Importance Of Group Counseling Essay (Critical Writing) Online Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of group proposal

Conclusion

References

Introduction In the context of a group, it is important to develop a group proposal for various reasons. Group proposal is a document that provides insights about the central elements of group counseling.

It pinpoints the major aspects that a group aims to undertake in counseling and practice. This paper seeks to highlight the importance of group proposal during group counseling.

Importance of group proposal According to Meyer (2003), group proposal is an important tool that provides the group with an overview of what to expect during the entire counseling session. At the outset, it gives the group leader an opportunity to understand the members of the group and their respective needs.

It introduces the counselor to the major expectations of the members facilitating the ability to ensure that the counseling session is in line with the expectations and needs of group members. It is the group proposal that allows the counselor to streamline his/her objectives regarding the entire therapeutic session.

Corey et al. (2010) articulates that the counselor is able to understand the members whose objectives are similar and as such, categorize them as such.

Second, a group proposal provides vital elements behind the rationale that individuals come together to resolve. It is through the group proposal that the rationale of the entire session comes into the mind of the counselor.

The rationale of the group proposal helps the counselor to understand some ethical considerations to take into account during the entire group therapy. To that end, such issues as creation of rapport and trust are addressed even before the beginning of group counseling.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the rationale allows the members of the group to manage their expectations which leads to a successful therapeutic sessions.

As elucidated by Corey et al. (2010), lack of uniform comprehension of the entire rationale of group counseling leads to distorted and fragmented expectations from the members making it hard for the counselor to address all issues that may arise during the actual group sessions.

Third, group proposal provides the objectives of group counseling. Objectives of group counseling are important for all the stakeholders since they allow the members and the counselor to understand the needs and the anticipated outcomes of the group.

To that end, it is imperative to highlight that a group proposal also highlights the logistical issues that may emerge within a group and understand the resources that are necessary to carry out the counseling process. It also provides information regarding the group content and evaluation procedure.

According to Corey et al. (2010), evaluation of group performance is important since it measures the extent to which the group has achieved the objectives and goals.

Finally, group proposal outlines the major processes underlying the group counseling process. This implies the group members get a glimpse of the way the counseling process will occur making it possible for them to understand the content prior to the actual group counseling.

Nonetheless, Corey et al. (2010) articulates that the counselor should be wary of group dynamics where members may not necessarily welcome the idea of understanding the content prior to the entire group counseling.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Importance of group Counseling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In sum, group proposal is an important tool before establishing a group counseling session. It highlights the rationale, objectives, composition of the group and logistical issues that pertains to the group besides, it provides the content and research questions that are necessary during the evaluation of group performance.

References Corey, M.S., Corey, G.,

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Investing in Turkey Report essay help

Table of Contents Benefits

Risks

Adopting of a disciplined approach by Cirque du Soleil

Reference List

Business project development in new destinations is an exercise that involves a substantial number of considerations. Turkey is one of the countries in which Cirque du Soleil has never staged its shows before. Therefore, this presents new business opportunities for the company.

At the same time, the country presents challenges for the company. The challenges resonate from the fact that the company is likely to be exposed to constraint and costs of conducting activities in a new environment (Jobin

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The Impact of New Media and Social Networking on Entertainment the Entertainment Industry Essay essay help: essay help

On 14th of February, 2005, the entertainment industry entered a new era that would henceforth change its future. On that Valentine’s Day, Youtube.com was registered on whois.com. Six months later, the social site was launched and since then, it has continued to shape the interpersonal interaction between people in different parts of the world.

From that time, many other social media sites have been launched in the market, in effect altering the experiences of consumers with regard to television, film, and music (Belloni 2012). Social media has significantly influenced the tastes and preferences of consumers in the world market.

Most contemporary consumers base their consumption and spending behaviours on global conversations taking place over the internet and such other social media (Schultz, Block

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Case Analysis – Wal-Mart Case Study cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Wal-Mart history

Industry description

Competition

Wal-Mart SWOT analysis

Conclusion

References

Introduction Wal-Mart is one of the leading retailers in the world. The company is incorporated in the US and operates international outlets in a number of countries across the world too. It employs many people through its numerous facilities in the US and other nations.

Wal-Mart history Wal-Mart dates started in the early 1960s when the discount retail industry had started picking up. In 1962, Sam Walton risked all is property to secure finances to start-up a new venture in the discounts retail industry.

In the same year, three other discounts retail stores commenced their operations. These stores included Kmart, Target, and F.W. Woolworth (Wal-Mart, 2012).

The first Wal-Mart was started in Rodgers, Arkansas. The company seemed less likely to succeed as compared to the other discount retail stores.

Aware that the business was bound to face stiff competition from new entrants in the industry, Sam sought to expand and grow Wal-Mart as quick as possible to seize the available opportunities.

For this reason, Wal-Mart expanded to other towns such as Oklahoma, Missouri, and Kansas. By the year 1967, Wal-Mart had 19 stores and recorded sales of $9 millions.

Kmart, the industry leader at the time, had 290 stores and a sales volume of $800 million in the same period (Wal-Mart, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Wal-Mart was plagued with many challenges in the early years of its operation that rendered its growth difficult. Sam was so much in debt that available funds were not sufficient to sustain business growth beyond Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma.

Furthermore, Wal-Mart also faced with high costs of operation. Large vendors were unwilling to deal with Wal-Mart, and if they agreed to supply stocks, they dictated the prices and the quantities of the items that were sold in stores.

Additionally, distributors were discriminative in the way they handled their services to Wal-Mart compared to other large competitors in the industry (Wal-Mart, 2012).

Sam Walton issued Wal-Mart shares to the public in an effort to counter the above challenges. This enabled the business stock offerings to increase in value from $1,650 to over $3,000,000 during the early 1990s.

Additionally, the store decided to build its own warehouse to enable purchase of voluminous merchandize at attractive prices. This led to a considerable reduction in costs.

By the year 1985, the company had expanded and increased its stores from 32 in 1970s to 859. In the years between 1985 and 1990s, Wal-Mart had expanded from small towns in the South where it had a strong presence throughout big cities and towns in the US.

In late 1990s and early 2000s, Wal-Mart was the top discount retailers in the US. During this period, Wal-Mart reduced the number of stores by converting them to supercenters, which increased by almost six times to an approximate of 2,843 stores by the year 2006. At the same time, Wal-Mart also operated 607 Sam’s Clubs by the year 2010.

We will write a custom Case Study on Case Analysis – Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Industry description Wal-Mart operates in discount retailing industry within the US. The discount retailing industry in the US has evolved tremendously over the last half century. Customers were never allowed to pick products by themselves from the shelves.

However, the sale clerks served them directly over the customer. Discount traders started emerging in 1950s were characterized by low commodity prices, limited credit to customers, and low return privileges.

The retail stores during these early stages were categorized into general and specialty chains. Specialty chains mostly dealt with narrow product lines such as sporting and office products. General Chain carried a wide assortment of product range.

Discount stores enjoyed much success due to low prices and their emphasis on customer convenience, value, and quality. Major players in the general chain discount retailers were established in 1960s. These players include Kmart, Wal-Mart, Target, and Woolworth.

Over the past decades, the discount retailing has witnessed sporadic industry boom in the US. Numerous retail stores have mushroomed and gained substantial growth across the US. The industry in the modern days has become consumer-driven hence creating market challenging conditions.

Technology has accelerated the rate of discount retailing industry. Over the years, many stores have heavily invested in sophisticated management systems, state-of-art distribution centers, and other technological platforms have enabled the industry to grow tremendously.

These innovative technologies have reduced operation cost significantly in distribution, marketing and so much more.

Competition Wal-Mart faces stiff competition from both general and specialty discount retailers. Over the years, Kmart has been the most dominant Wal-Mart competitor. The onset of discount retailing industry in 1962, Kmart was the leading industry performance and Wal-Mart was thrown to the periphery for quite some time until Sam Walton successful turnaround of the store.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Case Analysis – Wal-Mart by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kmart was hard-hit severely by crises that enabled Wal-Mart to catch up and become the industry leader successfully. Kmart tried to imitate Wal-Mart strategies but could not catch up.

Kmart suffered dramatic losses as high as $300 million in the period between 1993 and 1995. Kmart successfully managed to turnaround through restructuring of the business, but only little impact was felt by the year 2004. By the year 2010, Kmart operated 1,300 stores with sales volume of $17.2 billions.

Target is the second fiercest Wal-Mart rival in the industry. Over the years, Target Company has attracted and retain customer through offering upscale product mix. Furthermore, Target has been able to attract a considerable clientele through store ambience that is greatly superior its entire rival in the market.

Target has been also been able to overshadow its competitors through designer products. The introduction of Target Guest Card has critically enabled Target Company to differentiate itself from its competitors. Currently, the major Wal-Mart competitors include Kmart, Target, Khol’s Corporation, Sears, Woolworth, and many other stores.

Wal-Mart SWOT analysis SWOT analysis is critical in the strategic management of organizations. SWOT is an integrated approach that analyses the internal strength and weaknesses of a company (Hill

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Immigration Admission Policies Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Immigration admission policies

Conclusion

Introduction An immigration policy is a guideline that determines the people that can be allowed to migrate into a country. It can be crafted in a way that it prohibits or allows foreigners to migrate into a country.

The two main types of immigration policies are immigration admission policies and immigration control polices.

Immigration admission policies regulate the number and types of immigrants that are allowed into a given country. Immigration control polices, on the other hand, hinder some immigrants from getting into a given country.

The government should pursue a policy that allows immigration and also prohibits illegal or even limit unnecessary immigration.

This will help ensure that immigrant labor, control illegal immigration and control the negative perception about immigration are all achieved.

Immigration admission policies The government can use Visa policies to ensure that they get the labor force they need from the immigrants. These policies allow immigrants who are professionals in various fields to settle and work in the US.

Additionally, the government should also put in place a skill-based points system that ensures that immigration permission is based on education, abilities, skills, occupation, and language of the immigrants. Through such a system, the government is able to select immigrants who are beneficial to its economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country will have the workforce that is appropriate to the needs of its local industries. These immigrants will, therefore, contribute significantly to the growth of the economy.

Permanent admission and green card policies can also be used to attract skilled workforce in to a country. At the same time, the government should enact immigration control polices to restrict certain persons from getting into the country.

These policies will guard the country against illegal immigration. The government can enact external immigration control or internal immigration control. External immigration controls are meant to hinder illegal immigrants from entering into the country.

Internal immigration controls, however, are enacted to prevent illegal immigrants from residing and working in the country. These measures may involve giving genuine immigrants permits to work and reside in the country.

The government has over time concentrated on the external immigration controls and neglected internal immigration policies. The government should, therefore, puts in place sufficient internal immigration controls to help reduce illegal immigration.

The government should enhance the efficiency of the internal immigration controls, by setting in place measures such as employer sanctions, arresting illegal immigrants, and giving amnesty to certain a class of undocumented immigrants. Employer sanctions enable the government to penalize institutions that employ illegal immigrants.

In addition, the government should have some measures at the entry points to prevent illegal immigrants from getting into the country. In this regard, the government should have visas or passports control system.

We will write a custom Essay on Immigration Admission Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is important and will prevent immigrant from using fake documentation while migrating. This will help the country to identify and reprimand illegal immigrants.

Conclusion The immigration policies that a country may adopt must be capable of preventing illegal immigration and also ensure the economy benefits from immigration. Illegal immigration is harmful to the economy and a burden to the country.

The governments should ensure that only legal immigrants enter into the country. Immigration of a skilled workforce should be encouraged into the country.

They provide the skills needed in the destination country. Immigration laws and policies need to be followed strictly because immigration has both negative and positive impacts.

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Value and Risk Management in construction UAE Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

An Evaluation of Current and Potential Future Application of Value and Risk Management into Construction Project Management Professional Services in the Construction Sector in the UAE

Abstract: The UAE had an unprecedented boom in its construction sector between 2004 and 2008. This ended during the international financial crisis of 2008. As a result, the UAE Prime Minister issued a decree requiring all contractors to use green principles in construction projects.

The high-end construction market responded by adopting stronger VRM practices. The state of VRM in the UAE is that it is growing in prominence. However, the professionals in the area are very few. In many cases, external consultants provide VRM services. The future of VRM in the UAE requires better training for undergraduate engineers, to supplement the efforts of the existing postgraduate VRM professionals.

General Structure of the Paper This paper has two main sections. The paper includes a literature review covering the essential background of both value management and risk management, and the result of the combination of the two, into value and risk management. The paper also presents the findings of a survey conducted to determine the VRM awareness levels of professionals in the construction sector in the UAE. The paper concludes by presenting the conclusions obtained in answer to the problem statement.

Introduction The UAE is a regional leader in the application of VRM principles. This paper seeks to examine the issues that have an impact on VRM practices in the UAE and the implications of these issues for the future. The period between 2004 and 2008 will remain etched in the memory of the UAE as the heyday of the construction industry.

In that time, value management did not command much respect because investors in the construction sector did not demand efficiency in their projects. They favored fast pace construction over cost management. The result of this attitude is that the UAE is now home to some of the most energy intensive skyscrapers in the world.

Value and risk management is slowly finding its place in the construction sector. The rules have changed. It is no longer survival for the swiftest in the UAE, but survival of the fittest. This article examines the current state and future opportunities of value management in the UAE.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More VRM in the UAE In any business, value comes from business processes. The professional process of ensuring that a certain process yields maximum value for the stakeholder at the least cost is value management . The definition of value in this case is not just the financial value. Rather it is value in the context of the balanced scorecard, which covers the financial value, value from internal processes, value for the customer in question, and value in terms of transferable experience for the contractor .

On the other hand, risk management is an active process of finding potential events or circumstances that can affect the progress of a project if they take place during the life of the project . The occurrence of risk must be uncertain. Otherwise, the event ceases to be a risk. Risks associated with the construction sector range from material defects to industrial action by workers. The cost of many construction projects is very high.

This creates the need to manage risks as effectively as possible. Risk management involves the identification of potential events that will trigger the risk and determining the probability of occurrence of that event. After that, the risk manager quantifies the impact of the occurrence of risk-causing event on the project in terms of loss of life, time, money, and business opportunities.

It is possible to view risk management as a specialized form of value management because risk can erode the value of a project. It serves a preventative purpose. Value management on the other hand aims at increasing value from the processes by reducing costs or increasing the utility of the outcomes of the project .

According to Karim, Berawi, Yahya, Abdul-Rahman, and Mohamed (2007) the value management process has three stages namely, value planning, value engineering and value analysis. Value planning takes place during the planning phase of the project. Value engineering occurs during construction, while value analysis takes place after the construction phase.

Value analysis helps in the establishment of measures to ensure that the value gained during the value engineering process lasts throughout the useful life of the building. The risk management process involves risk identification, analysis, response, and monitoring . Risk identification and analysis take place during the planning of the project at the same time as value planning. Risk monitoring takes place throughout the active life of the project.

The construction teams use risk indicators to monitor the risks. Risk response depends on whether the risk events take place or not. If a risk occurs, risk response takes place. The amalgamation of risk management (RM) and value management (VM) into risk and value management (RVM) comes from the relative similarity of the objectives of these two aspects of construction management. Focusing on RM only can erode value while focusing on VM only can introduce high risks to the project .

We will write a custom Essay on Value and Risk Management in construction UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rising stature of VRM in the UAE is as a direct result of the events that took place between 2004 and 2008 in the construction sector . In 2004, the construction sector in the UAE was experiencing unprecedented growth. The country was on the path to achieve its dream of becoming a transport, trade, and commercial hub in the Middle East .

This led to an increase in the number of the immigrants looking for work in the Emirates. In addition, many traders were coming to the UAE to close business deals. The result was that the demand for housing and commercial buildings grew. The country saw the construction of an unprecedented number of new buildings to meet the rising demand. Since investment funds were flowing, the speed of construction became the driving force.

VM was not central to project planning in the construction industry. The UAE ended up undertaking projects that delivered buildings with the highest energy consumption in the world . In 2008, the UAE economy went through a downturn occasioned by the global financial crisis triggered by the US real estate market . Since that year, there has been a growing appreciation of the role VM can play in the construction industry.

The shift towards VM goes back to 2007 when Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the Prime Minister of the UAE, issued a decree that ordered players in the construction industry to conform to a newly established green standard in their projects . The decree took effect in January 2008 just when the global financial crisis was hitting the UAE. From that time, there has been a steady increase in the number of construction companies using VM in order to meet project goals and the regulatory goals.

Evidence in literature suggests that the current state of application of VRM in the UAE is uncoordinated. While there is widespread recognition of the potential saving the use of VRM can bring to projects, the practice is not widespread. It appears that the planning processes of construction projects do not include VRM.

A case in point is the low-income housing project in Musaffah, Abu Dhabi in which VRM principles were not part of the planning process . Some of the design choices made by the project planners seemed unsuited for the construction projects. For instance, the houses contained some utilities such as gas-powered central heating, which is not fitting for low-income housing .

In addition, the water tanks positioned outside on the roofs of the houses started malfunctioning after three years, yet the project requirements stated that the life cycle for each house was to be twenty-five years . The main contention resulting from this situation is that project planners did not carry out VRM with the users of the house in mind.

Rather, the designers used uneconomical design options to raise their design fees since they charge a percentage of overall project cost. The current application of VRM in construction projects in the UAE is also a reflection of the little manpower available to conduct VRM.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Value and Risk Management in construction UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The VRM Survey Methodology

A VRM survey conducted for this project revealed several issues regarding the current and future prospects of VRM in the UAE. The survey involved professionals working in the construction industry with decision-making responsibilities.

Results

The key findings of the survey were that only ten percent of the engineering professionals in the construction sector have any form of training in VRM, and none of the respondents have participated in a VM program. VM training in the UAE is available in postgraduate courses in construction management.

The graduates do not all go to practice VRM hence the lack of involvement in any VRM project. The fact that most professional engineers in the UAE without postgraduate qualifications have not formal training in VRM may indicate the low skill levels in the area of VRM in the country.

Other findings in the survey showed that there is a general understanding of what RM is, but the views of respondents on VM did not demonstrate a strong grasp of the concept. When asked about their understanding of VM, most of the respondents used cost savings as the main issue in VM.

The answers included phrases like, “help clients reduce costs”, “managing expenses in construction”, and “having the best quality with least money”. Forty percent of the respondents had no idea what VM meant. There seemed to be a perception that VM is part of project scope management because many responses included phrases talking about time, quality, and money.

The responses for a similar question relating to RM showed a better understanding of RM in a project. RM is a core part of undergraduate construction courses hence it is not surprising that most of the respondents were articulate about RM. None of the respondents had any experience in analyzing the benefits of VRM exercise because none of them had participated in a VRM exercise.

All the respondents felt that the application of VRM in the UAE should continue. The responses depended on their understanding of VRM in the first place. One respondent pointed out that VRM activities take place in large projects only. Therefore, there is a need to downstream the practice.

Another respondent also added that the practice of VRM in the UAE is selective. The project managers choose to implement some elements and ignore others. This leads to low return from the VRM process, which requires implementations throughout the project cycle.

Based on this survey, the need to make VRM conventional is obvious. If the professionals in the construction industry do not have a clear understanding of the basics of VRM, then the construction industry will not have people who can champion for VRM. The best way to tackle this gap is to include VRM in the training curriculums of all construction courses.

Even if this does not produce VRM consultants, it will empower these professionals to evaluate the benefits of VRM in construction projects. The current model where consultants carry out all VRM activities is not sustainable for nationwide impact. If project initiators do not want to spend money on consultants, a project does not benefit fully from VRM. Training all professionals in the industry to understand VRM will increase the appreciation and application of VRM in the industry.

In conclusion, while the data available from industry sources such as The Oxford Business Group may suggest a vibrant VRM environment in the UAE, the data collected for this project shows that there are serious training gaps in VRM in the UAE. Industry publications are niche publications hence they may report in detail issues having an effect on a very small part of the overall environment.

Conclusions The main conclusions from this project are as follows. VRM is increasing in importance in the UAE, partly because of intervention by the state, and partly because of the lessons learnt after the global financial crisis. The decree by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the Prime Minister of the UAE that took effect in 2008 requires all construction projects to use green principles in construction.

VRM is an essential part of ensuring all green projects meet the requirements of the decree. Secondly, there is inadequate capacity in the UAE to mainstream VRM across the construction sector. This conclusion comes from the survey conducted for the purposes of this project to find out the current level of manpower available to push forward the VRM agenda in the UAE. If UAE can train professionals at all levels, then it will improve the practice of VMR in the country.

Thirdly, the Engineering Associations in the can play a part in mainstreaming VRM by conducting training seminars for all engineers working in the UAE. Currently the training levels of VRM are too advanced. Undergraduate engineers do not have the skills and experience needed to implement VRM in their settings.

Finally, institutions of higher learning in the UAE need to include VRM as part of the coursework for all construction courses at undergraduate level. This will serve to increase the capacity of the country to make VRM a part of construction planning for all sizes of projects.

References Abdellatif, MA

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9-1 Discussion: Group Projects scholarship essay help

After reviewing the module resources, share an example of a team project that you led or were a member of in which there was conflict among the participants. Explain your role in the group, the manner in which roles were assigned, and the manner in which your role impacted productivity or conflict. Analyze the reason(s) for the conflict in your group based upon Lencioni’s The Five Dysfunctions of a Team. Briefly summarize the final outcome of the group with regard to continued dysfunction, disbandment, or an effective workplace team.

Please use the resources given here.

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Immigration’s Economic Reasons Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic reasons

Immigration policy

Conclusion

Introduction Migration occurs when there is a movement of people from one country to another. This is caused by factors such as economic pressures, social networks and connections, immigration control policies and cultural perceptions among others.

Economic reasons In my own assessment, the most important cause of migration flows is economic pressures. Mostly, when economic pressures are high, people move from countries where there high unemployment rates to where there are better prospects for employment.

When they migrate, these people anticipate better wages and higher standards of living than the one for their countries of origin.

There are two theories that can be used to explain the economic reasons for immigration from one country to another. These theories are microeconomic rational choice theory and new economic theory of migration.

The microeconomic rational choice theory explains that people make rational choices about the benefits that they are likely to obtain by migrating.

The other theory, the new economic perspective theory, argues that the decision to either migrate or not is made at the individual level, but rather at the household or even at the community level.

Another theory that can be used to explain the economic reasons of migration flows is the macro-economic /structural theory. This theory explains that there exist economic pressures that drive people from their countries of origin to other countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These economic pressures include lack of jobs, over population, and surplus labor. For this reason, people will be drawn to those countries that have many employment opportunities.

It has also been adduced that due to the popularity of the goods produced by the first world countries, the industries in the third world countries are adversely affected. For this reason, the employment prospects in those countries diminish considerably.

Immigration policy Immigration policy is another determinant of migration flows among countries. There are two types of policies that a government might adopt regarding migration. These are restrictive immigration policy and open immigration policy.

For this reason, if a country has an open immigration policy, it is likely to attract a lot of migrants compared to the country which practices a restrictive immigration policy.

A country with a restrictive immigration policy will put in place a lot of controls that act as a barrier to those who may wish to migrate to that country.

Migration flows are highly responsive to the immigration polices that are enacted by the various governments. For this reason, if a government feels that it has a very large number of foreigners, it might decide to counter this by putting in place a restrictive immigration policy.

This can be achieved by enacting tighter rules to discourage immigration. On the other hand, if a country is in need of more labor force for its local industries than what the citizens can supply, it could encourage immigration by enacting an open immigration policy.

We will write a custom Essay on Immigration’s Economic Reasons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This could be in the form of reduced paperwork for people wishing to travel to such a country.

Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that economic reasons and immigration policies are very important determinants of international migration flows. They provide the drive that motivates people to move from their home country.

Immigration policies, on the other hand, facilitate or impede the movement of people from one country to another. The immigrants may move to look for better lives or to run away from harsh conditions in their home countries.

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Google Prepares Markets for Digital Economy Case Study essay help free

Google operates in a very competitive and technological industry. This firm has managed to maintain the market lead in the face of a stiff competition from other strong market leaders.

Google has a market share of about 62 percent. Its closest rival is Yahoo, with about 26 percent of the market share. Other strong competitors of this firm include Microsoft, Ask, and AOL.

In order to have a comprehensive understanding of this firm, the analysis tools such as SWOT and Porters Five Forces would be used.

SWOT Analysis of the Firm To give a clear analysis of this firm as far as its suitability is concerned; a SWOT analysis would be helpful.

The strength of this firm comes from various factors. Google has a very strong band in the market that is trusted by a huge base of customers. This has helped it maintain its customers. The search engine is the strongest and broadest in coverage, making it the most preferred search engine in this industry.

The move by this firm to involve students and corporate bodies in the activities of this firm has increased the knowledge base and creativity of the firm. With a large capital base, this firm is able to conduct research on development of the firm.

However, some weaknesses are threatening to derail this firm. The first weakness is the ability to satisfy all its customers in equal measure. Google would allow an individual to search anything in the internet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem is that some of the sites contain information that is not appropriate for certain individual or age group. Some parents are weary of Google, as they believe that their children would access some information that may be for adults only.

This lack of a technology that would enable it restricts some individuals from accessing certain sites may taint its image among some customers.

The firm has some opportunities that further put it into the best position of maintaining its market lead. The fact that the emerging technologies are pushing more people to rely on computers and the internet is increasing the size of the market.

Furthermore, there has been a steady increase in the number of leaning institutions, which have introduced electronic learning, which means that they would be prospective customers of Google.

Despite the above positivity, there are threats that this firm has to overcome in order to manage the competition posed by other firms that are also strategizing to win the market share. The first threat is the competition in the market.

There are various other firms, which have put spirited fight in order to win the market share. Some of these firms, like the yahoo, have the structure that would help them compete properly in the market.

A further analysis of this firm, and specifically its ability to maintain its market lead, can be done through PESTEL Analysis.

We will write a custom Case Study on Google Prepares Markets for Digital Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More PESTEL Analysis Google can be given a detailed analysis through PESTEL analysis. This analysis would help give a detailed analysis of the external environment within which this firm operates. These attributes would be very important in making the decision on how to confront this environment in coming up with policies of how to manage the market.

The PESTEL analysis technique has been used in an effort to analyze some of these factors. The PESTEL model usually covers the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors that are likely to influence the decision-making processes.

When developing strategic plans for the firm, some of these factors might result in various changes being made in the planning process (Charantimath 2006, p. 85).

Political Factors

Google’s main market is in the US. This country has the most stable governments in the world. The leadership of this country has encouraged development in various fronts, especially the infrastructure. The government has also been supportive towards creativity and innovation in the entire country.

The government has put much effort in making sure that the politically calm in order to sustain business in the local market. other major markets in Europe, south America and even Africa have enjoyed relatively calm political environment which have made them be able to work normally, and therefore be able to use this site.

Other than China that tempted to restrict operations of this firm in the country, other nations have not made any restrictions to this firm on their operations.

Economic Factors

The world economy has been witnessing instability in the recent past. The United States is one of the countries that were heavily affected by the recent world economic recession. This has put a lot of pressure on the country’s national budget, especially due to the subsequent inflation.

The inflation rates have been constantly rising across many nations. This has posed a challenge to the firm in its quest to increase its market share. Most of the customers would be locked out of the market, as they would consider accessing the internet a luxury.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Google Prepares Markets for Digital Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They would prefer not access this site and use the resources in other activities, a fact that would be a blow to this firm. However, the recent economic recovery of economy in many is good news, as the market size would be expected to expand (Daft 2009, p. 67).

Social Factors

This society highly values entertainment as a form of leisure. The internet, especially the internet games and the social media form one of the most common leisure in the world today.

The popularity of social media has been growing at a very high rate across the globe especially among the young and middle-aged population.

Given that the world has very many young and middle age people, the firm is likely to become a great success, as more people would be using it to access various entertainments that would make them loyal customers of the firm (Evans 2010, p. 47).

The society also appreciates the rights of individuals and this makes expand its products without the fear of intimidation from some quarters of the society.

Technological Factors

The emerging technologies have redefined the way things are done in various facets. The United States, and the world at large, has generally embraced technological advancements in almost every sector.

This has been advantageous, as technology has made it easy for individuals to understand the importance of search engines like Google. In the hospitality industry for instance, hotel bookings have been made easier and less expensive as they can be done online.

Most of them have ultra-modern facilities high-speed internet connections and satellite dishes. All these have made service delivery effective, convenient, and even entertaining, as they also make Google and other search engines for that matter, very relevant in this market.

The increasing market for personal computers, especially the laptops, has increased the market share of the firm. Given the current trend in the increasing technologies in the global market, Google has the ability to increase its market share base.

Environmental Factors

Environmental factors may have both positive and negative effects on the firm. Various environmental conservation agents have criticized the computer age very heavily. They argue that computers have adverse effect on the environment, especially when it comes to the disposal of the old computers.

They have made efforts to ensure that production of the computers is closely regulated. However, the recent move by some companies and organization of collecting the electronic wastes and safely disposing them may be a ray of light, as this would eliminate the feeling that computers are harmful to the environment.

Legal Factors

Law and order is one of the most important aspects on the social welfare of a given society. Giddens (2009, p. 42) explains that the community that lacks clearly stated laws and regulations cannot make it through successfully on various fronts.

On the legal front, laws have been enacted to enhance environmental conservation and minimize pollution activities. There is also a clear law that helps in the regulation of market competition and how competitors should relate in the market.

The law protects firms in this industry from any form of external aggression or uneconomic competition that may jeopardize the position of one or more firms (Kabani 2009, p. 32).

The law is also very tough on those who breach the right of others either socially, economically or in whichever front.

Recommendations Google operates in a highly competitive market. Kurtz (2008, p. 83) argues that this firm must take care of several technological factors in order to remain competitive in the market.

Being the market leader, this firm is faced with a number of challenges that it must address in order to retain its lead in the market. The biggest threats for this firm are emerging technologies and the competitors.

To the emerging technologies, this firm must be very keen to monitor how new technologies may have effect on its normal operations. It is a good move that the firm has made in creating a contest that brings together students, clients, and investors.

This would help the firm in being innovative in the market (Page 2010, p. 39). The employees of this firm should be encouraged to monitor keenly the changing technology in the environment, especially the social media. They should know the technologies to implement and those to avoid.

This is because not all emerging technologies are beneficial to the firm. In general, the employees should ensure that the firm remains enthusiastic about emerging technologies.

Google must also take into consideration the fact that it takes a lot of effort to remain the market leader in the industry.

Google should study the activities of other industry players and determine the possible consequences that it may undergo if these players change their approach in the market. It should also assess the effect that the social media has on its profitability.

If the research proves that the effect is negative, the management of Google should immediately consider the social media as a competitor. Consequently, measures should be taken to ensure that such competitors are put under check.

List of References Charantimath, 2006, Total Quality Management, Pearson Education, New Delhi.

Daft, R 2009, Organization Theory and Design, Cengage Learning, New York.

Evans, D 2010, Social Media Marketing An Hour a Day, Wiley Publishing, Inc. Indianapolis.

Giddens, A 2009, The consequences of modernity, Blackwell Publishers, Malden.

Kabani, S 2009, the Zen of social media: An Easier Way to Build Credibility, Generate Buzz, and Increase Revenue, BenBella Books, Inc. Dallas.

Kurtz, D 2008, Contemporary Marketing: Designing Customer Oriented marketing Strategy, Cengage Learning.

Page, S 2010, The Power of Business Process Improvement: 10 Simple Steps to Increase Effectiveness, Efficiency and Adaptability, AMACOM, New York.

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The Great Divorce Essay (Book Review) college essay help online

Background information about the author Also known by his colleagues as Jack, Lewis Staples, the author of ‘The Great Divorce’ was born in Belfast in 1898. During his lifetime, he was one of the most influential Christian writers of the 20th century. He wrote more than 70 types of works, which ranged from poetry, science fiction, Christian apologetics, and fantasy amongst others.

He was educated at his home in Britain. When his mother died, he was left with his brother Warren. He studied English and philosophy at the Oxford University (Staples 21).

He also served in military. Upon joining the faculty of Cambridge University as a literature professor, he married his long time fiancée Joy Gresham who later succumbed to cancer in 1960 while Lewis died in 1963 at Headington, Oxford, after experiencing a heart problem.

His legacy in writing is well shared and known across the world. He was a prolific author who wrote fiction. ‘The Great Divorce’ was published in 1946 (Staples 21).

His interest in spiritual choices played a pivotal role in his writing of the book. He was motivated to write about the spirits after he read ‘Seventeenth Century’ written by Taylor Jeremy, an Anglican divine servant of God. The book introduced him to the ancient catholic notion of refrigerium.

A Summary of the Main Points or Themes Intrigues on Heaven and Earth

The book is premised on the intrigues on heaven and earth. There are various contradictions among the question of heaven and hell. More often, people have pondered and sought answers whether it is indeed true that heaven and hell exist. The imagination and thinking of Christians are different from what the atheists’ society thinks about God in heaven and the torment in hell.

Coming from a Christian background, Lewis provides further insights on the way people feel about heaven and hell. The book begins with the narrator who boards a bus driven by a man they could not identify. “The man seemed full of light” (Staples Para. 3). The bus was driven through a visionary world on top of a mountain believed to be heaven.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Experiences in heaven are different. Every thing seemed solid, which makes it difficult for them (ghosts) to persevere and have a feeling of going back to the grey town. The narrator is the ghost who meets the spirit, which, upon repenting, enjoys the blossoms of heaven. The author presents various episodes in his allegory to portray different themes in the book.

Salvation

Salvation is one of the themes that the author highlights in the book. Salvation is the path that leads people’s immortal souls to heaven. People who abide by the correct moral choices in life together with those who forgive their colleagues while at the same time seeking forgiveness of their own sins are guaranteed to see the door of heaven.

The author depicts this case when the aforementioned people meet the spirits. The narrator is the ghost who encounters a spirit that used to be a sinner but one that repented its sins to secure forgiveness. The narrator wonders why he was taken to hell after doing what is right. In fact, he “never asked for anything that was not his based on rights (Staples 25). However, the opportunity is still open for the narrator to get salvation by repenting his sins.

The spirit says, “You were not a decent man and you did not do your best…We none of us were and we none of us did…Lord bless you, it doesn’t matter” (Staples 27). The author is contended that heaven and hell are real places. Therefore, people should make a decision of where they want to go. The decision solely rests on the people either to choose what is right or wrong. Wrong choices will deny a person an opportunity to see the doors of heaven.

In fact, the author confirms how choosing what is right secures one the riches of heaven. However, making poor choices by ignoring repentance besides refusing salvation has the repercussion of facing hell. The entire book is centered on salvation, as the author examines it through related themes that have an impact on salvation such as love in all its guises, pride/vanity, faith vs. cynicism, values of ideologies, forgiveness, and anger.

Self-interest

Clinging on self-interest is deterrence to many. Many people make wrongful choices because they have refused to relinquish their self-interest. For instance, ghosts are often told that they need to relinquish self-interest to enter heaven. However, they have remained adamant.

Pride that is manifested through physical appearances and or any form that is visualized, artistic, or intellectual is deeply entrenched in them to deny them an opportunity to see heaven. Lewis points his recounts with people who have tied their identities to pride. For instance, women have put more emphasis on their physical attractiveness in the way they are clothed. Such things have impeded many people from seeing the light and hence the failure to get an opportunity to enter heaven.

We will write a custom Book Review on The Great Divorce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Love

Love is also handled in the book. The author’s way of handling love is a bit complex. Embracing true and pure godly love is viewed as the ticket for entering the kingdom of heaven. However, the same love brings many temptations, which hinder people from achieving salvation.

Love is the cause of evils. People will do blackmailing besides sabotaging the initiatives of others in a bid to achieve happiness and fame. Therefore, it is imperative that people demonstrate love towards their fellow human beings besides having a spiritual love of God, which stands out as the only way to see the kingdom of God.

Ideologies

The book was written at the time when national ideologies were at rift. These rifts caused a lot of harm and problems to millions of people. The ideology on capitalism and communism made countries drift apart. For instance, a relationship between Russia communist state and that of Germany, which was a capitalist, was not good (Watson 163).

Therefore, through the book, Lewis echoes popular criticisms on both countries’ ideologies contending that people’s spiritual pursuits and moral choices are above the pursuit of individual, communal, or wealthy prosperity.

Faith and cynicism

Another theme portrayed in the book is faith and cynicism. The author uses himself in reinforcing the already public formed opinions about hell and heaven. Heaven is associated with right and happiness while hell is associated with torment. Therefore, by being faithful and believing in the unseen things/spirits, people will have an upper hand in going to heaven.

They have been revealed and even seen evidenced about heaven and hell. However, this does not reduce their cynical nature. Therefore, they have been left to make their choices to have faith in what they hear and see or risk peril.

Jealousy and resentment

Lewis also depicts how people are jealous and full of resent to those above them. The ghosts are selfish and full of envy. For instance, in the book, ghosts are jealous about the magnificent look of angels demonstrated in their way of dressing and status. The ghosts resent their trait of not being angels.

They feel that it is their right to be like them. This exposition is manifested through their conversation. For instance, when told by the angels about their various faults and sins, they dislike this since they feel that the angels are overbearing. Therefore, Lewis is contending that failure to relinquish or sacrifice this resentment for love is a hindrance to enter heaven.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great Divorce by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Forgiveness

Forgiveness is one of the major themes that are portrayed by Lewis in the book. At every conversation between the ghosts and angels, the ghosts cling on their self-interest. They refuse to repent their sins and return to the light (Raiger 109). Even though the opportunity for absolution of their sins is presented to them, they just cannot accept.

They however cling to their egoistic and obsessive traits, a case that is likened to human beings. In various occasions, people find it difficult to relinquish their deeds for fear of losing things that they deem important and central to their lives even if such things are destructive. The fact that there is an opportunity to reshape their lives, people are still stiff and not ready to adjust and seek forgiveness.

Evaluation of the book’s usefulness

Lewis book is a depiction or rather an allegory of what the heaven and hell are like. Human beings have different perceptions about heaven and hell. The Christian ideologies contend that there is life after death. Those who do what is right usually enter heaven while those who do what is wrong enter hell. Lewis’ book is of great importance to people in terms of their actions in the society. The author uses ghosts and angels to speak about the choices that people make in their lives.

Choosing the path of right or wrong is the discretion of an individual. The book also aims at teaching people about salvation and the need to have faith. In the day-to-day interactions, people are always facing various challenges that may hinder them from entering the kingdom of Heaven.

Therefore, the book is an encouragement to the Christian faithful not to give up the fight. The journey has many challenges that may make them give up the fight. The barriers that may hinder them from entering the kingdom include failure to show love, failure to forgive, being so proud, and jealousy among other behaviors that are perceived to be against the will of God. Society sometimes is torn between parts.

The ideologies that people have are different thus affecting the way they live with each other. They cause distractions that otherwise would have been avoided. The book is written in line with the historical happenings during the 20th century. People should be guided by moral values that aim at upholding to unity.

Likewise, states and governments should pursue spiritual liberation. However, the approach that Lewis took is biased in some way. He did not factor in the concerns of the atheists. People who do not believe in the existence of heaven and life after death may not agree with the idea postulated by Lewis. It is aligned towards the lives of believers and nonbelievers. The Christian faithful people are depicted as kind-hearted, noble, honest, and selfless.

On the other hand, nonbelievers are portrayed as people that are selfish, evil, and insincere. This portrayal of the two groups of people may elicit animosity and hatred among people in the society. For instance, the atheists, having been depicted negatively, may have a bad relationship with their Christian faithful. Therefore, instead of cementing the positive coexistence, the author was in a way widening the relationships between the two.

However, regardless of the author’s inclination about hell and heaven, he reveals the pleasant fantasies that people will continue to ponder upon reading the masterwork. The biblical views about the coming of savior are perceived differently by embers of the society. Questions arise when Lewis contends that no punishment is in hell.

This therefore may have implied that the moral deeds of people could not be anything that matters. The basis of this argument is that God may not create human beings and at the same time require them to suffer. Nevertheless, the author presents this imagination as an allegory that should not be taken as literary.

Conclusion Therefore, through the book, the author has spoken to many people who may have lost hope. His allegory and dream story are clear indications of what the bible says. The right choices will lead people into the right direction, which is heaven while the wrong decisions will lead them to hell. Therefore, for any person who has heaven as his/her destiny ought to have an added advantage upon reading the fascinating masterwork.

Works Cited Raiger, Michael. “The Place of the Self in C. S. Lewis’s ‘The Great Divorce’.” Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought

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Understanding Goals of Human Resource Management in the Context of Human Capital Theory Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Applications of Human Capital Theory to HRM Practices

Moral and Ethical Implications of the Human Capital Theory

Sustainability of Human Capital Theory

Reference List

Labor economics currently depends on several marketable skills of employees that invest in various spheres of organizational activities. This dimension of human resource management is essential for understanding both the wage system and investment incentives.

The theory of human capital, therefore, states that human resources are represented through a set of “skills, experience, and knowledge have economic value to organizations because they enable it to be productive and adaptable” (Jackson 1995, p. 241).

In this respect, people working in organization become the part of its intellectual capital. The full potential of human capital can be fulfilled only through cooperation with an individual. In order to establish favorable relations with individuals, much spending should be directed in training motivating and retaining human capital.

Managers should be concerned with different human resource management approaches contributing to increasing the value of their human capital.

It should also be stressed that contextual factors, including technology, unions, market conditions, and business approaches are significant because they have a direct impact on the costs linked to alternative methods of HRM practices to enhance the value of the human capital of the organization, as well the value of the anticipated returns.

Applications of Human Capital Theory to HRM Practices The standard strategy in labor distribution considers human capital as a set of characteristics that contributes to an employees’ productivity.

Human capital, therefore, should rely on efficient methods and techniques that would enhance the intellectual property of an organization. At the same time, there are different views on application of the theory in human resource management practices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Becker’s conception, human capital theory should be regarded in the context of the production process. To enlarge on the issues, the theorist suggests that social capital promotes worker’s productivity in all fields, but to a different extent with regard to the type of organizational activities and situations, a work is involved (Becker 1994).

Within these perspectives, human capital theory is presented as a one-dimensional object and the work labor is considered as a set of knowledge, skills, and experiences which directly affects organization’s production rates (Becker 1994).

The importance of investing into intellectual development is equal to the investment made in technological and material development of an organization.

Human capital theory can also be estimated from various angles and, therefore, it cannot be considered as one-dimensional only. In this respect, theorist Garner agrees with the ideas of multidimensionality of the human capital.

In particular, the scholar believes that such an approach would enhance the correlation between physical and mental abilities of employees.

Gardner’s views human capital through the perspective of multiple intelligences according to which intelligence cannot be regarded as a single ability, but a set of specific modalities, cognitive abilities that allow managers to define in which sphere an employee can contribute most.

It also defines the learning and training programs for the personnel. Such an approach is much more beneficial because it identifies which skills are the most developed among the individuals and which ones are the least developed.

We will write a custom Essay on Understanding Goals of Human Resource Management in the Context of Human Capital Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is also an assumption that human capital implies the capacity to adjust to situations (Shultz 1972). The supporters of this approach argue that social capital theory is beneficial while dealing with constant changing environments to which employees had to adjust.

Inventing techniques to handling changes also contributes to promotion of intellectual capital, as well as to the overall productivity and performance of an organization.

Finally, human capital can be represented through the ability of employees to cooperate and interact in a corporate environment. Such a perspective entails adherence to the principles established by organizational culture (Bowles and Gintis 1975).

According to this view, the main task of human capital theorist is to provide individuals with right missions and goals that would allow them to achieve their personal goals as well. Finally, human capital theory can focus primarily on the individual capabilities, skills, and experiences beyond the production process.

Person-centered approach, therefore, has acquired recognition due to globalization emphasizing importance of cultural diversity issues.

Thus, organizational activities and intelligence should first be considered independently to define the intellectual potential of employees.

All the above-enumerated applications of human capital theory highlight the necessity of its integration into human resources management practices. The approaches should be considered in combination to grasp a deeper understanding of the theory.

Organizations should pay much attention to the organization’s mission, goals, and objectives that should be oriented on enhancing corporate social responsibility rather than increasing organization’s profitability.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding Goals of Human Resource Management in the Context of Human Capital Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, focusing on human capital improvement can expand the horizons of marketing approaches because of wider contexts involved into the process. One way or another, workers’ characteristics must be tackled in the workplace.

Moral and Ethical Implications of the Human Capital Theory Due to the fact that human capital theory relates directly to the analysis of intellectual capital, it also closely correlates with the moral and ethical principles of organizational behavior. In fact, considering ethics in business environment is essential because it contributes tremendously to economic success of an organization.

Human capital management should strongly rely on moral dimensions, which includes such issues as insecurity and risk, along with surveillance and control. Thus, employees often encounter stressful situations because of the responsibilities imposed on them.

Therefore, managers should be able to create an environment that would minimize the stress. According to Koster (2007), “…management seeks for transparent employees in order to select those offering not only outstanding professional abilities and knowledge but also displaying desired behavior, attitudes, motivation, and interests” (p. 5).

Consequently, the contemporary practices in HRM introduce a set of techniques promoting the privacy and autonomy policies for employees, as well as enforcing values and attitudes by means of change programs.

The ethical underpinnings of human capital theory can be interpreted through the prism of gender inequality in the workplace.

In this respect, Peil (2009) argues, “human capital theory, especially as applied to gender inequality, can be interpreted as emphasizing a utilitarian approach to ethics, in which individuals’ subjective assessment of their well-being is not challenged” (p. 92).

In this respect, both minority groups face challenges while pursuing their personal goals in an organization. With regard to the above-presented applications of human capital theory, particularly to the views of Gary Becker, discrimination is among the most serious concerns in the employed environment.

According to Becker, there are two types of discrimination – discrimination in monetary terms and statistical discrimination (Peil 2009).

The latter, according to the theorist, is unethical because it is premised on using characteristics related with groups that replace information about separate individuals (Peil 2009). As a result, managers ignore outdated information, which leads to inadequate generalization.

The human capital should not be regarded as the intellectual property in which monetary and financial investment should be made. Rather, human capital should also be considered a cultural asset of the company which enriches and improves its corporate culture.

Managers should pay particular attention to the encouragement and development of effective network within which employees could enhance their experiences, skills, and abilities. More importantly, they should also feel that their valuable members of the organization.

Accepting human resources as cultural capital contributes indirectly to organizational performance through enlarging organizational values and objectives.

The development of efficient human resources methods should ensures perfectly organized work of individuals who are aware of their roles and responsibilities. Therefore, human capital theory integrates the concept of social capital underlining the importance of cross-cultural understanding and trust among the employees.

Alternatively, lack of cultural understanding and ignorance of ethical norms can lead distrust. In fact, “the more opportunistic people become with their “bounded economic rationality”, the less trustworthy they are”, which contributes to the deployment of corruption and bureaucracy (Werhane and Singer 1999, p. 148).

Therefore, such moral values as trust and respect should become the foundation of an organization.

The productivity of workers is associated with not only their abilities and skills, as well as the amount of investment in their development and learning, but also on their motivation, and aspiration to work.

Managers should recognize the fact that “motivation in turn partly depends on earning because of the effect on an increase in earnings on moral and aspirations” (Becker 1994, p. 57). Therefore, the incentive to develop moral in organization and increase earnings should depend on the same incentives to encourage outside investments.

Therefore, both material and non-material investment into the development of employees can have a positive impact on the organizational development as well.

Despite the assumption that business should not be concerned with ethics, human behavior cannot be adjusted to rational decision making only. In this respect, organizational behavior relies on a set of factors, including social and cultural backgrounds, ethical belief systems, and moral obligations.

In fact, previous considerations on the theory of human capital prove that lack of or poor ethical standards does not contribute to the development of the corruption-free organizational system, as well as to fair cooperation between supervisors and their subordinates.

According to Rose (n. d.), “Ethical business creates a positive environment in which to buy and sell, like corruption, poverty, and lack of respect for the environment generate problems for the business community in the long term” (p. 28).

The excellence of business operations, therefore, is congruent with the success of the developed code of ethical conduct, which highly relevant for today’s globalized business world.

Ethical perspectives of business development are closely associated with the underpinnings of human capital theory. Such a perspective is highly relevant due to the global trends in business community.

This is of particular concern to the development of international standards of ethical codes that should be the guiding principle in an organization.

More importantly, human capital theory significantly contributes to the development of morale because it is connected with exploring human behavior and its influence on human resource management.

Sustainability of Human Capital Theory Human capital theory has a strong theoretical and empirical foundation because of the growing tendency to apply individual-centered approach while carrying on business. More importantly, the international standards are prone to establishing social welfare as a priority in a corporate world.

In particular, social corporate responsibility provides new perspectives of developing relations between managers and employees because it directly related to the welfare of the entire organization (Ehnert 2009).

In particular, an employee can be considered as an essential stakeholder contributing the development of business. Managers, therefore, should rely on social capital theory while developing new techniques and approaches to treating human resources.

The sustainability of human capital theory also lies in the possibility of considering employees not as a workforce for achieving organizational goals, but also an intellectual asset that should be invested and advanced for the welfare of the business.

Within these perspectives, considering cultural diversity, ethics, and morale should be at the core of organizational development, apart from profitability and productivity (Ehnert 2009). Appreciation of human capital can also allow an organization to take a competitive advantage over other organizations with poor ethical and moral standards.

Sustainable work systems and favorable relations between the employees contribute to the establishment of corporate environment. Applying to human capital theory does not only allow managers to develop a reputable image of an organization but discover new horizons for development.

Therefore, the theory of human capital is a valuable contribution to social resource management techniques. Understanding human capital theory as the study of multiple intelligences can provide new methods of exploring employment and recruitment.

It also enhances retention culture and reduces the turnover within an organization. Finally, human capital theory contributes to integrating efficient methods of measuring employee performance.

Reference List Becker, GS 1994, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, University of Chicago Press, US.

Bowles, S, and Gintis, H 1975, The Problem with Human Capital Theory – A Marxian Critique, American Economic Review, vol. 62, no. 2, 74-82.

Ehnert, I 2009, Sustainable Human Resource Management: A Conceptual and Exploratory Analysis from a Paradox Persuasive, Springer, New York.

Gardner, HE 2006, Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons in Theory and Practice, Basic Books, US.

Jackson, SE 1995, ‘Understanding Human Resource Management in the Context of Organizations and Their Environments’, Annual Reviews of Psychology, vol. 46, pp. 237-264.

Koster, M 2007, Ethics in Human Resource Management, GRIN Verlag, US.

Peil, J 2009, Handbook of Economics and Ethics, Edward Elgar Publishing, US.

Rose, A, n. d., ‘Ethics and Human Resource Management’, Ethics in Business Environment, 27-40. Viewed on http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0077111028/536508/EHR_C02.pdf

Shultz, TW 1972, Human Capital: Policy Issues and Research Opportunities, University of Chicago, viewed on https://www.nber.org/chapters/c4126.pdf

Werhane, R, and Singer AE 1999, Business Ethics in Theory and Practice: Contributions from Asia and New Zealand. Springer, New York.

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Canadian industrialization Term Paper custom essay help

How industrialized was the Canadian economy towards the end of the nineteenth century? Most studies on the development of the Canadian economy suggest that the industrialization of Canada did not take place until the twentieth century. McInnis, on the contrary, argues that Canada was among the world’s most industrialized nations by 1890. His deductions are based on the analysis of various economics factors including net output per capita.

Using this scale, McInnis holds that the only nations whose industrialization ranked higher than Canada were United Kingdom, United States, and Belgium. Other countries in Western Europe also ranked high, but Germany, France and Sweden had a lower output of manufacturers per capita compared to Canada.

As a result, researches suggesting that the industrialization of Canada was laggard are flawed and misleading. O’Brien and Keyder suggest that the primary industries in most countries began to experience rapid growth after 1890, though there are still some nations that had attained a significant level of manufacturing.

Recent studies on the industrialization of economies have devised new measures of analyzing economic development and industrial advance (Cemeron 4). Economic historians propose that other lines of manufacturing development can replace the impact of cotton and iron industries in the economy.

According to Temin (189), the US was not considered among the industrialized nations by 1890 because it was still heavily reliant on cheap water power and showed reluctance in adopting the stationary steam engines for its manufacturing industry. Based on the new interpretation of industrialization by economic historians, it is possible to highlight the various successes of Canada’s manufacturing industries.

While some of these industries comprise craft-tie industries like tailoring and dressmaking, blacksmithing, and furniture making, there were still modern industry trends that involved their manufacture of agricultural machinery, steam engines, locomotives, railway rolling stock, and iron rolling mills (Cameron 5).

Canada was also involved in manufacturing for export in various industries including pork packing, cheese making, and lumber milling. American historians suggest that pork processing and packing indicates large-scale continuous processing that is a typical feature of modern manufacturing (Chandler).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cheese factories use simple technology and are mostly small-scale, though they exemplify a transformation from household agricultural processes to specialized, factory-based production. This process was identified by economic historians as typical of the industrial revolution.

The lumber mills in Canada constituted a significant amount of Canada’s production due to the high capitalization and technical complexity of the manufacturing process. Additionally, Canada was also on the process of developing its roller milling industry, though it was not exporting much flour by 1890 (Chandler).

Where did the industrialization of Canada stand relative to other economies in 1890? Industrialization refers to the percentage of total production that is accounted for by the manufacturing industry. Based on this definition, nations with a large and productive agricultural sector are not regarded as industrialized, even though they may have a significant amount of global output, as was the case with the United States towards the end of the nineteenth century.

This contradiction in the definition of the term industrialization is due to the factors of economic performance that are taken into consideration. The revised view of the Canadian manufacturing development was introduced by Dales in an attempt to re-evaluate the notion held by other economic historians that the Canadian economy had stagnated in the period between 1870 and 1890 (Temin 197).

The new approach was aimed at verifying contradicting theories by authors like Firestone and Bertram, who proposed that the economic growth rate was actually positive during this period. As a result, these authors, including Dale, focused on the rate of industrial growth for the evaluation of Canada’s industrialization on a global scale, with little consideration of the industrialization that it has already attained.

In addition, the authors led in the analysis of secondary manufacturing, which was thought of as more advanced than primary manufacturing. As a result, the authors led an analysis of industrialization that was focused on evaluating what was the right manufacturing as opposed to what was less desirable in the industry (O’Brien and Keyder).

However, this perception was overtaken by other strategies focusing on the output per capita of the manufacturing industry. The industrialization of Canada prior to the twentieth century was due to its large agricultural output. Canada also had significant amounts of output from other primary sectors including fishing, forestry and mining.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Canadian industrialization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that industrialization of Canada was still not quite advanced in the late nineteenth century; however, an evaluation of its manufacturing industry in terms of output per capita places it among the highly industrialized nations at that time (Cameron 20).

Another reason why previous studies propose that Canada lagged in industrialization is due to the evaluation of industrialization in terms of “factory cotton textile spindles, pig iron production, tons of coal produced, and horsepower of steam engines” (Cameron 21). This perception was drawn from Britain, which was the first nation to industrialize, both in Europe and around the world.

The economy of Britain thrived in various industries including factory textiles, coke-smelted iron, and the use of steam engines. Consequently, economists measured the economies of other countries with regard to how their industries compared to those of Britain.

Based on these standards, Canada did not compare to Britain, or most of the other nations in Europe such as France and Germany. The cotton textile industry in Canada was just beginning to develop while the heart of the country did not use coal for the production of energy. Additionally, favorable deposits of iron core had not been identified.

As a result, the construction of the vital railway network between Canada and the US was reliant on iron rail imports from Britain. Studies suggest that one of the vital reasons why the industrialization of Canada was delayed was due to the lack of a modern iron smelting industry.

This is because the manufacturing processes in Canada depended on hydro energy while other nations used coal for manufacturing purposes. Based on these standards, the studies suggesting that Canada did not industrialize until the twentieth century are justified (Cameron 23).

In terms of per capita output of manufactures, Canada ranked among the world leaders in terms of industrialization. The structures used by past authors places Canada far behind other European nations like France, Germany and Sweden; however, an analysis base on the output per capita places Canada ahead of them in industrialization. Studies show that the GDP of Canada from manufacturing stood at 26% in 1890, which placed it behind the European nations.

Using the same scale, the United States had a GDP of 30% while that of Britain, France and Germany was in the range of 35-40%. One of the problems with this interpretation is that the European countries used a broad scale to evaluate the industrial sector. For instance, Mitchell proposed that the GDP of UK in 1890 was at 41%, France at 37%, Germany at 35.55, Belgium at 30% and Sweden at 23% (Mitchell).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Canadian industrialization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the scale used by Mitchell included, manufacturing, mining and construction industries. Applying the same scale on Canada puts Canada at 32.5%, which is in the range of other European leaders, and not as far behind as suggested by most authors. Removing mining and construction sector from the scale lowers the GDP of Canada to 25.8%, which is below Belgium and United States at 30%.

Hence, Canada can be said to have lagged behind European industrial leaders, but not by a wide margin as implied in various economic literatures. In addition, the scale does not provide an accurate indication of GDP since the scale showed a wide margin between the UK and the US, yet the two nations were equal global leaders in manufactured output per capita.

According to Bairoch, the level of industrialization of Canada was far below that of Sweden and Spain, and was slightly better than Italy, which contradicts the ides presented by Maizels. Bairoch’s analysis was based on the evaluation of levels of production in food processing industries by looking at the consumption levels.

By the early 1890s, the most valued export product for Canada was cheese. This is because just about 10% of the cheese produced was consumed locally, with 90%. This presents one of the flaws in Bairoch’s estimations of the output of food processing industries. In addition to this, Canada was also a significant producer of pork, and a key exporter for the British market.

The lumber milling industry also exported most of its products. The analysis of Bairoch rated Canada at a lower industrial level than most European countries because his output assessments were based on employment statistics (Bairoch 215), which significantly undervalued the primary industries in Canada.

Bairoch also shows a cavalier treatment of traditional industries, which include tanneries and associated industries like shoe making. The tannery business was vital for Canada in the late nineteenth century as was seen in Canada’s self sufficiency in shoe manufacture due to the factories that introduced cutting, sewing and welting machines. Leather was a valuable commodity in the world in nineteenth century economies, and Canada had become a key producer of tanned leather and its products including belts and harness.

The Canadian tan industry obtained its raw materials from South America for processing. Besides shows, harnesses were also in demand due to the expanding agricultural activity and the use of horsepower in various processes. Bairoch’s assessments suggest that these industries did not produce adequate output, and their level of contribution to the Canadian economy was similar to that of clothing and timber (Bairoch 311).

On the contrary, Urqhart proposes that the Canadian clothing industry contributed about 11% of its manufacturing GDP in 1890. While the textile industry in Canada was quite significant, primary textile manufacturing was still slow since it relied heavily on imports.

However, Canada met the local demand for clothing through small, craft tailoring and dress making shops, which was also apparent in other nations at that time. “Relating Canada’s output of manufactured clothing to primary textile production in the country produces a bias on the clothing sector of Canadian manufacturing” (O’Brien and Keyder).

Bairoch was also biased on his evaluation of the Canadian iron and steel products. The analysis of Bairoch focused on primary iron production, through the British method of coke smelting. This analysis was biased against Canada, which did not introduce modern iron industries until the close approach of the twentieth century. Most of the iron used in Canada was imported, though there was little supply produced using charcoal fuel.

There were a few industries involved in open hearth processing of steel from imported pig iron, as well as steel fabrication for the production of bridges, boilers and steam engine, and other structural steel. The Canadian fabricating industries were also involved in the production of locomotives and railway car wheels and axles, and a variety of machinery manufacturing (Bairoch 320).

The analysis by Bairoch raises the net domestic consumption of primary metals by a factor, in relation to the value of pig iron, which underestimates the level of manufacturing in Canada. Bairoch’s valuation of Canada’s steel industry cannot be accurate because the construction of the extensive railway system of Canada alone took up a lot of iron and steel products, even though Canada was still importing rail.

Studies also show that the thriving agricultural sector in Canada made intensive use of iron and steel products in the form of ploughs, harrows, chains, and mowers, among others (Bairoch 321). Bairoch seems to have overlooked the large Canadian industry involved in iron and steel fabrication, and focused on the fact that it did not produce primary iron (Bairoch 324).

Based on the arguments expressed above, it can be deduced that the per capita output of manufactured goods in Canada in 1890 was much higher than noted by Bairoch. The assessment used to contradict Bairoch’s arguments is also opposed by Bairoch because it is modern.

Bairoch argues that the modern methodology used to evaluate industrial sectors based on quantity indices of manufacturing industries is inefficient in the analysis of industrial sectors before the 1950s. Instead, he proposes his tactic is better since it focuses on evaluating the most prominent sectors globally (Bairoch 328).

Recent comparisons of the strength of economies such as those assumed by Maddison take account of purchasing power parity (PPP) in comparing GDP figures. Maddison’s analysis suggests that the price levels in Canada and the United States were similar before 1890. Maddison also employs an adjustment exchange rate in the evaluation of European economies, which places the manufacturing output of Germany close to that of Canada.

However, this analysis was observed to be biased due to the assumption “an inter-country adjustment for differences between market exchanges for differences between market exchange rates and those based on PPP that are calculated for relatively recent years remains valid back over long spans of history” (Maddison).

Conclusion In conclusion, the estimations and approximations indicate that Canada was a relatively highly industrialized economy by 1890. Compared to other economies in the world at that time, it ranked fourth, after the UK, US and Belgium in term of manufacturing output per capita.

Contrary to arguments by authors like Bairoch, Canada had a larger output per capita of manufactured goods than Germany, France, and Sweden. Before the twentieth century, Canada’s economy had a large agricultural and other primary sectors, though its construction had been low, which caused various economic historians to argue that Canada did not industrialize until the twentieth century.

Works Cited Bairoch, Paul. “International Industrialization Levels from 1750-1980.” Journal of European Hostory (1982): 11, 269-333. Print.

Cameron, rondo. “A New view of European Industrialization.” Economic History Review (1985): 38(2), 1-23. Print.

Chandler, Alfred. Scale and Scope: the Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press, 1990. Print.

Maddison, Angus. Monitoring the World Economy, 1820-1992. Paris: OECD, 1995. Print.

Mitchell, B.R. International Historical Statistics: Europe, 1750-1993. New York: Stockton Press, 1998. Print.

O’Brien, Patrick and Caglar Keyder. Economic Growth in Britain and France, 1780-1914. London: Allen and Unwin, 1978. Print.

Temin, Peter. “Steam and Water Power in the Early Nineteenth Century.” Journal of Economic History (1966): 26, 187-205. Print.

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Tourism and economic development Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

How tourism translates into economic development

Economic development leads to tourism

Inequality: who really benefits

Some unwanted economic effects

Conclusion

Works Cited

Abstract The paper looks at the relationship between tourism and economic development through a holistic lens. It was found that tourism leads to economic development in host nations through job creation, the multiplier effect, infrastructure development and improvement of business conditions.

In certain circumstances, however, tourism may undermine economic development through tax increments, inequality, inflation pressure and environmental problems.

Economic development also sustains tourism by taming foreign exchange fluctuations, enhancing the cost of living, creating a sustainable business environment and offering high quality goods and services for tourists.

Since tourism and economic development are codependent, it was suggested that governments should promote tourism in order to foster economic development.

Investors and government bodies should also work on their economies in order to create a sustainable business environment for tourism.

Introduction Tourism contributes to the GDP of developing and developed nations tremendously. Stakeholders need to know how this occurs in order to increase its effects. On the flipside, the success of tourist activities also depends on the economic situation of a country, so governments need to work on this aspect, as well.

How tourism translates into economic development Tourism increases revenues earned in a country. For instance, if a country receives approximately 1000 tourists who spend $ 100 daily, then the country could enjoy $100,000 increases in daily revenue. If the country can sustain that expenditure over 3 months, then it can enjoy approximately $9,000,000 worth of revenue over that period.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, retail centers, amusement parts, hotels and other recreational industries will enjoy part of that 9 million. However, since businesses need to purchase imported supplies then perhaps 30% of those earnings would be used to offset that income.

The remaining percentage remains in the country and facilitates creation of tourism jobs or profits enjoyed by entrepreneurs. Therefore, a country would develop its economy if it invested in the tourism industry (Stynes 3).

Aside from direct revenues, there is multiplier effect that arises from tourism as an economic activity. After receiving the above mentioned amount of revenue, tourist employees in the concerned country will use the amount they earned from wages and salaries to purchase services and goods.

As a consequence, more businesses in the nation will benefit from the tourist activities. Jobs will also be created for those individuals selling goods and services to employees in the tourist industry.

Therefore, one dollar earned in revenue from tourism leads to a multiplier effect of more jobs and sales in other industries.

UNEP (421) explain that tourism allows countries to harness their cultural heritage, natural landscape, and biodiversity in order facilitate development. It is through this platform that countries can convert what they are endowed with into tangible employment opportunities.

Since tourism relies on labor quite intensively, then this can provide an opportunity for disadvantaged groups or the unemployed to become entrepreneurs. This is an industry in which micro enterprises thrive; making handicrafts, jewelry and other small commodities is synonymous with it.

We will write a custom Essay on Tourism and economic development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Products of tourism span across a wide array of industries ranging from transport, infrastructure, agriculture, energy to art. Consequently, financial benefits can spread across different areas of the economy.

Tourism also manifests itself in the form of improved investment in facilities like roads, energy and water supply. Before tourists can visit any nation, they need access to it through airports. Tourist-dependent nations often have many air transport hubs.

Furthermore, those visitors will expect to enjoy certain basic comforts such as street lights, good sever systems, and good roads. While these amenities may be prevalent in developed nations, the same is not true for underdeveloped ones.

Countries interested in growing their tourism industry will need to build their infrastructure. The effects of these endeavors will trickle down to other members of the society. Whole populations can utilize these facilities and thus improve their quality of life.

With regard to the poverty cycle, this industry employs the youth and women in large numbers thus fostering independence. In fact, many households are able to break out of the poverty cycle owing to their participation in tourism.

Several authors have carried out case studies on the benefits of tourism in the economy by analyzing their effects on particular countries. Proenca and Soukiazis (200) did an investigation in Portugal concerning the relationship between bed capacity and regional economic growth.

Here, it was assumed that bed capacity was indicative of the intensity of tourism in a region. The researchers found that for every percentage increase in accommodation capacity, regions experienced a 0.01% in their per capita income.

Therefore, the authors proved that tourism does indeed translate into greater economic growth. Conversely, one can prove that tourism enhances economic development by analyzing the rate at which countries depend on tourism over other areas of the economy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism and economic development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lanza and Pigliaru (12) showed that countries with many natural resources and a sizable labor force gave them a comparative advantage in tourism over others that did not have these resources.

When one contrasts countries that have these features and focus on tourism to countries that specialize in manufacturing, it is evident that the former countries grow their economies at a faster rate than the former ones.

Therefore, tourism performs better than other conventional industries with regard to its capacity to grow economies. The same pattern is repeated when one compares small nations that depend on oil production with large ones that depend on tourism.

Most of the oil-producing nations come from large economies; small countries often record low levels of growth, but when this is combined with specialization in tourism, one is likely to record higher levels of GDP growth.

Therefore, tourism facilitates greater levels of economic growth for small economies (Ivanovi and Webster 22). The same observation is not prevalent in large economies that are already developed even though tourism thrives there.

Therefore, several factors that demonstrate the existence of a robust tourism industry eventually lead to higher economic growth. The prevalence of higher economic growth amongst these small, tourism-dependant nations stems from their use of foreign exchange earnings to offset their balance of payment.

They also use the same revenue for management of their national debt. It is easy to translate these payments into sizable economic returns because the economies of scale are small for such nations.

It is also easy for these countries to take some of their foreign exchange and use it to import resources and capital. As a result, net increases in their economies will be high.

Tourists require certain goods when they visit target countries. Sometimes this may lead to an increase in the choices available to local consumers.

If the goods happen to be of a high quality, then local producers may be prompted to enhance production. Higher competition increases economic outcomes and thus prosperity in the country.

It is possible for taxes to reduce owing to tourist activities. If a country or region heavily depends on tourism, it may tax tourism-dependent businesses heavily and reduce the amount it expects to get from other local businesses.

As a result, local communities may benefit from the development of roads or schools without necessarily paying a high amount of tax. It should, however, be noted that sometimes the reverse may occur.

If infrastructural needs required to cater for tourism are excessive, then locals may experience greater taxation. Regardless of the latter, one can still acknowledge that tourism may benefit an economy by improving the tax rates (Stynes 4).

Generally, one may understand the effect of tourism on the economy through a theoretical model known as the export-led growth hypothesis. In this theory, economies of nations grow as a result of increased export, capital and labor within a country.

Exports are particularly useful to countries interested in growing because they allow them to take advantage of economies of scale (Lim 70). International businesses do not have to depend on local communities for production as they can distribute production across a myriad of regions.

This leads to cost savings and greater profitability. Export expansion also leads to greater economic development through technical knowledge diffusion. Those concerned will get access to greater expertise and this promotes the growth of economic activities.

It is likely that when a country does more exporting than importing, then chances are that there will be greater competition among those concerned. Since tourism is a form of export, then this explains why the activity fosters economic growth (Risso and Brida 178).

Economic development leads to tourism Not only does tourism lead to economic development but the reverse may also be true; economic development fosters tourism. As an industry, tourism is unique from conventional understandings of what an industry is.

In economics, for an activity to become an industry, it must employ the factors of production, such as land, labor, and capital, in order to make products.

It must also use certain variables in order to participate in the production process. The major problem with this approach is that it does not factor in service-oriented sectors, of which tourism belongs. The latter industry heavily relies on labor and offers services to a number of foreign and domestic economies.

Tourism incorporates the use of goods and services in order to meet needs of clients. Nonetheless, production and consumption still occur when participating in tourism. Visitors who enter a certain country will do so for business or pleasure.

Those who come for leisure will solely consume while those who visit a country for business will consume as well as produce. Therefore, one cannot classify tourism as an explicit production or consumption good.

Another feature that distinguishes tourism from other sectors is the fact that consumers must transport themselves to the concerned location and not the other way around. Conventional sectors like manufacturing often involve taking conventional products to consumers.

This means that it can be regarded as an import in certain dimensions. However, because of the foreign exchange earned, the industry is also an export one.

All these differences in tourism as an industry imply that its contribution to the economy of a country or region is quite multifaceted.

Regardless of how one looks at the industry, it still depends on economic development as a prerequisite to success (Vanegas and Croes 960).

Globalization has infiltrated almost all industries and tourism is no exception. Since transportation cost is an important consideration for most visitors who are thinking about entering a country, then they must incorporate the amount of expenditure that is required to get to a host country.

This means that if the income of potential tourists is low, then chances are that less travelling will occur. For an economy to grow in a country that depends on tourism, it must depend on visitors from countries with relatively stable income streams.

Therefore, economic development in target countries (nations that act as consumers) can foster tourism. Unlike certain consumer goods that can be sold in any country regardless of its income, tourism will sell greatly in economically developed nations as these consumers have the financing needed to enjoy tourist activities.

Additionally, because the industry is perceived as a luxury in certain respects, then the concerned entities must be able to afford luxurious items. This further proves that economic development affects tourism because consuming countries must be economically prosperous (Ghartey 5).

Prices of commodities and services in a host country affect how many visitors it gets. Additionally, even the cost of living in a country will alter the number of people who come to visit.

Economic difficulties will usually manifest themselves in terms of a high cost of living. Additionally foreign exchange rates will also demonstrate how economically prosperous the country is.

Potential tourists will consider these factors before choosing to visit it. Consequently, not only is economic development a prerequisite to success in tourism in countries that supply the visitors, but it also matters in the host country. Certain services are just easier to provide if the economic situation in the tourist country is tenable.

As explained earlier some travelers may visit a host country for business while others may do it for pleasure. Those who target a country for its business prospects will often end up using various businesses in the tourism industry.

International trade is becoming a reality especially in emerging economies such as China and India. The need to transact with these countries fosters business travel and foreign exchange earnings.

Therefore, countries with a robust trading platform have high numbers of business travelers and high earnings in tourism. Such nations will usually report positive economic figures and balance of payments.

As a result, one may say that economic development, as seen through high rates of international trade, leads to a thriving tourism industry (Fayissa et al. 18).

The sustainability of tourism is highly dependent on investment in economic activities. Pro development tourism is an approach to tourism that entails securing economic development for locals in order to make tourism sustainable.

In order to prosper in any industry, businesses have to engage in practices that attract consumers. The same fact is true for tourism and potential visitors. This industry is highly dependent on employees that are highly educated.

It also thrives in areas that have convenient access to health services as well as a sound energy, transport, communications and water networks. Not only do tourists expect to enjoy these benefits but locals also stand to gain from them.

Developers, operators, hotel owners and investors need to embrace the fact that risks and opportunities abound in tourism, and investment in the economy will lead to greater prosperity within the chosen country.

If these business players respond to the economic needs of the local community then they will continually meet tourist expectations about the condition of their locations. As a result, such companies can enjoy repeat business and long term success (Goodwin et al. 6).

Working on the economic situation of a certain locality works for investors in tourism because it will improve the business environment. If all the business stakeholders in a tourist destination work together in order to boost economic development, then they will minimize the cost of doing business in that destination.

These stakeholders will gain access to benefits that they initially would have foregone if they were acting alone. Business entities can also benefit from sustainable tourism if they invest in the economy of the host nation by creating a standard that they abide by.

These individuals will have compliance guidelines that will assist in maintaining high industry standards and eventually greater returns. Industry stakeholders who take charge of their economic environment will also minimize the risk of legislations and interventions by national bodies that may disrupt or run them out of business.

As a result, one can assert that tourism is dependent on economic development owing to the business environment created and the prospects for sustainability (Kim et al. 920).

Investing in regional or local economies through infrastructure, local sourcing and employment opportunities enhances the image or brand value of a certain organization. The concept of reputation risk is closely associated with the latter statement.

Reputational risk management involves providing consumers with more than tangible aspects of business. For instance the experience of most tourists is much richer than what can be offered as transport, accommodation or even sightseeing.

Further, products obtained by tourist players go beyond what businesses manage within the supply chain. As a consequence, tourist investors can increase their brand image or minimize business risk by improving economic conditions in their localities.

Fostering local economies by businesses also makes the tourist landscape work well for stakeholders because it fosters goodwill among the masses. When locals enjoy a greater livelihood as a result of investment by tourism stakeholders then they will support the very existence of the business.

Thriving tourist businesses cannot exist in environments where local communities are resentful against them (Dritsakis 310).

It is quite expensive to work in a place where protests and demonstrations against a certain institution are common. Businesses can prevent the occurrence of this situation by working on the local economies of their tourist locations.

Tourism is dependent on economic development because the industry will have a stable pool of employees from which to hire their staff. Good economies tend to have highly motivated workers who go out of their way to educate themselves and enhance their skills.

Consequently, companies that work on the economies of their local operations will benefit from it by having high quality staff to select. They will also reduce costs in continually hiring and training new staff.

Inequality: who really benefits Although economic development is highly likely amongst countries that have a thriving tourism industry, there are certain situations in which economic development may not be felt by all concerned parties.

For instance, hotel owners benefit greatly from tourism activities because most accommodation businesses are created for these entrepreneurs. In a country such as Malaysia where tourism contributes a large share of the GDP, only 11% of the earnings from this sector reach locals and small businesses.

Additionally, crafts artisans only access 5% of those earnings. Most of the income goes to large hotel owners and similar entrepreneurs (TPRG 12).

Cases of inequality or poor distribution of wealth depend on the nature of the economy in a certain country as well as its business structure. For instance, a country such as Tanzania has more imports than exports.

Therefore, even a smaller portion of income from tourism is enjoyed by locals compared to Malaysia. 10.2 % of all earnings generated in tourism are captured by members of this demographic group.

Tanzania mostly gets its tourism supplies externally; additionally, quality staff members also come from other countries. This prevents locals from participating in creation of wealth.

In contrast to the above mentioned examples, a country such as Panama manifests a very different pattern. About 56% of all earnings from tourism in this country are enjoyed by locals with moderate means. However, the proportion of the people who enjoy it are those who come from tourism-dependent regions.

Poor people in Bocas del Toro enjoy about 43% of the income because this a tourist region. However only 19% of the income earned from tourism in Chriqui province goes to the poor because the economy of that region does not depend on it.

Therefore, the case for economic equality from tourism in many developing nations depends on a series of factors. First, supply chains need to incorporate the locals. Further, skill levels and the composition of the labor market will determine whether tourism would lead to greater benefit among the poor than among other groups.

Additionally, one must consider the composition of the entrepreneurial sector; if microenterprises thrive in a certain country then chances are that locals will also benefit (Mitchell and Ashley 77).

Some unwanted economic effects While tourism may cause increases in the rate of consumption of goods, sometimes this may lead to unwanted effects. For instance, external sourcing of supplies needed for use in the tourism industry may lead to an imbalance in the imports and exports of a country.

Nations that lack the resources necessary to support visitors may witness higher levels of importation occurring due to an increase in tourism. Earnings from tourism activities may not be enough to offset the imbalance in trade that has arisen from the purchase of imported commodities.

Additionally, when excessive numbers of tourists are reported within a certain country, then a country’s tour operators or other related businesses may not be able to meet the demand for services and goods from them. The overall result is high inflation pressure, which may persist over the years.

Economies of these countries may become casualties of unmet demand in tourism (Ghartey 8). Inflationary pressures may also manifest in the housing industry through fluctuating prices seasonally.

The challenge of tourism in economic development may also be manifested through taxation. In developing economies, where infrastructural challenges are many, governments may need to invest in construction of roads and the like in order to promote the tourism industry.

The process of carrying out these activities may result in greater levels of taxation during construction. In developed nations, high infrastructural costs may stem from greater taxation needed to cover the service costs of maintaining these amenities.

Therefore, sometimes greater tourism levels may undermine economic performance within a certain country owing to taxation increments (Stynes 5).

Environmental issues have also been cited as another unwanted effect of tourism. This may often result in the underdevelopment of other industries that depend on the same natural resources. As a consequence, economic development may be impeded.

Most tourism activities occur in coastal areas where freshwater is absent or the facilities needed to provide them are lacking. Since tourist businesses cannot compromise on the availability of water, many of them may secure it through any means necessary.

This may result in appropriation of water needed for agricultural use. A case in point was golf tourism in a Mediterranean Island. The concerned industry needed water for irrigation of the courses. Since water was scarce in the location, it was necessary to transport it in.

Estimates indicate that the golf course used seventeen times as much water as regular users. After the owners of the golf courses decided to expand the facility, it was necessary to construct them over agricultural land. This was done in order to place desalination plants, which convert salty water into freshwater.

Therefore, the growth of tourism in the Island came at a price; agriculture was undermined in the area and this offset the economic benefits of the gold course.

One can thus assert that the unwanted environmental of tourism weaken critical economic activities. The economic sustainability of tourism may thus be questioned (UNEP 417).

Conclusion Tourism and economic development are intertwined as they each depend on each other for survival. Tourism can lead to economic development through direct and indirect effects. Direct effects include revenue generation and foreign exchange in a tourist-dependent country.

These effects also include creation of business opportunities that thrive on money earned from tourism or local sourcing of supplies. Indirect effects include better taxation, employment opportunities, improved infrastructure and better quality of goods.

On the other hand, tourism may undermine economic development by creating environmental problems, higher taxation in infrastructure construction and inequality in income distribution.

Economic development also leads to success in tourism by proving better quality goods, improving foreign exchange rate conditions and promoting the sustainability of business in that location.

These results indicate that government bodies as well as tourist stakeholders need to work on economic development in order to foster long term success. Conversely, governments need to encourage tourism in order to boost economic development.

Works Cited Dritsakis, Nick. “Tourism as a long-run economic growth factor: An empirical investigation for Greece using causality analysis.” Tourism Economics 10.3(2004): 305-316. Print.

Ghartey, Edward. Tourism Economic Growth and Monetary Policy in Jamaica. SALISES Annual Conference Port of Spain: Trinidad and Tobago, 2010. Print.

Goodwin, Harold, Stuart Robson, Sam Highton. Tourism and Local Economic Development, 2008. Web.

Fayissa, Bichaka, Christian Nsiah

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The Bourgeoisie and the Role of Women in the 19th Century Essay college essay help: college essay help

The development of such a social class as bourgeoisie becomes the characteristic feature of the second part of the nineteenth century. In his work The Age of Empire, 1875-1914, Eric Hobsbawm concentrates on depicting the particular features of the period, accentuating such important details as the bourgeois lifestyle and the progress of feminine liberation.

According to Hobsbawm, the bourgeoisie can be discussed in relation to such notions as privacy, property, education, and sport as the determining components of the specific lifestyle, and the role of women in the society can be explored with references to their new role in the family and with paying attention to the development of female movements.

The bourgeoisie as a social class includes the representatives of the upper middle class who gained their positions with increasing their properties. However, Hobsbawm states that not only the level of property but also the person’s education can be considered as a significant factor to discuss the person as bourgeois (Hobsbawm 172).

From this point, basing on two factors, these “legally free and equal individuals” created the special bourgeois lifestyle which helped determine them as higher than workers, but put the line between the bourgeoisie and aristocracy (Hobsbawm 24). The representatives of the bourgeoisie were successful property owners who developed the principles of capitalism.

The amount of wealth influenced the bourgeoisie’s everyday life and their interests. Thus, orienting to the economic success and the business’s development, some persons were also interested in art or philosophical thinking, the other ones paid attention to sport or science.

Nevertheless, in spite of the property levels, the upper middle class representatives focused on their education and the education of their children as the necessary factor of the personal development.

If the workers were provided with the opportunities to get the elementary education, the property owners tried to give their children the standard university education as the first step to the upper classes (Hobsbawm 149). Thus, representatives of the bourgeoisie are traditionally educated rich persons with the developed analytical abilities and such qualities as responsibility, competence, and reliability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The turn of the centuries is also characterized by the intensive development of the feminine liberation and associated movements. Hobsbawm accentuates the emergence of a new woman who is active and rather independent in her visions. The author discusses the figures of Rosa Luxemburg and Madame Curie as examples (Hobsbawm 192).

The causes of feminine liberation are in the general emancipation developed in the society under the impact of increasing the role of education, changes in the economic sphere, and the freedom of movement (Hobsbawm 202). Hobsbawm states that the educated women begin to emphasize their rights because of the general atmosphere within the society.

Moreover, such details as the “practice of casual social dancing in public” and changing the attitude to motherhood and birth control are also significant (Hobsbawm 204). Thus, new women concentrate on gaining the equal opportunities and the right to vote and work with men.

According to Hobsbawm, the bourgeois lifestyle in the nineteenth century significantly depends on such factors as money, privacy, and education as the aspects to gain the upper social positions. Furthermore, the period is characterized by changing the women’s role with references to the concept of liberation.

Women become actively interested in social activities and protecting their rights and equality in relation to men, accentuating the right to work, to vote, and to control the birth rate.

Works Cited Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Empire, 1875-1914. New York: Vintage Books, 1989. Print.

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Planets around stars Essay college essay help near me

There is an opinion that our universe is endless, however, we have too little knowledge about it. Scientists all over the world develop different theories and search for new planets. There are a lot of various theories about the creation and development of new planets.

The problem of the endless of the universe is also put under question. However, the work on searching for new planets continues and more and more people are involved in the process there are a lot of different techniques aimed at searching for new planets.

Many of these techniques have already been applied into practice, some of these techniques are just discussed in the research papers. The main idea of this paper is to consider the techniques that have been used to detect planets around other stars.

Some of these techniques have limitations, others are simple and do not require any outstanding actions, in spite of the fact that each new technique used for planets’ search is unique and requires much attempt, knowledge and financial support, some of them are used more frequently while others have just been used several times.

NASA is planning to launch a visible-wavelength telescope called Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) in 2014. There is an opinion that there are other more developed civilizations which have powerful telescopes that are able to see the Earth and identify the conditions appropriate for life there.

The Terrestrial Planet Finder will be able to search for the planets with the conditions possible for living. The main limitation of such technique is the adjacent of the parent stars.

The brightness of the Earth’s surface varies dramatically, therefore, the astronomers and engineers are to pay attention to this fact whole search for new planets (Seager 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Angel and Woolf (1998) dwell upon spectroscopy as one of the most effective ways of searching for new planets. The authors present the proofs of the stars similar to our sun other formations similar to our universe.

Photography is not effective for searching for new planets as this way of study distant planets does not give the full information about the planet. Spectroscopy is much better in this case.

Moreover, using the new ultra light weight mirrors developed for NASA’s Next Generation Space Telescope, it is possible to have a general understanding if what happens at the planet.

This information may allow to get to know whether it is possible to live at the planet or not, thus, the search for the planets similar to the Earth is possible (Angel

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Scientific Management in the Modern Organizations Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Scientific management and the Fordist era

Negative effects of Taylor’s principles

Scientific management in the modern organizations

Works Cited

Scientific management and the Fordist era Scientific management describes an approach in management developed by Fredrik Taylor to facilitate the analysis and synthesis of workflow in order to enhance economic efficiency in the early 20th century.

It endeavored to define the main goals of a whole firm, establish subgoals within the key goals, and create synergy between the two aspects.

Research shows that the Fordist principles adopted most of the aspects of the scientific management, and advanced them further to facilitate mass production and the formalization of labor control (Vallas et al. 118). This advancement entailed two core aspects.

First, Fordism modified the principles related to the standardization of production parts, and added an aspect that separated concept and execution through specifications in the assembly process.

Secondly, Fordism added an aspect of limiting interruptions in the labor process and enhancing control over workers’ tasks in the scientific management model.

Fordist production employed strategies such as managerial direction and control, standardization of tasks and departmentalization. These aspects of scientific management focused on the division of labor into smaller units that allowed easier monitoring of workers.

The principles of scientific management benefited the objective of mass production during the Fordist era as it provided core principles for optimizing output. Fordism modified Taylor’s principles and incorporated the aspect of the worker and the machine to attain optimal results through collective labor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These principles helped to convince workers to pursue their employer’s goals in order to attain theirs. Furthermore, it fused Taylor’s concepts of division of labor with various aspects of the moving assembly line.

Negative effects of Taylor’s principles Scientific management contributed to the core principles employed in production management in the modern world. Its focus on a domineering management approach to promote effective labor division affects employees’ autonomy.

A restrictive working environment has adverse effects on employees’ productivity. Another negative aspect of Taylor’s principles concerns the dehumanization of employees.

Most of the aspects of mass production entail Taylor’s principles that describe management as an entity that is distinct from various human aspects such as emotions.

Thus, the adoption of these principles promotes the depiction of humans as instruments due to the breaking down of jobs into considerably small units.

This aspect affects the cognitive input of employees as the tasks become significantly easy. Thus, scientific management has negative effects on modern management practices whose scope is not restricted to the financial rewards for employees.

Modern organizations must respond to diverse aspects of employees such as their social well-being in order to enhance employee productivity.

We will write a custom Essay on Scientific Management in the Modern Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Modern working environments render the authoritarian approach within scientific management as invalid (Vallas et al. 200). A mechanistic managerial design is likely to introduce conflicts between the management and employees especially concerning an organizational change.

The failure to involve employees in a company’s decision-making process depicts an aspect of lack of trust by the top management on the competency of workers. Taylor’s principles promote the need to create a distinction between workers and experts.

This is likely to cause a decline in motivation among employees as they may develop the notion that the company does not value their contributions in its undertakings. In this regard, employees become detached from the company’s objectives start to exhibit laxity in their duties.

Taylor’s aspect of the piece-rate payment places emphasizes on an employee’s financial gains rather than the goals within an organization.

When employees focus more on the financial benefits derived from their input, they become less concerned with the broader scope of an organization’s goals.

Scientific management in the modern organizations Despite the drawbacks associated with scientific management, its various principles create a platform for building a mutual relationship between employers and workers. It possesses a significant level of validity concerning modern organizational approaches.

Taylor’s principles enable a company to structure its operations in a manner that guarantees the satisfaction of both the employer and the employee. It creates a scope within which managers can identify strategies that facilitate accountability within an organization.

In this regard, a company can impose various control measures on its workforce to guarantee satisfactory output. Moreover, Taylor’s principles facilitate workers concentration on a few tasks within an organization. Specialization increases the output of organization due to enhanced efficiency concerning the execution of tasks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Scientific Management in the Modern Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another beneficial aspect of scientific management is the optimization of efficiency while minimizing cases of waste during production (Vallas et al. 248). This enhances the economies of scale within a company.

Adopting Taylor’s principles provide a company with significant levels of control over its work force. In this regard, monitoring of the employees’ output will ensure desirable output.

Thus, the principles of scientific management create a framework upon which modern organizations can create a distinction between managerial functions and the roles of employees.

However, its applicability in modern management practices faces challenges due to some inapplicable concepts such as the description of employees’ satisfaction to depend solely on monetary returns.

In this regard, one can conclude that although the whole of the scientific management theory is not viable in modern management practices, some of its elements possess significant relevancy, and have become integrated in almost all modern organizations.

This describes the significant correlation between different management practices within today’s organizations.

Works Cited Vallas, Steven P., William Finlay, and Amy S. Wharton. The sociology of work: structures and inequalities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print

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Tourism: Benefits and Costs Essay essay help free

Executive Summary Tourism is a phenomenon which was extensively developed during the 20th century when people became able to afford a vacation once a year. This paper thoroughly examines all the positive and negative consequences of the development of tourism.

First off, it concludes that tourism can improve the economy. Tourism, in the first, place creates jobs, and reduces unemployment. It also generates huge amounts of revenue that the government can collect through taxes.

In addition, all the other branches of the economy can be developed as consequences of a growing tourist industry. Environment and culture can also benefit from this industry because it provides a solid economic reason for preservation of customs and landscapes.

As far as costs of tourism are concerned, it can be said that they are numerous, and that in every domain where it can be useful, tourism can also be devastating if it is not conducted properly.

Therefore, in the economy, it can cause a country to become dependent on the capital generated in the industry. Furthermore, jobs in tourism are often insecure and poorly paid, and the money earned is often taken away from the country in which it is generated.

Costs are also felt in the domain of environment and culture. Huge amounts of waste generated by hotels, restaurants and entertainment complexes destroy the environment. Finally, culture is being viewed as one big show rather than an integral component of the local people’s lifestyle.

In the end, accomplishments and challenges of the newly emerging field of sustainable tourism are discussed. It is concluded that comprehensive theoretical models are lacking in this field, and that it demands long and expensive projects to be carried out before observable changes could take place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the unsolved issues, it seems that sustainable tourism is the only way to go if we are to prevent the industry from destroying itself.

Introduction One distinguished scholar in the field of tourism, Allen Beaver, defined tourism in the following terms: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination.

It includes movements for all purposes (Beaver 313). This phenomenon has a long history since rich people have always wanted to see different places and experience different cultures.

Since the industrial revolution, the number of people who are able to afford such a luxury has been increasing constantly to the point where spending a vacation at some tourist center is no longer considered a luxury (Singh 189).

This increase in popularity of tourism has had a huge impact on the world economy, and tourism plays one of the most significant roles in some of the strongest economies in the world.

It is easy to conclude that tourism can have incredibly positive impact on human society; however, significant changes that the 21st century has brought are starting to reveal many problems related to tourism.

It is, therefore, essential to reevaluate the role of tourism in the 21st century, and reshape in the light of the ideas of sustainability.

We will write a custom Essay on Tourism: Benefits and Costs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Benefits of tourism Economic benefits of tourism

It is widely accepted that countries can benefits tremendously from tourism in economic terms. This is because it is an industry that does not demand huge investments, like for example metallurgy, but can pay off just the same.

In modern market economies, tourism is for the most part run in the private sector, and governments earn large amounts of revenue through taxation.

Furthermore, large tourist complexes employ thousands of people whose existence is dependent upon tourism. Owners, on the other hand, can accumulate large amounts of capital which is then invested in other sectors of the economy.

Taxation of tourism

Even though in politics, it is a constantly debated question as to how much of the income generated through tourism belongs to the government, one thing is certain – the state can earn a lot of revenue from it.

In a recent study by Gooroochurn (2004), it has been confirmed that taxation in tourism is much more effective than taxation in any other domain of the economy.

The author studied the case of Mauritius, an otherwise underdeveloped state, and concluded that in poor countries that have such potentials, it is a good idea to attract investments in tourism, and earn revenue through taxation (Gooroochurn 2004).

Among the countries that earn a huge portion of their revenue from tourism are: Greece, Portugal, Spain, Egypt, Tunisia, etc.

Employment in tourism

Providing goods and services for thousands of tourists every day demands a huge labor force. Ever since the beginning of tourism, people saw the employment potential that it has. According to the national statistical data, 16.5 % of all the labor force or around 700 000 people in Greece are employed in tourism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tourism: Benefits and Costs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, many people who do not have large amounts of capital, but live near tourist centers have great opportunities for self-employment. Most of those people run small cafes, trinket or souvenir shops or simply sell local food and drinks to the visitors.

International Labor Organization predicts that in the following decade the number of jobs in tourism is to increase significantly, and claims that it is one sector in which the greatest potential is seen after the crisis (Employment in Tourism Industry).

Secondary economic benefits

Since all parts of the economic structure are interconnected, an economic boom in one of the component parts automatically overflows into all other parts. The income generated by the entrepreneurs is injected into other parts of the economy according to their ideas for further investment since every entrepreneur knows that money has to be invested further.

It has been noticed that one of the most common domains where money earned from tourism is invested is infrastructure. Investors are aware that improving the infrastructure, roads, water and electricity supply, railways, etc. can increase the number of visitors to their tourist complexes.

Furthermore, the government also recognizes the potential in tourism, and is often willing to subsidize the improvement of infrastructure (Karim 2011).

Apart from the infrastructure, other domains of the economy which are often developed as a result of a country’ success in tourism industry are food and drink industry, agriculture, etc.

Noneconomic benefits of tourism

One can argue that in a capitalist society all the positive phenomena can be described in terms of the economy. That might very well be the case; however, all the positive changes that occur in a country as a result of the development of tourism, and which are not directly related to the economy can be discussed under the label non-economic benefits.

Cultural benefits

Since the industrial revolution, together with the development of tourism, there has been an increase in the number of educated people. Their fascination with the historical heritage and cultural diversity of the world made way for the development of the so called cultural tourism.

On the other hand, under the pressure of economic forces, local people are adopting the new ways of life, and because of the lack of time and resources, they are slowly losing their cultural heritage. The fact that there is little to be gained financially from being involved in the traditional customs causes many people to lose interest in them.

For that reason, Weiner (2010) argues that cultural tourism is, in fact, the force that helps to preserve local customs and traditions. The interest of foreigners in local culture, according to Weiner, is what gives the economic value to the culture.

He uses the example of Turkish baths in which he enjoyed while on vacation and concludes that the custom would have been extinct if it had not been for the tourists who were willing to pay to experience it. However, anthropologists argue that this way of preserving culture is deflationary and imperialistic (Menkedick 2010).

Environmental benefits

As in the case of culture, tourism has huge impact on the environment. There are both positive and negative environmental consequences of tourism; however, in this section only the positive ones are discussed.

When a country is industrially underdeveloped, it usually possesses locations with well-preserved environment. In the course of the development of a country, it can be decided that those locations should be used for industrial development, and then polluters like mines and factories are built.

Obviously, this has tremendous environmental consequences. Of course, it can be decided that the location be preserved in the original state which entails opportunity costs, but this seldom happens. Finally, it seems that the best solution is to build tourist complexes, and develop that branch of the economy.

This course of action provides economic motivation for maintaining parks, funding research in resource management, improving environmental education and introducing strong legal framework for environment preservation (Sawkar et al. 8).

Other benefits of tourism

It is certain that benefits of tourism cannot just be reduced to economic, cultural and environmental ones. Surely, there are many other positive phenomena that occur as consequences of the development of tourism. First off, tourism helps in cherishing positive attitudes towards different cultures and customs.

Secondly, it is a very good way of destroying negative attitudes towards foreigners, and rejecting xenophobia, stereotypes and prejudices about others. Thirdly, it affords immense psychological satisfaction which stems from the interaction with others (Ritchie

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Critique of a speech by Tristram Stuart Essay a level english language essay help

This essay examines a speech by Tristram Stuart about the global food waste scandal, delivered at TEDsalon on May 2012. Tristram is an activist fighting food wastage in the developed world.

He works with many nongovernmental organizations, governments and private organizations to tackle food wastage, hunger, and environmental pollution.

He addressed a Ted talk show audience, with the objective of tackling the global food wastage problem. The speech sensitized the audience on the dangers of food overproduction and cosmetic food standards.

In the speech, Tristram proves how western government’s policies and food standards have contributed to food overproduction.

They directly lead to food wastage. In the process, valuable resources are lost and environmental degradation occurs through deforestation and carbon dioxide emission. He shows how factories, supermarkets, and people waste food without consideration.

His speech is effective, because it connects with the audience and gives them practical ways of avoiding food wastage. Excess food should instead, be used to feed hungry people all over the world.

Tristram makes powerful opening remarks that effectively capture the audience’s attention. His statements spark curiosity and he smoothly introduces his topic. He relates to the audience using real life examples that resonate with the audience. The examples connect him with the audience and people in different parts of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Throughout the speech, Tristram uses strongly worded statements complemented by photographs and scientific data. The photographs make his points real and believable.

They have a big impact in the audience and help move his speech in the right direction. They also help him deliver his main points easily.

He effectively uses demonstration aids to explain complicated ideas. They create interest and hold the audience’s attention.

Demonstration aids helps the audience understand the complicated information easily. By using real life stories and humor, Tristram personalizes his speech. The humor makes the audience laugh.

From the start of the speech to the end, Tristram does not use a script. Using direct eye contact, he easily connects with the audience.

This makes his speech have the necessary impact. It also suggests that he had rehearsed his lines several times, and understands his topic perfectly.

Despite his use of gestures throughout the speech, his body language is poor and he appears tensed. He should relax, and add more energy and enthusiasm during his speech to make it lively. He effectively uses vocal variety to signal the important points.

We will write a custom Essay on Critique of a speech by Tristram Stuart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emphasis, pauses, and pace signal important points. They show enthusiasm and increase understanding of the major points. He however fails to vary his volume throughout the speech.

Tristram should avoid using complicated tables and figures in his presentation. Not many people can interpret and understand the tables.

Complicated information can make people lose their connection and interest in the speech. He should use a simpler method of delivery to disseminate the complicated information.

His dressing is suitable for the occasion and portrays him as a simple man, concerned for the hungry and the environment. This shows that he is passionate and committed to his work.

Tristram signals his conclusion by use of powerful statements followed by a brief pause. This effectively prepares the audience for his closing remarks.

He concludes with enthusiasm and with a call for everyone to stop wasting food. The conclusion was perfect and powerful.

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The Bottom Billion Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The Bottom Billion: The Issue Focused by Collier As it is today, the world has seen so many different ages of civilization that have so far had a great impact on the world itself. Each civilization age has brought about innovations that have been used to simplify the way people live for the sole purpose of preserving humankind from extinction.

Of all the ages, the 20th century has had the most significant impact on improving the welfare of humankind. At the end of the day, it has brought tremendous growth population worldwide. This growth in population has made the third-world countries record the highest numbers though bedeviled with poverty amidst the poor economic conditions thus leading to Paul Collier’s book ‘The Bottom Billion’, an issue that the author presents strategically.

He uses it when referring to the countries in the world, which make up the majority of the billion population of the world that unfortunately sits at the bottom of the world in terms of poverty and development. In his description, Collier (2007), says, “most of the 5billion, about 80%, live in countries that are indeed developing, often at an amazing speed” (p.3).

he bottom billion are countries, which, despite being in the 21st century, have their living standards way back in the 14th century due to problems of war, poverty, diseases, illiteracy, and the general poor economic conditions that are still falling. In his book, Collier is referring to poor countries located mostly in Asia and Africa as well as other countries located in South America.

Some of the bottom billion countries in this case are countries like Somalia, Chad, Eritrea, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam amongst others. One characteristic about these countries is that they are often led by despotic leaders who are themselves filthy rich thriving on looting from the countries’ resources.

Collier focuses on these countries because they are in coexistence with the 21st century countries and that he is afraid that their problems will soon be pulling the 21st century countries down. He says, “this problem matters, and not just to the billion people who are living and dying in the fourteenth century conditions…It matters to us” (p. 3).

By focusing on the bottom billion as an issue, Collier is trying to send a warning message to the 21st century countries whose comfort zones will soon be taken away by the problems emanating from the bottom billion countries. Perfect examples of this case include problems like diseases, which have already been eradicated in the first world countries. With war and poor economic conditions persisting, citizens from the bottom billion countries will always seek refuge in some of these first world countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With them, they will import the problem of diseases, crime, and economic strain to the 21st century countries. Lawlessness in countries like Somalia has led to the revival of a once old age practice of piracy in the high seas. Pirates from these lawless countries have led to businesses suffering losses to the tune of billions of dollars in ransom payments as well as deaths of sailors.

They have also made transport by ships an expensive affair due to the incurred costs by shipping lines trying to beef up security for their vessels. Despotic leadership in countries like Chad has made these countries become lucrative drug smuggling routes for drug cartels eying European markets.

Relationship between the civil war and poverty Civil war is an internal conflict within a given country that results to more than one thousand deaths mainly combatants (Collier, 2008, p. 18).

Civil war or civil strife usually leads to stagnation of daily economic, social, and political activities leading to situations of strife. The relationship between the civil war and poverty is so synonymous that one cannot separate the two. According to Collier, “civil war is more likely to breakout in low income countries” (2008, p. 19).

This case can be predicted by halving the income of a country, which doubles the country’s risk. The relationship between the civil war and poverty is that, on one hand, civil war reduces the income of a nation by driving away any form of investment or economic activities.

On the other hand, poverty or low income in a country is a catalyst for civil war because lack of income will drive the unemployed masses to take up guns as long as the rebel movement pays up and or becomes a source of income.

Examples used by Collier According to Collier (2008), “a typical low income country faces the risk of a civil war of 14% in any five year period” (p. 20). Civil war or merely the prospect of civil war will always send any investors, foreign or local, away for their safety because, in case of a civil war, lawlessness will reign due to insecurity.

We will write a custom Essay on The Bottom Billion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Civil war leads to the collapse of any form of administrative order and thus the need for any investors to secure their investment from losses. Furthermore, property damaged during the civil war is never compensated by neither the government nor insurance companies. To justify his argument of the relationship between poverty and civil war, Collier goes ahead to say, “while civil war reduces income, low income indeed heightens the risk of a civil war” (2008, p. 19).

The author gives the example of Condo DRC formerly Zaire. He explains that, due to poverty, it became very cheap for rebel leader Laurent Kabila to mobilize fighters, as they were cheaply available. Therefore, poverty and civil war are synonymous. They are interchangeably used as causes for one another.

My Opinion In my opinion, poverty and civil war are synonymous. As explained by Collier, they lead to one another regardless of whichever comes first. On the other hand, poverty only cannot lead to a civil war without further underlying issues. In most cases, some form of interest will lead to poverty. It will be used as a reason to start a war.

There are many poor countries worldwide, which have been poor for so long yet peaceful. However, there are successful countries, which have been brought down by civil war without necessarily being poor. In my opinion, a stable country’s natural resources can lead it into a civil war due to external interests, but with a perfect excuse for war.

A good example is the fall of Libya. Libya has been a peaceful country for so long with its civilians living a first-world lifestyle. However, due to the west’s interest in its oil, it (west) had to use the reason of creating democratic space to destabilize the country and control its resources. Therefore, other than civil war and poverty being the causes to each other, mineral resources too can be added as a cause besides the two.

Resource surplus What does Collier mean?

Resource surplus can mess the politics of a given country because any group that has access to these resources tends to use the same resources to entrench its rule or cause thus tilting the politics of the given country to its favorable causes or ideas. When a country has surplus resources, it sometimes becomes an impetus for different groups to try to control the same.

A good example to this is the Nigerian government problem with the rebel movement in the Niger Delta. The ruling elites within the country have taken control of all the oil resources coming from that region to enrich themselves besides funding their political careers thus keeping them in power for as long as they can survive.

This, on its own, is one way of messing up the politics of a given country because the people on the ground are influenced in a way to elect leaders who they might not have elected in an ideal situation thus an abuse to the democratic process. This claim is described as patronage politics (Collier, 2008, p. 44).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Bottom Billion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In another way, resource surplus can mess a countries politics by turning that country’s politics from being issue-oriented to resource-oriented thus sidelining all the other important social issues that political leadership should uphold. On the other hand, leaders who lead countries with massive resources do not depend so much on the people’s taxes to run the country.

Therefore, in one way, the people’s say is diminished. A perfect example to this is the monarch rulers of the Arab world who control the countries with oil resources thus making them totally unanswerable to their subjects. These resources have made the countries’ politics be controlled by a few people.

Reasons for his statement

External forces interested in mineral resources within given countries always finance different factions of the political divide to have a leeway in the exploitation of the given country’s resources. This was seen during the Libyan conflict when the western countries, which were interested in the Libyan oil, were asked to make their military contributions as a license to access the Libyan oil after the conflict. Collier (2008) makes this statement in view of different situations happening in different countries.

He gives an example of Madagascar when the incumbent president Didier Ratsiraka lost the elections. He refused to leave power. Therefore, as a way of retaining control of the country, his allies laid a blockade on the port, which was one of the main revenue earners of the country (Collier, 2008, p. 83).

Another example given by Collier is the politics in Botswana. However, a small landlocked country, it is rich in diamond. Thus, a clique of a few people determines the political direction of the country. These are ways that most resource-rich have been affected by their politics. Angola as a country is mineral-rich in both oil and diamond.

For a long time, the value of these two minerals controlled the direction the conflict took. When diamonds were fetching much more money than oil in the international market, Unita, the rebel movement, thrived a lot. It was even able to attract recognition from such countries like the United States of America. Nevertheless, when the value of diamonds fell with the value of oil rising, the government was able to crush the rebel movement.

Recommendations for escaping the bottom billion

Collier has made several sensational recommendations for pulling the bottom billion countries from the bottom billion pit. These recommendations range from social economical move to military interventions. He calls for military interventions as a way of forcing out despotic governments who are in total control of the military apparatus of their countries as a way of freeing up some of the rundown countries (Collier, 2008, p. 184).

A good example of such a military intervention is when the Kenyan defense forces stormed Somalia after a decade of lawlessness, and got rid of the different factions that were controlling the country. This qualifies as a perfect example of military intervention to restore order where the locals have failed, or are sharply divided.

International arbitration may happen when such international institutions like the World Bank and the international monetary fund step in to advice on economic reforms to be followed in a bid to inject the much-needed capital into the economies of these worlds.

These institutions can also play a supervisory role on these countries’ economy to ensure that the recommended policies are followed to the letter. Investor insurance can also be used to attract investors to these countries by providing the necessary guarantees to investors who wish invest in these countries in such areas as infrastructure (Collier, 2008, p. 154).

In such cases, these institutions fund projects in partnership with the local governments. Another form of solution is internal arbitration whereby different factions of the country are brought to a round table discussion to solve the problems facing the country. Another solution is coming up for a charter for investment, which draws an investment plan for these countries.

What can the UAE learn from Paul Collier?

In my own recommendations, the UAE should find a way of engaging all interested parties in the running of its affairs. The UAE, being a rich country in resources, has seen the monarch and a few people run its affairs. One thing the UAE should learn from this book is that, with its rich resources, the country is an attraction to external forces, which are interested in its resources and who will one day move in to change the regime for the sole purpose of controlling its resources.

Citizens in a country who have everything provided for except democracy will one day stand up against the government and demand for involvement in the political process of the country. This will most definitely lead to war because the rulers of the country cannot wish to let go of power that easily.

Thus, they will use their military power to fight off any changes to their status. Earnestly the UAE should slowly introduce an arbitration process that would bring in the people to make them feel as part of the process of governance. The UAE should also try to find a way of diversifying its income because some of the mineral resources it relies on are not renewable.

One day, in case of their exhaustion, it might lead to poverty due to loss of income for the country. Though Collier’s solutions are seen to be viable, they cannot be taken entirely as so since they are theoretical in nature thus requiring an input of many other factors for them to be totally workable.

Reference Collier, P. (2008). The Bottom Billion: Why The Poorest Countries are Failing and what Can Be Done about It. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Comparative analysis of the Promotional Strategies for Red Bull and Coca-Cola Proposal online essay help

Introduction Organisations deploy promotion as a technique of moving their products and services into the market. Technically, promotion refers to “the advancement of a product, idea, or point of view through publicity and or advertising” (Kurtz 2010, p.13). It has the repercussion of increasing demand of the products and hence the sale volume (Slater

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Children Entertainment in UK Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Children in the United Kingdom (UK) should be offered the right of entertainment as in Japan and other developed countries. Kidzania city in Japan is an exemplary case, where the entertainment of children is perceived seriously. Kidzania city does not only offer children entertainment services, but also offers the children an opportunity to explore and make their own decisions on their future careers.

In Kidzania city, children are given an opportunity to have an adults’ experience of the real world, where responsibility is the main issue being stressed on. For example, adults are not allowed to interact with their children during their stay in the Kidzania city. From this perspective, children in the UK can have the exact same experience as adults.

The UK has a viable market for Kidzania that will be looked at in the following paper. The viability of Kidzania in the UK is based on the fact that there is a viable market, a growing demand for entertainment among children, and the growing trends that focus on children care.

Size and growth of the UK market According to statistics recorded by the Office of the National Statistics (ONS), the number of children aged between 2 to 13 years in the country remains steady, taking into account the immigrants’ children. Basically, the steady birth rates recorded in the UK, especially in most of the urban set-ups, give the Kidzania city a readily available market.

Moreover, the immigrants’ arrival in the UK is constant, taking into consideration the fact that most of the immigrants are comprised of young families looking for employment and education. Most of the UK citizens live in urban areas, and, thus, most of the children do not have places to have fun and rest when their parents are working.

Emerging trends Children entertainment with electronic gadgets is one of the fastest growing phenomena in the UK and other developed countries. The UK is also regarded to be the place of a growing demand for parks, which children can visit in case of some social events, holidays, etc. However, the introduction of new kind of entrainment for children offered by Kidzania, presupposes a new entertainment trend that consists in the fact that the children are paid for working in an entertainment sphere. For instance, a child gets paid for being a waitress.

Competition analysis The introduction of electronic education in the UK has been growing faster than it has been projected. As a matter of fact, electronic education formally known as e-learning, is not only being introduced in secondary and tertiary education, but also in primary and basic education. In almost every homestead, children starting from 9 years can use computers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, children’s health has been negatively impacted since the emergence of fast food and synthetically processed food stuff. This has negatively affected children nutrition, so a close consideration of the issue is also necessary. For the past decade, children in the UK have been given an unnecessary freedom on choice of the food consumption, which will impact their health in the long-term.

In addition, the children have been given the freedom to eat fatty food and snacks rather than eating fibers, proteins and vitamins. Nonetheless, Kidzania in the UK will be focusing on changing these nutritional trends by educating children on nutrition.

Most of the competition that Kidzania will get in the UK is expected from huge malls like the Spires Shopping Mall in London, and the already constructed parks that offer similar products and brands.

On the other hand, immigrants are going to be a significant target market, considering their rate and growth in the UK. Most of these immigrants are busy trying to settle down in the UK cities, paying not enough attention to their children’s upbringing. Therefore, Kidzania will offer alternatives to these families by entertaining and educating their children.

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Protecting Water Resources in South Asia Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

South Asia needs to tap into the water resource that is brought by the wet monsoon by laying a more comprehensive framework for rain water harvesting and development of dams and reservoirs. Governments and stakeholders need to engage the local populations in building more water pans and other facilities for water harvesting to guarantee year-round water access.

Although governments play a critical role in preserving the environment, the task for cleaning up the rivers is embedded in the local communities. Corporations may chip in as part of the social responsibility initiatives, but it is the communities that contribute immensely to the pollution of rivers.

Through education and awareness, the communities should be charged with the responsibility of preserving the rivers. The justification for this argument rests on the premise that it is the local communities that will benefit the most if the rivers are preserved.

In my view, it is ethically correct to try and stop people from releasing their cremated relatives into the rivers. All what is needed is to educate them on the health hazards posed by such practices. Traditions take long to die, but awareness creation and empowerment of communities to take control of their resources can trigger a change in their belief systems.

It is in order to limit people’s access to a basic human resource owing to scarcity. Limiting not only ensures orderliness, but also guarantees the preservation of the resource for future generations.

Overpopulation and industrialization are directly correlated to the overuse of water resources. To guarantee the protection of water resources, stakeholders must ensure the correct infrastructure is put in place in overpopulated areas and factory zones. Such infrastructure will ensure sewer and industrial waste do not pollute the water resources.

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The History of Catapults Technology before 1850 Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

The Origin of the Catapult

The Romans and the Catapult

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Before the invention of the gunpowder, the catapult had changed the course of history and politics. The science of catapult is as old as the account of humankind with history detailing its use from as early as 399 B.C in Sicily. The invention took many shapes, as it changed throughout the generations, which used it with the Romans being the people who explored its use to the fullest.

The device won many wars besides leading to the invention of more deadly weapons with the invention of new ways of defense from this ruthless machine including fortification of buildings. However, of all the machines used in wars, the catapult stands out asthe most remembered for its use by the Roman army in the conquest of large areas of the civilized world. Their success can be attributed to machines and people who specialized in its manufacture and use.

With the transformation of the Republic into an Empire under the leadership of an Emperor, the catapult started changing into a weapon of choice and designs. According to Cuomo, the basic design started changing with the new catapults, “boasting a metal frame and, in some cases, in-swinging arms” (Cuomo, 2008, p.4).

With the Roman Empire, there was peace in the vast areas it controlled. These included the Mediterranean areas formerly under the rule of Greece and other areas such as the Great Britain and Spain. Of the weapons feared during this time, the catapult was the one that wreaked havoc in the minds of generals.

With these highlights about the catapult, the paper presents a detailed history of the weapon right from its origin. Further, it provides comprehensive argument that the catapult is as powerful as the current weapons based on how the Roman army won several wars and to conquer other kingdoms using the weapon.

The Origin of the Catapult Tracey Rihll gives a detailed history of the origin, transformation, and the use of the device in ancient times focusing on the Hellenistic world as well as the Roman Empire (2007, p. 34).

Most of the other literatures detailing the use of the catapult claim that the inspiration came from the bow and sling, which is well known to be a popular weapon in the ancient times. The first account of the use of the catapult is recorded by Oldfatherto be in Sicily.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He states that the ruler of Syracuse “gathered skilled craftsmen with the command to make weapons of every kind in great numbers, and every type of projectile” (Oldfather, 1933, p. 54). This marked the entry of the catapult as a choice of weapon to aid in the author’s desired conquest of his neighbors and the world as a whole.

Oldfather goes on to give a statement that is more likely true by revealing that it was during this period that the catapult was invented (1933, p. 56). He claims, “The catapult was invented at this time since the best craftsmen had been collected from everywhere into one place” (1933, p. 56).

It is quite interesting to see that the motivation behind the invention of the catapult was the conquest and desire for power. The inventors who built it were also lured by the large wages being paid for the assembly of the same (Cuomo, 2004, p. 771). Dionysius is said to have exploited the vast wealth of the kingdom and the poor living standards to fund this machine to achieve cheap labor at the same time (Cuomo, 2004, p. 771).

It was important to include labor in the manufacture of the weapon, as more of the machines were needed to convincingly win a war to outmatch the enemy. The belopoietics had not been invented at the time. Most of the technicians worked out of experience and or trial and error.

This led to the production of devices that were poor in functionality and accuracy, which endangered the lives of those who used them in the battlefield. There are therefore various recorded accounts of changes to the original weapon with experience in battle. Even though this is the first detailed use of the catapult, there are speculations that the device could have been in use much earlier. The 9th century Iraq is a possible candidate for the use of the catapult, as it was evident with the existing civilization there.

In close proximity to this civilization was the Mediterranean area, which is thought to have used the catapult in the 4th century B.C (Cuomo, 2004, p. 771). The Greeks are credited with the use of this technology too. Their characteristic design of the catapult was the ‘belly-bow’.

This, according to Cuomo, was “a large bow mounted on a case, one end of which rested on the belly of the person using it. When the demands of war required a faster and stronger weapon, the device was enlarged” (2004, p. 771). In a chronological manner, Cuomo states that the use of the catapult after ancient Greece was taken up by the Macedonians whose ruler at the time was Philip the second (Cuomo, 2004, p. 771).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The History of Catapults Technology before 1850 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use here saw brilliant modification to the device while still maintaining the basic structure besides improving accuracy and range. In the original catapult, there was a limitation for load that could be used as a projectile, which reduced its efficacy especially in close conflicts.

The modifications accorded to the device by the Macedonians however allowed a heavier load to be used as a projectile while still maintaining the accuracy besides improving on range. With the introduction of the theories of belopoietics, which involved the invention of stone-throwing devices (Cuomo 2004, p. 771) and mathematics, the manufacture of catapults was made easier since the measurements of the various components could be calculated, standardized, recorded to achieve proportionality, and used for future reference.

The original designs and those that followed have been discovered in archeological digs. This correlates with the times recorded to have used the catapult. These are on display in various museums in the world with most retaining the original structure and framework. Archimedes, a very famous engineer in history and a pioneer in military engineering, is said to have influenced the designs of the catapult.

During his time, the king of Syracuse is said to have inspired him into the creation of the catapults, which were effective in the defense of his city from the highly trained and armed Roman army (Collins,

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Who governs the schools? Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Education efficiency

The role of Political leaders in the educational systems

Political Dynamics Evident in the Education system

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Education is closely linked to politics because its roots are wide and it affects every facet of the society. Academic freedom has not been defined by the U.S. constitution. However, the federal and the state courts have addressed this issue, and it is strongly protected (Wilson, DiIulio and Bose 4).

Formal education cannot be compared with any other factor in governance because it experiences minimal changes regardless of whether it is in private or public institutions. It acts as an instrument in the establishing the broader social order for those people who wish to experience change or even safeguard their status quo.

In the United States, formal education has been changing over the last decades and the current education system is different from the one that was practiced early in the 20th century. K-12 operates in about fifty states, with five million employees and students exceeding 48 million. This system is very costly and takes close to 2 billion dollars daily.

This is not standardized because it is very reliable on the political dynamics. Thus, it is bound to change very often. Schools and colleges are subjects of the increased politicization, glacial pace to change, and these institutions change and the changes are expected even in the future (Guthrie 1-2).

Attention has also shifted to the post-secondary educational institutions to use these institutions as significant features in the political landscape. A lot of research has been done to establish how the economy can be preserved while offering quality education. Student financial aid is one of the tools that have been used in this process.

There are concerns as to whether the lower schools have received adequate attention (Guthrie 3). This paper discusses about the governance of schools and the politics that accompany this process. Dynamics experienced in politics are significant in the quality of education offered in the society. The federal and State governments have overpowered the traditional, local system of school governance.

Education efficiency In the U.S., education is an individual state’s responsibility. States have focused their attention on the outcome that they are likely to gain from the education systems that they establish (Adams and Rick, 2-5). The states embrace the outcomes to provide favorable processes to each district.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The school managers, teachers, as well as students are involved in the process of making the procedures to ensure that the standards are followed. Each state balances its own local judgments with those of the state. This has prompted the authorities into taking this as an opportunity to introduce reforms and transformations.

Challenges are experienced in establishing whether the resources employed are utilized to the maximum. Policy makers have a keen interest in the assessment of educational systems’ efficiency. In the current systems, the spending levels have been expressed as per each pupil’s expense.

This system is inefficient because it keeps rising as there is no proper, direct measure of what schools accomplish as defined by the outcomes achieved. It does not offer solutions as to how schools can change their mode of operation over time to meet the desired outcomes.

Lack of proper planning for the gradual changes has made it difficult to establish policies that would provide for clear gains in the education system. Other key social goals have been undermined in the process. They include fairness and the freedom to choose the best system by institutions.

Transformation is influenced by the dynamic political structures, and this should not be the case. The change should be initiated based on the outcomes achieved and the expected results (Adams and Rick, 7). Each decade holds a unique plan, and this is determined by the leaders in power during a given period.

For instance, George W. Bush’s election victory was attributed to his education plan. However, any negative changes that may arise as a result of this plan may not be blamed on the president. The public can only complain about the issues arising like the meddling by the federal government and insufficient funding. In such a scenario, feedback and change implementation cannot be effectively assigned to ensure that an improvement is made (Epstein 3).

Criticism of schools and blame will continue to persist as long as new governors and presidents develop new varying resolutions every decade. Such proposals can only last for the duration that they are in power. With this arrangement, planning for the education system has become political. It triggers applause and is a tool for winning votes.

We will write a custom Essay on Who governs the schools? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the end, there is no risk attached to the planned resolutions if they fail because the governors and presidents do not have direct control over the implementation of the policies. The chief state school officers run the state education departments. They report to the state boards of education, and not the governors.

This has led to the confusion and poor accountability that has been experienced in the education system. Making the political figures fully in charge of these systems can be a positive move towards an efficient education system.

A separate education government is not effective if these figures are not held accountable for the outcome experienced from the resolutions that they establish. The challenges experienced are as a result of dominance by the political figures in the education system. The irony is that they dominate the education policies and leave the accountability to everyone else (Epstein 4-5).

Direct political control promises greater visibility and accountability that will see the academic results improve. The management of programs that come before and after schools will also be effective. Challenges experienced in the school environment like teenage pregnancies among other social ills can be controlled effectively. Thus, the education system improves with the effective implementation of the policies.

However, the main challenge is holding the mayors, governors, and the presidents accountable for the results achieved. Although the policies can be enacted and implemented in one term of office, the probability of evaluating the policies in the same term is nil. Thus, it is impossible to determine the efficiency of the policies given that there is no guarantee for another term in office (Epstein 5).

Inadequate knowledge and technical properties do not mean that the education system is unpredictable or unmanageable. It only calls for great care in the implementation and exercise of these efforts to ensure that the current educational systems are efficient. The data and feedback assessed should be assessed and analyzed to determine the changes that can be established despite the accountability challenges that exist (Monk 22).

The role of Political leaders in the educational systems The issue of accountability has triggered a new interest in the education systems as education politics have become a new reality (Sunderman 226). For the Mayors, there has been an increasing need to link the schools with other city services such as health and housing.

This would make the mayors realize and plan for the future of their cities with education in mind. Since the education system is not an independent concept, other factors can be used to determine the faith of the public in the educational plans. The mayors can play major roles in the back office roles of the education system, support charter schools by proposing for new ones, or convert the public schools that have a record of failure.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Who governs the schools? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They can also facilitate the use of schools to reach the community for other services like health and day care among other community activities. This is a way of maximizing resources all year round, and the mayors also get a chance to add value to urban real estate. Such involvement by mayors gives the parents confidence in public schools and may save them the expenses associated with the private institutions (Cooper, James and Lance 24).

The education system goals can be narrowed down to reach each student and widen the coverage in the society. The “No Child Left Behind Act” (NCLB) that was re authorized in 2007 is an example of efforts by the government to promote a fair distribution of resources.

Funding decisions are associated with a lot of controversy, and there is a need to reconsider some of the policy options. For instance, states that failed to focus on the fiscal side did not succeed in reducing the resource gap between the neediest districts and their affluent counterparts.

This raised the issue of whether the federal government can clear the resource gap or not. This is only possible if a systematic examination is adopted within the country to meet its 2014 goal of educating every child. Politics that are based on accountability have been facilitated by the expansion issue in education. In this program, the political leaders such as the governors and the mayors are the key players.

The high courts are also part of this plan that works at ensuring that leaders are accountable for the plans and policies that they put in place. Increasing accountability among the political leaders helps in addressing the issue of income and racial disparity. It also solves the tension that exists between social redistribution and the decentralized governance. Accountability discourages the political figures from establishing risky policies. It also builds a commitment towards the inter-governmental system (Cooper, James and Lance 28).

Political Dynamics Evident in the Education system Dating back to the mid-1980s, the education policy has experienced many dynamics. With the K-12 education system, there has been changes in curriculum and the standards of performance. There have been new assessment and accountability regimes adopted, as well as new and attractive programs for teachers in terms of performance and pay. These have contributed to the rise and fall of numerous, systematic reform efforts.

The same dynamics have also been experienced in higher education in terms of financing. There has been a decline in the public investment, as far as higher education is concerned. This has played a role in the performance and accountability reforms. The focus is not only on the inputs, but also the outcomes achieved. However, concerns have been raised as to why states have embarked on policy changes.

The education policy change significance in the US may have been contributed by social, economical, and political differences that exist. However, this is not well linked to the assessment of the input and output assessment that has been done. External factors seem to play a bigger role in the education system. It poses a risk that this trend will continue in the future if a systematic approach is not adopted (Cooper, James and Lance 30).

A continuous evaluation program involving political leaders has to be implemented for proper governance. Micro level systems, which are influenced by the existing political powers, should be dropped to adopt a systematic approach that involves all the stakeholders in decision makers.

This will serve the interests of the general public, as well as the government’s interests (Cooper, James and Lance 31). Good governance should involve maximum state, and local discretion to promote investment by educators and systems that offer support in return. Lack of this exercise constrains the government in terms of enforcement or promotion of enhanced educational practice with positive results. Another requirement for meeting the NLCB goal is the need for highly qualified teachers.

While the governments argue that there is enough supply of qualified teachers, low income schools have suffered high teacher turnover rates. This puts the low income schools in a disadvantaged position when compared to the affluent schools.

If the states could focus on the neediest districts in fund allocation, then there is a probability that the teachers would be attracted to stay in the neediest schools through the provision of incentives and other attractive packages. Such a strategy would help in closing the resource and the achievement gap that exists between these districts (Epstein 9-10).

Finance equalization has not been achieved in most of the states as a result of the poor approach given by the federal policy makers. The neediest students have not gotten the chance to access the much needed access to quality education. Most of the funds end up in the schools where students are already doing well, and this keeps them ahead of the needy students.

The federal government should give an approach whereby funds are allocated according to each district’s needs. Funds have also been allocated to public schools to cater for students who fail to progress academically for two consecutive years. There is also a prospect that the same should be applied in the private schools.

However, this should be used as a strategy to help public schools gain preference. The choice between the private and public schools has been promoted by supporting the public schools. It provides competition that is meant to increase the efficiency in schools. This has resulted in conformity rather than choice because rewards and punishments only attract students because of the financial support and not a choice (Espain 11).

School boards have lost power over the governance of schools to the federal government. In the past, American education was rooted in the local policy, management and financial control that are traditions, which are closely linked to the political culture. This has changed since 2000, and a majority of the Americans wants Washington to reduce its influence over the education system. It is feared that the NCLB program will change that and expand the federal power.

The country is struggling with which way to go. This is about whether the country should be centralized or whether federal control should reign with reduced discretion by the policy makers. The current democratically governed education system is slowly overpowering the traditional, local systems.

This is evident in the way higher authorities have lost confidence in the local decision makers. There is also a strong rivalry among states as governors want to use education just like tax breaks and other lures in an effort to attract business and employment. They use school funding to enhance equity and minimize property tax spending.

The federal government is also focusing on centralizing more authority than it decentralizes (Epstein 15-16). The federal government could concentrate on civil rights and financing while the local political focus on the redistribution of these resources. This way, the educational needs of the society would be met efficiently (Sunderman 226-228).

Conclusion The political dynamics experienced in the recent past have contributed to the increased federal power over the traditional, local school governance. The educational resolutions have been used by the political figures as a means to gain political preference. This has moved power from the educational school boards to the federal and state governments who cannot account for policies that they put in place.

It has resulted in unequal distribution of resources especially in the needy districts. To ensure that the current trend benefits the American society academically, accountability among the political leaders should be increased. This will ensure that once policies are enacted, they are assessed and evaluated to gain the desired results.

This can also be used as a means to establish changes that need to be established to improve the education system. Since politics have a lot of influence on the educational systems, the federal governments should work closely with the school boards in order to have direct control over the policies introduced. This will promote efficiency and a quality education system.

Works Cited Adams, Jacob E. and Ginsberg Rick. Education Reform – Overview, Reports of Historical Significance. 2012. Web.

Cooper, Bruce S., C.G. James and D.F. Lance. Handbook of Education Politics and Policy. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2008. Print.

Epstein, Noel. Who’s in Charge Here?: The Tangled Web of School Governance and Policy. Washington. Brookings institution press, 2004. Print.

Guthrie, James W. United States Educational Policy – The Basics of Educational Policy, The Pressure for Reform in American Education, Defining Policy. 2012. Web.

Monk, David H. Efficiency in Education – The Choice of Outcomes, The Choice of Inputs, The Transformation Process and Implications for Policy. 2012. Web.

Sunderman, Gail L. “ Evidence of the Impact of School Reform on Systems Governance and Educational Beureaucrcies in the United States.” Review of Research in Education 34.1 (2006): 226-253. Print.

Wilson, James Q, John J. DiIulio, and Meenekshi Bose. American Government: Institutions

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The Interpretation of Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House Presented by Patrick Garland Essay (Movie Review) scholarship essay help

The role of women in the society of the 19th century is a rather controversial point for the discussion in literature because of the fact the end of the century can be characterized as the period of the women’s awakening and starting their struggle for the real equality in rights with men. Henrik Ibsen presented his vision of the woman’s position in the society in the play A Doll’s House which became the sensation because of the accents on the problematic social questions.

The play was performed on stage many times, and there are several film adaptations of Ibsen’s work. It is necessary to pay attention to the film adaptation of 1973 directed by Patrick Garland, starring Claire Bloom and Anthony Hopkins.

Although stage productions and film adaptations often reflect the director’s vision of the play and its problems which can differ from the playwright’s idea, Garland’s adaptation of A Doll’s House can be discussed as the effective interpretation of the problems of the woman’s social position and the human personal freedom developed by Ibsen in his play.

The main strong feature of the film is its strict dependence on the play’s plot and the author’s description of the settings which was followed thoroughly. It is possible to notice only few details which were changed by the director to provide the audience with the feeling of the real situation.

It is necessary to pay attention to several excursions outside when the main scenes are developed in the house of Torvald Helmer. Thus, there are no significant transformations in the plot to meet the director’s intentions, and such additions as the developed scene of the ball can be discussed as the device to emphasize the main characters’ emotions with the help of accentuating their actions. From this point, the director tries to represent not only his vision of the play, but interpret the work according to the playwright’s ideas.

The problems which are discussed in the play and in the film are the questions of the women’s social rights, their position in the men’s society, the issue of the personal freedom, the problem of relations between men and women in the family as a result of the impact of social gender stereotypes.

Patrick Garland has no intention to add some modern issues to the discussion in the film, but the ideas developed in the adaptation can be discussed as current for the social situation of the 1970s when the movement to protect the women’s rights was especially active.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also possible to determine the other important messages which were developed in the play and film such as the problems of friendship, blackmail, and lying for the benefit of the other person. The positive features of Garland’s film adaptation are in following Ibsen’s ideas to emphasize their revolutionary character, vividness, and currency.

Nora, the main female character of the play, is the woman who comes through definite stages of her personal development, realizing that her life was rather artificial, and her house was only a doll’s house where the family values were insignificant in comparison with the importance of the social status and image (Ibsen).

It is an interesting fact that Claire Bloom also participated in the adaptations of Ibsen’s play on stage that is why the role of Nora is close and familiar for the actress, and Bloom’s acting can be considered as persuasive an emotional. In his adaptation, Garland concentrates on the emotional state of Nora and her feelings and accentuates her inner struggle and considerations with the help of the cameraman’s work when the shots are changed in relation to the changes in Nora’s emotions and her attitude to the husband (“A Doll’s House”).

Nora is traditionally perceived as the childish woman, who cannot make the independent decisions, but her character develops during the play, and the audience has the opportunity to observe the willed person who wants to be respected by her husband because of her devotion and her ability to act independently.

Bloom’s Nora represents all the stages of the character’s development successfully. Furthermore, it is possible to observe the changes in Nora’s tone of the voice, her movements, and gestures. Her speech changes along with her perception of the reality, and there are no signs of childishness in Nora at the end of the film (“A Doll’s House”).

One of the most interesting director’s approaches to accentuate the emotional state of Nora is the scene with the Christmas ball when Nora dances the Tarantella. Ibsen used the symbolic meaning of this dance to accentuate Nora’s gaining the feeling of the personal freedom in spite of the pressure of the social prejudice.

Thus, Garland accentuated the scene and used it to present the female character’s emotions as a kind of her opposition to the society with its norms because the norms and rules limited the women’s rights. Moreover, the scenes with a dancing heroine are also important to emphasize the chaos in her thoughts and feelings, which is represented with the help of the outstanding cameraman’s work.

We will write a custom Essay on The Interpretation of Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House Presented by Patrick Garland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To determine the difficulties which can be experienced by the woman in the society of the 19th century, it is necessary to focus on the male characters of the play. Nora’s husband Torvald Helmer is depicted as the person who does not perceive Nora seriously. Thus, Nora is just a little child or even Torvald’s doll.

Helmer’s attitude is also accentuated with the help of using definite names for Nora. For instance, perceiving Nora as a child, he says that she is a “little squirrel” (Ibsen 168). However, when Nora does not meet his expectations Helmer is inclined to forget about his attitude to the wife, and he discusses her as a betrayer who does not think about the husband’s social status and image.

The problem is in the fact that Nora thinks and cares for her husband, but Helmer does not notice her efforts. Garland sticks to the text, and the character of Torvald Helmer presented by Anthony Hopkins can be discussed as responding to the audience’s perception of Ibsen’s Torvald. Moreover, Hopkins’ character is even colder and more possessive in comparison with Ibsen’s portraying the character.

The figure of Krogstad in the film does not attract the audience’s attention because the duet of Bloom and Hopkins makes the vivid kernel of the film.

Garland adapted the play with references to the details and careful interpretation of the main themes, but he also paid much attention to the characters’ casting. Bloom and Hopkins’ acting are among the positive aspects of the film because they make the drama alive and touching.

That is why, Garland’s accents on Nora and Torvald’s final dialogues are based on Bloom and Hopkins’ great acting. Furthermore, the increase of the distance between the spouses is stressed with the help of using the shots to present the characters and the changes in their appearances and emotions (“A Doll’s House”).

Garland made good attempts to emphasize the provocative character and controversy of Nora’s decision to leave her home. While reading the play, it is possible to pay attention to the tension of the moment, and this tension was vividly represented by the actors in the final scene.

Thus, Nora tries to rebel against the social norms supported by her husband which are not correlated with her vision of the good actions, and she feels her freedom to make her own decisions without being afraid of the public’s opinion.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Interpretation of Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House Presented by Patrick Garland by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Patrick Garland’s film adaptation of Henrik Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House can be discussed as successful because the director sticks to the playwright’s text, follows Ibsen’s ideas without adding another meanings and messages to the points discussed in the play.

From this perspective, the film is the real adaptation of the play when the director’s position is in interpreting the play’s text carefully and representing it with the help of a camera. Moreover, it is necessary to pay attention to the good choice of the actors for the film because the acting of Claire Bloom and Anthony Hopkins can be analyzed as emotional and vivid.

Thus, the evolution of Nora’s character is presented with proper references to the text, and Hopkins’ Torvald can impress the public with his coldness and definite snobbism typical for the men of upper-middle class in the 19th century.

Works Cited A Doll’s House. 1973. Video file. 25 Nov. 2012. .

Ibsen, Henrik. “A Doll’s House”. Portable Legacies: Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Nonfiction. Ed. Jan Zlotnik Schmidt and Lynne Crockett. USA: Cengage Heinle, 2008. 167-231. Print.

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Immanuel Kant’s Argument that Ethics is Based on Reason Essay cheap essay help

Immanuel Kant argues that ethics is based on reason. I find Kant’s argument to be very convincing. In this essay, I will first summarize the argument. I will discuss an objection that one can possibly raise. I will reveal a serious hidden flaw in the objection. Finally, I will consider a possible rejoinder to my criticism and explain why it also fails.

To the best of my knowledge, the most powerful argument that Kant makes for rationality states as follows: 1. If every person makes false promises in order to get out of their problems, then all people will not trust each other’s promises.2. If all people do not trust each other’s promises, no one will get out of his or her difficulties by making false promises.3. Therefore, if every person makes false promises in order to get out of their difficulties, no one can get out of his or her difficulties by making false promises.

In the argument, Kant’s propositions would be valid given that all the premises were true. Kant states that, for an action to be morally good, it does not necessarily have to conform to moral law but rationality. It should however be done for the sake of law. His first premise postulates that rationality is the only virtue that can be conceived as right without justification. People should not make false promises as they may not be trusted.

Kant therefore explains that if all people made false promises, then, no one would trust and help each other. His argument postulates that the virtue of reason is important in enhancing all other virtues.

Others virtues like courage, talents and temperament may fail to be right. Kant advances the notion that fortunes such as riches, health and honor arouse pride and false presumptions. Without the reason to correct their influences on the mind, nothing would ever be right.

Good that is normally done for the attainment of a desired end does not render it acceptable. Reason is simply acceptable in its own right. The two arguments seem to concur that morals are enshrined in reason as far as the will is determined. It would therefore be right to deduce that if reason would be judged while disregarding its expected effects, conformity to law would generally be served by reason as its principle. I would have a good basis to agree with Kant that ethics is based on reason.

I think this argument would also be reasonable. Some people might regard the goodwill premise as problematic. They might even argue that it is false. For instance, they might ask, “Why do right if it is not doing good to yourself?” and, “Why consider the effects of your actions on others?” Sometimes, doing good means you have to reap a lot from it as a person.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is even hard to determine whether what you have done is lawfully good or just good without reason. Plausible as the objection sounds, it cannot stand a careful analysis. Doing good does not necessitate conditions or purpose to be attained afterwards. We do the right thing because at the end, it benefits us.

We do the right thing out of will and would expect the same from others. It tends to be objective and at the same time subjective. Another fact worth being considered is the sense of duty and self principle of prudence (Richard, 45). Failure to observe your duty is by any means immoral.

We may decide to ignore our prudence principles. Failure of duty poses serious consequences on others. Being prudent can, at some point, be unfavorable to you. The care of duty therefore counters this objection. Individualism is eliminated and instead, a sense of duty is incorporated.

Following moral laws itself is not enough. There must be good will in you in order to do what is right. We also expect the same good will to be applied to us. We are rational beings and should not misuse each other (Sober,23). Our maxim must be capable of becoming a universal law.

It is not right to do something just to get you out of a bad situation. However, you would find that in some cases, this may not be true. For instance, lying to get yourself out of a pressing situation may at that point sound good to you. If doing this became universally accepted as a law, you would be uncomfortable.

This action would result in harm on other beings. Thus, you owe the rational being a duty of care. It is not really obligatory but one is expected to follow the law. The outcome does not determine what is right (Popkin, 18). It may not result in any harm but it may lack goodness in itself. Doing right is based on the reason rather than its expected affect you and others.

However, it is still possible that my opponents would make the following rejoinder. If doing right is based on reason, why would one care how it impacts on others. Reason may not be measured against the results. Reason may be right but, at the end, achieve an undesirable outcome.

We will write a custom Essay on Immanuel Kant’s Argument that Ethics is Based on Reason specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A reason may be good but may not be capable of qualifying as a universal law. Therefore, doing right does not make you responsible to anyone. My reply to the objection above is that the results may be determined by reason. It is unreasonable to weigh the impact of an action without first thinking of reason.

The first thing that should come to your mind is whether it is right to do an act or you should think of the consequences first. The answer to this would be the power of goodwill. It does not require justification. It does not need to be conceived as good. Good will is not good because it attains some anticipated end. It is simply a desirable quality of virtue. It is the goodness in itself.

The superlative good is considered as moral consists only of the notion of the law itself (Blackburn, 34). This fact is possible as long as goodwill is determined by reason. Possessing the virtue of reason is the first and key factor in doing right. The outcome is highly, if not, parallel to reason.

In fact, without reason, any outcome would be good or right by virtue of chance. It would not be certain whether the outcome would dictate the duty of rationality to human kind. You would only hope that what you have done is right. You would not want the same to be done to you since there would not be certainty. Reason therefore precedes results. Reason may be good but may have negative results.

This concept may be fair since doing right does not mean the results must be good to you. It may also have no effect on others. What makes it right is good will. Good will is itself enough to make it right. However, this does not dictate that you ignore the results of your actions. At the back of your mind, you ought to think about the repercussions. In conclusion, ethics is based on reason as long as it is inspired by good will.

Works Cited Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 1994. Print.

Popkin, Richard. The Columbia History of Western Philosophy. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. 1999. Print.

Richard, Popkin. The History of Scepticism from Savonarola to Bayle. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2003. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Immanuel Kant’s Argument that Ethics is Based on Reason by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sober, Elliott. Core Questions in Philosophy: A Text with Readings. New Jersey, USA: Upper Saddle River. 2001. Print.

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Role Play Exercise Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The assignment is a role play exercise. You must write a role play exercise where you (the writer) are the therapist and you are interviewing or in a session with a client. The role play exercise must include a VIVID and DETAILED conversation where the client is in a crisis and you the therapist are listening to the crisis or issues and you will give advice and solutions. The role play exercise can be something you personally experienced or something made up. The role play must be 2-3 pages which MUST address the competencies attached. The instructions for the role play is attached. *PLEASE READ INSTRUCTIONS ATTACHED* After you complete the role play exercise there is a 2-3 page written response REQUIRED. The written response instructions are also attached below. The written response MUST include where you learned your interview skills from (2-3 sources/can be internet or book related), how you interviewed the client, the issue/crisis discussed,

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Immigration and Asylum Essay essay help

Reading “Immigration and Asylum: From 1900 to the Present: Diaspora” by Van Hear and “Comparing Diasporas” by Cohen, it is possible to define several similarities and many differences in the opinions of these authors’ approaches. The main idea discussed in these articles is the types of diasporas.

Van Hear and Cohen have different visions of this process. Speaking about the reasons for immigration, these two authors have one similar idea devoted to immigration Jewish people and Africans, they both define such types of diasporas as the victims or traumas. Even though these two specific types have different names, the main idea of them is similar.

The authors speak about such types of diasporas as about the reaction on catastrophic events which made people migrate contrary to heir personal desire to stay. Further, the authors of the article offer similar ideas, however, they structure the issues differently.

Van Hear offers the following classification, apart from victim diasporas, he is sure that there are imperial diasporas, labor diasporas which is divides into imperial auxiliary diasporas and trade diasporas; moreover, he presents three new diasporas, such as Afghans, Sri Lankans, and Somalis.

Considering each of the types is detail, I would like to disagree with some ideas presented by the author. Thus, speaking about imperial diasporas as about a historic reason for immigration, he adds trade diasporas as one of its category. However, speaking about new diasporas, such as Afghans, Sri Lankans, and Somalis, the author defines those as separate type and does not refer them to victim diasporas.

This specific moment is important, as for me, as it creates a kind of failure structure to this particular classification. Even though Van Hear is sure that nowadays there are no pure classified diasporas and all the formed ones represent the fusion of different types. Specifically, the author denotes a kind of diasporas which began to form from the time of the USSR collapse, this is the returned diasporas.

There are a lot of people who return to their native lands from the former USSR, such as Germans, Polish, Jews, etc. The return to the ethnic motherland is important for the, however, these people cannot be called the citizens of the countries they have come from as well as they cannot be called pure immigrants.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studying Cohen’s diasporas, it is obvious that the author has divided those on the following types, traumatic diasporas (similar to Van Hear’s victim diasporas), work, trade and colonization purpose diasporas. The further discussion of Cohen’s diasporas is focused on “fibres of diasporic rope”, as he said.

There are seven such fibres mentioned by the author, myth and remembering about the homeland, idealization of such homeland, return movement, ethnic group consciousness, troubles with the host country, solidarity with co-ethic members, and the desire to live better in another country.

This classification is fuller as for me. It presents more detailed discussion of the reasons why people migrate and form diasporas without being too specific which is unnecessary on this specific stage of discussion. The Van Hear’s and Cohen’s visions of the types of diasporas deserve the right to be discussed. Being similar in the ideas presented, these two authors offer various classifications which are not ideal and deserve further improvement and development to make sure that the presented classification is ideal.

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“Modernism and Eugenics” and “The Sun Always Rises” Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Comparison

Contrast

Conclusion

Works Cited

Comparison One of the more interesting comparative traits between the article “Modernism and Eugenics” and that of the book “The Sun Always Rises” is in the portrayal of discrimination based on societal belief and specific traits rather than any actual adverse attribute about an individual (i.e. being an adulterer, womanizer, murderer, criminal etc.).

This was seen in case of the character Robert Cohn who was discriminated against by other members of the group on the basis of him being a Jew (Neilson, 1-4). As seen within the novel, there are numerous anti-Semite remarks made by Mike and Jake on numerous occasions with Cohn often being marked as “different” due to his religion, social practices and beliefs.

From a certain perspective, it can be stated that by being “different” Cohn within the novel was immediately marked as object of vilification and, as a result, in shunned and considered unattractive (Neilson, 1-4). On way of explaining such an attitude can be seen within the article “Modernism and Eugenics” wherein the concept of difference is often utilized as the basis behind discrimination.

Based on the article, it can be seen that eugenics is not only an argument for the development of a healthier and more psychologically sound society, rather, it is also a means by which a certain degree of uniformity is put into place. This means that instead of a diverse population within a society, what is advocated for is instead only one type of population that is deemed as the most “ideal” in terms of health and psychological soundness while at the same time possessing features that are considered appealing and attractive.

Such a perspective thus creates the notion of “superior and inferior stock” based on the racial origins of a particular individual, yet it must be questioned as to how did the early Eugenicists actually come up with such a level of distinction when essentially all people are biologically the same?

A true argument for eugenics would not discriminate against race, religion or culture but would instead focus primarily on removing attributes which were deemed as “detrimental” to the health and wellness of future generations. Instead, it can clearly be seen within the article that the article take on a particularly racist perspective wherein Eugenicists promote the continuation of “superior” races while those belonging to “inferior” classes should practice abstinence and die out.

The origins behind this particular viewpoint can be seen within the novel wherein the treat of Cohn is based on the concept of Mike, Jake and Campbell wherein they view Cohn as the “the other”, meaning that their derogative comments are based on their view of Cohen as an individual that they do not consider part of their “group” (Neilson, 1-4). One way of explaining such an attitude towards Cohen is through the concept of humanocentric speciesism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on the work of O’Sullivan (2012), humanocentric speciesism can be considered a pervasive yet subconscious attitude among many societies wherein they view their own culture, group, and race as being superior to that of other groups (O’Sullivan, 32). While not outright stated, it is evidenced in both the article “Modernism and Eugenics” and the book “The Sun Always Rises” that humanocentric speciesism plays a role in not only the discrimination against Cohn but also in the way in which eugenics in justified.

What must be understood is that both the article and the book deal with the concept of biased perceptions when it comes to the treatment of others wherein those who are part of a racially “acceptable” stock are treated with respect and dignity while all others are treated with disdain and disgust. Thus, when looking at both the book and the article it can be seen that some aspects of their individual facets mirror each other when viewed under the lens of humanocentric speciesism.

Contrast When it comes to contrasting elements within the book and the article, one of the most obvious is the difference in opinion involving women and sexuality and the necessity of procreation as the foundation of a relationship. Within the article, radical sexual behavior among women is actually frowned upon and thought of as a characteristic that should be removed from society.

The novel however paints a slightly different story wherein the character of Jake falls in love with Lady Brett Ashley as a direct result of her attitude and general sensuality that creates a significant degree of attraction (Adair, 114-118). Brett actually represents a form of sexual freedom among women during the 1920s wherein women found themselves enjoying romances, divorces and various trysts that used to be exclusive domains of the men (Adair, 114-118).

The article “Modernism and Eugenics” on the other hand espouses a completely different view when it comes to such aspects wherein women are expected to accord themselves with a certain prim and properness and only enter into relations with individuals that are of the right “genetic stock” Brett seemingly sleeps with and attracts a wide assortment of men heedless of repercussions and, as such, shows a distinct contrast from the ideas shown within the article.

It should also be noted that another of the contrasting aspects between the article and the novel is the view that love and sexual relationships can occur without the concept of procreation being included in the picture.

What you have to understand is that the article implies that in order for a man and a woman to enter into a long term sexual relationship procreation should be a factor in that they should be able to produce children in line with the eugenic policies that are being advocated by its proponents.

We will write a custom Essay on “Modernism and Eugenics” and “The Sun Always Rises” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of Brett and Jake, there is no prospect for the creation of children since Jake is impotent yet they still enter into a sexual relationship anyway based on what is perceived as emotion and lust.

This is actually one of the main contrasts between the article and the novel since relationships within the article are apparently fueled through an unemotional scientific perspective while in the novel relationships occur on a spur of the moment and are often entered into not through their need to procreate but rather their impression that they want to simply be together.

Conclusion Overall, it can be seen that the similar elements within the novel and the article deal mostly with racism and humanocentric speciesism wherein it was shown that by the mere reason a particular group is considered “different, they are immediately excluded and thought of as vile. On the other end of the spectrum are the contrasts between the novel and the article wherein relationships are viewed not under the lens of procreation but more along the lines of lust and emotion.

Works Cited Adair, William. “Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises: The Novel As Gossip.” Hemingway Review 31.2 (2012): 114-118. Literary Reference Center. Web.

Neilson, Keith. “The Sun Also Rises.” Masterplots, Fourth Edition (2010): 1-4. Literary Reference Center. Web.

O’Sullivan, John. “Racism, Racism Everywhere!.” National Review 64.18 (2012): 32. MasterFILE Premier. Web.

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Difficulties of Communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone Organization Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Communication is one of the most important elements in a firm’s operations. Through effective communication, a firm can establish a strong relationship with the various organizational stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, government, and employees amongst others (Griffin, 2011).

In the course of executing their duties, business executives experience communication problems, and thus they are concerned on how to understand better the various stakeholders especially the employees. Jackson (2006) is of the opinion that it is paramount for firms’ management teams to overcome internal and external communication barriers.

The communication interactions and approaches adopted by organizations directly influence the functioning of their departments and hence their overall business performance. This paper evaluates the case of Jebel Ali Free Zone in a bid to develop a better understanding of the communication difficulties experienced by organizations.

The paper also evaluates a number of barriers and difficulties that the firm experiences in its communication processes. They include the existence of cultural barriers, lack of feedback, lack of clarity, system design faults, and lack of honesty and complexity of the organization. Finally, the paper proposes a number of solutions to deal with these problems.

General information about Jebel Ali Free Zone Jebel Ali Free Zone (Jafza) was established in 1985. It is a member of the UAE’s Economic Zone World. In its operation, Jafza is committed at delivering optimal customer service. Its commitment to customer service enabled Jafza to attain ISO 9001: 2000 certification (Business Services, 2012, Para. 1).

Since its establishment, the organization has undergone a significant transformation. Currently it acts as a hub for over 6,700 companies, which are both domestic and foreign companies. The companies are from 150 different countries across the globe. The organization was founded on the premise of becoming an international business hub.

Its establishment was also intended at providing its clients with an opportunity to access a wide range of valuable business features such as optimal location, effective and efficient infrastructure, and logistics. Over the years, the organization has become a key driver within the rapidly growing United Arabs Emirates economy (Business Services, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organization is situated at Dubai, which serves as an optimal midway between various continents such as Africa, Europe, and Asia. Consequently, Jafza provides its clients with the opportunity to increase their customer base. As an international business hub, Jafza enables businesses to access a customer base of over 2 million people.

Jafza also acts as a gateway to other economies within the United Arabs Emirates, Middle East, and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which are less than 24 hours away. The zone is located between Al Maktoum International Airport, the largest container port, and Jebel Ali Port in Dubai, which ranks as the sixth biggest cargo port.

Jafza is unique in that there is no other free zone that lies between two major logistic enablers. The organization also prides in a 6-lane highway, which facilitates transportation of custom bound goods between ports within 20 minutes. Establishment of an effective and efficient infrastructure is one of Jafza’s key strengths (Business Services, 2012).

In a bid to increase its client base, Jafza has incorporated a number of commercial incentives such as full repatriation of capital and profit earned from the firm’s operations, zero income and corporate taxes for the duration of fifty years, 100 per cent foreign ownership and elimination of local labor restrictions for investors.

Additionally, Jafza has also eliminated currency restrictions. The organization also provides diverse state-of-the-art facilities some of which include Light Industrial Unites (LIU), warehouse and showroom facilities, land, and office space. The purpose of establishing the light industrial units was to provide clients with an opportunity to store their light industrial products and undertake light assembling and production.

The firm ensures that the LIUs are adequately supplied with sufficient power, which enables them to undertake their business operations smoothly. Other facilities that LIUs have include sufficient parking space and a container loading dock. Jafza has established eight blocks, which compose the 68 showroom-cum-warehouses to meet the needs of its clients. The rooms serve various purposes such as distribution, display, and storage. On the other hand, Jafza owns a sizeable plot of land, which is available for leasing.

Management problem – communication difficulties Jafza Jafza is cognizant of the importance of attaining operational efficiency. Consequently, the firm has established a number of departments, which include sales and marketing, property, civil engineering, and administrative services departments (Business Services, 2012, Para. 3). The departments’ operations aim at attaining one objective, which is to appraise the applications made by the various clients who intend to establish their operations in the Free Zone.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Difficulties of Communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Upon the client’s approval, the departments provide additional vital services to clients. In spite of existence of goal congruence between the various departments, their responsibilities differ. Successful communication forms the foundation of Jafza’s operations. However, in the course of its operation, Jafza faces a number of communication difficulties as discussed below.

Cultural barriers Culture is one of the major issues that organizations have to take into account in the course of their operations (Krizan, 2011). However, companies that are involved in cross-border activities are the most affected by the existence of cross-border cultural differences. In its operation, Jafza has established itself as an international business hub. Consequently, the firm faces a number of cultural challenges.

Jafza serves clients who are characterized by diverse language and cultural backgrounds. The cultural differences emanate from the fact that the clients come from different countries. Some of the major cultural differences that Jafza experiences are associated with differences in ethnicity, physical challenge, religion, lifestyle, age, and gender. Consequently, the firm experiences a number of communication barriers.

One of the main cultural barriers associates with cultural ethnocentrism and relativism. According to Krizan (2011), cultural relativism emanates from differences in values and behaviors amongst the parties involved. One of the standards of measuring cultural relativism is ethics such as what one culture considers being right or wrong.

By developing such an approach, some of the Jafza’s employees experience a challenge in the process of interpreting the intended meaning by the clients. On the other hand, the firm also experiences communication difficulties within its departments due to ethnocentrism.

In a bid to develop a strong human resource base, Jafza has sourced its employees from different countries. However, some of the employees consider their culture as more superior compared to other cultures. As a result, this aspect leads to lack of effective collaboration between the firm’s departments. Collaboration between departments in an organization is attainable by ensuring effective communication.

Despite the existence of similarities between employee behaviors, their culture may be completely different, which leads to the formation of stereotypes and distrust amongst employees in various departments.

In its operation, Jafza experiences a major problem due to the existence of stereotypes within its departments, which fail to appreciate the importance of cultural diversity. Consequently, the firm suffers through reduction in the level of integration between departments.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Difficulties of Communication within Jebel Ali Free Zone Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, some employees in Jafza departments consider their culture as superior to others. Consequently, they prefer working with employees of their cultural background compared to others. This aspect means that there is a substantial level of distrust amongst the firm’s employees. However, the success of Jafza is dependent on the operations of all the departments. Existence of communication difficulties due to cultural barriers is adversely affecting teamwork within the firm.

Considering the fact that Jafza deals with a wide range of clients from different countries, the organization has to deal with the issue of cultural diversity. In an effort to deal with this challenge, Jafza has to train its workforce continuously to manage the existing communication gaps effectively.

One of the issues, which the firm has to focus on in its training process entails helping the employees to appreciate cultural diversity. Additionally, Jafza has to ensure that its employees in the various departments are bilingual (Hartley, Chatterton,

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Compare/contrast Elijah and Elisha Term Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Similarities

Contrasts/differences

Impacts of the two characters

Value of the characters inline with revelation of Biblical story

Lesson/teaching from the character

Reasons for choosing this lesson

Strengthening my life

Works Cited

The story of Elijah and Elisha is quite interesting. The two were God-anointed prophets who served and helped people to be saved.

The two men are considered to be among the most respected prophets in the Old Testament who served God with faith and trust. Even though the two men had some similarities, they had some contrasts that were evidenced during their time.

Similarities Both Elijah and Elisha were prophets appointed by God to serve the people. They both came from Samaria hence they went through same life experiences (Elijah and Elisha para. 5). They preached the gospel and saved people’s hearts. The two have similarities in their names.

Even though they differ, the names have close similarity in their pronunciation. Another notable similarity between these two men was in their miracles. The miracle that Elijah performed last was similar to the one Elisha performed first when he began serving as a prophet.

The miracle was separating water of Jordan by using a cloak. They also restored the lives of people while serving in their ministries. For instance, Zerapath was healed by Elijah while a woman coming from Shumen was restored back to life by Elisha.

Therefore, both prophets performed miracles even though different in nature. Furthermore, the two prophets had similarities in the way they spoke and conveyed their message.

They talked in the same way to their kings. Even though they had these similarities, the contrasts between them were noticeable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Contrasts/differences Even though the two prophets conducted miracles, they did not resemble each other. Most of Elijah’s miracles were inclined to destruction of life and death. On the other hand, most of Elisha’s miracles were based on life restoration as well as healing.

Therefore, it can be said that Elisha was a prophet of grace while Elijah was a prophet of judgment (Elijah and Elisha para. 5). Elijah gave testimonies that were against sin and evil of men while Elisha’s testimonies were inclined on salvation of people and preaching on God’s mercy.

Elijah’s mission concerned or was directed to the public. He often engaged with sinners and those that led them into sinning. On the other hand, Elisha was majorly involved with people and prophets of God.

Through the compassion of God, he blessed people by preaching and carrying out miracles.

Further differences can be observed in the way they lived. The life of Elijah was constricted since he did not socialize with people, while that of Elisha was active. Elisha engaged with many people and even visited his fellow prophets at their learning places.

The way their ministries ended was different. Elijah died through the fire on chariot while Elisha died in his old age. Elijah’s first miracle was prophesying that neither rain nor dew could be seen for a period of three and half years.

On the other hand, Elisha’s first miracle was praying for an unclean spring to have clean water. On socio-economic level, Elijah came from a poor background compared to Elisha who came from Abel- meholah (Gary para. 4).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Compare/contrast Elijah and Elisha specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to 2 Kings 1:8, in terms of physical appearance, Elijah had more hair on his body compared to Elijah who had no hair as stated in 2 Kings 2:23 (King James Bible, 2 King 1-2.5). In terms of their ministries, Elisha’s ministry lasted twice that of Elijah’s. Elisha did many miracles, almost twice which Elijah performed.

Impacts of the two characters As leaders and servants of the people, these two men feared God and served the people diligently leading them to their salvations. There is nowhere in the Bible that states the two prophets were implicated in any offenses.

They were committed in the life of God and this is manifested in the many miracles that they performed during their lifetime. For instance, Elisha loved people and often associated with them positively.

Value of the characters inline with revelation of Biblical story The two men’s characters show or provide various lessons that people in the current world can learn and help increase their strength and faith in God. The Bible is a holy book that passes, conveys, or teaches spiritual truth to enable people to change their lives and come near to God.

It is no doubt that the story of these two men as revealed through the Bible impacted positively to the lives of the people. They were dedicated in their work to God. They helped people to know God and preached about the good Lord.

Their trust and faith in God are some of the values that the two men portrayed in the Bible during their time. Therefore, they teach religious believers to have trust and faith in God. This is also manifested through the many miracles that God enabled them to perform during their ministries.

Lesson/teaching from the character From these stories, various lessons or teachings are helpful in our day-to-day lives. One of the lessons that I have learned from the story and which I believe that can help me in my life is trust and believing in the God Almighty.

Elijah and Elisha believed in God and were obedience in God who anointed them to be his servants. God, because of the faithfulness of the two, enabled them to perform many miracles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare/contrast Elijah and Elisha by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, I am touched and I now believe that with faith in God, nothing is impossible in our lives.

Reasons for choosing this lesson The major reason for me choosing this lesson is that in most occasions, I have never believed and had faith in God that He can change my life and make me achieve my goals. However, after reading this story, I was elevated and encouraged.

I was touched on how believing and having faith in God can change one’s life. God is able to elevate and anoint one into His kingdom when a person trusts and have faith in Him.

Strengthening my life This is a lesson that can strengthen my life. I can use this lesson by changing the ways of my life and giving all my life to God who is the Alpha and the Omega. By surrendering my life to God and doing according to his will, I believe His mercies will shine upon my life and strengthen my faith and trust in Him.

Second, my Christian life can be strengthened by attending church and being prayerful in my entire life. Faith in God entails always being close to God.

Being close to God is through prayers. Furthermore, I will transform or change my actions and deeds. I will endeavor to abide by the laws of God and always do well to my neighbors.

Works Cited Elijah and Elisha. Lesson 4. Web.

Gary, DeLashmutt. Elijah and Elijah: A comparison. Web.

King James Bible. Ed. Robert Carroll and Stephen Prickett. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Tourism Industry essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

Technology in the Industry

Benefits of technology on the industry

Challenges/disadvantages of Technology

References

Introduction Technology has transformed the lives of many people based on the way it has changed their way of doing things. Hospitality and tourism industry is one of the sectors that have witnessed greater changes brought about by technology.

It is not surprising that this industry is ranked among the best performing industry around the world. Technology has contributed a lot towards this success.

Technology is paramount in the success of Hospitality and tourism industry regardless of having some flaws as evidenced in the paper.

Background Information Hospitality and tourism industry is one of the best performing industry, both at regional/domestic and international level. According to the Tourism World Council (2004), the tourism industry contributes to around 10% of GDP in the world.

This rate is expected to increase by the year 2014 (World Travel and Tourism Council 2004).The force behind this rapid growth is the adoption of information technology in its management and operations.

Many businesses in hospitality and tourism incorporate information technology in their businesses thus standing a good chance of reaping huge returns of the same (Garzotto et al. 2004).

Computerised reservation systems are an example of an information technology system used in this sector to reach to the target customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology in the Industry Before the advancement of technology, it was very difficult for the tourist and hospitality industry to market its services to its customers. It was also very expensive because customers are always physically apart, miles away, for instance.

However, the coming of information technology has eased the transaction of business besides boosting the customer base. The fact that people are able to communicate and interact with one another in different regions has made it easier and cheap to market their products and services.

In the past, inter organisational system, which connected organizations, was the most popular form of IT. However, because of high costs, many businesses could not meet the cost of using it (Chih-Yao 2011, p. 1986).

The emergence of global distribution systems allowed easy connection and communication across boarders. This allowed fast transfer of information that helped to boost the industry in terms of the number of bookings.

Global distribution was a form of inter-organisational system that emerged from computer reservation systems that helped to integrate information from the airline. These integrations boosted the tourism industry since customers were able to make their reservations at one common marketplace.

These systems were used in 1960s, and there integration to the modern computer was impossible. The advancement of technology has seen the emergence of internet and the World Wide Web, which have transformed the way people interact and or do their businesses (Cristiana 2008, p. 345).

Businesses market their hospitality services and tourism products through the internet. This platform has connected the world. It has turned it into a global village. People can interact in different locations in real time.

We will write a custom Report on Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Tourism Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They can share their views and opinions without having to meet physically. Technology has led to the development of different forms or platforms that enable interconnections.

Nowadays, social media such as MySpace, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and many others are sources of information that both tourism and hospitality industry have used to reach customers across the globe leading to an influx of tourists hence boosting the level of their income (Alexis,

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Career in Biomedical Sciences (Opportunities writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The career

Academic requirements

Career opportunities

Benefits and challenges

Boosting my chances

Reference List

Introduction After completing my studies, I would like to take up a career in Biomedical Sciences because since childhood it has been my passion to contribute in the discovery and development of cures for different ailments.

Secondly, I consider myself a very keen learner and I know that in the medical field this is one of the key traits that will make one successful in the future.

The human body is very fragile and if a person is not very careful of or attentive to oneself, he/she may end up aggravating an illness or injury while trying to cure it.

As such I believe that I am the one who can make my mind on getting a solution to a problem and think of it until the solution is reached.

Finally and most importantly, in my academic quest I have always found myself drifting towards biomedical sciences.

Like with any career, success is usually left out for individuals with training in the respective field and I believe my training will put me at an advantage in my chosen career.

The career A Biomedical Scientist studies and analyzes the human body trying to understand how it works. This helps him/her come up with practical solutions to implement when things are not going on well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most Biomedical scientists spend most of their days in laboratories, analyzing living things. Their experiments are usually based on small organisms, some as small as a single cell all the way to big mammals such as chimpanzees.

In some situations, Biomedical Scientists pick specimens from human tissues for analysis and experiments.

Academic requirements For one to qualify as a biomedical scientist, one is usually required to have a degree in Biomedical Science with the prospects of upgrading through graduate school.

This puts one at the advantage of taking up senior tutoring positions in colleges as well as high-ranking researcher posts in companies (Specialist Biomedical Science recruiters 2012).

In some cases some biomedical scientists are required to have a medical degree on top of their other qualifications. Traditionally graduate-school students are taken through various departments before settling they choose the one.

Once the student picks a particular laboratory, he/she is then required to spend time doing original research guided by the principal investigator. Ultimately, the aim is for the student to publish a dissertation which will then be up for review by peers.

Career opportunities In most instances, the employment opportunities for Biomedical Scientists are in pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies (Careers in Biomedical Science 2012). Some individuals opt to go for academic positions including lecturing in colleges.

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James Hardie Industries and Asbestos Problem Essay custom essay help

Introduction Trowbridge was engaged by Allens on behalf of JHD, to formulate a report for the cash outflows from the James Hardie Industries as a result of litigations lodged by the victims of asbestos related diseases. The report was presented by Minty and Marshall to the company’s incoming directors.

Trowbridge is accused of having engaged in a misleading conduct that led the directors develop a foundation fund that was not in line with the company’s future claims (Castleman 2005). This paper will look at the conflict of interest between Minty and the incoming directors at JHD, and also discuss the effect of a code of conduct to the behavior of minty.

Conflicts of interest between Minty, Trowbridge and JHD

Based on the case, “James Hardie Industries and the problem of Asbestos” there are a number of instances that reveal conflict of interest between Minty, Trowbridge and JHD (Castleman 2005). This part will describe the instances of conflict of interest as pointed out in the case. The first sort of disagreement between the three parties is captured in Minty’s claim over the JHD deterioration.

The claims of James Hardie had been deteriorating as from March 2001, but Minty on his part had considered that the revised model would take care of the deterioration. One can make two conclusions from this case; that James Hardie chose not to reveal the deterioration facts to Trowbridge or Trowbridge did not make any follow up to request for data.

Minty was well aware that the incoming directors in Trowbridge would require the data contained in the report of February 2000, but deliberately failed to make the data available to the incoming directors.

This is an indication of mischief on the part of Minty, in the report; the incoming directors required that Minty includes the current data in the report and advice them on the “cost of diseases related to inhalation of asbestos” (Webster 2005). This was in view of the findings of Trowbridge consulting contained in the March 2000 report.

Trowbridge report was based on the cost of the Minty’s proposed “claims on the insurance industry in Australia” (Peacock 2011). Minty rejected any attempts to revise the claim assumption in which the current data had been ignored. They instead insisted that the James Hardie had failed to avail the current data to them and that this alone did not qualify the report to be misleading.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Trowbridge challenged Minty on presenting misleading information to the incoming directors in the February report (Peacock 2011). This challenge was valid in the sense that it would be assumed that the incoming directors would be provided with relevant information by the officers at the James Hardie.

The February report was simply meant for James Hardie and therefore Trowbridge should not have sought to delve into the report. They were supposed to carry out their own independent research without necessarily looking into the report of Minty (Webster 2005).

Trowbridge on their side did not also rely on the data provided by James Hardie in their assessment. The February report indicates that Trowbridge findings were based on the report of March and the “national and international trends posted in the findings of Watson and Hurst research” (Hinmann 2008).

During the restructuring process, the new directors had been warned that the scope of the February report was not sufficient to be relied on to develop the foundation funds for future claims. The new directors failed to question neither the report of February nor Minty’s presentation regarding the company’s historical estimates (Webster 2005).

There was an opportunity to raise these questions but the incoming directors instead kept numb about it. They also failed to refer to earlier reports posted in 1996 and 1998, based on Trowbridge submissions, the new directors were alerted that there would be claims lodged for more than 20 years.

They needed to rely on projections that would go up to 50 years to effectively asses the long-term effect of the claims on the company (Hinmann 2008). The James Hardie Industries were instead selective on the kind of material they considered imperative to the company.

It was established that Trowbridge was involved in misleading conduct as a result of Minty failing to inform the new directors of the significance of the current data. Minty justified the failure to reveal the significance of the current data in accordance with the recommendations of Shafron and Marshall that the current data did not have a significant impact on the claim’s projections.

We will write a custom Essay on James Hardie Industries and Asbestos Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trowbridge denied having engaged in misleading conduct as alleged by JHI on its part. Trowbridge was recruited to provide consulting services to James Hardie Industries by Allens (Webster 2005).

This meant that Trowbridge had to communicate their findings to James Hardie through Allens and not directly to the James Hardie Industries (Clarke 2007). Minty did not therefore have any mandate to directly contact the new directors to inform them of the new amendments in the report.

The evidence of Minty on the use of the February report is quite reliable as it was consistent with the facts provided by Marshall, which was ratified by MRCF. T

he evidence emphasizes that both Marshall and Minty were aware of; the proposed restructuring at the James Hardie, that the February report was vital in “determining the amount of funds required for the closed fund” (Webster 2005). Trowbridge therefore had only one mandate, to “stipulate and consent to the use of the document through a disclaimer” (Clarke 2007)

How Trowbridge Needed to Deal with the Issue

Opponents of the February report accuse Trowbridge of applying “the berry medium instead of berry high in regard to the Mesothelioma events” (Haigh 2008). In this regard, Trowbridge was engaged in misleading conduct. One of the independent actuaries; whitehead, also confirmed that the Berry medium curve was a better choice compared to the Berry high curve (Parker and Evans 2008).

Trowbridge needed to disclose to the commission that the choice of the Berry medium was not based on a personal level judgment. The choice although was criticized for delivering poor results for James Hardie Industries was equally supported by other professional actuarial service providers (Parker and Evans 2008).

The current data, which Trowbridge is accused of not providing to the incoming directors, was after all not important to the incoming directors (Haigh 2008).

The incoming directors needed information based on long-term projections, for them to make foundation funds. The long term projection of at least 50 years as had been provided for by Shafron would instead be more important than the February report (Hinmann 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on James Hardie Industries and Asbestos Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Effect of the Code of Conduct on the Behaviour of Trowbridge and Minty

A professional code of conduct in any profession serves to guide the conduct of the stakeholders in the profession. The code stipulates what is the right conduct for the members of the profession and also states various penalties for those who contravene the provisions of the code.

The code alone however, does not guarantee that the members of the profession will adhere to its provisions. Effective enforcement of the provisions of the code is vital to ensure that every member in the profession does not go against what the codes of ethics describe as the norm (McCulloch and Tweedale 2008).

The penalties contained in the code play a main role in guarding the conduct of the players in the profession. The human behavior is known to be shaped in the right way either by reward or penalty. Penalty is an effective method where laws of conduct are drawn and provided for a particular group.

As a company involved in the provision of actuarial consulting services, Trowbridge was tasked to advice the incoming directors at the James Hardie Industries accordingly. Trowbridge had an obligation to ensure that the directors were properly guided in setting up a foundation for funding.

By failing to disclosing the information to the new directors at the James Hardie industries, set up an inadequate foundation fund. The investors in the company suffered losses because of the high claims resulting from asbestos related diseases. This could have been avoided if Trowbridge worked on the case in a professional way.

Trowbridge was engaged to formulate a report on the outflows from the James Hardie industries emanating from litigations lodged by those affected by asbestos (Fisse and BraitheWaite 1983). The report was to be based on the national and international disease trends, as well as the current data.

The report was presented to the board by Mr. Minty and Marshall, the report was used by the incoming directors to set up a foundation fund for making litigation payments. The report however, professionally failed to consider all parameters such as; the current data and the national and international claim trends (McCulloch and Tweedale 2008).

As a result, the report failed to provide an accurate basis for making future claims projections for James Hardie Industries. This oversight by a professional consulting company misled the company in making the future projections. With a code of conduct in place, such an oversight could be punishable; the perceived punishment would act as deterrence to the consulting firm.

However, it can also be detested, based on the case of James Hardie Industries and Asbestos problems, it is not possible that the code of conduct would change their behavior.

In regard of “section 52 of the trade practices acts” both the outgoing and incoming directors were not supposed to rely entirely on the February report (Degenhardt and Duignan 2010). The officers of James Hardie industries were supposed to be responsible for knowing that the report posted by Trowbridge was not meant to be used to create a foundation that would be funded.

The code of conduct also acts as a reference resource for professional practice. Minty and Marshall relied on the information of other professionals in the field in choosing the Berry medium curve. It clearly indicates that there was no approved resource on which to base important conclusions.

It is not possible for one to argue in court a decision that goes sour, if the decision was based on the advice of a third party. If a decision is based on a professional code of conduct, it is possible to defend the effects of the decision. Professional codes of conducts are based research findings.

This can well protect the decisions of the professional practitioners better than the decisions of fellow practitioners. This would also ensure that the decisions made on various professional solutions are harmonized.

Having omitted the data for nine months up to January 2001, Trowbridge was asked to explain the possible impact that inclusion of this data would have on the analyzed projections.

Rather than treat this as a unique case, Trowbridge relied on its experience to assure the client that the omission would not have a significant impact on the analysis. Trowbridge needed to have considered this as a unique case and carried out an analysis based on the omitted data before making conclusions.

Minty and Marshall deliberately presented James Hardie Industries with information that was inconsistent with the company statements. Minty and Marshall relied on the advice of an independent consultant that the current data would have no significance on the report. Minty failed to press for updated information from the company in order to use it to revise the June report.

Minty did not use the best information available as he alleged in his presentation. This type of professional negligence would be punishable in the provisions of the code. Being aware of this provision in the code and the penalty associated with it, Minty would have labored to get the relevant information from the company.

Reference List Castleman, B 2005, Asbestos: Medical and Legal Aspects, Aspen Publishing Inc, New York

Clarke T. 2007, International Corporate Governance: A Comparative Approach. Routledge, New York.

Degenhardt, L. and Duignan, P 2010, Dancing on a Shifting Carpet: Reinventing Traditional Schooling for the 21st Century, Acer Press, Victoria.

Fisse, P. and BraitheWaite, J. 1983, The Impact of Publicity on Corporate Offenders, State University of New York, New York

Haigh, G 2008, Asbestos House: The Secret History of James Hardie Industries, Scribe Publications Pty Limited, New York

Hinmann, L 2008, Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory, Thomas Wordsworth, New York

McCulloch, J and Tweedale, G 2008, Defending the Indefensible: The Global Asbestos Industry and its Fight for Survival, Routledge, New York.

Parker,C. and Evans, A 2008, Inside Lawyer’s Ethics, Cambridge University Press, London.

Peacock, M 2011, Killer Company: James Hardie Exposed, HarperCollins Publishers, New York.

Webster, P 2005, White Dust Black Death: the Tragedy of Asbestos Mining at Baryulgil, Trafford Publishing Ltd, London.

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Turbo Charged Engines Essay online essay help: online essay help

Abstract Advancements in the creation of vehicle components with the inclusion of modern technology has played a critical role towards the development of advanced hardware components that many manufactures have used to fashion internal combustion engines adhering to drivability, improved fuel economy and stricter emission regulations.

A turbocharger is an invention of Alfred Buchi (1879-1959), a Swizz engineer who used an exhaust gas driven compressor to increase the power of a diesel engine. A turbo charger used by an automotive is made up of a turbine, a compressor and a couple of common shafts.

A turbine is a pivotal part which initiates the process of energy accumulation. It captures kinetic energy produced by exhaust gases emitted during combustion. Turbo charged engines have various compartments which direct the flow of gas.

This flow is directly proportional to the air and amount of fuel that are sent to the cylinders. Since they are equal, the difference in size of the engine is critical since it determines the amount of power an engine produces. This implies that there is larger amount of flow in air which consequently increases the power of the engine.

Introduction Advancements in the creation of vehicle components with the inclusion of modern technology has played a critical role towards the development of advanced hardware components that many manufactures have used to fashion internal combustion engines that can adhere drivability, enhance improved fuel economy and stricter emission regulations.

Awareness on sustainability from economic, social and environmental perspectives is indeed growing due to observable changes in society. There are numerous legal and social systems that have been developed by governments and even the business community to ensure that this critical aspect is addressed.

When a turbo engine has been integrated into one engine configuration, significant interactions and nonlinearities occur within it. The latter eventually results into the need for more advanced control methods [11]. Therefore, emission regulation has prompted the need for increased power of the engines, external gas recirculation system as well as drivability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Purpose

An understanding of the main purpose of this paper is very important as it highlights the findings from various publications on turbo charged engines and their effectiveness in enhancing condition of an operating engine to meet engine safety, low emissions, fuel economy and fast torque response.

The findings from the publications and other related articles on turbo charged engines will be critical in making particularistic conclusions on its efficacy in terms of increase in the power of engines, low emissions, fuel economy and drivability.

Scope

The scope of this report is limited to turbo charged engines, components and functions, and how a turbo charged engine can be effective when compared to non-turbocharged engines. In this respect, the paper gathers various findings from different articles as well as experimental literatures that have explained the various models of turbo engines.

Assumptions

There are quite a number of key assumptions that have been made to ensure that the objective of the paper is conformed to. One such assumption is that a turbo charged engine is more effective compared to a conventional supercharger.

This is due to the fact that the latter is driven mechanically while the former uses engine exhaust gas turbine. Bedsides, compared to a naturally aspirated engine, a turbocharged engine is more powerful. This is attributed to the increased air intake and more combustion of fuel due to turbine forces.

Turbo charged engines. A brief history of turbo charged engines A turbocharger is an invention of Alfred Buchi (1879-1959), a Swizz engineer who used an exhaust gas driven compressor to increase the power of a diesel engine. It is worth to mention that this practice of forced induction had earlier been tried by Gottlieb Daimler among other engineers during the 19th century.

Before turbochargers, the use of superchargers for forced induction was common. In the 1920’s, turbochargers were used in the production of engines of aircrafts. It later spread to the use of turbocharged diesel engines on ship and locomotives.

We will write a custom Essay on Turbo Charged Engines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The working principle of the Turbo charged engine

A turbo charger used by an automotive is made up of a turbine, a compressor and a couple of common shafts. The exhaust gas of an automotive engine has a critical role of propelling the turbine. The force drives the compressor and directs the compacted ambient air into an intake manifold.

The increased supply of air is very critical in the provision of a larger output supply into engine cylinders [15]. This causes the burning out of large fuel quantities. Unlike in non-turbocharged engines, turbo-charged engines allow for a larger torque output from the large quantity of burnt fuel.

It is imperative to highlight that turbo charged engines have improved operation efficiency at lean air-to-fuel ratio. This leads to improved fuel economy.

Turbo charged engines have regulated engine emissions consisting of carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and particulates (PM). The reduced particulate emissions due to turbo charging emanate from increased temperature, air charge densities, and air to air fuel ratios [7].

It is imperative to note that the aforementioned factor increases oxygen availability. Temperature gives rise to the formation of NOx. The latter can be partially offset when air charge temperature is reduced. This is a function of an intercooler on turbo-charging. The intercooler also reduces particulate emissions by increasing the density of air charge.

At regulated levels, NOx emissions cannot be sufficiently regulated. As such, an exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR) is required to divert back the emitted exhaust gas into the intake manifold. The portion of the gas is then used to dilute the air that the compressor supplies.

Besides, the diluted air within the cylinders increases the charge specific heat capacity and also plays the role of inert gases. The gas impacts negatively on the formation of NOx emissions, lowers the temperature of peak flames and reduces the rate of burning.

Typically, the circulation of exhaust gas is a process that is accomplished in the valve of an exhaust gas recirculation tube that links the intake manifold with the exhaust manifold.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Turbo Charged Engines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, certain configurations of some diesel engines have been designed to include an intake manifold linked to a compressor with EGR throttle. The latter enhances EGR rates by creating the needed pressure drop on the valves.

Components of Turbo-charged engines

In order to achieve a properly functioning system, a turbocharger is subject to several applications. The interplay of various major components of an engine is critically a function of a smooth synchrony of all the components [1]. Each part which makes up a turbo charged engine is significant.

It is imperative to note that all components have to work together in order to achieve all the necessary processes. Turbochargers are made up of three major components. These include;

A turbine- this is an inflow radial turbine

A compressor- it is majorly a centrifuging compressor

A central hub- this makes the main rotating set of the engine

Turbine

A turbine is a pivotal part which initiates the process of energy accumulation. It captures kinetic energy produced by exhaust gases emitted during combustion. It has sections which direct the flow of gas. Besides, in its normal performance, the turbine spins at a velocity of about 250,000 rotations per unit time [5].

In its determinant functions, shape and size characterize the overall output. Assemblies of turbo chargers combine different specifications of the engine according to numerous set ups of turbine compartments. It is therefore possible to determine the efficiency responsiveness and performance of a turbo charger. This is achieved through the mentioned choices of turbine attributes.

Turbine wheels are fitted to regulate the amount of gas flowing through the system. Their sizes are chosen in relation to expected outcomes. In general, large flow capacities are achieved through the use of large turbine wheels. This direct relationship is essential in making developments in turbo charger engines [6].

The performance of these engines is related to their sizes. Large ones have a high heat intake and spin the turbine with a turbo lag hence they achieve low rates of rotation [6].

Smaller turbochargers tend to attain higher acceleration. This does not mean that size is tagged to advantages. Both small and large sizes have demerits. Indeed, innovations of schemes which counter the drawbacks of size have led to designing of combined models;

Twin turbo- This is made up of a pair of turbo chargers which have been set to operate parallel to each other or sequentially. When placed in parallel, the two are connected in manner which enables them to share the engine’s exhaust chamber in 50-50 basis. In a sequential arrangement, the two run at different speeds. One runs at the resultant speed of the engine while the other runs at a lower regulated speed. Small turbo twins realize lower lags compared to large ones. This configuration is highly adopted especially in boxer engine and V-shapes [8].

Twin-scroll- These have a double inlet of gas. Smaller ones have more rampant responses compared to bigger ones. To attain a peak performance, twin-scrolls are configured at different time configurations. This is done at the camshaft and in every exhaust valve. Timing is normally customized to enable the system to recover quickly after generated energy is lost.

Variable-nozzle turbo – These use vanes to adjust air flow. They have a combination of sizes which have been made to give the engine optimal power output. Vanes are inserted at the front of the turbine to form slight overlaps with one another.

The angle of overlap is joined to actuators which act as control devices. The variability emerging from this arrangement creates back pressure when the engine is in function. Notably, this is important in making the engine become more fuel efficient [10]. Growth of turbo lag is also minimized significantly.

Compressor

The engine has a centrifugal compressor. The compressor is made up of four parts. These include a collector, diffuser, a rotor and an inlet. This component is the chamber for gas work. As gases pass through the compressor, consequential energy is tapped axially from left to right. The impeller is placed strategically in the downstream of a discharge cone. The four components are described below.

The collector– it takes many different shapes. Its form is also chosen in relation to centrifugal compression. The collector of a turbo charger has empty chambers for collection. It has a direct connection to the diffuser such that it gathers the total flow of the diffuser. A collector contains numerous valves which are instrumented to control it. The specially adapted valves are referred to as blow-off valves.

Inlet– It takes the simple structure of a pipe. It feeds the compressor. It is made up of stationary air vanes and valves. The foils are fitted to manage flow of fluid. They swirl the flow such that both temperature and pressure are kept in control. It should be noted that the inlet takes a central role in controlling a compressor. This is the reason it has such specialized features [13].

Rotor– This makes the key part of a turbo charger’s centrifugal compressor. It is also referred to as the impeller and has a rotating set of parts. It has blades which are arranged uniformly. These blades rotate and determine the working gas energy.It resembles axial compressors in that its radius increases causing an acceleration of the gases’ energy and velocity levels. Innovations have been put in place in modern day compressors. A good example is the production of high efficiency compressors. The high speed compressor rotors which are able to exit gas at a speed close that of the sound which they produce [13].

Diffuser– It is placed downstream to the rotor. It lies at the flow path so that it can have the ability to change kinetic energy of working gas into force which applies pressure. This is achieved through diffusing the gas at a velocity which is lower than its original one. A diffuser has different forms and combination of alternating vanes. The combinations are sometimes made hybrid through the inclusion of pipes channels and wedges.

Rotating assembly

The rotating assembly has a shaft which connects the turbine and the impeller of the compressor [12]. It contains a system of bearings which support the shaft. This allows the shaft to rotate with maximum speed without much resistance.

The rotating assembly uses special bearing balls which depend on pressurized oil. It has a coolant which circles it. This can be water, oil or gas made depending on the heat expected from the turbine.

The ball bearings used here are very important. They have to be thrust to maximize their durability. This is because they play a heavy task. The coolant instrumentation is venerated in every segment because produced heat is transmitted around the whole system.

The operations of a turbo engine As noted earlier, the power of a turbo engine is directly proportional to the air and amount of fuel that are conveyed to the cylinders. Since they are equal, a difference in the size of engine is critical in the amount of power an engine produces [6].

This means that more air flow in larger thereby making their power greater. Smaller engines can be made to work similar to larger ones in terms of power. This can be achieved by supplying more air into a cylinder. In order to dramatically increase the power and performance of an engine, many engines are installed with a Garret turbocharger [2].

A turbocharger is made up of several components that include (See figure below):

A compressor inlet

A compressor discharge

A charge air cooler

Intake valve

Exhaust valve

Turbine inlet

Turbine discharge

Figure 1: A turbo system

As the diagram illustrates, ambient air passes through an air filter and is directed to a compressor which increases its density after the air volume has been compressed. The effect of the cooling the engine results into strong resistance against detonation and increase in density (mass/volume of air).

The fourth component in the diagram forms the intake manifold, a section where air passes before entering the cylinder. The mass and rate of flow of air in the cylinder in normally enhanced. This is attributed to the elevated density of compressed and cooled air as well as the fixed volume of air in the cylinder.

As indicated earlier, when the flowing rate of mass of air is high, fuel flow rate also increases at the same fuel to air ratio. The effect of the flow of air and subsequent combustion of fuel is more engine power for every displacement or engine size.

Additionally, the combustion of fuel which causes its complete burning allows the product to be exhausted via the exhaust manifold. The turbine receives the high temperature created from the combustion and creates backpressure.

This is important in the sense that it shows that the engine exhaust pressure is higher than the pressure of the atmosphere. A drop in temperature and pressure causes turbine expansion which in turn harnesses the energy of the exhaust gas. The energy is very important in the provision of enough supply of power to drive the engine compressor.

Turbochargers are different in size and are specific to particular engines. This quality allows it to provide a response of rapid flow of air at low engine speed when there is a demand for acceleration. The air that flows into an engine cylinder causes an increase in the rate of fuel flow and engine torque.

This effect is normally reached when the flow area of a turbine is small [3]. The size enhances a manifold pressure increase from the exhauster, a factor that increases the generation of power. The latter being a function of turbine results into an increase in fuel rate.

Controlling damages on turbo charged engines It is worth mentioning at this point that a turbo charged engine may be damaged under extreme cases of air flow. At high loads and engine speeds, and excessive difference between intake manifold pressures and the exhaust is created [14].

This in turn increases the amount of intake manifold pressure leading to engine damage. In order to avoid such damages and other related negative consequences, a turbo charged engine must be deigned to contain a wastegate [9]. The latter is normally opened when an engine is at high speed. Its opening is vital in the sense that it allows a bypass of exhaust gas in the turbine.

A wastegate is important because it aids in controlling an engine’s boost pressure. internal and external use by some diesel and gasoline applications provide a bypass to engine exhaust flow. This is a process that occurs at the turbine wheel and matches the power driving the turbine to the given boost level.

According to the boost control theory, wastegates reduce the exhaust flow, a ,similar function conducted by the BOV which makes use of the spring force and boost pressure to regulate the exhaust flow bypassing the turbine.

Figure 2: A diagram showing a wastegate

Figure 3: A diagram showing a wastegate

Internal wastegate

An internal wastegate is an important component built and located on a turbo. It has an actuator with a diaphragm which controls the gate leading to the turbine wheel. The location of an internal wastegate as the name suggests is within the turbine housing [4].

The waste gate is made up of a pneumatic actuator, a rope end, a crank arm and a valve. Some of the main advantages of the wastegate are the fact that it does not require an intake manifold and that it is very compact. Even so, many analysts are of the view that just as it has its pros, its cons can cause damages to an engine.

One such limitation is the notion that it is made to fit within the turbine housing, a consideration that denies it the ability to allow maximum flow of exhaust CFM. Besides, the location inside the turbine causes turbulence and limits turbo performance.

Figure 4: A diagram showing an interal wastegate

External wastegate

An external wastegate is a component made on the header or exhaust manifold. This unlike the internal manifold is not made inside the housing of a turbine. As such, its performance is enhanced. The external wastegate allows the re-introduction of the by-passed flow into the exhaust and turbine streams.

Another approach against damages is the use of a variable geometric charger (VGT). This component grants more flexibility, limits the use of wastegate, shapes engine torque response, reduces emissions and improves fuel economy. The variable geometry turbocharger has a turbine stator which has pivoted guide vanes [1].

Figure 5: A figure showing the components of a turbocharger

Basic operating principle An engine with a turbo charger has improved engine volumetric efficiency which comes from the density of the air taken into it. The ambient air is drawn into the compressor with each intake stroke drawing a mass of air. Kinetic energy needed to spin centrifugal compressor comes from the engines exhaust gases.

In order to increase power, a turbo charged engine recovers waste energy and re-takes back into the engine. It is worth noting that during combustion of fuel; a lot of energy is emitted. This increases the temperature leading to Carnot efficiency.

Conclusions To sum up, a turbo charged engine exhibits more power and increased fuel efficiency of an engine. As noted in the paper, advancements in the creation of vehicle with the inclusion of modern technology has played a critical role in the development of advanced hardware components that many manufactures have used to fashion internal combustion engines adhering to drivability, improved fuel economy and stricter emission regulations. Turbochargers are aided by components such as ball bearings, turbine blades and wastegates.

References List Baratta, M., Spessa, E., and Mairone, P., “Numerical investigation of turbolag reduction in HD CNG engines by means of exhaust valve variable actuation and spark timing control,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, 11(3): 289-306, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s12239-010-0037-x

Capus, J.M., “SAE 2001: PM industry still on the move despite slowdown”, Powder Metallurgy, 44(2): 113-113, 2001.

Capus, J.M., “SAE World Congress 2002: better times ahead?” Powder Metallurgy, 45(2): 110-111, 2002.

Eroglu, M. and Onalp, S., “Tungsten inert gas surface modification of SAE 4140 steel”, Materials Science and Technology, 18(12): 1544-1550, 2002.

Galindo, J., Climent, H., Guardiola, C., and Doménech., “Strategies for improving the mode transition in a sequential parallel turbocharged automotive diesel engine,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, 10(2): 141-149, 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12239-009-0017-1.

Hunziker, R., H-P Dickmann and Emmrich., “Numerical and experimental investigation of a centrifugal compressor with an inducer casing bleed system,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 215(6): 783-783, 2001.

Ilardo, R. and Williams, C.B., “Design and manufacture of a Formula SAE intake system using fused deposition modeling and fiber-reinforced composite materials”, Rapid Prototyping Journal, 16(3): 174-179, 2010.

Kim, H.G. and Jeon, S.I., “Effect on friction of engine oil seal with engine oil viscosity”, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 9(5): 601-606 2008, doi: 10.1007/s12239-008-0071-0.

Kim, J. N., Kim, H. Y., Yoon, S. S., and Sa, S. D., “Effect of intake valve swirl on fuel-gas mixing and subsequent combustion in a CAI engine,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, 9(6): 649-657, 2008, doi: 10.1007/s12239-008-0077-7.

Kirk, R. G., Alsaeed, A. A., and Gunter, E. J., “Stability analysis of a high-speed automotive turbocharger,” Tribology Transactions, 50(3): 427-434, 2007.

Rakopoulos, C. D. and Giakoumis, E. G. Review of thermodynamic diesel engine simulations under transient operating conditions. SAE paper 2006-01-0884. Also Trans. SAE, J. Engines, 2006, 115, 467-504.

Rakopoulos, C. D., Giakoumis, E. G., Hountalas, D. T., and Rakopoulos, D. C. The effect of various dynamic, thermodynamic and design parameters on the performance of a turbocharged diesel engine operating under transient load conditions. SAE paper 2004-01-0926, 2004.

Serrano, J. R., Arnau, F. J., Dolz, V., Tiseira, A., Lejeune, M., and Auffret, N., “Analysis of the capabilities of a two-stage turbocharging system to fulfil the US2007 anti-pollution directive for heavy duty diesel engines,” International Journal of Automotive Technology, 9(3): 277-288, 2008, doi: 10.1007/s12239-008-0034-5.

Taraza, D., Henein, N., and Bryzik, W. Friction losses in multi-cylinder diesel engines. SAE paper 2000-01-0921, 2000.

Turner, J. W. G., Pearson, R. J., and Bassett, M. D. ‘Performance and fuel economy enhancement of pressure charged SI engines through turboexpansion – an initial study’. SAE paper 2003-01-0401, 2003.

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Media futures and new technologies Compare and Contrast Essay cheap essay help

Researchers have been discussing distinctions between new and old media for two decades. Many researchers note that the term ‘new media’ is quite irrelevant as the Internet and related products were used as far back as the late 1970s (Stafford 2005).

Some claim that there is no competition at all and all types of media develop in their own ways and there is no or little distinction between the two types of media (Bunz 2010). However, the distinctions are apparent and quite numerous.

These distinctions affect politics, business and, of course, people’s everyday life. It is possible to take a closer look at two types of media (newspapers and social networks like Facebook) to see the difference and particular influences of these types of media.

In the first place, it is important to note that both types of media (newspapers and Facebook) are regarded as major sources of information spread.

A decade ago the major distinction between the two sources of information was the format. Newspapers represented print sources and Facebook is only associated with digit. However, the things have changed within ten years and now newspapers can be found in a digital format.

Thus, another important distinction comes into play. The primary source of information is the distinction that remains. Facebook often operates opinions and rumours. Facebook users also discuss news provided in newspapers.

On the contrary, newspapers (reputable newspapers are taken into account) use checked information only. They extract information from primary sources. Therefore, newspapers can be regarded as the sources of reliable information which is backed up by facts and checked data.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Of course, it is possible to consider times when newspapers were the only way to spread news. However, the present paper will not focus on the distant 18th and 19th centuries. Newspapers were also the major way to obtain news in the twentieth century (Hendricks 2010).

The twenty-first century is characterised by a certain shift. Now people share news via such social networks as Facebook. However, people often cast doubt on the news provided in Facebook. Moreover, Bunz (2010) mentions that 83% of stories are repetitive these days. Thus, Facebook users extract information from the so-called conventional sources, usually newspapers.

On the other hand, the case with the so-called Arab Spring and revolutions in countries of the Middle East and Africa show that Facebook sometimes becomes the only reliable source of information. When there is evident lack of free media in a country, the Internet provides vast opportunities and such social networks as Facebook are becoming potent tools to share news (Sreberny 2012).

People shared their experiences and people could find out about the real situation in their country reading Facebook posts (and other Internet posts). The newspapers available provided information which was dictated by the forces in power.

Ironically, Facebook (as well as some other Internet resources) was the only source of reliable information. People could know what was really happening with the help of Facebook. At this point, it is necessary to note that, the cases of revolutions and oppressive regimes are quite exceptional, but they still contribute to the overall picture.

As far as the countries with free media are concerned, the situation with trust to Facebook and newspapers has not changed dramatically. People still trust conventional media more (Stafford 2005). Even in people’s everyday life this is apparent.

Thus, when speaking of news provided as Facebook posts, people can be impressed and start discussion, but they will still look for some evidence in newspapers (Fenton 2009). Therefore, newspapers are still considered to be primary sources of information.

We will write a custom Essay on Media futures and new technologies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some researchers note that now there is decline in readership (Fenton 2009). Fenton (2009, p. 37) notes that “local newspaper circulation declined from nearly 48 million in 1989 to 41 million in 2004” and there was “a fall of 15 per cent”.

Some claim that this decline is the result of increasing popularity of emerging Internet resources. However, Fenton (2009) also adds that there were a number of declines throughout the second part of the twentieth century. For instance, from 1960 to 1995, there was a significant drop in the USA (31% decline), 38% decline in the UK, 48% drop in Australia (Fenton, 2009, p. 189).

At that, Fenton (2009) notes that there was an increase of newspaper circulation in such countries as Finland (52% increase) and Japan (45% increase) in the same period. Obviously, decline or increase of newspaper circulation has little to do with development of new technology.

Nevertheless, newspaper owners have been trying to address the problem of decline and came to quite a similar decision. Now newspapers have acquired digital format to become more up-to-date. Researchers state that now the two types of media merge (Rogers 2005).

French (2011, p. 17) notes that newspapers have “toyed with experiments including advertising price increases, paid subscriptions to their websites, and even developing iPad-only magazines”. Pfeiffer and Zinnbauer (2010) also note that major newspapers are now available online, which makes them available 24 hours a day.

Now they can provide news 24 hours a day, which makes these sources almost equal to Facebook. Newspapers are almost equal in terms of the load of information as they still have comparatively scarce resources.

Facebook posts can be created by any user of Facebook who witnessed something (or decided to share his/her opinion). At the same time, qualified reporters (the number of these professionals is almost insignificant compared to the number of Facebook users) generate news which appear in newspapers.

It is necessary to note that these differences affect politics, business and people’s everyday life. For instance, politics used to rely on newspapers and television in the twentieth century. The politics of the twenty-first century resort to new media. Thus, US President Obama resorted to Facebook and YouTube during his election campaign, which proved to be successful.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Media futures and new technologies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As for business, in the twentieth century, business sent their releases to newspapers to spread news about their companies (Rogers 2005). Now there is no need in such precision as any company has its own website where news concerning the company can be posted.

Companies also resort to Facebook quite often. Nonetheless, companies still rely on conventional resources especially when it is important to cover a large audience and spread some important news.

The differences between the two sources are quite evident in the field of advertisement. Thus, Facebook as any other Internet resource is very attractive for advertisers due to quite vast opportunities. Pop-ups and a variety of other types of advertisement can be available online.

However, the policy of this resource is to have small amount of advertisement. At the same time, print newspapers do not have so many opportunities due to quite restricted space.

Nonetheless, online newspapers are not inferior to Facebook and any other online resource. More so, newspapers do not have such restrictions as Facebook, which makes the former more attractive for advertisers.

As has been mentioned above, the distinctions between Facebook and newspapers can be traced in people’s everyday life. Though there is certain decline of readership, people still read newspapers (print as well as digital). Of course, young people tend to spend more time socialising in Facebook. Older people tend to read newspapers more, whereas young people read Facebook posts.

Notably, one of the major distinctions between the two sources, i.e. the primary source of news, has led to certain change in people’s life and their aspirations. Thus, to become a newsmaker, one should have become a famous person, a person who stood out against the crowd.

To provide news to public, people also had to study and become professional journalists. However, now Facebook provides a lot of opportunities to all people who have access to the Internet. Thus, Facebook users reveal their opinions or share their routine and are already regarded as newsmakers.

As for professional journalists, Facebook does not need such professionals. Any Facebook user can write about an event which took place in his/her community. Again, a Facebook user can provide his/her opinion on some news, events or even opinion provided by another Facebook user. All these people feel they are journalists who contribute to spread of important or meaningful information.

On balance, it is possible to note that newspapers and Facebook are regarded as some of the major resources of information spread. The two major distinctions between the two sources are the format and the primary sources used.

Thus, newspapers (both print and digit) are still regarded as reputable sources which provide reliable information whereas Facebook is not seen as a reliable source of information and Facebook users often refer to newspapers.

However, it is important to note that in some countries under specific circumstances Facebook have been the only source of reliable information.

All these peculiarities of the two sources have affected people lives in many ways. Of course, one of the most meaningful changes is that people are now becoming active agents in the process of information sharing which is important in the contemporary globalized world.

Reference List Bunz, M 2010, ‘Old media or new media – who breaks the news today?‘, Guardian. Web.

Fenton, N 2009, New media, old news: journalism and democracy in the digital age, SAGE Publications Ltd., London.

French, K 2011, ‘Emerging convergence’, The HUB. Web.

Hendricks, JA 2010, The twenty-first-century media industry: economic and managerial implications in the age of new media, Lexington Books, Plymouth.

Pfeiffer, M

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Demographic Changes in Organizations Report essay help: essay help

Introduction There are significant “demographic changes taking place in organizations today and such changes will persist into the future” (Lerman and Schmidt 1). The emerging trends are due to changes in the population growth and globalization. The workforce will continue to change as workers from other parts of the world account for “a sizable population of the workforce in an organization” (Lerman and Schmidt 1).

Recent changes in the labor market have also affected the workplace environment. Employers recruit a diverse workforce in terms of ethnicity or race, gender, skills, age and other emerging members of the society, such as gays, lesbians, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) groups (IBM 2010).

Such diversities require broad assessments in terms of their effects on organizations. Most employers strive to implement policies that can assist in sustaining such diversities among workers. At the same time, organizations also strive to create understanding among employees with regard to such changes in demographic trends.

This essays looks at effects of demographic changes in organizations and how organizations can cope with such trends. Thus, we look at age, gender, ethnicity, and GBLT with specific cases from some organizations.

Current studies According to Lerman and Schmidt, notable demographic changes shall occur in the labor market over the next 10 to 15 years (Lerman and Schmidt 3). These scholars note that such changes occur due to growth in populations and immigration people from other countries.

In her study, Helene David identified four main demographic trends in the workforce. These included the educated young workforce, the aging workforce, changing roles of female and narrowing age gap among employees. She concluded that these were changes affecting all organizations across the globe (David 22).

The emergence of the ageing workforce now affects both developed and developing countries. The number of older workforce is growing steadily. Changes in the population growth affect this trend. The post-war baby boomers of 1960s have aged. The new generation Y has emerged to take their places.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, such changes have impacted the labor market and organizations have turned to young employees to replace baby boomers. David notes that the ageing workforce has also affected social issues in organizations through rising costs of welfare programs. Though some these employees have retired, a substantial number continues to work with young employees. This has created a generational mix in organizations.

The generational mix between the aged and young employees occurs due to participation of different age groups in organizations. Policies and some government directives influence organizational decisions on hiring. As a result, most organizations have both generations as workforce. The retirement age differs across countries. This affects the proportion of the older generation in organizations.

On the other hand, organizations also have low rates of hiring young workers. Consequently, the generational mix persists in organizations. As a result, most organizations have both generations as workforce.

The introduction of retirement age differs across countries. This affects the proportion of the older generation in organizations. On the other hand, organizations also have low rates of hiring young workers. Consequently, the generational mix persists in organizations.

Young employees have higher levels of education than their older counterparts. The younger workforce takes time pursuing education in specialized areas. This tendency has created the idea of knowledge workers that organizations strive to keep and maintain. The trend has become significant in the new information economy due to rapid technological developments.

Helene argues that education, training, and knowledge levels of workers influence characteristic of today’s workforce, particularly the younger generation (David 24). Organizations have turned for flexibility and qualification when recruiting workers. At the same time, they also need higher levels of experience among aged employees. This condition has created conflict, inter-generation tension, and exclusion in organizations.

Activity rates of female workers in organizations have changed significantly. Sexual division that characterized the past workforce in organizations is on the decline as women continue to play key management roles that require high standards of competence. Organizations such as IBM, HP, Kraft Foods, and Xerox among others have women as senior executives.

We will write a custom Report on Demographic Changes in Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This shows how such organizations value diversity in the workforce and changing roles of women in the knowledge economy. Organizations also try to accommodate diverse needs of women through balancing work and family life. As a result, some women have flexible work schedules than their male counterparts.

Globalization has also created movements among people. Therefore, workforce no longer consists of a single race, but rather a mixture of races. This has led to cases of racial tensions. On the same note, there are also cases of GLBT among employees. This is an emerging trend across the globe and organizations must find ways of handling such diversities.

Effects of Demographic changes in organizations (IBM and Google) Race and Ethnicity

Organizational management policies must account for diverse ethnic and racial differences that dominate today’s workforce. This is necessary for long-term benefits and exploitation of human resources. For instance, IBM and Google have to handle cases of racial tensions that exist among employees from diverse ethnic backgrounds. These are also companies with globe presence.

Consequently, these organizations can post some of their employees to their subsidiaries across the globe. These organizations have enacted policies that promote equal opportunities and fair participation for all their employees.

Google and IBM have business activities that enhance multiracial interaction. These organizations have included training as the key to successful management of racial tensions among their employees (Google 2012; IBM 2010).

Training programs have been effective in promoting interaction among workers from different ethnic backgrounds. This approach reduces tension, promotes cultural exchanges, and frequent interactions among employees for benefits of their organizations. As a result, we can notice benefits of a diverse workforce in Google and IBM.

These organizations view changing trends in demographic compositions of their workforce as opportunities that can propel their globe strategies. This explains why IBM and Google strive for inclusion policies and equal opportunities for all. Inclusion of demographic differences aid organizations in conflict resolution. This is how IBM and Google manage their employees that consist of different races from all over the world.

Generational Differences

This is a major source of conflicts among employees in every organization. For instance, in Google and IBM, most of their old workers grew in these companies and accumulated vast experience.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Demographic Changes in Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, this category of workforce worries about job security and replacement by young and dynamic workforce. Conversely, young workers main concerns are vast and range from hefty rewards, changes of status quo to the desire to rise to executive levels.

The problem also arises from executing orders from their superiors. This workforce also has vast knowledge in technology. The knowledge gap, age gap, and differences in experience may result into tension among these categories of workers.

Organizational policies should harmonize such diversity for strategic benefits of employees and organizations. Google and IBM have been able to exploit both experience of old workers and technology knowledge of young workers.

IBM and Google encourage their management teams to identify potential opportunities and challenges that may result from differences in age among their employees. IBM and Google have established policies that promote effectiveness management across departments so that all employees actively contribute for success.

These companies create teamwork and encourage multigenerational employees to work together for knowledge exchange and experience gains. Therefore, teamwork and involvement are better approaches that can reduce multigenerational differences in an organization.

Gender differences

Most organizations experience gender-related issues across the globe, such as pay, working hours, family issues and roles among others. However, IBM and Google have created opportunities for women employees to pursue their careers through leadership programs. In addition, these companies also encourage women to apply for available job openings.

The past trends whereby roles of women, pay, and career growths were narrow have changed as organizations become flexible. Consequently, the number of female workers has increased alongside their pay and activities.

Despite such developments in working environments, women still face challenges related to their family responsibilities. In fact, there are cases where women have agreed to pay cuts so as to spend much time with their families. The old workforce also faces challenges of health, disabilities and other conditions. These conditions affect their outputs.

Organizational strategies of managing demographic changes and their effects These strategies involve effective approaches that aim at building and maintaining diverse, productive, and high quality employees that deliver organizational objectives. Such strategies aim at attracting, recruiting, hiring, developing, managing, rewarding, and retaining diverse and a high quality workforce (IBM 1).

IBM and Google have global diversity strategies that manage their diverse workforce and encourage inclusions. As such, they focus on cultural differences and formulation of inclusion programs that can attract, recruit, and retain skillful employees.

Google and IBM rely on diversity as a means of promoting cultures of creativity and innovation in organizations. These organizations believe that diversity programs should not only account for the normal spheres of sexual, gender, race, age, and religion, but also include differences across the globe.

These organizations look at diversity in terms of global strategies that can promote business growth. Consequently, these companies can appeal to their diverse workforce and markets they serve.

IBM and Google have also enacted an approach of Equal Opportunity Policy. This policy promotes equal opportunities among all employees. IBM and Google do not hire workers based on their color, race or creed. This enhances reputations of these organizations across the globe.

Both companies have realized the value of equal opportunities for all and its effects in terms of building a high quality workforce. Equal opportunity policy also ensures that only best candidates get jobs irrespective of their diverse backgrounds or disabilities.

IBM and Google also use inclusion programs worldwide in recruiting and hiring employees. These organizations rely on their executives for supporting implementation of workforce diversity in their subsidiaries worldwide. This also applies to employees who receive trainings on the concept of an inclusive working environment in an organization.

IBM and Google have recognized demographic changes in the labor market. As a result, these organizations strive to change their human resource policies to reflect such changes in the labor market.

IBM and Google have realized the relevance of effective diversity programs in recruiting employees from a diverse and competitive labor market. Google and IBM have used diversity programs as a strategy in the global labor to attract and retain talented employees.

As leaders in workforce diversity, Google and IBM have several programs that focus on recognizing demographic changes in the labor market. These companies aim at instilling changes among their employees and markets they serve.

IBM and Google have noticed important roles women play in modern organizations. Consequently, these organizations encourage women to take leadership positions. This is a shift from the past where leadership opportunities were mainly available to male workers. These companies have also been hiring female workers in specialized areas of their operation such as IT.

Consequently, such approaches have increased populations of female workers in corporate fields. IBM has a program known as Women in Technology specifically for female in IT. This program aims to support the “growth, achievement, advancement, recognition and promotion women in the organization” (IBM 2010).

IBM and Google aims at representing people with disabilities at every department of their operation. These organizations have ongoing commitments to support employees with disabilities through relying on strategies that ensure inclusion of such workers. These companies also create a friendly environment for workforce with disabilities to ensure that they work in supportive environments.

IBM and Google have opportunities that encourage interactions among different age groups in their workforce. Thus, these organizations strive to create flexible and dynamic workplaces that can meet diverse needs of today’s workforce.

As a result, employees can work without age-related barriers, tight working hours. In addition, they also a variety of work style options, lifestyle choices, continued learning and job satisfaction, and an ongoing connection to their communities through Meet the Googlers and IBM’s Global Diversity Workforce program among others (Google 2012).

Google and IBM also account for their controversial employees that consist of GLBT. At the same time, these companies must also comply with regulations of various countries regarding GLBT.

Google and IBM have created working environments where GLBT can experience positive working environments. This creates opportunities where GLBT can make positive contributions in terms of skills, experiences, and outputs for their organizations (Thomas 98).

Conclusion As employers of workers with diverse demographic characteristics, Google and IBM have made significant steps for fair treatment and inclusion of all workers. However, these companies still need to enhance their efforts. Google and IBM have best chances of demonstrating their commitment to promote diverse demographic characteristics in organizations and still maintain high quality workforce.

These companies demonstrate some of the best strategies which other organizations can apply to manage demographic changes among the workforce. These are innovative strategies that can build and maintain a high quality workforce that is capable of positive results.

This is true in cases of IBM and Google business performances. Thus, it is necessary that organizations conduct demographic audit and provide solutions that ensure equal opportunities, participation, and inclusion of all employees for positive results.

Therefore, other organizations can learn from Google and IBM, and share their experiences in order to build and maintain a positive working environment amidst changing demographic trends in their workforce.

In fact, IBM and Google programs on minorities and GLBT are formal mentorship programs that can enhance inclusions across the globe. These companies have also noticed that their competitive strategies depend on their diversity agendas in approaching new markets and making substantial business returns.

Works Cited David, Helene. Recent Changes in the World of Work. Quebec: University of Montreal, 2001. Print.

Google. Diversity in our workforce. 2012. Web. .

IBM. “Global Workforce Diversity.” Executive Corner 3 (2010): 1-7. Print.

Lerman, Robert and Stefanie Schmidt. Trends and Challenges for Work in the 21st Century: An overview of economic, social, and demographic trends affecting the US labor market. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute, 1999. Print.

Thomas, David. “Diversity as strategy.” Harvard Business Review 82.9 (2004): 98–108. Print.

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Change Management as an Essential Tool for Organization Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help

Change management in an organization depends on what people think and how they think about the change to be implemented. Implementing change in an organization is a difficult task. This makes many organizations to refrain from implementing change especially if they are forced into it. In order for an organization to implement change successfully, it must be prepared for it.

People’s beliefs about change are mostly influenced by their underlying capacities and psychological aspects which determine if they are ready for the change that is to be implemented in an organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 12). This paper will therefore address the concept of change management and determine its effectiveness within an organization.

Level of readiness for Company X to go through the journey for change Acceptance to change

For any organization to emerge successful while deciding on whether to implement change, it is important for it to accept that it needs the change. In this perspective, an organization may look at its production processes and decide that it needs to adopt modern equipment in order for it to improve its efficiency.

In the case of Company X, it is evident that the company lays more emphasis on the aspect of change acceptance. This aspect has a score of 3.34, which is the highest score compared to all the other aspects. This is an indication that in order for a change initiative to be successful, it is vital for employees to accept that the change is needed within the organization.

Change initiatives

In order for a change process to be successful in an organization, it is ideal for employees to work together to ensure that the process becomes successful. It is necessary for employees to play their part and ensure that they complete the assignments that are assigned to them successfully (McMillan 5).

In the case of Company X, the score for change initiative is 3.26. This ranks as the second aspect that the company lays emphasis on. This is an indication that in order for the change process to be successful, the employees within the organization must demonstrate their willingness to work hard.

Managing change

Managing change within an organization is an essential requirement for any organization that needs to succeed in implementing change. In this perspective, the management within the organization should ensure that all new equipment that is brought to the organization is managed properly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the management of the organization should ensure that any new equipment that the organization acquires is allocated to the qualified employees (Cameron and Quinn 13). In the case of Company X, the average score for this aspect is 3.24.

This is an indication that in order for the change practice to be successfully implemented, it is vital for the organization to ensure that the employees are allocated their rightful duties as well as ensure that they have sufficient information to enable them cope with the changes that take place within the organization.

Managing change applies when the administration of an organization is able to confirm that all the equipment within the organization is operating according to the expectations of the managers.

Management support for change

It is not possible for an organization to implement change without the support of the senior people within the organization. It is therefore the role of senior managers to ensure that they provide all the resources necessary to enable them provide suitable working conditions for the employees.

When managers support the initiative, it becomes easy for employees to adapt to the changes within the organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 5). The various forms of support that managers can provide include effective allocation of finances as well as providing training to employees about the new tools that are implemented within the organization.

Perceptions towards change

The attitude of employees is crucial with respect to enabling an organization to implement changes. Therefore, it is the role of managers to ensure that the working conditions of employees are pleasant so as to ensure that they make employees to develop a positive attitude while working in the organization.

This would have the effect of enabling employees to embrace changes that the management wishes to implement in the organization. This is the reason as to why the rating for the perceptions towards change for Company X has received a score of 2.84

We will write a custom Case Study on Change Management as an Essential Tool for Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mutual trust, respect and willingness to work together

In order for changes that an organization wishes to implement in an organization to be successful, it is important for employees and managers to work together so as to make lasting decisions for the organization. This would play a crucial role in terms of enabling the managers to make reasonable changes that can transform the overall performance of the organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 13).

Mutual trust and respect is manifested within an organization when managers and employees have respect for each other. As a result of having mutual respect for each other, Company X has been able to attain a score of 2.82.

Understanding the vision for the change

In order for the future of a company to be successful, it is essential for it to have a vision. The vision should allow the organization to choose strategies that can enable it to implement effective change strategies.

Since the prospect of change in Company X is well communicated, the company has been able to achieve a score of 2.46 thereby indicating that it understands the vision of the changes that it wishes to implement.

Aspects of Change within an organization

In order for an organization to implement changes effectively, there are certain aspects that it needs to analyze effectively. An organization should ensure that it involves the people who are affected by the change.

For example, the members of an organization such as employees should be involved in change planning because they can manage to anticipate the problems that the organization is likely to face more effectively. The senior management of an organization should also ensure that it gives a valid reason for the change.

This is because the busy people within the organization are likely reject the change that they think is irrelevant to be implemented in the organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 22). Therefore, the management should have a compelling reason for making the change.

The management of an organization should assign a talented person to implement changes. For example, the senior executive of a business is not necessarily the champion of every change that needs to be implemented within an organization. Therefore, it is essential for senior managers to look for a person who can communicate effectively with the employees. The organization should also create a transition management team.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Change Management as an Essential Tool for Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because there is no person within an organization who is talented enough to implement effective changes. For example, if an organization is exceptionally large, it should designate different duties to different departments depending on the expertise of the personnel (McMillan 45).

This way, the departments would be able to work as a community thereby providing employees with brilliant ideas and emotional support. Reward systems are useful in terms of facilitating change within an organization.

This means that in order for employees within an organization to appreciate the changes that take place, it is necessary for the senior managers to show that they appreciate the contribution that the employees make towards implementing the change by adopting a reward system. This can serve as a motivation tool for employees to work hard so that their efforts can be appreciated.

Trust is an essential element that makes it possible for an organization to implement change. In this perspective, the senior managers should demonstrate that they trust their employees by allowing them to participate in the decision making process. This would make employees to trust in the decisions that the senior managers implement in an organization (Richard, Murphy and Willmott 53).

The perception of employees regarding the changes that an organization wishes to implement is critical in an organization. Therefore, before implementing any changes in any organization, the senior managers should test the perceived level of commitment of the employees in the organization in order to ensure that the commitment of the employees towards the change is communicated effectively.

This analysis has therefore demonstrated that change management is an essential tool for any organization to adopt in order for it to succeed in its production processes.

Works Cited Cameron, Kim and Robert Quinn. Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework. New York: John Wiley

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Level of readiness of the company to go through the journey of change Case Study college admission essay help

The company is well prepared to establish, ratify, and embrace change. Besides, a considerable percentage of employees have already accepted the need for change. This is a critical step when scrutinized critically. It is important to adopt viable change mechanisms to ensure that an organization meets it periodic goals.

For a company to achieve positive changes, acceptance is the first provision demanded in the change ratification processes. Every stakeholder must accept the need for change as demonstrated in the case. This is a crucial provision when considered comprehensively.

Those who are against the current situation (acceptance) hardly succeed in their fight for change. This occurs due to inadequate dynamism, readiness, and well-orchestrated change provisions. It is important to establish credible dreams for the desired change. Many challenges are faced by those who are trying to bring change in an organization.

Through the mentioned change acceptance, the studied company will open up by experiencing the need for some credible changes. Consequently, the company will continue to expand in the realms of operations and other considerable developmental provisions.

Agreeably, employees of the concerned company have proved that they have some considerable approaches towards change. That is why many have embraced it. Statistics also indicate that many employees in the organization have made the first move towards change. From the graph, there is high level of production. The company has managed this through cutting costs.

This was achieved by getting rid of some unessential activities. Additionally, they have also managed to do away with some operational costs. However, the change in the company is impressive because there is improved rate of processing and increased reliability.

In the nonproduction part (human side), there is high business standards as well as excellent management-employee relationship. Conversely, they have been able to achieve this since employees themselves feel motivated to establish, ratify, and embrace change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the company is adequately prepared to go through the process of change. They have a considerable support from the management crew, employees, and other stakeholders. Consequently, the company has come up with a management strategy by developing tactics, taking actions and carrying out implementation.

Although many employees have recommendable attitude towards change, some of them, still have not given it a second thought. As a result, there is low percentage towards the perception on change. But those with positive attitude are just enough to help the company achieve its goal (preparing for change).

Mutual trust and respect is also prevailing in the company and this is a fantastic sign indicating the level of preparation and readiness. However, most people still do not understand the aspects of change simply because there is little communication.

Although, Production and non-production phases have low understanding, this manufacturing company is still prepared enough given that many employees have accepted the change. This is a vital consideration in the context of change.

Aspects of Change Readiness Evidently, the seven aspects of change are applicable in this context. Perception towards change is the attitude of employees towards the recommended transformation. With reference to an individual’s refusal to change processes, some failures might be realized. This is avoidable by convincing employees to accept the need for proposed changes.

For example, employees will be able to eliminate the probable barriers to change. Concurrently, employees’ participation in change management is fully dependent on the attitude of the managers towards change. Agreeably, it is possible for managers to create change initiatives and influence employees to embrace them.

Conversely, individual’s cognitive processes are some of the influential factors in the development of organizational change. When members of a given organization resist change, the agenda of transformation in that organization will definitely not succeed.

We will write a custom Case Study on Level of readiness of the company to go through the journey of change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An organization trying to push for a huge change must embrace some mutual trust and esteem. This will eventually reduce a company’s internal marketing. Internal marketing comprises of conflicts between employees and the company, politics and inadequate communication within the organization.

Consequently, instead getting rid of this competition, employees spend a lot of energy fighting each other. To actively achieve this goal of attaining mutual trust, conservation must be carried out. For example, the company should not employ people and consequently expel them on baseless grounds.

Accordingly, through mutual trust and change initiative, the organization will automatically retain its employees thus avoiding destruction of the company. Creating an environment with excellent friendship between the public and private sectors is always necessary.

However, to build up this relationship and the general trust, the company’s centre of attention should be on transformation. Older principles should be avoided and sovereignty encouraged.

Vision for change and managing the proposed change are important provisions in this context. It is evident that they will demonstrate the real picture of an organization. Although both the change and corporate vision are important, organizations interested in achieving this goal must recognize their difference.

For example, these change visions are easily understood by the employees and the organization. This occurs because they can be written without trouble and easily communicated. This is far much different from corporate vision because it is not only for a single organizational change but also about future changes.

Additionally, it is about endless principles and behaviors (accepting and implementing change) necessary for the prosperity of an organization. The company will definitely manage this change process by employing people with excellent principles and behaviors.

Efforts towards managing organizational change are majorly laborious and emotional. It usually delays the commencement of this transform and the final result of an organization. This change is always necessary to ensure that a company’s involvement is appropriate. To successfully achieve this, the company must consider achieving something better and exemplary.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Level of readiness of the company to go through the journey of change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, it should construct problem and opportunity structure. Changes always begin with an opportunity to be utilized and a problem which needs a solution. For example, organizations are trying to find solutions for inadequate growth and poor organization of the expenses. However, they are also trying to acquire new technologies as well as fighting globalization.

It is important to attain the management’s support for change. Employees should also realize the need for the concerned changes. Consequently, the organization will manage the process of transformation only when the teams involved are successful.

Change management involves both the perception of an organization and that of an individual. However, individual change management requires some knowledge on how to successfully acquire the concerned change. Additionally, as an organization continuously transforms, its success entirely relies on employees.

Organizations manage the changes by actively communicating and facilitating the training of employees. Additionally, employees have also realized that to manage this, they must be informed about the need for change and have that desire to take part in the process.

However, they have some knowledge on how manage change and are able to put into practice the necessary skills and behaviors. For example, organizations have realized that change can not be achieved without the support of the employees and have taken that initiative of supporting them.

Conversely, they have not only put in place some programs to manage change but also corrective measures like taking care of the managers and supervisors. However, there is an excellent connection in change management between individuals and organizations.

Some aspects regarding the place of work should be considered for viable change ratification. There must be positive perceptions towards change efforts. Communication is essential when unveiling changes, every employee should be aware of what occurs in the organization and how these will have an impact on them.

Individuals who understand change are more open-minded than those who do not. Additionally, the organization should demonstrate the advantages of the transformations to the employees.

By making employees to be part of the company and its objectives, they will easily recognize the importance of making changes and eventually help it move forward. Managing transformations in organization is achieved when there is considerable planning and implementation strategies. For example, people affected should also be consulted and incorporated in the changes.

Organizations trying to bring changes through force always have troubles with employees. However, change should be practical, measurable, and easy to attain. These characteristics are usually necessary when working on personal change.

Organizations must first know their goal with regard to the changes, individuals affected, and their responses. The above changes are greatly connected to individual management and organizational change. Besides, people should be aware of the existence of change and management.

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Colour and Design Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Colour Notation

Perceptual Effect

Gestalt Laws

Role of Contrast

Conclusion

References

Introduction Colour is important in any image since it conveys different meanings when different combinations of it are used. Image texture, colour intensity, proximity of different hues, and the shape of the parts that contain certain colours govern the way the image is perceived by the observer.

Different parts of the image convey different pieces of information, which result in one comprehensive and meaningful message when put together (Feisner, 2000).

The image displayed is a multicolour image seemingly painted with many colours carefully applied to evoke a certain cognitive reaction of the observer. Moreover, the image is interesting since it encompasses several laws and theories of psychology in its appearance.

It is evident that the gestalt laws of colour and perception are applied in the analysis of the image by any image and/or colour specialist. This particular image portrays a sparsely cloudy sunset near the shore of a lake. This is the overall perception of the observer.

Colour Notation The orange colour of the sun is created using the basic RGB colour notation as it is not one of the primary colours, and it is generated using the RGB system (Kopacz, 2006).

The same system is used to paint the sky on the upper far left corner of the image where yellow hue, generated by adding green colour to red hue, is dominant.

Green hue is evident in the foreground of the image. This hue is a result of using the primary colour system. White shades are created using a combination of red, green, and blue colours. Various mild effects are achieved with the help of this technique.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Perceptual Effect The image is painted in a rough texture, and several vague aspects can be perceived in it. However, gestalt law of pragnanz is applied to the image where any average human being can identify familiar objects (O’connor, 2010). For example, the sun, trees, boats, and the men in the lake are noticeable after a close examination of the image. The highlighted objects make sense to an individual through past human experience (Green, 2005).

Gestalt Laws Gestalt law of proximity is exemplified by the trees in the image. The trees can actually be identified as several individual trees. However, the human cognitive reaction groups the trees. If the trees were to be described, one would identify them as a cluster rather than go into the depth of identifying individual trees.

In addition, one can identify several people in the vessels in the water. The immediate reaction of one’s mind is to identify the occupants of the boats as a group since they are huddled close together.

In addition to proximity, the trees and the people in the boats are a symbol of similarity. It would be impossible to classify people and the trees as groups if they were objects of different physical orientation. This obeys the gestalt law of similarity were human visual perception tends to automatically classify physically similar objects into one or several homogenous clusters (Hartmann, 2008).

Strokes of orange can be seen in the background of the image. These strokes succeed in creating an impression of the sky covered by light clouds and illuminated by the setting sun. The continuity of the streaks of orange implies that the gestalt law of continuity was applied when creating the image.

Moreover, continuous white streaks succeed in creating an impression of water body in the foreground. There are several smudges of grey in the foreground.

Gestalt law of common fate is implied by these grey smudges since they are stretched in the same direction (O’connor, 2010). Their shape, colour, and the manner in which they are placed imply that they are similar objects with a likelihood of sharing a destiny (Hartmann, 2008).

We will write a custom Report on Colour and Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Role of Contrast Contrast plays a great role in conveying the information in the image. This phenomenon occurs due to a slightly noticeable difference in hues (Maund, 2006). An impression of the sun has been created in the background of the picture against a dull cloud. The fact that shades of grey and blue surround the orange hue makes the intensity of the sun stand out.

Reduced contrast between the impression of the illumination of the sky and the surrounding mixture of colours is the cause of this effect (O’connor, 2010). In addition, the use of orange in parts of the painting other than the sun creates an impression of vibrancy due to the effect of complimentary colours (Kuehni, 2007).

A silhouette of the water vessels and the people in them succeeds in creating an image that can be perceived by the human eye. Moreover, the sharp contrast in the image helps create a definite outline of the figures. The hue created by cyan and grey in the background results in warm and cold contrast with the intense orange colour of the sun.

Conclusion Through the use of colours and a coarse painting technique, a multifaceted impression is made by the image. The creator of the image has also perfected the art of prioritisation of colours in their suitable context. For example, orange, a radiant colour, has been used when putting the sun against cyan and grey which are cool and dull hues respectively.

References Feisner, E. (2000). Colour: how to use colour in art and design. London: Laurence King.

Green, P. (2005). The Value of Knowledge for Color Design. Perth: Curtin University.

Hartmann, G. (2008). Gestalt psychology: a survey of facts and principles. Whitefish, Mont.: Kessinger Pub..

Kopacz, J. (2006). Color in three-dimensional design. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Colour and Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kuehni, R. (2007). Development of the Idea of the Idea of simple colors in the 16th and Early 17th centuries. Oxford: Wiley.

Maund, B. (2006). The Illusory of Colours. Washington: Universty of Washington press.

O’connor, Z. (2010). Colour Harmony Revisited. Colour Research and Application, 35(4), 267-273.

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Marketing of McDonald’s products and services Case Study scholarship essay help

Abstract For organisations to market their products and services, they need to adopt appropriate marketing strategies that are consistent with the dynamics of the industry in which they are established.

The goal here is to reduce the negative impacts that the weaknesses and threats surrounding an organisation may have on the success of the organisation.

Any marketing strategy that helps in the realisation of these concerns needs to lay out conspicuously an organisation’s market segments, target markets, target strategy and even the positioning strategy as in the case of McDonald.

Introduction Marketing involves one of the noble activities an organisation does to create awareness of the value for its products and services.

In a broader perspective, marketing entails market research, market segmentation, setting of marketing strategies, evaluation of the marketing environment through SWOT analysis, and even positioning of marketing strategies among others (Kotler et al, 2009, p.56).

In an effort to set out a clear understanding of each of these elements constituting the marketing function, the case of McDonald is analysed in this paper.

Essentially, it is argued that a proper design of all these elements amounts to an incredible success of the placement of McDonald’s products and services: something that has made the organisation realise a global presence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Industry Background McDonald operates in an industry of fast foods. In this industry, the major target market includes all people whom the industry believes lack time to prepare food and hence opt for ready-to-eat foods. Such people include young people and working class persons (Surtherland

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Public Opinion on Immigration and Ethnic Relations in the US Essay college admission essay help

Public opinion on the topic of immigration and ethnic relations is many sided. This is because the public hold divergent opinion on the topic. A section of the public supports immigration while another section does not support the idea.

Further studies reveal that people tend to support past immigration and their imminent support to the growth of the economy than current and future migrations. This implies that public opinion towards immigration has been changing over time that is, from a more receptive attitude to a more concerned attitude.

To some extent, the impact of immigration on the society as a whole causes the change in attitude. This has led to changes in laws which target immigration issues.

A number of research studies have been carried out to establish factors that influence peoples’ attitude towards immigration and ethnic relations in the United States. This paper aims to discuss public opinion on immigration and ethnic relations.

The rise in immigrant population disturbs most people in America. Immigration into America can either be legal or illegal. The public is concerned about illegal immigration.

This is because the state does not have statistics of the illegal immigrants. This hinders planning. From the various studies carried out, the public view immigration in three perspectives.

First, they believe that illegal immigration is on the rise and is causing a serious problem on the social and economic growth of the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, the public is also for the idea of a strong but not penal approach to enforcement of immigration laws. Finally, the public supports liberal immigration reform provision to deal with illegal immigrants.

On particular immigrant group, the public is more positive to some immigrant groups than others. For instance, over 50% of Americans are positive about immigrants from Asia, Latin America and Mexico coming to live and work in America. In terms of race, the White Americans do not welcome immigrants.

They base their arguments on increased crime, moral decay, social values and tax evasion. Black Americans negatively associate immigrants with scramble for job opportunities and slow growth of the economy. Public opinion on immigration can also be divided on a political line.

The republicans and democrats hold different views on immigrants. Democrats are more receptive to issues relating to immigrants than republicans. In addition, public opinion also depends on age group.

Youths tend to be against the immigrants since they subject them to compete for the scarce resources available as such public amenities. They also compete for the available job opportunities.

In summary, it can be deduced that the public concerns on immigration and ethnic relations are increasing over the years. In general, the public is more concerned with illegal immigrants than legal immigrants.

What is evident from these studies and finding is that there are more negative impacts of immigration in the domicile country than positive impacts. Besides, the public hold diverse opinion on immigrants. The public give these opinions based on the race, political affiliations and age group among others.

We will write a custom Essay on Public Opinion on Immigration and Ethnic Relations in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Public opinion on immigration has been changing since the ancient times and so are the laws on immigration. Besides, these opinions have been instrumental in policy formulation.

They have also assisted in defining the collective vision of national identity. Finally, they have affected the daily behavior of nationals. These behaviors define the overall social climate of a nation.

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Eating disorder prevention programs Essay essay help online: essay help online

Eating Disorder Prevention Programs is an article written by Eric Stice and Heather Shaw. Through the article, Stice and Shaw evaluated the current information on eating disorders based on risks and maintenance aspects rather than on a particular analysis.

Based on the available data, Stice suggested that risks and maintenance factors could not be distinguished from diagnosis consequences without adequate information (Stice

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Organizational and Corporate Culture Term Paper best essay help

Defining Corporate/Organizational Culture Every organization, whether small or big, has an organizational culture. This culture can be defined variously. It involves a collection of common values, practices, symbols, assumptions (Bryson 34), and beliefs that influence members of an organization.

Organizational culture is a company’s practices and beliefs that determine how the entity is ran and operate on a daily basis. Employees of an organization share common beliefs and practices, values, norms, systems, symbols, and working language.

New employees and other entrants into the organization are socialized into these collective behaviors, attitudes, and assumptions that form part of the entity’s cultural framework.

Organizational culture is what shapes the organization’s history, current assumptions, experiences, and key viewpoints that hold it together. Culture is a way of thinking. It is the unwritten or unspoken ways of working together in an organization.

Corporate culture shapes the organization’s key strategies and their implementation. As such, it plays a major role in influencing the success of an organization (Zabid, Murali and Johari 711).

Importance of Corporate Culture Organizational culture provides a shared platform that ensures that members of an organization are operating from the same page. It provides a basis for integration and coordination of operations in an organization thus guiding behavior and change.

Organizational culture helps employees have a common goal and stay united thus providing an organization with a well-networked work setting that is vital for the communication, understanding, and implementation of key organizational strategies (Bryson 752).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Corporate culture influences the behavior and social interactions among employees. It establishes or sets standards of acceptable behavior in an organization.

Culture links organizational strategies and policies to everyday’s organization activities. This equips the organization with a competitive advantage, thus helping it to achieve its goals and objectives (Zabid et al. 712).

Organizational culture reflects and contributes to the brand image of the organization. It shapes how the outside world will view the organization.

An organization with a good company image is likely to be viewed by external stakeholders as a better and strong business entity. It makes them view the organization as one that has the capacity to deliver quality goods or services.

This enhances the relationship between the external stakeholders and the organization. It boosts efficiency, effectiveness, profitability, and overall performance of the organization (Bryson 751).

It promotes efficiency in an organization. Corporate culture influences the standard of behaviors and the kind of goals that members should pursue.

This affects change of behavior and attitudes among employees thus aligning them with organizational goals and objectives.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Organizational and Corporate Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the activities and attitudes of employees and members of the organization are well aligned with the organizational goals and objectives, they can deliver much more and more efficiently.

This translates to overall improvement of organizational efficiency and performance (Bryson 750, 756).

Organizational culture focuses more on human resource in the entity. It helps build lasting cordial relationships among employees. This relationship of mutual respect and understanding helps members of an organization to bring about needed changes in the firm.

Since organization culture changes over time, new ways of doing things are adopted. This supports creativity and innovation in an organization which are vital components of success in today’s competitive global market.

Organizational culture is the glue that holds the entity together. It helps the internal mechanisms and practices remain intact and effective. Culture binds members of an organization to certain expectations and approved patterns of behavior.

This enables the organization to effectively maintain its internal positive working practices and internally handle employees’ grievances (Zabid et al. 711).

Organizational culture is vital to the improved performance of both the employees and the organization. It helps increase efficiency among employees which in turn increases performance of the organization. It helps members of the organization to understand key organizational objectives, processes, and events.

This enables the members of the organization to understand their role in these processes, thereby increasing their knowledge and performance as well as that of the organization (Zabid et al. 712, 713).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational and Corporate Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Corporate culture is a key influence of decision-making processes among employees in an organization. Good corporate culture enables members of the organization to make informed and guided decisions that inform the direction taken by the organization.

Effective decisions and decision- making mechanisms are key components of success in an organization. They facilitate efficiency and effectiveness among employees at the workplace, thus leading to enhanced organizational performance.

Strong organizational culture enhances commitment and self- confidence among employees. It facilitates and promotes ethical behaviors among members of the organization.

When employees and members of an entity are committed to the organization’s activities, they become motivated and this increases their productivity (Zabid et al. 720, 721).

Determinants of Corporate Culture There are several factors that determine organizational or corporate culture. These are analyzed below:

Behavior

These are the actions and attitudes of individuals and groups towards one another and towards the organization as a whole. It determines organizational culture.

Behavior that reflects the values of the organizations is often rewarded and becomes the general, acceptable, and dominant behavior. On the other hand, behavior that does not reflect the organization’s values is not rewarded; it is punished.

Behavior plays a vital role in influencing the organizational culture. It includes the way individuals respond to certain conditions. It forms a major component of culture since the latter is the overall set of behavior standards expected of individuals or group of individuals.

Culture cannot exist without behavior; it determines the kind of culture an organization has at a particular period (Zabid et al. 720).

Relationships

These are developed among the employees and the organization over time. It encompasses mutual understanding among individuals or members of an organization.

Interaction among employees determines the acceptable and unacceptable norms, behaviors, and assumptions that shape organizational culture.

An organization with poor relationship among its members cannot sustain a healthy organizational culture. Corporate culture is dependent on the interrelationships among employees in the organization.

Communication and social interaction forms the basis of analyzing acceptable and unacceptable norms and behavior patterns. Therefore, corporate culture is more or less determined by relationships (Hellriegel, Slocum and Woodman 529).

Attitudes

Individual attitudes influence behavior patterns of these individuals, thus influencing the culture of an organization. The attitude of employees determines the kind of corporate culture that exists in an organization (Balthazard, Cooke and Potter 715, 727).

Values

The value system among individuals or employees in an organization is paramount to the behavior patterns of these employees. They may be different due to upbringing, religion, and educational levels.

However, the organization adapts these many and different value systems to come up with acceptable organizational values that shape the culture of the organization.

A change of values by employees leads to a change in the values of the organization, leading to change in organizational culture in extension (Balthazard et al. 715, 727).

Environment

This is another important aspect when it comes to organization culture. Internal and external factors of a business entity may affect its culture variously. External factors such as political, social, economic and physical environmental may influence the operations of the organization.

Organizational structure is a factor within the business entity that informs its cultural framework. When the structure fails to support transparency, this may lead to poor communication, relationships and culture in the organization (Balthazard et al. 710, 714).

Organizational culture is expressed through the external and internal practices of the entity. It is seen in the degree of freedom given to employees in decision-making, contributing to new ideas, innovativeness, creativity and personal expression. It is reflected in how well an organization treats its employees and customers as well as the community.

Organizational Structure

Organizational culture is also influenced by the organization’s structure. This is how an organization distributes power and information throughout its various levels. Employees’ commitment and dedication to the job and goals of the company is also a key indicator of the culture of an organization.

When employees are more committed and dedicated to the organizational activities, they provide a corporate image that defines the kind of culture an organization has at a particular period (Zabid et al. 721).

Healthy Organizational Culture: Characteristics A healthy organizational culture is characterized by the following key aspects:

Organizational Pride

Employees of an organization that has a healthy organizational culture take pride in their work. They feel as part of the organization. This makes them feel more obligated to their work.

It also motivates them to work more effectively and efficiently. Organizational pride among members of an organization also boosts the image of the entity to its external stakeholders (Balthazard 716).

Effective Teamwork, Communication, and Employee Relationships

A healthy and strong organizational culture is highly characterized by the presence of highly effective teams. The flow of information and the understanding of this information within an organization is an indication that a healthy corporate culture is present.

This allows for effective exchange of information, behavior patterns, norms, and attitudes in an organization (Rothman 220).

Quality Leadership

Organizations with healthy corporate culture have an effective leadership structure that influences the organizational culture and change.

Quality leadership is vital for every organization’s success. It plays a major role in the implementation of key strategies in the achievement of organizational objectives (Balthazard 715).

Positive Client-Customer Relations

Strong and positive relationship between employees, employees and managers and employees and customers exists in a company with a healthy corporate culture.

Innovativeness and Creativity

A healthy corporate culture stimulates innovativeness and creativity at the work place. Employees are accorded the right training and suitable working environment to effectively come up with better products and services.

This cutting-edge thinking in an organization stimulates the growth of employees as well as that of the organization.

Types of Corporate Culture Every organization has a type of organizational culture that is different from that of another organization. However, there are similarities and indicators of corporate culture that can be used to classify different organizational cultures. The following are some of the dimensions applied in defining different organizational cultures:

Deal and Kennedy’s Model of Defining Corporate Culture

This classification of organizational culture was developed by researchers Deal and Kennedy. They first identified the subcultures, strong cultures, and weak cultures in an organization.

Sub Culture

A subculture exists where differences in departmental goals within an organization exists. It is the segments or sections of the main organizational culture that show different individual values, norms, behaviour and beliefs different from the main culture.

It may arise due to difference in job requirements, different departmental goals and geographical area within the organization (Terrence and Deal 34). It can be within the organization or formed for social interactions outside the organization by members of the entity.

Strong Culture

Strong corporate culture is highly characterized by employees’ common aspect and sharing of beliefs, norms, behaviours, and values in the organization.

An organization with a strong corporate culture is characterized by recognition, respect and strong social relationship among its employees and managers.

It makes them feel more proud to be associated with the organization. Employees deliver quality services and goods under a strong organizational culture that recognises them and rewards them accordingly (Terrence and Deal 15).

Weak Culture

A weak organizational culture is not strongly knit within the organization. It does not fully affect change of behaviour, norms, and work patterns among members of an organization.

Communication and implementation of key organizational strategies is not well understood and executed in the organization due to its loose nature. This creates diversity of expected behaviour patterns.

Lack of congruence in these organizations is highly associated with the influence of individual’s objectives and culture on the organization (Terrence and Deal 15).

Dean and Kennedy came up with the following four types of corporate cultures:

Tough Guy Culture

According to Terrence and Deal (15), a tough guy culture exists in an organization that has effective feedback mechanisms and which is characterized by high risk. It is more prevalent among large financial service sectors where quick responses are barely a luxury but a necessity.

In a tough guy organizational culture, the long term aspects are not considered as much as the short term or present aspects due to the high risk of the organizational activities.

This is for example in the police force, sports and emergency response surgeons (Terrence and Deal 111).

“Work Hard, Play Hard”

Work hard, play hard culture is characterized by rapid feedback and rapid reward as well as low risks. Organizations with a work hard play hard culture are involved in taking few risks and receiving fast feedback. Most software companies are characterized by this work hard, play hard culture (Terrence and Deal 113).

Bet-the-Company Culture

This is another form of cultural framework found in various organizations. It is characterized by significant decisions touching on high stake undertakings.

It is more common in companies performing experimental projects and research such as oil exploration companies (Terrence and Deal 117).

Process Culture

Process culture is often found in organizations that have slow or no feedback mechanisms. This culture is characterized by procedures that are overly cautious in following the laws, rules and regulations.

Consistency of results of the process culture makes it good for public service, insurance companies and the banking sector (Terrence and Deal 119).

Market Oriented Cultures

There are four types of market oriented organizational/corporate cultures. These are:

Entrepreneurial corporate culture

Competitive corporate culture

Consensual corporate culture, and

Bureaucratic corporate culture

Entrepreneurial Corporate Culture

In entrepreneurial corporate culture, issues of profitability, market superiority, competitive advantage, and profits are more emphasized. In this type of organizational culture, the entity supports values, attributes, and behavior patterns of the employees that lead to profitability.

The presence of certain characteristics that supports and enhances the organization’s capability to achieve market superiority that leads to competitive advantage and profitability are key indicators of entrepreneurial corporate culture.

In entrepreneurial corporate culture, less emphasis and attention is given to other factors such as predictability and employees’ wellbeing. More emphasis is placed on profitability of the organization (Zabid et al. 715).

Competitive Corporate Culture

The competitive corporate culture emphasizes on risk taking, high levels of dynamism, creativity, and innovation. In a competitive corporate culture, some aspects of an organization are given priority over others.

Issues of competitiveness in an organization or industry are paramount and more important than any other aspect of the organization (Balthazard et al. 719). This corporate culture supports creativity and innovativeness among members of an organization.

This is encouraged in order to facilitate a working environment that is conducive for the breeding of competition-oriented employees that are able to produce more competitive products for the market (Zabid et al. 715).

Consensual Corporate Culture

The consensual corporate culture lays more emphasis on loyalty, tradition, self-management, personal commitment, teamwork, and social influence.

It is more evident in family- owned businesses where loyalty, tradition, personal commitment, and social influence play a vital role in the success of the organization in the society. It is not however limited to family businesses.

Other organizational structures that support and encourage personal commitment, teamwork, and social influence are characterized by this consensual corporate culture.

Members of an organization with a consensual corporate culture feel as part of the organization and are more motivated to bring their share of experiences and skills to the workplace (Zabid et al. 715).

Bureaucratic Corporate Culture

The bureaucratic corporate culture focuses more on predictability, stability, and efficiency. Bureaucratic culture does not promote creativity and innovations among employees.

The employees in such organizations are often subjected to certain set standards and predictable ways of doing things in the organization. This limits adoption of changes in an organization.

Procedures, work, and behavior patterns are aligned to be predictable, efficient and stable. Organizations with bureaucratic corporate cultures are more concerned with the effectiveness and predictability of results rather than the profitability and competitiveness of their products (Zabid et al. 715).

Case Studies Best Buy Co. Inc. is a US electronic retailer giant. Best Buy has increased its presence in many countries due to its strong organizational culture. This is a customer focused and employees’ wellbeing culture.

Best Buy responds quickly to customer needs through its efficient customer service. As one of the leading electronics’ retailer in the world, it strives to deliver the best electronic gadgets and equipments to its dozens of stores across national borders.

With a competitive culture that encourages results oriented work environment among its employees, Best Buy has continued to perform better in the electronics industry.

The company is also much involved in building long lasting and beneficial customer relationships. For example, there are some stores with shopping assistants to help customers in their shopping as well as take them on a shopping trip.

This customer- oriented and competitive culture is good for the company since it is involved in a fast changing electronic market.

Founded in 1962 by Sam Walton, Wal-Mart is an American multinational retailer. It has stores in 27 countries, 2.2 million employees worldwide and with expected approximate sales of $444 billion in 2012.Wal-Mart has a strong organizational culture.

It has a ‘cult-like’ strong culture. Employees of Wal-Mart exhibit organizational pride; they are very proud to be associated with Wal-Mart. They take pride in their work. They are commonly referred to as ‘Walmartians’ or associates.

This is a sign of quality leadership in the organization. Employees and managers are motivated to work better and most of them have high ambitions. Wal-Mart has dedicated team players at all levels as a result of an effective communication system and mechanism.

This strong culture has helped Wal-Mart sustain an entrepreneurial spirit throughout. It has made the company to be more innovative, profitable and continue to grow expansively.

For example, Wal-Mart is one of the leading private employers and among the few existing trillion dollar companies.

Toyota Motor Company which was founded in 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda and headquartered in Toyota, Japan, is a multinational automobile car manufacturer.

Toyota’s growth as one of the leading and most profitable companies in the world is based on its strong entrepreneurial and competitive corporate culture. Its culture focuses more on quality product development and strong, mutually beneficial customer relationship.

Toyota is also strongly engaged in the use of innovative technological and advanced mechanisms in its production of automobiles. The much visible efficient customer and employees’ relationship in Toyota has also helped the company to come up with highly competitive products.

IKEA which was founded in 1943 by Ingvar Kamprad is Swedish international furniture and home products retail company. IKEA is widely associated with product development and lower prices.

It portrays a customer oriented corporate culture that focuses more on the customers and product competitiveness.

Apple Inc. which was founded in 1976 is an American consumer electronics and computer software manufacturer and retailer giant.

The company is strongly based on a flat organizational structure that encourages mutual customer and employee relationships that also encourage an open entrepreneurial corporate culture to thrive in the company.

The entrepreneurial culture enables the company to strategically align employees to their areas of expertise. This helps the company in the development of its innovative and highly creative and successful products in the market.

Conclusion Corporate culture is an important aspect of every organization. It influences the standard of behaviors and the kind of goals that members should pursue. This affects change of behavior and attitudes among employees in the organization, thus aligning them with organizational goals and objectives.

When members of the organization are aligned with organizational goals and objectives, they perform better. This leads to the overall improvement of organizational performance. Organizational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation influences success in an organization.

It increases organizational performance. There is therefore the need for organizations to embrace a favorable organizational culture that motivates the employees.

Works Cited Balthazard, Pierre, Robert, Cooke, and Richard, Potter. ‘Dysfunctional Culture, Dysfunctional Organization: Capturing the Behavioral Norms that Form Organizational Culture and Drive Performance.’ Journal of Managerial Psychology 21.7 (2006): 43-59. Print.

Bryson, Jane. ‘Dominant, Emergent, and Residual Culture: The Dynamics of Organizational Change.’ Journal of Organizational Change Management 21.2 (2008): 23-39. Print.

Hellriegel, Don, John, Slocum, and Richard, Woodman. Organizational Behavior. New York: Southwestern College, 2001. Print.

Rothman, Juliet. Cultural Competence in Process and Practice: Building Bridges. Indiana: Indiana University, 2007. Print.

Terrence, Eric, and Allan, Deal. Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life. New York: Wesley Publishers, 1982. Print.

Zabid, Abdul, Sambasivan, Murali, and Juliana, Johari. ‘The Influence of Corporate Culture and Organizational Commitment on Performance.’ Journal of Management Development 22.3 (2003): 67-69. Print.

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Starbucks Coffee Essay essay help: essay help

The Market for Starbucks Coffee Starbucks coffee is a world’s leading beverage. The Starbuck coffee has a relatively expansive market size. Most of its potential consumers have varied characteristics and consumption behavior. The coffee covers an approximate of 33% of the total market share in the United States. Notably, Starbucks Coffee sells at very high rates.1

It is critical to analyze the market structure and composition for the Starbucks Coffee. The product has a very expansive market share. There are several reasons attributed to this noble achievement.

Potential Suppliers and Demanders There are several consumers of Starbucks Coffee in different countries. However, it is vital to note that a huge proportion of these consumers are city and upscale suburban dwellers. The product enjoys very wide market coverage.2

This is despite widespread rumours about the high prices. Consequently, there are many distributors and suppliers of the product within the U.S. Observably, the hard financial conditions have led to significant cuts in the demand. The overall pattern is a reduced level of demand and an increased substitution with other alternatives. These include the McDonald’s McCafe. The company’s elementary target comprise of the males and females.

The age bracket of these target groups is between 25 and 40.3 Analytically, this category of demanders constitutes approximately half of the overall business. Most of the demanders are urbanites. Apart from this, they depict considerably high levels of household and individual income.

They are mostly professional and career persons who like enjoying their social life and welfare. This category of demanders expands at an annual rate of 3%. Young adults are also key demanders of the product. They represent an average of 40% of the total sales for the product. In this category, the major audience include the college students.

Starbucks Coffee has managed to attract a huge percentage of the demanders. This is because of unique and impressive advertising, promotion and celebrity engagement. The company continually applies robust and transformative technology in its promotion and production practices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This initiative is aimed at fostering a significant impact and increase in the number of its demanders. Particularly, this applies to the young adults and other similar consumers. Social networking has played a critical role in enhancing the capacity of the Starbucks. They have been able to attract and retain more consumers.

As realized by the company and different suppliers, it is important to portray and maintain the “cool image.” This helps to sustain the high number of consumers. According to the market statistics in the U.S, this market category expands by approximately 4.6% annually.4

The kids and teens form the last category of the notable demanders. They constitute for around 2% of the Starbucks coffee consumers in the U.S. However, these consumers access these products through their parents and guardians. There are different suppliers of Starbucks Coffee in the U.S. 5 Starbucks Company is one of the potential suppliers in the US market.

Nonetheless, there are other different middle level distributors and suppliers created by the company. Majorly, these refer to those formed to supply these products within the overseas markets.

Factors Determining the Ability and Willingness to Supply And Demand the Good Different factors play significant roles in influencing the supply and demand of Starbucks Coffee. The advertisement and promotion strategies launched by different suppliers are important. They dictate the level and nature of demand for the Starbucks Coffee. The complimentary products also have a crucial role in the determination of supply and demand. There has been a recent outcry of increased competition from cheaper complimentary products in the major markets.6

Increased competition is, therefore, another significant factor in the demand and supply of the product. The taxation policies within different markets have played a crucial role in the analysis of supply and demand patterns. This is because high taxes increase the prices of the products, thereby lowering the demand from consumers. Alternatively, these elevated taxes may also reduce the supply levels within different markets.

Several factors affect the demand and supply patterns. Some of these include weather changes. In fact, most marketers have noted fluctuations in the supply and demand of the product during winters and summers. The price of raw materials dictates the quantities supplied within most markets. It is also vital to note that high production costs during the initial stages limit the number of suppliers and consumers.7

We will write a custom Essay on Starbucks Coffee specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ideally, this is due to high product prices realized or recorded at the delivery and consumption point within the society. The supply and demand patterns always respond to remarkable fluctuations. These may include the fluctuations caused by bad harvests. There are also transformations in the tastes and preferences of consumers. The changes pose greater effects on prices and available quantities.

Factors Determining the Quantity Sold Annually and the Consequent Prices Different factors within perfect markets play critical roles. Specifically, this relates to the manipulation of product market prices and quantity of sales.8 The increased level of rivalry and competition within the coffee market manipulates the quantities supplied as well as their prices.

Additionally, major economic setbacks such as the recent recession have potential impacts. These are observed on the supply and pricing mechanisms for Starbucks Coffee. Most suppliers are presently grappling with mechanisms to elevate their annual sales. This pattern is observable even within different destinations, including the global markets.

Generally, the severe economic recession has played a remarkable role in minimizing the sales capacity of the product.9 Price adjustments within competitive markets have considerably influenced sales and quantities supplied. In addition, revenue and foreign investment policies within different markets also play a significant role. It is important to examine the demand and supply curves for the product. The approximate plots of the demand and supply curves for Starbucks Coffee are indicated below.10

Footnotes Bryant Simon, Everything but the coffee: learning about America from Starbucks (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009)

Del Hawknis, Mothersbaugh David and Mookerjee Amit, Consumer behavior: building marketing strategy (New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill, 2011)

Khanh Pham-Gia, Marketing strategy of ‘Starbucks Coffe’ (München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Starbucks Coffee by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marie Bussing-Burks, Starbucks (Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press, 2009)

Suman Majumdar

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Psychological Properties of Colors Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Relevance

Expertise of the author

Viewpoint of Author/Organization Intended Audience

Evidence

When published

Reference List

Introduction Many books and articles have been aimed at examining the psychology of color, but not all of them are of high quality. This paper will review the article Psychological Properties of Colors written by Angela Wright (2011). Overall, it is hardly appropriate for students or scholars, because the author does not provide any evidence to support her claims. Moreover, many of the writer’s statements are not even testable.

Relevance The information presented by the author cannot be of any use to a person who studies psychology. The author uses concepts and makes statements that cannot be considered scientific or even testable.

For instance, the writer says, “Blue is the colour of the mind and is essentially soothing; it affects us mentally, rather than the physical reaction we have to red” (Wright, 2011, unpaged). The article is full of such sentences, and one cannot say that they are psychological statements that identify relationships between causes and effects. Thus, they are not relevant to any particular field.

Expertise of the author The article does not provide information about the educational background of Angela Wright. In contrast, peer-reviewed studies usually tell the readers much more about the authors (Martinez

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Feasibility Study vs. Business Plan Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Purpose of Feasibility Study and Business Plan

Structure of Feasibility Study and Business Plan

Identification of Feasibility Study and Business plan

Business Plan Identification

References

Introduction Some essential practices are carried out before starting a new business to establish if the business idea is sensible and to evaluate the required capital needed to start the business. It also helps identify the length in which the business will begin to show profit.

Bringing together in-depth business plan needs a significant investment of time, so it is very important to investigate the feasibility of business idea and to establish if it has a value. Feasibility study is the initial stage a person pursues before producing a complete business plan (Reuvid, 201, p. 135).

A feasibility study is applied to analyze the probability of the business idea being effective and the business plan uses the data received in the feasibility study to demonstrate the way the business will function, market, develop, and create income.

The business plan must come after the feasibility study and if the projected business idea is not feasible, a person must progress the business plan until he or she revises the business idea. The business plan is often used as a tool to portray completely the business and its fiscal projections.

Purpose of Feasibility Study and Business Plan A feasibility study offers an impression of the major factors of the business idea to investigate if it is appropriate and practical, and to establish any issues that may build or damage the undertaking. This study examines the market area, the prospective business form, the provision of products, and advanced financial features such as the accessibility of capital and prospective proceeds on venture (Reuvid, 201, p. 135).

The feasibility analysis addresses different settings for the function of the business and provides all the benefits and drawbacks to establish the effective and reliable options. For instance, if a person arranges to commence a business that offers the products related to clothing, the study establishes if the products will sell better online or in a local store setting.

After the feasibility analysis is performed and the projected idea is feasible, the person should apply this information to gather his or her complete business plan.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This report or plan offers an efficient direction or path for establishing the venture and contains a description of the situation that has been chosen from those enclosed and described in the feasibility study. It describes issues like the potential business model, projected possession, and legal structure, and the idea for execution (Gartner and Bellamy, 2008, p. 242).

Structure of Feasibility Study and Business Plan A feasibility plan has a structure that contains aspects of the product or service and the rationale that offers how person anticipate customers to buy this product or service. It examines the materials applied to produce the item or the procedure by which the person obtains the product or service for sale.

A feasibility study determines the mass and features of the projected market, the key players and all present blockages to operating in the market. It investigates the environmental factors that might influence the effectiveness of the venture, such as advance technology expenses, government policies, and waste disposal matters.

The business plan contains in-depth picture of the functions, the products to be offered, capital expenses, marketing strategies, and accessibility of budget. The plan encloses the potential time limit for starting the projected business and the main individuals required within this period.

The business plan lists the potential strategies of the venture in the market and determines evidently the part of the market intended to purchase the products of the business.

It also provides the descriptions of the pricing strategies of the venture and evaluation of the immediate competitors of the business and their pricing (Gartner and Bellamy, 2008, p. 242). The business plan contains descriptions on the way the person proposes to finance his or her introduction expenses and early inventory purchases.

Identification of Feasibility Study and Business plan While it is carried out before the person begins to plan the product, proceed on the business, and market the products, the feasibility study joins the analysis regarding the industry, product or service growth, production, cost factors, pricing, and functions.

We will write a custom Essay on Feasibility Study vs. Business Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is intended to determines that there are demands of the customers for the product offered by the business and if it is possible to create a profit and meet the available demands. The business plan also offers practical ideas and information the business may apply in planning and initiating the business (Allen, 2011, p. 25).

Business Plan Identification Taken from the reality discovered by the feasibility study of the business, a person may plan the way he or she will provide the product at a cost that permits the new business to attain the end users’ price demands and again receive projected profit.

Feasibility study also describes the business’s projected customer and helps in making a marketing strategy part of the business to draw more customers to make a profit.

When creating a business plan, it is necessary to go on to apply the feasibility study that produces important information for the business form, intended customer, marketing strategy, revenue form, industry information, investigation of competitors, and emergency strategy (Allen, 2011, p. 25).

A business is likely to be unsuccessful if its feasibility study is carried our inadequately in the beginning. Nevertheless, business plan passes through several iterations and are intended to develop to explain a continuing business.

References Allen, K. (2011). Entrepreneurship For Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley

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Martha Stewart Case Study Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Ethical behaviour is crucial in any business industry. Activities such as insider trading significantly jeopardize ethical values, which are of significant importance to industries such as the financial sector.

Essvale Corporation Limited (2008, p.11) defines insider trading as the act of trading shares or other securities held in a company by individuals, with the potential of gaining access to information on the company, which is not accessible to the public. Insider trading is an offence punishable by law in the US. This paper seeks to examine the Martha Stewart insider trading case.

Martha Stewart Case; Her Image’s Contribution; Her Conviction’s Implication for Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Inc. and Modern Day Business Environment

It is believed that Martha Stewart’s association with ImClone System was the origin of her role in the insider trading scandal. Martha Stewart held 3,929 shares in ImClone System, which was a biopharmaceuticals company.

Martha Stewart being a highly profiled business and corporate personality, her image had significant influence on potential investors in both Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia and ImClone System (Pride

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Skinner B. F. Article Review essay help online free

Table of Contents Abstract

Skinner, B.F. Summary

B.F. Skinner and the Cognitive Revolution. Summary

Meaning in Behavior Analysis. Summary Review

Reference List

Abstract Psychology and mainly behavioral psychology is one area that has attracted great interest from many scholars. Skinner B.F. is a renowned psychologist who has contributed greatly tom in the development of behavioral psychology. The first article gives a brief background of Skinner, B.F. education background, as well as his great contribution to behavioral psychology.

The summary of the article highlights how Skinner B.F. used his genius to invent a chamber for studying the behavior of rats and pigeons. Similarly, the review indicates the controversy surrounding Skinner B.F. view that animals behavior depends on hereditary heritage, past experiences and surrounding environment.

The second article comprises of a review of how cognitive psychology has changed within the last five decades. The article is essential in informing the readers about the blindness created in the younger psychologist and psychobiologists about important aspects in the history of psychology. The review also gives an account on Skinner B.F. engagement into radical behaviorism.

It is important in informing the reader about the scholars that prompted him to venture into radical behaviorism psychology. Lastly, is the review of an important article referred as Meaning in Behavior Analysis the article extends the works of Skinner B.F. by expounding on his perspective of meaning by explaining important terms such as mands, tact, as well as operant behavior.

The discussion is essential in informing the reader about how verbal response becomes meaningful in day-to-day interactions (Boeree, 1990).similarly, the articles are important in shedding light about the great psychology work accomplished by Skinner B.F. Moreover, the articles showed how Skinner B.F great contribution plays a fundamental role in behavioral science and revolution of cognitive psychology.

Skinner, B.F. Summary Skinner B.F. was born in 20 March 1904 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He studied literature and received a B.A. from Hamilton College in New York. After unsuccessful years as a writer, he went back to study psychology after been inspired by the works of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and John B. Watson. Skinner B.F. earned his Ph.D. in 1931 and remained in Harvard until he received his first faculty appointment in 1936 at University of Minnesota.

In 1945, he became professor and chair of the department of psychology at Indiana University before going back to Harvard in 1948. He retired as a professor 1974. Even after retiring, he remained very active and instrumental in psychology. As a psychologist, Skinner B.F. is renowned for his great accomplishment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His contribution in the technical of behavior management through changing aspects of the environment has proved very powerful and effective for many species and situations. Skinner founded and specialized in two areas, which are the experimental analysis of behavior that investigated basics principals of behavior and applied behavior analysis that seeks solutions to specific problems.

During his era, he wrote many books and scientific journals about behaviorism science and Human Behavior. Skinner B.F. invented Skinner’s box, which is an apparatus used for experimental analysis of animal behavior, mainly important for classical and instrumental conditioning.

Skinner’s science of behavior was controversial and rarely understood. He claimed that behavior of animals including people depended on three fundamental factors: genetic heritage, past experience and current circumstances. He advocated on the study of behaviors based on directly observation aspect of the environment (Amsel, 1992).

B.F. Skinner and the Cognitive Revolution. Summary The perspective of psychology has really changed within the past five decades bringing in new and interesting insight into cognitive research. Nonetheless, some scholars blame the revolution for blinding younger psychologist and psychobiologists about important part of their history through the rejection of behaviorism and neo-behaviorism.

The caricature of behaviorism originated from competing theoretical movements of Watson and Skinner. Skinner was engaged in several experimental and theoretical papers from 1930 t0 1937. Most of his research pertained investigating types of condition reflexes, as well as researching on the concept of drive.

In 1941, Skinner and Estes published a paper referred as conditioned emotional response that was similar to a paper published by Watson and Rayner in 1920 named conditioned emotional reaction respectively.

Skinner’s movement from moderate to extreme radical behaviorism continued to influence psychology. A decade later, Skinner changed his approach to psychology after publishing a famous paper that provoked the importance of learning theories.

We will write a custom Report on Skinner B. F. Article Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This juncture marked a change of Skinners meta-theoretical position toward the radical behaviorism of post-1925 Watson. The cognitive revolution is associated with Skinner’s radical theoretical, as well as his great influential position. The cognitive revolution expanded further after Skinner published a book referred as verbal Behavior, which was Chomsky reviewed.

Skinner argued that learning of verbal behavior was incremental just as any shaping of any other operant through reinforcement. However, Chomsky criticized Skinner’s argument of language acquisition. He argued that language acquisition mainly genetically based. He argued that a child’s preexisting inherited disposition that he termed as linguistic competence played a significant role in language acquisition than nature.

Meaning in Behavior Analysis. Summary Review Meaning is one of the most commonly used terms in day-to-day endeavors. Different scholars have differing definitions for the meaning. Skinner’s definition of meaning has an association between the causal relationship between verbal responses and their controlling variables that include motivational states and environmental events.

Meaning is a product of a stable affiliation between precise oral responses, their regulating variables and the results that accompany the behaviors. Verbal responses are significant in instances where steady fundamental relations among the member of the verbal population who play as the audience. When meaning exist between verbal behaviors, consequences and antecedes it is regarded as is abstract.

Mand is a term used by B.F. Skinner to describe to a verbal operant where the response gets its strength from a characteristic consequence. Thus, it is under the functional control of important conditions of deprivation or aversion stimulation. Identifying and controlling essential variables is necessary to determine whether a response is a mand.

A mand is unique from other verbal operant as it benefits the speaker, whereas other verbal operant benefits the listener. Understanding the meaning and agreeing are two different concepts. Listeners may comprehend the meaning, but not concur with the orator. In behavioral analysis, two people disagree when they do not share the contingencies that produce a statement.

Behavioral investigation of meaning is momentous in exposition essential provisions related with meaning such as ambiguity, synonyms, paraphrase and anomaly. Another important aspect is the tact, which is considered as the behavior under regulation of generalized support.

Sometimes it takes a form of a label for something. Whereas, the tact maybe subjected to judgment, the meaning of mands is not a subject of judgment of truth or falsehood (Hegde, 1980).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Skinner B. F. Article Review by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Amsel, A. (1992). B.F. Skinner and the Cognitive Revolution. Journal of Psychology. 23, 2, pp. 67- 70.

Boeree, G. (1990). About Skinner B.F. Journal of Psychology. 43, 6, pp. 123-145.

Hegde, M.N. (1980). Meaning in Behavioral Analysis. Journal of Psychiatric, 23, 3, pp.5

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