussed in the essay are confessional in nature with distinct features of the personal life of Plath being projected in the text.

The political and worldview of Plath must be mentioned in order to understand her poetry. Plath worldview was mostly influenced by postmodern philosophers like Nietzschean (Peel 42). Her political and worldview are intermingled not only her direct usage of political stance in her poems especially in Ariel but also demonstrates her fight with the “Other” in order to establish self-identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many critics have viewed this fight as a personal and political battle that is distinctly her political view. The influence of the existentialist philosophy is also apparent in her search for self-identity through nullification of the other.

One of the biggest influences on Sylvia Plath’s poetry was Otto Plath, her father whose life must also be brought under the microscope to understand how far the influence of her father on her poems was, or were they actually a misinterpretation of too casual reading. Otto Plath was a German born in Polish Corridor. He then migrated to America in 1901 and settled in Boston with a teaching position at the Boston University (Butscher 6).

Plath’s mother, Aurelia, was an American of Austrian origin. Both of Plath’s parents grew up speaking German until the First World War when the surge of the patriotic Americans ended this (Travis 278). Both of Plath’s parents lived their adult life in America, especially during the rise of Nazism and the Second World War. He died of a gangrenous toe, and during the process of amputation, he died. These facts of Otto Plath’s life are distinctly suggested in the poem Daddy written in 1962:

Ghastly statue with one gray toe

Big as a Frisco seal

And a head in the freakish Atlantic

Where it pours bean green over blue

We will write a custom Essay on Sylvia Plath’s poetry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the waters off beautiful Nauset. (Plath Line: 9-13)

Plath compares her father’s toe with that of a “Frisco seal” and describes it to be grey in color directly indicating to her own father’s gangrenous leg as well as to his German origin.

Therefore, in a strict play of the private incidents such as the death of her father with gangrene and his German lineage are presented in the poem to actually demonstrate Plath’s abhorrence for her ancestry and therefore making a public show of it. There are other distinct references of her father’s German origin in the poem as in stanza eight of the poem we find mention of manifestly Austrian particulars: “The snows of the Tyrol, the clear beer of Vienna / Are not very pure or true” (Line 36-37).

Germany and Austria are two nations that share a common language, but are distinct. More importantly, Otto Plath does not seem to have any connection with Austria and the relevance of the lines in Otto’s life becomes unclear, as they are not explained further in the poem.

Images of oppression and the holocaust are replete in the poem as Plath uses words and phrases to describe the destruction in Nazi Germany: swastikas, barbed wire, fascists, brutes, devils, and vampires. Though apparent reading of the poem with little thought into its inner meaning would suggest that Plath’s poem is a “runaway train barreling through one psychic nightmare after the other” (Platizky).

Plath’s forceful vindictiveness against the father relates as a paradoxical need to return to him: “get back, back, back to you” (Line 59). However, on closer reading proves to be a conscious attempt to recreate a space for self, creating an identity that breaks away from the psychological imprint the father has on the poet.

Clearly, the poet wants to disassociate herself from the memories of her father whom she still loves and misses. This can be seen as a process of creating a self-identity through repeated emphasis of the pronouns such as “I” or “my”. In a way Plath clearly demarcates the demonic imagery of the patriarchy through the description of the holocaust and creating an identity of self where the self is the victim – “I think I may well be a Jew” (Line 40) – of the autocratic patriarchy.

Therefore, according to Roger Platizky, the poem can be read as a “psychological victory of the self over the other” (106). In the end, by metaphorically killing the father, Plath successfully kills the memory of him and creates her independent self. The poem demonstrates the recreation of the self through the death of the father figure.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sylvia Plath’s poetry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lady Lazarus too is a holocaust poem. Death again forms an integral part of the poem as has been observed in Daddy. Death in Lady Lazarus is projected like an art that her torturer, Herr Doktor prevents.

The poem tells the story of a woman on whom the Nazi doctor was performing experimental medication to resurrect her from death. The image of the doctor is that of the Nazi dictator. Here too we get significant reference to “foot” and “Jew”. In a way, Plath identifies with art as a means of prostitution – a means of earning – and death as the way of reviving the self. Theresa Collins points out that Plath uses the holocaust imagery to present the “controller’/controlled” relationship (156).

Mathew Boswell studies both the poems and writes that in both these poems Plath uses the imagery of the holocaust to describe the torture being inflicted on the narrators and it was through death (55). Lady Lazarus is a means of representation of the cannibalistic attitude of the Nazis thorough the strip shows that Lady Lazarus performs and her suicide in the end is a victory over the patriarchal control over the female flesh.

The speaker of Daddy internalizes the process of being a victim while externalizing her heritage. The speaker assumes a Jewish identity though there is mention of the mother in the poem. The poem initially sets to show the narrator as the victim of the torturous nature of the father figure and metaphorically compares him to the Nazis. The imagery of the holocaust sets the clear image of a torturous father in the mind of the readers.

The narrator takes the position of the victim in this poem, as was seen in case of Lady Lazarus, and talks of the overbearing figure of her father whose presence was crushing her identity. Therefore, there is a clear attempt to segregate the torturer from the victim with persistent repetition of the ‘you’ that recurs in the rhyme scheme of the poem. The narrator addresses Daddy, as the narrator calls to him, while she emphasizes on their separateness (Travis 278). There is no “we” in the poem it deals in only “you” and “I”.

Creation of a separate identity, of the self in the two poems is clearly demonstrated through the metaphor of death. Plath wrote both the poems just a few months before she committed suicide, and therefore, the idea of death was used a trope to show that the independent self can only be created by killing either the self or the other. Death becomes the main theme in both these poem through which one realizes the true self-identity.

Bibliography Boswell, Matthew. “‘Black Phones’: Postmodern Poetics in the Holocaust Poetry of Sylvia Plath.” Critical Survey, vol. 20 no 2 (2008): 53-64. Print.

Butscher, Edward. Sylvia Plath: Method and Madness. Tuscan, AZ: Schaffner Press, 2003. Print.

Collins, Theresa. “Plath’s Lady Lazarus.” Explicator vol. 56 no. 3 (1998): 156-158. Print.

Plath, Sylvia. Daddy. 12 October 1962. Web. .

Platizky, Roger. “Plath’s Daddy.” Explicator (1997): 105-107. Print.

Travis, Isabella. “‘I have always been scared of You’: Sylvia Plath, perpetrator trauma and threatening victims.” European Journal of American Culture, vol. 28 no. 3 (2009): 277-293. Print.

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Equity in Men and Women Participation in Sport at College Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Raising funds, scholarships, and budgets in college sport should be carried out with consideration of talents, skills, and students’ aptness, but not with consideration of gender. Despite the existing legislature, there are a great number of stereotypes and prejudices that are historically and socially predetermined. The development of women’s sports dates back s to 1972, the time when Title IX has passed to enforce equality and fairness in funding sports.

Although this provision sounds noble and persuasive, many inconsistencies and unpredicted consequences arise on the basis of these regulations. Therefore, College should introduce complete equity in accessing sporting activities irrespective of gender because it can create wider opportunities for women to fulfill themselves, as well as justify the contemporary trends in gender equality movement.

College athlete programs fail to receive sufficient federal and financial support due to the ambiguity of the original law. Therefore, the government should take greater control of funding to ensure equal access of males and females to sporting activities. According to Title IX of Public Law,

No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance” (No. 92-318).

Although this rule is officially recognized, there is no actual measures taken to introduce equal funding and budgeting for both male and female students studying at college.

Each person regardless of sex has the right to freedom and equality in self-expression and self-determination. Therefore, all people should be able to access any type of sport activities. Promoting equal funding will liberate women from false stereotypes and prejudices about their skills and abilities, as well as provide an opportunity for them to demonstrate strength and persistence in making decisions.

Therefore, such types of sports as basketball, football, box, or arm wrestling could even attract more spectators and supporters, which contribute to the prosperity of business in sport. Moreover, it can also attract more investors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Gee, women can have similar changes to make contributions to sport in general because “American females brought home more hardware than did their male counterparts” (n. p.). These medals were won in boxing, which proves that college budget should be equally allocated among males and females.

Providing scholarship support both to male and female students can create underpinnings for exterminating gender discrimination, as well as providing new incentives for intellectual fulfillment. Ensuring sufficient financial support of female sports does not necessarily imply budget reductions in males’ sports.

As Carlson states, emergence and rapid development of women’s sports contributes positively to social change (n. p.). In particular, “female physical educators began to concede that sports participation improved, rather than harmed, the health of college women” (Carlson n. p.). Therefore, such an argument seems to the most persuasive reason for enhancing funding initiatives and introducing new standards to college sports.

In conclusion, college budgeting and funding activities should focus on equal allocation of financial resources to students, regardless of their gender. In fact, women’s constant fight for equality should not be confined to cultural and political fields because introducing improvements to sports sphere also promotes social change.

Hence, historic perspective and legal regulations approve women’s aspiration to participate in sporting activities because it significantly improves their physical health, as well as establishes new dimensions for self-expression and determination. More importantly, it can provide significant improvements to educational sphere as well because students should not restricted in the possibility to their reveal abilities, talents, and skills.

Works Cited Carlson, Christie. “Gender Equality in Sports Scholarships”, LiveStrong. 2011. Web.

Gee, Austen. “2012: Year of the Women in Athletics, But Is There Equality in Sports”. Policymic. 2013. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Equity in Men and Women Participation in Sport at College specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Public Law, Title IX, No. 92-318, Stat. 235. Print.

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Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Problems Facing the Electoral College

The Electoral College and Democracy

Majoritarianism Model

The Electoral College and Political Equality

The Risk of Faithless Electors

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The Electoral College plays a very significant role in the United States’ presidential elections. It is the institution that determines who becomes the next president and vice president of the United States of America after every four years (Lipsitz 186). This implies that the United States’ president and his or her vice president never get directly elected by the voters.

The Electoral College is constituted by individuals who have been popularly elected to represent every state; they are referred to as electors (Burgan 17). The number of electors in each specific state is restricted by the number of Congressional members each specific state is allowed to have.

The Electoral College is an electoral system in the United States that was established through the Constitution of the United States; this was subsequently amended through the establishment of the 12th Amendment of the year 1804. Currently, the Electoral College is constituted by 538 electors each of whom has only one vote (Neale 2).

In order for a presidential candidate to win the elections, he or she must get a minimum of 270 of the votes from the members of the Electoral College (Belenky 100). If a candidate fails to get the 270 votes, the 12th Amendment is invoked so as to allow the House of Representatives to determine who become the president and vice president of the United States of America (Belenky 123). In this case, only a simple majority is required for a presidential candidate to win.

Nonetheless, it is important to note that there have only been two instances in which the House of Representatives has had to decide who becomes the president. The first one was in 1801 when Thomas Jefferson was elected as president by the House of Representatives; the second one was in 1825 when John Quincy Adams was also elected president by the House of Representatives (Belenky 149).

The Problems Facing the Electoral College The Electoral College has been faulted on various grounds. Many political scholars have extensively researched and written on the challenges faced by the Electoral College. In this regard, this literature review will consider the problems that the Electoral College faces with respect to the elections of presidents and vice presidents in the United States of America.

Therefore, it is worth noting the Constitution of the United States provides for a presidential election to take place among states and not among individual citizens. As explained in the introduction, each state is assured of a number of representatives to vote on behalf of its members.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Electoral College and Democracy It is important to note that the United States of America is in the forefront promoting democratic governance not only within its borders, but also across the world.

In this regard, a number of scholars have examined the relevance of the Electoral College in promoting democracy in the elections of United States’ presidents and vice president. One of the scholars have presented two reasons he perceives as fostering the belief that the Electoral College system of presidential elections is undemocratic; the first is that it is fostered by the understanding democracy relates to what most voters need (Glenn 4).

According to the scholar, this contradicts the opinion of the founders of the Electoral College that “democratic” entails as much as conceivable popular consent with justice and the common good (Glenn 4). The second argument is that it is fostered by the belief that one-person-one-vote for presidential voting in every state is undemocratic since democracy means that there should be one-vote-one-value nationally (Glenn 4).

Many researchers contend that the Electoral College is one of the most criticized facets of presidential elections in the United States. In this case, it is argued that the rules used in determining a winner in the electoral college may be detrimental to the process of democracy.

In this respect, the rule requiring that a winner takes it all and the inevitability of winning a majority in the Electoral College perplexes many since it does not make the basis for elections based on popular voters’ decisions (Bugh 65; Oppenheimer and Edwards 231). In this case, the researchers have a common argument that the Electoral College does not allow for every American’s vote to count in determining who becomes the president.

This is because, as shown by Sanders (49), in some instances where a presidential candidate may get the majority of the popular votes but fails to garner the majority of the Electoral votes; conversely, a presidential candidate may fail to garner the majority of the popular votes but ends up becoming president by winning the majority of the Electoral College vote.

Therefore, it is clear that the foregoing researchers are in support of majoritarianism, which demands that the will of the majority prevails. The majoritarian theory is discussed in the next section.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some supporters of the Electoral College system have hailed its existence with respect to the promotion of the popular will of the people. According to them, the Electoral College makes the popular election process fairer to the interests of the small states; the small states are considered as geographical minorities within the United States. In this case, they argue that the Electoral College elects the United States presidents by wider and more diverse interests than would elections done directly by voters nationally.

Some scholars argue that the Electoral College system produces presidents who are more likely govern the country for the general good of the people. With respect to this, they further argue that the Framers of the Constitution provided the Electoral College system with regard to the fact claim that democracy is not based on the sole perception that democracy can only be preserved by the will of the majority. Therefore, it is argued that the Electoral College represents an amalgamation of the will of the majority.

It is also argued that the Electoral College strengthens the popular choice of American presidents. According to the arguments, this happens by encouraging greater voter support to the ultimate presidential winner. Based on this, the implication is that this approach produces a more democratic outcome than the process of choosing presidents through a popular voting system.

The conclusion that can be drawn here is that the Electoral College system produces a stronger democratic system than the popular voting system; this greatly contrasts with the belief of scholars who think the Electoral System is a distortion of democracy.

Therefore, the existence of the differing perspectives of the Electoral College and its relationship with democracy point to the fact that there is still a need for further studies to determine the role the Electoral College in nurturing and promoting democratic presidential elections in the United States. This is because there seems to be a lack of consensus among political scholars as to whether the Electoral College promotes or thwarts democracy within the United States’ presidential election processes.

Majoritarianism Model Political scientists have established many theories to explain the American democracy. One of the theories is the majoritarianism (Lijphart 141). However, the scientists provide a caveat that there no one single theory that can describe the American political aspects in totality. In this case, therefore, each theory can only describe or deal with a portion of American politics (Lijphart 149).

For the purposes of this review, the focus has intentionally been placed on the majoritarianism. Majoritarianism is the notion that collective decisions are made properly when they are a reflection of the will of the majority. Voting theorists argue that voting rules should satisfy the principles of majoritarianism. This is one of the reasons the Electoral College system has been criticized with respect to democratic presidential elections (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).

Even though the majoritarian theory assumes that the government’s responsiveness to popular demands comes through mass participation in a political process, the theory views the participation within a narrow scope. However, the theory favors conventional voting in elections (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems Facing the Electoral College in Presidential Elections by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because, according to proponents of the theory, majoritarianism solely rely on vote counting so as to determine the will of the majority with respect to specific issues, especially the presidential elections. This means that its bias towards political equality is strong (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).

However, it is worth noting that the majoritarianism has been faulted on various grounds. It has been criticized due to the fact that it has limited motivation; in this case, it does not allow resourceful individuals to exercise personal or private influence with respect to government actions (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008). Besides, it has also been criticized on the grounds that it limits individual freedom since it focuses on voting as the primary means of mass participation.

This subsequently limits the scope of the conservative political behavior by describing the political actions that can be regarded as logical and suitable. This means that even if a decision may be wrong, the mere fact that the majority voted for it necessitates that the decision is adopted or considered the most appropriate. Critics argue that this may not be good for a country (Janda, Berry, Goldman and Hula 2008).

The Electoral College and Political Equality Political equality is one of the grounds on which the Electoral College has been criticized. In this case, the main focus has been placed on rights and equality to participate in the political process of electing a president of the United States. Many researchers have reported that the main concerns of political campaigns by presidential candidates are the states that are considered as “battlegrounds” which are states in which candidates of the major parties have high chances of winning (Bond and Smith 345).

The distribution of electoral votes has also been seen as a problem with a significant challenge to the credibility of the Electoral College. Pundits argue that the Electoral College tends to favor the small states. It is argued that the total number of electors received by each state is determined by the number of representatives in both the House and Senate. In this regard, it is generally perceived that the small states are favored, to some extent, due to their statuses as states (Bond and Smith 347).

However, another scholar has argued that since the total number of electors for each state is a combination of the Senate and House representation numbers, the imbalance arising between large and small states is not as extensive as as it is in the Senate. In this case, the scholar argues that a small state with a population of about 600000 people has a similar representation as large states with, say, ten to twenty million (Bond and Smith 389).

Based on this argument, other researchers have noted that this kind of perceived favoritism suggests that some voters may be more important than others. It is noted that voters in the so called battle grounds receive more attention from presidential candidates relative to other voters; this scenario contradicts the commitment to political equality as defined by majoritarianism (Bugh 83).

In addition, there is another scholar who has argued that even in the states known as battlegrounds, the winner-take-all vote allocation is biased to those on the losing end. This means that the votes of those on the losing end do not count as far as determining who becomes the president of the United States is concerned; in other words, they can be described as wasted votes. The proponents of this argument suggest that there should be a proportional system of allocating electoral votes (Drachman and Langran 146).

Another study has revealed that the wasted votes have had the effect of low voter turnouts. This situation has been blamed on the Electoral College (Bugh 50). Researchers contend that the voter turnout in the United States has been lower than other Western democracies (Drachman and Langran 146). The argument in this case is that it is obvious that in more than half of the states where candidates are expected to win, voters have limited incentive to turn out and vote in a presidential election.

Another study shows that presidential candidates spend less time campaigning in those regions thereby reinforcing the claim of low voter turnout. Owing to the fact that the democratic theory places high value upon political participations, this scenario is viewed to be a setback brought about the existence of the Electoral College (Drachman and Langran 146).

Moreover, the other problem that faces the Electoral College revolves around the relationship between the Electoral College and the two-party system. In this respect, several researchers have collectively argued that the Electoral College has the propensity to promote the two major parties while attenuating the influence of third parties (Bugh 215).

In this case, the researchers have looked at the elections of 1992 where Ross Perot, a third-party candidate, garnered 19 per cent of the popular vote while not managing to get electoral votes to prove their argument (Bugh 215).

Furthermore, it has been considered that the “winner-takes-it-all” allocation of electoral vote has also had a significant contribution to the controversy affecting the Electoral College. According to a study, if the electoral votes were to be proportionately allocated, third parties would definitely be capable of receiving electoral votes, particularly in larger states where the threshold for securing electoral votes would be low (Bugh 228).

Another researcher has revealed that in the current system, third parties find themselves in a very difficult position (Bennet 27). This is based on other studies that have revealed that citizens worry about wasting their votes on parties and candidates who, for all intents and tenacity, have no chance of winning the elections.

The Risk of Faithless Electors Sometimes the Electoral College has electors who, for reason or another, may decide to vote against their party designated candidate; these are the electors who are referred to as the “faithless electors.” Available literatures show that there has been 157 faithless electors since the Electoral College was established (Bennet 95).

A researcher has observed that the potential for malice on the basis of an elector’s faithlessness has far reaching implications; according to his argument, this may extend well beyond the possibility that the Electoral College may tie or otherwise fail ensuring the required majority (Bennet 95).

This means that an elector’s faithlessness could result in entirely decisive outcome in the Electoral College. This is because an elector may decide to vote for another candidate or otherwise abstain from casting his or her vote. Political scientists agree that this kind of a scenario makes the Electoral College system to be a complicated election process (Green and Coffey 17).

This is because, according to various researchers, it may lead to the election of a minority president, who might not have garnered the majority of popular votes (Green and Coffey 17). This has been viewed by many commentators as being unfair to the American democracy. Such commentators argue that besides being unfair, the faithlessness of some electors prevents the members of a concerned state from exercising the right to participate in electing the president of their choice (Green and Coffey 48).

Conclusion The literature review process has pointed out a number of issues with regard to the problems facing the Electoral College. First, with respect to democracy, the outcome of the review process has revealed that there is no consensus among various scholars as regards whether the Electoral College promotes democracy or thwarts it. In this case, there are scholars who have argued that the Electoral College does not represent democracy in the United States.

These scholars have advanced the argument that the Electoral College system does not allow for the popular voting process to determine the president of the United States. In this case, they posit that the privilege has been given to the few who constitute the Electoral College. This has been seen to contradict the principles of majoritarianism, which is one of the prominent theories of democracies.

However, the review process has also revealed that other scholars consider the Electoral College system of election as representative of the will of the majority, which they consider as being in tune with the theory of democracy. This group of scholars argues that the electors are representatives who have been mandated by the people to represent them in the presidential election. This implies that the people exercise their democratic rights through their representatives.

In addition, the review process has also revealed that there are scholars who believe that the Electoral College system of presidential elections does not allow for political equality among the Americans. The review process has also revealed that the main concerns of political campaigns by presidential candidates are the states that are considered as “battlegrounds” which are states in which candidates of the major parties have chances of winning.

It is also clear that some researchers perceive the Electoral College as favoring the small states. There is also the problem of faithless electors who may not vote according to their party commitments; this has been seen as casting aspersion on the integrity of the Electoral College system.

Works Cited Belenky, Alexander. Who Will Be the Next President? A Guide to the U. S. Presidential Election System. New York, USA: Springer, 2013. Print.

Bennet, Robert. Taming the Electoral College. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2006. Print.

Bond, Jon and Smith Kevin. The Promise and Performance of American Democracy. London, UK: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

Bugh, Gary. Electoral College Reform: Challenges and Possibilities. London, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2010. Print.

Burgan, Michael. The Electoral College. North Mankato: Capstone, 2007. Print.

Drachman, Edward and Langran Robert. You Decide: Controversial Cases in American Politics. New York, USA: Rowman

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Jarir Bookstore Term Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Individual Project

Introduction

The Major Issues

Resolution

The Future Implications

The Risks

Conclusion

Works Cited

Individual Project Introduction The government of Saudi Arabia adopted a new labor in 2012 that compels companies in the private sector to employ more Saudis than foreigners. The government adopted the new law in order to reduce the high unemployment rate in the country. However, the law is expected to have significant effects in various industries in the country because most companies depend on the labor supplied by foreigners rather than Saudis (Hamdan).

This paper will analyze the effect of this law on Jarir Bookstore, which is a leading retail company in Saudi Arabia. The company supplies computers, office equipment, and books among other products (Jarir). In particular, it will shed light on the risks associated with the legislation and the strategies that the company has adopted to overcome them. Additionally, it will highlight the future implications of the new law to the company and its stakeholders.

The Major Issues In November 2012, the government of Saudi Arabia enacted a new labor law that forces all private companies in the country to hire more Saudis than foreigners (Hamdan). This law was adopted against the backdrop of rising unemployment rate in the country. According to the new law, the number of Saudis working in private companies must exceed that of foreigners. Companies that fail to comply with this law are expected to pay a fine of approximately $640 annually for each employee from a foreign country (Hamdan).

Jarir Bookstore is one the companies that were negatively affected by the new labor law. In 2012, the company had more than one thousand employees who were working in its stores in Saudi Arabia (Jarir). 60% of the employees were expats from Asian countries (Jarir).

This means that the company had to pay the fine of $640 per foreign employee in order to maintain 60% of its workforce. In this regard, the operating cost of the company was likely to increase because it was not ready to absorb the extra labor costs associated with the fine.

Since its inception in 1979, Jarir Bookstore has focused on employing foreigners in order to reduce its operating costs. This strategy was based on the fact that expats demand lower wages than Saudis (Madhi and Barrientos 70-77). Thus, it is cheaper to employ foreigners than Saudis. In addition, most Saudis are reluctant to work in the private sector because the public sector pays higher wages.

Since the company operates in cosmopolitan cities within Saudi Arabia, it prefers to employ people with good command of English and other international languages in order to serve its diverse clientele effectively. In this regard, the company hires multilingual foreigners since most Saudis speak only in Arabic rather than international languages such as English. Thus, replacing the expats was likely to have negative effects on the competitiveness of the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Resolution Even though the enactment of the law came as a surprise to the company, it had no choice but to comply with it in order to avoid the costs associated with the fine. In order to prevent disruptions in its operations, the company had to replace most of the expats in its workforce immediately. Almost 80% of the company’s workforce consists of frontline employees who are responsible for performing duties such as sales and fulfilling customers’ orders (Jarir).

Even though most Saudis are qualified to perform clerical and supervision, as well as, sales and marketing related duties, the company had trouble in replacing its frontline employees. This is because most of the new hires did not have the commitment that the expats had. Besides, most of them were fresh graduates from colleges and universities. Thus, they did not have adequate work experience that would enable them to fit into the organization without training.

In response to this challenge, the company had to review its staffing policies in order to hire the right people. In particular, the company had to identify the job requirements that new recruits had to meet in order to be hired. This included possession of excellent skills in areas such as communication, negotiation, and leadership (Jarir).

Moreover, the company designed and implemented training and development programs in order to enable the new recruits to acquire the skills that they needed in order to perform their duties effectively. The company has had to change its human resource policies in order to attract and retain the best talent from Saudi. This involved offering attractive remuneration packages, flexible shift schedules, and acceptable work environment.

In addition, the company implemented a performance-based pay system in order to motivate the employees and to improve their productivity (Jarir). A performance-based pay system involves rewarding employees who are able to meet or exceed their targets (Martin 75). At Jarir Bookstore, the employees were paid annual bonuses if they achieved predetermined conditions such as sales targets.

The Future Implications The new labor law has several future implications for the company and its stakeholders. To begin with, the company will have to look for alternative ways of reducing its operating costs. This is because it can no longer depend on cheap labor to maintain low costs. In this regard, the company is likely to focus on the use of modern technologies to reduce its operating costs in the long-term.

This will involve the use of technologies that reduce human involvement in the provision of its services. For example, the company has already established a sales and marketing website that enables it to reach its customers (Jarir). Thus, the company is likely to focus on online sales rather than the store model in future. This will help it to reduce the number of employees that it needs to serve its customers, thereby reducing its operating costs.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Jarir Bookstore specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second implication is that the company will have to strengthen its employ retention programs in order to reduce labor turnover. This is because the competition for skilled labor is likely to increase as more companies comply with the new law in future. Labor turnover is often high in markets where companies are competing for the few skilled workers. This is because employees will prefer to work for the few companies that are able to offer high wages (Hartel and Fujimoto 96).

Consequently, the cost of acquiring talent is likely to increase significantly. The company can avoid losing its valuable employees by improving their commitment and job satisfaction. The third implication is that the morale of the employees is likely to reduce as the expats leave the company. Employees usually lose morale in their work when a large number of their colleagues leave the workplace.

This is because existing work relationships are destroyed and the remaining employees might not have adequate sources of support in their work (Hartel and Fujimoto 112). In addition, conflicts are likely to arise if the company is not able to integrate the new hires with the remaining employees. In this regard, the company will have to implement team-building initiatives in order to improve cohesion among its employees.

Finally, the new law will enable the company to improve its reputation in the country by providing jobs to Saudis. Currently, the company has a bad reputation in the country because its staffing policies favor foreigners. However, the company’s reputation is likely to improve as it begins to hire more Saudis as required by the law.

The Risks The implementation of the new labor law was associated with the following risks. First, the company was likely to lose its investments in knowledge and skill development as it replaced its employees from foreign countries. The company had already spent its scarce resources to train the expats on areas such as customer service, sales, marketing, and management.

The benefits of this investment such as creativity among employees were likely to be lost if a large number of the expats left the company. This would reduce the firm’s competitiveness by limiting its ability to engage in product and process innovation (Madhi and Barrientos 70-77).

Second, the company was likely to face disruptions in its operations if it was not able to find skilled Saudis to replace the expatriates. This is because the process of replacing employees who leave the company often takes a lot of time. Third, the company’s operating costs were likely to rise because hiring Saudis would increase the labor costs, whereas employing foreigners would attract high fines. High operating costs was likely to reduce the company’s profits, thereby limiting its ability to expand to other markets.

The strategies that have helped the company to overcome these risks include the following. First, company has implemented training and development programs in order to replace the lost skills and knowledge in its workforce (Jarir). These programs will enable the firm to improve the competence of new hires, thereby increasing its competitiveness in terms of ability to meet market needs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Jarir Bookstore by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Second, the company has focused on reducing labor turnover in order to avoid losing its talented employees. This involves using intrinsic rewards such as promotions, as well as, extrinsic rewards such as bonuses to improve job satisfaction, motivation, and employees’ commitment. Finally, the company has embarked on cost cutting measures in order to absorb the high cost of hiring Saudis. This involves outsourcing processes such as transportation and logistics.

Conclusion The aim of this paper was to analyze the effects of Saudi Arabia’s new labor law on Jarir Bookstore. The new law requires private companies to employ more Saudis than foreigners. Jarir Bookstore focused on employing more foreigners than Saudis in order to reduce its labor costs.

The main effects of the law included increased operating costs and loss of skilled employees. However, the company is also likely to improve its reputation in the country by employing Saudis. The company has not only complied with the new law, but has also implemented strategies to cope with its negative effects. The strategies it has adopted include staff training programs, cost cutting measures, and staff retention schemes.

Works Cited Hamdan, Sara. Saudi Arabia to Fine Firms with too Many Foreign Workers. New York Times, 21 Nov. 2012. Web.

Hartel, Charmaine and Yuka Fujimoto. Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.

Jarir. Company Profile. Jarir Bookstore, 31 Dec. 2012. Web.

Madhi, Salah and Armando Barrientos. “Saudisation and Employment in Saudi Arabia.” Career Development International 8.2 (2012): 70-77. Print.

Martin, John. Human Resource Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.

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Marketing of Business Enterprise That Selling Glasses and Pitchers Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Location

Market Analysis

Marketing

Sales Strategy

Management

References

Introduction The focus of this essay is a business enterprise that would be involved in selling glasses and pitchers. The products can be used for various purposes among them putting beer, juice and water. Most people think that bars only sell beer but there are juice bars. A juice bar is a place where people who do not take beer can go and take different types of juices. One of the advantages of the products is that they are able to keep liquids cold for about one hour.

Location The location of a business is important since it determines its growth. This implies that before starting any business enterprise, it is important to identify a suitable location that guarantees satisfactory business growth (10 reasons to start a business, 2013). Our business would be located in the City of Vancouver. There are other locations where the business could have been established, but the City of Vancouver is the most suitable among them. The City of Vancouver attracts many tourists because of its good hotels and attractive sites.

In addition, tourists are always ready to use a lot of money and this would increase our profits. Apart from tourists, the residents of the City of Vancouver would find the product beneficial. The city is characterized by many bars and restaurants which need a high number of glasses and pitchers. In addition, the local residents like healthy drinks and milk. This implies that our products would fit well with the needs of the local residents because of their high consumption rate of fluids.

The business would be given time to stabilize within the first year before expanding it to other places outside the city of Vancouver. We would first carry out a market research to identify the most suitable locations where other outlets would be established. In the third year, we would spread the business to British Columbia because this would be a viable region where it would thrive well and grow fast.

Market Analysis The first thing in our market analysis would be our target customers. In this regard, we would first apply business to business strategy. Business to business strategy means that we would walk into local stores such as bars, restaurants and juice points where we would do presentations on our products.

This would popularize our business enterprise and provide local traders with adequate information about our products. In addition, we would offer free samples such as table mats with adverts about our products for the customers to get information about the products. Our second strategy would be business to customer strategy (Rodgers, 2001). In this strategy, we would make use of online platforms to reach customers directly. We would advertise through Facebook, YouTube and other online platforms.

The second item in our market analysis would be the image and special features of the products. It would be important to create a good image of our products by enlightening customers about the special features of the products. We would inform our customers about the plastic products that would be selling at reduced prices. One of the products we would offer our customers is tritan plastic which is used to make glass.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tritan plastic has many advantages over other products. To begin with, it has the ability to keep fluids cold for about one hour. It is also clear, a quality that makes it possible for the user to see what is inside the glass (Moore, 2008). Tritan plastic is lighter than glass and this makes it convenient to use. In addition, when tritan plastic is compared with polycarbonate, it is easier to transform into various articles with minimal energy and waste.

Apart from plastic products, we would also provide brosilicate which is used in the manufacture of glass products. Brosilicate glass has numerous advantages over other glass products. The first advantage of brosilicate glass is that it has the ability to tolerate extreme heat and cold. The second advantage is that it has a low level of thermal expansion. When compared with shattered glass, brosilicate glass is easy to clean in case it breaks. Finally, it is not easily affected by chemical corrosion.

Marketing Marketing would be an important activity for our business enterprise because it would inform potential customers about our products. The first marketing strategy would be visiting local businesses such as bars, restaurants and juice points to do presentations in order to popularize our products.

We would also include free samples like table mats with our products in our marketing strategy. The other marketing strategy that we would use is online marketing through Facebook, YouTube and other social sites in order to reach our potential customers. Our initial marketing would start at the City of Vancouver but after the first year, we would move to other places outside the city. The first location outside the City of Vancouver would be British Columbia since it would be a viable market for our products.

In order to reduce costs and shorten the marketing chain, we would apply direct sales. This implies that we would not hire any middlemen since the four members of our business enterprise would be enough to do the work. Our selling strategy would comprise of at least six or eight glasses plus a pitcher. The same strategy would be applied in our online marketing.

Sales Strategy Our sales strategy would be customer oriented selling approach which would start by establishing rapport with the customer. After a rapport has been established, the second step would be to determine situational factors and objectives of the customer. The third step would involve urging the customer to take an action because his objectives would be met by the product.

The last step in our sales strategy would be to obtain a commitment from the customer. The strategy would also emphasize customer advantage for him/her to see the importance of purchasing the product (Ranchhod, 2007). The competitive advantage for the customer must be read because failure to read it does not benefit customers. It should also be specific because this translates into a benefit for the customer. Competitive advantage is also supposed to be appealing in order to promote it to the customers.

We will write a custom Essay on Marketing of Business Enterprise That Selling Glasses and Pitchers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Management Our management team would be comprised of a marketing manager, a website manager, an operations manager and a financial manager. The marketing manager would explore available external opportunities, design marketing strategies, handle customer relations, ensure timely product delivery, manage budgets and come up with new marketing guidelines.

The roles of the website manager would include monitoring online marketing strategies, ensuring proper functioning of our website, posting important information on the website and communicating with customers online. The operations manager would supervise all activities of the organization, manage projects, work with customers and serve the role of a resource person in our business enterprise.

Finally, our business enterprise would require the services of a financial manager, who would raise funds for the business, allocate funds for different tasks, plan on how to spend profits and provide insights on capital markets (Role of a Financial Manager, 2013). The duties of the different managers would be clearly defined hence there would be no conflict of interest or misunderstandings.

References 10 reasons to start a business. (2013). Retrieved from https://startups.co.uk/10-reasons-to-start-a-business/

Moore, C. (2008). Managing Small Business. New York: Cengage Learning.

Ranchhod, A. (2007). Marketing Strategies:A Contemporary Approach. New York: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Rodgers, S. (2001). Marketing Strategies, Tactics, and Techniques: A Handbook for Practitioners. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Role of a Financial Manager. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.managementstudyguide.com/role-of-financial-manager.htm

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Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? Research Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Essay Proposal

Annotated bibliography

The Essay

Is price gouging justifiable?

What is the right thing to do?

Works Cited

Essay Proposal Calamities leave terrible and remarkable damages on people who are afflicted by them. Hurricane Sandy was particularly devastating to northeast residents in New Jersey. Apart from the conspicuous financial and personal damages left behind by disastrous emergencies, they also provoked political and bad economic grandstanding.

Any person who follows such grandstanding wonders whether it is fair for businesses- from those dealing with consumables to gas stations- to spontaneously hike their prices to earn windfall profits at the advantage of desperation of disaster-afflicted customers. Many will perhaps say no to the query especially those caught at the middle of the hurricane sandy, as price gouging not only seems illegal but also unethical.

Chris Christie, the New Jersey governor, was concerned that not all people in New Jersey held the above position. He warned that price gouging in the event of a disaster like hurricane sandy was illegal and one that attracted heavy penalties to culprits. Similar to the warnings issued by Chris Christie, Schneiderman, a New York based Antony, lamented that people need to look out for one another during emergencies.

Conceptualization of these lamentations creates an impression that price gouging is morally unethical. Unfortunately, this may not be the position for Keynesian economists. While some people like Chris Christie and Schneiderman may see price gouging in event of a disaster as a wrong profiteering endeavor, to these groups of economists, sudden price hike is merely one of the ways of realizing balance between demand and supply. Hence, price gouging is not wrong since it is simply an application of laws of demand and supply.

Considering the opposing positions of price gouging, this paper proposes to question whether indeed price gouging is right or wrong and whether it is just. Particular focus of the research paper will be dedicated to introspection of the perception of the business owners on the purpose for existence of their businesses especially on aspects of profit making endeavors showing how such perceptions relate to price gouging.

In the effort to deliver a research based on scholarly evidence, discussion of price gouging is based on various scholarly views of people on what constitutes justice. The essay will first lay fundamental grounds of research by discussing first what is right or wrong from the context of Sandel’s work: Justice: What’s the right thing to do? The essay will then proceed to discuss Libertarianism view of price gouging followed by Utilitarianism view of the same. Finally, Kantian perspectives on price gouging will be considered.

Annotated bibliography Sandel, Michael. Justice: What’s the right thing to do?. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009. Print.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This book lays down Sandel’s political philosophy. The author attempts to engage with difficult political philosophical issues in an open and honest manner. He argues that justice, as a chief determinant of what is rights or wrong to do is concerned with values, which are central to politics of states coupled with the law.

His discussion of justice is limited to pluralistic societies forming western civilizations. He does this through a balanced discussion of a three-facet approach to justice. These facets are communitarian, utilitarian, and libertarian dimensions of justice. Sandel does not contend with the arguments of these alternative justice theories. Rather, he engages criticism and commentaries whenever appropriate.

Criticism is the main methodology used to provide a balanced view of justice from the three theories. Sandel begins by outlining Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism theory followed by its criticism in the context of the refinements to the theory as postulated by John Stuart.

He then proceeds to scrutinize Robert Nozick’s Libertarian’s approach to justice followed by Immanual Kant’s categorical imperatives. Upon discussing the work of John Rawl and the concept of telos, which was raised by Aristotle, he begins to bring into lime light his own views on justice.

He maintains that, opposed to the view of justice as being autonomous, as Rawlsians and Kantians would suggest, it has a purpose and goals. Now, Sandel makes it clear that justice serves to limit certain actions of individual in the society: a view adopted by communitarians.

Wolff, Jonathan. “Libertarianism, utility, and economic competition.” Virginal Law Journal 92.1(2006): 1605-1623. Print.

Jonathan Wolff discusses the characteristics of liberaltarianism coupled with foundation that anchors it. He argues that libertarianism is anchored on the ideas of “minimal state, restricted to narrow functions of protecting citizens from each other (and for non citizens), and providing for the enforcement of private contracts” (Wolff 1605).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To him, this argument implies that libertarians presume that freedom from the state rules is accompanied by economic institution driven by perspectives of pure capitalism, which includes strong rights of private property.

This presumption helps to permit free competition among all potential goods and service producers. The article then proceeds to discuss two forms of libertarianism: deontological and consequential libertarianism. Wolff relates these types of libertarianism with theory of justice by claiming that libertarianism is based on “a strict doctrine of natural rights, violation of which is never permitted whatever consequences” (Wolff 1605).

If free market operation encompasses one of the elements that are protected by universal chords of freedom, based on the argument that people have the right to buy whatever on offer at any price or not, it sounds appropriate for price gouging to occur during periods of shortages. This would permit freedom of operation of market forces of demand and supply without state interference as Wolff Jonathan suggests in his approach to libertarianism.

Hart, Caroline. “The Capability Space and New Directions for the Philosophy of Educational Research.” Studies in Philosophy Education, 28.2 (2009) 391–402. Print.

This article introduces capability approach as a new approach of evaluating justice based on perspectives of individual wellbeing. The author argues that this approach diverges from the traditional approach of utilitarian view. He asserts, “instead of measuring well-being based on the accumulation of wealth and resources by individuals and nations, the capability approach focuses on the opportunities (capabilities) an individual has to choose and pursue a life they have a reason to value” (Hart 391).

She claims that, opposed to the approach of utilitarian which views justice as driven by normative ethics, which hold justifiable actions as those which foster maximization of utility through maximization of happiness and reduction in suffering, his capability approach views actions that foster good life for all and hence enabling human life to flourish as being justifiable.

The question that remains is, ‘Does price gouging promote happiness and reduce suffering for all people afflicted by disasters?’ From the discussion of utilitarian as offered by Caroline Hart, price gouging is nothing less than a mechanism of reducing equality among people. This claim perhaps may justify consideration of price gouging as illegal meaning that it is punishable by law. In this end, the law is a tool for enhancing justice for all.

Cheng, Chung-Ying. “Justice and Peace in Kant and Confucius.” Journal of Chinese philosophy 2.1(2007): 345-357. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Pricing Gouging: Is it Justifiable? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the article, Cheng evaluates and critics Kant’s principles of justice. According to Cheng, “…duty to respect rights of others is the foundation of justice or equity” (345). In this sense, justice accrues from respecting other people’s perceived rights. While maintaining that justice is the foundation of Kant’s theory, Cheng says that generosity is not a requirement for justice nor should it have any role to play in justice.

In the context of the proposed research, price gouging may be seen from the context of Cheng’s work as unjust since it denies some people especially those who are less economically endowed in terms of their rights to consume products when prices escalate beyond levels, which they can afford.

On the other hand, maintaining low prices for products yet their supply is low makes a business owner sacrifice an opportunity for making more profit. Hence, retaining low prices implies that the business owner is more generous. This issue raises the dilemmas of what the right thing to do entails.

The Essay Is price gouging justifiable? The term Price gouging may be used in a variety of ways. In the casual sense, it means the rising of prices of service and goods to levels considered as unfair especially to the less economically endowed persons. In the legal sense, the term refers to the laws against taking economic advantage of people upon the occurrence of emergencies. This kind of price gouging may occur, for instance, when a disaster like a hurricane strikes destroying many business premises leaving behind few of them so that demand of commodities increases.

In the effort to meet the increased demand, business premise owners, for example, shop owners hike prices of the commodities. However, is this strategy the right thing to do? The overall focus of the essay is to provide a response to this query by exploring Libertarianism, utilitarianism views on price gouging, and Kantian perspectives on the same.

What is the right thing to do? Opposing the views of Libertarianism, Utilitarianism, and Kantian notions on justice makes the dilemma discussed by Sandel in his work Justice: What’s the right thing to do even more amplified when the work is interpreted in the context of price gouging.

The idea of dismissal of price gouging during periods of high demand in comparison to supply in the occurrence of disasters such as hurricane sandy as inappropriate is pegged on the perception and premise that people who sale goods at the escalated prices above ‘normal’ are immoral capitalists.

These people focus on taking advantage of people during times in which they are living below their means. From the utilitarian positions, the most appropriate ethical action is the one which “provides the most good or does the least harm, or, to put it another way, produces the greatest balance of good over harm” (Wolff 1611).

In the context of price gouging, the right thing to do is to set and maintain prices of commodities in a manner that ensures that they produce the utmost good and or do the least harm to persons afflicted by disaster-customers. This argument would mean that customers would have to compete in buying products whose supply is limited.

The repercussion of approaching the challenge of price gouging from the above perspective is that some people who have the capability and are willing to purchase certain amounts of products are not offered the right to do so by virtue of the fact that enough products will not be available in the market.

Hence, applying utilitarianism to justify the inappropriateness of price gouging suffers especially if justice is considered a way of ensuring that all people have their rights protected. While the utilitarian would take price gouging as unethical and immoral, libertarians would consider states’ interventions to criminalize price gouging as not justified, and hence inappropriate.

Libertarians “argue for the free market and strong individual rights to property, not based on an antecedent theory of justice, but in terms of the beneficial consequences such as wealth creation and efficiency that such arrangements may bring” (Wolff 1607). Therefore, the right thing to do is to permit free operation of principles of demand and supply.

During the times of need, demand must go up. Prices must also go up to ensure that people have accessibility to products depending on the extent and magnitude they need them. This strategy is perhaps not the right thing to do based on the utilitarian positions since it appears to foster growth of massive exploitation of needy people by capitalist. However, it qualifies to be the right thing to do since it also ensures service delivery to other people who actually need them more.

People inclined to the libertarian perspective of thinking would defend price gouging since, for instance, if the price of gasoline selling at $3 per gallon remains at the same price during the times of shortage, the market would remain open to persons who actually need it less. For instance, a person wishing to power a generator so that he or she can sell other products to needy persons will have to compete equally for the limited supplies of gasoline as anybody else would.

Consequently, failing to permit market to operate freely will lead to influencing negatively other areas of service delivery. This argument correlates with the Kant’s perception of justice as argued by Cheng, “we should Know our rights and rights of others so that we can render to others what we owe to them and let others render to us what they owe to us” (346).

In the example of price gouging with respect to the price of gasoline in the event of an emergency, the right thing to do is to permit the operation of the fuel market in a manner that will ensure that all people benefit. From the Keynesian perspective, this case cannot happen if the balance of demand and supply is interfered with through state interventions.

Raising the prices of goods and services when people are in desperation is considered illegal in many nations. However, looking at it from the angle that the right thing to do is the one, which delivers utmost good to all people, price gouging is necessary. In fact, people being driven by their capitalist interests in the occurrence of disasters will risk taking goods and services to disaster-stricken areas in the quest to earn above ‘normal’ profits.

In the process, supply would exceed the demand. From the economic perspective, prices have to come down. Consequently, price gouging helps to bring normalcy fast in disaster stricken areas. If this case would ensure that people obtain utmost good from the market fast enough, from utilitarian and libertarian perspectives, price gouging is appropriate after disasters strike.

Works Cited Cheng, Chung-Ying. “Justice and Peace in Kant and Confucius.” Journal of Chinese philosophy 2.1(2007): 345-357. Print.

Hart, Caroline. “The Capability Space and New Directions for the Philosophy of Educational Research.” Studies in Philosophy Education 28.2(2009): 391–402. Print.

Sandel, Michael. Justice: What’s the right thing to do? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009. Print.

Wolff, Jonathan. “Libertarianism, utility, and economic competition.” Virginia law journal 92.1(2006): 1605-1623. Print.

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