Introduction Business management entails coordinating and supervising various functions and projects in accordance to the firm’s policies. Business managers are expected to organize, plan, control and oversee the implementation of business plans and strategies with the ultimate aim of accomplishing the goals and objectives of the firm. With this in mind, managers have an obligation to study, analyze and evaluate the business trends over time to enable them make critical decisions that will spearhead their businesses to success.
The need to study history and transition in the business market is indispensable in the pursuit of a successful business venture. It is also important to learn from the predecessors on how they tackled various aspects of management and the successful business strategies they deployed as opposed to using the many theories and models proliferating from every facet of the economy.
For instance, the role played by technology in increasing proficiency and productivity of the firm cannot be overlooked since over the years managers have been embracing technological advancement with an aim to increase their profit margins and manufacture quality goods and services that will meet consumer’s wants.
History also helps managers approximate their current position in the market using data and statistics from the past market players and this has always provided reliable platform for managers to make rough estimates.
In the early 18th century, economist such as Eli Whitney and James Watt designed concepts and theories that could be used to ascertain productivity of a firm which included pricing, book-keeping and debit and credit accounts which are being used up to date with slight modifications (Alan, 1986). This was found to be more reliable and accurate than the theories, models and perceptions documented in books and other business related literature materials that are mere speculations with no proven facts.
Benefits of Studying History of Business to Managers Studying history and evolution of businesses is very critical to managers as it gives them a reasonable business framework and limits within which to operate in the pursuit for excellence. Some of the benefits include:
Knowing the past helps in speculating the future
In accumulating and harmonizing the past business ventures and activities, managers will have an opportunity to articulate and predict future trends using statistical data analysis of the previous years. This is a more reliable approach to study the market compared to acquiring information from text books and business journals which may document theories that have not been tested with models that may not apply in ideal situations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In being able to predict the future market trends, managers can strategically position themselves in the market in readiness for the expected shift in market equilibrium hence reaping bountifully from such predictions before other competitors get established in the new market. More often than not these predictions postulate accurate and reliable information hence when tactfully implemented, the business is bound to record very high sales and huge profits before other firms in the market come into play.
Historical studies help managers know how to deal with people more so at the work place. Through such studies, managers have the opportunity to learn from their predecessors on how best to interact with their employees with an aim to promote cohesiveness and create an efficacious environment for optimum productivity.
One of the vital assets that the successes of most top-flight companies ride on is the human resource. They are the backbone and driving force of any business firm and the way they are handled really matters as far as the success of the company is concerned. Managing employees entails recruiting competent individuals, training, evaluating and retaining those with exceptional skills and aptitude.
In developing people management strategies, managers ought to be keen on the strategic plans that are viable by using information from previous plans that have been tested before and found to be fruitful.
For instance recognizing and rewarding of exemplary workers who display excellent skills and innovative minds that adds value to the firm can be a strategy used to motivate and retain employees with unique potentials and inspire others to unleash their full potential and in so doing promote the productivity of the firm.
On the other hand, managers have an obligation to create a rapport with their customers by adequately training their employees on consumer approach strategies that will work to retain their customers and even widen their network.
Business laws and ethics
Historical research and findings have enabled many managers and directors to evade from uncouth business ventures and malpractices that may dent the image of the company and result in severe losses. From the historical studies, the managers can get insight and be enlightened on the deals they should venture in and the scrupulous activities that they ought to distance themselves from as they may dent their reputation.
We will write a custom Essay on Importance of History and Evolution of Businesses to Managers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance the case of using faulty weights to maximize their profits at consumers’ expense has far reaching repercussions that may include terminating the business firm by law as they mislead consumers and extravagantly exploit them. The firm can also be found on the wrong side of the law if for instance they advertise their products as possessing excellent attributes some of which are mere exaggerations hence misleading the consumers.
When managers learn of the repercussions of such malpractices they will be keen to avoid indulging in them hence safe guarding their businesses.
Getting to learn more about business history helps the managers to make crucial long term changes that will be instrumental in driving the business firm to success. Before making any major decisions or changes in the firm, there is a great need to examine previous firms and how they faired with a particular choice of products or services and with the help of the experts and specialists in this field, managers can draw important lessons and conclusions despite the market dynamics.
For managers who would like to change from one line of production to another, extensive research is required to critically analyze the credibility of the desired change and in so doing historical studies play a central role in determining its viability.
A platform to secure new information
Historical data provides a foundation or basis to formulate new ideas from the existing ones. Managers can utilize the past ideologies as a prerequisite for inventing new concepts that are relevant to the current economy since the market is very dynamic and technology is advancing at a very high rate.
For instance in the 1920s, the managers focused more on employee relationship and firm productivity; this was later changed to scientific management by John Mees which deployed the use of policies and concepts that provided a deeper insight in this field of research hence managers need to embrace change by innovating and developing new structures and systems that are more productive with high efficiency (Gomez, 2008).
Managers also need to get in touch with the previous market economies in order to use them as stepping blocks towards greater success in this field and be ahead of the pack. This information is vital in supplementing the theoretical principles and models obtained from literatures and media by providing a platform for comparison between the real situation and the documented principles.
Evolution of business strategies
In the colonial period, the society concentrated more on providing adequate food for the community more so during the winter spell. They mostly used man power as a chief source of labor then later came industrial revolution that took place between (1760-1850) and made use of machines run by a few laborers but increased the productivity of the firm.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of History and Evolution of Businesses to Managers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to the rapidly growing economy and increased demand for the manufactured goods, numerous entrepreneurial firms began mushrooming and by early 1950s, there was need to invent better systems due to the ever increasing demand for manufactured goods and services. There was need to diversify the products to meet the ever changing needs and preferences of their consumers.
From these evolutionary statistics, a keen manager can study the market and strategize on which line of production to venture in, consumer orientation, and marketing strategies to use among other aspects drawn from the evolutionary line (Warren, 2002). Managers who have the potential to critically analyze and strategize their business plans in accordance to the market trends and dynamics are bound to excel in their errands.
Conclusion In conclusion, history and evolution of business has played a critical role in promoting entrepreneurship by providing the needful information that can be extrapolated by managers and used to make crucial decisions in the firm.
The economy has also had significant growth over the years and this is attributed to the background information that was used by the scientist and economists of that time to come up with more sophisticated and reliable technologies that could now propel the business firms to another level by lowering its expenditures and increasing their productivity.
In the late 19th century, Peter Drucker came up with one of the earliest concept of corporate management that entailed some basic aspects of organizational structure then in 1960s Ronald Fisher introduced statistical analysis in the management system. This he combined with the concept of microeconomics to come up with a scientific research referred to as “operations research” that was later developed by economist Patrick Blankett to help solve various operations problems mostly in the logistics field.
With the recent technological advancement in the business fields, more sophisticated concepts and business models have been constituted like Six Sigma, theory of constraints, standardization and many other technological-based theories that are geared to providing lasting solutions to management problems and increase firm’s productivity (Gibson, 1999).
Business consultants make use of history of the firm as a prerequisite to diagnosing the problems a particular company may be bearing in the same way a medical practitioner requires to know the medical history of their patients before prescribing the required medications hence history has a part to play in identifying loopholes in the organization and providing possible remedies to the same hence managers have an obligation to keep clear records of previous regimes if they are to excel in their future business plans.
References Alan, K. (1986). Why history matters to managers. Harvard Business Journal January, 3, 81-88.
Gibson, J. (1999). The role of management history in the management curriculum. Journal of Management History, 5 (5), 277-285.
Gomez, M. (2008). Management: People, Performance and Change. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Warren, R. (2002). Business ethics and Business History. British Journal of Management, 13, 209-219.
Causes and Effects of Unemployment Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of Unemployment
Effects of Unemployment
Introduction Unemployment refers to a state of not having a job. Unemployment entails individuals with the ability to work, a resolve to find employment, available and in the hunt for employment (Stone 25). Categories of unemployment include classical, structural, frictional, cyclical and hidden unemployment. Classical unemployment entails a situation in which earnings received for a job go beyond ordinary levels.
This results in limited job vacancies for the many unemployed people. Structural unemployment refers to a situation in which unemployed individuals fail to meet job requirements in terms of skills needed (Stone 29). Frictional unemployment refers to changeover phase between jobs. Cyclical unemployment refers to a state in which claims in the economy fail to offer jobs to people. When claim for goods and services lowers, there is a limited production that requires few workers (Stone 29).
Hidden unemployment refers to unemployment of prospective workers due to errors made in generating statistics on unemployment (Stone 30). Unemployment has numerous effects on individuals, society and the economy in general. Unemployment results from various factors relating to social, economic, environmental, political and individual elements in an economy.
Causes of Unemployment Unemployment results from several causes and factors related to an economy. Some causes are due to personal choices while others are beyond individual control (Stone 31). People invest many resources in gaining reputable education and eligibility for jobs, but often find themselves with no employment (Stone 34). Unemployment results from factors and causes discussed below.
The first cause is inflation. Inflation refers to the progressive increase in prices of commodities and services in the economy. Economic inflation is one of the major causes of unemployment (Stone 37). Inflation results in a limited market activity by economies that cannot match efforts by others due to escalating prices. The economy experiences trouble, and progressively employers fire some workers to reduce the cost of production. This result in unemployment among the individuals fired.
The second cause is recession. Recession refers to decline Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of an economy, employment rate and market activity (Dawson 75). Economic recession links directly with economic inflation. Recession results from inflation where people are not able to afford goods and services offered by the economy (Stone 41).
A decline in production and more imports than exports characterize a recession. These elements influence negatively on GDP of an economy. This results in increased rates of unemployment because many employers refuse to hire while others fire some of their employees (Stone 43).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another cause is change in technology. Rapid change in technology is driving many employers into diversifying and improving the effectiveness of their workforce (Dawson 78). Some of technology applied replaces individuals in the production process as some process executed manually apply through technology.
This leads to several people losing their jobs. Job dissatisfaction is also another leading cause of unemployment (Dawson 78). New technology results in some employees being involved partially in production activities, which leads to frustration. Frustrations may lead to employee resignation (Dawson 80). This causes unemployment.
Another cause is employee worth (Dawson 85). Employees put a lot of effort and dedication in their activities but often end up unappreciated by their employers. This may result to lack of motivation among employees, which may compel them to stop working for their employers (Dawson 85).
This leads to individuals being unemployed until they find employers who appreciate their efforts. Discrimination in places of work is another cause of unemployment. Discrimination could be because of age, gender, social class, race, religion or ethnic background. Securing a job in such a working environment is extremely difficult and may discourage people from looking for jobs as well as forcing those already in jobs to quit (Dawson 87).
Other causes of unemployment relate to an individual and include disability, attitude towards potential employers, negative perceptions about jobs and employees as well as an individual’s ability to look for a job (Dawson 93). Welfare payments should be discouraged as they reduce the will of unemployed people to look for jobs. People develop dependency on grants and lack any meaning in employment since they are able to meet their basic needs (Dawson 98).
Effects of Unemployment Unemployment has both positive and negative effects. However, negative effects of unemployment surpass positive effects (Stone 65). Unemployed individuals experience difficulties meeting their basic needs as well as contributing to economic prosperity of their countries (Stone 66). In recessions, many people lose their jobs, but companies usually develop mechanisms to produce more goods with limited workforce. Unemployment leads to effects discussed below.
The first effect is loss of income. Unemployment results in individuals losing their source of income and livelihood. Most people in employment use their incomes to get mortgages and other forms of financing (Stone 69). Loss of income leads to poor living standards and increased risk on health.
We will write a custom Essay on Causes and Effects of Unemployment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another effect of unemployment is social exclusion. A work place provides a platform for socialization. When people lose their jobs, their social circle reduces considerably and end up excluded from the social environment. Other social problems associated with unemployment include crime, bribery and gambling (Stone 70).
Unemployment causes political instability (Stone 75). When majority of a country’s population is unemployed, life becomes hard, and people develop hostile characters. They consider their government as ineffective and incapable of providing the needs of its people (Stone 76). Such individuals participate in movements that oppose government policies through riots that result in political instability.
effects of unemployment include over exploitation of available labor, reduced rate of economic growth, reduced human capacity, loss of human resources and increase in poverty levels (Dawson 101). One positive effect of unemployment is the availability of adequate labor at reduced market prices. When many people are unemployed, labor is available at competitive prices because people are always eager to have some income (Stone 80).
Conclusion Unemployment has various categories that include classical, structural, frictional, cyclical and hidden unemployment (Stone 26). Unemployment results from several factors that vary in terms of the supporting conditions. Some causes are due to personal choices while others are beyond individual control. Unemployment has both positive and negative effects, although negative effects surpass positive effects. Welfare payments should be discouraged as they reduce the will of unemployed people to look for jobs (Stone 50).
People should be encouraged to look for a job instead of waiting on grants because they may not achieve financial freedom to satisfactory levels. In order to reduce the effects of unemployment, governments should develop and implement policies that regulate circumstances in which an employer can fire an employee (Dawson 90). This will prevent victimization of employees by employers who take advantage of weak policies on labor regulation and employee protection.
Works Cited Dawson, Graham. Inflation and Unemployment: Causes, Consequences and Cures. California: University of California, 2008. Print.
Stone, Jack. Unemployment: The Shocking Truth of Its Causes, Its Outrageous Consequences and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Trafford on Demand Pub, 2007. Print.
Judicial Process in America: Federal and State Courts Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Federal and state courts
Appointment of judges
Qualifications of Lawyers
Course of action
A factor that may influence judicial decision making
Introduction The US is a country that has successfully adopted the concept of federalism in its management structure. This has led to the incorporation of two different court systems. These are the federal and state court systems. These two systems have to work together for them to function effectively as per the powers granted to each faction by the constitution. The goal of this essay is to analyze the relationship between the federal and state courts in relation to the political arena, in which they operate, and to evaluate, compare and contrast the parties and factors that make these two courts different.
Federal and state courts The federal courts comprises of two court systems. Namely the Article III courts, and the courts that have been established by congress. The article III courts use the judicial power granted by the country in the court system. Congress, on the other hand, uses its power to establish several courts all with the aim of exercising the judicial rights of the citizens.
The state courts exercise the power given to them by the constitution and state laws. Several courts systems that have been established based on a hierarchy have been set up to deal with any issues pertaining to the law. The state supreme court is the highest court in this level. Depending on a particular state some have intermediate court of appeals. There are also the state trial courts, of which some are known as circuit or district courts. There are specific courts that handle particular issues such as the probate and family courts.
Political influence Politics plays a major role when it comes to handling the affairs of the courts. This is clearly evident in the judicial selection. The president is the one responsible for nominating the candidate that he or she sees fit to fill a judicial post, but the senate must back the candidate, or simply confirm that the person is qualified to hold office. The decision is arrived at by a majority vote. At the state courts, judges at the higher courts are given a higher term in office so as to enable them to do their work well, free from any political influence.
Appointment of judges When it comes to the federal courts, the constitution clearly states that the president is the one with the power to nominate a judge after which the senate must confirm the individual to fill the judicial opening. The term of office is supposed to be for life during good behavior. If the federal judge, however, misbehaves in office through congressional impeachment proceedings the individual may be removed from office.
State courts judges are usually put in office using several methods which depend on the level of court that one is to represent. The term duration also increases depending on the levels, and that is why the term at the county and municipal levels are lower. The term is usually four years as compared to the higher courts where the term of office is 8-12 years. Appointments can be done for a specific number of years or for life. Some judges are also given the posts after they have been appointed then after elected into office.
Qualifications of Lawyers There are several formal requirements that a person must meet so as to be able to practice law. These include getting a 4-year college degree, attending 3 years of law school and passing a mandatory written bar examination. The requirements may vary depending on the state, for instance in some states the applicants are required to pass a written ethics exam which is taken separately. These are the common requirements per state.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The bar exam depends with the state hence an attorney is only qualified to practice law in the specific state. Lawyers are required to take the bar exam in another state if they plan to practice in it. There are some situations that do not necessarily require an attorney to take the bar exam again, such as in a situation where a lawyer has legal experience which spans a couple of years and if the person meets certain standards.
At federal courts, however, not every lawyer can present a case before the judges as they have their own qualifications. Attorneys are sworn in differently before they can become federal attorneys which in turn make them qualified to represent clients at the federal courts. The federal attorney must meet all the requirements that will make him or her eligible to become a licensed attorney such as attending law school and taking and passing the bar exam.
Course of action The federal courts have put in place measures or a system that aims at helping parties that are not content with the decisions made by the lower courts such as the U.S district court. A party may appeal the case at the U.S court of appeals. If the same thing happens at this level the case can further be reviewed at the highest level which is the U.S Supreme court. The decision made at this point is final.
At the state courts, parties that feel that the decision made by a judge at the trial court is not satisfactory may appeal at the intermediate Court of Appeals. In case they feel that the decision made is still not favorable they may ask for a review at the highest state court. Most of the appeals that are usually forwarded at the state supreme courts come from defendants.
A factor that may influence judicial decision making There are some things that determine where the case will be heard. This depends with the location of the violation of law, as well as the place of residence of the plaintiff and the defendant. If both parties are from the same state then the plaintiff will have to file the complaint at the state courts.
The federal courts are known to have many diversity cases because lawyers believe that plaintiffs have an advantage when they bring a case against a defendant who is a non resident at the state courts. This is why they ask for removal to neutral grounds which is the federal courts so that the case is not influenced by such factors.
Conclusion The U.S constitution has been made with the consideration of the concept of federalism which guides the country. This makes it possible for the two courts systems that have been put in place to function effectively. Politics plays a huge role in the judicial system as far as appointing and impeaching judges is concerned, but there are measures such as long terms in office that make political influence in the system minimal as this gives judges the freedom to make lawful decisions.
We will write a custom Essay on Judicial Process in America: Federal and State Courts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both courts have ranks which can be used to appeal cases or handle big and sensitive issues. Judges and attorneys at the federal courts have more power and their requirements for qualification are more intensive. Lastly, depending on the type of case, judicial decision making may be influenced by whether the case is being determined at the state or federal courts.
Works Cited Carp, Robert A, and Ronald Stidham. Judicial process in America. Washington, D.C: CQ Press, 1990. Print.
Cass, Ronald A. The rule of law in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. Print.
Posner, Richard A. The federal courts: challenge and reform. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1996. Print.
Rosen, Jeffrey. The Supreme Court: the personalities and rivalries that defined America. New York: Times Books, 2007. Print.
Social Survey: Sex Essay college essay help online
The participants are three males and three females and are all heterosexual. Two of the females are 22 years old and are in committed relationships whereas the other female is 23 years old and is single. Two of the male participants are 22 years old and single. The other male participant is 28 years old and is in a committed relationship.
All the participants agree that it is acceptable to have sex before marriage. However, the males are more liberal than the females because they all think that the maximum duration that a couple ought to take before engaging in sex is one month. The females, on the other hand, think that the minimum time before engaging in sex ought to be six months.
This means that the males are likely to engage in sex earlier than the females. In addition, the male subjects agree with having friends for purely sexual acts without committed relationships. Two of the females are not interested in a “friends with benefits” relationship. However, only one of the females accepts that she can consent to a “friends with benefits” relationship if the guy in question is someone who she likes.
The males are sexually liberal than females because most females tend to get involved emotionally and psychologically with their sexual partners. Males, on the other hand, simply view sex as the physical act. They, therefore, do not attach themselves emotionally to their sexual partners hence the ability to have sex (without a committed relationship) with many partners without a sense of guilt.
The definition of dating varies with gender to some extent. The male participants see dating as “hanging out” with a friend of the opposite sex, which may include sex. The females view dating as spending time with someone without involving sexual activity. All the participants agree “booty call” has sex as the sole intention.
Their thoughts on hooking up are diverse and do not correlate with the participants’ age or gender. For example, some participants think that hooking up includes sex as the key agenda while others think that hooking up has different results. The participants unanimously agree “open relationships” promote promiscuity and no one is willing to be part of open relationships. The participants also agree that cheating involves having a relationship (sexual or not) with someone other than one’s official spouse.
Technology makes dating convenient since people can communicate effortlessly via email and online chatting services. Technology also facilitates meeting new people. However, technology makes it easy for unfaithful spouses to cheat on their partners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The male participants are open to online dating. The females, however, find online dating a misuse of time as they do not trust the people they meet online. The two parties reach a compromise that watching pornography does not affect relationships. However, all males are willing to watch pornography with their partners whereas only one of the three females is willing to do so.
None of the participants agrees on swapping of partners or “swinging.” The 28-year old male subject is the only one who agrees to have a threesome. All these outcomes are because everyone regardless of age or gender tends to guard jealously their sexual partner.
The Differences in Nonverbal Communication between Men and Women in the Workplaces Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Nonverbal communication entails the use body expressions, movements and gestures that signify a certain aspect. Nonverbal communication plays an important role in passing information from one person to another. For effective communication to take place, both parties should be able to decode the nonverbal cues involved.
Therefore, one has to be well equipped with the necessary knowledge to enable him/her to identify a given nonverbal cue as well as understand the message attached to that particular gesture. Men and women have different facial expressions as well as different gestures as far as nonverbal communication is concerned. This paper explores the differences in nonverbal communication between men and women in the workplaces.
Nonverbal cues not only reveal ones emotions but also tend to reveal all the underlying motives of the person in question. In most cases, they reveal fear, joy, honesty, indecision as well as frustration among others. The simplest gestures like the way co-workers stand or enter a room usually speak volumes about aspects such as their confidence, self-worth and credibility (Bryon, 2007, p. 720).
Some behaviors also reveal people’s intent than they may realize. For instance, one unknowingly passes information by the way they sit, look and even stand among othes. Nonverbal communication occurs in a variety of ways such as eye movements, facial expressions and body postures.
Eye contact is a common nonverbal communication aspect. It is made through a series of glances by one party (the speaker) to ensure that the other party (listener) has understood or to gage reactions. The listener uses eye contact to indicate their interest in the speaker’s words or activity. However, men and women behave differently. Most men tend to look up at the end of utterances unlike women who will still retain their eye contact.
According to Espito, women use eye contact more than their male counterparts do especially as a sign of a lagging conversation (2007, p. 102). They do so by looking away to pay more attention to other people and objects within their vicinity. For instance, when a woman glances at her watch, gazes blankly into the distance, or visually scans the room, she is giving definite signals with her eyes that she has, in effect, stopped listening (Gorman, 2008, p. 44).
Most women tend to discuss work-related issues using a social gaze instead of a business gaze. A business gaze entails placing one’s eyes at the mid forehead of the listener. Usually, it is like an imaginary triangle with the eyes at the base and the apex at the mid forehead. When one keeps their gaze in that area, they nonverbally signal no-nonsense, businesslike approach.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the imaginary triangle is inverted, one moves their focus from the eyes to the mouth-a social gaze. Men have proven to be good at the business gaze as opposed to their female counterparts in the work places. Gorman argues that women need to be aware that to be taken seriously in business interactions, a business gaze has the most impact (2008, p. 52).
When men stare at someone in a business setting, their sole intention is to challenge power or status, which is not the case with women. Women usually engage in more eye contact when holding a conversation. However, men do not make much eye contact. Another aspect that distinguishes the two genders as far as eye contact is concerned is that women are usually more likely to be interrupted when eye contact is not maintained with the other party compared to men.
Men and women differ in their pacifying behaviors that help them deal with their stress. Touching or rubbing one’s neck is one of the most significant and frequent pacifying responses to not only internal but also external stressors. Men may pull their collar as an indirect way to get more ‘breathing space’. They also express their stress by stroking themselves under the chin above the Adam’s apple as well as tugging at the fleshy part of their neck.
Research has shown that the fleshy part of the neck is rich with nerve endings that, when stroked, reduce blood pressure, lower the heart rate and calm the individual down. Women pacify by touching their necks differently than men do. They at times touch or twist the necklaces that they might be wearing. Additionally, they touch or cover the hollow area right below the Adam’s apple when they feel threatened, fearful or anxious.
Mostly, male executives tend to show their dominance in their area of expertise by using finger pointing which is less likely to be associated with the females. They usually use finger pointing in meetings, negotiations or interviews. Rather than being a sign of authority, aggressive finger pointing (with one or four fingers) suggests that the person is losing control of the situation.
The position of the legs is also an important signal as far as nonverbal communication is concerned. When men sit with their legs open, they signify an open dominant attitude. A crossed leg position for men usually signifies uncertainty. The opposite is true for women-crossed leg positions show an open dominant attitude in women. Sitting with legs apart in public forums is an especially masculine signal that indicates a high level of comfort and confidence.
The design of crossing ones legs is also a significant aspect in understanding the nonverbal cues of both men and women. Crossing legs at the knee with the toes relaxed is the usual option for women. On the other hand, most men usually stretch out their legs and cross them loosely at the ankles. Crossing one leg and resting it on the other thigh (so that one knee opens up) is a very masculine position that tales up a great deal of room and signals that the person in question is very sure of himself and of his place in the group.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Differences in Nonverbal Communication between Men and Women in the Workplaces specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One’s walking style speaks volumes about their confidence. Men tend to land squarely on their heels and roll toward the balls of their feet. On the other hand, women catch their weight forward-‘off their heels’. Some women, in expression of their confidence, actually walk on the balls of their feet.
Another aspect that portrays ones confidence if the way they greet other people especially via a handshake. Men do not attach a lot of significance to the way they greet other people, thus it might not mean much to the recipients. On the other hand, in women, a firm handshake is a sign of self-confidence. They make a good impression due to their confidence as well as assertiveness.
The amount of space required to feel comfortable in work relations (when holding conversations) varies with not only individuals but also with gender. Men who do not know each other well tend to keep a greater distance between them than women who have just met.
The difference in the interpersonal distance as determined by gender is even true in Web 2.0 virtual online worlds where many of the rules that govern personal space in the physical world can be found in the virtual world. Generally, women tend to approach others closer than men do. Additionally, they prefer side-by-side interactions whereas men prefer face-to-face conversations (Pathi, 2008, p. 110).
The amount of space given to an individual in the workplace signifies their status. Space usually indicates dominance and leadership. The higher the professional status an employee has, the more space he or she is commonly awarded. Gender differences cannot be identified in such a setting.
However, males and females behave differently when it comes to taking space during meetings. Less confident men tend to pull in as opposed to their less confident female counterparts. On the other hand, confident women tend to keep their materials on the desk in one neat pile whereas the men usually spread out their papers on the table. Both are taken as nonverbal expressions for their dominance as well as confidence.
While entering meetings with a high status, female employees have a greater composure than men do. Before entering the room where the meeting is being held, most male employees will often adjust their jacket, touch their hair or make other adjustments to how they look. However, some female employees show such a behavior.
Women prefer high levels of nonverbal communication than men. Men’s nonverbal behavior associated with dominance and power. Most of women’s facial and body motions signal friendliness and approachability. On the other hand, such motions indicate more reservation and control in men.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Differences in Nonverbal Communication between Men and Women in the Workplaces by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research as shown that the reason why most women are receptionists is that they smile even when they are not happy. On the other hand, it is hard for men to display their emotions through smiling. Additionally, women use facial expressions a lot to not only send but also to receive messages. On the contrary, men do not use facial expressions as much.
Honesty is one of the core values of most organizations in the contemporary society. However, some employees may not always be honest. Nonverbal cues have been proved to be effective in detecting lies in such instances.
For instance, men engage more in foot/leg movement when telling a truth than their female counterparts do. Furthermore, facial expression/cues differ significantly. Males who are telling the truth are less likely to employ facial adaptors, as is the case with male liars. On the other hand, women are more likely to employ facial cues when telling the truth than men are.
In conclusion, there are many ways in which men and women differ as far as nonverbal communication is concerned. Some of the ways include the manner in which they cross or rather position their legs while seated, their motives when they stare at someone as well as their ability to use their facial expressions.
Additionally, men tend to use space especially in business meetings to express their dominance as opposed to their female counterparts. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the role that body language plays in day-to-day business activities. Executives, salespeople and managers should not only make efforts in reading the clear signs of others but also have to understand their own nonverbal communication means.
References Bryon, Kristin. (2007). Male and Female Managers’ Ability to ‘read’ Emotions:
Relationships with Supervisor’s Performance Ratings and Subordinates’ Satisfaction. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 713-733.
Espito, A. (2007). Fundamentals of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and the Biometric Issue. Amsterdam, NLD: IOS Press.
Gorman, C.K. (2008). Nonverbal Advantage: Secrets and Science of the Body Language at Work. Williston, VT: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Pathi, S. (2008). Modern Business Communication. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House.
A Report on Customer driven marketing strategy for Easy-pay mobile banking service Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Triple play limited is a communication company that specializes in providing voice communication and data communication services. Due to the emergence and advancement of technology, it has become a mandatory for any company to embrace technology so as to match the evolving industry needs.
A recent market research done by Triple play limited in readiness to introduce its mobile banking service indicated that there is a huge chance of success. It is from this market research that the company launches the new product called ‘Easy pay’.
This product has been designed to suit the majority of the unbanked communities more so in rural areas where banks have not penetrated. The company seeks to reach 2 million clients in the next two years with a possibility of gaining a comparative advantage against potential competitors due to the fact that it is has the first mover advantage.
The company has adopted customer driven marketing strategy to sell this product to more so to the rural population who do not have an access to a bank yet need to do transactions like any other population in the urban setting. A customer driven marketing strategy is a marketing strategy that is focused towards a specific group of consumers. This particular group of consumers is referred to as a niche.
Marketing strategy An understanding of the rural setting is crucial in formulating the marketing strategy for Easy pay mobile banking service. The first step is to develop customer loyalty. This will go a long way in trying to penetrate the new market. Customer loyalty is a crucial aspect of customer driven marketing strategy since it help in retaining the customers as well as obtaining referrals from satisfied and loyal customers.
The second step in marketing Easy-pay mobile transfer service is to do formulate the right promotional strategy for the niche. The promotional method to be used is the Top-down communication strategy that will entail the use of offers and promotional materials such as road shows. This is an advertisement method that is common and effective when trying to push products into a rural population that has less access to the internet and has low media reach.
once this has been achieved, the consumers will be required to have the Subscriber Information Module (SIM) cards registered and activated to enable them send and/ or receive money from other subscribers within the triple play voice communication network. The strategy will incorporate three major stages; Introduction, promotion, and adoption.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once this process has been completed, a continuum of marketing activities that range from media advertisements, road shows and lottery competitions will follow I order to popularize the product among the rural people.
Conclusion and positioning statement This product is aimed at the individual who possess a mobile phone and are subscribers with triple play communication limited. Easy pay is aimed at introducing banking service to a new group of unbanked people. This will provide them with a reliable method of keeping their money safe and secure. It will also introduce a system where they can transfer money to other individuals at real time.
This will bring about convenience and bridge the gap between the banked and the unbanked communities. The company will also seek strategic parterships with several retail banks to allow people who have bank accounts to send money to the ones that have Easy-pay mobile service.
The positioning statement for Easy pay mobile transfer service is ” For all of you who need a fast, reliable, convenient, and a safe way of keeping and transferring funds, Easy-pay offers the right solution for you. With an unprecedented entry into the market, a customer can rest assured that we offer more than just a service; we change lives of many.
Social Consequences of Tourism Research Paper essay help online free
Executive Summary Tourism has a number of social benefits to the host communities. From one end, it assembles people of different cultural affiliations together. The act of sharing and learning from each other’s culture fosters cultural understanding. This understanding is an incredible ingredient towards embracing the spirit of multiculturalism.
However, when cultural inferiority and superiority complexes exist between the host communities and the visiting people, embracement of multiculturalism suffers a great deal. The perceptions of the host people about tourism also play pivotal roles in determining the social impacts of tourism. When tourism serves to introduce some lifestyles that are not acceptable within the ethical and moral domains of the host communities, they may perceive it as a means of deteriorating their cultural beliefs and norms.
Therefore, rather than tourism serving to highlight and reinforce the need for global cultural integration, it serves to produce cultural conflicts. The paper notes that some of the things that cause the cultural conflicts are only undue indulgences by some specific persons but not the entire society from which the tourists come. Unfortunately, chances exist where the host communities may tend to over generalize the behaviors of an individual tourist to use them to define the entire society from which she or he comes.
This leads to stereotyping, which is another social impact of tourism. The paper also argues that tourism has the social impacts of creating public awareness of the host communities’ cultural artifacts coupled with their needs to the international community. More often than not, such awareness has the implication of attracting the attention of the global community to the societal needs.
Introduction Across the globe, tourism constitutes an industry that is growing rapidly. It affects communities both socially and economically. This means that it is a source of livelihood to many people living within tourism destinations. However, even with these advantages, tourism creates a perceived fear among the residents of the tourism destinations who associate with the perception of its capacity to erode the cultures of the indigenous people.
Opposed to these negative social impacts, “as with any economic activity, tourism can have negative impacts on communities” (Surabaya, Tee, and Somme 57). Thus, it is critical for measures and steps taken to be taken to minimize all these negative impacts so that tourism can act to benefit the communities living within the locations of the tourism destinations. As an economic sector, tourism is peculiar in comparison with all other economic sectors.
In the first instance, unlike many sectors, tourism remains a subtle industry whose employees remain not replaced by technology. Consequently, tourism will continue to act a major source of employment. It “aids in the conservation of natural spaces, avoids the migration of the local population, and improves the economic and socio-cultural level of the local population” (Haley 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tourism plays pivotal roles as a major employer in changing social interactions of people. Additionally, tourism facilitates “the commercialization of the local products, interchange of ideas, costumes and the sensitization of the tourist, and local population for protection of the environment” (Haley 4).
From the perspective this fundamental argument, this paper focuses on highlighting the various social impacts of tourism. However, since time constraint hinders one from scrutinizing all the impacts in a single paper, the research paper only considers the social impacts of tourism.
Methodology This research utilizes secondary data and information to analyze the social impacts of tourism. The research generates data and information from a variety of secondary sources including libraries, journals, and internet resources. After an in depth analysis of the social impacts of tourism as reflected in these secondary sources, the research will draw inferences from them.
However, it is crucial to reveal that such an approach introduces a major drawback especially on issues such as the reliability of the secondary sources as general reflections of social impacts of tourism. Nevertheless, the paper mitigates this limitation by drawing the sources utilized in the literature review from a variety of studies based on largely disbursed geographical regions across the globe.
Aims and Objectives The main objectives of this research are to
Introspect the social impacts of tourism
Deploy the social impacts introspected in (i) above to prescribe some approaches that may be used to minimize and mitigate the negative impacts
Based on these objectives, the main aim of the research is to lay down theoretical constructs on how tourism can act to influence societies living in tourism destinations positively. By shedding light on the negative and positive impacts of tourism, the point of argument here is that it becomes possible to capitalize on specific policies to enhance the realization of optimal benefits from the positive impacts while minimizing the negative impacts.
Literature Review Residents’ Perception of Tourism
An enormous body of knowledge, which scrutinizes the impacts of tourism on societies living within tourism destinations, depicts tourism as having both positive and negative social impacts. On the negative side, Deer, Jag, and Fred argue, “most jobs for local people in the tourist industry require the locals to work as servants, house maids, waiters, gardeners, and other menial works that may give people a sense of inferiority” (66).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Consequences of Tourism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, tourism may make people perceive themselves as inferior in comparison to those touring their historical areas of residence. The danger in this kind of perception is that local people possess high risks of their cultures mixing with those of the tourists.
Therefore, their cultural artifacts are likely to disappear or fade. While this argument may remain valid in some situations, it is also arguable that cultures of people may also act as sources of tourism attraction. Consequently, while tourism may serve to dissolve indigenous people’s cultures, it may also act as a mechanism of reinforcing them because, if indigenous people’s cultures attract tourists, it is likely that the tourists would tend to associate themselves with such cultures for them to have an ample experience on the cultures.
Deer, Jag, and Fred agree with line of argument by claiming, “Tourists come from other societies with different values and lifestyles, and because they have come to seek pleasure, they may spend large amounts of money besides behaving in ways that they would not accept at home” (68). This implies that the fantasy associated with tourism may act to justify some otherwise morally unacceptable social indulgences.
In this line of argument, Haley asserts, “visitor’s behavior can have a detrimental effect on the quality of life of the host community including crowding and congestion, drugs and alcohol problems, and prostitution and increased crime levels”(5). When some of the unethical behaviors evidencing themselves within societies because of tourism end up being justified, the moral norms that tie the host communities together must disintegrate.
Thus, the society becomes fragmented. In addition, societies may develop a perception that tourism is one of the mechanisms of taking away what is traditionally rightfully theirs. For instance, in most cases, some people normally move from their places of residence to pave ways for construction of tourists’ recreational centers, restaurants, and amusement parks among other things.
This case has the implication of making tourism “infringe on human rights” (Haley 6). Where tourists may engage in morally unacceptable indulgences within their societies of origin, their interaction with local people within the tourism destinations may create the wrong impression about the social, moral, and ethical constructions of the societies from which particular tourist comes. In one end, this may have the implication of stereotyping some people of a given originality.
On the other end, where a given society living within tourism attraction centers perceives itself as inferior in comparison to the visiting people, chances are that it may end up embracing certain unethical indulgences, which may not even be acceptable by the visitors’ cultural, moral, and ethical norms. In this context, Deer, Jag, and Fred argue, “local people seeing the tourist example may want to live and behave the same way” (67).
This step is a great impediment to social norms of the indigenous people living within tourism attraction destinations. By impairing the social norms of the residents of tourists’ destinations, tourism creates differing perceptions about the tourists among the locals. For instance, Haley argues that aspects that are akin to the perception of tourism among the local people living within north America results to poor and inappropriate hosts’ attitudes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Consequences of Tourism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to him, tourism truncates into “increased noise, litter, traffic, crime, over-crowding, and tourism-induced price increases” (5). In particular, price hiking that is induced by the perception that tourists have a lot of money to spend impairs the buying power of the local people living within the localities where the tourism attraction centers are located.
Nevertheless, the same perception leads to prioritization of certain developments within the tourism destination centers, which have the overall impact of bettering the mobility of the local people. A good example of this is the immense investment by the governments towards the development of infrastructures including roads and recreational facilities in areas of tourist attraction. The myriads of social impacts of tourism based on the perceptions of people about economic activities are ideally theoretical in nature.
Quoting Ape et al. work on ‘Developing and Testing a Tourism Impact Scale’, which was published in the journal Travel Research in 1998, Haley supports this line of argument. He asserts, “While the research conducted has made a significant step towards a better understanding of the relationship between positive and negative perceptions of tourism and support for specific tourism-related policies, historically, most of the research on the topic of residents’ perceptions has been theoretical in nature” (Haley 6).
To resolve the criticism of understanding of social impacts of tourism based on the constructed perception of people about the industry, the theory of social exchange is relevant. Surabaya, Tee, and Somme have done a research on the capacity of social exchange theory to explain the social impacts of tourism. Their research claims, “It is not simply the existence of an exchange that is important, but the nature and value of the exchange that influences attitudes and perceptions” (Surabaya, Tee, and Somme 59).
This implies that people who are likely to hold a positive perception of the social impact of tourism are the ones who have been employed by the industry. However, for this to happen, such people need to have had a positive employment experience with the industry. Otherwise, their perceptions would end up being negative. Thus, it is arguable that the discussed social impact of tourism based on the perception of the locals is akin to experience that people have with the tourism industry within their areas of residence.
Tourism and Stereotyping
Tourism brings together people of differing nationalities, race, and gender coupled with people segregated based on other demographic differences. More often than not, conception of differences among people in a negative way based on nationality, gender, and race among other social and demographic differences merely entangle oversimplification of perceptions of people involved.
In fact, association of one group with some certain characteristics that are inferior or negative is not based on facts but rather on misconceptions and prejudices. These misconceptions and prejudices about a particular group of people lead to their stereotyping. More interactively, and from the perspective of socio-psychology, stereotyping entangles “the pictures that people have in their heads about other groups” (Major et al. 34).
When the interactions of tourists with the indigenous people within the localities of tourism destinations serve to amplify the differences between the tourists and the locals, the preconceived negative perceptions of the indigenous people against the tourists’ of particular origin are confirmed.
For instance, when an indigenous person living within a tourist attraction destination encounters an individual of a certain nationality who is violent, the person may spread the news that all people belonging to the same nationality as the tourist are all violent.
This kind of generalization hinders diversity besides leading to stigmatization and discrimination. Although these are examples of negative stereotypes, positive stereotypes associated with tourists of a given originality may also be harmful since they truncate into limitation of the attitudes of people towards a group of people.
Bearing in mind the arguments raised here, is becomes imperative to posit that, depending on the nature of social and cultural differences between the indigenous people and the tourists, tourism may act to either boost the spirit of multiculturalism or destroy it even further when two groups of people of different nationalities come together. Concepts of stereotyping are anchored on three fundamental aspects. These are traits, concepts, and antecedents. Antecedents involve feelings of being rejected or accepted at an individual level.
In the interaction process of tourists and the local people, such feelings influence the local people’s behaviors and attitudes towards tourists and vice versa. On the other hand, concepts entail a “person’s beliefs regarding the stereotype that out-group members hold about his or her own group” (Voyager and Main 917). This implies that people who are stereotyped presume that the version of beliefs held against their intergroup are justifiable from the basis of impressions held by other people as opposed to out-group stereotypes.
This aspect of stereotyping is significant in the social interactions of people possessing conspicuous differences. Arguably, tourism presents such kind of social interaction. Indeed, the traits of stereotypes are contextual components, behavioral components, and cognitive components. Such components play incredible roles in defining social relationships between tourists and the host communities.
Tourism and Multiculturalism
For the creation of an environment that would foster multiculturalism, it is desirable that the parties coming together respect the cultural norms of each other. Unfortunately, “…out of ignorance or carelessness, tourists may fail to respect local customs and moral values” (Deer, Jag, and Fred 67).
The repercussion is the emergence of cultural conflicts. This means that one of the groups of people would be seeing the other as having some cultural traits, which are inferior in comparison to the cultural norms of the group from where one comes. This hinders the integration of the indigenous people’s and the tourists’ cultures.
The implication is hindering multiculturalism. In the same line of thought, Gawker Visitor Information posits, “there are some concerns that tourism development may lead to destinations losing their cultural identity by catering for the perceived needs of tourists – particularly from international markets” (2).
Therefore, a cultural battle exists between tourists and the indigenous people due to the need to protect the cultural artifacts of the indigenous people and the need to fulfill the cultural desires of the international tourist in the attempt to entice them to come back.
Where tourism is the only source of income in societies that are caught up in the mayhem of cultural conflicts, the battle has the highest probabilities of favoring the tourists. Put differently, the cultures of the indigenous people would be superimposed by those of the tourists. Consequently, the fertile environments for fostering multiculturalism cease to exist. Where the indigenous people are culturally inflexible, the overall impact is hostility.
The local people acerbate this hostility towards the tourists in the attempt to maintain cultural status quo. The argument here is that, in case the interaction process of tourists and the local people produces threats to the cultures of both parties, it becomes incredibly difficult for either party to embrace the differences between them. Therefore, creating the spirit of multiculturalism becomes difficult.
Amid the raised concerns that cultural conflicts between tourists and the host communities establish an environment that is prohibitive of cultural integration and hence multiculturalism, there is a scholarly evidence that tourism is an essential tool for propagating cultural understanding. For instance, Surabaya, Tee, and Somme argue, “tourism is an interface for cultural exchange, facilitating the interaction between communities and visitors (domestic and international)” (59).
Opposed to the raised arguments, where the grounds for visiting a particular destination are pegged on the reasons for coming to an understanding and experiencing a certain group of people’s cultures, cultural conflicts may not exist because there is no point that the tourists would attempt to seek attention for their cultural beliefs and affiliations from the host communities.
Rather, the intention of visits is to experience cultural beliefs and affiliations of the host communities. In this dimension, Surabaya, Tee, and Somme assert, “People want to interact with other cultures, learn about traditions, and even confront themselves with new perspectives on life and society” (59). Directly congruent with this view, it sounds plausible to infer that the tourism industry is driven by experience. Hence, host communities’ culture constitutes unique experiences.
Tourism as a Tool for Creating Social Awareness
The cultural artifacts of different people are unique. When tourists visit to experience these artifacts of local people, awareness of both the existence and value for the cultural artifacts of the host community is created. This way, tourism helps in the integration of the host communities’ beliefs and norms with those of the wider global community.
It also helps in raising the caliber of awareness of the host communities’ social needs. For instance, through tourism, awareness is created for the inadequacy of community services such as healthcare and or continued persistence of cultural beliefs that impede the development of societies such as seeking access to education, gender equality, and other things that are given amicable consideration by the developed societies.
Based on the experience concerning the ways of life of particular groups of people, donor agencies are able to design programs to address the challenges that face people in ways that the programs are going to be welcomed without undue friction. Still in the realm of awareness, Haley argues that tourism helps to create awareness for the need to “promote conservation of wildlife and natural resources such as rain forests, as these are now regarded as tourism assets” (12).
However, even though the awareness of the needs to conserve the natural environment is created coupled with the society embracing the efforts, tourism also acts to destroy it. Surabaya, Tee, and Somme exemplify how tourism may serve to destroy natural ecosystems amid the intensive awareness by the host communities on the significance of their conservation.
They argue, “Tourism poses a threat to a region’s natural and cultural resources such as water supply, beaches, coral reefs, and heritage sites through overuse” (Surabaya, Tee, and Somme 63). This negative impact is even more amplified by considering how tourism results to more waste release to the environment, more noise, and littering among other things.
Conclusion Therefore, based on the expositions made in the paper about tourism, it suffices to declare the industry as one that has a lot of influence socially and economically. Socially, tourism influences host communities both positively and negatively. In this research paper, it has been argued that some of the social impacts of tourism are erosion and or fostering the cultures of the indigenous people. It may lead to stereotyping besides serving as a tool for creating awareness.
The capacity of tourism to result to reinforcement of the cultural beliefs of the locals or to erode them depends on the perceptions that the locals have on tourisms and the reasons as to why people visit a particular destination. From this paradigm, the paper argues that, in case people tour certain tourism attraction centers with the chief intention of learning and experiencing the cultures of the indigenous people, chances of cultural conflicts are minimal since tourists would not bring in their cultural beliefs and affiliations in the interaction process.
Furthermore, the paper argued that where tourists engage in some behaviors, which are not morally acceptable by the host communities, tourism might have the social impacts of inducing stereotypes. This acts as immense impediments to the integration of the persons brought together by tourism. In overall, the paper maintains that tourism has more positive social impacts than negative impacts. Therefore, tourism acts to benefit the host communities both socially and economically.
Works Cited Deer, Margaret, Leo Jag, and Liz Fred. “Rethinking social impacts of tourism research: A new research agenda.” Tourism Management 33.1(2012): 64-73. Print.
Gawker Visitor Information. The Social and Cultural Impacts of Tourism, 2011. Web.
Haley, Arthur. The Social Impacts of Tourism: A Case Study of Bath, UK. Surrey: University of Surrey, UK, 2004. Print.
Major, Boniface et al. “Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24.3(1998): 34-50. Print.
Surabaya, Elijah, Veronica Tee, and Stephaney Somme. “Understanding Residents’ support for tourism development in the central region of Ghana.” Journal of Travel Research 41.3(2002): 57-67. Print.
Voyager, Douglas, and James Main. “How Do Individuals Expect to Be Viewed by Members of Lower Status Groups? Content and Implications of Meta-Stereotypes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75.4(1998): 917-937. Print.
Religion and Tourism Relations Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Executive Summary The relationship between religion and tourism is complex. Therefore, this relationship can only be explained by revisiting religious tourism. This essay provides an insight into the various dimensions of religious tourism. For that reason, it provides a better understanding of religion and tourism relations through religious tourism practices.
This essay acknowledges that religious tourism is a multi-purpose trip. Therefore, the relationship between religion and tourism has resulted into the sharing of sacred and secular spaces. This explains why religious tourism is one of the largest contributors of tourist flows. Additionally, it is one of the growing niches in the tourism market. Consequently, the relationship between religion and tourism has created a multi- billion industry.
Religious tourism is worth around $18 billion. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) also estimates that 300-330 million people visit major religious sites every year. In addition, this essay provides examples of good practices in religious tourism. For instance, there are sections explaining how governments, religious authorities and tour operators can manage events and religious sites. Additional, there are explanations on how these practices can be implemented in a way that promotes sustainable tourism.
For instance, it emphasizes on the use of modern information and communication technologies to market new products. The changing trend in religious tourism has also been explored in the essay. There is evident that most countries are taking religious tourism as a serious industry. Consequently, proliferation of modern infrastructures such as five stars hotels in pilgrimage sites is common place. Additionally, the purpose of religious tourism is slowly shifting away from spiritual enrichment to leisure.
This essay also provides an insight into the problems facing religious tourism. For instance, restrictions in international travel that hamper growth of religious tourism have been highlighted. In addition, terrorism has been indentified as one of the major impediments to religious tourism.
Lastly, this essay has provided recommendations on future developments in the religious tourism industry. For instance, there is special emphasis on the need to promote the prosperity of the local population. Consequently, locals will have the reason to preserve monuments and other heritages.
Introduction Citing Hitrec (1990), Vukonic argues that the word ‘tourist’ is derived from the Latin name ‘tornus’. Tornus refers to an obligation to visit religious shrines in Rome. For that reason, all forms of modern tourism are thought to have originated from religious tourism. However, there is little scholarly evidence to support this claim (Vukonic).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, people visit places with religious attractions every year. Some scholars argue that journeys made for religious purposes should not be termed as tourism. However, just like an ordinary tourist, a religious tourist consumes good and services on his way or at his destination. He, therefore, generates economic benefits that are similar to any other tourist.
Consequently, religious pilgrimages are undoubtedly a form of tourism. To best understand the relationship between religion and tourism the spatial approach is used (Shinde). In this regard, tourists and adherents of certain religions occupy the same place. For that reason, they both have a role in maintaining the identity of that place as a sacred site. Additionally, religious tourism has a spiritual and a recreational component.
Therefore, religious tourism enables people to appreciate commonalities among people in spite of their religious beliefs (Abelow). For that reason, religious tourism can result into a spiritual awakening for any person. Religious attractions fill a person with a feeling of sacredness. Consequently, a relationship between a tourist and the attraction is created. Accordingly, a tourist gets the urge to repeat the experience.
Nonetheless, these travels are closely or remotely connected to holidays. In addition, the world has become more open and festive. Likewise, globalization has opened religious tourist sites to the outside world. Therefore, leisure and holiday activities are slowly supplementing religious satisfaction in this form of tourism.
Apart from providing spiritual nourishment and leisure, religious tourism has other benefits. For instance, religious tourism can be used to increase awareness and protect the heritage of an attraction site. The relationship between religion and tourism relation is also an important tool in peace building. For that reason, the inter-cultural and inter-religious interaction experienced during pilgrimages can be used to foster unity and peaceful co-existence. For that reason, religious tourism is a multi-purpose trip.
Globalization has also commercialized religious tourism (UNWTO). For that reason, globalization has made this form of tourism a marketable product. The trend in religious tourism is, therefore, slowly changing. For instance, pilgrim sites have began to appreciate modern infrastructures such as five stars hotels. In addition, information and communication technologies are now extensively used in promotion and advertisement of these sites.
Moreover, most countries have embraced freedom of movement as an important factor in enhancing religious tourism. Some countries have also embarked on the measurement and management of the flow of people and traffics in major religious events. Additionally, some countries have reverted to maintenance and rehabilitation of neglected religious and cultural monuments. This initiative has occurred after these countries realized that these sites have an economic value.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Religion and Tourism Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonetheless, some international travel laws hamper internationalization of religious tourism (UNWTO). For instance, the fight against tourism has been used as an excuse to reduce the freedom of movement. Moreover, countries are tightening their immigration law. In addition, there are also tougher visa requirements which are applied in a selective manner. Although these measures do not target tourism, they have a negative effect on its development.
This essay provides an insight into the dimensions, destinations, inter-cultural and inter-faith aspects of religious tourism. For that reason, it provides a better understanding of religion and tourism relations through discussing religious tourism.
Overview of the Religious Tourism Industry According to Abelow, religious tourism is a multi-billion industry. The World Religious Travel states that this industry is worth around $18 billion (Abelow). Therefore, economic impact of religious tourism should not be underestimated. Additionally, more than 300 million tourists traverse across the world for religious purposes.
Abelow estimates that these tourists make over 600 million trips worldwide. Furthermore, tourism growth has followed a trend similar to that of the growth of religion (Scott and Jafari). In the last five decades, the Middle East has received a higher number of tourists than any other part of the world.
Accordingly, the flow of tourists is increasing at the rate of 10% in the Middle East (Scott and Jafari). It is worth noting that religious tourism is the main form of tourism in the Middle East. For that reason, it is clear that religious tourism is the fastest growing form of tourism. With the popularity of religious tourism increasing, new markets for budget and luxury travel are being opened. Consequently, sacred and secular spaces are being shared on the global stage.
Major Development in Religious Tourism Globalization is one of the factors that have enabled the commercialization of religious tourism (UNWTO). For that reason, globalization has made this form of tourism a marketable product. A few years ago, paying to enter a house of God was something strange. Furthermore, pilgrims were exempted from taxes and, therefore, countries gained nothing from them. However, this is changing and most countries are transforming religious tourism into a serious industry.
Previously, religious pilgrimages were thought to be holy. Therefore, they were a preserve of a particular religious group. Nowadays, pilgrimages and other religious travels have been secularized (UNWTO). Additionally, most countries are ignoring religious consideration and teachings to enjoy gains from religious tourism (Vukonic). In the last decade, many countries have experienced growth in their economy.
For that reason, the middle and upper class have accumulated sufficient disposable income for travel (UNWTO). Religious tourism, on the other hand, provides great opportunities for those seeking leisure and spiritual nourishment. Religious tourism, therefore, provides an opportunity to all people regardless of their faith, religion and philosophy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion and Tourism Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Religious tourism refers to travels made to pilgrimage sites (Shinde). Therefore, religious tourism is a form of tourism where the motivating factor is religious. Additionally, the destination for a religious tourist is a sacred, pilgrimage or a religious heritage site (Shinde). However, these travels are closely or remotely connected to holidays nowadays. For that reason, although religious tourists are motivated by religious satisfaction, leisure and holiday activities are supplementary opportunities (UNWTO).
Consequently, the client base of religious tourism is slowly changing. Initially, people visiting religious sites were mainly locals or members of a particular religious group. Today, these areas are receiving an increasing number of foreigners. These foreigners are also not particularly from a religious group associated with these sites. Moreover, pilgrimages are also accompanied by services such as tour operations and a package of leisure related activities (Shinde).
For that reason, there is a realization that the worlds is more open, festive and free (UNWTO). Most countries have also developed overlapping markets for this industry. These markets include spiritual, physical and leisure (UNWTO). Although this is a late realization, it has an enormous room for growth. However, this growth will be effectively realized if inter-faith and inter-cultural dialogues are fostered (UNWTO). Moreover, travel sites must respond to the new expectations from the people.
In order to accrue maximum benefits from religious tourism, some countries have invested on the necessary infrastructure (Vukonic). These infrastructures include good accommodation, shops, entertainment facilities and other facilities that meet the needs and interests of tourists.
For instance, Saudi Arabia has spent US $100 million on the extension mosques in Mecca (Vukonic). Roads and airports have also been built to connect Mecca with other parts of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia has also embarked on innovative ways of monitoring traffic and people when an enormous mass of people visit Mecca and other pilgrimage areas.
For instance, a closed circuit television network is being used to regulate the flow of people and traffic (Vukonic). Deterring the maximum number of visitors at a place of pilgrimage or a religious gathering is important as overcrowding has in the past led to stampedes. Accordingly, these happenings have dissuaded people from visiting these interesting places.
Accommodations meant for pilgrims and other visitors have also been improved. For instance, luxury hotels have replaced the simple accommodation associated with these visits (UNWTO). These hotels are also offering foods and services that meet the needs of all visitors. Therefore, an economic way of thinking is slowly finding inroads in religious pilgrimages. For that reason, the future of religious tourism looks bright.
Types of Attractions in Religious Tourism Travels made as a means of fulfilling a religious purpose have been part man’s history. However, religious tourism remains among the least explored activities in the tourism industry (Vukonic). Nonetheless, religious tourism is gaining roots in developed and developing countries.
There are three main types of religious tourism (UNWTO). These types are classified according to their dimensions and the places where they are in practice. They include pilgrimages whose activity has become touristic, religious gatherings and religious routes that lead to pilgrimage sites, monuments and sanctuaries (UNWTO).
Additionally, in a bid to market and enable access by lower classes, religious tourism is gaining prominence. Furthermore, religious tourism is being internationalized (UNWTO). Through these changes pilgrimages are regaining the status they once enjoyed (UNWTO). Consequently, religious gathering and attraction sites are attracting millions of people all over the world. For that reason, pilgrimage and religious routes are once again acting as links among people of different nationalities.
Pilgrimages are the most common types of religious tourism. Interestingly, pilgrimages are thought to be the predecessors of modern tourism (Vukonic). A pilgrimage confirms the fundamental characteristic of tourism as a change of residence due to some reasons (Vukonic). Additionally, most religions incorporate pilgrimages in their doctrines. Therefore, this is a common practice among Christians, Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists. Most of the pilgrimages are made in centralized areas.
Historically, visitors have always streamed in these areas for religious purposes. Religious gatherings, on the other hand, are held to mark a religious event. Some of these events include a visit by a prominent religious leader, marking an anniversary or a jubilee. These gatherings have the capability to attract millions of people. Pilgrimage routes such as the Way of St. James are also a major attraction (UNWTO).
To make then more attractive, the routes are enriched with cultural events. However, lifestyles have changed, and many religious travels are not inclined to religious purposes only. Today, the motives for these pilgrimages are more secular than religious. Therefore, most people are visiting this attraction for education and leisure. For that reason, there are minimal or no differences between other types of tourism and religious tourism.
Role of Religious Tourism in Solving Major Problems in the World
Religious tourism is characterized by the ethics that shape the behaviour of pilgrims and tourists (UNWTO). This ethical behaviour transforms religious tourists into agents of dialogue among cultures and civilizations. For that reason, pilgrimages are a way of weaving together peaceful coexistence between different people. In addition, pilgrimages and religious gathering encourage solidarity in fighting major problems facing the world such as poverty.
Religious tourism is, therefore, one of the most effective methods of dialogue among religions and cultures. Furthermore, religious tourism presents a clear understanding of the economic, ecological and cultural dealings of a particular group of people (UNWTO). For that reason, it is an effective way of communicating the various problems affecting a particular people.
Additionally, ecumenism is also a good way of promoting mutual acceptance and cooperation worldwide (UNWTO). Although it is a Christian doctrine, ecumenism can be successfully applied to solve inter-religious conflicts. For that reason, promoters of religious tourism should incorporate this principle in their plans as it brings harmony to the society.
Moreover, tourism destinations with a combination of attractions from different faiths favour inter-faith dialogue. Such encounters are facilitated by continuous meeting at major religious tourist sites. When these kinds of encounters are encouraged, the world will truly become a global village. In addition, tourism will be promoted to greater heights since people will feel welcomed in all parts of the world despite their religious and cultural inclinations.
Impediment to the Development of Religious Tourism Various obstacles stand in the way of developing religious tourism sustainably. Some of the main impediments include lack of respect to human rights and limitations in the freedom of movements. For instance, there is discrimination in the issuance of visas.
In this regard, some countries do not allow people from certain parts of the world to enter their countries when religious tourism is on the peak for security reasons. Terrorism is also another impediment to the development of religious tourism. For instance, in countries such as Mali, particular groups of people do not uphold the right to heritage.
They seem not to understand that this heritage enriches their cultural diversity. The destruction of religious monuments in northern Mali is, therefore, an insult to religious tourism. Coincidentally, terrorism is a major problem in countries where tourism totally relies on religious practices. A typical example of these countries is Iraq. In Iraq, there are numerous pilgrimages sites for the Muslim faith. For other faiths, these sites and other attractions are also a joy to watch.
Nonetheless, Iraq lacks a stable government and experiences frequent terrorist attacks. Consequently, Iraq does not reap full benefits from religious tourism despite housing major attractions. Lack of insufficient information is another setback to the development of religious tourism (UNWTO). For instance, information on the volume and dynamics of religious tourism is either absent or unreliable. Consequently, it is very difficult to develop a religious tourism strategy.
Recommendation for Future Developments in Religious Tourism
The hospitality industry is one of the rapidly growing industries globally (Kana). Therefore, it is one of the industries that are creating jobs and building new careers at the moment. Commercially, religious tourism is developing at an alarming rate.
For that reason, this industry must overcome a number of operational problems in order to sustainably manage facilities, sites and the heritage of these sites (UNWTO). Products within this industry must, hence, be developed carefully and marketed in a way that meets the changing needs of clients. Accordingly, religious tourism should seek to totally satisfy guest by offering quality services.
Most of the sites visited by domestic tourists are yet to be fully exploited (Kana). Moreover, they are not managed in a way that offers comfort to the visiting tourists. For that reason, the quality of services offered in these destinations must be upgraded. Some sites, especially those in troubled regions, lack good roads and comfortable accommodation. For instance, there is a shortage of hotels in most parts of Iraq (Kana).
Shockingly, the few hotels available are not being exploited in a manner that derives full benefits from the visiting tourists. However, there are many hotels and accommodations in the provinces of Najaf and Karbala. These provinces host major religious attractions in Iran. However, very few hotels are first class. Majority are from second to fourth class. Therefore, they lack the luxury of five stars hotels (Kana).
Therefore, good accommodation should be offered and major roads leading to these sites upgraded (Kana). Hotels are an important element in tourism and, therefore, must be of the required standards. In addition, the human resource within these hotels must be competent. Moreover, marketing of these sites as major tourist destination must be intensified (Kana). Promoters should embrace latest communication and information technologies to advertise these sites to other parts of the world.
For religious tourism to be characterized as sustainable, it must foster local development (UNWTO). Furthermore, it must provide economic, environment and cultural benefits to the local people. The UNWTO has recommended objectives that must be fulfilled before any form of religious tourism is termed sustainable. Some of these objectives include economic feasibility, local growth and provision of employment.
Other objectives include visitor satisfaction, environmental conservation and enhancing cultural richness. It is believed that communities will only support tourism if the industry generates income to sustain their members. According to Shinde, indigenous religious entrepreneurs play a big role in developing relations in religious tourism. Religious tourism is a modern form of traditional pilgrimage economy.
For that reason, indigenous entrepreneurship with knowledge on socio-cultural activities, ritual exchanges and religious protocols must be tolerated in areas receiving high numbers of religious tourists (Shinde). Consequently, these local entrepreneurs will be able to develop innovative products that suit the demands of their visitors. This is what is happening at Vrindavan in India (Shinde). This act also encourages campaigns aimed at education people on the need to maintain and preserve major attractions.
Conclusion Religious tourism impacts on the local community positively. The host quality of life, therefore, is transformed. For instance, some social-economic changes take place within the community. For that reason, religious tourism is an agent of development. Ensuring long-term conservation of religious sites is a means of ensuring sustainability in religious tourism. According to UNWTO, there is a need to develop a dynamic relationship between religious and cultural heritage values.
Consequently, the interests of the host community, tourists and the religious community are served. Most importantly, communities should acknowledge that religious tourism is now a multi-purpose trip. For that reason, services offered at attraction sites must meet the needs of both the religious and secular population. Additionally, it is important to deal with the major problems affecting the religious tourism industry.
For instance, law on immigration and visa application must be relaxed to facilitate free movements across borders. Most importantly, there is need to disseminate information on major religious tourist attraction using modern information and communication technologies. Finally, the world has changed and nearly everything has been commercialized. Consequently, countries with religious attractions must follow suit.
Works Cited Abelow, Lorraine. 2009. Religious Tourism is Rapidly On the Rise. Web.
Kana, Alaa Gado. “Religious Tourism in Iraq, 1996-1998: An Assessment”. International Journal of Business and Social Science 2.4 (2012). Print.
Scott, Noel, and Jafari Jafar. Tourism in the Muslim World. 2010 Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010. Print.
Shinde, Kiran. Entrepreneurship and Indigenous Entrepreneurs in Religious Tourism in India International Journal of Tourism Research 12 (2010) 523–535. Print.
Vukonic, Boris “Religion Tourism: Economic Value or an Empty Box”. Zagreb International Review of Economics
The sales force organization Expository Essay essay help
The organization of the sales force entails the structure that has been adopted by a certain sales force in an organization. Some sales force may be less structured while others may have complex structures.
In addition, the structuring of a sales force may also be in terms of a centralized sales force and a decentralized workforce. The organization of the sales force helps the organization to choose the channel, which will be most appropriate in marketing the products. While organizing the workforce, the chosen channel should be structured in a way that meets the conditions in the market.
The organization of the sales workforce also determines the assigning of roles to the workforce. The sales workforce should be assigned roles that will enhance the organization’ success in the market. H2pro should also organize the sales workforce according to the customers’ needs in the market.
Type of Structure The type of organizational structure refers to the delegation of authority and power in the organization, as well as assigning of roles and duties that each employee should undertake. Line and staff structure encompass having specialized services and activities being offered and carried out by certain members of staff.
For example, the organization can select specialists and supervisors who will deal with sales staff. The line supervisors have the power to command the members of sales staff who fall under their respective lines. The structure adopted by H2pro can be regarded as line and staff structure since supervisors have been assigned the role of overseeing various activities in the organization.
Span of Control
The span of control details the delegation of duties in the organization and how the various members of staff have been assigned various roles. The span of control in H2pro ranges from the Chief Executive Officer, the mangers at various levels, to the employees at the lowest ranks.
Line and Staff or Not?
The structure of H2pro can be regarded as that of Line and Staff; at the top of the organization is the owner who carries out the role of a CEO. There are also managers of departments such as the manager in charge of sales and marketing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The human resource manager deals with the hiring of employees. There is also a manager in charge of inventions and innovations taking place in the organization. The manager in charge of public relations represents the organization in meetings and forums, which may take place either outside or in the country.
Sales territories encompass the markets in which the firm wishes to carry out promotion for its product. A company defines the sales territories through identifying the potential market. Based on the potential market, it is easy to know the territories that the sales team will cover.
The best territories are the ones most likely to have potential customers. In the case of H2pro, the sales territories of the headphones include playgrounds such as places where people engage in competitions in such sports like swimming, football, as well as athletics.
Sales Force Size
The sales force size refers to the number of employees in the sales department who will take part in marketing the product. An organization should have adequate employees to carry out the sales function. The size of the sales force should be enough to cover the entire market and ensure that promotion for a product is carried out extensively.
Sales force training Every organization that wishes to market its products to the target customers must train its sales workforce. Training the sales workforce ensures that they have the adequate knowledge about the product to be marketed. This way, they will convince customers and potential buyers that the product they are marketing is the best.
H2pro has to ensure that the sales team is well equipped with information about the headphones they intend to sell in the market. Members of the sales team should have adequate knowledge on the best ways they can communicate to the customers. This will ensure that customers receive the intended message concerning the product.
Training of sales workforce is essential as it will ensure that the sales team communicates effectively with customers, relate well to customers, and explain to customers about how the devices are used. During the training of the sales staff, it will be essential to train the team on how the wireless headphones are used. This will equip them with ways to answer some questions from the customers regarding the gadget.
We will write a custom Essay on The sales force organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The training of the sales team will also encompass sending the team to various markets where they will try to identify the best market to sell the product. The sales team has to be trained on how to convince customers of the need to use wireless headphones, as opposed to the use of wired headphones, which are the ones mainly circulating in the market.
The training of sales workforce ensures that the sales team gains knowledge on how to establish contact with customers. The sales workforce should develop a strong relationship to enable them market the product since the headphones are a new product in the market. The workforce should be trained on how to outdo the competitors in the market. This is because competitors may pose a significant threat to the marketing of the new headphones.
Training needs encompass understanding the areas in which the sales team should be trained. While considering training needs, H2pro should identify the skills, knowledge, and abilities that the sales workforce should have in order to meet the requirements of marketing the product.
Through identifying the training needs, the organization will be equipped on how to allocate resources for the purposes of training and marketing of the product. In identifying training needs, H2pro should allocate the sales team resources that will enhance productivity.
Training needs should also identify gaps in knowledge and explore the best ways to fill these gaps. The other essential training need, which should be fulfilled by the sales team, encompasses equipping them with information about the prices of the headphones. This includes both the wholesale and retail price. This will ensure that the product is sold at prices, which customers can afford to purchase.
In order to ensure that the training needs are in line with the requirements of the organization, there should be an assessment of training needs. One of the ways to assess the training needs is through organizational assessment, which will help in determining the abilities, knowledge, and skills needed by H2pro marketing team.
H2pro should institute strategies of eliminating the weaknesses that may negatively influence the sales team. Another training need that H2pro should take into consideration includes assessing the members of the sales team individually. This way, it will be easy to know the capability of the workforce to conduct sales competitively. Assessing the members individually will also ensure that the organization knows weaknesses of sales representative and comes up with ways of dealing with these weaknesses.
Training needs also encompass exploring the ways in which the sales team will market the organization’s product. In the case of H2pro, the sales team should be trained on how to carry out promotions of the headphones. Having knowledge about promotions will enable the workforce to know how they can attract the target market, which includes sportsmen such as swimmers and athletes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The sales force organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The sales workforce should also be taught on how to price the headphones in various markets. Another training need encompasses equipping the sales team with knowledge on how they can identify the potential market for the product. For example, they should know how to penetrate markets such as large cities, which may be holding sporting activities since such places can be promising markets for the product.
There are various methods that H2pro can employ in training their workforce. One of the methods includes hiring a sales coach who can help in pointing out vital sales issues. This method entails training and motivating the sales team.
A sales coach teaches members of the sales team the best methods to improve their sales techniques. The other method that can be used to train the sales staff encompasses teleconference training. Training through teleconferencing will ensure that members of H2pro sales team participate in conferences of sales training, which are taking place worldwide.
Another method that can be employed in training the sales team of H2pro includes role playing. This encompasses allowing some members of the team to assume the role of buyers while others will assume the role of salespersons. This method will enable the members of the sales team to portray their competencies, and how best they can carry out the sales.
The role playing method is also essential since it provides a salesperson the opportunity to learn from his or her colleagues. While using the training methods mentioned, it is essential that the trainer engages the team by asking questions and answering questions from members of the sales team. Participation of each of the members is essential as it enhances the success of the training program.
Training Program Evaluation
The evaluation of a training program is essential; it ensures that the targets set during the training of the sales team have been met. Evaluation of a training program also encompasses assessing whether the sales team has utilized the organization’s resources properly.
Training program evaluation entails tracking the success of the individual sales persons as well as assessing the success of the entire sales team. The effectiveness of the sales training program can be measured by looking at the performance of the organization. For example, if the sales team of H2pro helps the company realize high revenue from the sale of the headphones, then it can be concluded that the training program was a success.
The training program can also be evaluated through assessing the satisfaction of the customers; this is based on the feedback that customers give about the product. The ability of the sales team to meet the training objectives can also be used as a way of evaluating the training program.
The Wine Market in the United States Qualitative Research Essay essay help
Case analysis It is evident that the wine market in the United States is growing tremendously. The same can be evidenced in European countries. The improvement of the wine quality in recent years has proven that the demand for the product is high, especially in the United States. Moreover, the competition for the US market as a strategic and high priced wine market is an indication that the market is growing with time.
Moreover, the resuscitation of the old world wine producers in the European countries is an indication that wine market is yet to saturate. Over the years, the demand of wine has fluctuated as can be evidenced in the case study of the global wine war. Some of the factors that has affected this demand include, price, customer preferences, market distance, chain of distribution and wine quality (Anderson 278).
On the other hand, the supply of the wine has been affected by the following factors; the price of the product, wine producing technology, the price of related products such as beer, the climatic conditions of the wine producing countries and subsidies given to wine producers or grapevine growers. In the following discussions, the above aspects will be outlined in an in-depth manner.
As earlier indicated, the wine market is growing rapidly. An example of such is exemplified in the US wine market. It is asserted that with time a new generation of wine consumers started to prefer wine compared to conventional alcohol consumers in America. From this perspective, it is notable that majority of the Americans are used to liquor and beer (Bartlett 3).
However, with time, majority of the alcohol consumers started to understand the health benefits that are accrued from taking wine. As a matter of fact, American wine producers could not satisfy the domestic market, prompting more wine to be imported from the old world’s wine producers.
Another justification of the expanded market of wine is that some of the old world wine producers had already started to battle for a ready market of wine in America. The competition was largely contributed by price and quality factors. The Europe’s advance on the American market through various tactics is an example of a promising wine market. An example of such is evidenced by the subsidized marketing on wine products.
As a matter of fact, the subsidizing of these products is as a result of a European Union policy on agriculture. On the other hand, the American US producers have taken another role of rebranding the foreign wines as their own. Examples of such wine are the Italian wines; Ecco Domania and the Bella sera wines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to determine the demand of wine in the wine industry, one has to consider the various factors that influence the commodities’ demand. In this case, the wine’s demand has incredibly changed or fluctuated over time. First, the price of the wine in old world wine producers was relatively high.
This is due to the fact that, wine was only associated with class and prestige. The increasing of the price affected the demand of the product and in due time, the demand of wine had reduced in many of the old world wine producing countries. Example of such is evidenced in Chile, Argentina and in Spain.
The entrance of the new world wine producers, namely; US and Australia, saw the reverse of this demand. The two countries ensured that wine was produced with the newest technology and made available at lower prices to many of the wine consumers. Relatively, this increased the demand for wine. America has a lot of alcohol consumers and their preference sometimes depends on the price of the commodity.
In the same context, the consumers’ preferences will determine the demand of the product in question. In case of the American wine consumers, most of them preferred the foreign wines. This was after the domestic wine producers in America started to increase the price of their wines (6). Moreover, some of the wine consumers in America believed in the authenticity of the wine blended in the old world.
This affected the demand of the local American-made wines, prompting for more wine imports into the country. Another reason that affects the demand of wine in America is the price of other alcoholic drinks such as beer and liquor (Bartlett 3). As indicated earlier, majority of the conventional Americans are used to beer and liquor. Beer and liquor can be termed as substitutes to alcohol. Since the prices of the two substitutes are relatively lower than wine, the demand for wine goes down.
However other factors such health benefits make more of the Americans consume wine than other alcoholic drinks. However, a higher demand on wine does not make beer and liquor inferior. The superiority of a commodity depends on the preference of the consumer. Majority of the wine consumers in the US are well endowed people, well educated and internet savvy. According to the case study on the global wine wars, the US wine clientele is also termed as price-sensitive (6).
This exhibits the sophistication of the US wine consumers. This means that they have the ability to buy wine regardless of the price, but with certain considerations; utility. The wine consumers want to buy a product of value and which they consider as quality. This is the reason they prefer low-priced wine from foreign countries, and which they still believe is still of good quality.
We will write a custom Essay on The Wine Market in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Supply is another major aspect to consider when discussing the wine industry in the US. According to Amerine and Josyln (146), the supply of wine into the US market has been influenced by factors discussed herein. Firstly, the price of the commodity in the US was relatively high considering that the product was under strict regulations (Bartlett 2). On the other hand, most of the old world wine producers had little wine production capacity.
This made the new world wine producers monopolize their market territories making the price of the commodity go high. In most of the European countries, the price of the grapevines was bought relatively low by the merchants and other corporations that were involved in large-scale wine production. The price of essential factors that contribute to production of wine such as land or labor can either reduce or increase the supply of the commodity.
For example, the fragmentation of land in many of the European countries like Germany and UK reduced the supply of wine. In this case, farming of the grapevine was done in small-scale and only few growers supplied the vines. On the other hand, large tracts of land in both Australia and America were used as vineyards. With time, the new technology used in producing wine by the new world made it easier to reduce labor and all costs associated with land and production (4).
Therefore, this reduction of the production costs increased the supply of wine in the expanding of wine market. Thirdly, the government’s action to subsidize farmers who had vineyards and wine making companies ensured that some of the old world wine producers supplied more wine.
Works Cited Amerine, A., Maynard and Josyln, A., Maynard. Table wines: The technology of their production, Volume 2. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1970. Print.
Anderson, Kym. The world’s wine markets: Globalization at work. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004. Print.
Bartlett, A., Christopher. Global wine war 2009: New world versus old. Harvard Business School Case Study, August 13, 2009. Print.
Impact of Environmental Changes in an Organization Report college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Studies reveal that change is steadfast and unchanging. The organizations that do not keep up with change end up being unstable. However, the long term survivability of such organizations is questioned. Events and situations happen in the business environment and they influence the manner in which businesses operate. They influence the performance of a business both in a constructive or destructive manner (Watkins, 2012).
These events or situations act as the environmental factors that influence the performance of organizations. External and internal situations are the major environmental factors that affect the performance of organizations. The goal of this paper is to discuss the manner in which changes in the business environment affect the performance of organizations. It will focus on changes in economic, cultural, technological and ethical environments.
Discussion Changes in the economic environment
Today, the economic environment acts as the key driver of major organizations in the world. This means that an organization needs to look for ways that can allow it to address the needs of its customers appropriately. The global market provides organizations with opportunities to expand their operations significantly (Watkins, 2012). As a result, it is the duty of managers to ensure that their organization embarks on the production of goods and services that meet the needs of the customers in the global market.
For example, the railway industry in the UK is adopting measures to help it cope with the changing economic forces. Changing lifestyles have made many people to own cars. This situation has made railway companies to adopt measures that will help them compete with road users effectively.
As a result, most railway companies are being privatized so as to ensure that they are properly managed. Moreover, they have been able to provide their customers with incentives that have enticed them to use rail transport. People’s living standards have changed drastically. As a result, most companies are investing funds to improve their infrastructure thereby allowing them to provide their customers with comfortable and reliable means of transport (Kirkup, 2012).
In this perspective therefore, it is evident that the railway industry in the UK is responding to the changes that are taking place in the global business environment. This situation has allowed the industry to address the needs of its customers in an efficient manner. As a result, most people now prefer to use rail transport because of the comfort and convenience it offers.
Changes in the cultural environment
The cultural environment plays an essential role in terms of boosting the productivity of an organization. Therefore, most organizations are responding to the needs of diverse cultural backgrounds in order to build customer loyalty and confidence (Watkins, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this perspective therefore, most banking institutions are engaging in reforms aimed at responding to the diverse needs of their customers. For example, Barclays has set up banking standards aimed at responding to the needs of its customers.
It has embarked on a legislation policy aimed at responding to the banking needs of its customers that will ensure that its customers are able to increase their returns on investment. In this perspective therefore, it is true that in order for an organization to win the confidence of its customers, it should study the cultural environment to help it understand the needs of its customers in an efficient manner (Stewart, 2012).
Changes in the technological environment
The field of technology is growing at a fast pace. As a result, global organizations are embracing technology to allow them boost their competitiveness and profitability in the market (Watkins, 2012).
For example, the Royal Academy of Engineering recently made a proposition that digital literacy, information technology and computer science should be taught to all people who have attained the age of five. This would make people to change their negative perception about the subject being dull. The goal of this initiative is to inform people that the subject is meant for the 21st century students and that it can make students to be creative and pervasive.
The Royal Academy of Engineering stipulated that digital literacy, information technology and computer science should be taught to children when they start going to school (Cookson , 2012). When children are exposed to technological concepts at an early age, they become innovative and creative. Therefore, when they find employment, they boost the productivity of their organizations significantly.
Changes in the ethical environment
The ethical environment is changing. The ethical environment plays an important role since it increases the customer base of an organization. This means that an organization needs to portray ethical behavior to its customers in order for it to gain their loyalty and confidence.
Therefore, to remain competitive in the global market, most organizations are engaging in green initiatives to help them build a sustainable customer base. For example studies reveal that low-carbon businesses in the UK provide a third of the growth that has been observed in the region. Moreover, approximately 1 million people in the UK have been employed by those organizations that offer green jobs (Harvey, 2012).
We will write a custom Report on Impact of Environmental Changes in an Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The green economy is regarded as the biggest source of growth in the region. However, most businesses in the UK are frustrated since the government is not paying significant attention to the issue of green businesses. For example, Michael Heseltine stipulated that wind energy will provide the energy-deprived regions with affordable supply of energy. Moreover, this initiative is expected to provide the region with opportunities for growth.
There are approximately 10 foreign companies in the UK which are considering investing in wind energy (Harvey, 2012). This is because the issue of green businesses is gaining popularity in most parts of the world. As a result, the businesses that will take advantage of this opportunity today are expected to boost their productivity significantly. Therefore, because of the urge to conserve the environment, most consumers are shifting to green organizations in order to ensure that the environment is not subjected to destruction.
Conclusion From the analysis therefore, it is true that in order for an organization to remain competitive in the market, it should adopt the changes that take place in the business environment today. The factors that influence the manner in which an organization copes with the changes in the environment include the economic environment, cultural environment, technological environment, and ethical environment.
Once an organization pays attention to these factors, it is able to respond to the changes that take place in the business environment in an efficient manner. This way, an organization is able to gain access to new production techniques and customer support skills thereby boosting its competitiveness in the market.
Reference List Cookson , C 2012, Willetts announces new school IT curriculum. Web.
Harvey, F 2012, Green economy is on the rise but remains to be fully exploited. Web.
Kirkup, J 2012, Investment in rail industry. Web.
Stewart, H 2012, Banking sector reform. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Environmental Changes in an Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Watkins, R 2012, Business Environment, Pearson Custom Publishing, New York.
Antigone Essay (Movie Review) scholarship essay help
Antigone is a 1961 movie directed by Yorgos Javellas and produced by Demetrious Paris. In the movie, Irene Papas plays Antigone, Maro Kodou plays Ismene, and Creon is acted by Manos Katrakis. The movie was released in 1961 and it is based on the famous Greek tragedy. Several months ago, I decided to watch a black-and-white film version, an adaptation of Sophocles’s most famous play called Antigone. The movie was released in Greece and it involves Greek actors, which suits mythological themes recovered in the picture.
The film refers to the times of ancient Greece. King Oedipus invades Thebes and unintentionally kills his farther and marries his mother Jocasta. The King later has four children –two daughters, Ismene and Antigone, and two sons, Polyneices and Eteocles (Antigone).
After Oedipus’s death, Eteocle promises his father to reign with his brother by alternating their power annually. However, when Polyneices ascends the throne, he refuses to give power to his brother and gathers the army to confront Eteocle. However, when both brothers die in a battle, the king Creon decrees that only Eleocles deserves the honorable ritual of burial whereas Polyneices must be left unburied.
When Antigone learns about this, she decides to bury his brother herself. As soon as Creon is informed about Antigone’s decision, the king thinks that burying her alive in a tomb is the only punishment for her horrible deed. However, the heroine hangs herself after she is pushed in a tomb. Haemon, Creon’s son, tries to attack the king, but later he kills himself as soon as he finds Antigone’s body.
The story is based on the famous Greek tragedy Antigone written by Sophocles in 441 BC. The play, in its turn, is an extended version of Theban legend. Despite the fact that the film is based on fictional characters, it is premised on historical context as well. In particular, Antigone dates to the epoch of national rebellion in 441, when imperialist movement was on the rise.
The story also relates to numerous military expeditions of Greek leaders to expand imperial control and power. In the play, Sophocles criticizes anarchy and makes direct references to Athens. In general, the play does not touch on patriotic themes. On the contrary, it refers to analysis of moral themes typical of those times.
The movie was set in Greece and it features Greek landscapes and ancient interiors so that the atmosphere was skillfully rendered by the director. In the movie, several locations have been used, the mountainous setting, the buildings reminding of ancient Greek palaces, and the caves where the main characters were buried.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such a way, the director has managed to describe the epoch, as well as demonstrate what challenges that main heroes faced. While watching the actor’s clothing and the building interior, it was possible to feel the air of time. Black-and-white version contributed to the entire idea of the picture.
In my opinion, the movie successfully reflects the epoch of imperialism when the Kings expanded new territories and were obsessed with gaining control over new lands. The story also accurately conveys the behavior and habits of ancient time because honor and respect were among the most important qualities that a person should possess. Therefore, the movie is not a patriotic account about achievements and courage of Greek military leaders; it is a story about love, compassion, betrayal, and independence as presented by Sophocles.
Works Cited Antigone. Ex. Prod. Demetrios Paris. Greece: Dinos Katsouridis, 1961. DVD.
The Effects of Slavery on the American Society Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
During the lead up of the American Civil War, national ideological focus changed to what is known as the slavery debate. This shift was particularly important for a nation that prides itself on the principles of liberty and freedom. This debate over whether the ethical issue concerned with slavery exploitation was protected under the Constitution of the United States heavily challenged fundamental doctrines of this free nation.
One shining example is former president Abraham Lincoln and democratic nominee Stephen A. Douglas’ series of unmediated political debates, which illuminated much on the country’s reliance on slave exploitation. Stemming from this invigorated interest, remarkable changes began to blossom into a new era of American literature, cinematography and media coverage.
Distinct writers, such us Richard Wright, used their literary works as a way of redefining discussion of race relations in the United States during the mid 20th century. Indeed, Wrights novel Native Son was the first best selling novel by an African American writer and heavily increased his respect as a novelist.
In his novel, Wright uses his main character, Bigger as an example of the average brute Negro and highlights his relation with white individuals. Bigger’s life is not only contrasted with that of white, but an evident feeling of race superiority can be acclaimed through Bigger’s feelings and actions.
Wright’s chief success in the novel is his ability to warn America that Bigger’s aggressions were provoked by the oppressing racist force society imposed on African Americans. The author urges for change and explains to the white people the reasons behind several savage acts that black individuals such as Bigger committed. The effects of slavery on the American people have also been documented by James Baldwin.
James Baldwin an African American novelist and social critic of the mid 20th century presented Everybody’s Protest Novel: Notes of a Native Son, as a way of criticizing Richard Wright’s Native Son for portraying Bigger as and angry and violent black male.
Although Baldwin tackles issues against race in American and Europe, he believes that “Below the surface of (Wright’s) novel there lies, as it seems to me, a continuation, a complement of that monstrous legend it was written to destroy .”It is evidential that Baldwin disregards Wright’s novel and intends to honestly analyze an African American man’s experience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Specifically Baldwin condemns Wright by highlighting: “The failure of the protest novel lies in its rejection of life, the human being, the denial of his beauty, dread, power, in its insistence that it is his categorization alone which is real and which cannot be transcended.” Clearly, Baldwin’s Notes of a Native Son agrees with other African American authors, specially criticizing Wright’s abuse of naturalism and protest fiction in his novel.
Race intolerance is an extremely delicate topic in the United States. Slavery reinforces social prejudices and the forceful oppression against colored individuals during the mid 20th century.
The enslavement of African Americans in the United States opened wounds that until the date society cannot heal. Slavery has been the root of fear and the cause of violence of black individuals. Undeniably the society in which African Americans lived created an oppressive atmosphere that caused them to find its balance and identity relying on hostile actions.
All efforts to examine slavery through the lens of modernity makes it difficult to comprehend how individual’s supported and sustained an institution for centuries that degraded and dehumanized others for the exploitation of profit3. Slavery was a multidimensional practice that influenced economic thought in its time but also affected the social, cultural, and moral ethos of both its defenders and its destructors.
The slaveholder and the non slaveholder alike were sallied by maintaining a slave based society, and all individuals, whether they lived in the South or North, found their lives and times circumscribed by the necessities inherent in preserving slavery and preserving civil society simultaneously.
The response to this challenge led to the formation of a defensive posture that acknowledged the place of slavery in the natural order of the things and viewed abolitionist challenges to the peculiar institution as errant beliefs that would only produce social discord4.
Slavery played a significant role in the American politics in the nineteenth century. The legacies of slavery such civil rights, segregation and racial discrimination have dominated the current American society4. Slavery was a detrimental human servitude that put to test the very meaning and freedom of the American people. Slavery has had a significant impact on the political climate of the US. A number of experts hold the opinion that the early US was in fact defined by a relative lack of social differentiation3. The absence of class stratification in the American societies is also another outcome of slavery.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Effects of Slavery on the American Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The American Revolution is said to have reinforced the scientific, social, and economic sources of racism, a product of slavery. The American Revolution brought together an extended body of political thought within which the existence of slavery could be tolerated only with the greatest difficulty.
Moreover, largely because it was the Revolutionary ideology and rhetoric which had prompted the debate over the nature of blacks and their place in the American society, that debate was concluded substantially within its context. Although religious inspiration and conviction accounted for a large proportion of individual manumissions and helped to promote antislavery, the scriptures themselves were ambiguous4.
They reinforced but rarely determined the course of the argument. If we are fully to appreciate, however, not only the extent but also the limitations in terms of the Revolutionary developments in approaches to slavery and race, then we must look at certain other trends in the American society which made their own contributions to the growth of more rigid patterns of racial prejudice and which lent their support to the view that it was necessary to resist slavery.
It has frequently been pointed out by historians that the very existence of any widespread antislavery sentiment in the Upper South was contingent upon the declining economic fortunes of the Tidewater region. During the last quarter of the eighteenth century, that region began the painful process of a major agricultural adjustment.
Until the middle of the eighteenth century the Negro’s place in the American society has been firmly institutionalized: he was a slave. The ideas central to the revolutions subjected the definition to severe strains. Coupled with broad a humanitarian and religious impulses, they brought under fire the institution of slavery and promoted a destruction of the identity of the slave and Negro.
This demanded, especially of the South, a redefinition of society and its values; it demanded a cultural revolution to match the political evolution. The revolutionary debate promoted an articulation of ideas which had previously existed largely on the level of assumption4.
The process of articulation made hardened and rationalized those assumptions and thereby made them more difficult to dislodge. It focused attention on the multiracial nature of the American population and laid bare the anomalous position, which blacks occupied. Blame for the anomaly was almost inevitably heaped upon the hapless blacks themselves.
The outcome of the debate was largely influenced by existing prejudices, but this emerged from it stronger than ever. Articulation and definition gave them an authority and respectability which firmly established them as societal norms. Moreover, there seemed to be no countervailing forces to arrest this development apart from those contained in the dogma of the American creed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of Slavery on the American Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It had become obviously by 1820, however, that the revolutionary of force that creed was inadequate to destroy slavery and the social structure that it endangered3. It had become equally obvious that that the universality of the creed could not stand before the vision of America as a white man’s country.
Nether failure is all that suspiring, of course. Success would have involved a fundamental reordering of American society. But the extent of the failure was considerable. The growing discrimination against blacks has to be set against the active democratization and liberalization of the white society. It is worthy of note, for example, that restriction of black suffrage rights in some Northern states introduced in the very constitutions which were concerned to expand the political privileges of other members of the community.
Furthermore, by 1820, the major lines of Southern antebellum development had been established3. While this development included a similar, but modified, process of political liberalization, it was to include also an ever more active and positive defense of slavery. The 1820s was indeed a crucial decade; but the roots of those developments themselves foreshadowed, the revolutionary and post revolutionary generations.
The revolution flattered to deceive; it promised more than it achieved3. The historian is faced with the sad paradox that the first great onslaught on slavery on America was impelled by egalitarianism and by a belief in universal and natural rights: but it helped to produce a positive racism and explicit denial of those rights4.
The most detrimental impact of slavery on the American society is that it gave birth to racism. Racist doctrine evolved in early colonial America to place humanity into compartmentalized groups based on distinctive, social, and mental traits, which presumably established a ranking founded upon the unilinear evolutionist thinking of the time.
Its practitioners sought to delineate bicultural boundaries, coinciding with innate and heritable mental and moral differences, as justification for a polarization of the races that led to the subsequent exploitation and oppression of the darker races of the world.
The slave system was somewhat color blind until religious, social, legal, and political legitimation within the infrastructure of the Americas became aligned with the racist doctrine fostered by environmentalist thinking of the nineteenth century. Racism has its roots in the legacy of transatlantic slave trade, as it was the trades that created the ideology of white supremacy as a justification or support for the forced migration of millions of Africans to Europe and America4.
Bibliography Baldwin, James. Everybody’s Protest Novel. Paris: Partisan Review, 1949.
Davis, Darién. Slavery and Beyond: The African Impact on Latin America and the Caribbean. Maryland: Rowman
Beowulf Essay (Movie Review) college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Information
Information The film Beowulf (2007) was directed and produced by Robert Zemeckis. Such Hollywood celebrities as Anthony Hopkins (King Hrothgar), Angelina Jolie (Grendel’s mother) and Ray Winstone (Beowulf) starred in the movie.
Beowulf (2007) is based on the Old English epic of the same title. Notably, the movie is “the full-length motion picture” where actor’s movements rather than their appearance were captured (Jones 18). I watched it on DVD and I was impressed by the technique used. I was also interested in the story itself, of course.
The Plot Beowulf is a warrior who travels the world and fights against the evil. He comes to help King Hrothgar to defeat a monster, Grendel, which devastates his kingdom. The warrior manages to kill the monster, but Grendel’s mother comes and kills almost all Beowulf’s men. Hrothgar tells Beowulf that Grendel’s mother, the Water Demon, lives in a cave and Beowulf sets to kill her only to be seduced by the monster’s mother who takes the form of a beautiful woman.
Beowulf and Grendel’s mother make a deal and the warrior becomes the next king while the Water Demon gives birth to Beowulf’s son. Many years later, when Beowulf is old, the deal between him and Grendel’s mother is broken and Water Demon’s son, a dragon, attacks the kingdom. Beowulf manages to kill the dragon but is wounded and dies soon after.
The Reality As has been mentioned above, the movie is based on the epic. However, it is an interpretation rather than a screening as, though major events are quite close to the text, the characters are very different from the original. First, Beowulf is not a very good example of a conventional warrior of the Middle Ages as he is less masculine and he is half naked throughout most of the film. Grendel is also depicted as a victim rather than hideous monster that is to be destroyed.
Grendel is that bad because people do not like him. People cause great pain to his head, which is the reason why Grendel attacks. In the text, Grendel is the evil monster who needs blood and murders. In the original, there is nothing about Grendel’s father and the dragon’s origins. In the movie these are children of Hrothgar and Beowulf respectively.
The Setting As far as the setting is concerned, it is really specific. On one hand, the landscape is depicted true to life. However, the creators of the film were not that precise when it came to costumes, appearance and customs. Thus, the king is wearing something like a Roman toga instead of clothes worn by Vikings (Jones 20).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The movie reveals certain clichés depicting the court in the Middle Ages as a “site of uncivilized savagery” with “bad table manners and boorishness” (Jones 20). Clothes of Beowulf and his warriors do not correspond to the epoch either.
Evaluation However, irrespective of these differences, I would recommend young people to watch the film. In the first place, this can make them read the text itself. More importantly, the movie represents a contemporary vision of people’s past. It reflects values that reign in the contemporary society.
Of course, the movie has certain artistic value. It is novel in terms of the production as it is a motion picture. It is also properly made. The performance is very good and the story develops at a proper pace. Therefore, the viewer will enjoy the great movie and will be able to think of history and development of the human society.
Works Cited Jones, Chris. “From Heorot to Hollywood: Beowulf in Its Third Millennium.” Anglo-Saxon Culture and the Modern Imagination. Ed. David Clark and Nicholas Perkins. Rochester, NY: Boydell
Columbia’s Last Flight by Langewiesche Essay college admissions essay help
The reading under analysis is called Columbia’s Last Flight and is introduced by Langewiesche. In particular, the story reveals the journalist’ investigation and research on the reasons for the space shuttle disaster happened in February1, 2003.
The author focuses on preliminary construction terms, NASA’s response to the tragedy, further investigations, and alternative methods for averting the tragedy. In addition, the author pays attention to negligent attitude of engineers and operators to risks detected at the preliminary stages of the shuttle launch.
At the very beginning of the article, the journalist outlines the underpinnings for the flight, including the construction terms, as well as the importance and the purpose of the mission. In particular, Langewiesche emphasizes that the space shuttle journey was not of the primary importance, although the construction deadline was under the great pressure.
Further considerations were dedicated to the accident, as well as to the events connected with it. In particular, the author focuses on the lack of awareness and failure of communication between the flight control board and the shuttle which became decisive factor influencing the tragedy.
In the reading, the journalist insists that the shuttle was damaged by the foam block that broke off the fuel tank and struck the shuttle’s left wing. Despite the fact that the damage was noticed, “…the shuttle program managers…had dismissed the incident as essentially unthreatening” (Langewiesche 61). However, ignorance and improper assessment of the situation contributed to further irreversible complications.
Further in the reading, the author refers to the analysis of investigation procedures and NASA’s responses to the tragedy. In fact, NASA’s representatives rejected the idea of foam block damaging the left wing because the latter was made of temperature-proof material that was strong enough to resist even the most powerful hit. As a result, the NASA’s reputation was at stake because further explorations and discoveries justified negligence of the engineers and constructors.
Apart from improper management of the construction process and lack of communication and reporting between the shuttle and the Space Center, there was a significant lapse in risk management. Specifically, Langewiesche discusses the alterative ways that the engineers could have employed during the rescue operation. On the one hand, launching the second shuttle to safe the crew was a risky business because there was a possibility of losing two shuttles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, a carefully arranged contingency plan can save the lives of seventh people. The latter variant, however, also presupposes significant costs, which did not motivated NASA’s leaders. The journalist notes, “for all their willingness to explore less likely alternatives, many of NASA”s managers were stubbornly closed-minded on the subject of foam” (Langewiesche 73). Once again, the author emphasizes inconsistent approach of the government to the incident.
At the end of the story, Langewiesche confesses that the details of the tragedy are quite sophisticated due to the involvement of technical, moral, and ethical issues. The human factor is also emphasized because all the parties involved in the issue failed to reach a consensus concerning the actual reason for the damage.
Nevertheless, all aspects in total had become lethal for the seven pilots on the board of the cosmic shuttle. The story also provides many lessons to be learnt that relate specifically to the communication and crisis management. Specific attention should also be given to NASA’s reputation and their response to the disaster.
Works Cited Langewiesche, William. “Colambia’s Last Flight: The Inside Story of Investigation and the Catastrophe it Laid Bare”. The Atlantic Monthly, (2003): 58-87. Print.
Relying on Senses: Concerning the Physicalism. Information vs. Experience Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents The Knowledge Argument Summary: Concerning the Key Ideas
Lewis’s Main Argument: Reading between the Lines
Against the Knowledge Argument: Joining Lewis’s Ranks
The Knowledge Argument Summary: Concerning the Key Ideas The process of the world cognition must be one of the most complicated ones that occur in a human mind. Indeed, the ability to make a coherent logical transition from experiencing a certain feeling to obtaining information, processing it and memorizing for the further use is what makes the human brain such an amazing organ.
However, some of the stages of the cognition process remain quite obscure despite the fact that the world science has developed considerably, having explained a number of peculiar phenomena, the question whether recognizing a certain object or issue and learning about its key properties can be considered the process of cognition or the process of physical perception is yet to be solved.
To be more exact, physical properties represent all the information that one can possibly obtain about a certain object, which is why the five senses are enough for learning all the essential information.
Lewis’s Main Argument: Reading between the Lines According to Lewis, the five senses of a human being are enough to learn everything that is needed to understand the functions and the properties of a certain object. While Jackson insists that there is more than the tangible image of an object, Lewis still makes it clear that, with the help of the five senses, one can obtain the required information about a certain thing within practically no time.
On the one hand, the argument is solely about the means of cognizing the reality. However, when digging a bit deeper, one will realize that there is more to this argument than meets the eye. Admitting that there are only the tangible parameters of a certain object or thing to recognize, Lewis makes it clear that the process of cognition consists only of obtaining a certain kind of information about the object in question.
On the contrary, Jackson explains that there is more to learning about a certain object than considering its properties; according to Lewis the process of studying an object is a process of cognition and learning, which can be possibly followed by practicing the newly obtained skills.
Against the Knowledge Argument: Joining Lewis’s Ranks It seems that Lewis’ argument is more valid than the one that Jackson presents. While both scholars offer sufficient pieces of evidence to back their ideas up with, there is still a grain of uncertainty about the arguments which Jackson makes. While the latter makes it clear that the process of cognition is a natural stage of experiencing a certain phenomenon, he still misses the fact that the process of recognizing the object’s properties comes first. Hence, the cognition process can be considered a result of the latter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the peculiarities of short-term memory must be taken into account. It is clear that a human memory cannot retain all the experiences which one has had over the day; therefore, the experience element in the process of cognition might be insignificant (for instance, in identifying an obstacle on the road).
In the above-mentioned example, the role of the five senses is obvious, while the experience and the conclusion which the experience should lead to are unclear. Hence, one can assume that Lewis’ ideas are closer to the truth than the ones of Jackson.
Works Cited Jackson, Frank. Lewisian Themes: The Philosophy of David K. Lewis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2004. Print.
Lewis, David. “Knowing What It’s Like.” Theories of Mind: An Introductory Reader.
Ed. Maureen Eckert. Lanham, MD: Rowman
Disaster of Columbia shuttle Essay best essay help
In this chapter James Surowiecki describes the events that led to the Columbia shuttle disaster and explains the factors that contributed to this catastrophe. First of all, the author mentions that during the launch of Columbia a large piece of foam was broken off and smashed into the wing of the shuttle.
The thing is that that the members of the Mission Management Team (MMT) knew about this event, but they convinced themselves that it did not pose a significant threat to the crew. More importantly, the findings of the Debris Assessment Team (DAS) were not properly investigated. So, poor decision-making within the NASA led to the death of seven astronauts. In his book, James Surowiecki analyzes organizational factors that can explain unsatisfactory performance of the MMT team.
First of all, people, who took part in this project, were extremely firm in their conviction that there had been no defects with Columbia. This is one of the reasons they rejected the request to take photographs of the shuttle in order to estimate the impact of the foam on the shuttle.
The problem is that they did not know much about the possible quality of these images. This is why they lacked evidence when analyzing the situation and evaluating risks. James Surowiecki believes that it is a form of confirmation bias when people choose to see that they want to see. Moreover, such situations exemplify such a phenomenon as groupthink. It occurs when separate individuals do not want to contradict the opinions of their superiors.
Furthermore, James Surowiecki notes that when the member of the MMT team realized the extent of the threat, they came to the conclusion that nothing could have been done. Yet, after the investigation, it became clear that there could be at least two ways of rescuing the Columbia crew. These examples demonstrate that poor decision-making can have significant implications for people’s lives.
Apart from that, James Surowiecki argues that such organizational behavior can in part be explained by the culture of the NASA. In the past, this organization recruited people who had worked in various industries. It was more likely that they could have different views on the same question or problem.
Yet, nowadays, the employees come to the NASA mostly from graduate schools. Very often they may not be experienced in such discussions. In many cases, the employees may be reluctant to voice their disagreement with those people, who occupy a higher position in the workplace hierarchy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the writer attempts to explain the reasons why group discussions in organizations may not be very productive. In his opinion, some members of the team can dominate others, while the opinions of more reserved people can be overlooked. James Surowiecki refers to empirical studies demonstrating that teams are more likely to take better decisions than separate individuals, if team members can openly exchange ideas. The task of a leader is to ensure that communication within a group is not hindered in any way.
James Surowiecki emphasizes the necessity of looking at the same question or problem from different angles. More importantly, people should express these different views on during discussions or meetings. Only, in this way, organizations can avoid tragedies like the collapse of Columbia. The issues discussed by the author are relevant to many organizations that consist of many divisions or discussions.