Impact Of Human Rights On Society Essay Online Essay Help

As earlier observed, human rights are all those situations, circumstances and phenomenal rights that human beings enjoy simply by virtue of being human. Therefore, the society is the recipient of whatever deviations from that. A society which does not observe members’ rights has a feeling oppression. This may lead to accumulation of anger, dissatisfaction and cries against the factors that bring about the oppression.

Had the Egyptians felt President Mubarak’s reign as having a heart towards the people and their rights, they would not have resolved to oust him in the manner that they did. A society where there is an observation for human rights has a harmonious coexistence among the people. Integration of the different variations- race, gender, social status, religion, tribal affiliations, nationality and ethnic diversities are most effective since every member of that society feels valued and appreciated.

Political instability is one problem that the society would face. A people that feel ill-treated by its systems of governance face more instability in comparison to one that is well treated. This is because the people develop a sense of mistrust and fear for that system instead of confidence.

Democratic space is an indication of tolerance and consideration of the people on the part of the government, since it shows that the voice of the people has a preference over any single person. Denial of such space, therefore, deprives the people their fundamental right. Whereas a politically stable country enjoys relative peace, which is not only a right for all mankind; but also an integral ingredient for a prosperous society, one that is unstable is exposed to dangers of unrest or even warfare (Köchler, 1990).

Food insecurity is another impact the society would face. Food is among man’s basic needs, and is therefore a crucial right to him. Where the relevant authority is aware of the threats that hunger and starvation has on humanity, it puts itself in a capacity to come up with measures to ensure that there is a sustainable availability of food for its people at all times.

Food security is, however, affected by other factors which the said authority has to organize and plan accordingly for the people’s benefits. A society is therefore shielded from calamities in the event that normal food productivity is compromised. Many Sub Saharan regions such as Ethiopia and Darfur in the Sudan are almost always reported to be in a crisis as far as starvation is concerned whenever droughts persist in those regions.

The economy of a society is also dependant on factors relating to upholding human rights. This is because investors- both local and foreign are more inclined to invest in a place where the rule of law as well as respect to individual and corporate values exists. A society that shuns human rights is therefore likely to be shunned by potential investors thereby greatly affecting the rate of development of that society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This affects its ability to develop its infrastructure as well as improving the living standards of its people. Employment opportunities are not explored, and the revenues that would have been obtained from taxation of the business ventures are not realized. The people are therefore not empowered economically, since they are not able to earn a living and in the process maintain a healthy balance in the economy through their purchasing power (Köchler, 1990).

Sensitivity to minority groups or those that have been subjected to mistreatment and oppression is also greatly ignored. Such problems as gender disparities and racial prejudice are attended to with low degrees of seriousness, or ignored altogether.

This is usually accompanied with reluctance in adoption of the international code on human rights which seek to ensure that such groups are given their due attention. The society therefore does not ensure that these people are involved in leadership and other decision making organs, and by so doing create the imbalance that makes them feel unappreciated and irrelevant members of the society. Everyone therefore is not viewed and given an equal chance to be productive.

Bad international relations are also likely to result from active involvement in abusing human rights. Many countries are willing to forge partnerships with other countries that observe the rule of law, and by so doing do not abuse the rights of its people. The international community is more receptive to such countries in such areas as trade, exchange programs and financial aid.

However, for a country that violates human rights, the international community is harsh and disassociates itself from them, as is the case with Zimbabwe and the western countries.

Implications The creation and adoption of rules and regulations that seek to promote human rights is a critical strategic approach in prevention measure for any society for a number of reasons:

To begin with, the society is governed by these rules in all its dimensions – social, cultural, religious and political. This means that it is likely to be more accommodative to such legal requirements that seek to give the people a firm voice while at the same time ensuring that the vulnerable members are catered for. Laws that govern the political aspect for instance would ensure fairness in democratic activities as well as protecting those actively involved in the field from intimidation by aristocrats and incumbents.

We will write a custom Essay on Impact of Human Rights on Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Socially, rules that are tailored to foster fair treatment of all people irrespective of their gender, skin color, social status or physical disabilities are generally viewed as ethical, having borrowed heavily from religious doctrines. They are therefore easily adopted. Such laws are handy when dealing with such issues as recruitment of workers, allocation of public office and the general interaction among people of different status and capacity (such as police and the public) (Köchler, 1981).

When it comes to laws on culture, they should be such that they counter the myriads of negative traditions and practices that the modern society considers oppressive. This includes formulation and adoption of laws that outlaw such practices that demean the lesser members of the society as was the case traditionally. For instance, there should be provisions to demand equal treatment of men and women in society in governance, and provision of other opportunities.

Religion should not be allowed to be the basis of abuse of human rights. These laws should provide for penalties to anyone who goes against them irrespective of who they are, or what positions they hold in society. The justice system should be formulated such that it discourages impunity besides providing fair trial to those that shall seek its intervention with respect to human rights abuse. As a result, levels of human rights abuse would significantly decline (Keller, 1994).

Compliance to international standards on human rights by a country is another strategy that would ensure that the country strives to ensure that its people’s rights are not abused. The international community has set a benchmark that defines the limits that particular organs of the society should confine itself when dealing with the people.

To further support this cause, there are commissions that have been instituted specifically tackle this issue. Countries have been encouraged to set up similar commissions of the same nature so that they are able to identify and deal with their own challenges before involving the international community.

This has encouraged the sensitization of the people on their rights particularly where such knowledge was unavailable or scarce. This is because such institutions ensure that they reach the grass roots, and employ the effectiveness of the media and educational institutions in disseminating relevant information to the public. Moreover, these institutions serve as watch dogs for their respective governments, further ensuring that human rights are not violated (Donnelly, 2003).

This approach provides a justice system for those countries that do not have the capacities to arrest, charge and prosecute offenders. The International Criminal Court situated at The Hague in Holland was set up in 2002 is specifically designed to try people accused of committing crimes against humanity.

The I.C.C as it is commonly known relies on support from member states for the arrest, submission of relevant witnesses and materials to facilitate the trials. This court is considered more effective and fair as it is under the watchful eyes of the international community. Furthermore, the judicial system is considered impartial and more objective when rendering justice.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Human Rights on Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Donnelly, J. (2003). Universal Human Rights in Theory

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Impact of regional Azerbaijan-Armenia war on neighbouring countries and foreign policies Cause and Effect Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction Before the trading conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia occurred due to seceding of the Nagorno-Karabakh region to Armenia in 1988, the two countries were business partners transiting services and goods under the soviet rule. The breaking away of the region, which was a predominant Armenian ethnic expanse, was a major catalyst for conflicts that changed lives of many people within the two countries.

The support for separation by Armenia caused economic strain since this compromised foreign trade especially on Armenian’s imports from the neighbouring Azerbaijan. This paper forms an analysis of the situational crisis between Azerbaijan and neighbouring countries especially Armenia. It also forms a critical investigation of association between Armenia with its neighbours in relation to Azerbaijan-Armenia conflicts.

History of the Azerbaijan-Armenia conflict The separated Nagorno-Karabakh forces also disrupted the 1993 peace talks between the two countries. Turkey considered these as Armenian forces that caused evacuation of various ethnic groups within Azerbaijan region and declared an economic embargo in protest of the attacks.

A negotiation period emerged in 1994 between the Armenia forces of Nagorno-Karabakh and an ethnic group in Azerbaijan. These negotiation talks have been maintained to date despite pressure from Azerbaijan to recognize the independence of Nagorno-Karabakh as a republic. Azerbaijan fails to recognize the self-proclaimed country but equally disproves the existence of a peace accord that would foster cooperation between the two countries.

Reports from the “Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre” quoted the government statistics reports of 2008 indicating that the ethnic related violence caused internally related displacement of people who fled the war-infected regions to settle in peaceful regions of Azerbaijan (Lancer International, 2005, 8). This is a clear indication that despite the peace negotiations to resolve conflicts, people are still refugees since the 1988 chaos.

Positive Effects On a positive note, the conflict between the Armenia and Azerbaijan encouraged other countries to participate in promotion and struggle for social unity as well as development. For instance, the heavy dependence of Armenia on Russian government for supplies today means that they need to maintain a strong and close relationship. Armenia also depends greatly on Russia’s services such as security provisions since collapse of the Soviet Union.

Russia therefore participated in strengthening both the Armenia and Azerbaijan in their fight against soviet related forces. Various million-dollar projects were also established to strengthen the economic growth of the two countries such as the signing of a mining project between Armenia and Russia, where the Armenia processed precious metals from Russia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects on Relationship with other neighbours Turkey formed an alliance with Azerbaijan on religious grounds and ensured heavy fortification of their eastern region, due to conflicts that related to Turkey’s national impulse of policymaking. Turkey was in support of Azerbaijan and thus opted to block the trading relations with Armenia particularly the pipeline.

The early twentieth century massacres between Armenia and Azerbaijan therefore caused a bitter relationship between Turkey and Armenia particularly for the reason that Turkey did not recognize that these conflict events were campaigns meant to destroy Armenian people as claimed by their government.

In 1915, the Armenian nationals were forcefully evicted from the northern side of Turkey towards south in the aim of reducing immigrants and approximated half million lives were lost in the exercise.

However, Turkish administration shorn of this fact since it did not consider the act as genocide, but indicated that the eviction was a civil war that began due to Armenian attacks in which both Armenians and Turkish Muslims died. The war between the two countries eventually caused a compromise for Turkey to enter the European Union, were conditions included Turkey’s recognizing the 1915 war as genocide.

The war between Armenia and Azerbaijan, a Turkey ally had a connection to the issue of control over the boundary of Nagorno-Karabakh region and caused blocking of the Turkey-Armenia border. A reopening condition was set as a peace negotiation deal between the two countries.

The Secretary of U.S. state, Hillary Clinton witnessed the 2009 historical even of signing work protocols between the two countries Turkey and Armenia. The prolonged negotiation for cooperation between the two countries ended with the establishment of a working, diplomatic relationship and reopening of the compromised border (Soni, 1996, 29).

Lack of enough electric power is not that only major problem that the country suffers from due to the conflict with Azerbaijan, but food is also precious. The fact that the country is landlocked means that it depends on neighbouring states for various supplies such as oil, fuel, and for a huge percentage of the food such as wheat and sugar which emerges from other countries.

We will write a custom Essay on Impact of regional Azerbaijan-Armenia war on neighbouring countries and foreign policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The blockade maintained by its eastern neighbour, Azerbaijan causes the country to depend on other means of transport for instance, trains with food imports from Ukraine and Russia must transverse through its northern neighbour, Georgia. This is a country rocked by widespread and long-term political instability such as lawlessness, which causes robbery of the foodstuffs or heavy taxing of the cargo.

A political instability relating to geographical differences between Armenia and Azerbaijan is a continuous ruin of the Armenia’s coordination with other neighbouring countries such as Iran. Iran is an Islamic state, and therefore has a strong connection to the neighbouring Azerbaijan, which is a strong Muslim state as well.

The strong relationship between Iran and Azerbaijan caused them to break any form of formal trade with Armenia, although currently there are some formal agreements for trade of natural gas and other scrupulous trades still occur without the consent of the authority. However, this trade remain strained.

Unrests created by the poor relations between this countries causes the private as well as international investors to shun away, for instance the stalled multistate-pipeline project that would otherwise benefit majority of this countries as it transverses through them. Civil unrests by Armenia especially against the neighbouring countries such as Turkey and Georgia causes negative impacts on strategies in particular against the two involved states: Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Effects on Resources The conflicts affect mostly the resources such as the pipeline, rail transport and the natural sources of energy. Armenia anticipates change but continues to wreak havoc on its neighbouring Azerbaijan state. This causes more use of natural resources and non-renewable sources of its energy.

Lake Sevan, a main resource is drained since the water is used for hydroelectric generation and there are therefore some possibilities of the lake draining due to lack of alternative sources such as import supplies. According to Soni (1996, 23), the Armenian government is forced to seek alternative sources as thousands of its citizens continue to perish due to lack of food and because of excessive heat.

The options that Armenian government has had to consider to improve its status have been highly objected by other international companies such as U.S. for instance the nuclear power plant. Western governments objected the reopening of the plant on the basis that it was not up to standards and remain as one of the most hazardous resources since it is located in an area that is more prone to earthquake attacks compared to other similar projects in Slovakia, Russia and Bulgaria.

Foreign Policies Azerbaijan financial embargo had major impact on food products and fuel, causing them to become more expensive in Armenia since majority of these products initially originated from Azerbaijan. “The Turkish government, through its prime minister, ‘Tayyib Erdogan’ soon made it clear that its national assembly would not authorize the signed protocol… unless the Armenia withdrew from the settled territories near the Nagorno-Karabakh region”(Lancer International, 2005, 8).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of regional Azerbaijan-Armenia war on neighbouring countries and foreign policies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The war between Armenia and Azerbaijan therefore compromised the Armenian economy, since the country is a landlocked country that depends on working protocols with its neighbours.

In line with the thoughts provided by World Bank and the U.S. administration (Lancer International, 2005, 8), peace would accelerate the Armenian economic growth since it would reduce the cost of transporting export and import goods in Armenia. Their easier way of trade is through Turkey, but the conflict forces the Armenian trade to follow longer procedures through either Iran or Georgia at an estimated annual cost of approximately 100 million dollars (Lancer International, 2005, 8).

Conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan as well as with other neighbouring countries also hinder some common sustenance activities such as conservational and environmental initiatives. Although the country receives aid from world bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), various environmentalists in the country admits that the living situation often compromise their work, considering that it is almost impossible to request starving and freezing people to spare the natural resources.

The environmentalists’ opposition to environmental degradation activities such as the nuclear plant operations is an abandoned fight since the desperation of the situation causes the Armenians to take the risk.

Sovereign funding Today there is a great debate concerning the autonomous capital funds developed states as sovereign investment. These countries have to consider their investments and thus choose wisely since poor Investments often results towards the financial risks exposure especially due to the recent market crisis.

Failure to secure sustainable investment from developed international states often translates to decrease of Armenian’s asset values. According to Soni (1996, 22), investment in violence infected areas require sustenance measures, for a secure, practicable and prospective economical growth.

Migration There are some devastating effects of the long and unsettled Armenian-Azerbaijan conflicts, such as the devastating populating density reduction and high migration to western countries especially to United States. The conflict has attracted many immigrants into the stable states in search for better paying jobs. This is a big challenge that Armenian faces today and in future, because major analyses show that economy growth mainly relies on labour forces mainly delivered by citizens (Soni, 1996, 20).

Lack of reliability on such is evidently a huge mistake since it is a breaking entity considering that majority of the citizens face deplorable conditions, little or no human rights and little pay, they thus seek better offers elsewhere. According to Soni (1996, 21), the potential economical growth of the country may also be under threat of degradation due to scarcity of the basics requirements such as water or the environmental degradation.

Culture The Muslim states and have a governance system where cultural procedures govern inheritances of political and social norms. Despite these traditional characteristics, the conflict between Armenia and its neighbours particularly the Azerbaijan has led to drastic changes over cultural outlook, styles or the living criterions. Although the system faces some setbacks over improvement, alterations in appearance are quite evident far from the traditional form of governance that existed before the conflicts emerged.

The states have experienced some dreadful transformations that bring minimal efforts of achieving higher standards of living due to unavailability of resources. There is lack of advancement in the Information Communication Technology as well, thus making the countries less marketable or economically viable.

Education The widest sense of belonging indicates that country’s ability to acquire wealth requires good formal education for its citizens. A major effect of conflicts is migration and thus loss of people who have the ability to manage basic state resources or infrastructure and establish some well set-up and rooted healthy living codes.

Knowledge enables citizens to establish the living standards for easy adoption to moral, economical, social, ethical and political way of working. Armenia looses a lot of acquaintance to the neighbouring and developed countries through knowledge drain as people evade unavoidable circumstances such as hunger and migrate to these countries.

Education determines employment and therefore financial security. When countries are not interactive such as the case of Armenia and Azerbaijan, there is lack of adequate measures necessary for a country to face modernization or economic competition. Are citizens equipped with the requirements to combat current and future needs?

Conflicts create a situation where there is little or no demand for education; the results are a status of inactivity or encumbering anti-entrepreneurial situation that are easy to conquer. Those involved are accustomed to endurance on hard work or dependent on handouts.

Dignity has been lost and therefore there is lack of real and purposeful jobs compared to real situations in most countries where focus is often on education, work ethics and quality in the aim of achieving high outputs. There is equally lack of global competitiveness thus low productivity among citizens. The current trends of highly uneducated citizens especially youths and women lower efficiency.

There are some clear realities regarding the future of Armenia, such as need to diversify the economy and engage the private sector as a way of generating more finances and real jobs. The country lacks vision of ensuring that its citizens acquire the role of guiding the future of the nation.

This requires active practice of education to enhance economic growth of the State. Education system also ensures that citizens play the true role of democratic governance. An articulated and well-informed community shows the importance of education with the ability of promoting democratic reforms. Poor governance is a clear indication of existing challenge to ensure preparations that bring success to the global economy.

Conclusion The conflict and regional war between Azerbaijan and Armenia may have triggered the emergence of various situations, for instance the June 1995’s Armenia decision to reopen the nuclear power plant built by Russia. They option is on the reason that the plan is able to cater for approximately 30% of the country’s electrical energy needs. The country is landlocked conflict with other countries such as Azerbaijan causes energy starvation

The continual cold war between the two countries cripples Armenia and leads to poor trade relations with other neighbouring countries. The conflict makes Armenia to over-look the dangers involved in reopening a nuclear plant that caused major devastation especially in Yerevan (Armenian Capital) after the 1988 earthquakes. The argument was that Armenian authority were using the option as a ploy to negotiate for better trade relations with neighbours, since they would equally be venerable in case of a future earthquake attack.

It could also be a coax to press for help from the neighbours to assist in negotiating for the trade block created by Azerbaijan. The real situation is that Armenian lacks electric energy and the situation has been that way ever since its self-governance out of the Soviet Union. Continual compromise of basic need affects the country economically.

Bibliography Lancer International. (2005) Indian defence review, Volume 20. Texas, TX: Lancer International.

Soni, P. (1996) Energy and environmental challenges in Central Asia and the

Caucasus: windows for co-operation. Michigan, MI: Tata Energy Research Institute Publishers.

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Conflict Resolution and Peacemaking Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Conflict Resolution and Peacemaking

Conclusion

References

Abstract How to resolve social conflicts is a continued debate. Little is known of what contributes to social conflicts in business. This paper provides a brief insight into the process of conflict resolution. A brief review of the article related to conflict resolution is performed. The implications of conflict resolution in business environment are discussed. The paper provides recommendations for the future research.

Conflict Resolution and Peacemaking How to resolve social conflicts is a continued debate. The factors of conflict are numerous and varied, from social dilemmas, to competition for scarce resources and perceived social injustice (Myers, 2002). Conflict resolution and peacemaking is one of the most popular topics in social psychology.

Conflicts produce a multitude of negative effects on social relations, and it is imperative that the ways of resolving them be understood. The current state of knowledge about conflicts suggests that conflicts are handled through contact, cooperation, communication, and conciliation (Myers, 2002).

Simultaneously, conflicting parties face considerable difficulties in their way to establishing contact and achieving conciliation. Cooperation and trust are the necessary preconditions for resolving most, if not all, social conflicts. It is through trust and rapport that conflicting parties can successfully develop and use cooperative methods of conflict resolution, to achieve a workable consensus.

In her article, Eszter Balogh (2005) discusses the ways of resolving social conflicts between companies. Business is an arena of numerous conflicts and disagreements, which have far-reaching implications for the stability and profitability of entrepreneurial ventures. The level of trust in inter-company relationships is essential for the companies’ future intentions.

Inter-company conflicts reflect an extremely narrow aspect of conflict resolution and peacemaking, but the importance of the subject for business cooperation is difficult to underestimate. This is one of the reasons why Balogh (2005) tries to develop and evaluate the most common methods of resolving conflicts between companies.

According to Balogh (2005) the strategies and techniques of conflict resolution vary, depending on the company type. In multinational companies, the complex internal organizational structure is a serious impediment to using quick, constructive conflict resolution techniques (Balogh, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Simultaneously, companies that are totally interdependent i.e., the supply and demand for their products is low, are more likely to use offensive strategies to resolve inter-company conflicts (Balogh, 2005). Yet, irrespective of conditions and circumstances in which companies operate, negotiations are the primary means of resolving inter-company conflicts: companies demand quick solutions and seek to protect long-term relationships with their partners and suppliers (Balogh, 2005).

Balogh suggests that trust is a crucial factor of successful conflict resolution in business, a factor, which many scholars continuously ignore. Myers (2002) is correct in that conflicting parties may find it extremely difficult to establish contacts and develop effective cooperation in their way to peace. It is through trust and rapport that companies can improve their chances to arrive at a workable agreement and preserve their business relations in the long run.

More often than not, contact and cooperation are primary elements in any conflict resolution strategy: the conflicting parties must contact and cooperate to achieve a solution that benefits them. Conflict resolution and peacemaking are never a zero-sum game. Simultaneously, little is known of how to contact and develop cooperation in conflict situations. Drolet and Morris (2000) write that the prevailing majority of social conflicts are of mixed-motive nature.

Simply put, companies are willing to cooperate, but their self-interests prevent them from doing so (Drolet

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Marital intimacy skills Research Paper scholarship essay help

Introduction Marital matters are becoming eminent in most parts of the world due to increased rates of divorce. Marital issues also have a great impact on the social part of a community; the social problems that come as a result are not limited to children or the parents but they are common to everyone.

The marital problems that occur at times are associated with lack of commitment of intimacy between them or at times insufficient marital skills that the couples have. Other attributing factors include inability to cope with conflict, lack of positive attitude towards each other and finally the degree of forgiveness which at times goes as low as being interpreted as un forgiveness (Everett, 2007:1).

Intimacy has been viewed as the heart of every relationship and if not the heart it is a very essential part of the same. It is an integral part of complete love which entails zeal and dedication.

Intimacy is in real sense a very hard word to define, no much consensus has been gained in its definition and there are so many components involved in its makeup. According to Harper

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Benchmarking Logistics Performance Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Abstract

Two stage Benchmarking Methodology

Conclusion

Reference List

Abstract Benchmarking, being a decision-making technique, can go a long way in making an organization gain competitive advantage over competitors. This is significant because benchmarking ensures sharing of information in an organization by simplifying operations and performance. Benchmarking can help an organization become efficient through various methods. However, the whole process does come with its challenges.

Two stage Benchmarking Methodology A two-stage benchmarking method is beneficial for an organization. This technique uses performance evaluation metrics followed by continuous improvement metrics in aiding an organization achieve the needed competitive advantage. In performance evaluation, the performance of the benchmarked company provides a standard for evaluation with other competitors.

For example, Capstone Logistics may look at how to incorporate proper technology to manage its needs and make the best choice for its transportation needs. Thus, this will confirm what the competitors do to select the best choices to achieve the goals, and if possible be dominant (Murray, 2010). All the parameters in performance evaluation have to be factored. For instance, issues like partnerships, analysis of buyers or suppliers and even relationships of the organization are issues that are thoroughly considered.

Partnership evaluations help in cementing supply chain systems thus facilitating organization’s strategic goals. The partnership evaluation parameter can be noted in the level of support involving major organizational issues. This parameter can aid in identifying and solving complex problems.

Another aspect of performance is delivery performance analysis. Here, the lead-time is critical as the time the deliverables reach their respective target is assessed. In this case, on-time delivery will inevitably suggest that ideal distribution has been achieved. Delivery also has another feature that borders on the capacity of what has been on transit. Capstone Logistics therefore considers alternatives that influence supply chain such as speed of vessels, dependability of driver and location depots.

This analysis increases efficiency leading to a decrease in portfolio levels (Novich, 1990). Continuous improvement can also boost a firm’s principal value. It is therefore expected the supply chain management continually improves on efficiency. However, Lee and Billington (1992) recognize that benchmarking logistics staging cannot complete adeptness if different facets of the supply chain track objectives autonomously.

Continuous improvement also complements the performance evaluation metrics since it also takes in the other arising issues. It considers the grey areas that are arising.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This could further the advances in technology that are more effective than the previous ones. This new technology, when incorporated, increases effectiveness and efficiency in an organization (Murray, 2010). For example, improved data mining could do well towards all the company roles. Capstone Logistics for example, has a system that allows users to access the system and validate the model.

Though benchmarking may contribute to the body of knowledge, it is essential for an organization to understand why clients are attached to it. For example, DHL does recognize that its customer loyalty arises out of efficiency and effectiveness of its operational process.

Analytical method thus serves to give an order of fixing what to benchmark. An analytical analysis helps to assess issues such as process selection, clustering of the different customer wants and may include value chain for benchmarking. AHP was initially quite helpful in measuring the service quality of many organizations.

However, the analytical method has failed in measuring the quality of a single organization. It is worth noting that organizations face different dynamics. Thus, it is wise to ensure that valuable quality of service of a single organization is established to assist in measuring customer satisfaction and other parameters, which are difficult to quantify. For example, AHP attempts to address judgmental and psychological information that may be difficult to quantify.

An organization should take up a process improvement initiative with the zeal to achieve results (Murray, 2010). Many organizations take up initiatives with the opinion that only the customer benefits and thus fail to reap the fruits of a whole process improvement initiative. Quality improvement aims at benefitting both the client and the organization.

An effective model is also that which incorporates the staff. AHP can be a model used for evaluation and comparison but also used to increase the benefit. It is a better model if it incorporates staff so action plans expected can encourage competitiveness. That is, complete satisfaction and participation of the team ensures success of the model (Murray, 2010).

3PL plays an essential role in successful benchmarking approach. Capstone Logistics has implemented 3PL solutions that produce several key roles.

We will write a custom Essay on Benchmarking Logistics Performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has helped improve the process, reduce operational costs as well as aid in implementation of sustainable best practices. It has also helped in time optimization besides providing a platform through which the management system can draw information to aid in decision-making. Capstone Logistics uses the 3PL technique to provide transportation intelligence, track shipments and manage carriers among others.

Conclusion Benchmarking logistics performance is critical to achieving an organization’s success. This is because it goes deep into critically analyzing all the organization’s value drivers thereby achieving the general success of that organization.

Reference List Lee, H. L., and Billington, C. (1992).Supply Chain Management: Pitfalls and Opportunities. Sloan Management Review, 33, Spring, 65-73.

Murray, M. (2010).Benchmarking in the supply chain.New York: NY, New York Times press

Novich N. (1990).Distribution strategy: Are you thinking small enough? Sloan management Review 32 (1) 171-77

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Longford: Response to the Film Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

This film provides several explanations of why Lord Longford decided to help Myra Hindley, a person who was convicted of multiple murders. At first, we would have to speak about his innate sense of justice.

While discussing this issue with his wife, he argues that Myra Hindley was psychologically dominated by her accomplish, Ian Brady. In his opinion, this woman’s guilt cannot be compared to that one of her accomplice, and she does not deserve the punishment imposed on her. One may agree or disagree with such an opinion but this could one of his motives.

Apart from that, we need to speak about his deep belief in the ability of human being to reform and to show the better sides of his/her character. For him Myra Hindley is a person who is still able to lead a normal life, even despite the fact she committed those crimes or at least assisted Brady in committing them. Lord Longford does not deny the fact that this woman did some very atrocious things but he does not want to deny her the right for redemption.

This thought can be the underlying force which guides the main character. Besides, he vehemently objects to the idea of retributive justice, in other words, the idea that the key purpose of a penal system is to punish the criminal. This character believes that ability to forgive is an indispensible quality for any person and for any society. This is why he opposes the idea of punishment for punishment’s sake.

Additionally, we need to show how the relations between these characters develop with time passing. At the very beginning, she seems to be of some interest to him but very soon this interest turns into compassion and even friendship. At the end of this film, we see that Myra Hindley becomes one of the closest people to Lord Longford.

Rethinking a No-Brainer According to a popular opinion, lying about one’s credential contradicts the principles of integrity and violates the norms, established in the society. This paper is not aimed at justifying this kind of conduct. Instead, it intends to provide a feasible explanation of such a phenomenon.

In the majority of cases, conservative approach to this problem utterly overlooks the underlying causes of this behavior. Very often a person does so in order to apply to a certain position or post. One of the most notorious cases is the scandal of Richard Bromenthal who falsely claimed to serve in Vietnam. The key issue is that in the modern world credentials can be the only way of climbing a social ladder.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unfortunately, sometimes people are assessed not according to their skills and competences but according to their academic background or work experience. For instance, in order to be eligible for a certain job, one must have at least five years of work experience; those people who do not have them will not be even considered for this position, even if they possess all the necessary skills. Therefore, it is quite possible that people will try to get round this obstacle by falsifying their credentials.

To some extent, the society forces these people to act in such a manner by paying too much attention to the background, rather than to the personal qualities and skills. Finally, we may argue such emphasis on formality is an example of rule which exists for simply for its own sake. It does not contribute to the wellbeing of community and its individual members. Falsifying one’s credentials is one of the ways to struggle with such rules.

Works Cited Longford. Dir. Hooper Tom. Per: Broadbent Jim, Morton Samanta, Duncan Lindsay, Serkis Andy. Granada Productions. 2006. DVD.

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History of Brothels and Red Light District Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Brothels and red rights streets are destinations, houses or spaces provided or offered to accommodate commercial sex workers. They are licensed houses or rooms specifically meant to accommodate commercial sex workers mainly in major towns. From time in memorial, brothels and red rights were a confined location for commercial sex workers (May, Page

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How to Improve Your Memory Explicatory Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Human’s memory is often compared to a “computer’s information-processing system” (Myers 272). People’s memory stores certain facts in certain places, and whenever it is needed some facts are retrieved. However, sometimes it is difficult to find the necessary information in one’s “computer”. Fortunately, various researchers have conducted numerous experiments and surveys which enable to work out effective strategies to improve one’s memory.

One of the major principles of memory is that the process memorizing is divided into three stages encoding, storage and retrieval (Myers 272). One of the most effective ways to memorize some information is based on the research concerning working memory (Myers 273).

Thus, if a person needs to memorize some information, he/she should repeatedly retrieve the necessary data. For instance, if a student needs to memorize the most important facts of a chapter, he/she should read the chapter several times. It can be a good idea to read it twice a day for a week, and then go back to it within larger intervals, e.g. twice a week, once a week, three times per month, twice a month.

Another effective technique is based on the fact that there are two types of processing information: automatic and effortful (Myers 274). People process such information like where they meet friends or have dinner automatically, but to process some information written in a text book or in an annual report requires certain efforts.

One of the major reasons why people process information automatically because the actions associated with the information can be repeated in character and/or the new information evokes a lot of associations in the brain (having dinner: eating, visiting restaurant which is basically similar to others, but has some peculiarities (novice facts), socializing with friends, various emotions).

Thus, associations are very helpful for processing some information. If a student needs to memorize some facts, he/she should work out certain associations. One of interesting ways to find associations is putting questions like: “Where did it come from or originate? What caused it?” (Atkinson 171). Interestingly, Socrates and Plato used this method (Atkinson 171). Thus, a person creates clues which will help to find the necessary information when needed.

One more tool to memorize some information is based on such phenomenon as iconic memory (Myers 279). Admittedly, people always have an image for every word or fact they are processing. Furthermore, Sperling’s research which proves that people have photographic memory can help work out some strategy to memorize the necessary information (Myers 279).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, if a student needs to process (and/or memorize) a chapter form a textbook, he/she can try to “photograph pages”, i.e. memorize where exactly this or that fact occurs. What pictures, tables, diagrams are there on that page? Eventually, a student will have an image of the most important passages of the chapter.

It goes without saying, that it will be more effective if an individual uses several methods simultaneously. For example, “picturing” the necessary messages will be more effective, if the student also creates certain associations, i.e. makes links between the new data and the old facts.

On a final note, it is possible to state that the understanding of the major principles of memory (such as three stages of processing information, automatic or effortful processing, photographic memory) enable people to work out effective methods of improving their memory.

Works Cited Atkinson, William Walter. Memory: How to Develop, Train and Use It. New York: Cosimo, Inc., 2007.

Myers, David G. Exploring Psychology in Modules, 8th Edition. New York: Worth Publishers, 2011.

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Northeast State University Report college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Use of the data by Dr. Bay

Changes to be incorporated in the administrative assistant jobs

Faculty’s changes to work habits

Alternatives on reduction of administration assistant’s strain

Motivating the administrative assistants

References

Introduction North State University is comprised of Decision Science Department whose faculty of Business Administration is chaired by Dr. Woodrow Bay. The University has been experiencing difficulties that revolve around administrative support, with the latest predicament involving protests from professors on poor administrative support offered to them.

The decision Science Department in which Dr. Bay has been chairing is composed of four sectors that include; operations management, statistics, information systems and quantitative. Due to its international and national reputation, the faculty has experienced high student enrollment levels that have resulted to increase in the number of full time professors. In relation to the increase in the number of professors, there was an increase in strain on the administrative staff.

The administrative assistants were at the heart of daily operations of the professors and at the same time, they were expected by the faculty to key-in information. Out of the numerous tasks delegated to the administrative assistants, a few of them were not attended to resulting to calls of hiring more assistants. These calls were next to impossibility as the as the University was operating on budget cuts. Dr. Bay hence decided to conduct a case study so as to get to the root of the problem.

Use of the data by Dr. Bay The data attained by Dr. Bay is useful on determining the right course of action to be taken to resolve the existing predicament. The data indicates the activities that require more concentration as opposed to the activities that require less concentration. In addition to this, Dr. Bay may use the data in the next faculty meeting to explain to the faculty professors about the actual situation on the ground.

Using the data, Dr. Bay may contrast the perception by the faculty that administrative assistants spend approximately the same time to both working and attending to other minor duties like filling. In addition to this, the data attained by Dr. Bay may also be used as a reference point in terms of scheduling the administrative assistants’ future schedule.

Changes to be incorporated in the administrative assistant jobs Planning

Poor planning has been described as one of the main problem of time management. If not put in check, poor planning may result to break down of activities in the workplace. As the chairperson of the Decision Science department, Dr. Bay is supposed to initiate appropriate strategies of dealing with the work plan of the administrative assistants. Using the data attained in the case study, a plan may be initiated, as future important benchmark of activities may be identified (Nigro, 2008, p. 129).

According to Wignall lack of planning can still get the job done but at a very high cost or at very slow pace. According to the claims leveled against the administrative assistance, it was claimed that they had too much in their hands that hindered them from completing their jobs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In regards to this Wignall suggest that with good planning work can be completed in both the shortest time and economical way. Defects of poor planning like poor attitude towards work and issuance of contradicting instructions should be avoided to avoid slow progression of work (Wignall, 1999, p. 289).

Unnecessary interruptions

Unnecessary interruptions should be avoided and time at the work place strictly confined to matters pertaining to work. According to the data acquired, talking to others was identified to be the second activity that consumed most of the administrative assistants’ time. In relation to this, time used in talking to others can be reduced by restricting the talk about business issues affecting the faculty.

Faculty’s changes to work habits The faculty has a major role to play in assisting the burden on administrative assistants. Looking at the data acquired from the case study, talking with the faculty was the third activity that consumed majority of the administrative assistants’ time. In relation to this, the faculty should ensure less time is used in talking and more time directed to working. In doing so, the faculty will be ensuring more work is covered by the administrative assistants.

The faculty can also play a vital role in ensuring that time spent away from the office is minimized, mainly because the activity was recorded as the second ranked activity that consumed administrative assistants time. The faculty can minimize this time by ensuring that unnecessary activities are done away with and eliminated from the office.

In addition, there is need to model the Administrative Assistants to be people with great interpersonal skills, through trainings on fields such as public relations and customer service, thus helping save time spent well speaking on phone, with faculty and other people

Alternatives on reduction of administration assistant’s strain Revision priorities list

Priorities should set according to their urgency; if the work at hand is simple, it should be worked upon as quickly as possible to avoid congestion. By prioritizing activities, the administrative assistants will be able to do away with unnecessary activities and the extra time realized directed to the more important activities (Roberts, 1998, p. 6).

Training of the administrative assistants and embracing new technology

In the business world, training has evolved to be an effective tool in time and activities management. Training has not only managed to incorporate conflicting pressures, but also incorporated new technology. In management of time, efficient techniques and practices are emphasized so that suitable work patterns can be achieved efficiently.

We will write a custom Report on Northeast State University specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the data acquired by Dr. Bay, most of the time used by the administrative assistant is working on the computer. Therefore, embracing this new technology will not only enhance coverage of more work, but also increase efficiency within the faculty (Roberts, p. 4).

Motivating the administrative assistants According to Bruce and Pepitone, motivation is one of the tools that can be used to extract a greater wok performance from the employees. Motivation being an intrinsic that originates within us is supposed to be used to create an efficient work environment.

The faculty can influence the administrative assistants on their motivational intrinsic. By helping the administrative assistants in indentifying their welfare within the organization, there will be an increase in the urge to work hard by the administrative assistants. According to Bruce and Pepitone, motivation entails drives that direct us on what to do.

These drives emanate from desire to produce. These drives should be identified and used to motivate the administrative assistants in making them believe their working in their best interest (Bruce and Pepitone, 1999, p. 1

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Goals and Achievements of Impressionism Essay college essay help near me

The name impressionism basically attempts to help people understand the work and achievements of impressionist painters. This artistic approach was more prevalent in the 1870s and 1880s.The painters applying impressionism intended to focus the direct impressions of color and light that a person sees and feels when interacting with the environment (Cunningham

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Forensic Psychology Role in the Investigation of Crime Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Crime is regarded as one of the major vices in the world. Crime levels have over the years increased and caused devastating effects to people, institutions and government security agencies. The adoption of several techniques to curb such cases has been ensured. Forensic odontology, serology, criminal profiling, forensic psychology and forensic psychiatry are some of the methods (Saferstein, 2000).

The use of the methods majorly depends upon the complexity of the crime, nature of evidence available and level of forensic technology available (Saferstein, 2000). This paper analyses how forensic psychology plays a crucial role in the investigation of crime. It critically examines how and when the method is most appropriate as well as the efficiency and reliability.

Forensic psychology has always been confused with other forms of psychology such as organisational, social and industrial psychology. It should be noted, however, that forensic psychology is largely skewed towards the knowledge on legal systems as opposed to the rest that concentrate on human behaviour and attitudes (Otto

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The African Family Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The African family

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction A family is the social institution where every individual belongs. Mpho ‘M’atsepo Nthunya an African woman of Lesotho belongs to a large family. As a child she learnt important aspects of life from her family as she grew up. Apparently, the society expects people to adopt its changing environment something Mpho ‘M’atsepo Nthunya has observed throughout her life. (Nthunya, Kendall, Kuzwayo:192).

This article seeks to analyze the African family by assessing the life of Mpho ‘M’atsepo Nthunya as an African woman in the family context. It will cover the structure of the African family, gender roles, education, marriage and the African tradition. It will also look at poverty and ill tradition as a constant feature of the African family.

The African family An African family is made up of the father, mother and children. The father who is the head of the family is in charge of the homestead. The husband is free to marry two or more wives as long as he is capable of feeding all of them. Consequently, many children are born making the families very large.

At times a family consists of the extended family. At times, the nuclear family lives with in-laws, cousins, uncles and aunts. This happens because when a man gets married, the husband lives with his wife or wives in his parents homestead. Furthermore, children are expected to take care of their parents at old age.

Gender roles are based on sex. According to the African traditions, the husband is the bread winner, protector and decision maker. On the other hand the wife’s roles are providing home care, bear children and bring additional income to the family. From childhood each gender is taught their roles. Boys are shown techniques of hunting, cultivating and fighting. Girls are taught to cook, clean, fetch water, collect firewood and to take care of young children.

The African woman is expected to support the man by bring up the children, tilt the land and take care of property. As a result, the African woman engages in activities that bring an income to the family. Due to the nature of large families, the family income is sometimes not enough; therefore she takes the responsibility to feed her children.

Taking a look at Nthunya life, she chose to get employed as a domestic worker in order to support her family. Another reason why women provide for their families is that in some instances, the husband can be brutal to the wife and might also be absent hence the wife assumes full responsibility of her family (Nthunya 63).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The African woman becomes a mentor to her children and takes the responsibility of ensuring that they go to school. For instance Nhunya’s mother encouraged her to go school so that she could learn how to read and write. It is from the family that children would learn how to endure hardships in life. The mothers often persuade children to get education and support them to pursue their dreams of making it in their lives.

The African customs emphasize on the value of the male children in the family. Parents deliberately choose to educate the male child. As a result many women end up uneducated. Therefore Men get well paying jobs with high wages while the African woman gets employment from the least paying jobs. As a result, the woman ends up becoming poor.

The African woman is hard working. By looking at Mpho ‘M’atsepo Nthunya biography, she encounters many life tragedies yet she maintains a positive attitude towards life. She suffered miscarriage, loss of her three children and the death of her husband. Despite going through those misfortunes, Nthunya has a strong spirit to work and move on (Nthunya 107).

She supports her family of eleven with her little earnings for many years. When Nthunya got a chance to get education through the free Catholic-grade school education, she embraced her mother’s advice. She put so much effort to learn different languages: causing her to read and write eight languages

African tradition is a dominant feature in an African family. Nthunya was married traditionally where she was taken by her husband family, which sent a message that she was not abducted but intended to marry. Her husband paid her bride price so that she could marry her according to the customs. Nthunya went on a two months leave so that she could mourn her husband’s death.

Marriage in an African family is respected. The husband is expected to pay bride price after which he own and gains control over the woman he marries. Those who get married are expected to stay together as husband and wife. Divorce and separation are discouraged and therefore marriages last long, perhaps till death. Polygamy is allowed. Those who marry more than one wife are seen as wealthy and therefore command respect. After the death of a spouse one can remarry.

An African family as portrayed in Mpho ‘M’atsepo Nthunya story lives in poverty. (Nthunya 192). She lived a humbled life with little possessions.

We will write a custom Essay on The African Family specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main concern for an African woman is to get food and clothing for her family. For example, Nthunya worked very hard so that she could buy food for her children. Families struggle to get enough food to survive form hunger. At times there is lack of money to go to hospital and therefore families turn to traditional medicine men for intervention. Furthermore an African woman has little or no possessions.

When families do not have enough funds to educate their children, parents rely on donors. When such children get educated their lives change because they can express themselves before other people. Taking into account the Nthunya’s story, her knowledge of different languages enables her to express herself before strangers and communicate. With her little education she is able to give her own story vividly.

Ill traditions are asset back to African families. Traditional medicine men practice traditional healing. When Nthunya experienced a miscarriage she was asked by the traditional medicine man to perform a ritual. The ritual would free her from miscarriage, because her mother failed to arrange for feasting following her birth.

She was required to return to her mother’s home. On arrival she would arrange to get a goat’s gall bladder and bather besides it. The African family has suffered racism. Nthunya in South Africa witnesses brutal beating of the blacks and was also jailed for sometime because of her color.

Conclusion The African family is without any doubt supported the African woman.

By examining Mpho ‘M’atsepo Nthunya story, it is clear that despite the hardship of life her determination keeps the family strong and going. Ill traditions and poverty being the main problem can be overcome by educating the African woman. Intern the African woman will take care of the family in a better way.

Works Cited Nthunya, Mpho M. Singing Away the Hunger: The Autobiography of an African Woman. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1997

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Global Prices Setting Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

What Is The Best Approach For Setting Prices Worldwide?

Setting commodity prices is a complex exercise that calls for multiple considerations; the exercise becomes even more complex when commodity prices are set for foreign markets.

There is no single best method to set price globally, however, there are some factors to be considered; international prices are affected by currencies differences, trade barriers like taxes and logistic channels adopted by the exporting company.

To set international prices a company has to consider total costs incurred to deliver the commodity to the market; after accounting for all the process, then a margin of profit is added on the cost to reach at the commodity price; it is important to consider prices of similar and compliment commodities when setting the final price.

The main determinant of price will be the price charged by competitors and the target market that a company targets. The best pricing model to use is price discrimination and price skimming strategies of price determination (Carlon, 2009)

Which Variables should be considered For Foreign Customers?

The following are the variable to consider when setting prices globally:

Taxes and duties charged on the products

Cost of production incurred either in the country of manufacture or the country that the goods will be sold

the target market and the expectation they have regarding something will also be factor to consider – though it cannot be given a monetary figure, marketers should be aware that they will consider it.

Fixed costs in the country of production; these cost include but not limited licenses fees, rent and administrative costs, cost of transport, insuring costs and labor costs.

Where In The Global Company Should Pricing Decisions Be Made?

Prices for commodities in the global markets should be set in two different stages/places

The first’s stage is from the country of exportation; at the factory, the factory determines the price of the goods; the cost includes freights and insurance when transporting the good to the port of destination. (The cost is called CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second point of price determination is at the country of sale, the office adds all costs incurred in the country to determine the total cost of the commodity. The final selling price of the commodity is determined as the sum total of all costs incurred to reach the commodity at the store plus a profit margin that the company wants to get (Maskell, 2003).

Should Prices Vary Across Markets? By Customer Types? Over Time?

The price of commodity cannot be the same in different countries; this is because there are different expenses that are incurred in different countries and unique to that particular country; for example import duties are dependent with a country at hand. When selling to different classes of people, prices should be different; the use of price discrimination as a tool of pricing helps in selling the same product at different people at different costs.

Prices for commodities should not be static since they are determined by other factors that keep changing; a company cannot afford to have constant prices.

Should Price Play An Active Or Passive Role In International Competitive Strategy

In the international market, the role that prices play is an active role, which depends on the target market that the commodity addresses; if the international company has good reputation, it can sell its products expensively and ride on the advantages offered by its strong brand.

Alternatively, if the country is able to produce at a low cost that the cost of the market country, then prices can play an active role in international competition. If prices change in international markets, then a company should be willing to adjust the prices downwards. Prices can be used as a market entry system thus; it has an active role in international market (Nagle and Holden, 2002).

How is pricing in global markets related to a firm’s objective(s)?

The main objective of an organization is to make profits and grow its capital base; to do this the need for products to be sold at a profit margin should be realized. The price sold in international market determines the profit margin of a company; thus it affects the objective of a firm directly.

Another main objective of a firm is to diversify in international markets and remain a leader in the market; price that commodities are sold determines the success in the international market as well as the market share.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Global Prices Setting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What are or could be a firm’s objective(s)? Why?

The following are the main firms’ objectives

maximize profits

grow it shareholders wealth and ensure that all stakeholders interests have been taken care of

Product development and ensuring that the company maintains a leadership role in the industry it is engaged in.

The reason why organizations have objectives is to ensure that they are able to be accountable to their stakeholders using a set mechanism of evaluation; objectives also define why an organization is in existence (Noreen, Brewer and Garrison, 2011).

Explain the underlying economic theories supporting pricing in global markets.

International marketing theory, cultural intelligence theory and the free trade theory support pricing in global markets, according to international marketing theory, a marketer should analyze target market and determine the forces that are likely to affect the prices set. The company should ensure that its prices are competitive.

Free trade theory advocates for minimal government intervention in national and international trade and giving forces of demand and supply a chance to determine commodity prices.

Suggest how changes in the environment may affect pricing in global markets.

Economic, social, and market forces changes in the international market influences commodity either prices upwards or downwards, for example if the rate of import duty reduces the cost of production of a commodity will reduce thus the company can sell cheaper (Ison and Stuart, 2007)

Use graphical analysis to supplement your response on how consumers decide

The graph below shows how consumer decides with differences in prices charged to commodities in international market.

(Ison and Stuart, 2007)

References Carlon, S. et al., 2009. Accounting: Building business skills. New York: John Wiley

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Three Theories Approach Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Psychoanalytic Theory

Humanistic Theory

Cognitive Behavioral Theory

Reference

Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic theory was developed by Freud Sigmund in the late 19th century. Freud states in this theory that the impact of early childhood experiences that are stored in an individuals subconscious play a big role in the development of emotional problems in adulthood. In this theory, human nature is based on determinism.

Freud places the structure of personality into three systems. These are the id, the ego and the superego. The id is the mind’s main source of energy and also the point that generates instincts in the unconscious part of the mind that is guided by the demand for pleasure and satisfaction.

The ego is the conscious part of the mind and is responsible for controlling and regulating one’s personality. It enables an individual to always be in touch with reality and he strives to satisfy his or her needs. The superego, on the other hand, is the ethical element or moral code that enables one to differentiate between good and bad. It regulates an individual’s ideals including beliefs that are passed from one generation to the other (Burger, 2008, p. 45).

Freud identifies three basic concepts in this theory. The main concept is the unconscious, which acts as a store in a persons mental state that carries experiences that one may not be aware of, but which can be easily be transferred into the preconscious and eventually into the conscious.

These experiences can also be inferred from one’s behavior. The second concept is resistance, which is defined as the process through which elements of the unconscious are barred from the unconscious awareness by a repressive force. The third concept that Freud came up with is what he called transference, a concept through which people transfer aspects of their experiences with other in the past to others in a way that the connection between is their past feelings (Burger, 2008, p. 44).

This theory works well in a multicultural setting. It enables people in a community or institution to understand the current problems of an individual by using the elaborated psychoanalytical concepts. Exploring the historical or cultural context of an individual’s problems may not be easy, but if one understands how certain events affected the individual in the past, then one can be in a position to offer help when such events happen again. Understanding a person’s personality helps in coming up with possible interventions.

This works well with group therapists who deal with clients from different cultures. There are many strengths of this theory. Using it one is able to understand the patterns of an individual’s personality development early in life. The unconscious forces that propel individuals into actions are also understood.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One also understands the importance of defense mechanisms in one’s personality. All these are useful especially in psychotherapy. The weaknesses of this theory come from the fact that psychoanalysis is seen by many as not being an exact science and therefore, all conclusions reached are just guesses because they can not be proved. It only happens that sometimes the guesses work out, but not always.

This theory confirms to the truth revealed in the scriptures. The bible teaches that all men are made to understand right from wrong, but they occasional do the wrong things because no single person is perfect, than man has a sinful nature. This truth is manifested by Freud’s concept of the id, which a self seeking entity that the potential to occasional destroy the human psyche.

The theory recognizes that there is the aspect of selfishness and actions that are counter to the moral principles in the life of man. This means that the theory acknowledges, just like the bible, that even sinners know about their moral duty.

Humanistic Theory The humanistic theory views each individual as a unique person. It views human nature as naturally good and seeks to encourage positive potential in humans to emerge. This theory seems to contradict with Freud’s definition of personality as an arena where biological instincts and unconscious forces are always in conflict.

It sees humans as beings that are capable of making free choices in life. It says that a person is who he is at present because of the personal choices he makes in life. The theory recognizes the subjective experiences that people go through contrary to the forced and definitive elements that dictate one’s behavior. Two theorists are credited for these perspectives, Maslow and Rogers.

They both stressed that man is active, creative and one that goes through experiences, that man only lives in the present thereby subjectively responding to the present circumstances in life. The theory stresses that man’s personality is naturally made to seek for growth and self-actualization. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs sums up the entire humanistic theory, it simple says that every humans being has specific needs that should be satisfied (Burger, 2008, p. 277).

This theory seems to work for everyone in this society with competing needs. It recognizes the fact that every individual has a right to work hard in life in order to reach self actualization. It works best in a multicultural society by giving a chance to every individual to explore his or her potential to the maximum.

We will write a custom Report on Three Theories Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This theory however does not work best for the psychology specialists because it encourages the concentration on only the positive aspects of life and ignoring the negative aspects which might be useful in coming up with remedies for certain events. The strengths of this theory lie in the fact that it emphasizes on the positive and good aspects of humanity and the free will to change.

Many aspects of this theory easily integrate with other life views whereby other theorists can comfortably apply humanistic approaches in their work. This theory also applies to many professional fields because each has its needs that should be met. The theory also has its weaknesses, for example, there are those who feel that the theory does not address the hierarchy of needs, for instance, it can not be taken to apply to everyone because there is a possibility that some people can form their own order of attainment.

Theory can not be used to treat people having severe mental disorders. Another weakness is that the theory tends to generalize human nature. The Christian doctrine teaches that humans are born with a natural freedom and individualism and that they have the will to judge between good and bad. Humanistic theory, on the other hand, says that man has the right to live freely in the struggle to achieve in life specific problems because it advocates for free will (Burger, 2008, p. 301).

Cognitive Behavioral Theory This theory came about thanks to the efforts of Aaron Becks as he tried to improve on Freud’s depression theory. However, his research led him to discover that errors logic is responsible for bringing about depression. This theory builds on the premise that the continuation of negative beliefs plays a role in determining an individual’s non-adaptive behavior.

The theory was later on developed when Albert Ellis combined “philosophy, humanism, and behavior therapy to come up with rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)” (Burger, 2008, p. 415). This theory involves “reorganizing the statements and beliefs of individuals to build congruence with their behavior” (Burger, 2008, p. 415).

It postulates that there is a relationship between “individual emotions, cognitions, and behaviors that bring about cause and effect in the way persons handle situations in life” (Burger, 2008, p. 415). It defines humans as persons born with the potential to think rationally or irrationally. This discretion in thinking brings about behaviors that many see as a problem without realizing that it is actually a consequence of faulty thinking (Burger, 2008, p. 415).

It argues that children start to think negatively when they start hearing and adopting negative ideas from parents. These negative ideas and thoughts are repeated over and over keeping alive “dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes and eventually affect the way the individuals behave” (Burger, 2008, p. 432). Therapists working in a multicultural setting can use this theory in teaching their patients to differentiating between their behavior and themselves as human beings.

If individuals learn to accept their different cultures regardless of the stereotypes others have placed on them, helps them to coexist freely with others. When counseling their patients, medical practitioners identify the irrational thinking in the patients and help them find ways of abandoning it so as to build an irrational attitude about life. There are many strengths of this theory. When used in therapy, it discourages patients to depend on their therapists by allowing them to identify the cause of the problem.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Three Theories Approach by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This give them control to change they way they handle the cause. This theory also enables persons to learn how to identify, and change the assumptions and beliefs that may expose them to mental stress and therefore, they will not need to visit a medical expert when the issue recurs. Cognitive behavior therapy is seen as the most effective and therefore the most sought after (Burger, 2008, p. 432).

However, therapists can use this theory to impose their biases and prejudices on patients. It is also criticized for accepting a patient’s judgment as accurate a situation that may leave the underlying issues unaddressed. The theory does not also look at an individual’s thoughts, but instead, dwells much on the thoughts of individuals which sometimes may be misleading.

It does not explain why individuals cling on to their beliefs. Those who access cognitive therapy have more often than not complained about the cost of the therapy. It requires many visits to the therapist in order for a patient learn and incorporate the skills needed to make the therapy successful.

This makes it inaccessible to many patients who may not have the funds. Sometimes even the insurance companies may not accept to meet the expenses. It is also argued that the therapy that uses this theory requires patients to have some certain intelligence in order to grasp what is involved and put it in action in order to achieve positive results. There are those people who may find it hard to connect thought patterns and actions making such a therapy not appropriate for them (Burger, 2008, p. 428).

Cognitive therapy appreciates that there are negative thoughts and behaviors that disturb the lives of people. Christianity also teaches about negative thoughts and beliefs and encourages people to avoid them. Cognitive theory also says that each person should be responsible for his or her actions, beliefs and misconceptions.

It also recognizes the fact that individuals should be left to make choices and be responsible for them. Christianity also allows people to make choices and judgments of what is wrong or right and accept their consequences. This therapy therefore works well with Christian doctrines.

Reference Burger, J. M. (2008). Personality. New York, NY: Thomas Wadsworth.

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Management Model and its Role in Competitive Advantage Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Models are vital instruments in providing a clarification concerning the interaction and effectiveness of distinct management elements within an organization. They act as indicators of the impacts that are felt within organizational management as a result of transformations caused by either internal or external forces. Generally, models are frameworks that represent organizational or management reality in a dynamic manner in order to explain how distinct forces, whether from outside or inside, may revolutionize an organization.

For effectiveness in any organization, the management has to encompass some of these frameworks in order to have a clear outlook of matters concerning management (Harding and Long, 1998). This paper has the main aim of explaining what management models are, as well as their effects on competitive advantage. In addition, it will provide an overview of a few examples of the management models in literature.

Management models and their contribution in competitive advantage The current world has become dynamic growth, development, and discoveries. Thus, every organization is out to acquire the best management and organizational skills with the main aim of shaping their competitiveness in the market. Additionally, many organizations, whether local or international, have emerged that produce and supply similar goods and services, a factor that highly contributes to increased competition.

However, the management models that an organization utilizes have great influence on competitive advantage. The fact that models are frameworks of representations of an organization’s management style, they help identify the effect of inside and outside forces that have or may influence an organization.

These frameworks therefore are crucial in identification of weakness, strengths, threats, and opportunities that an organization has (Raduan, et al, 2009). The analytical awareness created by these models helps the management of any organizations to come up with strategic decisions that would help sustain it in a competitive ground. Additionally, it is possible to come up with the best strategies that would counter the external forces that may cause a negative impact on the organization.

More over, the organizational management is able to perform valuation procedures about their products and implement new strategies that would help improve them. At the same time, these frameworks provide a basis for the best procedures that would help improve the CRM (customer relationship management) strategies, a key factor in competitive advantage (Alipour, et al, 2010).

Examples of management models in the literature Management models are key components to organizational performance and productivity. Thus, researchers and scholars are out to come up with new models everyday that design management frameworks. A very crucial management model is that of performance management. This framework explains the characteristics of quality management in relation to employee performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It helps the organizational management to design appropriate strategies geared towards performance improvements. Additionally, there are customer relationship management models that provide effective frameworks on how an organization can improve its relationship with their available customers as well as analyzing the impacts that may be felt when the organization would design ways of reaching more target consumers.

More over, the management models encompass also change management models that are used to study change and how best it can be managed to produce expected results. Change management is an important aspect of an organization, since every new day comes with changes, whether positive or negative. It is therefore ample to involve the change management models in organizational management (Jonker and de Witte, 2006).

Conclusion Management models are inclusive in organizational management as frameworks that study the interaction of distinct forces, which in turn lead to organizational change that needs to be managed. Thus, the success of an organization lies in the effectiveness of the utilization of different available model in the management. It is therefore important that management models that organizations use provide the best framework that can pave way for incremental competitive and advantage.

References Alipour, H. et al. (2010). The role of knowledge management in the achievement of competitive advantage: A case study of Iran Alborze Insurance Company in Western Mazandaran. Islamic Azad University, Rash Branch, Rasht, Iran. Web.

Harding, S. and Long, T. (1998). Proven management models: CT: Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Jonker, J. and de Witte, M. (2006). Management models for corporate social responsibility. NY: Springer books series.

Raduan, C. R. et al. (2009). Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the Resource-Based View. European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 3. Web.

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Management Theories and Success in Business Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Management theories

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction For any kind of business to be successful, different kinds of management theories must be implemented. In today’s changing business organizations, the major functions of business management need to change as well in order to suit the managerial role. This means that there should be coordination between organization, planning, coordinating and leading roles in any business management set up.

Management theories The first management theory is the scientific management theory which was developed under a classical point of view considering the large industrialized business organizations. This theory focuses on such organizations which manufacture a variety of products repeatedly. Considering the expenses involved in scientific methods and other technical operations as well as the reluctance on the part of the workers, this theory was developed to control these two situations.

Firstly, a large organization needs to divide its operations into small sections to ensure that all employees are aware of their duties. Selection and training of competent personnel for all sections is equally required to ensure quality execution of duty. Monitoring of the operations in all sections should then be done effectively for assurance purposes. Consistent practice of these measures should also be ensured (Heller, 2006, p. 1).

Another very important management theory is the administrative bureaucratic theory which defines all the principles of management. It emphasizes on division of labor where specific sections of an organization have their qualified personnel to concentrate on them. Since there is specialization in the different fields, production tends to increase.

It also identifies the need of authority going hand in hand with responsibility where leaders are required to effectively carry out their duties besides giving orders. Respect between employees and the management should as well be ensured. For instance, employees should seek approval from their leaders in a wise and disciplined manner and the leaders should as well respect the employees (Sinha, 2010, p. 1).

For any organization to be successful and enjoy full profitability, supervision of its operations should be unified such that only one superior gives instructions. This helps prevent corrupt dealings in the organization. Employees working under a certain section of the firm should be unified and work towards achieving a one goal. Additionally, the employees should put the organization’s interests before theirs all the time.

Employees are only loyal and dedicated to their work when they are paid well. It is, therefore, the duty of the management team to distribute fair wages to the employees. Consolidation of power within the organization to ensure that maximum returns are received is as well very important. Effective communication from the highest authority to the lowest is very essential is promoting success of any organization (McNamara, 2010, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another management theory is the contingency theory where decision making should always be based on the situation that the organization is at during that specific time. It basically involves taking actions depending on the situations at hand. The final and very important aspect of any business organization is the systems theory which unifies a whole organization with the aim of achieving a specific goal for the benefit of all those who are involved.

The idea of the system theory is to bring together different units, which may be referred to as raw materials, in an organization such as machinery in order to produce quality outputs. Through provision of quality products, the organization is able to maintain its customers and markets (Shah, 2010, p. 1).

Conclusion The most important aspect of any organization’s success is the consolidation and cooperation between its management and the employees both aiming at achieving a universal goal.

Reference List Heller, R. (2006). Management Theories. Web.

McNamara, C. (2010). Brief History of Management Theories. Web.

Sinha, R. (2010). Management Theories. Web.

Shah, K. and Shah, J. P. (2010). Theories of Motivation. Web.

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Healthcare Marketing: Selling Pharmaceutical Products Essay essay help

Health care marketing employs different approaches in selling pharmaceutical products. The four common methods used include the consultative selling, stimulus response approach, the need satisfaction method and problem-solving selling.

Consultative selling involves problem identification by the sales person who acts as a consultant to offer solution on varied issues regarding health care. Berkowitz argues that this approach best suits the healthcare industry because “…sales representative or consultant can analyze a business’s specific health needs and tailor a package of services to meet the unique requirements of each customer” (343).

After identifying the problem, sales representative through consultation with customer can give a viable proposal as a solution to the problem. The second approach is stimulus response selling which demands the sales person to use provoking questions or actions as stimuli to elicit customer responses. The questions or actions target possible problems that the sales person has solution for them. The responses of the customer can be favorable leading to the purchase of the healthcare products.

The third approach is the need satisfaction selling that involves uncovering the needs of the buyer by probing and offering for the satisfaction of the prevailing needs. This approach is the most flexible and approachable to customers as “the customer is an active participant in the sales process, but the sales person must know how to engage the customer and acquire the information necessary to ensure a match between the service being sold and the customer’s needs” (Berkowitz 242).

Since the customer is participating actively, the sales person can seize the opportunity to recognize the needs of the customer and eventually provides satisfaction to them. Problem solving is the fourth approach of selling and it is an extension of the need satisfaction. After identifying the needs of the customer by probing, some needs require alternative solutions or satisfaction. Problem solving involves going an extra mile to provide alternatives to satisfaction of certain needs.

Health care marketing can utilize different types of analysis to determine the effectiveness of their marketing strategies. Four main types of analysis are market analysis, sales analysis, profitability analysis, and variance analysis. Market analysis determines the competiveness of the organization in the market by indicating the extent of the market share in terms of overall market share, served market share and relative market share. “Market share has the advantage of signaling when an organization needs to make changes” (Rowitz 448).

Market analysis indicates the extent of competitiveness in the market. The second type of analysis is the sales analysis that relates target goals and the actual sales. The sales analysis gives detailed information about a given product, specific customers, or geographical region for the formulation of necessary marketing strategies

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Profitability analysis is the third type of analysis that assesses the profitability of a given product, regions, customers, or sales representatives.

According to Berkowitz, “profitability analysis can help to refocus sales training efforts to encourage salespersons to sell more profitable items in the line or indicate whether a company needs to redesign sales strategies to reward selling more profitable products in the line” (371).

Profitability analysis requires assignment of costs to specific products and services. The fourth analysis is the variance analysis, which is a statistical comparison of the actual performance in marketing and the expected target performance. Variance analysis determines whether there is any significant variable in sales when there is change in sales strategies such as promotion, product mix, or specialization.

Works Cited Berkowitz, Eric. Essentials of Health care marketing. New York: Jones

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William Carney as the first African-American to Receive the Congressional Medal of Honor Essay college essay help near me

Sergeant William Carney was the first Afro-American soldier who received the prestigious Congressional Medal of Honor. Recognition of Carney’s courage by awarding him the Congressional Medal became a significant event in the history of the Civil War and the struggle for the equal rights of African Americans.

The prestigious recognition of Carney’s courage was a turning point in the history of African Americans in the armed forces because previously African Americans not only had never been awarded medals but even were denied the right to take part in the Civil War because of the racial prejudices. “Many whites believed that they [African Americans] lacked the courage and intelligence to be effective soldiers” (Reef, 2010, p. 61).

However, in 1863 the Union Army had to abandon this policy and start accepting African American recruits for the purpose of reinforcing their groups. The Massachusetts 54th Colored Infantry which William Carney joined in February, 1963 was one of the first Afro-American regiments. Displaying their courage in the face of death during the assault on Fort Wagner, Carney and his brother-soldiers managed to prove that they did have enough courage and experience for becoming effective soldiers.

William Carney was one of the soldiers of the historical fifty-fourth that displayed not only their courage but also devotion to the ideals of the Civil War during the dangerous assault on Fort Wagner.

According to the data of the Congressional Record, “Despite being shot twice, Carney planted the colors announcing, “Boys the old flag never touched the ground” (Congress, 2003, p. 5106). After the enemies shot Colonel Shaw who led the 54th and the soldier next to him who carried the Union flag, Carney did not let the flag fall disregarding his own intense pain from his wounds.

It not only demonstrated his heroism and moral strength in the face of death but also encouraged other soldiers for continuing the struggle while some of them began to panic. “The sight of the national flag bolstered the soldiers’ courage and reminded them of the values for which they fought” (Reef, 2010, p. 62). When a soldier from a New York regiment offered his help in carrying the flag on the way to a hospital, Carney declined any assistance, admitting that only a soldier from 54th could do it.

Though Carney got the Congressional medal only in May 23, 1900, he became the first person of his race who received such a prestigious award. The recognition of Carney’s courage and heroism implied the recognition of intelligence and courage of African-American soldiers in general. After the news of Carney’s courage spread throughout the country, thousands of African Americans joined the Union Army and made their contribution to the end of the war (Walbridge, 2000, p. 77).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Demonstrating his courage while capturing Fort Wagner as an important strategic object, William Carney proved that people of his race can be really useful citizens and persuaded his brother-soldiers to stand firm and preserve the ideals for which they struggled at a crucial moment of the battle (Cimbala and Miller, 2002, p. 436).

The events at Fort Wagner and the Congressional Medal of Honor for the first African American were not only a significant vent in the course of the Civil War but also a step forward in the struggle against the racial prejudices and for the equal rights for African Americans.

Demonstrating his courage in the face of death, William Carney did not betray the ideal of his country and his race, becoming a recognized national hero.

Reference List Cimbala, P.

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The Effect of Animal Reburial on the Soil Structure and Water Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Problem Statement

Background

Recommendation

Works Cited

Problem Statement Animal disposal by burying is a common practice. Many methods are available for disposing dead animals. Disposing of dead animals has sometimes posed some dangers especially when the animals are disposed in areas which are not proper appropriate. The issue becomes more serious when there is a mass burial of animals.

Burying of animals in regions which are not appropriate poses the risk of contamination if both water and soil. At times when animals are improperly buried, reburial can be an option but it is worth noting that reburying equally raises the chances of soil and water contamination. This paper seeks to examine the effect of animal reburial on the soil structure and water. The paper also proposes a way forward.

Background Large scale keeping of livestock often poses a challenge when the livestock gets inflicted with diseases. It is a common practice to cull and bury animals which to contain the spreading of diseases such as anthrax, food and mouth, swine flu, bird flu among others. Upon the occurrence of epidemic the burying processes have been known to be carried out very first and many at times in a very haphazard manner. Few governments have put strict laws in place which govern the mass burial of animals.

Tae Jong reported of incidences where animals are buried quickly without much consideration to the burial sites. Burying of animals especially in mass numbers in sites which are not appropriate poses many risks. Decomposing carcases are likely to contaminate underground water reservoirs which in turn will find its way to human and animal consumption. Improper burying which will lead to water contamination will likely lead to a catastrophic effect as this will likely contaminate water sources.

Contaminated water sources will likely be the easiest way to kill most of the wildlife stock. The fact that contamination may not be detected immediately implies that putting the situation under control may be hard. According to Tae-jong there are possibilities of animals being exhumed and reburied in regions which are appropriate to avoid contamination water sources (Tae-jong 1).

Carcases buried on hilly slopes and regions which do not have stable soil structure increase the possibilities of contaminations. Areas which are frequently prone to flooding are likely to increase the chances of contamination. Carcases buried in such areas should be reburied in appropriate areas elsewhere. It is however worth noting that such an exercise is prone to increase the chances of soil and water pollution.

Taking into consideration that the carcases would have decomposed then a lot of care has to be taken when carrying out the whole exercise. The fact that the regions which have to undergo exhuming are already unstable the chances of contaminating water are quite high. Digging up areas which areas which have shallow water tables is risky as this may enhance a fast leaching of the decomposing carcases (Livestock Mortality 1; Texas Board 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommendation Personal I will recommend that before a burial exercise is carried out a thorough evaluation ought to be carried out to determine how best the dig up the carcase and avoid any pollution. There should be attempts to divert rivers channels flowing near such sites to flow away. In regions such on the mountain sides reburial should take place but the exercise should be accompanied with a lot of care to minimise the pollution to the soil as well as water (Agriculture and Consumer Protection 1; Disposing animal carcasses 1).

Works Cited Agriculture and Consumer Protection. Animal health and the community. FAO Corporate Document Repository. Web.

Disposing animal carcasses. Disposing of Animal Carcasses. Northern Ireland Environmental Agency, 2011. Web.

Livestock Mortality. Livestock Mortality Burial Techniques. Agriculture and Rural Development, 2011. Web.

Tae-jong, Kim. “Hasty, shoddy burial of animals expected to contaminate soil, water.” The Korea Times, 2011. Web.

Texas Board. Catastrophic Animal Mortality Management (Burial Method). Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, 2002. Web.

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Business online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Effects of Climate Change

Coca-Cola Challenges

Conclusion

References

Introduction Today’s lean organizations face a dizzying array of issues, from cost control, customers satisfaction, product quality, productivity, stiff competition, change, technology, labour amongst others.

These organizations are made of people from diverse professional, academic and cultural background who must work as a team under intense time pressure and with limited resources to deliver the best results. When faced with complex problems, a good manager is guided by principles of problem solving skills to make sound decision logically and consistently (Kephner and Tregoe, 2004).

The Kephner-Tregoe technique is one of the logical consistent approach that managers uses to solve seemingly impossible problems (2004). The K-T technique, enable people to efficiently organize and analyze vast amounts of information and take appropriate action. The purpose of this paper is to apply principles of problem solving skills such as the K-T technique, in analyzing how the challenge of climate change is addressed in the soft drinks industry which in this case is Coca-Cola.

Effects of Climate Change It has been noted that the temperature of the earth have steadily been rising. As a result, the climate of the earth has also changed and this has affected the earth’s ecosystems upon which life depends. In the last century temperatures have increased by about 10C. Though the increase is small, it has a significant impact on the climate.

It has resulted in extreme weather conditions such as floods, drought, severe storms, typhoons, hurricanes, heat waves and mild winters becoming more common and extreme (Coca-Cola.com, 2010). Conscious governments, organizations, companies (such as Coca-cola) and individuals are taking the initiative to minimize their contribution to climate change as well as make efforts to preserve the environment.

The soft drink industry is one of the largest contributors to climate change. It contributes to climate change in three main ways. One is through the manufacturing process by consuming energy that is produced when fossil fuel such as coal is burned where carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere as a by-product. Secondly, point of sale cooling equipments widely used in the soft drinks industry use energy and at the same time emit dangerous HydroFlourocarbons (HFC) into the atmosphere.

Thirdly, transportation of raw materials to production sites and finished goods to the market releases vast amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere thereby contributing to the greenhouse effect. Other methods through which soft drink companies contribute to climate change are through use of vehicle in product distribution, emissions, during packaging amongst others. Being global companies operating in almost all countries in the world, it is certain that their contribution to climate change is significant

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But how can the industry use bottom line reporting to report how they address climate change? Triple bottom line reporting technique entails reporting on economic, social and environmental issues (Coca-Cola.com, 2010).

The triple bottom line technique evolved when companies realized that investors and other stakeholders are not interested on financial performance alone. The method of reporting focuses on a Company’s performance in areas such as “pollution, health and safety, human rights, child labour, and other environmental issues” (Coca-Cola.com, 2010).

The intention is to show how the company uses its resources towards social issues; it is also a useful publicity tool. The Coca-Cola Company will benefit from the triple bottom line reporting method as it will be able to demonstrate that it takes the issue of climate change very serious and also use the chance to demonstrate how it uses its resources to mitigate climate change and preserve the environment.

The main challenge that the company faces from climate change is how to keep its emissions and energy usage low. As such the industry is collaborating with research organizations, conservationists, universities, governments and other stake holders to develop more environmental friendly processes and equipment such as the HFC free coolers.

Coca-Cola Challenges The company does not see any material risk at the moment associated with climate change, but it has estimated that there is potential risk in the future. There is a marked decrease in the amount of fresh water available which could be alarming because water is a major raw material for the industry. Events such as drought, famine and flooding affect water supply negatively. The supply of water in the future is not guaranteed and there is an urgent and critical need to protect its water resources if the industry is to remain sustainable.

In addition sudden and violent weather changes can disrupt its operations and supply chain systems because environmental disasters disrupts infrastructure and paralyses transport; prices can also increase and this may affect the sustainability of the industry. There are broader implications of climate change that will indirectly affect the industry such as people’s conflict over scarce resources. People constitute the market and labour; if they are in conflict the industry will be affected.

Conclusion Problem solving skill is one of the most critical competences a manager can have; it gets work done and keeps the group together. It provides useful tools such as the K-P technique, for outlining the course of action in order to achieve an objective.

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Marketing the Product Over Time Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Cars and Its Marketing In 1960

The End of Mass Market

Changes in Product Design and Advertisement

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Marketing entails the process and techniques that an entity employs in order to capture and retain customers. Monopolies only need to pass information of their existence but an entity in an openly competitive market has to inform the customer as well as be convincing that it offers more than others can.

This paper seeks to discuss marketing with respect to cars and the changed aspects of marketing the product over time. The paper will talk about the marketing environment of cars and how it has changed over time (the past 50 years), the mass market and how it ended and also the designs and advertisements in the car industry and how it has changed since 1960.

Cars and Its Marketing In 1960 Cars were invented in the nineteenth century and by the mid twentieth century investors had been attracted to the car manufacturing business. 1960 had already seen automobile firms in America with names like “the big three” and American market dominating the market. The 1960 period also witnessed the emergence of car importers into the American market (Cars 1).

There therefore existed competition for buyers among the automobile companies by the time. According to Peck and Christopher, there exists a wide difference between the marketing environment that was experienced fifty years ago and the current environment.

They explained that though marketing concept was introduced in the nineteen sixties, the concept was crude and only developed over time. Large amount of sales could be achieved in a relatively competitive environment even with crude marketing skills. There are a variety of factors that have changed the marketing environment over the 50 years period of time (Peck and Christopher 2).

One of the changes that have taken place is the enlightenment of the consumers. Consumers have developed to a different level of complexity, knowledge and experience. The car industry was just developing in the 1960s and consumers had no taste in the variety of cars offered by that time.

Fewer people had experienced cars and knowledge about the quality and features of the available cars were limited. Consumers would therefore make purchases on the basis of the name cars rather than on the cost effectiveness of the car among other factors. This could see people just making purchases and every car company ending up with a satisfactory amount of sales. The environment is however different in the current time. People have used a variety of cars and preferences have been made.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Experience and knowledge about cars also plays a major role leading to loss of indifference that gave advantage to the car sellers. The consumers now enter a market with an opinion and the seller has to be convincing that his or her vehicle will be more satisfying to the consumer. Another changed factor in the marketing environment is the advancement in technology and communication that has put the car manufacturers at almost equal level in their products.

Unlike fifty years ago when different car brands were distinct according to manufactures, incorporations have been made in an attempt to beat competition. Manufacturing companies have seemingly incorporated other manufacturers’ original features like shapes.

Unlike earlier when a brand could beat others in the market because of its appealing outlook, every existing brand almost have all outward designs that the competitors stock. This has brought a sense of equality among the manufacturers hence intensified competition. The change in market control from the seller to the buyer is another market difference between the two periods.

In the sixties, cars were still being introduced into the market, manufacturers were few and the demand was relatively high. The consumers had no much freedom of choice. There were few options in terms of the car brands as well as the sellers. The system has however changed with a variety of manufacturers and brands. The availability of wide options has given the consumer the power to choose and the sellers only have the option of convincing the buyer into his or her particular car type.

With increased variety of products in the car industry, a consumer can now have his or her needs fulfilled in a variety of car brands. There is therefore induced preference in the lowly priced among the satisfying brands. The competition in prices is also a changed factor in the market environment (Martin and Peck 3, 4).

The End of Mass Market Mass market is the totally inclusive market where everyone is considered a potential buyer. The system is carried out in an all inclusive advertisement to everyone within given vicinity. It ended in the late twentieth century with the preference of a more personalized approach to marketing. Kotler argued that the concept of mass marketing was based on averaging on the potential customers. The concept was ineffective as averaging does not always give the correct dimension of the circumstances on the ground.

He further explains that companies have shifted from the mass market concept into small or segmented markets. The shift from mass market to the segmented marketing strategy signified the collapse of the mass market (Kotler 177). Zabin and Brebach also illustrated the emergence of “precision” marketing that eliminated mass marketing (Zabin and Brebach 21).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing the Product Over Time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Changes in Product Design and Advertisement The design of cars has changed over the past fifty years. During the nineteen sixties, the car designs were based on their power, locomotors speeds as well as the capacity of the engines. The evolution has however changed the designer’s ideas to nowadays design in terms of factors like how the car will appeal to the eye, comfort when driving and comfort in the car (Diseno 1).

There has not however been much development in advertising in the car industry, just like the case in general advertising. Advertising had by then developed to the current level of brand development. The current advertising has the advantage of an expanded scope with some modes of mass communication that was not available during the 1960s (Tolani 1).

The car market has also developed over the past fifty years in terms of its consumers and the car brands. According to the US government statistics, the ratio of number of people to number of cars was 3:1 in the year 1960. This can be estimated to averagely a car per family. It can therefore be concluded that averagely, the primary consumers could be any economically averagely rated citizen.

There has been an increase since then with statistics in 2008 averaging a car for two people. This is an indication that the ownership of cars has reached almost every household on average analysis (Wilson 1). The number of car brands also increased from less than ten brands in America in 1960 to the currently more than twenty brands that were recorded by a research in 2011. The car types have equally increased over the years (Consumers 1).

Conclusion The marketing environment for cars has changed greatly over the past fifty years following the changes in technology. Many manufacturers have come up with a variety of brands. The competition among the manufacturers has shifted more power to the consumer. The competitive environment has also led to innovations in market strategies that have improved consumer satisfaction. The advancement of marketing strategy in general also led to the end of mass market.

Works Cited Cars. An Account of 1960s Cars’ Development. Any Thing About Cars, 2011. Web.

Consumers. New Cars. Consumer reports Org, 2011. Web.

Diseno, Art. Car Design History – a brief overview. Diseno Art, 2011. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing the Product Over Time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kotler, Philip. Marketing insights from A to Z. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2003. Print.

Martin, Christopher and Peck, Hellen. Marketing logistics. Butterworth: Heinemann, 2003. Print.

Tolani, Roshan. The origin and evolution of advertising. Employment Crossing, 2003. Web.

Wilson, Miller. Car Ownership Statistics. Love To Know Corp, 2011. Web.

Zabin, Jeff and Brebach, Gresh. Precision marketing. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2004. Print.

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The Subprime Mortgage Crisis Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Subprime mortgage

Causes of the crisis

Development of the crisis

Financial and economic effects of the subprime mortgage

Conclussion

References

Introduction Incentives came by and an investment ground was ripe. Financial companies had money to invest and the housing sector had room for investment. This can be a description of what was later to be seen as one of the world worst economic crisis.

The subprime mortgage crisis that was experienced in the United States between the period of years 2007 and 2010 had its effect felt world wide. This discussion seeks to illustrate the financial and economic effects of the crisis. The paper will include the causes of the subprime mortgage crisis, its development and the global affects that it caused.

Subprime mortgage Subprime mortgage is a mortgage to a person who has a low probability of paying back the loan. Though financial companies engage risk in giving loans, loans are normally given to people with credible ability to pay back the given loan. The subprime mortgage however breaches the mortgage standard by lowering the level of strictness on the qualifications on mortgage (Pritchard, 2011).

Causes of the crisis Bianco (2008) explained that one of the reasons that caused the crisis was the escalated increase in the housing value. The value of houses started rising in the year 2001 and climaxed in the year 2005. The market equilibrium forces then had to bring down the risen prices. This saw real estate loose value to the point that the real estate valuations got lower than the mortgage loans.

Another reason for the crisis was the low interest rates in mortgage and subprime mortgage in particular. The action by the federal bank to reduce short term rates in order to correct the 2000 recession was also a factor. The low rates that were reduced from about 6.5 percent to about 1 percent were a great incentive to overcrowd the mortgage system.

This in turn shot up the demand in real estates with subsequent terrible fall. Also involved passively in the cause of the crisis is the federal bank policy makers. Being the ones who initiated the low interest rates in the period of 2001 up to 2003, they were responsible to the states over their decision. Their otherwise wise decision to wait on the perceived 2000 recession to correct its self would have yielded a completely different effect (Bianco, 2008).

Development of the crisis The crisis is majorly attributed to the interest rates that that were greatly reduced. The subprime lending was another cartelist in the whole matter. The issue of subprime lending which was in a way an investment move by the financial institutions increased borrowing to even potential defaulters. Almost every willing individual could move in and acquire a mortgage. The house ownership then got to its rise and the increased demand pull saw the “inflation” in the real estate industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People even mortgaged for other purposes. The natural market forces stepping in, corrected the inflated prices and the result was a drastic fall in real estate values. The defaulting borrowers had effects on the financial institution and the Federal Reserve moved in to correct the situation by increasing the interest rates though many argued that it was a late move (Bianco, 2008).

Financial and economic effects of the subprime mortgage According to Tsanis (2010), there was declared bankruptcy by most of the banks and financial companies as borrowers defaulted in payments. Lending also became difficult on the bankers as the crisis tightened liquidity.

The large number of defaulters meant that the financial institution lost their money in the hands of the borrowers and this in a way tied their lending hands. Furthermore, possible implications could include a large number of bad debts from the mortgage defaulters who could not manage to repay their loans due to the financial crisis that resulted from the spill over of the subprime mortgage crisis.

The large number of defaulters could in addition be attributed to the fact that under normal circumstances, the borrowers could still be unable to repay since their credit worthiness was overlooked as they were being awarded the loans. The mortgage crisis also had its spill over into the general economy causing a larger financial crisis. This resulted into rise in unemployment as employers moved to cut costs for sustainability in the caused volatile economic environment (Tsanis, 2010).

As Jansen and co authors (2009) explained, the crisis had effects on stock markets. This was noticed not only in the United States, but globally. Major among the affected stock market were the “Dow Jones” and the German stock exchange market.

The house owners were also major victims of the crisis in the US. Not only did their house values fall but many people had their houses sold out as they could not manage to repay for the loans as the interest rates were even increased. The financial institutions also suffered a big blow. First, the borrowers defaulted and their property had to be repossessed. Next, there had been a great fall in the property valuation and this meant selling the reposed property at a loss.

The companies therefore made losses out of their lending. Also inclusive of the effects of the crisis are the measures undertaken by the federal reserve of the US and other central banks of the respective economies to which the effects of the subprime mortgage crisis spilled over. The Federal Reserve introduced new economic policies, both monetary and interest based in order to correct the effects of the crisis in the economy (Linsmann, Beulig and Jansen, 2009).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Subprime Mortgage Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kolb (2010) further explained that the subprime mortgage had its effects spilled over to the general economy due to the nature of the lending. One of the main reasons for the spill was the fact that the mortgages were guaranteed.

The net effect of this was that defaults would result into the acquisition of the security, or worse, possession of the worth of the dispensed amount. The end result is that property outside the real estate became victims of the crisis and this led to the spill. Another notable effect was that the subprime mortgages were on an adjustable rate basis.

This saw the interest rates on the loans increased after the crisis was felt. The borrowers became the prime victims in this aspect in that as the house valuations fell and the economy got tight, the financial institutions increased the interest rates. It was worse as it could be perceived that most of the subprime borrowers could be people who had weak financial background and could not be offered the prime mortgages. The overall result of this was increased level of poverty (Kolb, 2010).

Tong and Wei (2008) also noted that the subprime mortgage crisis led to tight liquidity conditions and fall in consumer demand. The events leading to the crisis saw loss of money both from the hands of the financial institutions and majorly from the consumers who at the same time were the borrowers.

The reduced liquidity was the first consequence on both the financial institutions and the consumers as a direct consequence of the money they lost during the crisis. The consumer on the other hand had an extra negative effect. The lost or reduced liquidity had an implication on the consumers’ demand, which is the willingness and ability to acquire goods and/or services. There was therefore reduced demand which implied a change in the overall economy.

Another effect to the consumer was the loss of confidence in the financial institutions. The increment in the interest rates after the loss of value of the real estate could be viewed by the consumers as unfair and just a move to rob them of their houses and other property used as securities in the loan acquisitions (Tong and Wei, 2008 ).

Conclussion The subprime mortgage, a special mortgage on softer ground but tighter implications that was given under below normally required conditions for prime mortgages attracted many people to the loans. The increased investment in the real estate led to an escalated evaluation in the sector and increase in house prices.

This was followed by a drastic fall in the value and prices of houses. The result was spread to other sectors of the economy and even globally to other economies. The immediate victims were however the financial institutions who lost their liquidity and the borrowers most of whom lost their acquired houses.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Subprime Mortgage Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Bianco, M. (2008). The Subprime Lending Crisis. Business. Retrieved from: web.

Kolb, W. (2010). Lessons from the Financial Crisis. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Linsmann, K., Beulig, N and Jansen, H. (2009). US Subprime and Financial Crisis. Germany: GRIN Verlag.

Pritchard, J. (2011). Subprime. Banking. Retrieved from: https://www.thebalance.com/banking-4074049

Tong, H. and Wei, J. (2008). Real Effects of The Subprime Mortgage Crisis. NBER. Retrieved from: https://www.nber.org/

Tsanis, K. (2010). The Impact of the 2007-2009 Subprime Mortgage Crisis in the Integrated Oil and Gas Industry: Germany: GRIN Verlag.

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How Centralized Bureaucratic State Emerged In China Essay scholarship essay help

How China created a centralized state down to 500 CE Centralization of china was brought about by King Ch’eng, the king of Ch’ing after the weakening of the Chou and Shang states in 500BC. The fall of these states led to chaotic period known as The Warring states period. Ch’ing state led by the young King Ch’eng adopted an aggressive policy to achieve territorial expansion.

They were to do this guided by adopting a new style of governance on principles of Legalism. These principles guided him to conquer the neighboring states, since they did not have wealth and military powers like he had. He was able to conquer all the northern states. In order for centralization to take place, there needed to replace the existing feudal system with a strong hierarchical system.

After conquering the states, Ch’ing started a system of central governance with ministers of state being appointed. As a way of stopping aristocracy’s power, he decided to take all the pieces of land and gave them to the peasants, the same way the government got its taxes directly from the peasants. As a way of strengthening the central government, Ch’in introduced currency and standard measures of measurement (Sutter 38).

Role played by Confucius ideas and other philosophers in the rise of a strong central government in China Confucian was one of the great Chinese philosophers who significantly impacted the rising of the central government in china. He stood by the policy of Legalism that defined human beings as selfish in nature, and had to be governed and controlled through laws. He also considered that the laws were to be severe to the humans so that they could follow them. The Legalist philosophy stated that there was the need to have a strong central government that had a strong military and a strong economy, and citizens were to be under a strong regime.

Later, after the incorporation of these philosophies, the Legalist system was the most followed since it was stricter especially to the people in the government. Offenders were severely punished, and some crimes for example corruption, attracted punishments like death. On viewing that non legalism ways could lead to revolution, Legalists decided to outlaw other school of thoughts especially the Confucian, and their practitioners were executed (Morris 94).

Material factors that contributed to China’s rise Many factors have lead to the growth of China. Rapid growth in both imports and exports has ultimately improved their economic stimulus, hence more growth economically. China’s size and its population also offer an adequate market for the products produced in their industries, contributing more of their economic development.

The economic reforms of 1978 as china changed its communist family farming have led to its economy moving so fast to a growth rate of about 10%, which is the fastest in the world (Sutter 18). Public investment is another factor that has led to the rise of China. Good roads and highways, ports, airports are some of the structures laid down by their government that have greatly led to their rise. The corporate structures put in place in the 1980’s have enabled them to increase the use of the world available technologies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The changing of the state owned corporations to private owners made them profit-oriented. The ability of these corporations to have responsiveness to the market led them to having gains and productivity in the market, as well as promoting growth, hence rising economically. The culture of China still played a prominent role in their rise. The confidence in their system of moral and ethical superiority has promoted it to having a great technological growth (Sutter 20).

Works Cited Morris, Ian. Why the West Rules for Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2010. Print.

Sutter, Robert. China’s rise in Asia: promises and perils. London: Rowman

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Sociological Imagination Essay essay help free: essay help free

Mills in his theory of social imagination suggests that people often feel as if their lives were a series of traps whereby they have troubles they cannot overcome. Their thoughts are only limited to the world around families and working environment and as such they are not able to see the global picture of the reality of life. He suggests that people are not likely to link their lives with the larger society. According to him the history and changes to the global society affects individuals in one way or another (Mills 1).

He points out that people are not able to relate the patterns of their lives with the pattern set by history of mankind and most importantly the connection between the personal life and history, oneself and the global society and as such they are not able to tune the all the external factors that contribute to his personal problems.

World history affects mankind in various ways such as modernized political colonies, imperialism and revolutions and hunger for power and domination in developed worlds and even violence and ancient life in the underdeveloped world.

But besides all these man still reasons locally and it is suggested that he relates his problems to the immediate local community and preferring to remain in an individuals setting and thus get overcome by a sense of the trap. Wills, in his theory of imagination argues that instead man needs a quality mind capable of thinking more into history and in a global sense. He supports his idea with the following suggestions (Mills 1).

His theory empowers one to understand history and relate his position, experiences, fate and circumstance to it and by this understand his chances, role and importance in the society at that particular time in history and by this he can optimize the available opportunities.

It is suggested that one needs to fully understand the setting of the society in all aspects, understand where the society stands in the history and the importance of such a stand in human development. Complete understanding of the people living in that society at the time and how the people integrate with all aspects of the society and human life.

He point out that people who embrace this theory of social imagination often feel a sense increased self consciousness and ones thoughts are no longer limited to the locality but one can now make assessments and rational decisions based of a broad perspective of knowledge. He is able to differentiate personal problems with society affiliated problems and thus can know what is expected of him.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also expected of a person to understand the public issues such as economics and individual life challenges their differences and how they relate and affect ones lifestyle.

As a matter of fact the Wills disagrees with psychoanalysts that our greatest enemy is within us but rather he suggests that a mans greatest enemy is his own society and its negative attributes to human nature and the fact that many people don’t understand this fact and instead think of all personal and society problems their own since they think locally as individuals (Mills 1).

In conclusion the writer stresses the need to adopt his idea of sociological imagination citing that it’s the most needed quality of mind that will ensure that man thinks globally and in all aspect about himself, nature, history and how the three integrate. With this kind of thinking our quality of life can be greatly improved.

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Comus Company: Managing Change Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Comus

References

Introduction Comus is most likely going to face some ethical issues if it goes ahead to execute the outsourcing plan. It is worth noting that outsourcing and off shoring of tasks has become a common practice among US based companies. Tasks are mostly outsourced to developing countries where labour is cheaply available.

Most companies in an attempt to reduce the cost of production outsource some of the tasks to offshore labour force. Outsourcing of tasks automatically leads to downsizing in companies that outsources their tasks. Weather this practice is ethical or not is highly debatable and heavily dependent on individual cases.

Comus Being a controversial issue and one which will definitely affect one party irrespective of the decision made, there is need to weigh the benefits against the damages which are likely to result from outsourcing of tasks. Is it necessary for Comus to outsource its tasks? Comus Company at the present time faces an increasing competition and there is a need for to find ways to survive in the market.

Comus is already “hugely popular” and there is need for it to sustain its market share which it has already acquired. In the face of competition especially from similar products, price reduction becomes almost the sole solution to maintaining the loyalty of customers. In order to reduce the cost of production, outsourcing is mandatory for Comus.

It is fair that the Comus outsource its tasks in order to survive the market place competition but again it might be seen to be very unethical to exchange employees who have helped the company grow to those who have not made any contribution towards stabilizing the company. This can be a source of bitter exchanges between the employees and the management team. Weber (1994) insists that downsizing should be carried out as the last resort.

There is a need therefore to carry out the downsizing exercise in an appropriate way (Weber, 1994; Outsourcing, 2006). I suggest that the company should strike a balance between the maximum number of employees that can be maintained and the minimum amount of tasks that the company can outsource. It is not advisable for the company to undertake large scale outsourcing as this may lead to technical disruption in the production process (Ashley, 2008; Barrar and Gervais, 2006).

Comus should take downsizing as the very last option. The company should try to negotiate the salary package of its employees with an aim of spending less on wages. The management should make it clear to the employees that by withdrawing some of the work related benefits, it will be possible for the company to survive and avoid outsourcing their jobs overseas. I believe that a job with reduced monetary gains is better than none at all. On the side of the employees, they will likely use this as a grace period to find better means of livelihood. I feel that the company should find a way of appreciating the employees who will be laid off.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are many companies which have successfully outsourced their back office tasks. Most of the fortune 500 companies are known to outsource their tasks.

Some of the companies which have been known to continuously engage in outsourcing include “IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, Cisco, Prudential, Hewlett Packard, ATT Wireless, TransUnion, First Consulting Group (FCG), Dell Computer Support, Bell South, EDS, GE Capital, GE, IBM, Schlumberger, Qwest and Rand McNally” (Bizbrim 1). Outsourcing is significant and helps companies situated in developed nations reduce their costs of production.

References Ashley, E. (2008). Outsourcing for Dummies. New York, NY: Cengage.

Barrar, P and Gervais, R. (2006). Global outsourcing strategies. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

Bizbrim. (2008). List of Companies that Outsource. Biz brim. Web.

Outsourcing. (2006). Outsourcing Ethics. The New York Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/20/opinion/20wed2.html

Weber, L. (1994). Ethical downsizing managers must focus on justice and human dignity. National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10135164

We will write a custom Essay on Comus Company: Managing Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Changing Flora and Fauna in the Canadian Arctic Essay college admission essay help

Proposal Introduction

The climatic conditions of the Canadian arctic region have been hard to comprehend over the years owing to the frequent changes experienced and great variations. The climatic situation varies from one region to another; even in cases where the climatic conditions tend to be similar, the flora and fauna varies greatly.

In its original state, climate of the Canadian arctic can be described as complex owing to the fact that it is not easy to forecast. In fact, numerous weather stations have been established in the area in the attempt to capture the climatic patterns. From the findings at different weather stations in the area, the conclusion is that the climatic conditions in the Canadian arctic are unpredictable. The unpredictability has largely been compounded by climate change.

However, apart from findings from the weather stations described above, no comprehensive study has ever been done to determine the overall climate change trends in the area. Moreover, there are plant and animals species in this region that are still adapting to these climatic changes.

There is need for research to determine how the plants are adapting to changing climatic conditions. Since relocating the plants and animals has never been a solution, as the effects of climate change are felt throughout the region, there is need to consider how the plant and animal species will survive.

Problem statement

The rapid change in the climatic conditions that are being experienced in the Canadian arctic is the result of an increase in the level of the natural calamities such as the fire incidents, flora disease outbreaks and pest infestations. The same is true of all other ecosystems i.e. due to certain human activities and other natural causes, climate conditions are changing.

Talking of the Canadian arctic, “The region has experienced an increase in concentration in the carbon dioxide level and that has led to an increase in the ultra violet radiations, which have an adverse and long term effect in the plant and animal life hence causing an alteration in the whole ecosystem” (Abbott

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Union Structure and Governance Term Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction The purpose of this study will be to analyze the structure and governance of a national or international union that addresses the plight of workers.

The union that will be focused on in this study will be the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) which is a labor union representing the needs of workers employed in the electrical industry in the United States, Panama and Canada as well as other workers employed in the public utility and electrical manufacturing industry.

The union also represents the interests of workers employed in computer, broadcasting and telecommunications sector. The main objective of the IBEW is to promote reasonable working conditions for all electrical workers under the union and also cultivate feelings of brotherhood/friendship among the various employees that fall under the union (Hill, 2008).

History of the Union The beginning of IBEW can be traced back to the Electrical Wiremen and Linemen’s Union which was founded in 1890 in St. Louis, Missouri. Both wiremen and linemen flocked to St. Louis to demonstrate their trade by wiring the buildings in the city with electricity lines so as to exhibit their trade.

During the exhibition, the workers got together to talk about their jobs and also the working conditions of electricians in the electrical industry. There was a general consensus that their jobs were hard and they worked for long hours with little pay (12 hours a day for 15 to 20 cents per hour).

The workers did not receive any training or apprenticeship during the first week of their jobs and the safety standards especially for the wiremen were nonexistent which meant that they were exposed to dangerous working conditions. These poor working conditions led to the industry having the highest mortality rates of one out of two hired employees in the whole of America. The Convention and the growing electrical industry were basically the starting points of the Brotherhood (IBEW, 2005).

The following year, 1891, saw a growing interest to have a national union that would address the plight of electrical workers in the US. The Convention that took place in St. Louis approached the American Federation of Labor (AFL) to receive a charter that would operationalise the Electrical Wiremen and Linemen’s Union.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Electrical Wiremen and Linemen’s Union under the charter No. 5221 was established in 1981 as a national organization that would address the labor needs of electrical workers within the electrical industry as well as other workers in the telecommunications, telegraph and electrical manufacturing industry. During their first year of operation, the union organized a convention in St. Louis where ten delegates representing the 286 members of the electrical industry attended the convention (IBEW, 2005).

The ten representatives included Henry Miller, the president of the union, J.T. Kelly, W. Hedden, C.J. Sutter, H. Fisher, F. Heizleman, J. Berlowitz, T.J. Finnell, M. Dorsey and E. Hartung.

These ten delegates formed the founders of the union and they adopted a different name for the organization known as the National Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. They worked for hours drafting a constitution for the union which would stipulate the laws and procedures that would guide the operations of the union.

They also came up with the well-known emblem of the union, a fist grasping several lightning bolts, which would be used to distinguish the organization from other unions in the US. During the Convention, the delegates elected Henry Miller as the first Grand President of the union and they also elected T. Kelly as the Grand Secretary Treasurer of the union. In the 1899 Pittsburgh Convention, the union decided to change its name to the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.

The membership during that time had reached 2,000 members with over 43 chartered local unions in the whole of America. The current number of members now stands at 750,000 in the four countries covered by the union (Panama, Canada, US and some parts of the Caribbean’s) (IBEW, 2005).

The type of employers the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers bargains with includes the electrical manufacturing industries, public utility companies that offer electricity to consumers, electrical installation companies, wiremen and linemen contracting agencies.

The union faced adversity during its first year of operation as it received a lot of criticism and indignation from employers working in the mentioned companies. Many of these employers were trying to drive out trade unions in the country by organizing open shop campaigns in the national level. The union however sought to reduce tensions between employers and employees in the electrical industry by forming the Council on Industrial Relations which would be used to represent the interests of managers and employees (IBEW, 2005).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Union Structure and Governance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hierarchical Structure of the Organization The IBEW is made up of three functional bodies which make up the structure of the union and these include the executive body which is made of the International President, the International Secretary-Treasurer, International representatives and the eleven International Vice-Presidents that manage the district level operations of the union. Other offices that fall under the executive body include the local union offices as well as the membership of IBEW.

The judicial and legislative bodies of the union are made up of the International Executive Council which is made up of a chairman and eight elected members working in the district offices. The International President is charged with the general administration of the IBEW and the responsibilities that come with the international office are varied and distinct (IBEW, 2005).

Some duties of the International President include implementing the laws of the Brotherhood, overseeing any controversial issues that might arise within the organization, acting on any appeals that might arise from decisions made by the International Vice Presidents, deciding on IBEW policies and procedures, chartering and amalgamating various unions that have been established in the local level and suspending or revoking any local union charters that do not serve the interests of IBEW’s members.

The International Secretary-Treasurer is primarily charged with the role of handling the financial matters of the IBEW International office such as investments and pension funds.

The responsibilities of the treasurer include collecting, disbursing and accounting for all union funds, maintaining records of the organization’s membership and receiving all signed applications for the local union charter. The treasurer is also charged with protecting the seal and emblem of the Brotherhood (IBEW, 2005).

The eleven International vice presidents that make up the district office and have been elected by the local unions work under the instructions of the International President of IBEW. The duties of the vice president include supervising the activities of all International Representatives within the district branch offices and also act on appeals that might come from members of the local unions.

The internal bodies that exist in the local unions include presidents who are charged with enforcing the constitutional provisions of the union, vice presidents who are charged with assisting the local president with office duties, recording secretary who is charged with the role of keeping the minutes of local union meetings as well as maintaining all meeting records, the financial secretary who is charged with handling all the funds collected by the local union (IBEW Constitution, 2008).

Another member of the local union is the treasurer who receives all collected funds from the financial secretary and deposits them in the bank under the name of the local union and the business manager who is charged with the role of representing the local union in any trade disputes with industry employers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Union Structure and Governance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The business manager appoints all stewards within the local unions to effect bylaws that will be needed to effectively manage the functions of the local union.

The business manager also conducts training programs for all stewards as well as enforcing all collective bargaining agreements. The International Executive Council (IEC) and the legislative body are charged with managing the judicial and legislative aspects of the union. The IEC is the final authority that is used when granting pensions, disability benefits and also handling the vested interests of the union’s members.

The two bodies also act on appeals that are made by the International President and they try members of the local union who have been charged with violating the laws and rules of the IBEW (IBEW Constitution, 2008). The diagram below represents the hierarchical structure of the IBEW and the various offices/bodies that make up the organization.

Source: IBEW, 2005

Financial Flow of the Union The financial flow of the union is mostly made of funds collected from union dues, pension benefit funds and the general funds that are used to manage the day-to-day operations of the union. Members of the organization are meant to contribute $10 every month so as to manage the collective bargaining activities of the organization.

The amount of pension funds that are collected from individuals within the union amounts to $3.50 per month for each full year of continuous membership that the member has with the union. The fund also pays death benefit to any of the member’s beneficiaries which could be $6,250 if the member dies of natural causes and $12,500 for any accidental deaths (IBEW Union, 2011).

Union dues refer to the financial funds that are usually paid by the members of a union every month to support the general operations of the organization and its officers. The union dues structure of the IBEW covers two parts of the union’s structure which include the international and local union offices.

The dues that are allocated to the international office are basically used to maintain and support the administrative and legal functions of the office as well as legislative procedures such as court appeals and trials which have been forwarded to the IEC.

The bulk of union dues are usually allocated to the local union where the funds are used to manage the expenses of the offices as well as handle collective bargaining, member grievances, arbitrations and contract negotiations with employers. A basic union dues structure is made up of two parts: the local union and the IBEW per capital segment where the local union determines its dues by the operational costs and expenses incurred by every local union within the various districts of the US (IBEW Union, 2011).

Union dues are usually determined by the members of the local union as they are the only people who have the power and ability to change the amount of dues they have to pay ever month. The IBEW Per Capita structure of the union dues involves a monthly payment of $11set by the International Convention and which is meant to be paid by all members of the union.

The monthly charge is usually used by the local union to fund the operations of the First District Office and it can only be changed by the elected delegates of the Convention. The diagram below represents the structure of and distribution of union dues in the organization (IBEW Union, 2011).

Governing Entities within the organization The International Convention is the highest governing body of the Brotherhood. The union Constitution postulates that the IBEW member delegates meet every five years at a regular interval to discuss union matters and any labor issues that might arise in the electrical industry during the five-year duration. The international Convention therefore oversees these meetings during which it elects International Officers such as the president and secretary treasurer if there is need for reappointment or re-election.

The International Convention also determines the basic law that will be used by the IBEW through the number of votes that have been cast for proposed resolutions and constitutional amendments to the union Constitution. The international Convention also has the final authority and decision on any appeals that have been made in the international, national and local offices of the union. The various entities that make up the Convention include delegates and member committees (IBEW, 2005).

The delegates of the Convention are usually selected through secret ballots garnered from the members of the union. The level of delegate representation is usually based on the number of members a local union has registered where the maximum number of delegates per local union is 15. The Convention further stipulates that no local union is entitled to representation unless it has been of good standing for the last six months before the International Convention.

The committees in the Convention are usually formed by the International President who is authorized by the governing body to establish committees that will perform the basic functions of the Convention such as resolution action, the development of reports and recommendations that will be used to deal with disputes or conflicts between employers and employees.

Another governing entity that oversees the functions of the IBEW is the International Executive Council (IEC) which deals with the judicial or financial aspects of the union. The IEC is the final authority when it comes to making decisions on granting pensions, disability benefits and also dealing with the vested interests of the union’s members (IBEW, 2005).

The types of boards exist under the local union and these include the examining board and the executive board. The purpose of the examining board in the local union is to examine and review the various applications for membership forwarded to the union for consideration.

The examining board assesses the qualifications of various applicants according to the various sections of the union Constitution to determine if they qualify to be members of IBEW. The executive board on the other hand is involved in hearing all charges that are brought against the members of the union and trying them according to the bylaws and working rules of the local union (IBEW Constitution, 2008).

The executive board therefore acts as a trial board as it has to consider all matters properly before making any major decisions with regards to any charges or violations brought against a member of the organization. Apart from the IEC, other councils that exist in the IBEW include the railroad councils and system councils which address any union issue within the local union railroad industry.

Railroad councils are subject to the rules that govern local councils while the system councils are formed by the International President for collective bargaining purposes under the direction of the president. If the local union is unable to establish a railroad council, they can be able to form a system council to address any disagreements that arise (IBEW, 2005).

Appointment of Union Members According to the union Constitution, the various officers of the IBEW are usually nominated and elected by delegates who have been duly selected in the International Convention.

The circumstances under which International Officers are chosen for the post of International President and International Secretary-Treasurer in the IBEW is when either of the two officers dies before completing their term, their term contract has expired, they are found to be in violation of the union Constitution or they have committed an offense that is deemed punishable by the International Convention (IBEW Constitution, 2008).

The only requirement for a person to be elected to any of the positions is that they should have a five-year standing relationship with the union. This basically means that union members who have not had any violations or charges placed against them can be able to apply for the post of International President or International Secretary-Treasurer.

The two International Officers are usually elected by secret ballot or per capita tax votes when there is more than one candidate for the position. Once they are selected, they are expected to assume office in 30 days and they can serve for a term of five years until their successors are nominated and elected (IBEW Constitution, 2008).

Other positions that are elected in the IBEW include the eleven positions for vice presidents which are usually elected by the respective vice presidential districts and the delegates that fall under the International Convention who are usually elected through a secret ballot election.

The positions that are appointed within the IBEW include the Resolutions Committee which is appointed by the International President to document any resolutions to trade disputes that have occurred between employers and employees of the trade union. The positions and offices within the Railroad Councils and the System Councils are also appointed by the International President in the IBEW where the IP follows the bylaws of the Constitution when selecting the various members of these councils (IBEW Constitution, 2008).

Culture of the Union The culture that exists in IBEW is that of reform and business unionism where the union is interested in offering its members fair housing and better working conditions as well as attaining a 5% wage increase for all its members under IBEW.

The history of IBEW has been one of business unionism and reform where the various officer holders have tried to negotiate for better working and living conditions for the various members under the union. As a result of reformist cultures within IBEW, the wages and working conditions of the union’s members have improved considerably when compared to other industries in the country.

Because of the culture of reform and socialist unionism, members of IBEW have been able to enjoy better health care and welfare services as well as improved pension benefits, longer holiday vacations and shorter workdays. These reforms have been able to take place because of the cultivation of intelligent people to manage the affairs of the union (IBEW, 2005).

The culture of reform has been instilled in the various office holders to necessitate changes for employees working within the electrical industry so that they can enjoy proper working conditions as well as long-term benefits. The heritage of IBEW is vibrant and strong as the various beliefs and value systems practiced by all previous office holders have been passed down the line of successors.

The use of local leadership has also enhanced the culture of reform within the union where talented and tenacious leaders have been selected to represent the union in various forums. Proper leadership has ensured that a culture of social reform is established in the union where the individual needs of members and their beneficiaries/families are addressed to maintain a high standard (IBEW, 2005).

The mission and priorities of IBEW include organizing all workers in the US or Canadian electrical industry and other member countries as well as organize workers in the public utility and electrical manufacturing industry. IBEW is also charged with promoting reasonable work conditions for its members as well as reasonable salaries and wages.

Another mission of IBEW is to settle any disputes that might occur between the employers and employees of the organization and also assist each of the members and their families through periods of distress, death and sickness or material loss. The main priority of IBEW is to reduce the number of hours daily laborers such as the wiremen and linesmen work as well as seek higher compensation, improved standards of living and working for its members (Hill, 2008).

Union Mergers In 1908 when the union was experiencing a period of success and stability, an internal struggle emerged within the organization that saw the secession of a large percentage of the Brotherhood. This split was mostly caused by a growing dissension amongst the wiremen and linemen of the poor management of the union’s high-ranking offices.

At the same time, employers within the electrical industry were bent on destroying the Brotherhood so they fostered the internal struggles that were taking place within the union at that time. The secession that took place IBEW was referred to as the Reid-Murphy split after the two officers who were elected by the seceding factions of the split (IBEW, 2005).

While the Reid-Murphy group split from the Brotherhood, Frank J. McNulty and Peter W. Collins remained the recognized office holders of the Brotherhood.

The result of the secession saw two trade unions being formed to address the concerns of employees in the electrical industry with the Reid-Murphy faction having the majority of members. The structure of the Brotherhood was not affect in a major way as McNulty and Collins were able to remain as the official office holders of the union but their functions were somehow impeded because of the separation of funds and resources between the two factions.

These split was however reversed by a court decision in 1912 that saw the 1908 Convention null and void. Union funds that had been taken by both factions were restored to the recognized group under the union Constitution by the court. The seceding group later merged with the Brotherhood in 1914 after they agreed to end their differences and focus on serving the needs of IBEW members (IBEW, 2005).

Union Affiliations In 1982, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers become affiliated with the Canadian Federation of Labor to enhance its activities of safeguarding the welfare of wiremen and linemen in Canada while in 1989, IBEW entered into an affiliation with the committee on political education (COPE). This was meant to improve the involvement of organized labor in the active education and registration of voters during the union election process.

Another affiliation that the IBEW had was with the Canadian Labor Congress in 1997 which has been identified as a re-affiliation in the historical records of the Brotherhood. The unions and associations that have allied themselves with IBEW include the Electrical Workers’ Benefit Association, the Canadian Signal and Communications Union and the Pension Investment and Employee Benefits Department (IBEW, 2005).

Conclusion The sole purpose of this study has been to analyze the structure and governance of IBEW, a union that deals with the labor issues of employees working in the electrical industry. The discussion has focused on the structure of the union by looking at the various positions and office holders that make up the union as well as examining the various roles and responsibilities that these members play in the union.

The study has also focused on the various governing bodies that govern the operations of IBEW which include the International Convention and the International Executive Council. The study in general has been an analytical analysis of the various faucets and bodies that make up the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.

Questions Qn.1: Sections 1 up to 21 of Article XX of the AFL-CIO Constitution sets forth the various provisions that will guide the relationships of affiliates within the Federation and how each of the affiliates should relate with other affiliate members within AFL-CIO.

For example Section two of the article sets forth that every affiliate member of the organization shall observe the established collective bargaining relationships that exist amongst the affiliate members of the organization which means that no member affiliate will attempt to represent employees who have an established collective bargaining relationship with another affiliate in the federation.

Article XX is important for unions such as IBEW as it provides an established work relationship amongst the various unions that fall under AFL-CIO. The article provides a basic framework of how unions representing the interest of employees in one industry should conduct themselves to avoid any union disputes.

Article XXI of the AFL-CIO Constitution talks about the organizing of responsibility procedures where the various member affiliates of the federation resolve to organize competition in situations where competition might be detrimental in serving the best interests of workers. This article is important for unions that want to represent the interests of workers from one industry.

Section 2 of the article stipulates that any affiliate members of the federation that is actively engaged in representing and organizing employees from a particular industry can be able to seek for authority to enable them be the exclusive representative of these employees within that industry. Article XXI is therefore meant to limit the amount of competition amongst unions willing to represent the interests of workers within one industry (AFL-CIO, 2011).

Qn. 2: One constituent group of the AFL-CIO is the coalition of black trade unionists (CBTU) which serves the needs of African American workers in the United States. While CBTU is not a civil rights organization, it provides the black workers in the US with a forum within the union movement to voice their concerns about organized labour in the country. The mission of CBTU is to meet the working needs of African Americans within the US by presenting their concerns to the union movement, AFL-CIO.

The main activities of the organization include; improving the economic development of black workers by providing suitable employment opportunities, working together with the trade union movement so as to provide a voice for black workers in America, increase the union involvement of black workers by increasing awareness through voter education and voter registration, actively supporting civil rights groups that are trying to improve the working conditions of black people within the country and organizing black or minority group workers who are unorganized (CBTU, 2011).

CBTU provides value to its members as it seeks to support programs and initiatives aimed at reducing the level of unemployment amongst black Americans in the United States. The organization collaborates with school systems to ensure that black students are equipped with the necessary skills that will allow them to gain useful employment once they complete their education.

CBTU also adds value to its members by looking for ways to deal with the escalating prices in food, housing and medical services. It has established important alliances with various organizations within the American community to ensure that the financial burden is reduced (CBTU, 2011).

Qn.3: One campaign under the Change to Win affiliate program is the Warehouse Workers United campaign where the Warehouse Workers United is an organization that seeks to represent the interests of warehouse workers in California’s Inland Empire. The main purpose of the organization is to join all warehouse workers together so as to improve their working conditions and also build a better future for the workers and their families.

The Change to Win campaign for the Warehouse Workers United is focused on improving the terms of pay as well as working conditions for all warehouse workers in the Inland Empire. The Change to Win campaign for these workers is meant to build an effective response to the poor assault on worker rights by forming a stronger labour movement that will provide hope to many minimum wage workers.

Change to Win has the ability to affect a response from the various unions in America as it has the voice and the support of stronger affiliate federations such as AFL-CIO in addressing the concerns of workers such as the Warehouse Workers United (Warehouse Workers United, 2011).

References AFL-CIO (2011). AFL-CIO Constitution; article XX and XXI. Web.

CBTU (2011). About CBTU: mission statement. Web.

Hill, E.D. (2008). Constructing Bright futures. IBEW Journal, 107(2): 1- 52

IBEW (2005). International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers: History and Structure. Web.

IBEW Constitution (2008). IBEW Constitution as amended SEP. 2006 at Cleveland, Ohio. Web.

IBEW Union (2011). IBEW union dues structure. Web.

Warehouse Workers United (2011). Why we fight. Web.

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Organizational Technology Plan Research Paper best essay help

Introduction In the contemporary world, technology has become an integral part of organizations; however, it has affected the society and the environment mainly due to the changes that come about with it, which people have to adapt. Generally, it plays an important role in the field of business, since it provides tools such as internet that in this era, all companies have adopted. Simply, there are several types of technologies used in business including internet, laptops and computers, and software.

Technology supports the general business functions in a number of ways. First, the use of internet has eased communicating through face book, as well aiding inter-business communication through video conferencing, e –mails and even chat rooms.

In some companies, managers require employees to be in possession of devices like laptops and smart phones, which are easily portable, in order to stay connected remotely. Moreover, companies require their employees to use company cars fitted with GPRS locators, thus ensuring safety of their cars.

Finally, every business needs software to operate online, and in this case, they may opt for Voice over Internet Protocol (Voip) instead of analog signal, especially when conducting online conferencing and voice calls. Nevertheless, each business should consider its goals before choosing the technology to use, since not all technologies work for any business.

This paper will discuss the organizational technology plan for DirecTV, a direct broadcast satellite service based in El Segundo, California, which transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States.

Challenges presented to management due to managing existing technology Given that the emergence of technology brings about organizational change, managers are always faced with various challenges. One of the limitations that DirecTV will face is the high or overdependence on technology among people to solve problems, thus making them tend not to think on their own. In addition, installation of computers in an organization requires staff training on how to use such computers, thus DirecTV will have to incur high operational costs.

Moreover, Gwartney et al (2008, p. 178) argues that technology leads to reorganization, such that, some employees who are familiar with a certain technology may be promoted, while those who are not may require special training or are demoted altogether. In modern labour market, employment patterns indicate that computer literate persons are more likely to be employed than their unskilled counterparts are.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Gronlund (2002, p. 312), change process is affected by the interdependence of three dimensions including: technology, organizational context, and change model. Normally, as technology changes, DirecTV will also change its products and processes, while employees’ skills and behavior will have to be subjected to an effective change model to make them adaptive to such changes.

In addition, e–recruiting has become common with companies, as it is fast, easy and cost effective, with wide outreach. However, the biggest challenge with this technology is DirecTV may find it attract some qualified applicants who may not be familiar with this method, especially if the company does not give an option of postal services.

Methods of addressing emerging technology DirecTV has to be involved with technology because of the benefits that technology provides; for instance, it takes a short time to perform a task or process a large amount of information.

DirecTV should embrace knowledge management, which according to Awad (2004, p. 120) is “the name given to the set of systematic and disciplined actions that an organization can take to obtain the greatest value from the knowledge available to it. “ This involves innovative ideas, designs, new processes and methods, as well as strategies used by the HR. In addition, history of the organization, suppliers, and customers’ information is essential in enhancing effective communication within and outside the organization.

In order for DirecTV to embrace technology, the management must ensure that present employees are well informed and well trained on the technology in order to avoid biasness. In addition, the staff should be well prepared to embrace the technology used in the organization.

The management should always inform the staff about any changes and elaborate their role in such changes. In addition, discussion with staff about why the change is necessary to the company and the obstacles that come with it is important.

Areas in Which Technology Impacts the Basic Functions of Management Technology has a great impact on management functions; first, there is introduction of change function of planning, as technology may prompt DirecTV to alter or improve its mission and objectives in order to be in line with prevailing business conditions.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Organizational Technology Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In staffing, technology may lead companies to make changes in the human resources such as redeployment, laying-off some staff to eliminate redundancy and enhancing training programs for the new technology. On the other hand, technology has allowed firms to save on hiring costs, as well as benefiting from opportunity cost of space that has to be avoided, since some employees can work from home.

Technology has also enhanced management directing function, as it enhances effective communication, thus motivating the employees to understand the goals and objectives of a company and even accomplish their career objectives. Moreover, with the help of technology, a manager does not need to be present in order to his employees, as this can be done through voice calls or video conferencing.

In organizing function, technology has allowed organizations to be efficient in utilization and allocation of resources, thus yielding maximum benefits with minimal waste. Lastly, controlling function has been enhanced, especially due to the fact that employees and processes appraisal and evaluation have been automated, making it easy to monitor and initiate changes when required.

Conclusion The success of DirecTV in coping with technology changes depends on how it is prepares for such change. Success requires DirecTV to manage its abilities; however, right leadership and effectively evaluating the organization’s ability to implement transformation are essential. Nevertheless, given that change is always inevitable, managers should always be prepared to embrace change.

References Awad, E. M. (2004). Knowledge Management. New Delhi: Pearson Education India. Web.

Gronlund, A. (2002). Electronic government design, applications, and management. PA: Idea Group Inc (IGC). Web.

Gwartney, J. D. et al. (2008). Economics. Edition 12. OH: Cengage Learning. Web.

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How Has The Wikileaks Cable-Gate Scandal Affected The Institution Of Diplomacy? Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Diplomacy is an important institution to all the governments in the world. International relations among nations are maintained by various diplomats stationed in respective embassies of various countries (Siracusa 5). These diplomats are responsible for brokering international trade deals between states, discussing economic matters, war and peace making.

Diplomats also negotiate international treaties before they can be accepted by politicians of respective countries. It is also the work of diplomats to inform their countries of representation, about the events taking place in various allocated countries. Diplomatic speeches and statements are supposed to be polite, moderate and non provocative. For diplomacy to thrive, good relations among nations must be maintained at all times (Berridge 70).

The Cablegate scandal, which is the unprecedented leaking of United States confidential diplomatic information, began in November 2010. The scandal started when Wikileaks made public trough publications, details of the secret communications between various US diplomatic missions around the world and the US Department in charge of state affairs.

Wikileaks would then in many instances forward the cables to main and recognized newspapers around the globe, which were five. The newspapers in conjunction with Wikileaks have been publishing the numerous articles since then.

Wikileaks is a global, non profitable media corporation whose main activity is to find crucial news and information and then avail them to the public. The organization provides a convenient and secure way for anybody or independent sources to provide information to its established journalists.

It does so by maintaining anonymity for its sources. The organization has been at the center of controversy for publishing sensitive topics on ethics, history, and politics. It has no major power base and mainly relies on the power of its worldwide supporters, urging members to pressurize those who try to impose censorship measures (Domscheit-Berg 50).

The Wikileaks’ revelation of the contents in the classified diplomatic documents of the US has affected the institution of diplomacy massively. This has made the US relation with the rest of the world to become strained (Star 10). This is mainly in anti reformist countries whose policies contradict those of the US.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Information by the cable has depicted many African leaders in a negative way. They have been portrayed as anti-reformist, corrupt, and greedy for power causing an outrageous uproar from the leaders. Other nations like Iran have been portrayed as a threat to international peace, citing that measures should be taken to curb Iran’s nuclear projects. Socialist like Chavez of Venezuela has been depicted as a dictator whose ideologies should not be allowed to spread.

The Cablegate scandal has negatively impacted the institution of diplomacy. The leaks have made many nations to treat the US, which is a major influence in world affairs, with contempt and suspicion. Relations like those with the Arab nations have taken years to build but the leaks have spoilt the diplomatic gains made. Suspicion has now become the order of the day.

This has made US diplomats in various countries to be shunned and be viewed as spies with bad faith. The language contained in the leaks has been viewed as demeaning and undiplomatic prompting some governments to demand for apology from the US.

Issues of high sensitivity like war in Iraq and Afghanistan have been made public making reforms and nation building in the affected areas even more difficult. Diplomatic reports should never be disclosed as they represent the actual findings and thoughts of individual diplomats which might not be well received by the authority of the country in context.

Works Cited Berridge, Geoff. Diplomacy: Theory and Practice. Leicester: McMillan, 2002.

Domscheit-Berg, Daniel. Inside WikiLeaks: My Time With Julian Assange at the World’s Most Dangerous Website. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2011.

Siracusa, Joseph. Diplomacy: A Very Short Introduction London: Oxford University Press.

We will write a custom Essay on How Has The Wikileaks Cable-Gate Scandal Affected The Institution Of Diplomacy? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Star, Alexander. Open Secrets: Wikileaks, War and American Diplomacy. New York: New York Times Company, 2011.

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Rethinking a no brainer Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why people cheat about the credentials

How societal mores contribute towards this kind of dishonesty

Unseen consequences of lying about credentials

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Lying about one’s credentials is indeed a violation of societal norms and contradicts principles of integrity. Therefore, such kind of conduct will not be justified. Instead, it is actually necessary to offer a valid explanation of why the phenomenon occurs. This issue is highly context specific and actually occurs as a result of certain hidden factors.

As in the case of Richard Bromenthal, who claimed that he had served in the Vietnam war, it is always an issue of overcoming rigid obstacles that impede individuals from growing in the careers or even accessing job opportunities.

Most employers require work experience and knowledge of academic background before they can even think about giving someone a job. This makes it impossible for those who are fresh from university or who may not have been given a chance by any other employer even if they are well skilled for the job.

Therefore, by overemphasizing on experience, skills and personal qualities, society causes a huge number of individuals with the right qualities and personality to miss out on these critical opportunities. Also, certain rules exist even when they clearly lack a commercial value attached to them. It will be argued in this paper that given all these circumstances, then it is quite reasonable to witness falsification of one’s credentials.

Why people cheat about the credentials The scientific community has not been immune to cases of falsification of credentials. Even Doctors and other professionals have engaged in some degree of falsification because of a number of reasons. Top on this list is the rigorous nature of research approval processes in the scientific community.

Before a researcher can be given a grant, he or she may need to have very complex curriculum vitae that should include a series of academic accomplishments and awards as well. Certain doctors may have worked so hard to acquire their academic credentials so most may feel as though it is quite unfair to them to ask for more.

Having an additional award may not always be easy to achieve and may lead to minimization of opportunities within the scientific community because of this occurrence. Not every researcher will be in a position to get these kinds of support and may actually make grants inaccessible to a majority of them. Therefore, some scientists may opt to work around this problem by padding their CVs so as to meet those stringent conditions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Eventually, this may lead to approval of individuals who may have falsified their information. Such was the case with a Duke University researcher whose area of interest was cancer research. He had been accused of this dishonesty by his peers who found out that he never really got an award as he had purported in his documents (Fustenberg, 2010).

Sometimes parties may lie about their credentials simply because they feel that they possess all the requirements for carrying out a certain job except their credentials. Most have a lot of experience in the field and may actually feel entitled to doing a certain job because of this. They get around this problem by falsification.

A case in point was that of two West Virginian miners who had been accessed of claiming that they were certified to carry out safety investigations as foremen. This information was obtained by a healthy and safety inspector in mining. The candidates both pleaded guilty to the charges after affirming that they were indeed guilty of falsification. It is likely that these individuals chose to do this simply because they could get away with it. The health inspectors were by and large very experienced people.

They should have been in a position of ascertaining whether those two miners were competent or not. It is likely that the company realized that they were indeed capable of carrying out their duties well and without any challenges. In other words, falsification takes place because the concerned individuals already have the experience or the skills to show for it all they lacked was the formal approval process thus explaining why it is common to find a number of them engaging in these practices (Elikins, 2011).

How societal mores contribute towards this kind of dishonesty It is quite common to hear people lying about serious matters in real life. This culture of dishonesty is so intense as to perpetuate into the legal system. Many individuals have taken the witness stand and lied about lots of things there. This goes on even after the said witnesses take an oath that they will tell the truth.

Therefore, the occurrence has become so engrained in the minds of the population to a point of causing professionals to do the same. Some government representatives taking the stand as witnesses actually lie about their credentials even when they know that this could severely affect the credibility of their assertions and their judgment. The toxicologist James Ferguson affirmed that he had lied about his year of departure from college but quickly shrugged this off as unimportant.

He claimed that it was not relevant and that he twenty years of experience actually illustrated this. In fact, it was soon uncovered that the toxicologist had been lying about his credentials plenty of times. To him, this was nothing new because he believed that witnesses always did this all the time (Hillar, 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Rethinking a no brainer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The world of technology has created fertile ground for the falsification processes. This is because there is an underworld of criminal organizations which are dedicated to creation of false academic credentials. Their work is to boost education CVs by making background checks on institutions and identifying loopholes that can assist individuals to get away with this kind of falsification.

Because the American culture is such that only the best are allowed to progress, then those who fall outside this bracket are often left out. In order to boost their chances of getting somewhere, vast numbers of people will engage the services of criminal organizations.

In other words, the whole country is obsessed with perfection or being best. Lying may be deemed as a necessary part of the corporate culture because everyone wants to be on top. The corporate culture is characterized by the all or nothing law. In other words, when one goes to university or college, it is only the best performers who have a chance at getting good jobs. Furthermore, those who keep rising up the ranks at the workplace are the ones who have demonstrated that they are the best.

However, since the bar has been set so high already, it becomes very difficult for the average worker to access these opportunities. This need for perfection drives many parties to falsify information about themselves just so that they can get ahead; it is a casualty of the culture in our society.

The US along with many other western states is characterized by capitalist enterprises. In other words, individualism and the need to do well as a person outweigh communal concerns. To this end, money making or profit generation is the number one reason behind engagement in economic activities.

Sometimes this obsession with increasing profits causes a wide number of people to fall into the trap of falsifying. If lying will increase the amount of profits, then businesses will willingly do it irrespective of the morality of their behavior. Such motives can be contrasted to the ones that are prevalent in community based societies.

Those regions often pay more attention to the consequences of actions within one’s community. If someone is aware that lying about his credentials may lead to unwarranted consequences in the community then that individual may be prompted to refrain from those actions. However, if someone is only concerned about his o her well being then chances are that no single piece of information will be carried forward to other generations.

Unseen consequences of lying about credentials Sometimes, lying about one’s credentials may not just be limited to individuals or job seekers but may span across the board. In other words, even business entities sometimes engage in this kind of behavior so as to have many recruits. A case in point was Centura College which had falsified its credentials with the intention of getting more clients.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rethinking a no brainer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was a for profit learning institution that claimed that it was WVI approved. As a result of this claim, a certain client called Corey Lewis enrolled into this institution in order to take advantage of this very aspect which is WVI approval. Lewis was a retrenched worker who was eligible to WVI financial aid as explained in the Workforce Investment Act (Bennet, 2010). One month into his course, Lewis realized that the college had not been approved and he therefore had no way of paying his tuition fees.

The client decided to sue the institution for falsification of their credentials and if he went through then the College would be obligated to pay a maximum of three hundred and fifty thousand US dollars in compensatory damages. The company had lied about those credentials in the hope that it would be in a position to attract more business into its premises; however, this had the unforeseen consequences of attracting legal action against it.

In the end, the organization could lose much more than it would have gained if it had not engaged in this falsification. Furthermore, their reputation will be tarnished and this is always a bad thing in business, more so in the education sector. When asked whether this company was aware that it had lied about the approval, Centura College claimed that they had changed names and failed to update this information thus making them non eligible to WIA.

Such false representations may have the immediate short term impact of attracting clients but they never really last for long because they often lead to long term negative impacts such as legal suits or even a tarnished company name. furthermore, if such cases become common place, then it is likely that American citizens will lose faith in their educational system or any other industry which lies about their respective credentials (Bennett, 2010).

In the case of the miners discussed earlier, it is likely that the falsification may lead to eventual safety predicaments. Some of the issues that need to be checked by the Health inspectorate could actually be crucial to the well being of those concerned. Such miners who have not undergone these safety procedures may put themselves or their workmates in danger and may also cause substantial losses to business experts thus explaining why this may not always be the case (Elkins, 2011).

In the scientific community, falsification of one’s credentials may lead to the most severe repercussions of all. In the case of the Duke researcher who had lied about his history and the fact that he had received an award, it is likely that his career may have been tarnished.

There were more than a dozen letters that were set to the scientific review board concerning this doctor’s conduct with a large number of them questioning this individual’s credibility. Some of them ascertained that because Dr. Potti’s credentials could be questioned then he should not continue researching.

These allegations were so severe that they lead to the eventual suspension of the researcher. In this regard, his career was jeopardized. However, this was not the only casualty, perhaps another more serious issue was the effect that his work would have on real patients. Dr. Potti had been carrying out researches on breast and lung cancer. His intention was to come up with a prediction model that would assist him in determining the most suitable chemotherapy drugs for patients.

However, after a thorough review of his work by his colleagues, most of them realized that his methodology was questionable and that his results were wrong as well. If his predictions were utilized in the real world, then could be quite hazardous to patients’ health. Doctors would predict and administer the wrong treatments thus causing fatal results. To this researcher, padding his CV was nothing more than an attempt to get past the rigorous approval process of the cancer granting bodies.

However, he had not thought about the unforeseen consequences of his actions. This unethical behavior was not only detrimental to his career as a reputable Doctor and researcher but it was also dangerous to the subjects that he was studying. Instead of contributing towards better health treatments, this individual was actually impeding it by exposing patients to undue harm or undue risks (Fustenberg, 2010).

Falsification can affect other people’s lives substantially even negatively for example, in the case of the toxicologist who gave false information about his experience, it is likely that the information he gave about the witness was also wrong and that she may have imprisoned on the basis of an opinion that was not credible at all.

In an attempt to appear experienced, this individual may have made himself paper more experienced and this may have given undue weight to his opinions. He was an officer of the court and a public servant so he was expected to behave ethically in the eyes of the law. In this regard, he suffered the consequences of getting caught by receiving a sentence of thirty years in jail or a fine of one thousand dollars (Hillar, 20100).

Linda (2010) explains that falsified credentials are very risky to employers because they lead to situations in which people are awarded for things that they never carried out. the proliferation and development f ‘diploma mills’ or falsification businesses can have severe repercussions within the workplace because they may reward the wrong people or they may close the door for those who are actually entitled to those opportunities.

They harm businesses because some of the employees who are enrolled may have obtained their certificates from none existence colleges or institutions. Alternatively, some may choose a poorly known institution which rewards students with certification even when the kind of work that they put in was much less than what other approved institutions require from them.

Furthermore, since employers may not have the time or the logistics to go through all applicants’ papers, it is likely that a high number of them may go undetected and this will affect such outcomes (Zharkov, 2010). It should be noted that all it takes is a background check by the concerned institution through university databases online.

However, in certain circumstances, some names may be missing from the approved list so an employee could have genuinely obtained a degree from a university but may miss out on the opportunity because of the misgivings of technology. One way in which employers can overcome this obstacle is by doing a background check on the concerned individuals so that they can prevent reoccurrence of these problems.

A very serious consequence of falsifying credentials is getting caught and being imprisoned for those actions. People who have taken part in these kinds of arrangements will often find that they are putting themselves in very dangerous positions. Falsification of business records is an offense in law (parson, 2011). Also, grand larceny and false instruments are all possible charges that can be placed against the concerned individuals and they could make him a criminal in the eyes of the law.

Because a person may be receiving pay checks on the basis of the falsified information then that individual will actually be contributing towards poor service provision. This person could also get charged for such an issue as was the case with a former psychologist of the court called Feldman. Feldman had purported that he had been a student of Hamilton University. However, it was soon discovered that he had obtained these papers from a diploma mil that exchanged certificates for cash.

Additionally, the individual had been working for the department for a period of four years after it was discovered how dangerous this person could be to the entire department. He had been given the responsibility of evaluating defendants or those who were eligible for court petitioning yet he was not fully aware of what this entails and there is no doubt that certain individuals were released because of the toxicologist’s misdeeds (Annet, 2010).

Sometimes falsification of documents may not always appear as it is. In this regard, an individual could be accused of the charge and fired from their positions even when this may not have a firm basis. A case in point was that of a noted whistle blower within the US Army. This individual was a scientist in the institution and had been responsible for bringing out a series of cases against many dishonest individuals in the army.

He had been working for the Pentagon in particular and had been responsible for unraveling unethical behavior. It is likely that this may have ruffled the feathers of many influential persons in the Army. At the time of charging this individual, the Army had tried letting him off for unacceptable performance but because it was not possible to do so under US law, he still remained an employee of the US Army.

However, as one looks through the facts of the case, one immediately realizes that there could be ill motives disguised under these intentions. Those concerned individual was exposed to a series of government documents which were classified. He was in a position to ascertain whether conduct within the department was ethical or not. In this regard, he threatened the job of very many individuals. Before this scenario, he had been a noted critic and whistle blower.

Consequently, it may be that the accusations of false credentials may not be true. In other words, he may not have lied about his credentials as these may have been planned against him. Therefore, sometimes the charge of falsification may be used as a tool to help unethical employees get rid of whistle blowers in their presence. The lesser charges filed against this same individual testify to the fact that some parties may have had a vendetta (Lardner, 1992).

Conclusion In essence, falsification of credentials has become more common place than ever people. This has been perpetuated by the proliferation of technology that allows for the growth of diploma mills. Also, some people do it in order to get around the complex or almost impossible criteria set by authorities.

Alternatively, some may do so simply because they feel that they have the right skills or experience and that one tiny requirement does not undermine their capabilities. On the other hand, it can be argued that this goes on because of the individualistic and perfectionist attitude inherent in society. Generally, speaking, this falsification does lead to unintended consequences such as law breakage, legal suits, tarnished careers or businesses and possible harm to the public.

Works Cited Lardner, George. Army Accuses SDI critic of falsifying credentials. Washington post April, 14, 1992

Gurav, Peter. Saratoga Springs man indicted in false credentials case. Fake certification, 18 November, 2010. Online

Bennet, William. Student Accuses Centura College of Lying About Credentials. RSS News, September 22, 2010. Print.

Elkins, Wallace. Two WV Miners Make Plea Deals to Lying About Credentials Charges. California News, Feb 23, 2011. Online.

Furstenberg, Joan. Duke researcher suspended accused of lying about credentials. New York Times, Jul 20, 2010. Print.

Hillar, Bill. Man Charged With Lying About Credentials. NYDaily News, January 25, 2011. Online.

Linda, Johnson. Falsified Credentials a Risk to Employers, Business Fraud Focus, 11.3, 2007: 43-44. Online.

Mary, Annette. Former Toxicologist Sentenced For Lying About Credentials. Daily News, May 13, 2010. Print.

Parsons, Larry. FBI arrests MIIS lecturer accused of lying about credentials. Herald News, 01/26/2011. Print.

Zharkov, Rajiv. Falsifying credentials. The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 11, 2008. Print.

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Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of Individual Differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Essay college admissions essay help

Title and Abstract The title used partially gives the reader a clue on what is to be discussed but does not elaborately and vividly bring out a picture of what the article entails. It has not been clearly stated that the problem solving and decision marking is based on the determination of the individual differences among various people. The abstract on the other hand has been too general hence the exact details contained in the article have not been well brought out.

Introduction The introduction is well connected with brief but well researched and cited background information. The statement of the hypothesis is acceptable and well brought out. However, the objectives are not clear in the sense that it has not been stated how the use of this research benefit an organization in decision making. The advantages derived from using this model as compared to the other model have also not been mentioned. It is only mentioned that this model is the most preferred but with no reason to support it.

Participant selection (sampling procedures) Generally, this article gives information in a reported manner, that is, the information contained in this article is based on the already tried researched methods and therefore only tries to give an explanation to the research and its findings. Despite all these, there is nowhere mentioned in the article where this model was applied in determining the individual differences in problem solving.

In a nutshell, this article is just but a description of a theory that is said to be widely applied but does not give clear evidence on how it was applied. There is no statement of how the research was conducted by the pioneers of this model and the results found from the same. It is therefore very difficult to tell the procedures used in the research and how the sampling was conducted.

Procedure section

This article solely concentrates on describing the relationship between the individual differences and problem solving. Views from the various theorists have also been included to come up with a solid explanation that relates the two aspects; individual differences and problem solving.

What has actually been given in this article is barely an explanation but since this is a research that has been conducted, it should be accompanied by lots of supporting evidence which lacks in this article. It is therefore not clear whether the information given in this study is authentic and whether this model can be successfully applied as a reliable tool for decision making. The procedures towards problem solving have been proposed but no report on whether they have ever been tested and tried or not.

Measure section

The procedures given in this article are consistent and have vivid explanations. However, it is not authentic and its workability raises doubts. This is basically because the supporting evidence is too little to fully back the information provided. For instance, test-retest approximations bring uncertainty concerning the constancy of MBTI-type marks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Statistical analysis and results There is very little statistical analysis provided in this article. The assumptions that were taken during the research have not been mentioned anywhere. It is therefore very difficult to tell whether there were assumptions during the research and how they were solved.

Discussion and interpretation

The article mainly explains the results of the research that was conducted although the results themselves have not been well stated. However, basing on the information disclosed in the article, it is very true that the lack of solid evidence to support this model makes the entire model subject to doubt and criticism.

This can be exemplified by overdependence on scores of preference on dichotomous as opposed to the continuous scores which is a limiting factor to the echelon of statistical analysis such as assigning of frequencies to the mentioned sixteen types in the module. Additionally, test-retest approximations bring uncertainty concerning the constancy of MBTI-type marks.

Some investigators suggest that all personality surveys bear ambiguous stands. From the information provided in the article concerning the MBTI module, it is very to come up with an assertion the MBTI preference has errors and has insufficient scientific back up and research as far as the utility of the MBTI is concerned especially in organizational settings.

From the appearance of the description, it can be further argued out that there is no sufficient, well designed research to validate the application of the MBTI perspective in areas like career and organizational and counseling. The current methodologies on which the evidence is supported are inadequate and inefficient to effectively bring forth a reliable module that can be widely used in various areas and fields (Huitt, 1992).

General issues

Generally, there is flow of ideas throughout the article and all the information has been presented in a logical order that is understandable. However, the problem solving techniques have just been stated in brief without a solid description. It is therefore difficult to understand full how each of them works.

Conclusion In my own opinion, this article has attempted to give a vivid explanation to problem solving but the main limitation is that it lacks the scientific and practical evidence of its workability. It can therefore be improved by incorporating more scientific backing to the information disclosed to make it an authentic document that can be adopted.

We will write a custom Essay on Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of Individual Differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Huitt, W. (1992). Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of individual differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of Psychological Type, 24, 33-44.

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Factors that contribute to organizational change Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The world is undergoing different transition; these translations require organisations to align themselves with the changes in the world; changes in an organisation are in processes, products, line of business, ownership, employees among others. Change aims at improving current business conditions, adopt a different strategy or a different way of doing things; it can emanate from internal or external forces:

Internal forces

Internal forces lead to change in an organisation when new systems or processes have been developed in-house to meet a certain objective within the organisation. It may range from different issues, which may be micro and affects a single section or may be macro that affects the entire operation of an organisation; such changes include new strategies, change of management, change of teams, and change of line of business, change in resource combinations among other internally generated changes. The main aim of internal changes is to enhance better way of doing things and create a competitive edge.

External forces

Different changes taking place in the market and the economy of operation may force a business to change; in most cases, the change is in the efforts of adopting new mechanisms and systems of doing things to enhance competitiveness. A firm has nothing much that it can do to influence external factors forcing a change in its processes; an example of external force that can lead to need for change in modern days is technological development and increased consumer rights awareness. They will force a company adjust its ways to fit the changes.

Whether change is internally generated or not, the following are the objectives of change:

Improve current working condition and strategies

Adopt a different-better way of doing things

Make new combinations of resources in an organization

Adopt new technology

Change of business, target market, production formulae, management, job schedules, job description among others

Have a different human resource management system, computer system among others.

Change management is a process where the management learn, understand and critically think about alterations they are supposed to make in an organization. However, for an effective change process, change should not be imposed to employees but they should be involved in the change system.

When undertaking a change, the employees are the immediate people who will be affected and thus they need to be engaged from the earliest stage. In this fiercely aggressive business world, the goal of most firms is to establish distinctive or unique capabilities to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace through utilising the most of their core competencies.

How can a team influence an organization? An organisation requires both human and physical resources to attain it set goals and objective. Management should develop teams blended with different talents, experiences and personality for an effective tapping of intellectual property in a company’s human resources. Teams define the destiny of a firm since they are the ones that see projects completed within the stipulated deadline in an effective manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As teamwork in different sectors, they develop better systems and methods of performing duties; the result is an efficient company which is goal oriented. However, for teams to be of benefit to a firm, they need to be managed effectively; and ensure that team leaders understand team dynamic s unique to his/her team; when making decisions, it is important to consult all team members but the leader should understand that he/she has the role of making the final decision.

Teams do not always act for the good of a company; the close interaction and understanding of each other can create tension in an organisation in case they feel their needs are not addressed. Teams can offer resistance to change if not well prepared for change. They may offer a challenge to change management in an organisation; they can easily influence each other.

What happens when teams do not work? When teams fail to operate effectively, it is the start point of company failure; a company cannot meet its goals and objectives if the teams are not collaborating effectively.

A company with weak teams that do not function effectively, it is likely to suffer loss of business from high cost of production because of inefficiency. When companies sell their goods expensively, then customers will be less willing to buy from such companies. “Charity begins at home”, if teams in a company are not functioning well then the company reputation will be distorted.

What are factors in team success? For a successful team, the following are the main characteristics:

The team have a common destiny where they work for the interest team goals and objectives

Roles are well defined and each member understand the role to play

They are open and truthful, they work with integrity and have good communication skills

They have good listening and make decisions through consensus, at the same time respecting each other

They have good conflict management skills and express feelings openly; they do not have grudge among each other.

They collaborate with each other and aim at sharpening each other’s skills and expertise; the overall goal is to the benefit of a company.

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The Controversies of Defining Culture Essay essay help free

Scientists, sociologist, writers, linguistics, psychologist and religious authorities have all made several but unsuccessful attempts to arrive at an all-inclusive definition of culture. Despite these attempts, there is still no concrete consensus as to the nature and scope of culture. This is because culture is so diverse, dynamic and complex that it cannot be contained within linguistic mechanism of humanity.

Trying to limit culture to definition of words has been the greatest undoing of those who try to define it. Languages are tools that are developed with time to communicate human needs and changes. Suffice to say that culture is beyond human needs and thus cannot be limited to language. Ironically, there are so many common elements of cultural amongst communities. Therefore, one may fail to understand why this term eludes common definition.

Every culture has symbols that have implied meanings, but limited to that particular culture (Changing Minds para 2). There are also value norms and rules, which members of the society must adhere to. Failure to follow these tenets results in punishment and at worst, banishment from that community (Para 10). Attitudes and notions about nature, life and the world accompany these norms in general.

These attitudes are the eyes through which the community views the world (Para 8). Another important element across all cultures is cultural rites, occasions and rituals. These are tools that help every community mark every important ceremony in its way of life (Para 6). Even though there may be similarities in cultural practices norms and beliefs amongst different communities, these similarities are unrelated (Geertz 1).

While these elements are constituents of cultures and help us to reach to a fair understanding of culture, they are still not useful tools to construct a good definition. This is because, their application is depends on context. Different communities have different symbolic definition of the same object.

In liberal communities kissing is very part of socialization. While it is done openly and in full display to the public, conservative cultures only limit it to the confines of romance. How then can culture be defined bearing in kind these unique occurrences? This paper endeavors to describe the various historical attempts to describe culture, the characteristics of cultures and the controversies that have arisen from it.

Characteristics of culture Culture has a tendency to grow naturally. Other than the common elements of culture, it also has unique characteristics. William has chosen the linguistic as a method that will help to derive the meaning of the term culture. Not only does he describe its historical development but highlights that culture is subject to natural growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that the meaning of the term has underdone natural changes through out history. Initially it was just a noun that meant, “To take care of something” (87). The meaning naturally grew from its specific meaning to a more general one. Thus, any idea that incorporates taking care of something could be called culture. He continues to explain that the modern progression of its meaning is so complicated that the varied meaning of its application almost overlaps (88).

This means that culture as a product of natural development has attained the complexity status that is beyond simplification of a definition. Nature is no respecter of languages and ideas exists across cultures. Thus because of the expanded meaning of the term culture, different languages have different application, with the same root meaning. The English used it to refer to a civil way of life, while the German’s version Kultur was the other word for civilized.

This however does not mean that its development and similar meanings lead to an existence of a shared and superior culture in Europe. Other languages have borrowed this term through out history but the underlying meaning is the concept of civility and civilization. However, because of its rate of growth it has acquired complicated and contextual meaning such that it is impossible to define it without bearing in mind the context in which it has been used.

The complexity in defining it is not inherent in the root word but in trying to accommodate endless versions of its societal use (92).This add weight to the argument that despite the common root meaning it does not have a universal application. Thus, William agrees with Eliot that superior culture is only experienced amongst small classes and groups of people such as religions or small communities.

Culture is not stagnant

The tendency of culture to grow naturally means that it is not stagnant. It evolves as people evolve. It changes as people and circumstances change and respects the dynamism of natural life. This therefore implies that culture is the beliefs and practices of a community at a particular time and place (The Opinionated Indian para 1). It can only be defined with respect to space and time.

Therefore terming people who have moved to a different environment and lost their original culture as loosing their identity, is loosing the argument. People do not become uncultured because they have adapted new ways of life. This is concurrent with the knowledge that culture is not static. A person does not become less African because of new un African behavior such dressing style or a change in general mannerisms.

To support the argument further, The Opinionated Indian explains that were it that culture is stagnant people would still be as primitive as the other primates; eating raw food, no established language and above all having no cloths to wear (para 5). People cannot therefore carry their cultures wherever they go.

We will write a custom Essay on The Controversies of Defining Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They have to abandon it and adapt new ways of life that are relevant to their time and space. This means that at a given time, people have to rebel against their own culture. This rebellion creates conflict that gives credit to the growth of culture (Eliot 50). This nature seems to concur with Charles Darwin theory of evolution.

Culture is innate but learned

Astran and Sperber explain that all human beings are born with the necessary mechanism to acquire behavior (Para 1). It is necessary to acknowledge that these mechanisms are as a result of evolution and that those organisms that do not develop internal culture acquisition mechanism became extinct.

The acquired mechanisms are transferred to the offspring for their survival. Individuals are therefore the principle carriers of culture. Therefore, Culture cannot be taught but acquired socially when people interact (Klein 4, 5). These theorist suppose that the similarities in cultural practices across the world is not because to learning but for the fact that all human beings are born with certain abilities and knowledge.

The environment in which people is the platform for establishment of culture (Heathfield Para 1). Therefore, similar cultural norms such as loving offspring’s, and flight/fight defense mechanism can only be innate. However, there are certain behaviors that are not innate and have to be actively acquired. People have to learn how to behave in social groupings, eating habits, work experience among many others.

This learning can be through positive or negative motivation as well as through repetitive actions (Heath field Para 10). This means that cultural behavior is only attained with experience. The lessons learned form these experiences make up culture. Interpreting of the real life experiences becomes a vital tool for formulating cultural ideas.

But is the ability to interpret innate or leaned? While the answer to this question is difficult to answer, what cannot be ignored is the fact that interpretation cannot be learned actively. Therefore it means that there is higher possibility that it is innate. From this argument, one can conclude that culture is a function of both innate and learned characteristics.

Culture is a system of building identity

Eliot argues that diversity and conflict are what helps to create culture and without them culture is nonexistent (50). A well-established culture is made up of classes that are the basis of developing cultural values. This means that each of these classes has an established set of rules that each of the members must strive to attain. It also means that societies have a system that ensures these established cultural values are adhered to and rebels punished.

Punishment of the rebellious discourages errant behavior and encourages the adherence to established rules. This is building identity. When two communities are in conflict, there is a likelihood of war. Whichever community wins is deemed stronger and its culture supersedes it foes, which has been defeated. Thus, the victorious community reinforces its culture. Sadashivan adds that building cultural identity starts at birth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Controversies of Defining Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A person is born with certain cultural knowledge. In the process of growing, the person seeks the platform to reinforce those behaviors and thus build a very strong identify (Para 1). To develop an identity also needs time and space. People need a lot of time to learn and relearn cultural values and encode them as part of the daily life. They also build on this knowledge progressively from birth.

Theories of culture The diversity of culture

Eliot Thomas a renowned poet argues that cultures are thing that makes living worthwhile (27). This means that culture adds meaning to life and that without it life would not exist. Culture is the foundation of life. It makes solely dependent on culture. This however does not mean that culture creates life but is the engine in which life is driven. Therefore, for life to be worthy the engine that drives must be good. Culture therefore involves practices that differentiate the good and the bad.

It promotes the good and punishes the bad. However, he explains that this does not mean that culture is deliberately acquired and can be taught. Those norms beliefs practices are involuntarily acquired and have profound effect on human life (51, 52). Therefore, one cannot claim to be cultured if they have made deliberate effort to learn the element of culture. It does not exist in our conscious minds but in our semi-unconscious selves. Suffice to say that the semi conscious self is the most powerful stimulus to what people do.

Geertz explains that there cannot be universal understanding of the meaning of culture because of its nature to be diverse (40). Elliot agrees with this and adds that culture is dependent on its own diversity and that even though there are common elements across cultures, its diversity makes culture recognizable (50).

This means that community only recognizes culture not because of the similarities between them but the differences. Communities recognize culture because they recognized that other people have different and peculiar ways of life. Elliot means that unity is an enemy of culture. If people unite behind similar values and there emerges a society without conflicts, that cannot be termed as culture.

Culture is the product of conflict between people. It is not nor friend that make culture but enemies, people who are opposite what others are. Actually Elliot proscribes that “lucky is the person who makes enemies. Conflict that emerges from enmity enhances development of culture (59). Conflict and culture are thus symbiotic. Conflict leads to culture, which leads to further conflict.

Culture and religion

Elliot and Geertz differ on the matter of culture and religion. While Geertz doesn’t recognize religion as a genuine and independent entity from culture, Eliot thinks other wise. Geertz wonders if there is any difference between culture and religion. He postulates that religion is just a set of symbols with meanings hidden under factual reality (90).

What he means is that religion is just culture that has a divine orientation. The divine orientation offers motivation to people because it has manipulated factual existence; thus setting it own mechanism to be inspirational. Religion therefore becomes another form of culture. Eliot sees culture and religion as genuine phenomena existing on their own right. So genuine is religion that culture exists within the realms of religion (27). He continues to explain that:

“The way of looking at culture and religion which I have been trying to adumbrate is so difficult that I am not sure I grasp it myself except in flashes, or that I comprehend all its implications.” (30)

What Eliot means is that culture and religion are so intertwined that one cannot exist without the other. For any culture to stand out it must operate under the religious platform. Therefore, such cultures as paganism, heathenism, secularism or any other way of life that does not recognize the power of religion will ultimately fail.

The two theorists also differ further on the matter. Eliot thinks that true religion should “create confusion and spiritual struggle within a person” (67). Religion is therefore meaningful if it is a source of conflict. Suffices to say, conflict is the essence of culture. Geertz thinks that what people describe as religion are in fact cultural beliefs that consoles individuals when in torment but do not relieve the individual any form of suffering (100).

Eliot makes an effort to define religion unlike Geertz. He explains that a religion is beyond the priest, mere observance of religious tenets and the existence of worshipers. Valid religion will differentiae between what are religious and what is not. Weak religions will not have the capacity to differentiate religious activities and non-religious activities.

They end confusing the two (24). Naturally, when religion distinctively identifies what is religious and what is not, great opposition amounts (67). Thus, genuine religion creates a rivalry in the community. It therefore implies that religions that do not seek to create conflict n the society, such as Zen, is not valid.

Elitism

An individual importance in the society is subordinated under culture. What is more important is that for cultures to exist, small groups of people must experience them. This therefore means that culture would not exist in a classless society. Social classes create a diverse group of people in the society. This diversity is the genesis of culture (56). What this means is that equality is just an ideal notion that cannot be realized. Equal societies will not have the necessary mechanism for conflict and thus would be cultureless.

The highest classes in the community therefore experience real and genuine culture. It is only the elites and the educated who can claim tom have a real experience to culture. A person’s cultural beliefs are thus shaped by the class they belong to. Class cultures are in turn founded on the larger society’s culture while societal culture is founded on religion. The continuity of culture is realized through the classes.

Arnold sees culture as fairly elitist and as a more political tool in the society. In slight deviation from Hall’s perspective, Arnold argues that culture is the practices that have been derived from past human activities, thus:

“They (best religious thoughts) should be read… with a direct aim at practice. The reader will leave on one side things which, from the change of time and from the changed point of view which the change of time inevitably brings with it, no longer suit him; enough will remain to serve as a sample of the very best, perhaps, which our nation and race can do in the way of religious writing” (para 2).

This means that culture changes and reinvents itself. It is achieved as time goes by and only maintains those practices and beliefs that are relevant to the current needs of the community. What remains after a series of changes is the very best and this constitutes culture. Culture is also powerful that it can only be realized as religion.

The best tenets that have survived the test of time and deemed valuable to a community are ascribed to, as religious truths. It is thus worth to say that religion is formed from long held cultural practices. That religious writings are inspired by culture. Culture makes religion less spiritual and more practical, and brings it closer to the people. Arnold therefore agrees with Eliot on the manner of religion and culture and explains that the elite of the religious class can only experience absolute culture.

Those who are not religious thus find themselves as cultureless. As a result culture therefore becomes the consolation and offers solutions to the problems the community is having. This is because it has been derived from timeless norms, which are thought to be absolute truths and thus have acquired divine status

Culture is internal

Arnold’s analogy of culture as what has been left after along time means that culture is because of the internal machination in community. Seel expounds on this and adds that culture is the result of a society’s internal “evaluative judgments, excuses and tenets that people use to coerce each other into submission into a prescribed way of life” (Para 7). This means that there are no external factors that influence culture.

Thus, it is formed within a community. The daily activities, which involve conflicts, dialogues, work and agreeable ethics are the basis of which culture is derived. A community’s communication mechanism becomes the platform from which culture evolves. Therefore, culture is in a constant state of emergence because of the complexity and the dynamism of everyday life. New cultural norm keep emerging as communities grow.

Seel likens culture to a flower, where the center of the flower is the communities general ideology that governs life. This idea is derived when community members through constant dialogue seek common understanding. The petals of the flower become the varied application of this central idea.

Eliot argues that a community’s diversity and variation in application of cultural rules results in conflicts. This means that the petals are the main activity areas that develop a community’s culture because a lot of negotiations go on when people seek to apply the central idea about culture in real life.

Seel argues further that culture is more emergent than changing. This is because changing it will require changing the central norm which holds the community together. Variation in the application of this central idea brings in new dynamics every day and the resultant conversational agreements emerge.

However, with time people have tendency to forget and drift back to previous lifestyle and forget the emergent culture. This arguments support the saying that the more things change the more they stay the same. Therefore, changing culture becomes a very complicated exercise, almost impossible. Culture emerges continuously, but rarely changes.

The two paradigms of culture

To understand cultural one must be able to evaluate it under the following two paradigms. The first paradigm explains that Culture can only be under stood when people isolate all their common experiences that add meaning to life. Hall explains that:

“Defining culture is a democratic process and. It is not just the sum of the best of what has been thought and said, but regarded as the summits of achieved civilization… it is now a one general process that involves the giving’s and takings of application and meaning of culture to arrive at commonly held ideas.” (59).

It means that societies have to evaluate all cultural definitions and application and with time isolate those things that are common among them. Culture is thus, according to Hall’s first paradigm, a constitution of ideas. However, this theory does not cater for the uncommon practices that are part of a community’s subculture.

The second paradigm is little more simplistic and equates culture to a people’s way of life. It means that culture is a set of social norms belief and practices. This however does not mean that culture is the sum total of a people folk lore and traditional practices. It goes beyond that. It has to evaluate the relationship between the community’s cultural activities and come up with a social design of how these activities are related (60).

This means that culture is not deliberate but a self-revealing phenomenon. People cannot identify their cultures by just evaluating tenets, events, norms and practices but by reflecting on how they are patterned to form a general way of life. This theory is reflected in Geertz works when he and his wife were working in Bali.

Their understanding of the Balinese culture did not reveal itself by just understanding of the Balinese cultural activities but by undertsdniig the meanings of those activities and how the society was organized in general. It is the self-revealing patterns of this society that began to unravel the intricate culture.

By limiting culture to a set of ideas and general practices, it does not meant that Hall is equating culture to the Classical Marxist ideology of materialism and the domination of one (superior) idea over another. It only means that culture is made up of both the complex and the not so complex activities. The pattern that designs the relationship between these activities and forms their relationship makes culture.

Culture and suffering

Geetz asserts that culture consoles the person from daily affliction, by giving them a survival mechanism in the face of suffering (100). Walker agrees on this but adds that culture is the manifestation of silent suffering (para 2). It portrays life as one struggle to live with suffering with no hope in sight.

This means that the ideal life is just a dream, something people wish for but know that they will never achieve. Suffering leads a person to retreat into oneself for an intense self-reflection. This reflection pushes people to their spiritual realms in search of consolation (Para 6). This means that religion and culture exist in the continuum of suffering. Without suffering people would not be religious and possibly not have an established culture. Suffering therefore becomes the vehicle in which culture develops and travels.

Conclusion Culture is such a complex phenomena that is riddle with controversy after controversy. This is thee reason it has eluded a concrete definition through out history.

The more it evolves the more it becomes complicated and thus draws farther from consensus. Its complexity is not inherent in the word itself but in the dynamic nature of life and nature and the attempts by man to apply it to fit his individual context.

This portrays man as limited in understanding culture beyond his natural environment. Arnold explains that culture is the more commonly physical attribute of the society operating under the platform of religion. While the power of religion cannot be underemphasized; it limits culture to religious realms.

This is a good definition but it does not address the spiritual nature of culture. Eliot agrees to the direct link between religion and culture and explains that the two have as symbiotic relationship. They are connected because of the diversity that religion creates in the society. It therefore can be concluded that culture is equal to conflict. However, this definition leaves the efforts to maintain order in the community hanging in confusion. A well-ordered society is therefore thought as not cultured.

Some theorists opt for the cynical and negative view of culture and equate it to constant suffering and that joy and happiness are just an elusive mirage. While it is worth to notice that suffering is real in all societies, it is just a condition of life and not the real essence of life. Most importantly, there are so many individual and communities that are devoid of mass suffering and it cannot be argued that they are uncultured. Lastly, out of all this definition and theories it can be conclude that culture is the essence of life.

Works Cited Atran, Scott, and Sperber, Dan. “Learning without Teaching: It’s Place in Culture Culture, Schooling, And Psychological Development.” Human development. Web.

Changing minds.” Elements of Culture.” Changing minds.org, 2011. Web.

Eliot, Thomas. Note Toward the Definition of Culture. London: Faber, 1948. Print

Geertz, Clifford. Think Description: Toward s an Interpretive Theory of Culture.” In Geertz. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Print

Geertz, Clifford. “Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight.” 1973. Web.

Hall, Stuart. Cultural Studies: Two Paradigms. Media, Culture and Society, 2 (1980): 57-72

Heathfield, Susan. Culture: “Your Environment for People at Work – What Is Organizational Culture?”, 2011. Web.

Klein, Zdenek. “The Ethological Approach to the Study of Human Behavior.” NEL, 2002. Web.

Sadashivan. “Culture Is A System Of Building Identity.” Virtual countries, 2011. Web.

Seel, Richard. “Culture and complexity: New Insights on Organizational Change.” Organizations

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Relevance and Significance of Communication Technology Essay college essay help near me

The relevance and significance of communication technology in modern world is growing tremendously and its application in business is becoming more subtle to the users. In view of the tremendous advancements in communication technology, companies are bracing up to cope with the challenging demand that compels them to develop a dynamic staff who can keep abreast with versatility in communication technology.

Since the relevance and significance of communication technology depends on convenience and clarity of conveying a message, companies should adopt means of communication that suite their clients. The diversity in the means of communications provides a robust choice that companies need in order to communicate effectively at different levels with clients.

For effective communications and lucrative business to occur, companies should critically match the means of communication with their clients lest they lose them. Companies are losing potential and prospecting clients because of failing to adapt their means of communication to diverse clients. In the view of the fact that there are diverse clients, companies should customize their means of communication to meet unique desires of their clients.

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Lincoln Douglas Debates Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Lincoln Douglas debates are those debates between Stephen Douglas, who held the position of a Senator as a Democratic Party candidate, and Abraham Lincoln, who was the Republican candidate for Senate in Illinois. These two leaders were contesting for election into the U.S. Senate in 1858. Lincoln was opposing Douglas who wanted to be reelected. The two leaders were competing for control over Illinois legislature. The main topic that was argued in these debates was slavery.

Douglas was not popular on one hand while on the other hand Lincoln was popular since he had held campaigns earlier. They held seven main debates in their campaigns. One of the debates was held at Washington Square, Ottawa. They also held another debate in Freeport where more than 15,000 people attended (Lincoln-Douglas Debates 2). Other debates were held at Coles County Fairgrounds, Union County Fairgrounds, Broadway and Market Street, Old Main, and Washington Park.

Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas believed in opposing ideas. According to Lincoln, freedom and slavery can never be compatible (Murrin et al 549). In other words, Lincoln believed that there is no way we could have freedom and at the same time we have slavery. Each can only prevail at a time. This was the main theme for debates between Douglas and Lincoln in 1858.

In his campaigns, Lincoln used a common slogan that “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” (Murrin et al 549). He was implying that the sitting government could not prevail any longer. In other words, Lincoln argued that since the prevailing government system was half freedom and half slavery, it could not last permanently. It was about to collapse. These two opposing systems are unsustainable within the same government.

There was a fraction of the people who were advocating for legalization of slavery in all the states. On the other hand, the republicans were against slavery since they thought it was not feasible with freedom. They wanted to combat slavery completely. Lincoln commented that their aim was to avoid the growth of slavery as well as placing it in a situation where the public would be free and confident that it would never haunt them once more (Murrin et al 549).

In reaction to this, Douglas questioned Lincoln’s argument that slavery cannot coexist with freedom. Douglas commented that he didn’t know the reason which could prevent a country from surviving with both freedom and slavery since the same had already survived for 70years (Murrin et al 549).

Douglas explained that Lincoln’s argument was not realistic since it would trigger the Southern people to withdraw from the stable union. He commented that although he was not advocating for slavery, the people from the Southern states opted for it and thus it was their right to have it (Murrin et al 549).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In their heated debate, Lincoln questioned Douglas on the legality of his arguments. Lincoln asked Douglas whether there could be any way through which slavery couldn’t exist without violating the then constitution (Nicolay 90). Douglas responded that this could happen. People have a legal right to include or exclude slavery. According to Douglas, slavery could not exist unless supported by the police.

In their debates, Douglas argued that freeing of slaves in Illinois imply equality of all the people despite their race. By abolishing slavery, the Negroes would enjoy the rights and privileges of the citizenship. On raising this statement, the crowd showed a lot of opposition to the situation where Negroes would enjoy equal rights with the natives.

In response to Douglas’s claims, Lincoln commented that he was neither advocating for political nor the social equality of races. He argued that “ultimate extinction” cannot take place abruptly; slaves have to emigrate from the country” (Murrin et al 549).

In their debates, Lincoln and Douglas were differing in their views concerning the blacks who were mostly slaves. Lincoln advocated for the blacks while Douglas was against them. Lincoln argued that the blacks must be allowed to enjoy the natural rights which had been proposed through the declaration of independence. Every person had the right to liberty and slavery was a violation of the black’s liberty. Lincoln thought that there was no way this declaration could be adhered to with prevalence of slavery.

Lincoln criticized Douglas for showing less concern on the issue of slavery. In fact, Douglas claimed that he was not looking forward to seeing slavery come to an end. He insisted that this arrangement had to survive for the sake of the southern states. The prevailing solidarity among the states would be interfered with in case slavery institution was abolished.

In conclusion, this discussion has clearly analyzed Lincoln Douglas debates of 1858. The central theme of their debates as already seen was slavery. The two candidates used this as a slogan in their campaigns. Lincoln thought that the prevailing government where Douglas was the leader could not last since it integrated slavery and freedom. On the other hand, Douglas proposed that such a government could continue to survive since it had survived in the previous 70 years.

Works Cited Lincoln-Douglas Debates. “Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858.” Illinoiscivilwar, 2007. 24 Feb. 2011.

We will write a custom Essay on Lincoln Douglas Debates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Murrin, John et al. Liberty, Equality, Power, a History of the American People. 5th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2007.

Nicolay, G. John. Abraham Lincoln: A History, Volume 2. Middlesex: Echo Library, 2007.

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Samsumg CEO Lee Kun-Hee Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Summary

Introduction

Company Background

The Background Of The Company’s CEO: Lee Kun Hee

Application of Leadership Styles and Behaviors

Conclusion

Works Cited

Summary For any organization that wants to succeed, organizational change is a must. This change has to be planned if the expected goals are to be achieved. However, to achieve these goals, the authority has to originate from the top and that’s why there exist different leadership styles that the chief executive officers can use to achieve the company’s desired goals.

In this report, we covered the Samsung CEO Mr. Lee Kun Hee, and then analyzed his leadership skills as well as his leadership behaviors which have helped the company to become a world leader in the electronics industry. We have noted that Mr. Lee Kun Hee has learnt the art of applying all the three leadership styles: autocratic, participatory and delegative to enhance the management and the success of Samsung Company.

When applying the three leadership styles, the following has come out as his leadership behaviors as we shall see in the report: power to initiate new structures, he also acts as the instrument of goal achievement, he exerts his influence of conditions force and he possesses some form of persuasion whenever he feels that persuasion is required to make the employees realize the seriousness of the matter. These among others have been attributed as the major drivers of the success Samsung Company has achieved in the last two decades.

Introduction Any organization that wants to succeed must implement organizational change. A planned change within an organization is required if the transformation is to be successful in any way. Successful organizations such as Samsung have been known to develop their leaders who enable them survive during their hard times. Leadership involves managing the affairs of an organization either the whole organization or department.

On the other hand, leadership styles involve the way and the approach the company leadership uses its power in implementing plans, motivating employees, and enforcing change. There exists three recognized leadership styles that any leader chooses to follow (depending on the situation) and they are: authoritarian, participative, and delegative (Jooste

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Ineffective Managers Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The quality and timeliness of managerial decisions determine whether a company will be successful or not. Decision-making is a continuous process that changes according to the prevailing condition in the market. Management is the process where activities are coordinated to meet an organizations goals and objectives.

In the changing world with competition, there is need to adopt policies and strategies that facilitate efficiency and effectiveness in all processes. Inefficient managers make unresponsive decisions and their companies lack competiveness in either commodity or labour markets. Their companies are characterised by inefficiency in production, low staff motivation, weak brand name and lack of visionary strategies.

Management is an art that can be trained and mastered; inefficient managers need to undertake deliberate measures, swallow their pride and start the process of mastering the art. An old saying state “we learn through mistakes”, so mistakes are learning experiences so inefficient managers should focus on improving their management strategies and success is guaranteed (Fred, 2008). This paper discusses some of the strategies that can be used to increase efficiency of inefficient managers.

Characteristics of inefficient managers Some common characteristics can be seen in inefficient managers, they include:

Know all attitude

Inefficient managers make decisions alone using their instincts about a certain issue or situation; they do not consult or seek the intervention of other people either their juniors or seniors’. To them they well understand the best direction that their firm should follow; they believe they have a solution to every problem in the organisation.

Inefficient managers adopt dictatorship management system where they disregard the contribution of others in their decisions. When they make a decision, they expect it to be followed without questioning; subordinates should only receive directions or orders.

When the market offer opportunities, the firms take long before they can take advantage of the situation and some time they loss the benefit. On the other hand, they are greatly affected by threats and change in the market (Bridge

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Intangible Assets in Finances Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Intangible assets are those assets that cannot be seen, in the past it has been difficult to value them since they lacked production cost and their value was not quantifiable. Either way, these assets are ever present in the many organizations, both profit making and non profit making.

It is crucial for intangible assets to be measured since they play a major role in a firm’s aggressive sustainability. Also, some scholars believe that these assets are the backbone for a company’s growth. That being the case, there is a challenge of valuing them. Companies like CPA/ABVs have been created to specifically measure intangible assets. Examples of these assets include trademarks and copyrights (King

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Sociological Concept: Women’s Social Standing Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Sociological concepts are specific ways in sociology of approaching any given phenomenon. They assist us to get insight picture of the social world that goes beyond justifications that rely on individual characters and idiosyncrasies.

They also assist us to view the general social pattern of an individual’s behavior, and they usually presume that official justifications are self-serving and partial. Social perspective involves a conscious endeavor to go past what is obvious and question what is believed to be a common sense or what is believed to be true. It entails upholding objectivity by critically examining ideas, and accepting what may appear to be awkward or astonishing based on the substantiation.

They study everything from actual elucidation to extensive generalization (Chadwick, 2001). However, the early sociologists also presented a broad perception of the essentials of society. Their perceptions form the basis for the current theoretical paradigms or points of views, which offers them an orienting outline and an idealistic position for asking particular questions regarding social perspective.

Paying closer attention to the concept of women’s social standing, gender aspects are now perceived as attributes of social structures influencing women’s roles and status in culturally and economically predetermined society. In addition, women’s status is also largely dependent on personal experience forming women’s outlook on their position in relation to men.

Social Concept: Women’s Social Standing Due to the fact that members of society depend on social structures they live in, they strive to frame everyday situations in accordance with the rules dictated by a particular community. Currently, women are rigidly distinguished from men’ perception of social rules and concepts while being involved in social interaction.

This is because they rely on different experiences creating specific frames and blocks of sociological concepts (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 127). While considering women’s statuses in society, it is necessary to make reference to several aspects influencing their position and affiliation to a particular group. Aside from stereotypes ascribed to women, there are many other settings and conditions influencing their behavioral patterns.

Depending on the status a women holds in society, she performs various roles, but when there is more than one social position assigned to a women, it can create a set of multiple roles. All these roles are closely associated with cultural and economic aspects providing shifts in social positions and roles. For instance, when it comes to developing countries, women are less bound to educational background, but are more affiliated to their family roles being an important component of social identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast, high-income economies provide more opportunities for people to spend more years as students and exercise family roles less frequently (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 129). These disparities influence women’s perception in various settings and when people strive to break those stereotypes they encounter a number of challenges.

Understanding women’s social position in the contemporary society is especially vital because the social reality itself dictates what roles and statuses should be performed by female representatives in our world community. The concept of social reality shape women’s perceptions, beliefs, and outlooks affecting the nature and character of social interaction.

In particular, women’s marital and familial roles can be dictated by culture, stereotypes, identities and economic situation in a certain environment. The situation concerns the aspect of equality aspect that differs from society to society whose impact is far from positive.

According to the research provided by Das and Gupta (1995), the family structures and role set can have a huge impact on resource distribution between two sexes in the family (p. 92). Specifically “high maternal mortality…is associated with the patriarchal family structure which reduces women’s autonomy and their share of material and social resources” (Das and Gupta, 1995, p. 92). In this regard, inequality in social positions generates much more serious problems than it can be viewed at a glance.

Despite the presence of fixed stereotypes apropos of the concept of women’s social standing, women’s roles and statuses are gradually changing with the emergence of certain movements and trends among which the globalization process is the most powerful one. In this perspective, Hooks (2000) recognizes that

the possibility that feminism defined as social equality with men might easily become a movement that would primarily affect the social standing of white women in middle- and upper-class groups while affecting only in a very marginal way that social status of working-class and poor women (p. 19).

While evaluating this statement, most of female issues are closely related to the firmly established cultural overlays that prevent women from building new behavioral patterns and performing new, more acceptable roles in the globalized society. At the same time, there are specific social positions that women are reluctant to drop because it can negatively influence their social and cultural identities.

We will write a custom Essay on Sociological Concept: Women’s Social Standing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women’s social position is largely dependent on class, age, gender and ethnicity backgrounds. The construction of a particular identity is often based on personal experience, acceptance, and outlooks on the above-presented issues.

With regard to this, Chrisler and McCreary (2010) have highlight male-female disparities concerning gender aspects and have stated that “women were viewed as appropriately marrying relatively early (between ages 19 and 24), as past their period of maximal responsibility at 40, and as having accomplished most of what they would accomplish by 45” (p. 570).

The presented disposition reveals the differences in roles that women perform as compared to males who are more likely to take similar responsibilities at later stages. The influence of gender difference on social roles is also associated with behavior patterns that align with the demands and functions of the role.

Within the established framework, it is worth stating that gender is not merely an indicator of biological features; rather, gender identifies the constantly re-created changes to individual socialization and social interaction. In this regard, gender is an important attribute of social structures. According to Brinkerhorf et al. (2007), biological differences can be reinforced by social stereotypes because men and women are often imposed by conceptions concerning how males and females should look like.

Indeed, physical and biological characteristics can be considered the core aspects in assessing women in certain social practices, like sport, medicine, fashion, etc. Furthermore, “[g]ender is built into social structure when workplaces don’t provide day care; women don’t receive equal pay, fathers, don’t receive paternity leave, basket balls, executive chairs, and power drills are sized to fit the average man…” (Brinkerhorff et al., 2007, p. 203).

Interpreting this, producing changes to gender attitudes and roles can lead to social changes in case there are simultaneous changes in social structures and gender issues. At the same time, as soon social structures undergo changes, gender roles are also influenced by shifts in perception.

Discussing the Concept of Women’s Social Standing with Regard to Existing Theoretical Approaches Currently, sociologists employ three main perspectives or theories, namely: conflict, interactionist, and functionalist perspective. All these approaches can be disclosed through the concept of women’s social standing and its role in society. In order to understand this social perspective, it is necessary to consider the above-proposed theories in more detail with regard to the role of women in social interaction.

Conflict theory

Many sociologists refer to role conflict as a result of confrontation of two or more statuses hold by people. Women can experience role conflict when they are forced to take various directions while trying to respond to the statuses they currently take (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 129). In this regard, conflict theory emphasizes material, social or political differences of a social group which analyzes the extensive socio-political structure, or which undermines ideological conservatism and structural functionalism (Thompson, 2005).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sociological Concept: Women’s Social Standing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This theory emanated from the sociology of crisis and social change. It is most commonly connected to Marxism as a response to functionalism. This theory focuses on conflict in the society; its discourse is on the occurrence of conflict and what causes conflict in the society. There are various modes of conflicts, one of them being that of revolution and warfare. These occur in phases because of rocky collations among different social classes.

Domination is another mode of conflict in the conflict sociological perspective. Various social divisions tend to form different principles based on promotion of the welfare of their own class. Ideas of lower classes reveal the desire in their own lives while that of higher classes have more conceptual perspectives. Strikes in the current society have become a major social partition between the management and the employees in every organization (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 131).

Even if a woman takes a single social role, which is quite rare, it can also create tensions because of imposing various demands by other members of society. Role strain, hence, is a confrontation of roles attached to a single status. For instance, a woman can work as a teacher evaluating students’ achievements objectively and fairly. At the same time, she can behave more subjectively when treating her children.

These two roles should not be confused; alternatively, it can lead to a role conflict. Fulfilling various roles connected to one status serves as a kind of balancing act. One approach to eliminating role conflict is separating dimensions of our life so that one can perform particular roles attached to one status and carry out other roles associated with another status in a completely different environment (Chrisler and McCleary, 2010, p. 571). The problem of role separations is specifically connected with separating family life from job and vice versa.

Symbolic interactionist perspective Symbolic interactionist perspective is also referred to as symbolic interactionism. This kind of sociological perspective allows sociologists to consider the details and symbols of daily life, the meaning of these symbols and the way people interact with one another. It offers a serious thought on the manners in which people act, and seeks out to establish the meanings which people attach to their own deeds and symbols, also to those of others.

There have been claims from critics that symbolic interactionist perspective does not take into account the macro levels of social understanding; in other terms, this perspective may neglect crucial issues in the society by directing more interest on the tree rather than the forest.

For instance, it focuses more on the size of the ring rather than the quality of the marriage (Reynolds and Herman-Kinney, 2003, p. 173). There are also claims that symbolic interactionism also put less consideration on the influence of social institutions and forces on individual relations.

When it comes to social interaction and women social position, symbolic interactionists refer to such concepts as ethno methodology and conversation analysis. These threefold relations are unveiled through consideration of meaning, language and social interaction, but in different ways. Hence, meaning implies the study of gestures, responses to those gestures and consequences of those interactions. Meaning can be presented beyond awareness of objective existence of particular notions.

Its objectiveness lies within a response scheme. Hence, there are certain gestures and acts that are predetermined by gender only making reference to cultural disposition, values and attitudes (Reynolds and Herman-Kinney, 2003, p. 174). Women’s social status imposes a number of such behavioral patterns and gestures indicating their roles and positions, which depend on cultural and social identities establish in a particular community.

George Mead, an American philosopher introduced symbolic interactionism to American sociology in 1925 (Chadwick, 2001). Consider application of symbolic interactionist perspective to the institution of marriage; symbols may include a wedding cake, music, flowers, church ceremony and a bridal dress (Pacific Sociological Association, 2008).

For instance, one partner may view the wedding ring as a mere expenditure while the other partner may view it as a sign of enduring love. Oral conversations, in which spoken words function as major symbols, make this personal understanding particularly apparent.

The words bear some meaning for the sender, and they optimistically bear the same meaning for the recipient (Reynolds and Herman-Kinney, 2003, p. 180). In fact, anything can act as a symbol provided it refers to something beyond itself. Therefore, symbolic interactionism offers a serious thought on the manners in which people act, and seeks out to establish the meanings which people attach to their own deeds and symbols, also to those of others.

Functionalist perspective Functionalist perspective has its center of attention on the input and output relationships and mental actions. It is based on the ideology that mental conditions are understood by effects of behavior, sensory stimulation and other inner acts.

According to functionalism, the mental condition of a human being is not restricted to the biological systems of human organism; instead, computer and other non-biological systems, display functional relations that are similar to human biological systems and are believed to have similar mental condition.

Specifically, structural functionalism is a broad theory which addresses social structure in terms of function of its basic elements including traditions, norms, institutions and customs. Additionally, it studies society as a structure with interconnected divisions (Pacific Sociological Association, 2008). This perspective has chronological resemblance with the application of scientific techniques in research and social theory.

The structural-functionalist approach considers family as a social institution that carries out specific functions in society, like producing young generation, socializing, and providing emotional and physical care for family members. Accordingly, conventional gender roles also contribute to successful family functioning where women perform the role of managing houses and providing nurturing and emotional care to family members.

However, rapid social change and breakdown of a traditional social institution of family and marriage has led high rates of divorce, which is seen as the main social problem (Mooney, Knox, and Schacht, 2010, p. 157). In its turn, shifts in women’s roles and status within a family can also contribute to the problems of poverty, crimes, and substance abuse.

Structural functionalism became very popular among the American sociologists between 1940 and 1954; it focused on ascertaining the functions of human behavior (Thompson, 2005). Robert Merton is one the American sociologist who divided human function into two kinds, namely latent functions and manifest functions. Latent functions are not apparent neither are they intentional, but, manifest functions are apparent and intentional (Ferrante, 2010, p. 29).

Considering those functions, woman’s position in society can also be dependent on a latent and manifest functions perspective. For example, manifest function that each woman performs is that of a mother, a wife, or a daughter. These roles can be explicitly revealed in certain settings and they contribute to balance and stability in society. At the same time, performing a particular role, a woman can feel stressful due to excessive imposition of responsibility.

Caring for children requires great responsibility and skills, which often lack because of experience gap and other issues. In general, women should strike the balance between the functions they perform to avoid dysfunctions and social changes these functions undergo. Apparently, feminism is the result of latent functions coming to the forth.

With regard to the sociological concepts studied, functionalisms can disclose distinctive features of women’s perceptions, reactions that contribute to building behavioral patterns in various social frameworks (Macionis and Gerber, 2009, p. 127). Owing to the fact that mental states are not limited to a particular behavior models, they can be realized in numerous ways.

For instance, a silicon-based machine could, in principle, have the same sort of mental life like that of a human being. However, this would only be when its cognitive system realizes proper functional roles. Hence, women’s role in a particular setting is largely predetermined by earlier established patterns that have been formed on at a mental level of perception.

Conclusion The concept of women’s social standing is predetermined by women’s particular roles they perform in culturally and economically predetermined societies. Aside from traditions and stereotypical images attached to women and their place in social structures, they are often affected by gender, race, and age factors being the attributes of social structures as well.

Furthermore, women’s social position considerably depends on educational background and personal experience that forms women’s values, outlooks, and beliefs in certain settings. Therefore, the presence of certain sociological concepts assists people in understanding the social world going beyond judgments and justifications and relying on particular characters and idiosyncrasies.

Additionally, understanding social roles of women contributes to better analysis of behavioral patterns existing in society that influence the overall appraisal of social constructions. Owing to the fact that all members of society depend on those social structures, they strive to frame life situations within the rules and clichés dictated by a particular community. This issue considerably affects women because global shifts in perceptions influence specific social and cultural frames women got accustomed to.

Reference List Brinkerhoff, D. B., White, L. K., and Ortega, S. T. (2007). Essentials of Sociology. US: Cengage Learning.

Chadwick, R. (2001). Native Americans today: sociological concepts. Chicago: Harper

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Social Impact Assessment: Critical Articles’ Review Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Environmental impact assessment is a critical part of every project that is carried out in the community. This assessment looks at the impacts that the project will have on the various aspects of the human environment. This includes the impact on economic and physical environments of the community.

Social environment is such one aspect of the human environment that is affected by projects carried out in the society. Social impact assessment looks at the positive and negative effects of these projects and how to manage them. The articles critiqued below touch on the subject of environmental impact assessment, and especially on social impact assessment.

The first article is Guidelines for Social Impact Assessments for Mining Projects in Greenland. This article was written in the year 2009 by the Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Greenland. The article provides information on the guidelines that mining projects should follow when doing social impact assessment in Greenland.

The article highlights the process of carrying out this assessment plus the format of an SIA report required for mining projects in Greenland (Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Greenland [BMP] 7). The second article is The Significance of Social and Economic Impacts in Environmental Assessment by Lawrence David. The article provides information on how to determine social and economic impacts and the importance of the same in environmental assessment in Canada (Lawrence 19).

The third article is Guide to Free Prior and Informed Consent by Hill, Lillywhite and Simon. This Oxfam article provides information on how communities can engage project implementers in their society and how to negotiate for shared benefits from the project in addition to learning more about the same and giving informed consent (Hill, Lillywhite and Simon 19).

The first article can be very useful to investors that are intending to start mining projects in Greenland. However, the scope of the article is considerable narrow as compared to the other two articles. This is given that it focuses solely on Greenland and mining activities therein. As such, the information on the article cannot be confidently generalized to apply to other countries or to other projects that are carried out in Greenland outside the scope of mining.

However, the information therein may be more accurate, in-depth and analytical given the special focus on one country and one form of activity. It is similar to the other two articles, especially the second one, considering that they both touch on the subject of social impact assessment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second article by Lawrence tends to have a bigger scope than the first one. It focuses on both social and economic impacts of projects. It is also not limited to one form of project; rather, the information therein can be consumed by stakeholders in many fields who are interested in social and economic impact assessment.

However, the similarity with the first article is that it also tends to focus on one country (Canada), albeit obliquely. It is identical to the third article in the sense that both address the significance of projects on the indigenous community.

The third article deviates significantly from the first two as far as the target audience is concerned. This article targets indigenous communities and gives them information on how to engage project implementers in their society. The article is of little value to a project manager, benefitting community rights’ activists more. However, the article provides a refreshing look on the issue of the impact of projects from the perspective of the community.

In conclusion, it is important to note that all the three articles provide credible information on the topics that they are addressing. This is considering that they are authored by noteworthy individuals affiliated to noteworthy institutions.

For example, the first article is affiliated to the Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Greenland (BMP 5). The second is affiliated to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency’s Research and Development Program (Lawrence 2), while the third is affiliated to the Oxfam organization (Hill et al 4).

However, one major weakness in all the three articles is that they contain complicated and technical information that is intended for the consumption of the professionals and not for the layman. This even includes the third article that alleges to target the indigenous communities.

Works Cited Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Greenland. 2009. Guidelines for Social Impact Assessments for Mining Projects in Greenland. BMP, November 2009.

We will write a custom Report on Social Impact Assessment: Critical Articles’ Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hill, Christina, Lillywhite, Serena and Simon, Michael. 2010. Guide to Free Prior and Informed Consent. Oxfam Australia, June 2010.

Lawrence, David P. 2004. The Significance of Social and Economic Impacts in Environmental Assessment. Research and Development Program, Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, March 2003.

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Change Management within Direct TV Business Essay college admission essay help

Introduction Managing change within an organization entails the integration of essential plans and effective implementation strategies. The current world has experienced rapid changes in business management as a result of the recent technological advancements as well as changes in organizational cultures.

However, change management is the responsibility of managers within an organization. Gronlund (2002) argues that the procedure involved in change management is often influenced by an interdependence of the following three magnitudes which include: technology, organizational perspective, and change model.

This paper will provide a detailed discussion on the Responsibilities of managers to implement sudden, drastic organizational changes within their scope of responsibility in Direct TV business which is a direct broadcast satellite service based in El Segundo, California, whose function is to convey digital satellite TV and audio to households in the United States.

Responsibilities of managers to implement sudden, drastic organizational changes Managers play a vital role in the implementation and management of sudden and drastic changes within the Direct TV business. Generally, the recent sudden changes that the managers have to implement within the Direct TV Company include technological transformations where the organization is found in possession of computers that are meant for record keeping, communication through the internet as well as the performance of management functions conduction.

Also, owing to the fact that technology has changed drastically, the organizational perspective experiences the same in an urge for the continuity of the business. More over, the direct TV business experiences changes in change management models; frameworks that would suitably drive the change implementation and management strategies. At the same time, the managers ensure effective utilization and maximization of available resources (Gronlund, 2002).

Implementation change within Direct TV depends on the commitment of the operational managers in its various departments. Therefore, the managers have the responsibility to make sound and informed decisions regarding change management. Additionally, the Direct TV managers are charged with the role of informing their departmental employees of their intended purposes as well as the importance of the purposes to enhance full participation.

More over, they are required to provide quality interpretations, communicate healthily and act as enablement factors for their employees to work effectively towards the achievement of the intended goals. However, the manager’s functions would fail whenever the implementation of change is imposed or directly instructed to the employees, since they would not respond appropriately to the same.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, change implementation requires installation of the necessary change implementation devices, thus managers have to oversee the installation processes in order to ease work for the employees. These include computers, laptops, software to function online for instance Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) as a substitute of analog signal, to aid in the conduction of online conferencing and voice calls.

Also, owing to the fact that Direct TV is quite a large organization, the managers have to be exhaustively committed to the implementation processes and ensure that they are run according to the set protocols. Thus, the main responsibility of the managers is to act as facilitation and enabling instruments for change implementation within the Direct TV Company (Gwartney, et al, 2008).

Conclusion The Direct TV success in change implementation and management is dependent upon the managers’ commitment in executing their direct responsibilities. However, change is highly valued in the current world and is also inevitable, thus the managers are charged with the main role of facilitating and enabling change implementation procedures. Thus, the level of commitment and the appropriate utilization of implementation plans define the success of Direct TV in change management.

References Gronlund, A. (2002). Electronic government design, applications, and management. PA: Idea Group Inc (IGC). Web.

Gwartney, J. D. et al. (2008). Economics. Edition 12. OH: Cengage Learning. Web.

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Critique on Throsby’s Article Cultural Capital Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of cultural capital

Article critique

Strengths of Throsby’s analysis

Weaknesses of Throsby’s theory

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The discipline of Economics distinguishes between three forms of capital, namely Physical capital, human capital, and natural capital. In the past, attention was focused primarily on accumulation of physical assets with less emphasis being placed on human and natural capital. However, this trend has been changing in the recent past with much emphasis being placed on both human and natural capital to enhance performance of organizations.

Indeed, a fourth form of capital, cultural capital has been proposed by David Throsby to be incorporated in economic studies. Cultural capital is a sociological concept that was developed through the theoretical and empirical work of a French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in the early 1960s. In his theory, David Throsby presents cultural capital as an asset evaluated through its cultural value and proposes its incorporation in economic evaluation and investment appraisals.

Summary of cultural capital The concept of cultural capital was originally developed by Bourdieu as a partial explanation for the less tangible inequalities and is related to the class-based socialization of relevant skills, abilities, tastes, preferences and norms, which are considered valuable in the contemporary social realm (Winkle-Wagner 2010). The concept of cultural capital extends beyond an understanding of financial inequalities to explain the way that privilege and power are perpetuated in the society (Winkle-Wagner 2010).

Bourdieu observed that the economic obstacles were not sufficient to explain the differences in educational attainment among children from varying social classes and attributed school success to cultural habits and dispositions inherited from the family. On the other hand, (Throsby 1999) justifies the development of cultural capital by the common observation of the characteristics of capital assets in numerous cultural phenomena such as heritage buildings and works of art.

Cultural capital has been defined in different contexts with the most common definition being in terms of sociological and cultural studies where cultural capital is perceived in terms of competence acquisition in society’s high-status culture (Farkas 1996).

Cultural capital has been defined in terms of high-status knowledge or competence, skills and abilities that are valued in particular social settings, “otherized” cultural capital, which is applied to minority groups and as part of a larger theory of social reproduction (Winkle-Wagner 2010). According to the sociological perspective, Bourdieu classifies cultural capital into three subtypes; embodied state, objectified state and institutionalized state.

The embodied state refers to a long-lasting disposition of the individual’s mind and body, which is acquired through learning and accumulation over time (Deacon et al., 2003). In its embodied form, cultural capital cannot be bought or transferred directly to another person.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, this dimension creates an intricate relationship between the possessor of cultural capital and those who lack it but own other forms of capital. Although it is not freely transferable, its acquisition is often facilitated by the utilization of other forms of capital (Jackson 2010). For instance, economic ability of the parents enhances their children’s education since they have the financial ability to send their children in prestigious schools.

In its objectified form, cultural capital is transformed into cultural goods such as pictures, books, artefacts, among other things. In this state, the cultural capital exists in form of material possessions and is therefore easily transferable from one individual to another (Jackson 2010). However, it is worth noting that mere possession of cultural capital does not necessarily guarantee returns since the possessor may not know how to efficiently utilize them.

Consequently, meaningful possession of such capital has to be backed by individual knowledge on how to make use of the objects which, when absent results in meaningless exchange of cultural capital (Jackson 2010). In most situations, individuals with appropriate dispositions are not the possessors of cultural capital, which places those who do not possess a high volume of economic capital in an ambiguous position in the system of social relations.

Institutionalized cultural capital is acquired when embodied cultural capital is recognized in, for instance, academic credential (Throsby 1999). This form of cultural capital augments the added value of embodied cultural capital and guarantees its worth.

In addition, it serves to validate cultural capital through institutionalization, which draws the line between official recognition and mere possession of cultural capital. Establishing the qualitative difference between those who are licensed and those who are not guarantees the monetary value of the credentials. Although Bourdieu provides detailed information on the three forms of capital, he still suggests that other forms of capital may emerge from differentiation of fields into other domains (Jackson 2010).

Throsby (1999), attempts to incorporate cultural capital into a broader discourse of Economics. Culture, in the context of economic development incorporates the functional element where it is viewed as an industrial sector of the economy and the sociological view where it is expressed in terms of societal practices and beliefs.

Thus cultural value can be defined as something that positively contributes to the shared elements of human experiences (Throsby 2001). He further considers cultural values as being measured according to a unit of account where an individual assigns a cultural valuation to a given cultural artefact and the valuation differs between individuals just like in the case of economic goods and services (Throsby 1999).

We will write a custom Essay on Critique on Throsby’s Article Cultural Capital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cultural capital is an asset that contributes to cultural value or in simpler terms, it is the stock of cultural value embodied in an asset, which may in turn result in a flow of goods and services over time (Throsby 1999). Tangible stock of cultural capital may take the form of buildings and sites holding substantial amount of cultural significance as well as artefacts existing as private goods, which may give rise to the flow of services that may be consumed as direct private or public goods.

Intangible form of cultural capital, on the other hand, may take the from of ideas, practices, and cultural beliefs which are shared among a group of people and also gives rise to a flow of services which form part of final private consumption or contribute to the production of future cultural goods (Throsby 1999).

Article critique In his article, David Throsby, a professor of Economics at the Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia, seeks to incorporate cultural capital into the economic framework by approaching cultural capital as an asset embodying cultural value.

He contrasts the sociological perspective of cultural capital, as explained by Bourdieu with his proposed usage in economics and emphasizes on the relationship between cultural and economic value to highlight the economic concept of cultural capital (Throsby, 1999). Further, he discusses the implication of cultural capital in economic analysis touching on the issues of economic growth, sustainability and investment appraisal.

Strengths of Throsby’s analysis Bruno Frays of the University of Zurich acknowledged that David Throsby is a long-standing contributor to cultural economics and his analysis of cultural capital marks a major step from a mindless application of orthodox economics to the discipline of Arts towards the consideration of special characteristics which is backed by good economic reasoning notable in his treatment of the value in cultural capital and Arts (Throsby 2001).

Throsby’s attempt to bring economic analysis to bear on cultural issues is a complex yet innovative way of looking at the modern issues. He seeks to not only provide a literature review on cultural capital but also to emphasize on the notion of cultural value in policy issues often monopolized by the analysis of economic value. According to him, cultural value analysis should be equivalent to economic value analysis hence should be heavily emphasized upon in the modern economy (Throsby 2001).

David Throsby acknowledges that the consideration of cultural capital as an economic phenomenon must begin from a clearly outlined relationship between cultural and economic value, which he attempts to define through the tangible and intangible forms of cultural capital.

Just like the founders of the theory, Throsby acknowledges the fact that cultural capital is transmitted to generations in form of cultural value and asserts that in particular cases, cultural valuation may be ranked according to collective judgment if there is sufficient consensus which leads him to the definition of cultural capital as the stock of cultural value embodied in an asset. He further recognizes that a lot of work still needs to be done to clarify the concept of cultural capital in relation to economic value.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Critique on Throsby’s Article Cultural Capital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through this article, David Throsby advocates for economic valuation of cultural capital through application of frameworks for assessing the economic role of culture. He distinguishes between tangible and intangible forms of cultural capital where tangible forms of cultural assets are described as structures endowed with cultural significance while intangible cultural capital is described as comprising of ideas, beliefs and practices which bind the society together (Weininger n d).

Through this distinction, Throsby does not merely develop an academic definition of cultural value, but uses the concept of cultural capital existing in both tangible and intangible forms to highlight the economic value that it may possess.

Weaknesses of Throsby’s theory Throsby (1999) distinguishes between economic and cultural value through the assumption that cultural value can be measured in a unit of account comparable to the monetary scale. While he is correct in distinguishing between the two concepts, his definition of cultural value fails to adequately demonstrate how cultural value transcends economic value.

Indeed sociologists have argued that despite the importance of the relationship between economics and cultural values, Throsby makes a considerable number of good general observations in his attempt to incorporate cultural capital in economics, but the details of his arguments either lack in logical validity or are just plainly wrong.

For instance, his assumption on measurement of cultural value where an individual or group assigns a cultural valuation to a certain cultural artefact in the same way that economic valuation of goods and services expressed through demand price and willingness to pay is done is not necessarily correct as cultural significance is subject to differing factors.

While Throsby may have correctly recognized culture as an intellectual heritage transmitted from one generation to the next and emphasized on the importance of culture in terms of beliefs and customs for economic development, the view of beliefs, customs, and ideas as capital remains blurred.

Capital goods are produced means of production which are independent of human labour; beliefs, customs and ideas, on the other hand, cannot exist independent of human beings hence failing as independent form of capital. Throsby further uses his theory of cultural value to inform the analysis of almost all the issues he addresses on cultural capital.

Consequently, the ambiguity, inconsistency and lack of validity evident in some of the areas in his approach to cultural value follow through to other issues that he addresses in the article making it less justifiable. Consequently the implications of his study, which include the proposition to incorporate a cultural capital function in the production function and investment appraisals used in contexts such as capital budgeting and cost-benefit analysis remains invalid.

Conclusion David Throsby’s article on cultural capital is a diligent attempt to incorporate cultural issues in economic development. The efforts by an open-minded cultural economist to define cultural value in economic terms through fine survey of cultural and economic literature as well as formulation of a number of informed propositions provide readers with a rather insightful view of cultural economics.

The writer differentiates between cultural value and economic value by differentiating between tangible and intangible assets, which serve to define cultural capital as an economic asset. However, these achievements are offset by the ambiguous analysis and arbitrary assumptions used by David Throsby in his economic analysis of cultures, which calls for the need for a more accurate economic analysis of culture.

Reference List Deacon H., Mngqolo S., Proselandis S., 2003. Protecting Our Cultural Capital: A Research Plan for the Heritage Sector Issue 1. Cape Town, HSRC Press.

Farkas G., 1996. Human Capital or Cultural Capital, Ethnicity and Poverty Groups in an Urban District. New York, Transaction Publishers.

Jackson L. R., 2010. Encyclopedia of Identity. California, SAGE.

Throsby C. D., 1999. Cultural capital, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Journal and cultural economics 23: 3-12.

Throsby C. D., 2001. Economics and Culture. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Weininger, B. E., Not dated. Cultural Capital, University of Maryland. Web. Web.

Winkle-Wagner, R., 2010. Cultural Capital: The Promises and Pitfalls in Educational Research, AEHE. New Jersey, John Wiley

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Formal and Informal Groups Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents The role of teams and groups in the telecommunication industry

How to develop and maintain an effective team

Conclusion

References

In service or product industry, there are formal groups developed by the management to perform certain duties: formal groups have some set goals and objectives to attain in an organization; some examples of formal teams include human resources management team and project management teams.

Alongside formal groups, some informal group results not from deliberate management making but they exist by the virtue that human beings are beings and tend to live in groups. Mutually shared interests among members of informal groups hold the groups together; some examples of informal teams are social welfare groups, security, knowledge acquisition and groups to purporting to liberate the organization (Newstrom

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Religious communities respond to contemporary issues; Judaism and Christianity Expository Essay writing essay help

Over the years, the human societies have changed dramatically; from the way they dress, talk and believe. Without a doubt, these changes have infringed the religious ways of life and norms. This leaves has left many religious people in a quagmire. Like many other religious followers, Christians and Jews have to declare their stand on issues like homosexuality, stem cell research, euthanasia, ordination and marriage.

Since religious books do not often give clear guidelines on some of these issues, debates have erupted on the level of tolerance regarding these issues. The thesis of this paper is that division among Judaism and Christianity in relation to contemporary issues, can be divided into two; conservative groups and liberal groups.

Both Judaism and Christianity consider human sexuality to be a leading cause in sinning. In general homosexual, bisexual and transgendered people are considered to have sinned, but there are differing opinions on the issue.

Some of the Christian religious groups are tolerant, for example, The Unitarian Universalist Association and United Church of Christ. Both of these denominations consider lesbians and gay people to have committed no sin, therefore, they should be treated the same as everybody else. They have demonstrated equal rights for homosexuals and bisexuals by proclaiming some as clergy.

Other conservative Christian groups like the Evangelical Christian denominations have declared that homosexuality is a sin. They have even denied lesbians and gay people membership to their denomination. Presbyterians and Methodists have not resolved on where they stand, but there seem to be some division between the young and the old. The youth are more moderate on the matter but the older members are still conventional (Eisenbaum, 630).

This attitude is also evident in the Judaism denominations. Liberal groups like Reform Judaism have commonly acknowledged homosexuals and bisexuals as part of their community. They regard them as ordinary people who have a particular rare sexual preference.

They respect their scriptures which denounce homosexuality and bisexuality but, claim that these scriptures refer to particular homosexual practices like rape and prostitution. In short, they also advocate for equal rights to all, whether Jews or not. Orthodox Jews are conformist on the matter and therefore, they consider homosexuality and bisexuality as unusual, perverted and a sin. They interpret the scriptures to mean that all forms of homosexuality are wrong (Gale, 56).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transgendered individuals are those people who have changed their gender through a medical procedure. Orthodox Judaism states that; the type of sex is inborn and it is a perpetual phenomenal. Therefore, there should be no way a human should change the gender of another human being.

The catholic worshippers hold a similar thought as demonstrated in the 2000 Doctrine of Faith. It says that even though there might be a physical change, deep down, the person will always remain the same. Therefore, medical procedures do not change the gender of someone. On the other hand, Reformed Jews have widely accepted individuals who have undergone a gender change surgery. This was made official in 2003 when the Commission on Social Action approved a pledge to add transgendered individuals in their congregation.

Some Christian branches like Unitarian Universalist Association have likewise acknowledged transgendered individuals, and have given them full membership. They have even gone to the extent of opening an office to cater for homosexuals, bisexuals and transgendered people (Eisenbaum, 678).

Stem cells are extraordinary human cells that are capable of becoming any type of cell. This means that they can be used to restore spoilt tissues as a result of a disease. Diseases like diabetes and Parkinson’s diseases can be cured using research on stem cells. These stem cells can be harvested from many places on a human body like the bone marrow and fat.

However, it has been noted that stem cells from embryos have a higher probability of curing some of these ailments. The problem with most pro-lifers is that, extraction of stem cells from embryos leads to their destruction. To them, an embryo is already a living being and destroying embryos is the same as murder. Others say that at that stage, the human life has not begun, while others say that the use of embryos from fertility clinic is okay since they are meant to be destroyed anyway (Gale, 60).

The research on stem cell has been widely condemned by many religions in general. Politicians together with philosophers have also declared their opinions publically. The Roman Catholics and conservative Protestants are especially against use of stem cell. Pope John Paul the second personally in public expressed his opposition on the use of stem cells from the embryo.

However, the United Church of Christ and Progressive Christianity do not oppose the use of stem cells from fertility clinics. They reason from the fact that these ‘waste’ embryos will be discarded, so why not make use of them. Surprisingly, according to the Jews traditions, it is acceptable to obliterate an embryo to aid another breathing person. In fact, this idea has been readily accepted by the majority of the Jews.

We will write a custom Essay on Religious communities respond to contemporary issues; Judaism and Christianity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has been attributed to the difficulty in finding any Jewish literature that talk about this issue. Traditionally, Jews lowly regard an embryo that is less than 40 years old, it is seen as just a fluid. Some Jewish doctors consider the research on stem cell as the hope of humankind (Steinberg, 40).

Euthanasia is the procedure of aiding a person to pass away painlessly. This procedure is usually carried out on a patient who is facing an inevitable death and is in pain. By ending his life soon, he would have been relieved from his suffering. The Catholic Doctrine of Faith of 1980 forbids euthanasia claiming that it is a great offense towards a human life. Even though death is inevitable, there should be no human intervention whatsoever.

However some more liberal Christians like The Unitarian Universalist Association do not agree with the Catholics. They say that it does not make sense that it is okay to intervene and prolong a human life but not okay to end it if conditions are favorable. Their members are allowed to carry on with euthanasia as long as it is okay with the patient (Robinson, 69).

Like among the Christians, there is a division among Judaism followers regarding euthanasia. Conservative Judaism followers are against intended euthanasia but are not strict on intended passive euthanasia. On the other hand, Reformed Jews particularly support euthanasia in general, especially from the 1970s.

Ordination is the training and examination of members who wish to join any religious group. Ordination is carried out on people who wish to be the leaders of a congregation. Different religious groups and denomination have different ways of carrying out the process.

However, there are different opinions on the ordination of women. In traditional Christian society, women were never ordained, but that changed after the Protestant Reformation. They base their decision on ordaining women on the fact that Deborah was made a Judge in the ancient Israel by God.

Denominations like United Church of Canada and Evangelical Lutheran Church of America have been ordaining women since the early 1930s. Meanwhile, Catholic and Orthodox Churches have not allowed the ordination of women. In 1995 Pope John Paul the second announced that the Holy Spirit had not granted permission to ordain females. Traditional Catholics were satisfied with the answer but modern Catholics have been reluctantly protesting (Paul, 46).

Ordination of females as rabbis among the Jews is a reflection of what is in Christendom. Liberal Jews like those in Reformed Judaism have ordained women since 1950s. They consider them to equal to men when it comes to leadership in a congregation. Meanwhile, conservative Jews like those in Orthodox Judaism have never permitted women to be ordained as rabbis. They claim that; just as the man is the head of the family, he is also the head of the congregation (Robinson, 56).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious communities respond to contemporary issues; Judaism and Christianity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the Roman Catholic tradition, marriage is regarded as ritual intended by the creator. This means that the two spouses are obliged to bear children. Also, they do not recognize divorce. The Protestants have refuted the Catholic sacramental model and they get married in order to praise God.

Protestant married couple do not have to bear children and they are allowed to divorce. Conservative Jews consider marriage to be a bond between a man, woman and God. The married couple are also expected to procreate. More tolerant denomination like the Reformed Jews have accepted couples to be living together with no intention of having children (Paul, 48).

Both Judaism and Christianity have become tolerant to technology. All of them consider technology to be neutral and what matters is how it is used. However, in the middle of 20th century, the Orthodox and the Reformed Judaism followers had a debate on whether technology was a blessing or a curse.

The Reformists were for technology and the Orthodox were against it. Later, the Orthodox followers changed their teachings to allow the use of technology. All Christians have accepted technology and embraced it since it makes their lives easier (Mendelsohn, 48).

From this paper, it is obvious there are always two differing opinions in these two religious groups. Denominations that were established early like the Orthodox Judaism and Catholic Church followers in many ways have the same opinion regarding contemporary issues. Later down the line, other denominations cropped up which also in many ways had similar opinions. So it can be concluded that these two religions can be divided into two; the traditional religion and the modern religion.

Works Cited Eisenbaum, Pamela. “Jesus, Gentiles, and Genealogy in Romans.” Journal of Biblical Literature 123 .4 (2009): 671–702. Print

Gale, Thomson. “A Modern Jew.” Judaism, the religion 34.8 (2000): 45-67. Print

Mendelsohn, Ezra. “People of the city.” Studies in contemporary Jewry 15.5 (1999): 34-90. Print

Paul, Avis. “An Introduction to the Major Traditions.” The Christian Church 15.7 (2002): 30-58. Print

Robinson, Steve. “Beliefs, Customs and Rituals.” Essential Judaism 12.4 (2004): 50-78. Print

Steinberg, Milton. “Ordination.” Basic Judaism 37.11 (1999): 37-67. Print

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Activity Based Costing Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

XU JI Electrical Company Limited

Global Electronics Inc

Conclusion

References

Introduction Activity-based costing (ABC) is a widely adopted accounting practice where the cost of making various products and services are based on the companies’ activities (Panda1999, p. 5).

The costs are specifically allocated to products and services according to the level of consumption of each category, but comprehensively, it assigns more indirect costs into direct costs (unlike other conventional accounting practices) (Armstrong 2006, p. 363).

The major benefit associated with this accounting technique (ABC) is that a company can be able to specifically know which products and services take up most costs and which are overpriced and less profitable so that a required remedy is developed.

Activity-based costing basically works by allocating the overall resource costs according to the activities commensurate with them to the final products and services that are produced by a given company (Armstrong 2006, p. 363).

In a more general sense, the technique is basically used to understand a company’s profitability in relation to the costs incurred when producing various goods and services. In this regard, it is important to note that activity-based costing has been widely adopted by many organization because it aids in decision-making processes that touch on pricing, outsourcing, identification, and the actual benchmarking of the standards of production of goods and services (Panda1999, p. 5).

However, in as much as the activity-based costing technique has been beneficial to many organizations; many are also finding it very difficult to implement it. This trend has seen a number of organizations in emerging economies face a number of challenges adopting the technique, despite evidence of incredible success of its implementation in other parts of the world existent in many literature excerpts.

Significant challenges have been recorded in areas touching on acceptability, augmentation (with other computer systems in the organization), ensuring the system is of value to the company and its environment (among other challenges) (Liu and Pan 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This study will critically analyze the experiences and challenges of such companies in implementing ABC and how many of them have been able to succeed with this process, while others have openly failed. This will be done through an analysis of two companies (XU JI Electrical Company Limited and Global Electronics Inc) operating in emerging markets.

XU JI Electrical Company Limited Though activity-based costing has been widely adopted in the Western world, there is still increased skepticism among many companies operating in developing economies of its effectiveness. Such is the situation observed in China (Liu and Pan, 2007). In fact, Hu (2001) explains that the implementation of Activity-based costing in China is still at the theoretical level.

This situation can be evidenced in the case of XU JI Electrical Company Limited which is based in China. The company is basically an electronics company that manufactures electronic goods used in the development of public infrastructures like rail.

Activity based costing technique was introduced in the company in the year 2001 when there was a strong need to devise methods on how to tackle increased competition in the industry and to employ more efficient accounting techniques for better performance. The initial system was particularly based on the labor-hour absorption rate where costs were allocated across production lines.

This system was largely inefficient because it inhibited the company from pursuing competitive pricing strategies. Activity based costing was therefore introduced in the early months of the year 2009 under the First product department where the main objective for implementing the costing technique was to establish accurate product costing information for purposes of cost control (Liu and Pan 2007).

In the implementation of the activity based costing technique, the services of an implementation team was sought, where their primary mandate was to train the existing employees on how to use the system and to build an ABC conceptual model. The latter task was effectively carried out, except for the general administrative and finance expenditures, which contributed an overwhelming expenditure of approximately 77% of the entire cost budget.

Due to the fact that there was an increased organization structure inhibition, the implementation team decided to develop the ABC conceptual model on the number of employees evidenced in each given activity (as a temporary measure) (Liu and Pan 2007).

We will write a custom Essay on Activity Based Costing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this analysis, we can see that the company’s operations in China’s fast-paced business environment posed a challenge in the overall implementation of the ABC model because it was challenging to maintain it on an up-to-date level. In fact, similar research studies point out that many more companies face the same challenges, especially in identifying a good cost driver for the application of ABC because some of these cost drivers become obsolete after a given period of time (Liu and Pan 2007).

Liu and Pan (2007) further explain that the same situation has been evidenced in a number of Western economies where many companies have had to abandon their ABC implementation processes because of the volatility of the economy.

After basing the model on the number of employees, the activity-based costing model had to be computerized where a specific Chinese software was identified for this purpose.

However, during the implementation process, the lack of experience in dealing with such software augmentation led the company into significant conceptual errors that almost grounded the activities of Activity Based Costing implementation process. The company, therefore, had to seek the guidance of the activity based costing implementation team manager to asses the situation and provide possible remedies.

The team manager did so, and after determining the company’s rationale, the project went on smoothly. The company was, therefore, able to produce monthly activity-based costing reports, but there was a significant challenge in augmenting the ABC software with other computer softwares that were in existence before it. From this analysis, we can see that there is a strong need for technical expertise in the product implementation stage of ABC implementation to tackle functionality and compatibility issues.

This fact is also supported by Baker (1998, p. 257), who affirms that the input of technical expertise is vital in the overall successful implementation of ABC. The technical expertise evidenced in the above scenario was characteristic of the team manager’s input in salvaging the situation (ABC implementation).

As regards functionality and compatibility issues, it should be understood that the incompatibility of the ABC system and other computer systems was likely to pose a problem for other staff members in the organization (like in the warehouse division or the finance department) because there normally are instances of increased workloads where the officers have to double-check data added by the front-line managers into the ABC system.

In making the employees and staff receptive to the new ABC system, XU JI Electrical Company Limited decided to adopt the formal feedback session technique (Liu and Pan 2007). This technique was successfully used to show employees the benefits of the system; a process that ultimately led to a lot of satisfaction among the company staff.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Activity Based Costing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, some sense of resentment was observed from the front-line managers who pointed out the demanding nature of inputting data into the system as their biggest cause of concern regarding the system. Nonetheless, after subsequent meetings, there was a growing level of understanding among the managers.

A link between ABC implementation and performance measures was identified to be the biggest cause for concern when analyzed in terms of future implementation considerations of the project, which was considered to be a future agenda for discussion.

From this analysis, we can see that the inclusion of the bottom-level and top-level employees in the implementation process was critical to the acceptance of the costing technique.

Though there were significant objections coming from front-line managers, there were subsequent discussions aimed at seeking employee buy-in that brought the managers onboard. This analysis shows that constant communication between all stakeholders in the organization is likely to improve the probability that changes will be accommodated in the organization.

Global Electronics Inc Global electronics Inc is a company specialized in making power semiconductors for signal processing and power control applications and many of its products are also used in braking antilock systems, airbag systems, computer keyboards, modems and the likes.

During the end of the year 1999, the company had experienced a significant dip in sales that caused a lot of tension within the company (as regards the long-term prospects of the company’s sustainability) (Juras 2003, p. 1). To remedy this situation, the company decided to employ the activity based costing system to uphold the company’s efficiency.

In a general sense, the company experienced significant success in implementing the ABC system because its new manager, Chris Richards, had a good background in ABC. This was the first step that could be learnt from the company’s experience in implementing ABC because the company’s new manager brought a lot of technical expertise that could be used in implementing the ABC model.

In a more general sense, this analysis shows that importing beneficial technical expertise is a positive move towards ensuring smooth implementation of ABC.

It is also important to note that having someone with a significant experience about the implementation of ABC, spearheading the process, is also a good move for the company. It was also observed that the education about the new model (ABC) and the task of wrapping management’s thoughts around the new model was still attributed to him (Chris Richards, the new manager). Basically, management’s buy-in could be attributed to his influence.

This analysis is essential to organizations that experience problems getting management to adopt to new changes in the organization. More essentially, it is important to note that having someone with considerable experience regarding ABC, in the managerial team is a plus towards getting the overall managerial team to accept changes in the organization.

Another reason for the smooth implementation of the model was attributed to the company’s operating capacity. The company’s director of manufacturing (cited in Juras 2003, p. 2) affirmed that:

“The number one thing we had going for us was an “urgency factor.” I truly believe people would not have given us the time of day with respect to ABC if we were making 10 percent return on sales. Having operating losses of $100 million causes people to listen”.

Moreover, in successfully implementing the ABC model, a steering committee that encompassed most members of all the company’s departments was quickly formed.

The members came from finance committees, product engineering, operations management, and other functional teams of the organization, but extra assistance was also sought from external organizations to enable the company effectively implement the ABC model (Juras 2003, p. 2). The move to include members from various departments of the organization ensured that the steering committee was holistic, in terms of member contribution because all the departmental members represented most functional areas of the organization.

It is also important to note the input of the steering committee in the implementation of the ABC model because it played a vital role in the entire process. The steering committee basically went ahead to define the tasks of each company plant department, assign the resource costs to the specific activities, and determine the activity drivers, among other technical areas of the ABC implementation model (it is important to note that all functional managers of the organization gave support to the steering committee) (Juras 2003, p. 1).

From this analysis, we can see that having a steering committee was quite vital to the successful implementation of the ABC model, considering the above tasks are key in the design stage of implementing the ABC model (Salvendy 2001, p. 2319). It is therefore vital for organizations that have a problem going past the design stage of the ABC model to have a steering committee that specializes on moderating the tasks to be covered at this stage.

It was also confirmed by Global Electronics’ manager that setting short-term goals during the implementation of the ABC model was essential in ensuring the process implementation process was smooth (Juras 2003, p. 3). The short-term goals set for the implementation of the ABC model was meant to improve the product cost accuracy and optimize the company’s product mix. A long-term objective was also established, and it was meant to transit the company into a long-term activity-based costing management criterion.

This is also another pointer that can be borrowed by organizations that have a problem implementing the ABC model because quite a number fail to understand the short-term and long-term goals of implementing ABC in the first place. Having clearly set short-term and long-term goals is therefore vital to the overall implementation of the ABC model because it steers the organization into the right direction during implementation.

Integrating the new ABC model with other existent systems was also a tricky affair for the company, but it successfully managed to undertake the ABC model in an offline manner where the system was managed separately from the previously existing labor-based standard costing system.

In the same manner, the new model was also managed separately from the financial reporting system. However, it was quite tricky for the company to maintain the offline system because there were issues of employee behavior, and other issues arising from previous negative experiences learnt from the PUC process that the company engaged in. Part of this problem was summarized by Juras (2003) that:

“The problem with a non-integrated approach, even though it is certainly a lot simpler and less risky, is how do you affect behavior?… For example, you can’t run the marketing organization based upon achieving some desired gross margin when they are relying upon bogus costs to push the stuff that you don’t want them to be pushing… But, how do you motivate these people to go after the right set of products if you’ve got a bunch of accountants sitting over here who have knowledge derived from some offline system that nobody else is aware of?” (p. 3).

This experience showed that despite the fact that the company had a remedy to solve the problem of implementing the ABC model; it still experienced significant challenges in sustaining the strategy for long.

The biggest cause for this problem can be attributed to the fact that the organization failed to include the behavioral aspect of implementing this strategy. From this analysis, therefore, we can observe that the failure to include the behavioral considerations of implementing the ABC model in the organization can eventually render the whole strategy useless.

Comprehensively, the ABC implementation process went on as planned and fell within a nine-month schedule, but this smooth transition could be attributed to including activities within the cost model that bore a strong influence to strategic product pricing and mix decisions (Juras 2003, p. 3).

The inclusion of a centralized project team also contributed a lot to the coordination of activities that were done in the implementation process. This team was quite crucial in ensuring a sense of consistency was observed within all plants. It is also identified that the top-bottom approach of implementing the ABC model was deemed appropriate because such a model was basically aimed at making lower-level employees understand the benefits of the ABC model.

Moreover, it was identified that the ABC model was essentially hatched at the company’s headquarters and it was the duty of management to push the idea down to lower-level managers and employees (regardless of their personal decisions) (Juras 2003, p. 3). Interestingly, the move by the company’s project team to educate the plant manager was criticized by the company’s manager as ineffective because of the assertion that:

“When we went to the plants to do training, it was like a whirlwind tour; we just showed them some charts and said, now sit down and we are going to ask you some questions… I don’t think we put ourselves in our internal customers’ shoes. We paid very little attention to their constructive concerns or their need to truly understand ABC”.

Conclusion This study points out the challenges and successes of implementing ABC by two companies operating in emerging markets. Comprehensively, we see that firms in emerging markets have a significant problem in accepting ABC because it is not a previously implemented model.

Having a steering committee and seeking the services of an external agency (with a significant experience in ABC implementation) is a good strategy to making existing managerial teams accept changes. We have also seen that there is a significant challenge experienced by the companies in augmenting ABC with previously existing computer applications, and comprehensively, we see that seeking technical expertise in doing so is a good move towards ensuring there is a smooth transition into ABC, without causing any operational hitches.

Also, we see that having clearly set goals is an important tool to steer the implementation of the ABC model in the right direction. This observation is critical, in the sense that, many organizations have been identified to abandon ABC implementation because they do not have a clear understanding of the importance of implementing the ABC model in the first place.

In a general sense, we can see that adopting a top-bottom implementation strategy is also important in ensuring the ABC mode is implemented effectively. Burke (2006) affirms this fact and implies that the top-bottom implementation strategy is important because the decision to implement an ABC model is normally undertaken at the company’s headquarters and many organizations expect managers to ensure employee buy-in, to make the transition a success.

Conclusively, we can say that organizations operating in emerging markets experience challenges of transitioning from old accounting models to ABC and therefore, tactical strategies need to be adopted to ensure there is a smooth transition from old accounting models into new models.

References Armstrong, M. (2006) A Handbook Of Management Techniques: A Comprehensive Guide To Achieving Managerial Excellence And Improved Decision Making. London, Kogan Page Publishers.

Baker, J. (1998) Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Management for Health Care. London, Jones

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Polygamy in Canada Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Conclusion

Annotated bibliography

Works Cited

Introduction Polygamy is a form of marriage whereby more than two parties are involved. Polygamy occurs in three forms. When a man marries more than one wife simultaneously, this is referred to as polygyny. If a woman is married to more than one man, this is polyandry. In other cases, a family may consist of multiple husbands and wives. This is termed as group marriage. The three forms of polygamy have been found in many communities but the most common form is polygyny.

Polygyny is allowed in many societies where it is termed as a normal activity. In many traditional societies, polygamy was highly valued because increase in the number of wives led to large numbers of children. Having many children was a mark of prestige in many societies and people with large families were regarded as a rich. However polygamy has negative effects on the society. Polygyny affects the economy of the society as well as the socialization process (Geldart 104).

In Canada, polygamy has been banned by the law. The laws of the country prohibit the practice of having more than one spouse. People who go against the law are imprisoned for five years according to the constitution of the country.

The country has not been in a position to successfully prosecute the practice of polygamy for a long period of time. In addition to this, the country has not kept records about the number of people who engage in the practice. The practice was common among the founding members of the Mormons, the church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints.

The first Mormons to visit Canada came from the United States in the year 1988. Followers of this faith allowed the devoted male members to marry more than one wives. The laws against polygamy in Canada came as a result of this and the government wanted the practice to come to an end. During this period, the prime minister in Canada was John A. MacDonald. During his reign, many religious groups were traveling to the country since accessibility was enhanced by the Pacific rail road which had been constructed in Canada.

The Prime minister had instructed Charles Card, the head of the first Mormons colony not to allow polygamists in to the country. Canada passed laws against polygamy and these laws were especially aimed at the Mormons who occupied the Prairies because they practiced polygamy. Even though the criminal code targeted the Mormon group, it is now applicable to all groups who get engage in conjugal unions involving more than one spouse at then same time (Hamilton 50).

The law Canada’s Law against polygamy should be upheld so that the society is not affected. This is because polygamy has many negative impacts on the society. If Canada’s law is overturned it means that polygamy will be allowed. People will be allowed to get more than one spouses at then same time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overturning of the Canada’s law will affect the life of children and women in their economic and cultural ways. Effects of polygamy can lead to family breakages in severe cases. If polygamy is allowed in Canada, the life of children is greatly impacted. For Instance, most of the polygamy, marriages are arranged whereby a suitable husband for a girl is gotten by the parents. The two are then allowed to marry.

The rights of the girl are violated because she is not given the time to make her own choice. In many cases these marriages are forced. The girl may be forced to marry somebody who is not her own choice. Young girls are also forced to marry people who are not of their own age. In most traditional societies, young girls used to be married to old men almost the age of their parents. If Polygamy is allowed, the same will happen to young girls in Canada (Hamilton 50).

As a result of polygamy children become aware of sexual matters at an early age. In many polygamous communities children get married as early as fifteen years. These children are then exposed to sexual matters at this early age. They may not be fully developed sexually and this can lead to further complications like difficulties in child bearing later in their lives. Moreover, polygamy leads to school dropouts among many young children in schools.

Children are forced to stop their education so that they can marry. Education is very important because children get the knowledge needed in their lives and at the same time, they can get themselves employment. Many children and especially the girl child end up becoming house wives because of lack of education.

In many communities practicing polygamy, the boy child is valued as far as education is concerned because of the assumption that men are supposed to provide for the needs of the family. This leads to neglection of the girl child. In a polygamous family, where there are many wives and one husband, there are, many children because each wife is reproducing. Parental love is very important in the process of child development. Each child is supposed to get full parental love and attention from both parents.

The large number of children in a polygamous family makes it difficult for the father to attend to all children. The father is likely to visit some families much more regularly then other families bearing in mind that each of his wives has her family. This is where the issue of nepotism comes in because some children will be attended better than others (Hardy 179).

Polygamy contributes a lot to the spread of diseases and especially HIV and Aids and other sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea. These diseases are prevented through being faithful in a marriage or relation ship. Having one sexual partner is the recommended way of preventing sexually transmitted diseases. It is therefore difficult to prevent the spread of these diseases among children who enter in to polygamous marriages because it involves many partners who may not be faithful to each other.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Polygamy in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The mortality rate among the youth will go up in Canada if they allow polygamy because once one is infected with the HIV whose cure has not been invented, then the person finally dies. The death of young children is a disadvantage to the nation because the youth are the future of the nation. The young people are expected to be the leaders of tomorrow which makes it a loss to the government if they die at large numbers. Polygamy contributes to the spread of diseases which in turn leads to death of the youth (Hardy 179).

Women face hardship in polygamous marriages. This is because in polygamous communities, men believe that they have full control and authority over their wives and children. Children and women do not have a say in the major decisions of the family. Women and children are supposed to sit, listen and do as per the decision s of men.

The role of women in these societies is not valued. In many of polygamous societies, women are in the control of the domestic sphere. These societies are male dominated. Good employment opportunities are preserved for men.

Women are given minor jobs and the wages are still low. Women are therefore discriminated in many areas as a result of a male dominated society. Jealousy is unavoidable in polygamous families .Enemity comes in as a result of gossip within the members of the family. Members of the family disagree with each other as a result of gossip which can result to fights and in severe cases death can occur (Zeitzen 91).

Polygamy contributes to poverty. This is because there resources are limited. Increase in the number of children implies that more land is needed for the children to sustain themselves. In agricultural societies, land is needed to plant crops and rear animals which provide milk and meat.

In pastoral communities, land is also needed to graze their animals because they move from one place to another in search of water and pasture for their animals. If a family has a small piece of land which can not sustain the people fully, then it means that these people will be poverty stricken. In addition, lack of enough resources prevents children and getting education.

The head of the family is not able to cater for the education expenses of all the children. Bearing in mind that education is the key to good jobs, such people will end being poverty stricken. Lack of employment encourages crimes in the society (Cairncross 45) .Due to idleness and lack of money; many young people end up in bad habits like stealing as they struggle to get something for their survival.

Polygamous families face difficulties during inheritance after the death of the husband. If the husband does not leave the will of who should inherit what after the death, it becomes a problem after death. The husband may also fail to recognize some of his wives as legal wives which imply that they will not inherit anything. The properties may not be enough to all the family members (Brigham Young Card 117).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Polygamy in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, the law against polygamy should not be overturned because advantages of polygamy are minimal compared to the disadvantages. Generally polygamy has negative impacts which affect the functioning of the family as a whole. Canada as well as other countries should encourage monogamy because of the advantages it has over the disadvantages.

Some of the advantages include full parental love for the children, reduced rate in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases because there hare more chances of being faithful to your partier in a monogamous family. There are no problems as fire as inheritance is concerned because of lack of competition of the women. In monogamous families the re sources are shared amongst few children and this makes it possible for children to get their necessities like education (Geldart 104; May 34).

Annotated bibliography Geldart, Anne. Islam. Vancouver: Heinemann, 1999.

The book highlights the disadvantages of having a .monogamous marriage. Some of the disadvantages include spread of sexually transmitted diseases, school dropouts and early marriages. The book stresses the important of having monogamous family.

Hardy, Carmon. Solemn covenant: the Mormon polygamous passage. Canada: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

According to this book, polygamy began with the church of Mormons. This religious group traveled to Canada and they encouraged a man to have more than one spouse. The then prime minister in Canada however did not take the idea lightly. The anti-polygamy law was mainly for the Mormon group.

Works Cited Brigham Young Card. The Mormon presence in Canada. Canada: University of Alberta, 1990.

Cairncross, John. After polygamy was made a sin: the social history of Christian polygamy. New York: Taylor

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How innovation leads to economic development Essay online essay help

Christopher (1982) explains that economic development is the improvement in the infrastructure and better living standards. Every government has the sole objective of improving the level of economic development and improving the livelihood d of its citizens.

Innovation is the modification of an existing idea or the creation of a totally unique idea to help solve ones need. The importance of innovation in any organization is best epitomized by the establishment of a research and development department. Huge sum of money has also been allocated for innovation of new ideas.

To begin with, innovation improves the modes of production. With the improved means of production, organizations get to enhance their efficiency and reduce the wastages in production (Schumpeter, 1934). Due to this there will be a large increase in the output which results to development.

Innovation also creates new employment opportunities in any given country. Employment increase makes the idle resources put into productive utilization and this leads to new output creation. The new production lines leads to the economic growth. Constant economic growth will in the long run lead to the economic development of any economy.

Moreover, innovation results into the designing of better structures that can be employed in the development of new infrastructure. When better designs are developed, new and durable structure get to be built making the economy look more admirable and sustainable. Because of the nature of the infrastructure that is developed, little public resources would be incurred on the maintenance hence reducing the costs. This will thus lead to the economic development.

In addition, innovation has led to the improvement of the standards of living. For instance, the new methods of keeping the environment clean, economizing of the megre resources and those on the preparation of consumable goods have increased the life span of the individuals in an economy. With better health, the labour force of any given economy has been enhanced and output increased making the economy to develop.

The economic development of any given region depends a lot on the political climate that exists. Poor political situations e.g. war has led to the fall of many economies. Through innovation, solutions to the conflicts arising between individuals and economies have been enhanced. This has led to the tranquil coexistence which has thus led to the economic development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another pillar for economic development of any economy is trade. Trade ensures that the economies can acquire goods or services that it can’t produce for itself. If the terms of trade are archaic not much will be realized and therefore the economic development will retard. As a result of innovation, better terms of trade have been developed which reduces the cost of transactions and hence lead to economic development.

Innovation in the technological sector impacts positively on the production of better machinery. Better machinery will result into the economies of scale production which reduces the production cost. Again technological innovation has enhanced services provision which has increased revenues to the economies.

Finally, innovation in the agricultural sectors has enabled the production of agricultural commodities even in adverse weather conditions. This has boosted the food security of the economies leading to the economic development. In conclusion, innovation becomes a major factor in the development of any economy. Individuals and governments must thus aim at coming up and investing in innovation.

References Freeman, Christopher (1982).The Economics of Industrial Innovation. London: Frances Pinter.

Schumpeter, Joseph (1934).The Theory of Economic Development. Boston: Harvard University Press.

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Critical Review of Chapter 1 and 2 of the book Globalization: A Very Short Introduction, by Manfred B. Steger Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents The Problem

Dimension of the problem

Evaluating evidence

Type of evidence

Data representation

Data interpolation

Conclusion

References

The Problem The world is undergoing massive globalisation that has been favoured by scientific inventions and inventions of efficient communication and transport networks. One of the strongest pillars of globalisation is international trade and international collaboration in making global decisions on various issues like the environment, governance and human rights. Globalisation can be categorised into economic and political globalisation; this paper discusses the differences between economic and political globalisation.

Dimension of the problem Different countries have different resources; they thus can produce some item more cheaply than their counterpart’s countries; trade among countries is facilitated by the differences in resource distribution making a certain region have the advantage of producing some commodities than other.

The advantaged country then decides to export those products that it can produce cheaply and efficiently and import those that it cannot. To have such an operation mechanism, governments of the trading countries must be involved to have policies and control mechanisms, the issue of political globalisations then comes into the picture.

Evaluating evidence Economic globalization is the term used to refer to interdependence of different countries through their trading: world countries have different potentials so when some commodities have been produced in one country (the country with comparative or absolute advantage), then they get access to international markets facilitating trade.

The uneven distribution of natural and human resources is the major source of forces of trade, some countries can produce a certain commodity that is required in another country and export the commodity: in return the exporting country get what it cannot produce effectively.

International trade supports economic globalisation and regional or international agreements to perform certain duties in a way prescribed by the abiding parties. International trade is controlled by international trade policies or through regional government policies; it generally involves the importation and exportation of goods and services. with economic globalisation, people are able to produce more commodities since there is ready market for their produce.

It can be in the form of an F.T.A. (Free Trade Agreement), whereby there is no restrictions to trade or W.T.O. (World Trade Organization) where trade is regulated by an internationally body. The main agenda by international trade regulating bodies is to ensure that there is fair trade among countries and where possible to have free trade among them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economic globalisation has resulted to a number of benefits to the countries engaging in the trade, they are able to maximize their available resources since there is ready market; when there is a competitive market, people tend to look for better ways of utilizing the available resources thus they utilize the resource better. Population of a country stands to benefit since when there is trade, they can get the much needed commodities for their consumption; this increases the solvenity of consumers.

The major short coming of economic integration is that come countries will be left as net importers thus their economic growth will be hampered. International trade operated under the rule of comparative and absolute trade, some countries may not have this advantage and if it is there, then they lack the expertise to exploit them. Such countries economic situation deteriorates as more trade continues (Schulte, 2000).

Political globalisation involves itself with the integration of governing policies and ensuring that some legislation that cut across the board for member countries. The model of globalisation takes the form of regional nations or they may involve international nations. From a political point of view, globalisation is seen as an understanding among countries for their own benefit or for the benefit of the world in general. There are some incidences of political globalisation and integration.

For, instance the role played by the European Union (EU), can be interpolated t have elements of political globalisation, this is so because the integration of the nation members makes it that when one country is making a decision, it has to interpolate and consider the implication that the decision it will make will have on other countries. it will aim to make that decision that will be considered ethical.

An ethical decision is the decision that will cause no harm to the majority of the people. International agreements are other forms of political globalisation; countries are held accountable for such legislations for example the Kyoto protocol was supposed to instil discipline in member countries so that they will not pollute the environment.

Type of evidence The writer analysis the trend in the world, and how relations among countries are developing, he does not stay blind to emerging needs among societies and countries that governments and international bodies are looking and concerned. It thus has a historical, statistical and abstract touch.

Data representation The writer presented the two topics in a straightforward manner; in either the topics, he started by expounding and explaining what the terms given are meant to imply then develops the chapter in a manner that connects the current position in the world with the topics under discussion.

We will write a custom Essay on Critical Review of Chapter 1 and 2 of the book Globalization: A Very Short Introduction, by Manfred B. Steger specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Data interpolation The data can be interpolated in different ways since human beings understands things from different angles, however what is coming out is a clear difference between economic and political globalisation (Manfred, 2003).

Conclusion International trade and scientific innovation are strong pillars of globalisation: economic globalisation is concerned about trade among countries while political globalisation is about binding policies to control trade and movement of factors of production across borders.

References Manfred, B.(2003).Globalization: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schulte, J. A. (2000). Globalization: a critical introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Was it Necessary for the US to Drop the Atomic Bomb? Essay scholarship essay help

When it comes to discussing whether it was necessary to drop atomic bombs on Japan’s cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945, it is important to take into account the specifics of geopolitical situation in the world, at the time.

Nowadays, not many people aware of the fact that, prior to Germany’s attack on Soviet Union in 1941, the only purpose for Soviet state’s existence has been officially proclaimed spreading Communism all over the Earth. Right until USSR’s collapse in 1991, Soviet Constitution openly stated that it only the matter of time, before the rest of world’s countries would become Soviet republics.

Therefore, Truman’s decision to subject Japan to atomic bombing was not as much motivated by considerations of military necessity as it was motivated by President’s determination not to allow Soviet Union to qualify for having an occupation zone in this country, after the end of war.

According to Alperovitz (1996), throughout the summer of 1945, George Marshall never ceased stressing out namely the importance of intended bombing’s political implications: “[Marshall’s] insistence to me that whether we should drop an atomic bomb on Japan was a matter for the President to decide, not the Chief of Staff since it was not a military question…” (364).

Nevertheless, it would be wrong to suggest that there were no purely military considerations behind President’s final decision to proceed with subjecting Japan to an atomic bombing.

As the battles of Guadalcanal and Ivo Jima had shown, Japanese would very unlikely lay down their arms, even while facing the most impossible odds, associated with application of conventional warfare techniques. Therefore, occupying mainland Japan, in the manner that it was being done to Guadalcanal and Ivo Jima, would cost America dearly.

This became particularly clear to America’s officials, after they heard of Japan’s reaction to Potsdam proclamation: “Japan’s first reaction to the Potsdam Proclamation came from the Domei News Agency… ‘Japan will prosecute the war of Greater East Asia to the bitter end” (Hasegawa, 168).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, at the time when Truman was making decision on whether to drop an atomic bomb on Japan, he was prompted to give the bombing go-ahead by consideration of preventing the spread of Communism into South Asia and by consideration of saving the lives of as many American soldiers as possible.

In the end, these considerations outweighed the consideration of sparing the lives of Japanese civilians, especially given the fact that, during the course of war in Pacific, Japanese had proven themselves as people who did not regard their personal lives as representing a particularly high value.

Therefore, given the qualitative essence of geopolitical realities at the time, Truman’s decision to proceed with the atomic bombing of Japan appears fully justified. If it was not up to this bombing, the war against Japan would have lasted for at least another year.

Soviet Union would have obtained a justification to partake in occupation of Japan, which would eventually lead to creation of ‘People’s Republic of Japan’ on Japanese territories, occupied by Soviets – just as it happened to Eastern European countries, in the aftermath of Germany’s capitulation. Moreover, many more Americans would have to die to bring about the victory over Japan.

It does not represent much of a challenge to criticize America’s atomic bombing of Japan because of its ‘barbarianism’. Yet, the fact that WW2 is being associated with high rate of casualties among civilians has very little to do with ‘bloodthirstiness’ of politicians and generals that played active part in it.

The explanation to this is rather banal – throughout the course of 19th and the first half of 20th century, Earth’s population tripled. And, the more people are being born, the more people will consequentially die – especially during the time of ‘total war’. Thus, let us conclude this paper by restating once again that America’s atomic bombing of Japan was indeed necessary.

References Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.

We will write a custom Essay on Was it Necessary for the US to Drop the Atomic Bomb? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chappell, John. Before the bomb: How America approached the end of the Pacific War. Louisville: The University Press of Kentucky, 1997.

Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi. Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan. Harvard: Belknap Press, 2005.

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Benefits of uterine family Essay online essay help

The kinship system practiced in China is categorized as a Sudanese kinship system (also known as descriptive system) applied in defining families. This kind of kinship system is the most complex kinship system as there is a clear distinct title for each member of the kin depending on gender, age, generation and lineage.

According to the Chinese culture, both the male and female family members have clear distinguished roles. They tend to give priority to male members as they enjoy the position of prestige and power while the women’s positions seems much bleaker and she may only have a position in the society if she is able to bare a male child (Wolf 1994, 227).

Margery Wolf in her study found out in every about 93 women, only 4% to 5% of them would prefer staying with their daughters but only if they failed to produce male children as staying with your daughter meant loosing the ‘face’ in the society which had the perception that depending on a daughter was a shameful practice.

According to Wolf (1994, 226), “in the Chinese kinship system a woman’s real family includes her uterine family that includes the woman’s mother and her mother’s children.”

Wolf in her book tries to explain the benefits of having uterine families in Chinese kinship system stating that both the uterine family of a woman’s maternal parent and her individual uterine relations is created through delivery of children becomes crucial factors that contribute to a woman’s’ contentment in her life. Chinese culture is a male dominated kin of culture hence women have no definitive positions in the family.

Facts show that the female children in China were being deserted by their parents while others were being sold off due to the customary norms of the Chinese people who favored baby boys as opposed to girls and in addition they had been constrained to have small sized families by the government in an attempt to reduce the fast growing population.

This attempt of controlling the population had negative effects to many thousands of female babies being born. Information shows that female children were being carried away from their biological families by the city administrators at a cost of about $3,200 as their adoption charge which has motivated many city administrators who carry out the adoption processes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author continues to explain that the uterine family system was not an official name in the Chinese patriarchal family but tries to explain the benefits of having the women bond with their children because through the bond formed with their children, they were able to achieve their various material and cultural goals. The configuration set by this unnamed activity created a platform for Wolf to argue that uterine family was part of the kinship system in China.

A woman is termed as a temporary member of the family and is not considered to hold any position in her father’s family. As soon as she is married, the ties between her and her father’s family are termed as severed (Michelle 1974, 33). The father of the girl does not appreciate her daughter’s presence because she cannot continue with his line of descent, unlike the men, the women do not have a continuous linage descent because the uterine family dies along with the women and it keeps on changing with time (Wolf 230).

A woman’s descent is regarded to change over time when she gets married as whom she regards as her family changes as her own children grow up and as her mother in law continues to marry more wives thus as she grows older, the woman is said to have some status especially if she bares male children.

These shows that women in the Chinese society were subordinated by the patriarchal authority, women accepted the male terms of them being economically useless, ritually insignificant and of less importance to the society. But Wolf (253) emphasizes on the importance of the uterine family as she characterizes women’s lives in the family.

Her works simply try to focus on how women were able to come up with strategies that would help them empower themselves even though they faced perceive poverty and entrenched masculine authority noting the fact that they are the same women who undermined their own contribution to the society because of the societies belief as well as being devalued by others.

Since women have very little if any influence over their husbands, especially because she is a mothers’ in law son, the women experience a rocky relationship between her and the husband’s family.

For this reason, the creation of a uterine family could be the best option for a woman to manipulate her presence and position in the family. It might be the only way a woman would earn her happiness. “The uterine family is the first place she is known to acquire permanent loyalties and have obligations which in turn give her a meaning for living” (Wolf 154).

We will write a custom Essay on Benefits of uterine family specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, these women had heir own reasons as to why they become so attached to their uterine families that consisted of their children and more so, the sons. The ethnic groups in China show that sons were regarded as very important in terms of acquisition of status by the women and by having some influence over their sons, the women would find a way of increasing their bargaining position within the patrilineal household.

The Chinese culture values the family ‘face’ and everyone in the family as being obliged to ensure that the families reputation is always kept clean and of high standards. In a situation where a woman is subjected to mistreatment, she would complain and use her ties with other women as she had no other way of ensuring an effective change.

At least by complaining, word will spread quickly outside her home and this gossip of mistreatment will lessen the condition because the family does not want to loose ‘face’ out of shameful acts like mistreating a woman. Sometimes the women end up complaining amongst themselves or not complain at all because of the fear of ruining the families ‘face’ or bringing shame to the family. But when it comes to matters that are thought to embarrass a family, the women are known to take cautious measures.

According to Wolf she describes a successful woman as one who is able to depend on herself individually but she still is able to appear as if she gets support from her father and husband or son stating that a woman’s influence over her family will never be stable (Robert et al. 2004, 76).

Uterine family is significant for both genders in the society. Women benefit from it because it forms a support system for them while the men benefit from it from the fact that the uterine family forms the backdrop against which their patrilineage is recognized and raised.

Although this is the case, Wolf noticed that there was some elementary counterforce to the patriarchal domination in that mothers who depended on their sons and were aware of the strong bonds between them and their sons would use these bonds as a weapon against their husbands because the father is viewed as a friend according to the Chinese culture.

The Chinese culture suppresses the women, although the Chinese government is trying to ensure that the population of the country drops by introducing the one child family policy, this policy is believed to affect and cause negative effects upon these women whereby, a woman who is seen as not to have an authentic family until the time she delivers children hence she will always have an urge in getting off springs because she finds the essence of living once she has children.

Most of the women feel obligated to have male children during birth so that one can have status in the society while they despise the girl child because of traditions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Benefits of uterine family by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Michelle, Z. et al., 1974. Woman, culture, and society Anthropology: Women’s studies. California, CA: Stanford University Press.

Robert, P. et al., 2004. Kinship and family: an anthropological reader Blackwell anthologies in social and cultural anthropology. San Francisco, CA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Wolf, M. et al., 1994. Women and the Family in Rural Taiwan: Excerpts. Comparative Sociology of the Family. Helga Jacobson. Burnaby, BC: Open Learning Agency.

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The Bipolar Disorder and Its Management Exploratory Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Signs and symptoms

Causes of the Disorder

Diagnosis and Treatment

Conclusion

References

Introduction Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterized by intermittent moods and fitful energy levels thus affecting the ability of the patient to function normally. The disorder affects the neurons in the brain, hence causing uncoordinated functions of the brain. The functions of the brain rely upon the intermittent moods of depression and mania that characterize the disorder.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) observes that, “manic-depression distorts moods and thoughts, incites dreadful behaviors, destroys the basis of rational thought, and too often erodes the desire and will to live … brings in its wake almost unendurable suffering and, not infrequently, suicide” (2002).

The disorder mostly affects adults although some cases in children occur due to the inheritable nature of the disorder. Prevalence studies by the American Psychiatric Association shows that, approximately 1.5% of the American adults suffer from bipolar disorder. Given the fact that the disorder is long-term, proper handling mechanisms is paramount to both the patients and health professionals. This essay explores the nature of the bipolar disorder and its management.

Signs and symptoms The bipolar disorder causes periodic episodes of depression and mania in patients. The intermittent depressive and manic episodes affect the physical and psychological functions of the patients causing them to have abnormal behaviors. During the depressive episode, the patient experiences low moods and loss of interests in the daily activities.

The signs and symptoms of depressive episode include anxiety, feeling of helplessness, loss of pleasure in activities, fatigue, petulance, sleep disturbance, suicidal feelings, and chronic pain amongst other clinical symptoms. “In severe cases, the individual may become psychotic, a condition also known as severe bipolar depression with psychotic features such as delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant” (Grier,

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Why are political parties so strong in the United Kingdom yet so weak in the United States? Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction The United States and United Kingdom are the largest democracies in the world hence they have variant political parties. A political party in any governing system is defined as an organization of people with similar political aims and opinions who seek to attain political influence in public policies through their representative being elected to the governing body (Medvic, 2009, p.120).

Political parties are either funded by the government or individual party members depending on a country’s regulations. Irrespective of the fact that both United States and Great Britain have two dominant political parties, two legislative houses and a single executive, the political parties in both nations differ in their strength. The strength of political parties is determined by the amount of influence a party has on its members and the cohesion in the party.

The political parties in the United States are much weaker than in the United Kingdom. In the US, politics are dominated by two major parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.

Additionally, there are other smaller and weaker parties in the political scene. In the democracy of United Kingdom, there are three dominat political parties namely the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Democrat Party currently led by Nick Clegg. However, there are other smaller political parties namely Independence Party and the Green Party.

The roles of political parties include voicing the needs and concerns of their members and supporters, recruiting and training candidates for public office and socializing the citizens. This paper defines the significant difference in the strength of political parties in the United States and the United Kingdom. Moreover, it explores the factors that make political parties to be strong or weak in these countries.

Political parties in the United States Political parties in the United States were not endorsed in the founding constitutions, since the intention of the Constitution and its founders was to have a triple balanced system of executive, judicial, and congressional powers.

Factors that contributed to the establishment of the two-party system in the United States as the key type of system include historical foundations of the system, political socialization and practical considerations, the electoral system and the federal laws.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, there are no major requirements obligatory from the public in order to become a member of any political party (Schmidt, Shelley, Bardes, 2010, p.154). Scholars have noted that there is a decline in the strength of political parties compared with the past.

Two party system in the United States The two-party system has dominated the United States political scene for a very long time. This could be one of the contributors to the weakening of smaller political parties in the country. People who wish to serve as president, congressional representative, state governor or state legislators have to use the two main parties, Democratic Party and the Republican Party, to increase their chances of wining.

Electoral system The method of electing national and legislative representative promotes the dominance of two-party system. The structure of political parties in the United Kingdom is defined by the individual ideologies supported by each party, which their members endeavor to legislate; however, their counterparts in American lack ideologically cohesive and programmatic.

The available resources for these dominant parties allow them to retain their dominance. Similarly, single member system operating in a small constituency can weaken the general party by creating smaller local independent entities (Duverger, 1963, p.45).

The involvement of political parties’ leaders in the selection of candidates of their political parties is very low in the United States. On the other hand the leaders of political parties in the UK have the role of choosing which candidates should represent their parties. Moreover, the United States political parties are not involved in campaigning for their chosen candidates therefore resulting to less influence on the candidates.

The United Kingdom utilizes a system of proportional representation, where officials are elected, on the bases of the number of votes their parties receive in an election, which promotes strength of parties. In the United States, the election system is focused on the candidates compared to the United Kingdom model where election is party focused (Safran, 2003, p.34). Therefore, parties in the US are not perceived to be as important as individual candidates.

In party centered system, political parties are in charge of all resources while in candidate-centered system, the parties provide just a few resources to the candidates. Moreover, in the US, parties do not have the mandate of choosing the candidates to run under the party, rather, it is done by voters in preliminary voting.

We will write a custom Essay on Why are political parties so strong in the United Kingdom yet so weak in the United States? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, the influence of parties is limited hence leading to their weakening. In contrast, the United Kingdom political parties determine the candidates to run under their parties based on their set regulation. Since the political parties in the US contribute minimal resources to the campaigning of their candidates, the party has less or minimal influence and cannot sanction the candidate if he wins (Safran, 2003, p.34).

However, the political parties in the United Kingdom have much influence on their candidates and they can sanction them since they contribute most of the resources that the candidates require. The electoral system, through preliminary election of party leaders, favors the linking candidates with their local supporters rather than creating a bond between the candidates and the party (Safran, 2003, p.34).

Fundamentally, the electoral system is also weakening the ideologies of the political parties. Generally, direct primaries of selecting candidates have weakened political leaders as it takes away the rights and influence of the party. In the United Kingdom the parties have the obligation of selecting candidates that they wish to field for an election without external influence. Moreover, the party oversees the campaign of its candidates and in return, the party has ultimate control and influence.

Campaigning The candidate-centered approach in the US reinforces campaign-financing laws. The inclination of candidates funding most of the campaign is done at the expense of the party’s influence, as is the case in America.

On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, parties retain their influence since they fund the campaigns of their candidates. The use of political consultants by political candidates has contribution to the decline of roles of political parties in America where the candidates are more inclined to listening to their consultants than the position of their party.

However, consultants weaken the political parties through creating campaign atmosphere where they project individual candidates to the public at the expense of the party. Nevertheless, the public are more informed on candidates’ traits rather than the policies of the candidates’ parties (Best

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Wisconsin’s Labor Unions Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Labor Theory of Value

Sociological Concepts

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Many state employees including teachers and government employees are protesting against a proposed legislation that seeks to curtail the collective bargaining rights of workers unions. They are also opposed to a move spearheaded by the Republican Governor, Scott Walker of raising employee’s contribution towards the pension scheme from 0.2 percent to 6 percent and increasing the health insurance contribution from 6% to 12%.

Proponents of the proposed legislation, including Walker, support it as the best effort to solve the current economic crisis and avoid layoffs of public employees. The bill has the support of Republican lawmakers who have the numbers in both the state Assembly and the Senate to pass it. Once passed, the legislation will demand that the unions’ employees pay will be line with the guidelines of Consumer Price Index.

The efforts of the protesters to stop the legislation from becoming law through labor unions represent a clear example of Marxist theory. The protesters want to avoid exploitation by protecting their collective bargaining rights. The Marxist concept of surplus value outlines how a capitalist economy exploits state employees. According to this theory, state employees can avoid exploitation through forming workers union that gives them effective bargaining rights since labor is the generator of value.

Labor Theory of Value Karl Marx formulated the concept of surplus value to refer to the unpaid surplus labor claimed by enterprises as gross profit (Hollander 78). Marxist idea implies that capitalist states exploit state employees. He argues that the commodity value is derived from the labor value.

The surplus labor reinvestment generates more wealth resulting to huge gross profits and thus, Marx concludes, capitalist states engage in business for profits. Marx argues that the accumulation of wealth in the 19th century by capitalist economies was because of competitive efforts to get the highest surplus value from the labor. This implies that capitalists were exploiting the workers on a massive scale leading to large-scale amassment of wealth by these states.

Marxism holds that every person is justified in maintaining the fruits of his/her labor. However, he argues that the worker receives only the portion of labor that is basic for life while the remainder i.e. the surplus produce constitutes the profits accrued by capitalist enterprises. Marxist’s idea of surplus value led to the labor union programs to protect the rights of the workers from the perceived exploitation by capitalist states.

Sociological Concepts Various social concepts explain the form of modern social and economic organizations in the world (Dillon 45). Disenchantment capitalism involves private ownerships of the markets, allocation of the resources and distribution of goods. The concept arose during the industrial revolution of the 16th century and enabled countries to exploit new colonies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new system led to an increase in the level of trade both domestic and multilateral trade between a state and its colonies. This amounted to exploitation of the colonies and the accumulation of wealth by the rich countries. The non-rewarding labor in the colonies necessitated uprisings against foreign governance.

The sociological concept underscores the need of people coming together to push for common goals. For instance, workers working in a given organization might team to push for better payment. Better payment here plays as the denominator of these workers staying together for they pursue similar goals and objectives.

Workers of an organization bond together through workers union so that they are enough force to make demands pertaining to their work conditions. In mechanical solidarity, the people feel connected based on mutual interests for a certain course. The mass protest of workers in Wisconsin shows that they are united by a common goal. The workers unions act as an umbrella body, which unites these workers and provides bargaining rights for them.

Sociability involves the social interactions for different purposes not on personal purposes. People enter into any form of sociability with personal capacities, attractions, and interests with an objective purpose in mind (Dillon 47).The workers get into unions for personal and subjective gains. In sociability, the members are equal and are therefore democratic in nature.

Sociability influences major decisions in the lives of the people. The sociological concept of world life focuses on a situation in which the world is experienced or lived. World life sociological concept provides the background environment that is responsible for an individual’s practices and attitudes.

Wisconsin has had a history of passing regulations that promote the rights of workers like the collective bargaining legislation passed in 1959 that gave rise to a union that covers public employees. Therefore, the proposal to limit the effectiveness of the workers union faces opposition through mass protests.

Conclusion The workers union offers an opportunity for the workers to have bargaining rights with the state. Marx’s theory of surplus labor led to the rise of workers union. However, unions based on various sociological concepts that shape their response towards any measures that will eliminate these unions unite people as seen by the protests in Wisconsin over the proposal to limit the role of workers unions.

We will write a custom Essay on Wisconsin’s Labor Unions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Dillon, Michele. Introduction to Sociological Theory: Theorists, Concepts, and their Applicability to the Twenty-First Century. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2009.

Hollander, Paul. The many Faces of Socialism: Comparative Sociology and Politics. California: ICON group International, 2009.

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The Nature and Course of the African American Experience Between 1850 and 1915 was a Historical Change Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The period of 1850 to 1915 offered great historical experience to the African American in the United States. It was characterized by historic events that served to change the course of the African American from that of being dominated upon in economic, social, and cultural affairs to that of emancipation in these areas. This essay explains why the experience is best described as a historical change rather than an historical continuity.

During the period under examination, the African American culture changed significantly. Families did not take meals times as family time and have conversations on the table during meal times. It was very odd to find a whole family in a house having meal at the same time (Washington p.114).

Another notable change was in churches, where the emancipation of the African Americans from slavery resulted in a movement of churches that were mostly Baptist (Johnson p.135) that developed a district characteristic in worship that previously was only noticed in songs sung from generation to generations in their houses.

New freedoms allowed the African American to incorporate his tradition in their church and this attracted various people into the church ministry such that there was a notable increase in formation of new churches during this period (Du Bois p.121-123).

African Americans during this period started gathering in public, especially on Sundays when there were no work in the field. Washington writes that women spent their leisure Sunday afternoons in the towns, with the excuse of going shopping (p.115). African Americans could now be able to participate and get involved with other Americans as equals even though they still faced some prejudice (Johnson p.13).

They attended schools together with other Americans and participated in sports and other activities up to a national level. Another first for African Americans was that they now could interact with other Americans based on what they were and not what the color of their skin was. This was also characterized by newer choices of careers that previously were not known to be adopted by African Americans especially in art (Johnson p.59

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Third World Countries and the Barriers Stopping them to Escape Poverty Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Poor Governance

Wars and Negative Ethnicity

Corruption

Illiteracy

Diseases

External Interferences

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The phrase Third World was initially used in the Cold War period to represent those countries that were neither on the West – NATO nations referred to as the first world countries, nor on the East-Communist bloc referred to as second world countries (World Book Inc. 2000, 212).

The term in the contemporary world is now mainly to represent countries that are economically superior and underdeveloped. These countries are mainly in the African continent, Middle East Arab world, Latin America and those in the Oceania regions.

All of these countries have more or less the same characteristics. These include extreme poverty, high birthrates, high illiteracy levels, and economic inclination and dependency on the advanced countries. Poverty has been the main menace facing third world countries. These countries have been unable to escape poverty and in fact are getting poorer by the day the main causes being poor governance, corruption, wars, poor policies, illiteracy, diseases, brain drain among others.

Poor Governance The system of government is the key to development. Government organs are in charge of many crucial key sectors of the human life. Governance directly affects social and economic sectors. Almost all over the world, it is the work of the government to provide security, health care, business permits and licensing, education, infrastructure and other crucial services.

The services under the government dossier are so important that the system of government can make or break a nation (Mittal 1995, 68). In Third World Countries, most of the systems of government are not properly functioning. Most of the Third World Governments have aspects of dictatorship.

Those, which have been democratically elected to office, refuse to leave office and abuse their powers immensely. They are like gods and idols as their decisions do not entertain any for of contradiction or challenging and those that dare are either detained or assassinated.

This is evident in many countries like Zimbabwe where the president has ruled since independence. He has been oppressing the opposition, detaining and publicly battering the leader of the opposition. In Libya, it is the same case as the president there; Muammar Gadhafi took power through a military coup and has since ruled for forty-two years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Neither, elections are held in Libya, nor any political tolerance. In Egypt, the former president Hosni Mubarak had ruled for thirty years and only left office after a revolution by the masses. In the Far East like Myanmar, military coups have been the order of the day; those that oppose the government of the day being detained without trial. In Latin America like Venezuela, the leaders are dictatorial and oppress the freedom of expression.

It is also in these Third World Countries that political monarchs still exist. There are no democratic elections rather succession of families rule for generations. The leaders in power are thus not qualified to lead nor competent and accountable. All of the politically active monarchs are in the third world countries like Swaziland, Morocco, Jordan, Oman, Brunei, Tonga and Kuwait. Some of these countries like Swaziland are the poorest in the world while the others have the highest political dissatisfaction.

In fact, most of the monarchs in the Arab world are experiencing political rebellion and mass demonstrations. This diverts attention from economic development and the many riots lead to destruction of property and scare away investors. Most of the monarchs are conservative and never embrace the change in technology, thereby making their nations lag behind in terms of development.

The dictatorial and monarchical systems in third world countries have no interest in poverty eradication or economic developments. They only care about themselves. They illegally enrich themselves through corruption, nepotism, and stealing of national resources. They take resources that meant for economic development and eradication of poverty. In these regions, power is associated with wealth.

The richest people in these regions are in political offices and their wealth not legitimately acquired. In fact, some of richest people in the world are from these third world countries. The royal families of Middle East are, listed as some of the richest people in the world. Many of the leaders are not in the list, as they hide their wealth.

However, estimates are made which put them among the richest, for example the richest man according to Forbes is Carlos Slim of Mexico with an approximate wealth of 54 billion US dollar yet the former Egyptian President’s wealth was projected to be 70 billion US dollars, which if verified would make him the richest person on earth. However, his Egyptian counterparts are very poor and unemployed.

The authenticity of the leadership of third world countries is also much contested. In countries that claim to follow democratic elections, the elections are marred with malpractices and claims of rigging. Many countries have witnessed violence due to claims of rigging; Ivory Coast in Africa has two sworn in presidents because of election rigging. Kenya and Zimbabwe in Africa have power sharing governments because of disputed elections. In Iran and Pakistan, the elections have as well attracted contest resulting in demonstration.

We will write a custom Essay on Third World Countries and the Barriers Stopping them to Escape Poverty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Poor governance have hindered development projects as the leaders in power are not there on merit thus unfit to rule (Dutt 1979, 27). Politicking has thus become the major focus in these countries shifting attention from development. The leaders lack patriotism and only end up plundering the resources of the countries enriching themselves while the majorities are languishing in poverty.

The leaders are not visionary and never embrace development changes like technology as they view this as a challenge to their authority. The poor governance scare away investors especially long term investors. The investors fear that political turmoil might jeopardize their investment. With no investors, there are no job creations or revenues thus unable to free from poverty.

Wars and Negative Ethnicity Wars have also hindered the eradication of poverty in Third World Countries. When there is war no major economic activity can take place, people become displaced as refugees robbing off a country, money in form of taxes, labor and markets. War also creates anarchy and destruction of property. Existing systems that have taken ages to erect and millions of taxpayers’ money destroyed in an instance. Due to political instability and ethnicity, religious conflict and clan battles, wars in third world countries have become common phenomena.

Civil wars in countries like Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire, Somalia, Burma, Uganda, East Timor and Sudan have had a major draw back in the economies of these countries. Instead of children engaging in learning activities, children are becoming child soldiers to kill fellow people.

They are psychologically disoriented and disturbed, and this creates a missing generation even after the war. Family, which is the basic social unit for all human beings, is broken down. People witness their loved ones killed, gang raped, amputated and other cruelties. This creates wounds that are hard to heal and mostly leads to more violence.

War hinder economic development and war in one region can affect the whole region and sometimes the whole world (Deger 1982, 98). This is evident in Somalia, which is located at the horn of Africa. Clan battles have turned the country into a battlefield.

his in turn has created a habitable environment for terrorist groups like Al Shabab, which have links with international terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda. The anarchy in Somalia has also seen the rise of an empire of pirates. Pirates from Somalia have invaded that part of the Indian Ocean, which has one of the busiest routes in world business (Farid 1982, 32).

This in turn has seen capturing of ships by the pirates who in turn demand very high ransom prices. This has made international vessels to avoid this route negatively influencing the poor countries of the region. Ethnicity has also been rampant in third world countries. Tribal animosity led to genocide in Rwanda, Africa in 1994 where almost eight hundred thousand people lost their lives. The effects of the genocide are, still felt up to date.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Third World Countries and the Barriers Stopping them to Escape Poverty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More War and ethnicity have divided the people of the third world countries. Instead of focusing on how to stamp out poverty, they have been focusing on their tribal affiliations and in the process hampering unity. Wars have seen loss of many lives, destruction of infrastructures, towns and nations. This has taken these countries many years back.

Corruption Corruption is perhaps the biggest barrier in combating poverty in these Third World Countries. At least there is a form of corruption in all of them. Corruption practices have been, experienced in all sectors and in all areas. From the low ranked officer, the highest office holder, to the person on the street. This malpractice has siphoned billions of dollars from these economies. Corruption cases have, to some extent involved international companies. They have to bribe the contracting officers for them to be awarded lucrative contracts.

Corruption is so widespread that the people no longer consider it as a vice. Almost all sensitive sectors are corruption riddled. Police officers receive bribes in public. This encourages smuggling, unroadworthy vehicles, and neglecting of security measures. Criminals buy their freedom by bribing the judges and magistrates.

Foreigners are able to acquire passports and stay in various countries illegally by bribing those in authority. Culprits who have money and power walk freely without prosecution. Impunity and disregard to the law becomes a common phenomenon. There are no medicines in hospitals as individuals in charge have already taken them. Many development projects remain unfinished due to embezzlement of funds.

Many university-qualified graduates cannot find jobs as they have been reserved or given to those with money to bribe. The level of production has thus sharply dropped or the production quality is below par for any meaningful development.

Corruption has discouraged hardworking and innovations. This is so as there is the general belief that one would not get value for money on their efforts. This has in turn led many learned, innovative, and qualified people to flee their countries heading to the developed economies for better life. This mass movement has created another problem in form of brain drain.

The best brains migrate to the western world, as these people feel not given equal, promising opportunities neither appreciated by their countries. The brain drain effect has left many Third World Countries without qualified personnel to cater and oversee development projects like in building of roads.

Illiteracy With the modern world moving towards globalization facilitated by the advancement in IT, many people in third world countries remain uneducated and illiterate. Some have never been to school and cannot even write their own names. Illiteracy limits these people to only doing manual, demanding physical work and since man is mortal, this becomes a big challenge. Many cannot use the internet. This was clear in the first FIFA world cup staged in Africa that is South Africa, 2010.

Ticket sales remained down as one was required to purchase online and many people in the region were computer illiterate. This forced FIFA to distribute tickets for sale in supermarkets and this is when massive purchasing took place in the region. Illiteracy has thus become a major barrier in the efforts to tackling poverty.

Diseases Diseases have also been affecting the population in the Third World Countries. Tropical diseases like Malaria have continued to affect and kill many Africans in large numbers. In Asia, diseases like bird flu continue to trouble the poor people. HIV/AIDS pandemic has hit the whole world with the majority of the affected in Third World Countries (Nordquist 2003, 123). The pandemic has negatively hit the economy as young, energetic, and productive members of the society are succumbing to the disease leaving a void in the economy.

External Interferences Neo colonialism has also hindered development and innovations (Cassen 1982, 45). Former colonial masters and new imperialists like the US do not let the Third World Countries to govern themselves independently without their interference. They tend to force these countries to sign contracts, for them to exploit the natural resources.

They also pressurize them to liberalize their markets so that multinational companies can continue their dominance leading to death of local companies. The profits, from multinational companies, taken back to the mother country and no major developments initiated in the countries of conducting business.

The languages of western countries dominate the educational systems of third world countries, which further complicate education for them. The Third World Countries are therefore, torn on whether to follow their systems or the western systems, cultures, and policies. Those who do not follow are alienated and reasons to impose sanctions on them fetched. Neo colonialism and new imperialism has left the countries confused and without identity, which in turn drifts them deeper into poverty.

Conclusion Third World Countries are all countries in the world that experience economic underdevelopment. They exhibit almost similar characteristics like high birth rates, poverty, poor infrastructure, poor IT facilities, and poor education backgrounds.

These countries are mainly in Africa, Middle East, Oceania, Caribbean and Latin America. Although they experience high poverty levels, they have been unable to escape the high poverty because of many reasons like those discussed above and many more like high rate of births placing the existing resources on high pressure, natural disasters, poor policies, inferiority complex mainly instigated by racism among others (Smith 2003, 29).

Reference List Cassen, R .1982. Rich Country Interests and Third World Development. New York: Taylor

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The Effectiveness of Public Relations and Relationship Marketing Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Findings

Conclusion

References

Introduction The emergence of the service industry has greatly influenced the focus of marketing in the modern economy. Unlike the firms in the industries that deal with tangible goods, the firms in the service industry highly depend on their relationships with the customers in order to survive in the market. Due to the high competition and volatility in the service industry, most firms straggle to cultivate long-term relationships with their clients in order to ensure loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.

The same concept has been adopted by other industries due to its effectiveness in creating competitive advantages. The process of developing relationships with customers can only be achieved through public relation and relationship marketing (Sharma, Sheth

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Martin Luther King’s Last Speech Essay college essay help near me

Introduction “I have been to the mountain” was Martin Luther King’s last speech before he was assassinated. In this speech, King aims at maintaining action by encouraging the civil rights activists to continue fighting for racial equality. He uses biblical references to pass his message across to the people. He says that just like the biblical Jews who suffered in the wilderness, but their descendants finally reached the Promised Land, so will the descendants of the black people in the United States.

King rallies the people to keep fighting for their rights and never to give up. He refers to the many successes the movements have had so far. He realized that this was the best tactic to encourage the people to make sure that disillusionment does not overwhelm idealism. He compared past events and to make conclusions that all will be well in the future.

On most occasions he uses the bible, for instance, he compares the Jews slaves who were persecuted in Egypt, but due to their perseverance, they lived until they were released and eventually reached the Promised Land, to the black slaves in America whom he believed would also finally be free.

This was his central claim, which actually comes out clearly in this line “I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the Promised Land” (King 1). This served to encourage the civil rights activists to employ righteousness in their fight for equality.

In this speech King was speaking directly to the sanitation workers who were striking in Memphis, but his intention was to reach all African Americans to encourage them to rally behind the movement so that they can achieve their civil rights. He uses many past events to support this claim.

For instance, he uses past efforts to illustrate some of the civil rights successes. Among them are the sit-ins that happened in North Carolina, the freedom rides that were witnessed in the South, the Negro activism in states like Georgia, Albany, Alabama, and Birmingham, and also the many supporters who trooped to capital in 1963 to participate in the demonstration in which King gave his “I have a dream” speech. He also used those fighting injustice in Memphis, Alabama, and Selma to support his claim (King 1).

King uses his oratory skills in this speech to create a role of activist to be played by his audience by retelling heroism stories in the past and assuring them that they will eventually succeed even without him around. He employs a superior relationship with the audience by using many personal examples in supporting his claim. This made the people realize that he was a very important person to them. The role of prophet that he gives himself makes people believe in every word that come out of his mouth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When he says “I want to thank God once more for allowing me to be here with you” (King 1), he brings out the idea that he is chosen by God to deliver his people from misery. He uses near death experiences that he has gone through to paint himself as a person who has been tested and chosen. He also emerges as a visionary when he claims that he has been on the top of the mountain and has seen the Promised Land (King 1).

King uses a well organized chronological structure that he strategically embeds in the context of the time. He travels back to refer to the early successes of the movement in the start of the 1960s and works his way systematically to the present and concludes the speech with a visionary look into the future ahead. By using this structure, King was able to rekindle enthusiasm in his audience by reminding them of their circumstances and encouraging them to always keep in mind their current troubles (King 1).

In short, King claims that the efforts of the civil rights movement will come to bear fruit. He proves this by sharing his dream with the people. Having assumed a prophetic figure, he did not need much proof to strengthen his message although he has cited a few. His message was a humble plea for equality not a demand by blacks that could create fear in the white population. This is shown by his contrasting example of the black women who attempted to kill him and that of the small white girl who admired him.

Work Cited King Martin. “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop”. American Rhetoric, 1968. Web. https://americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop.htm

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Consumer eating and shopping behaviors in Japan Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Consumer Patterns in the use of food products

Shopping habits

Product feature preferences

Conclusion

References

Introduction Research shows that majority of population in Japan embraces health conscious and awareness dietary habits as one of the important factors promoting healthy living. Majority of the population within the country eat healthy food for the purposes of maintaining slimmer figures.

Their concerns could be linked to most of the developed countries which include maintenance of weight balance and preventing chronic illnesses such as diabetes, obesity and heart diseases. The rate of obesity cases have increased for the last couple of years to an estimation of 3% of the population.

This has made them to be more sensible and selective to what they eat. Most Japanese living in urban centers obtain their food from restaurants and some from fast-food centers. However, older generation living in rural areas depend mostly on traditional diet, they prefer local food to foreign dishes. The young generation on the other hand is adopting the western kind of diets at a very high rate, this present rich market for fast-food restaurants like Wendy International Inc. (Euromonitor International, 2009).

Consumer Patterns in the use of food products Japanese consumers are mostly interested in sports nutrition products, these posses a challenge to food manufacturers who are required to have unique nutritional complex and thrilling profile for the purposes of attracting customers. According to research statistics an average Japanese diet is composed of 15% protein, the level of carbohydrates should be averagely 60% and 25% fat content (International Markets Bureau, 2010).

Japanese households focus on eating averagely three meals per day; they consider meal times as social occasions where each enjoys eating with others. Japanese enjoy eating fast-foods at lunch hours where they prefer eating outside home. Dinner is usually consumed back home with common foods like meat, rice and fish. Research has revealed that the influence of western culture is leading the population towards consumption of snacks.

The consumers have great sensitivity to pricing, this is evident from the level of sales experienced within the stores that indulge in selling of heavily discounted food comprising of those damaged in the process of packing and food that are out of season including those nearing expiry date.

This means that for success to be realized, Wendy has to be very reasonable with their pricing strategies. The following table from the National statistical offices shows the average consumer spending on food within the year 2006 and 2007 (International Markets Bureau, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Table 1: Consumer expenditure on food

¥ Billion 2006 2007 Bread and cereals 3,840.1 3,811.6 Meat 3,636.9 3,637.6 Fish and seafood 4,410.6 4,342.5 Milk, cheese and eggs 1,994.9 2,000.4 Oil and fats 1,877.3 1,899.0 Fruit 1,874.6 1,869.9 Vegetables 4,981.7 4,976.7 Sugar and confectionery 3,627.6 3,653.0 Other food 12,795.8 12,945.5 Total 39,039.4 39,136.2 According to recent research, the influence of western style of eating has seen the decrease on the consumption of traditional food. This includes the consumption of seafood which was known to be popular within Japanese culture. Contrary, there is notable rise in the consumption of sugar, oils, fats and confectionaries this is due to the fact that these kinds of food appear cheaper.

Popularity of ready made meals is on the rise for the purposes of convenience that addresses the high number of singles within urban centers. This may present good market to Wendy’s fast food restaurants (Euromonitor International, 2009).

There is great difference in taste within Japan due to regional differences. Japan is divided into two regions namely; Kanto and Kansai. This is one of the crucial factors that need to be considered by Wendy since the natives from Kanto region seem to like western products and have less concern for food costs.

Kansai residents seem to more conscious on food costs and prefer mostly their traditional food to Western food. This calls for adjustment in taste profile for the purposes of serving the entire population. One of the major advantages to Wendy Inc is that Japanese are cultured to fast-paced lifestyle which makes fast-food restaurants a priority most of the times (Euromonitor International, 2009).

Shopping habits The shopping habits are reflected based on several factors some of which include; importance of product information, the enjoyment that goes along with shopping, pricing, the nature of advertisement used and people’s reactions.

The Japanese does their food shopping based on its quality health- wise, tastiness and freshness. Markets in Japan offer different kinds of food depending on customer’s choice and preference. Research shows that more than half of the population likes eating out at restaurants more so when in companionship with friends.

We will write a custom Essay on Consumer eating and shopping behaviors in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of the public meetings and social gatherings take place at social facilities creating reach market for fast food. The eating out population in Japan has increased due to some factors such as high number of single persons, society experiencing tremendous changes, for instance long working hours, fast-paced lifestyle and low food prices. Recent statistics have shown that in Japan great number of street vendors deal with food and beverage.

The frequency of those who eat out is on the increase despite the economic downturn. They consider that eating out improves one’s self identity since it presents an opportunity to meet people from diverse background. Majority of the consumers have adjusted their purchasing habits for the purposes of utilizing on the consumption of fast food and street vendors (Euromonitor International, 2009).

The statistics further shows that the majority of the population comprises young men with the elderly above sixty five years accounting for only 22%. Japan’s food related segments are divided into; traditional consumers, adventurous and uninvolved consumer segments. The research shows that the number of adventurous consumers is high as compared to the other two.

This is because most of them prefer healthy, organic food products and more sensitive to safety and taste. However, the consumers tend to be very skeptical on the nature of food safety. This is due to some recently identified food scandals such as contaminated mill from Snow Brand and contaminated Chinese vegetables including false branding of beef.

Food consumption and purchasing is high in the country and considered as one of the largest expenditure after housing. They are more focused on purchasing variety of fresh foods from the common outlets offering highest quality food products. Recent statistics shows that general and specialty stores sells averagely 39% of total food sales followed by supermarkets at 34% and lastly convenient stores at 13% of total food sales.

Within the last four years, records shows that the consumption rate of retail packed food increased by considerable percentage of 2.2% compared to that of fresh food which recorded small increase as low between 0.5-0.6%. These statistics presents Wendy Inc with good starting consumer base, which when utilized could result to good financial returns (Euromonitor International, 2009).

Product feature preferences Wendy International Inc should focus on providing consumers with reliable and high degree services. They measure the quality of the product by the impacts it has on general health and value the cleanliness that goes with it. To motivate the population towards the products, hygiene factors which might result in consumer dissatisfaction must be observed closely.

The population considers variety and inexpensiveness of the product as one of the motivating factors. The research further indicates that according to Japanese culture, if the high-level need which in their case is self identity cannot be satisfied, then they consider lower-level needs which in their case are inexpensiveness, variety and quality health (Rothbart, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer eating and shopping behaviors in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To satisfy the uninvolved consumers within Japan, majority being male bachelors, the focus should be on product design. This will provide them with food products that are easily used which most of them prefer. To reach the traditional consumers Wendy Inc should put a lot of emphasis on product labels since most of those in this category have poor purchasing habits.

Conclusion More attention should be paid on individual consumer effects and the level of its impact on current and future trends. Personal interview and multiple regression approaches should be employed to test the research hypotheses and exploratory propositions. Lowering prices was found to have a positive effect on consumer buying habits and their frequency to food stores.

This clearly suggested that in order to experience increase in consumer spending and repeat visits, the restaurants should invest more in tools that promote the use of price-off. Wendy Inc image could be improved only by promotional tools that focus on consumer tastes.

References Euromonitor International. (2009). Consumer Lifestyles in Japan. Web.

International Markets Bureau. (2010). Japanese Consumer Behavior, Attitudes And Perceptions towards Food Products. Market Analysis Journal Report, (3), 1-14.

Rothbart, C. (2009). The Sky‘s The Limit: Bringing Canada

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Choosing Hotel Location Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Several factors are put into consideration before any business enterprise or entity is established. Among them is the physical location. Hotel industry, like any other business activity has to put this factor ahead of all other factors if indeed any tangible gains are to be realized out of the business. The place where a hotel is located will determine several other things including sales volume, customers, profitability and long-term survival in the industry.

It is evident that a convenient place to up a hotel should consider factors such as commercial areas, recreational grounds, airports among others .These factors can maintain good customer base as well as attracting more new customers. There has been always a controiversy on whether it’s more beneficial to put up a hotel where there are other similar hotels or away from such businesses.

One theory argues that by creating a business venture close to the competitors geographically, an entrepreneur can obtain posive externality from economic and institutional environments. In contrast, it is disputed that by locating business venture far away from its competitors, the firm will avoid localized competition and earns itself competitive advantage. Because the two theories seem to be o great importance, it’s good to consider the two in some aspects while putting up a hotel business.

In most cases, it’s rare to establish a business without competitors, in other words almost all business entities operate under perfect competition characterized by product homogeneity, many sellers and buyers and above all buyers and sellers are price takers. Therefore it is important that while opening a new hotel location, one should bear in mind that there are other existing similar businesses and one should not make decisions that to some extend will affect the operations of other investors.

One aspect which can clearly indicate he interruptions of other firms operations is the product priced in other competitors which include pricing of various goods and services including market’ local room rates offerd by the hoteliers. Therefore, one should come up with sound decisions which will not negatively influence the existing market’s room rates (Magnini

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Needs and Wants Essay college admission essay help

It is a common weakness among most people that they spend a lot of their income on things they do not really need. Materialism has led many people to forget the fundamental difference between needs and wants. It is important to consider the priorities when preparing the budgets.

Psychologically, a need is a phenomenon that arouses an action to an organism towards a particular purpose. It is important to note that one person’s need may not be necessarily another person’s need. Other documented philosophies point out that a need is a representative of an individual’s cost in a society. This follows that an individual who is unable to meet his/her needs does not live properly in a society (Plant, Lesser,

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Functions of government in an economy Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic functions of the government

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Government is defined as a particular group of people controlling a nation at a particular time and in which their manner of administration is structured while economy constitutes how government organizes labor, capital and land to produce goods and services in a country (Bennett, 1998) Government role in an economy is how the organizes factors of production to create goods and services in a country (Dollery, 2006).

Economic functions of the government The government has several economic responsibilities to achieve to enhance prosperity of a country. First, the government provides legal and social frame in controlling business activities in the country. This is achieved through enactment of laws protects private ownership of property and enforcement of contracts regarding business transactions (Hill, 1982).

In addition, the government uses the police force to maintain law and order resulting to security of workers and firms within an area. They also inspect and maintain a system of standards for measuring and weighing products thus ensuring transparency in trade (Giersch, 1988). Secondly, the government maintains competition in the market by controlling monopoly and enacting antitrust laws that prevent businesses from merging into so as to control and set market prices (Bennett, 1998)

Similarly, the government plays a major role in redistribution of income in the country, since impersonal market that tends to favor given producers or traders, the government intervenes through progressive tax system thus reducing the disposable income on citizens who might have adopted high standards living due to high level of income (Giersch, 1988).

Secondly, the government redistributes income through market intervention by modifying the prices of goods and services that would have been higher when established through market forces of demand and supply (Hill, 1982). For example, the government could provide farmers with above market-prices of farm outputs to stabilize the market price and increase their income (Bennett, 1998)

In addition, the government puts mechanisms to cover spillover costs that entail the production or consumption of goods or services that are inflicted on individuals without the proper compensation such as environmental pollution that is likely to affect the lives of residents (Bennett, 1998)Moreover, the government ensures economic stability of a country by adjusting its spending and taxation or increasing spending on public goods thus maintaining strong economic value of the currency (Zeckhauser,1983).

Stabilization of the economy reduces inflation country thus controlling unemployment and price level as the government adjusts spending and tax rates to slow down or speed up economic growth rate (Giersch, 1988). The government then formulates a policy that emphasizes on supply of money and interest rates through the budget and provides goods and services which the private individuals are not willing to venture in or those threatening national security such as production of atomic bombs Dollery, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The government takes care of the needs beyond the reach of market forces of demand and supply through provision of services and enactment of rules and regulations that encourages investments in a country (Bennett, 1998).This leads to mass-production in the industrial sector leading to high economic growth and improved standard of living since many countries adopted liberal market economy (Dollery, 2006).

Reference List Bennett.D. (1998).Multicultural states: rethinking difference and identity‎.Sidney :HarperCollins Publishers Australia

Dollery .B. (2006).Australian local government economics‎ Brian. Sidney: Macmillan Publishers

Fan. Q. (2009) “Innovation for development and the role of government” New York: St. Martin’s Publishers.

Giersch .H. (1988) “Reassessing the Role of Government in the Mixed Economy” New York: Oxford University press.

Hill.L. (1982) “Role of government in a market economy” New York: Oxford University press

Zeckhauser.A. (1983) “What Role for Government? Lessons from Policy Research” New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

We will write a custom Essay on Functions of government in an economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Human Resources Management Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

What

How

Why

When

Conclusion

References

Introduction Working class people spend most of their time serving their employers; they are selling their intellectual properties, labours, time and works of their hands to their employer.

To stay in an organisation, there are some expectations that employees have upon their contract with their employer, the expectations can broadly be categorised as material, psychological, and social (Perrewé, Kalmar

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A 21st Century Manifestation of the Enlightenment: Jean-Pierre Gauthier, Battements et Papillons Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The principle of autonomy is explicitly revealed in the work

The work’s Agency description

The work’s Criticality description

The work’s Universality description

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction In 2006 Jean-Pierre Gauthier, a talented Canadian artist who won numerous prestigious art awards, created one of the most significant artworks of the beginning of the 21st century (Jean-Pierre Gauthier 2008). He also won one of the most significant art awards, Sobey Art Award (Juliusson 2004). He called his work Battements et Papillons (Beats and Butterflies).

This installation is a great illustration of digital art since it is created with the help of technology and at the same time bears prominent artistic value. It inspires and evokes ideas about some personal things. Every viewer perceives this work of art in his/her own way (Jean-Pierre Art Gallery of Nova Scotia 2009). Beats and Butterflies is not just another installation which includes some musical instrument creating some sort of noise.

Gauthier’s art work represents a divine device which creates beautiful melody with no human interference. In one of his interviews the artist stated: “The motion, the sound, all the dimensions and the references too – I try to bring them to another level” (Landry 2009). He manages to do so. His unique to reveal new facets of motion and sound make his installation Beats and Butterflies one of the most explicit manifestations of liberation aesthetics.

The artists does not resort to conventional rules of form, he rather tries to reveal his own emotions, what he feels “from the work” (Landry 2009). Gauthier’s installation Beats and Butterflies is liberated from any conventions and laws. There is only one person to dictate his will in his art work – Jean-Pierre Gauthier himself. The installation also illustrates the four principles of the art of Enlightenment which make the work that important and valuable.

The principle of autonomy is explicitly revealed in the work The artwork, Beats and Butterflies, is unique representative of kinetic art. Gauthier is regarded as not only an artist, but as “inventor and musician” as well (Jean-Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play 2009). He does not follow some fashionable trends or conventional rules. Gauthier’s installation Beats and Butterflies differs from the rest of artworks.

The artist is absolutely autonomous. The installation reveals individuality of the talented kinetic artist who controls motion and sound. It is also important to point out that the artist utilizes “everyday instruments” and ordinary objects “creating a hazy environment from easy pieces” (Orlov 2003, 103).

This is one of his peculiarities which made some people call him a “virtuoso of everyday reality, an artisan of contemporary art, an entomologist of sound” (Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal 2007). Gauthier’s uniqueness lies in his absolutely inexplicable ability to transform “everyday objects” (MOCCA 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, this very installation also reveals the idea of autonomy. There is no human to play the piano. The sounds are created by some external invisible power. It is possible to see and feel the motion which creates the beautiful melodies: there are some cables moving and keys are also in motion. Nevertheless, there is no definite creator of the music.

The work’s Agency description The second principle of the art of Enlightenment is also explicitly revealed in the work. The installation, Beats and Butterflies, can be characterized by the relationship between the principal and his agent which is absolutely unique. Gauthier’s works of art cannot be regarded as “art that just hangs quietly on the wall” (Clair 2008).

Gauthier’s Beats and Butterflies is constantly in motion. Though the work has been created by the artist it has the life of its own. There is certain power of Providence in the installation since it seems that some divine powers play the instrument. When listening to the music it is possible to feel that it is not about physical rules of kinetics or rather that kinetics is not about Physics, it is something about magic.

Viewers can see “piano, bench, aluminum tape, motion detectors, microcontrollers, solenoids, relays, metal tension cables, motor” and other physical objects (DOCAM n.d.). Nevertheless, it is impossible to perceive this work of art as a physical object. The instrument is ordinary piano, but the artist made it look like a magic cornucopia which produces divine sounds instead of divine food.

At this point it is necessary to add that this very installation has been presented at numerous exhibitions not only in Canada, United States or Europe, it was popular in countries of the East (Garcia 2007). There is even a documentary devoted to the artist’s works (Akron Art Museum n.d.). Nowadays his works can be also viewed online (Vimeo n.d.). Thus, seemingly distant from its creator the installation reveals his vision and his feelings worldwide.

The work’s Criticality description Every art work of Gauthier bears important message. His installations can touch upon absolutely different topics. For instance, he tied motion and sport in his installations (Arena: The Art of Hockey 2008). His artwork, Beats and Butterflies, draws links between music and motion.

It goes without saying that this installation evokes curiosity and like all his works makes viewers try to figure out how it all works (Johnson 2003). Some find it easy to teach acoustics and kinetics using Gauthier’s art (Jean Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play n.d.). Nevertheless, the idea of his works is much more important than evoking curiosity or teaching some laws of Physics. Gauthier stipulates:

We will write a custom Essay on A 21st Century Manifestation of the Enlightenment: Jean-Pierre Gauthier, Battements et Papillons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More …I try to create brief moments of elation that activate the ear so it is no longer an organ waiting to be stuffed like a goose. At those moments, the ears are mouth and eye at once; they observe carefully, stealthily, and greedily imbibe the sound. (Jean-Pierre Gauthier’s Official Website)

Thus, the artist creates a whole new world, the fourth dimension where sounds can be perceived in some other way. Gauthier’s Beats and Butterfly carry out his intention perfectly. The dark space and the piano creating magnificent sounds do transform the ideas of motion, sound, music and art.

The work’s Universality description It goes without saying that the work which appeals to the bottoms of viewers’ hearts, evokes various thoughts and ideas, and simply inspires, is universal. Of course, everyone perceives it in some specific way, but no one remains indifferent. For instance, people pertaining to the world of art regard Gauthier’s works “transforming an environment in a way that gives the viewer a new experience of the familiar” as unique and significant (Rudolph 2010).

Children also appreciated this installation and their astonished faces became an evidence that the work reached their hearts (Police Community Response 2010). Some say that Gauthier’s works “have a strange effect on viewers” and it is really so (Machines at Play 2010). This peculiarity of his works makes them universal.

Conclusion On balance, it is possible to state that Beats and Butterflies is the work of art which is the perfect illustration of the art of Enlightenment realizing the four principles: Universality, Criticality, Principles of Agency and Autonomy. This installation is a unique artwork which makes people see and feel new dimensions and worlds.

Reference List Akron Art Museum. Jean-Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play. Western Reserve Public Media. Web.

Arena: The Art of Hockey. 2008. Canadian Art. Web.

Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. Jean-Pierre Gauthier Makes a Generous Gift to AGNS. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A 21st Century Manifestation of the Enlightenment: Jean-Pierre Gauthier, Battements et Papillons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Clair, Jeff St. 2008. Jean-Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play at the Akron Art Museum. WKSU. Web.

DOCAM. Jean-Pierre Gauthier, Battements et Papillons, 2006. Documentation and Conservation of the Media Arts Heritage. Web.

Garcia, Cathy Rose A. 2007. Listen to Beauty of Sound Art in Seoul. The Korea Times. Web.

Jean Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play. 2009. Akron Art Museum. Web.

Jean Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play. Western Reserve Public Media. Web.

Jean-Pierre Gauthier: Machines at Play to Open at the Art Gallery of Hamilton. Web.

Jean-Pierre Gauthier’s Official Website. Web.

Johnson, Ken. 2003. ART IN REVIEW; Jean-Pierre Gauthier – ‘Sporadic Exchange’. The New York Times. Web.

Juliusson, Svava. 2004. Jean-Pierre Gauthier Wins Sobey Art Award. E-Flux. Web.

Landry, Mike. 2009. Jean-Pierre Gauthier’s Noise Control. The Coast. Web.

Machines at Play. 2009/10. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia Winter Journal, 34: 21.

MOCCA. Toronto International Art Fair. Museum of Contemporary Canadian Art. Web.

Musée d’art Contemporain de Montréal. Jean-Pierre Gauthier Exhibition: February 10 to April 22, 2007. Musée d’art Contemporain de Montréal. Web.

Orlov, Piotr. 2003. Chelsea Version. The Village Voice, July 9: 103-117.

Police Community Response. 2010. Spotlight on Public Safety, 2, no. 4: 3.

Rudolph, Ellen. 2010. What Is Kinetic Sound Installation? An Interpretive Guide to the Exhibition… The Prairie Art Gallery, January. Vimeo. Web.

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Supply Chain Management Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Suitability of push and pull management philosophies in relation to the case study and the boundaries between different stages of its supply chain

Several approaches are always made for the purposes of ensuring perfect mobilization of resources towards achievement of certain goals. The approaches may vary in details but at the end of it all share common ground of improving businesses like Sandwich Company. Push management could be designed to position resources at suitable places where there is anticipated need.

The model results into equipped line of services based on standardized processes which could assist in delivering resources and products to right venues at anticipated times. The technology employed should specify activities that need to be administered together with the resources in order to meet anticipated demands. The push models tend to work with people passively, where the decisions affecting consumers could only be solved through central decision making (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

Focus on pull management assists in the creation of foundation where people are helped in the processes of appropriate mobilization of right resources. The pull models are created as a result of increasing uncertainty within companies like the Sandwich Company. They help in improving the level of creativity applied by local participants who seeks satisfaction of immediate needs.

The pull models help employees within the company to come together with innovative ideas which would help in solving the rising demand of sandwich products, this may include resources such as installation of refrigerators for the sake of perishable products.

Pull models seeks no dictate on the nature of tools and resources required to accomplish tasks and address arising opportunities like supplying goods to the supermarket. Pull models tend to treat consumers as creative entities that could be used to solve problems and create opportunities. It is applied to reinforce capability building by all consumers and employees hence assisting them towards innovation that could help them solve their needs (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

With the maturity of supply chain within Sandwich Company, the demand chain is as well gaining importance and requires the organization’s appropriate responses. Sandwich products alongside services that goes with production, needs to be appealing to the consumers as well as the company’s stakeholders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The pull model could be rightfully applied in this area so as to ensure that both customers and the firm are placed into consideration for viable outcome in production. The firm need not only to focus on the drivers within the demand change but also on their efficient management. This is what leads to the firms’ ultimate value chain (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

The efficiency of the supply chain within Sandwich Company cannot be realised until the level of demand for the products is understood. First of all the demand chain objectives requires address in line with the company’s business strategies. This will make it easier for the employees to extensively resume the relevance of the strategies for the purposes of exploring available opportunities.

Holistic approach to market opportunity analysis needs to be considered whereby; cost optimization is given priority on the side of customer expectations as well as those of stakeholders. However, the cost does not matter so much within the market since consumers are more concerned about convenience and speed. The marketers should be more involved in the process of product characteristics.

The pull approach when adopted provides flexible approach towards the management of the resources being used in the production process since the ingredients used seem to be perishable. This assists in mobilising assets and other resource capabilities like distributions outside the confines of the company. The pull system when applied in this business will ensure effective extension of services beyond production processes (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

Sandwich Company needs to pay much attention towards services and satisfaction of consumers on their products; they need to consider issues such as complain from customers and product follow up avenues. These processes help in enhancing the Company’s image amongst consumers because of their high performance level.

The Company emphasizes so much on product delivery as one of the important quality drivers. As part of pull model, Sandwich Company needs also to focus on offering good training to its employees which ultimately ensures that they are acquainted with the right knowledge enabling them to handle current consumer issues.

Sandwich Company requires market surveys to establish on efficiency of their services to consumers. Monitoring of delivery services should be done through some systems of evaluation such as on-time and same-day deliveries. Sandwich Company uses the final assembly time as the basis of making charges to its customers (Hagel and Brown, 2005).

We will write a custom Assessment on Supply Chain Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sandwich Company should make crucial improvement on some customer metrics such as transportation of products and timing of delivery services, this is since these metrics contributes tremendously towards customer satisfaction. The improved performance of Sandwich Company could be attributed to positive responses received from potential consumers.

The company needs to place lots of emphasis on customer views and comments towards their services. This can be done efficiently through conducting of customer surveys that makes it easier to analyze consumer tastes, preferences and expectations (Godsell et al, 2006).

Customer perspective means of evaluation is very crucial towards contributing to the Company’s improvement in performance. Customer service aspect of the BSC should be utilized by Sandwich Company through the use of important measures which include; lead times, on-time delivery services, customer index and the level of consumer satisfaction. The Company determines customer satisfaction through surveys that are conducted by random selection of customers on a monthly basis and making them fill few questionnaires.

Analysts from outside the Company are used to visit consumers on behalf of the firm and produces report on the consumer reactions and valid expectations they desire from the Company. Customer survey questions are constructed based on basic consumer concerns touching crucial areas such as quality, satisfaction on delivery time and concern on pricing methods used on the Company’s products and services (Godsell et al, 2006).

The company focused on the quality, cost, performance and issues on prices at which goods and services are offered to customers. They also focused on the level of supply of goods to consumers at different locations. These companies analyze customers in relation to their potential and pay much attention to the processes through which products and services are administered to the specific customer groups.

The company’s effort to evaluate the performance from the customer point of view contributed largely to the performance of the company. The processes through which they developed products are defined by quality measures, cost of production and time which contribute a lot towards customer satisfaction (Godsell et al, 2006).

Response management will be required on the process of evaluating range of alternatives. This is done through first of all reviewing the amount of resources available and linking them to market outcomes and possible limitations. Apart from the production process, delivery of services is equally an important factor for success to be realised.

Corporate BSC was established so as to help in organizing operations within the Company. This helped in establishing customer perspective as the key contributor towards effective performance and achievement. The company puts much emphasis on the product cycle that involves transportation and kind of services delivered as some of the important metrics used within Sandwich Company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Supply Chain Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Company focuses on supplying quality citrus products at affordable prices while still maximizing on its profit. The actions and measures taken by Sandwich Company’s are all customer-centric. The success of the Company is attributed to their market strategies on ways to deal with customers. However, the Company need to diversify its production to include other related fruit products (Godsell et al, 2006).

Cycle view of supply chain operations The customer order cycle comprises of customer arrival followed by the entry of Customer’s order then Customer Order fulfillment and finally customer receiving the order. The replenishment cycle which is the category of retail order, comprises retail order trigger followed by retail order entry then fulfilling the order request and finally receiving the products.

This is preceded by the manufacturing cycle which comprises the order arrival going through the production scheduling then manufacturing and shipping process then reception of the final products. Before the manufacturing process, there is the procurement cycle which involves making order of materials based on the manufacturer’s production schedule, suppliers’ precisions and also considering the various components of manufacturing before the materials are received by the manufacturer.

Metrics Reliability Responsiveness Flexibility Cost Assets Perfect Order Fulfilment z Order fulfilment Cycle time z Upside Supply Chain flexibility z Upside Supply Chain Adaptability z Downside Supply Chain Adaptability z SCM Cost z Cost of Goods Sold Z Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time z Return on Supply Chain Fixed Assets z Return on Working Capital z The use of business score card could be of prime use in this Company. Score card could be used in this Company as a management tool to motivate employees towards increasing the value of the organization giving it the ability to appeal to shareholders and rewarding of all employees with high performance level.

Corporate BSC should be established so as to help in organizing operations within the Company. This could help in establishing customer perspective as the key contributor towards effective performance and achievement. The company should strive to place much emphasis on the product cycle which involves transportation and kind of services delivered as some of the important metrics used (Godsell et al, 2006).

The processing time depends not only on the set up time and compatibility of other ingredients but also on the rate of flow of the raw materials. This therefore calls for implementation of faster means of transport to cater for the need. The sequence of sandwiches at the end of processing unit should be geared towards minimizing total completion time and maximum earliness. Finished products with due dates should not be supplied since this may bring about confusion on the utilization of the available resources.

Conclusion In reality the customer perspective actions and measures taken by Sandwich Company are customer-centric since all the strategies were geared towards maximizing profit per potential customer within the market. Sandwich Company ensures that customers receive their products in good shape, quality and at the right time.

This could be ensured through the reduction of assembly time that also contributes to lowering of prices. The manufacturing efficiency of Sandwich Company should be improved through the use of BSC which helps in creating crucial changes within the process and human resource management. The overall efficiency of the processes should be improved by more than 10%.

Apart from focusing on quality expectations from customers, the company should expand their concern to encompass cost of production and the nature of delivering goods. Increased income and improvement in sales are some of the indications of the level of customer satisfaction. This is since customers tend to buy more of a product when satisfied with its quality and prices.

References Godsell, J. Harrison, A. Emberson, C.

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Concepts of Supply Chain Management Report (Assessment) college application essay help

Table of Contents The pull and push strategy

The cycle view

The Supply Chain Operations

Reference List

The pull and push strategy Supply chain management is the matrix of the activities involved in the process of a seller availing goods and services to the final consumer (Haag, S., Cummings, M., McCubbrey, D., Pinsonneault, A.,

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Judging from past experience/internationalization- Should IKEA continue to internationalize? Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction Global marketing is defined as the process where business companies focus and strategize on ways of investing their resources within the world market. This is often faced by certain challenges and threats which either drives or restrains the processes involved. The challenges are experienced since marketing practices vary from country to country and require marketers to think globally (Keegan and Green, 2002).

Pros of Internationalization

Internationalization brought about rise in innovative designs and improved function of goods and services at affordable prices. This assisted in ensuring that consumers benefit from improved lifestyles due to new concepts of goods and services provided by competitors seeking market superiority. Businesses companies attain big profit margins from internationalization process. According to Moon 2004, “Wal-Mart was America’s number one furniture retailer because of large foot print in the world”.

The high margins attained were as a result of product and service diversification which ensured that each product within international market ploughed back extra revenue to the business away from home. Lower priced products and services offered due to internationalization brought about sensible cost cutting, this enhanced the level of consumer satisfaction through unique combination of form, function and affordability.

Cons of Internationalization

Several disadvantages arose from internationalization, one of them being products of low quality value which find their way into international markets. This was as a result of unhealthy competition within the market which makes most companies try dubious means of enticing customers, one of the ways being selling poor quality products at lower prices. This is mostly seen to capture price sensitive consumers and creates negative impact on consumer’s standard of living.

Market fragmentation is another major problem encountered within international business, large economic discrepancy between populations within the global markets tends to affect overall margins within international business companies. As a result extensive market research has to be done to effectively locate potential markets that may look profitable for specific products.

Also within the disadvantages is the abuse of certain business ethics and loss of business culture within the international markets. This could be as a result of different tastes amongst consumers of the same business products within different market locations. This leads to increase in the cost of production due to intense market research involved for the purposes of satisfying consumer tastes from diversified backgrounds within the global market (Knight, 2005).

Successful Country in Internationalization

Sweden which is the home country of IKEA was the most successful in internationalization of IKEA’s products. IKEA moved from Sweden and penetrated other external markets starting with America. Early 2000 the company was able to double revenues in the United States. United States initially was not receptive to IKEA but through market research they penetrated the market such that by 2002 the company had fourteen stores in America servicing over twenty five million customers on an annual basis (Moon, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unsuccessful Country in Internationalization

France was the country least successful in internationalization of IKEA’s products. Statistics shows that the country accounted for only less than 10% of total sales of the products. This probably meant that France had low reception to Ikea products due to factors such as strong cultural ties within the country that resisted penetration of foreign products (Moon, 2004).

Continuation of Internationalization

Based on statistical analysis on leading purchasing countries, China accounted for over 17% of total purchases from IKEA group. This means that China is more receptive to the international business concepts and practices offered by IKEA Company. China is more diverse in their products and also bases their marketing concept on providing cheap products for international markets. IKEA should continue the sale of its products to Chinese markets (Moon, 2004).

Conclusion The low prices attract most customers especially during difficult financial times. In order to improve its performance, IKEA has established a good brand name that is recognized globally, this has helped in maintaining the strong growth it requires in order to have a strong market identity amongst the clients. IKEA despite being a home furnishing retailer supplements its income through its constituent stores which are the restaurants, cafes and food shops.

References Keegan, M.

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The inaccessible law Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

The inaccessible Law

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Before the law is a short allegorical story in Franz Kafka’s novel, ‘The Trial’. He describes a society that is full of oppression, slavery, corruption, inhumanity yet the existing law is inaccessible. A man from the country tries fruitlessly to reach law but the doorkeeper tells him he cannot access the law.

Ironically, the doorkeeper claims the door belongs to the citizens and it is always open but nobody goes through it. Contemporarily, most laws are inaccessible but when one access them they are full of corruption and impunity hence at the end becoming meaningless to the people.

Although, the judicial system exists in all governing systems in the world to adhere to the rights and freedom of people, citizens of different nations are yet to feel or enjoy its role in the society. Therefore, the fact that the man wastes all his lifetime and wealth waiting for his chance to access the law reveals the dissatisfaction of the judicature as a branch of justice in the society.

The inaccessible Law The rules and regulations governing the major branches of justice make it tough for an ordinary citizen to access or realize justice in the world. Kafka comments that the, “the doorkeeper is limited to the function of an obstacle” (1). Unfortunately, only few people like the politicians, rich men and senior government officials break the obstacles. According to the story, the man is in need of justice and therefore attempts to reach it. However, on every door stands a doorkeeper with stronger and influential power than the previous.

Although the door is open, the first doorkeeper tells him he cannot go through it now but he has a potential in future (Kennedy and Gioa 6). When he tries to peep through the gate, the first doorkeeper allows him but tells him there are more doorkeepers he has to seek permission from before he reaches the law. Unfortunately, the third doorkeeper turns out to be wick, awful and fearsome that he is unable to approach.

Therefore, the law seems to be harder, tougher and inaccessible contrary to what he had thought earlier. Similarly, there is a tiring procedure for any individual to access the judicature while those who succeed in the process have to reveal identification in every office. The physical process and operational procedures involved shy away most citizens who want justice to prevail.

The lawmakers and enforcers promote inhumanity, impunity and corruption in the judicature or society. Due to greediness and selfishness lawyers, judges, police officers take bribes and rule unjustly therefore oppressing the less fortunate or poor people. At last, the doorkeeper grants the man a sit and tells him to wait for his chance. Day’s turns into weeks, months and years but his chance does not come. Everyday at least seeks permission for admission into the law but all is in vain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The doorkeeper habitually interrogates him about his origin, family but all this leads to him giving him bribes. The doorkeeper tells him “I am taking this only so that you do not think you have failed to do anything” (Kafka 15). The man sacrifices everything he has and bribes the doorkeeper who shamelessly accepts. The bribery act is similar to the present world where one has to cough out something in exchange for service.

This is common in all institutions especially work, schools, hospitals and the judiciary. In addition, people sell their property like land, houses among others in order to get services that should be on free offer. Likewise, the position of one in the society determines his/her justice that is why the doorkeeper continually inquires about the background of the man.

Many aspects hinder people from accessing the law, the powerful politicians, selfish individuals, judges, lawyers, the law enforcers and the tiring judicial systems among others. For instance, in the story the man concludes the doorkeepers as the obstacles to the law. However, the doorkeepers are respecting rules from the above or leaders.

He has grown old and unable to see clearly even his clothes infested with fleas but he still hopes the doorkeeper will let him in. Although his days on earth are numbered, he asks the doorkeeper why he is unable to pass through the get. The doorkeeper ironically tells him nobody else accesses the law and the gates belong to the man but he has to close.

Similarly, the current society gives false hopes to ordinary citizens about their rights and freedom. However, the inefficient judicial system drags cases for year even up to more than ten years leading to dissatisfaction. Unfortunately, people die while fighting for justice in the courts through either natural death or assassinations to conceal the concrete evidence.

Conclusion In summary, although many people in the world try to seek for justice, the judicial system has many obstacles like the rules/regulations, law enforcers, lawyers, judges and prominent individuals.

The robust procedure with corruption in the individuals in the judiciary turns away most people who pursue their rights. Finally, the man in the country dies without access to the law yet he had sacrificed all his time and belongings in order to access the law. Likewise, the contemporary world is full of inhumanity and impunity and hence the law is only accessible to the favorites.

We will write a custom Essay on The inaccessible law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Kafka, Franz. The trial. Berlin: Berlin press, 1925.

Kennedy, Joseph, and Gioa, Dana. Before the law an introduction to fiction, Poetry, drama and writing .New York: Pearson Longman, 2007.

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Mr. Chiu: “Saboteur” by Ha Jin Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Imprisonment of Mr.Chiu

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Ha Jin is a Chinese novelist currently living in the US and the author of the book Saboteur, Saboteur is about a young man, Mr. Chiu (34 years old) living under the times when China is under Cultural Revolution. Due to unfair reasons, he is taken in as a prisoner while on his honeymoon. To secure his freedom, the bureau chief forces him to sign a fake statement. He signs the document reluctantly mainly because he is suffering from acute hepatitis and needs urgent medical attention.

The Imprisonment of Mr.Chiu Mr.Chiu is newly married and out for his honeymoon. One day while having lunch at a restaurant with his wife, a police officer accidentally splashes tea on them. Instead of being apologetic, he acts rudely and discourteously accusing Mr.Chiu of undermining him and therefore, Mr. Chiu is under arrest. Unfortunately, Mr. Chiu arrest is due to false allegations.

When he reaches the police station, none of the police officers including their chief officer listens to him; instead, they lock him up in a cell exposing a society full of injustices and oppression. This parallels the contemporary world, full of injustices and mistreatments perpetrated especially by the police force and the judicial systems that are full of corruption and impunity. Ironically, the people who are supposed to protect citizens violate the very rights they should be protecting.

While in police cell, a false evidence report is prepared accusing Mr. Chiu of being a nuisance to the public and lack of respect to police officers. The chief officer orders Mr. Chiu to admit his misdeeds and sign a confession.

However, when Mr. Chiu realizes his arrest is due to his affiliation to the communist party, he declines their order. Unfortunately, whilst in the cell, Mr. Chiu suffers hepatitis, which devolves his health for he cannot access health services. Unluckily it is during the weekend hence no medical attention to the inmates but he hopes the University will come to his rescue.

On Monday morning, the university sends Fenji to secure the release of Mr. Chiu. Unfortunately, his rescuer is cuffed to a tree killing his hopes. In addition, one of the police officers heartlessly tortures Fenji as Mr. Chiu watches. The police officers are a symbolic nature of those in power and authority in the present society (Esherick, Pickowicz, and Walder 7).

There is lack of humanity, respect, freedom of speech and expression as experienced by Fenji and Mr. Chiu. Likewise, the current leaders especially those in power are oppressive and sometimes they care less about human rights. On the other hand, there are poor health and welfare policies for citizens or those in correction centers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, Chiu surrenders to the demands of bureau chief securing his freedom and that of Fenji. However, he is full of revenge to destroy the police force. Although he knows he is suffering from hepatitis, a contagious disease, he eats in different cafeterias and touches food allover to spread hepatitis.

He succeeds in his revenge mission for the disease infects around 800 people and kills six of them. This is an irony because as a university lecturer, Mr. Chiu spreads hepatitis yet he knew it is contagious, therefore infecting innocent people. Currently In the society, there are people who are out to destroy innocent souls either knowingly or unknowingly just like Mr. Chiu.

Conclusion Mr.Chiu finds himself in prison unfairly courtesy of a disrespectful police officer. The chief officer backs up his junior officer and even goes ahead to harass Fenji who had come to secure his release. In summary, at last, Chiu acquires his freedom but his human rights are violated because he is suffers hepatitis.

The story draws parallels in the contemporary society. Mr.Chiu represents people experiencing inhuman acts by security personnel in charge of their safety. On the other hand, the bureau chief is a symbol of corrupt officers and leaders in the contemporary society.

Works Cited Esherick, Joseph, Pickowicz, Paul, and Walder, Andrew. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2006.

Jin, Ha. Saboteur: The Story and Its Writer. Ed. Ann Charters. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007.

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The inaccessible law Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The inaccessible Law

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Before the law is a short allegorical story in Franz Kafka’s novel, ‘The Trial’. He describes a society that is full of oppression, slavery, corruption, inhumanity yet the existing law is inaccessible. A man from the country tries fruitlessly to reach law but the doorkeeper tells him he cannot access the law.

Ironically, the doorkeeper claims the door belongs to the citizens and it is always open but nobody goes through it. Contemporarily, most laws are inaccessible but when one access them they are full of corruption and impunity hence at the end becoming meaningless to the people.

Although, the judicial system exists in all governing systems in the world to adhere to the rights and freedom of people, citizens of different nations are yet to feel or enjoy its role in the society. Therefore, the fact that the man wastes all his lifetime and wealth waiting for his chance to access the law reveals the dissatisfaction of the judicature as a branch of justice in the society.

The inaccessible Law The rules and regulations governing the major branches of justice make it tough for an ordinary citizen to access or realize justice in the world. Kafka comments that the, “the doorkeeper is limited to the function of an obstacle” (1). Unfortunately, only few people like the politicians, rich men and senior government officials break the obstacles. According to the story, the man is in need of justice and therefore attempts to reach it. However, on every door stands a doorkeeper with stronger and influential power than the previous.

Although the door is open, the first doorkeeper tells him he cannot go through it now but he has a potential in future (Kennedy and Gioa 6). When he tries to peep through the gate, the first doorkeeper allows him but tells him there are more doorkeepers he has to seek permission from before he reaches the law. Unfortunately, the third doorkeeper turns out to be wick, awful and fearsome that he is unable to approach.

Therefore, the law seems to be harder, tougher and inaccessible contrary to what he had thought earlier. Similarly, there is a tiring procedure for any individual to access the judicature while those who succeed in the process have to reveal identification in every office. The physical process and operational procedures involved shy away most citizens who want justice to prevail.

The lawmakers and enforcers promote inhumanity, impunity and corruption in the judicature or society. Due to greediness and selfishness lawyers, judges, police officers take bribes and rule unjustly therefore oppressing the less fortunate or poor people. At last, the doorkeeper grants the man a sit and tells him to wait for his chance. Day’s turns into weeks, months and years but his chance does not come. Everyday at least seeks permission for admission into the law but all is in vain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The doorkeeper habitually interrogates him about his origin, family but all this leads to him giving him bribes. The doorkeeper tells him “I am taking this only so that you do not think you have failed to do anything” (Kafka 15). The man sacrifices everything he has and bribes the doorkeeper who shamelessly accepts. The bribery act is similar to the present world where one has to cough out something in exchange for service.

This is common in all institutions especially work, schools, hospitals and the judiciary. In addition, people sell their property like land, houses among others in order to get services that should be on free offer. Likewise, the position of one in the society determines his/her justice that is why the doorkeeper continually inquires about the background of the man.

Many aspects hinder people from accessing the law, the powerful politicians, selfish individuals, judges, lawyers, the law enforcers and the tiring judicial systems among others. For instance, in the story the man concludes the doorkeepers as the obstacles to the law. However, the doorkeepers are respecting rules from the above or leaders.

He has grown old and unable to see clearly even his clothes infested with fleas but he still hopes the doorkeeper will let him in. Although his days on earth are numbered, he asks the doorkeeper why he is unable to pass through the get. The doorkeeper ironically tells him nobody else accesses the law and the gates belong to the man but he has to close.

Similarly, the current society gives false hopes to ordinary citizens about their rights and freedom. However, the inefficient judicial system drags cases for year even up to more than ten years leading to dissatisfaction. Unfortunately, people die while fighting for justice in the courts through either natural death or assassinations to conceal the concrete evidence.

Conclusion In summary, although many people in the world try to seek for justice, the judicial system has many obstacles like the rules/regulations, law enforcers, lawyers, judges and prominent individuals.

The robust procedure with corruption in the individuals in the judiciary turns away most people who pursue their rights. Finally, the man in the country dies without access to the law yet he had sacrificed all his time and belongings in order to access the law. Likewise, the contemporary world is full of inhumanity and impunity and hence the law is only accessible to the favorites.

We will write a custom Essay on The inaccessible law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Kafka, Franz. The trial. Berlin: Berlin press, 1925.

Kennedy, Joseph, and Gioa, Dana. Before the law an introduction to fiction, Poetry, drama and writing .New York: Pearson Longman, 2007.

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Managing Cultural Diversity in International Business Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction There are significant cultural differences among people of different races, regions as well as tribe. People’s cultures often shape their attitudes and perceptions towards issues of morality and values or virtues as well as how they interact with their environments.

People’s norms as well as values are significantly different across the continents and their perceptions are greatly influenced by their cultures. The report therefore examines these cultural differences across the globe from the business perspective. The US-Polish case has been examined in relation to these cultural diversities (Canen 1999, pp. 3-10).

Background The report is a covers the effects that cultural diversity has on any business firm and how such diversity can be exploited to the advantage of the firm rather than being perceived as a problem. The firm under focus is a US-Polish corporation which is a multinational corporation with its operations in areas of different cultural backgrounds.

In Poland the company did not focus so much on the success of the firm or hard work. An individual was not perceived with great importance as in the US case. This therefore enabled the firm to change its strategies in its operations so as to appeal to the US population hence enabling it to do well.

Objectives

The main objective here was to determine the significance of cultural diversity and how it affects the success or failure of an enterprise. The report looks at how an enterprise can use cultural diversity to its advantage over its competitors both in the operations and marketing of its products and services.

With the increase in cultural interactions due to globalization, one cannot ignore the issue of cultural diversity if he/she intends to succeed in his/her ventures. The report there looks at how exploiting or ignoring such differences can affect an enterprise.

Main Body US/Polish Company

It was realized that there were significant cultural differences in the firm based in Poland and its US branch. In the US for instance, those applying for managerial posts were for instance subjected to minor tasks like sales before being considered for the position. This was not the case with Poland as those applying for the same were immediately considered.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The employees were also subjected to accountability in the US as opposed to the case in Poland. The issue of trust was also significantly different in the two cases. In the US case, employees were trusted and treated with dignity unlike the Polish case where there was the superior–inferior relationship and employees were treated with suspicion.

In the case of formality, the US managers were a bit informal, communicating to each other directly and freely without being ambiguous. In the polish case however, employees were addressed with formality.

The issue of hierarchy is not significantly visible in the US case as the managers often spoke to the other employees informally so as to eliminate any arising ambiguity in the communication system. Employees were assessed at individual level so as to determine their productivity as opposed to the polish case where the assessment was collective (Parboteeah 2010, pp. 462-465).

A joint venture in the US-Polish case has proved beneficial. In the US system for instance an individual is compelled to improve his/her productivity given that the person is assessed at an individual level and this leads to the general improvement in the company’s productivity. The Polish managers have been able to borrow ideas about the management of cultural diversity and its significance in the success of the company hence leading to improvement in the company’s production, marketing and delivery.

Global Business

With globalization, interaction of people from different cultures has become common. People interact through international organizations the WHO being just an example. The reductions in the air ticket prices and improved internet connections have increased intercultural interaction.

A business person therefore needs to have some insight into a people’s culture so as to effectively do business with them. Organizational or societal cultures are often influence by regional or even national cultural groupings and these are usually persistent over a long period of time. It is therefore very important for one to put such considerations in mind so as to succeed in business.

People from different cultures may have different attitudes of perceptions about a given product. The knowledge of this might be of great benefit particularly when one is coming up with the most appropriate marketing strategy for a certain market hence penetrating the market even more.

We will write a custom Report on Managing Cultural Diversity in International Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consumption patterns and individual needs are often different across cultures and this is vital knowledge for entrepreneurs. Any company or firm must embrace cultural diversity so as to be successful. This therefore demands that the company understands the cultures of different people.

This results in the employees feeling comfortable at their work place hence becoming more productive. The fact that they are comfortable makes them feel appreciated and would hence not opt to move somewhere else. This is beneficial to any firm as the costs of retaining or recruiting new workers is significantly reduced and the company will develop a positive image as well (Goldsborough 2007, pp. 200).

Whenever a firm incorporates people from different cultures speaking different languages in its operation, it always has an advantage over the other competitors given that it is able to penetrate new markets. The knowledge of different cultures enables firms to effectively navigate market complexities that are brought about by culture like social hierarchies, people’s business practices as well as their norms and values.

Obstacles

Some of the challenges encountered while trying to embrace cultural diversity include;

Problems in the political environment,

Challenges that are caused by the economic environment,

Legal issues and

The significant cultural differences.

Conclusion

Cultural diversity if perceived by a firm as advantageous rather than a shortfall can greatly influence the firms marketing strategy, its productivity as well as giving it a competitive advantage over the others. An organization needs to embrace cultural diversity for both the employees and the clients to feel appreciated and this will in the long run result in the productivity of that organization. It helps in the understanding of the behaviors of the consumer and this helps in designing the best marketing strategies.

Recommendations

Cultural diversity must be embraced by an organization for it to make it in its operations and service delivery.

Joint ventures to be done for the firms to learn about cultural diversity and how to go about it.

Skills, backgrounds as well as the employees’ cultures and traditions must be understood by the management so as to ensure that they are comfortable in their working environment hence increased productivity.

Reference List Canen, A.,

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Microsoft vs. Apple Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Differences

Similarities

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Apple incorporation is an international company that deals in electronic gadgets, computer software and hardware. Its operations began on 1ST April 1976 through the efforts of Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak as the founders. Apple incorporation mainly specializes in the manufacture of iPhone, iPod, Macintosh computers and iPad which is the latest computer technology. It is currently the world’s largest technology company and the second largest in the world after Exxon Mobil.

Microsoft is a corporation based in America that deals in developing of a vast collection of computer software and licenses. Bill Gates founded it in the year 1975 together with his friend Paul Allen.

Its growth was mainly achieved from the famous windows operating systems and their tricky business licensing rights as seen in the MS-DOS. Microsoft is also well known for its most preferred office suite in the world that is commonly used for instance the Microsoft office 2003, 2007, 2010 that are common in the computer market (Coursey, 2009, p.1).

Differences Since both deal in the development of operating system a distinction is made in the release and their uses. For instance when Microsoft is producing operating systems they produce one operating system but with several versions of the same. This is seen in windows xp where we have service pack one, two and three or in windows vista home basic, business and ultimate.

They produce them in such a way that it’s the same only a few features have been improved or upgraded. Contrary Apple releases are final such that only one operating system with no upgrades. They also ensure that their operating systems give their customers maximum satisfaction.

Apple specializes in both hardware and software production in that it manufactures the computer itself and the operating system. The Apple operating systems only function on Mac computers which are produced and distributed by Apple incorporation (Coursey, 2009, p.1).

Their operating systems do not function well on other non-Apple computers. Unlike Apple, Microsoft only deals in software production and distribution. They do not produce computers and thereby the sell their software to computer manufacturers such as dell, Hewlett-Packard, Toshiba, Lenovo among others. The computer manufacturers then sell their computer brands with Microsoft operating systems installed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Microsoft operating systems are compatible with almost all computers. This implies that Microsoft operating system can run on any computer in the world today except the Mac. Unlike Microsoft that runs on many computer brands, Apple operating system and software are only meant for Mac computers only. This means that apple products are exclusively meant for Mac computers only.

Similarities Both Apple and Microsoft corporations are worldwide companies that deal in the development and distribution of computer software and operating system. The most recent Microsoft operating systems include windows seven, vista and server among others while Apple’s most recent is the Mac OS X v10.6 Snow Leopard (Bleeker, 2010, p.1). The two companies provide software that help in the running of a computers and other electronic gadgets.

The two just like any other businesses have their goals and objectives. These include making profits and satisfying their customers’ wants and needs. They have to make sure they stay in business and it is through this that they have come up with a licensing program. The license helps to prevent imitation of their products and that is why genuine products from both companies have serial numbers or product keys.

Conclusion In a nutshell Microsoft and Apple Corporation both deal with software and hardware development and distribution. They mainly aim at providing solutions brought about by the desires and wants of their customers. Their products have become part of our lives that we cannot do without due to their application in the daily lives today.

Reference List Bleeker, E. (2010). Apple vs. Microsoft: Who Owns the Future? Retrieved from https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2010/06/04/apple-versus-microsoft-who-owns-the-future.aspx

Coursey, D. (2009). Microsoft vs. Apple: Running stupid, Not Scared. Retrieved from https://www.pcworld.com/article/168603/Microsoft_vs_Apple_Running_Stupid_Not_Scared.html

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Mc Donald’s Evaluation Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Budget Control

Market Control

Clan Control

Bureaucratic Control

References

Budget Control Mc Donald’s has many financial sources because of the diverse businesses it operates. The sources range from franchising to renting and leasing of property. While making the budget, the company puts into consideration many factors. Some of them include marketing and customer service.

This forms the basis for competing well in the market. Quality service is the hallmark of success at Mc Donald’s. The company does not buy expensive raw materials. It has a competitive tendering policy that recognizes the important aspects of its raw materials. Overall, the company has a policy to guard its budget against unnecessary spending.

Market Control Mc Donald’s is a globally recognized brand. Buzz marketing works to the company’s advantage. In its industry of operation, it is a market leader and a trailblazer. The company unveils new products frequently to appeal to its new and potential markets. This strategy is also meant to retain customers. The company believes that after using a certain product for some time, some customers get redundant. Therefore, it works hard to appeal to those customers by meeting their needs.

The company communication and advertising strategies are unbeatable. The combination of imagery and coloring in its ads makes it quite appealing to its potential customers. The company has divided its market according to needs. This includes children, youth, middle-aged and the old.

They have further subdivided the market according to disposable incomes. Therefore, it unveils products that aptly suit the market blocs. Before unveiling any products, the company conducts market research on the desired products. Then it employs market mixes that correctly suits the market. These strategies have enabled the company to maintain a lion’s market share and wade off competition.

Clan Control The mc Donald’s is not so far owned by a single person. The biggest food chain in the world is owned by a group of inheritors. These family members have squabbles that do not show in public. The company owners have also been associated with Satanism. Once, the owner Ray Kroc was rumored to have tithed in a Satan church. Though the family name gives the hotel chain some identity, it is also a source of many problems.

Management has a hard time to meet the demands of the owners. The company family members are also associated with powerful people in governments. The united sates government is accused of funding mc Donald’s to open new food chains abroad under the guise of foreign policy. The mc Donald’s are also publishers of occult materials in the UK. The company does this unabated which raises eyebrows (Love, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bureaucratic Control Because of the family background of Mac Donald’s, the company has a bureaucratic side in its operations. It is brought about by the apparent single handed decision making of the owners. Managers may make decisions, but it is always widely influenced by the owner’s wishes.

This extends to its franchises. The rules and regulations that govern the franchising business are custom made and different from any other in that field. This company employs a different business model from all the other players in the industry. It owns around a quarter of all restaurant chains directly and franchises the rest. Its method of franchising is different form all the rest. It owns properties of the locations of franchises.

The owner of mc Donald once said he is not in restaurant industry, he is real estate. The nature of agreements that govern its franchising is unique to many franchises. But, most of them have the condition of owning or leasing the property on which the franchise is located. Therefore, mc Donald’s collects rent from the franchises. Also, the company does not make direct sales to the franchise choosing to use third parties for that (Webb, 2007).

References Love, J. (2007). Big Macs, Fries, and Real Estate. Financial Executive, (4): 20–26.

Webb, H. (2007). The Association between Disclosure, Distress and Failure. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(4): 301-314.

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Beyond the Boundaries of the Ordinary Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online

A perfect specimen of postmodern vision of the world, the artworks by David Blackwood can be considered as a revelation in painting. Making the fantastic collide with the ordinary, the artist creates the specific vision of the world, suggesting the audience to share his ideas.

The very fact that his creation of 1980, Fire Down on the Labrador, has passed the time test and is still the object for admiration of millions of people, clearly shows that there is more to his pictures than meets the eye. The teasing irreality of the picture makes one peer deeper into the picture, trying to see the idea which led the author to creating this unusual and mysterious image.

In this “search for the pattern and meaning” (Leeuwen 35), it would be a good idea to take apart the picture into the ideas and images which come to one’s mind observing the masterpiece. Although some people tend to think that the thorough analysis can harm the perception of the picture, and, once taking it apart, one will never be able to make the pieces of the puzzle fall into their places, this is the very case when the analysis will do no harm, since the elements are as significant as the whole.

Casting a single glance at the picture is enough to understand that Blackwood dwells upon the marine theme. The troubled bluish sea and the outlines of the whale under the thick layer of water make one think of the vast ocean, wide as the entire Universe.

However, the ship that has caught fire breaks the silence of the ocean; the scarlet flames rising to the sky send the cries for help to the heavens above and shivers down the audience’s spines. Contrasted to the unruffled surface of the sea and the silent blocks of ice towering above the ocean, one can feel the trouble ringing in the air with his/her fingertips.

It seems that the whale which is floating under the dark thicket of the freezing sea embodies the suffering and the sorrow of the refugees from the ship. As well as those escaping from the ship, this ocean beast is being tortured by the fear within it; twisting and turning under the dark layers of water, it is curving in tortures.

What comes first to one’s mind when watching this picture closely is the scale of the elements in it. The shocking size of the whale, opposed to the tiny boat of the bunch of the sailors, is supposed to express the artist’s point if view. Making the survivors almost invisible compared to the whale, Blackwood creates the vision of the blind force which nature is for people, and makes it clear that, even when in pain – or is it better to say, especially when in pain? – it can toss away the feeble mankind with all its pathetic inventions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another idea which the picture raises is the eternal conflict of the incompatible. It seems that there is nothing as contrasting to each other as water and fire. Combined in a single picture and intertwined with the single plot, the two elements go wild in their fury, storming the nature into a rage as well.

However, there are two more elements in the picture which collide in a softer way. The sky and the ocean, both pitch-dark with the sparks of hope in them, both inviting and frightening, they mix into a fascinating vision. The few stars in the sky, lightening the way of the survivors, are so similar to the tiny bubbles rising from the depth of the ocean onto its surface; the former embodying hope, the latter meaning its loss, they create an incredible combination which makes one think of the frailty of human’s life and the secrets of the nature.

With help of the specific details and the thought-provoking legend of the picture, Blackwood created a masterpiece of all times. Though time passed, his work is still topical as ever. That is, perhaps, the best way to prove that real art never dies.

Works Cited Leeuwen, Theo Van and Carey Jewitt. Handbook of Visual Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2001. Print.

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Analysis of High Recovery Brackish Water Desalination Processes using Fuel Cells by Rajindar Singh Report (Assessment) custom essay help

Table of Contents Background

Rajindar Singh

Article Summary

Water Desalination Process

Reference

Background Analysis of High Recovery Brackish Water Desalination Processes using Fuel Cells (2009) was written by Rajindar Singh and details a water desalination technique using fuel cells. The author is the Technical Manager, Industrial Purified Water, Siemens Water Technologies, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.

Rajindar Singh Singh has authored and co-authored several articles that mainly touch on water purification systems, these articles have been published on scientific journals such as Separation Science and Technology, Desalination and Environmental Progress

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Social Trends, Social Responsibility and Ethics Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Following the currently competitive global business environment, business corporations are faced with new challenges of maintaining their corporate image sustainably. It has been revealed that, successful businesses have their business philosophies strongly founded on favorable social values with their clients. Since many of the contemporary businesses are founded on social settings, it is an obligatory duty for them to adhere to social ethics in order to acquire public reputation which would enhance their prosperity.

According to Althouse (73), prospective businesses should pursue productive practices in their businesses which enhance their sustainability in the future. As it has been argued, businesses find it difficulty to maintain high profits as they remain socially responsible in the society. This paper presents the ultimate business practices which enhance more success among businesses in the currently competitive business environment.

As noted by Baker (1), the issue of corporate social responsibility has for long been misinterpreted as just a money wastage practice without returns. Today, the perception of corporate responsibility has taken new forms where organizations invest to maintain a long-lasting relationship with the society. According to Althouse (75), successful businesses find it inevitable to conform to the societal ethics and expectations.

This would involve their active participation in societal development projects and practicing ethical dealings with their clients. For instance, fair pricing and provision of quality products is one of the most potential ethical practices among businesses capable of enhancing sustained business-customer relationship. By so doing, businesses would find more beneficial in the long-run, despite undergoing hardships at initial stages.

According to Baker (2), business people should be focused and determined to achieve their goals by being committed to establish cordial business-customer relationships. Despite the challenges which businesses may face, it is quite important that they persevere and get attached to their commitments. As revealed by Althouse (76), one of the most significant winning practices among businesses is commitment in addressing societal problems.

Businesses should remain hooked to their goals and determinations regardless of the hardships they face as they gear their efforts in pursuit of success for their businesses. As it has been noted, maintaining good business-client relationship is quite challenging requires a lot of commitment. On this basis, it is the social responsibility of the businesses in the contemporary society to be committed in serving their clients satisfactorily.

As noted by Althouse (74), successful business people have high degree of self discipline in their commitment to satisfy their customers. More precisely, businesses should maintain cordial relationships with their clients by being highly disciplined in playing their roles effectively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to ensure good business- customer relationships, both the customers and business people have to understand the specific roles entrusted to them, and work towards sustaining the mutual relationship established between the two parties. Baker (1) postulated that, business ethics is important in all aspects of a business starting from sales, customer service, and finance as well as product development.

On this basis, business ethics is a vital approach in doing business, whereby it’s potential of ensuring success and sustainability of a business, as it is part of corporate social responsibility, where it judges the perception of the business in the eyes of the surrounding community. Based on this phenomenon, a business with a good public image will definitely enjoy overwhelming performance due to public support and trust.

The public has the potential of enhancing or ruining the image of the business, thus determining its competitiveness. As stated by Baker (1), by gaining public trust the community acts as ambassadors of the business thus engaging in practices that promote the business. This will ultimately be reflected through increased business performance. In the case of customers, maintaining integrity in business practices enhances business relationships.

Customers are proud of businesses that practice integrity in all their undertaking. By so doing the branding efforts are facilitated hence leading to protection of the business goodwill that has significant impact on the success of the business. In the side of employees, business ethics is of magnificent value (Althouse 78).

The concept of business ethics is currently receiving significant attention in the corporate world. Baker (2) reports on how the cost of unethical business behavior is high and is continuing to rise, making businesses continue undergoing huge losses. This is attributed to increased human literacy, competition in business sector as well as increased government regulation. The late two to three decades have been associated with numerous scandals and unethical business practices.

Governments and the press have been interested in the issue hence leading to consumer enlightenment. This has in turn led to adverse impacts on the businesses that had engaged in unethical practices. Customers had to shift to reputable companies. Suppliers, investors and other interested parties to business have also declined their relationships with unrepeatable business. On this basis, it is only reputable businesses that had to sail through the market (Althouse 83).

The aspects of globalization and liberalizations of markets have also led to increased competition in the business world. This has in turn led to the need for ethical consideration in business practices.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Trends, Social Responsibility and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research by Althouse (84) has shown that, business that engage in ethical practices have been able to win public trust and loyalty. This is reflected through increased sales and profitability thus enhancing the profitability and sustainability of a business in the market. The concept of trust has found its relevance in the contemporary business dealings.

Businesses should act in a way that it wins the public confidence and conviction by being trustful to their clients. The element of trust has been identified to be very powerful in building a business image as well as enhancing the business performance. This is based on the fact that business partners, investors, customers and all interested party of a business are willing to work with a trust worthy business Baker (1).

Meeting obligation is also a vital principle in the contemporary business ethics. This principle entails the responsibility and accountability of a business in performing its tasks.

As indicated by Baker (2), a business should do everything in its power so as to gain the confidence and trust of the clients and customers. The business should be steadfast in honoring commitments with business partners, employees as well as the customers. For the case of business contracts, a business should willingly adhere to its commitment so as to be able to win the confidence of the other stakeholders.

Keeping an open mind has also been found to be a very influential element of business conduct, whereby it potential of ruining or building business reputation. As depicted by Althouse (89) the business management should exercise good leadership that is appealing to all stakeholders. For instance, the case of decision and policy making should be done in appealing manner. The business should be free to ask feedback and opinions from team members and customers.

By so doing, all groups will feel to be part of the business hence boosting its reputation and trust. More so, businesses should have Clear documentary through transparency and accountability in business operations. With reference to Baker (2), the concept of integrity is also of great importance in the business operations, whereby all undertakings should be just and appealing to all.

Further, businesses should pursue corporate responsibility by actively involving the community in its operations. For a business to be regarded as practicing business ethics, it should have the surrounding community at heart. The business is liable of staying involved with community activities and issues. The business practices should ensure protection and promotion of the interest of the community.

Regardless of the business potentiality and power, it should treat others with great respect (Althouse 84). Importantly, businesses and their clients should treat each other with high degree of respect. The virtue of courtesy and respect should be the guiding principle between a business an all parties it is relating with. By so doing, the business will be able to gain trust and respect from the public thus enhancing its performance (Baker 1).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Trends, Social Responsibility and Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A point worth of consideration is that, issues of pollution of the environment among other unethical practices were conducted without negative feedback form the general public. Based on these insights, the increased pressure and attention from media, non-governmental organizations, and rapid global information sharing, there has been overwhelming demand for businesses to conduct ethical and sustainable business practices.

On the other hand, businesses have also realized the need to conduct ethical practices in their endeavors of attracting and retaining customers, employees thus leading to the realization of corporate social responsibility. This research paper will profoundly explore the concept of corporate social responsibility in the business sector.

As evidenced in Baker (2), corporate social responsibility policy is a business development measure meant to establish built-in self adaptable mechanism that facilitate the businesses to check and ensure efficient conformity with the spirit of law, international standards and ethical customs.

With the increased competition in the business sector in recent days, there has been every need for each business to comply with the expectations of its customers as well as that of the wider population. On this basis, the main aim of corporate social responsibility is to augment responsibility and accountability by the businesses for their actions and encourage positive and admirable impacts to their environs.

With this in mind, corporate businesses have developed remarkable realization regarding the welfare of the consumers, environment, and the entire community at large. With the advancement of corporate social responsibility, businesses are actively promoting the public interests through being actively involved in various community development projects. In addition, businesses have also come to realization of the need to voluntarily eliminate practices that would harm the public sphere Baker (1).

Philanthropy has also been a stupendous approach to corporate social responsibility among many corporations. This entails monetary donations and aid to the communities. In relation to this concept, large organizations, both international and local, usually give monetary donations and aid to local organizations and impecunious communities in pitiable countries. Despite the benefits accrued from this approach to the communities, Althouse (89) reveals how it has gained a lot of criticism from different groups and scholars.

This is basically based on the fact that it only breast feeds the community and fails to give the appropriate skills and knowledge to the people to assist in improving their situation. With continued adoption of philanthropy, communities will become dependent on aid and thus worsen the situation rather than help in solving their situation. Nevertheless, Philanthropy has been of great significance to the corporations in that it has helped in building its image among the public thus being able to meet its objectives.

According to Althouse (93), the concept of creating shared value is also an important and efficient approach to corporate social responsibility. This approach is based on the fact that, business triumph and societal welfare are mutually dependent.

With this in mind, businesses have been liable to developing sustainable and admirable strategies thus are able to incorporate the community into the business interests. With an aim of creating shared value, businesses get involved in rigorous development of skilled labor force, sustainable resources, and healthy relationships with the society at large (Baker 2).

Based on the ideas of Althouse (94), corporate social responsibility is an act of ethics and morality. In this regard, businesses voluntarily and deliberate undertake corporate social responsibility initiatives as an act of ethics. This is in conjunction with the national and international norms and morals whereby the companies take different charity initiatives with the primary aim of improving the welfare of the communities.

Many multinational corporations operating in poor nations have deliberately involved in charity actions thus being able to improve the welfare of the communities. Volunteering has also been an outstanding concept in the corporate world in recent days whereby businesses voluntarily prioritize the interest of the wider population. It has been noted that, many businesses set a significant fraction of their revenues to assist the less fortunate in their surrounding.

As indicated by Baker (2), corporate social responsibility is of great importance in the business and social arena. Research carried upon various groups regarding the concept of corporate social responsibility, has shown a positive attitude and perception of people towards the issue.

This is so because; it has led to order and compliance of ethics in the business sector. With adherence to the concept of corporate social responsibility, businesses have significantly changed their behaviors and engaged in more admirable practices. For instance the issue of pollution to the environment has been efficiently countered. On the other hand, misleading advertisements have also been abandoned thus leading to order in the advertisement sector.

Conclusion In the currently competitive business context, corporate social responsibility has been of great significance. In this case, businesses which practice corporate social responsibility initiatives have been able to position themselves adequately upon the consumers. This situation has significantly enhanced the businesses performance since consumer loyalty and trust is enhanced.

Research carried on different businesses has shown that businesses which adopt efficient CSR initiatives have good performance in comparison with those which ignore social responsibilities of businesses.

Based on this concept, it is worth noting that corporate social responsibility is beneficial for the sustainability of the business. The competitive advantage of businesses has also been enhanced with the practice of corporate social responsibility. Businesses have been able to out-compete their opponents by involving themselves into admirable practices.

Works Cited Althouse, Richard. et al. The Future of Business, Second Canadian Edition. St Louis: Nelson Education Ltd, 2008.

Baker, Mallen. 2011 – This is the Scale of the Challenge. Business Respect, Jan 12, 2011. Web.

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Organizational Case Studies Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Organizational Design and Structure

Teams and Team working

Leadership and Management Approaches

Organizational Culture

Conclusion

References

Introduction Organizations across the globe pursue different managerial styles. Consequently organizations differ in the manner they undertake their operations and the way they handle their employees. Obviously this results in a difference in organizational performance at various functional levels.

The current business world demands a lot of shrewdness in the manner managers manage their organizations’ operations because the current business environment is very demanding, volatile and unpredictable (King 1997, p. 223).

However, a number of organizations are still known to lag behind in light of these changes and many still adopt archaic organizational practices. This study will explore organizations and managerial practices through a case study of two companies namely Watson’s Engine Components and H

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A Discussion on Net Neutrality Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

At its simplest, net neutrality is the principle that internet service providers and governments may not discriminate between diverse types of content, sites, platforms, and other kinds of applications that are accessed via online protocols. As such, the principle insinuates that no restrictions should be placed between users by either the government or internet providers, and that all internet traffic should at all times be treated equally.

First, network neutrality to a large extent benefit internet consumers because they are able to access content and sites that could otherwise be inaccessible or accessible at very low speeds in the absence of proper enforcement of the principle.

In the same vein, net neutrality guarantees internet users the right to use any gadget, content, site, application or service freely and at anytime without undue interference or obstruction from the service provider. Small companies have also benefited from the principle since it guarantees them speedy delivery of their content without necessary paying huge taxes to the service providers.

The losers are the big telephone and cable companies who want to control the information superhighway and reserve express lanes for their clients’ content, sites, and services while blocking or slowing down those of competitors. Other losers are the big companies who would go to any length, including paying steep taxes to services providers, to ensure they get speedy delivery of their content.

Network neutrality is obviously an important legislation if we are to ensure the survival of the internet. Not only does the principle preserves the free and open internet, but it also guarantees a level playing field for all web content, sites, and internet technologies.

On the sidelines, net neutrality grants internet consumers the power to choose between content, applications, and services, in the process enhancing innovation, competition, and access to information. What’s more, net neutrality ensures that governments and internet service providers do not interfere with the web content or internet traffic.

Every good thing has got its own dark spot, and net neutrality has been accused of permitting and even enhancing congestion across the networks, not mentioning that consumers have been complaining about the low quality of service as a direct consequence of net neutrality. But without net neutrality, the internet is likely to evolve into a system that will look more like a cable network in that providers will decide for the consumers which channels, sites, content and applications are currently accessible in their menu

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Net neutrality is perceived differently in other countries across the world, especially in countries that practice a conservative disposition. Indeed, many socialist and Islamic countries disapprove of an open, free and fair internet. Iran is one such country where its Islamic government is on record for censuring some sites and content popularly used by dissenting voices to organize demonstrations against an oppressive regime.

Some social networking sites such as Facebook and Tweeter, previously used by progressive citizens to hit at the government, have been censored and citizens are now depending on censorship-evasion technologies, mostly developed in China, to communicate with the outside world. Keeping people in closed societies amount to taking away one of their most basic rights – the freedom of association.

It should be remembered that these social networking sites not so long ago helped organize successful demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt, and both governments came tumbling down. The same can be done in Iran, but the repressive Iranian government is very keen on creating a cyberbarrier by blocking sites and censoring others, thus leaving citizens with no medium to share information and knowledge.

Benefits and Pitfalls of Social Networking Sites on Career Plans and Advancement Although many people log on to social networking sites to unwind or just chat with friends, reality is dawning upon us that they can be tapped and used as tools to further one’s career plans. Stories of students getting job offers via the virtual platforms after posting their academic credentials are no longer stories, but reality.

If your career path is oriented towards a business disposition, you can make massive sales and expose yourself more to your target market by simply advertising space on your friends’ or other people’s site pages. In this regard, it is of essence to take a stand that social networking sites can indeed help an individual’s career plans.

Apart from the benefits mentioned above, that is, marketing your educational credentials for potential employers and advertising your business as a career, social networking sites help people keep in touch with other like-minded people, in the process enabling an environment where knowledge and career opportunities are shared across the network.

Networking in its raw form is fundamentally critical when it comes to career plans as one cannot really advance in isolation. Still, networking with current students and alumni could add salient insights into the current status in the job market, the opportunities that exist, and the place to find them.

We will write a custom Essay on A Discussion on Net Neutrality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sites, however, can be detrimental to one’s career plans especially when individuals spend substantial amount of their time browsing the sites at the expense of other more important things that could benefit their careers such as enrolling for an upgrade course.

Other individuals network with friends who cannot in anyway add value to their career plans and projections. In as far as employers are using the social networking platforms to recruit members of staff, some graduates are inarguably being rejected by potential employers for positions or even internships due to the incriminating and often unsuitable information and pictures employers find on their social networking profiles.

Such a scenario to a large extent adversely affects one’s career goals. In addition, security worries are a major issue as stalkers may use the detailed information provided by people in such sites as Facebook and Tweeter to jeopardize ones career.

People using social networking sites need to follow a thorough set of rules. Such rules may include but not limited to:

Always network with people that add value to your life, not just social friends

Include in your list of friends people whom you share the same career ambitions, interests, goals or business acumen

Never post any incriminating or inapt information or pictures on your profile as potential employers or other people visiting your profile will most probably view the information as a reflection of your personal character and values

Take advantage of the opportunity offered by the sites to create a profile that depicts a positive self image, that puts your best qualities in the public domain

Be wary of security issues as stalkers (and even confidants) may use your private information to smear your reputation

It is a good practice for employers to check social networking sites so as to screen their applicants. The convergence of technology has enabled many things, some of which were unthinkable some few years ago. But people must agree that technology and the social networking sites are here to stay, and that these sites tells more of an individual’s character and predisposition than meets the eye.

What’s more, the platforms offer a more cost-effective way for employers to know the academic and social profiles of their applicants. Though a good practice, however, it raises fundamental ethical issues especially when one attend an interview only to be told to disclose their social networking accounts for scrutiny.

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Corporate Governance in East Asia Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Corporate governance is a topic that is multi-faceted with many aspects affecting the administration of corporations. Corporate governance essentially means the way corporations are directed through policies, laws, procedures and sets of customs that have been put in place. It is therefore a field of economics that is meant to ensure that corporations are effectively managed so as to improve on the financial performance of the enterprises (Azarmi, 2008, p.1).

Corporate governance can therefore be said to administer the manner through which the financiers of the corporations get their return on the investments made. The financiers as well as the stakeholders such as shareholders, suppliers, creditors, banks and the management are all concerned about the governance of corporations therefore calling for effective management of the corporations. The issue of corporate governance has been of concern in the modern world as a result of the rapid globalization rate.

Corporate governance has at the same time been of interest due to the collapse of many global high-profile companies. The 1997 Asian crisis is an example of the common tragedies that came as a result of poor corporate governance. This paper is therefore an analysis of the main features of the corporate governance systems in East Asia as well as a detailed look of the implications of the western firms trying to do business in East Asia.

The main features of Corporate Governance in East Asia Most nations in East Asia suffered economic fluctuations as a result of the financial crisis faced by countries such as Thailand. These disruptions included poor investments, bankruptcy, high rate of foreign debts, over capacity among others. All these were as a result of poor governance of the corporations. The Asian crisis affected five countries of East Asia namely, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Korea and Indonesia. This made East Asia have a new face of its corporate governance which has the following key features.

Participation and protection of shareholders

Due to the fact that most of the companies in East Asia are family owned it is evident that most of the shareholders will be family members. This has therefore called for the intervention of the board of directors to control the shareholders while safeguarding their interests (OCDE, 2000, p.5). Studies conducted in the countries of East Asia indicated that shareholders (especially the minority shareholders) were not allowed to effectively participate in the matters of the companies.

This was largely contributed by the lack of transparency and insufficient disclosure of information and requirements. The lack of transparency can be largely attributed to the idea of having less disclosure among family members and since the shareholders are mostly members of same families there arises lack of disclosure. Shareholders of the East Asian companies are not well protected since they do not get any incentives nor have their interests paid adequately.

Ownership

Research done on the countries of East Asia has shown that all have been concerned with corporate ownership. This means that they have dedicated the larger part of companies shareholders to family ownership or nominees of the company (OCDE, 2000, p.5). Despite this, the shareholding by foreign investors on most companies is diversified across the five countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cross-shareholding is widely practiced in the region whereby companies are allowed to buy and own shares of other companies so as to achieve strategic controls, economies of scale as well as facilitating contracts of supply. Despite the fact that corporate ownership is a key feature of the East Asia corporate governance, the corporations still lack transparency and disclosure of the requirements.

Monitoring and Protection of Creditors

Among a company’s stakeholders are the creditors who although they may not have a hand in decision making play an important role in corporate governance (OCDE, 2000, p.5). Their role in corporate governance is limited because of the mare reason that they are themselves poorly governed (Azarmi, 2008, p.1).

Research done on the East Asian countries showed that most of the money lending institutions were owned by the same families owning the companies. This therefore created a weak legal protection for the creditors of the companies. Protection of consumers was not up to date as per the studies since the government guaranteed most of the loans taken by the companies.

Corporate market control and competition of product markets

The Asian countries have had inactive corporate market control majorly because of the policies that the governments have put in place. The governments are seen to be so concentrated on the ownership of the companies making competition difficult hence poor corporate governance.

Poorly developed Capital markets

The East Asian countries have poorly developed capital markets that have been largely dominated by external financiers. Only about 30 per cent of the total finance is from the internal while the rest is dominated by bank loans. The overreliance on bank loans can be largely attributed to the underdeveloped capital markets making the companies have fewer alternatives of sources of finances.

The implications for Western firms trying to do business in East Asia East Asia has been the market place for many countries of the world because of the many resources the region is endowed with. However, for the western firms to be effective in East Asia, their mangers ought to be intuitive in making decisions as well as fast learners (Bruton, 2003, p.1). Other than that, the business entrepreneurs from the West are required to be well conversant with the cultural practices and languages of East Asia for effective running of the enterprises.

The venturing of Western firms in East Asia has both positive and negative implications on the region (Whitely, 1994, p.218). For one, the operations of the western firms in East Asia have greatly contributed to the economic growth and significant development of the region.

We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Governance in East Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is majorly because of the foreign exchange earned which in turn raises the price share in the global market. In addition, the venture of industries in the region has been depicted to shape the industries found in the region making them meet the international standards hence upgrading them.

This can be evidenced in the subject of corporate governance whereby the East Asian countries have imitated the way firms from the west are being effectively managed. Other than that, the venturing of western firms in the East Asia region breaks the monotony of having family owned companies hence creating healthy market competition. Competition improves the market by making sure high quality products are produced as well as limiting consumer exploitation.

Nevertheless, the bureaucracy of most East Asian nations and especially Indonesia has had negative implications of the western investment firms (Whitely, 1994, p.218). Their administrative policies and regulations have proved to be grate obstacle s for the western investors.

In some instances, the policies have been exploiting the businessmen by raising the costs incurred to undertake business in the region. The venturing of western firms to do business in East Asian countries will have great impact on the distortion of the cultural settings and norms of the region (Bruton, 2003, p.1). This is because through business interactions cultural practices will be exchanged hence affecting the original culture of the region.

All in all, when the western firms invest in the East region it is good indication that the region has developed and has upgraded its corporate governance to allow foreign investors. This therefore implies a positive move in terms of economic and financial growth.

Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clearly seen that good corporate governance is necessary for the economic growth of a region. The corporate governance in the East Asian countries can be said to be varied with some nations doing well while others having poor systems of corporate governance (Prowse, 2009, p1).

Among the countries, Malaysia seems to have good performance in corporate governance. However, reforms have been put in place especially after the Asian crisis so as to ensure that good corporate governance prevails in the region. It is because of the ongoing reforms that the western firms are trying to do business with countries of East Asia.

These reforms on corporate governance have concentrated on developing the capital markets, encouraging competition in the markets, ensuring participation of shareholders as well as promoting corporate control. All these have however, been partly facilitated by the venturing of the western firms into the East Asian market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Governance in East Asia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Azarmi, T., (2008). East Asian corporate governance and financial crises. Web.

Bruton, G., (2003). Understanding venture capital in East Asia: the impact of institutions On the industry today and tomorrow. Web.

OCDE., (2000). A Consolidated Report on Corporate Governance and Financing in East Asia. Web.

Prowse, S., (2009). Corporate Governance and Corporate Finance in East Asia: What Can We Learn from the Industrialized Countries? Web.

Whitely, R. Business systems in East Asia: firms, markets and societies. 1994. SAGE.

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Jean Piaget’ and Lev Vygotsky’ Views on the Learning Process Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Ideas of Piaget

Main Ideas of Vygotsky

Similarities and Differences

Opinionated Arguments and Counter Arguments

Conclusion

References

Introduction This paper seeks to explore the educational theories developed by world renowned theorists Piaget and Vygotsky to explain the process of learning. Educational theories refer to the speculative educational thoughts that are used to explain the nature of education as an important tool that guides and explains certain aspects and concepts to human beings. Educational theories were originally developed by the Greek philosophers to address the aspects of learning, educational policies and leadership.

The philosophers had the main idea of generalizing explanatory models for learning thereby creating a body of knowledge that would be used to theorize knowledge and create obversive practices that would be used in educational thought. Educational thought, which is an important component of most educational learning theories, deals with concepts of theory such as sociology, philosophy, critical thinking theories and psychology (Thomas, 2007, p.5).

The creation of educational theories was seen to be an important step by many educationists as it enabled them to determine the cognitive processes of human beings during the learning process. Jean Piaget and Lev Semionovich Vygotsky’s educational theories sought to explain the psychological processes that took place in human beings when learning took place.

According to the two theorists, cognitive development in educational theories was meant to explain how teachers used the cognitive processes of children to design learning programs that would meet their educational needs. With regards to Piaget’s educational theory, the main assumption that formed the framework for the theory was that intelligence came from actions performed by individuals as a result of interacting with their surrounding environment.

Vygotsky conversely based his educational theory on the fact that the learning process took place as a result of a series of reflexes that would be translated into educational thoughts. He founded his theory on the premise that all human behavior originated from reactions to stimuli that emanated from the external environment.

Vygotsky also viewed the use of private speech patterns as useful techniques that would allow children to internalize and understand educational information as well as the zone of proximal development which allowed teachers to determine the actual and potential learning ability of a child (Shaffer

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Criminal Law of Battered Woman Syndrome Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Essay

Case Study and elaboration of Battered Woman Syndrome

Battered Woman Syndrome and the Canadian Law

Canadian Bar Association Proposal

General information

Conclusion

Bibliographies

Footnotes

Introduction Criminal law refers to that branch of law charged with the responsibility of punishing crimes committed against the public where it deals with felonies, misdemeanors and treason. Misdemeanors refer to minor crimes under law while felonies are serious crimes serving harsh mandatory sentences[1].

Treason on the other hand is also a serious form of crime under criminal law as it not only violates public interest but also tends to threaten the welfare and national security of a nation[2]. Criminal law is imposed through a process known as criminal procedure where a person found guilty has the intentions of committing a criminal act or has already committed it.

Domestic violence which involves battering is perhaps one of the most common occurring criminal offenses in the world that is least reported. Battery usually comes in a number of forms incorporating all manner of harmful and threatening acts. There are those cases where battery escalates to kicking, choking, hitting with objects, sexual assault and ultimately end in death[3].

Essay One of the major mistakes majority of individuals make is to believe that battered women tend to bring the violence upon themselves and that if they really desired to leave they could do so easily. Such people do not stop and think that perhaps these battered women are being held hostage in their own homes and are psychologically being abused in an effort of breaking down their will and bring them under control[4].

However, domestic violence or battery is punishable under law where its criminalization has led to the enigma being defined legislatively and legally[5]. In other words it is currently prosecuted as a crime by attorneys even though no charges are brought against the abuser by the victim and where their assistance is not required.

Case Study and elaboration of Battered Woman Syndrome A case study is given where W has been beaten and bullied by her husband H for a number of years. One night after enduring yet another beating, W decides that she has had enough of the abuse. In the middle of the night, she soaks the bed where her husband is sleeping soundly with gasoline then drops a lighted match onto the bed. H dies a slow and painful death after two weeks in hospital.

On trial for the second degree murder of H, W pleads self defense. Looking at the case study, it is obvious to conclude that W suffered what is called the Battered Woman Syndrome. This is a form of post traumatic stress mostly suffered by women who have been victims of consistent and/or severe domestic violence[6].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Battered Woman Syndrome is an occurrence of behavioral and psychological behaviors which happen in four main phases that is denial, guilt, enlightenment and responsibility[7]. At denial, these women hold on to the belief that the abuse or violence will never happen again and that they were actually responsible for provoking such behavior. The second phase is the guilt phase where a battered woman begins to acknowledge the fact that there is a problem in her relationship and that she has been a victim of abuse where it may occur again[8].

Enlightenment is the third state of the Battered Woman Syndrome where a battered woman begins to understand that no one has a right to be abused or battered. Even though she is in this particular stage, she may decide to still stay with her abuser in an effort of keeping the relationship firm hoping that things might change in future. Lastly is the responsibility stage where the victim accepts the fact that her partner has a problem that only he can be able to fix[9].

Battered Woman Syndrome and the Canadian Law W had already reached the 4th stage of Battered Woman Syndrome but instead of taking the step of leaving H, she decided to kill him instead perhaps in the belief that he would never do that again to any other woman leave alone herself. Battered Woman Syndrome has been incorporated in criminal cases since late 1970s where in order to testify on this syndrome, experts need necessary qualifications[10].

The union of happenings in the social stream at that time resulted in a movement charged with the responsibility of catering to the equality for women[11].

It was a requirement that before a battered woman could present her case before a jury she required an advocate to present her experience. A battered woman’s self defense case required the vision of an attorney to formulate the case and a judge willing to give permission for it to be presented to the jury[12].

Under the Canadian Law Battered Woman Syndrome is recognized in the context of other defenses where presenting it in a courtroom involves the utilization of well prepared evidence[13]. Women in the past have been treated in an orthodox manner by the Canadian courts where their needs and situations were not fully considered. There was also a gendered construction of the self defense principle which evaluated woman against a male standard of reasonableness[14].

The Battered Woman Syndrome finally became recognized in Canadian courts after a decision in R v. Lavellee was passed. This was a case where the accused, Lavalee, was in a common law relationship with her husband Kevin Rust which was abusive[15]. In their course of fighting, her husband apparently threatened to harm her stating that either she kills him or he would get her.

We will write a custom Essay on Criminal Law of Battered Woman Syndrome specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The though of killing herself had also crossed her mind while they were fighting but when Kevin turned to leave the room she shot him in the back of his head, killing him instantly[16]. In the course of her trial, she pleaded she was acting in self defense and also had a psychiatric testify in her support[17].

Lavallee’s case is quite similar to W’s and if W goes to trial, the Canadian court would rule in her favor. After enduring a marriage of battering and violence and given her mental state at that particular point, W felt that if she did not act soon she would be killed by H. Because of repeated pattern of violence majority of battered women usually correctly foresee future violence or are aware of when to take threats seriously[18].

Even though some individuals believed that Lavallee’s case represented a step in the right direction in as far as a judicial system willing to help women’s needs was concerned, the case did not have as huge an impact as had been expected[19]. Given W’s and Lavallee’s cases it is quite clear to observed that each person’s experiences with battering is personalized and a real psychological understanding can only be achieved best with assistance from expert evidence[20].

Canadian Bar Association Proposal According to the Canadian courts Battered Woman Syndrome is not a defense on its own as it is discussed in the context of already established and existing defenses[21]. The fact that the appellant was a battered woman does not necessarily entitle her to an acquittal as it is believed that battered woman may kill their spouses for reasons other than self defense[22]. The Supreme Court of Canada has clearly established that more evidence is required to grant acquittal.

Canada has taken the initiative where the Supreme Court has made a decision to allow the Battered Woman defense throughout the nation[23]. The Canadian Bar Association upheld admission of divisive expert evidence regarding Battered Woman Syndrome[24]. As far as W-type cases are concerned there seems to exist a big gap between those that are taken through the courts and those that are not.

The Canadian Bar Association proposal for the reform of the self defense provisions would not produce a different result from what has thus far been observed as those cases brought forward such as W’s are creating concern as some of these women do not fit the stereotype of a battered woman in the eyes of juries and judges[25]. This can be attributed to failures in the criminal justice system which incorporates failure to prosecute the abusers[26].

General information Up to date, there has not been a single strategy or solution that can greatly improve the case of battered women such as W due to a huge number of social factors to consider including the never ending waiting lists at majority of shelters, lack of responsiveness and care taken by the law enforcement and prosecutors in many domestic violence situations and their general treatment in criminal cases[27].

It is also unfortunate that since the Lavallee case victims of domestic abuse have not quite understood or found comfort in the justice system. Even though convictions and guilty pleas of battered women who appear on trial seem to outweigh acquittals such women are not being treated leniently by the courts[28].

Not sure if you can write a paper on Criminal Law of Battered Woman Syndrome by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, failure by the law enforcement as well as prosecution to bring majority of cases forward in as far as battered women are concerned is evidence enough of the fact that the justice system does not always consider battering to be too serious a crime and that perhaps some of these women are hesitant on mentioning that they are actually victims of domestic abuse[29].

Conclusion The Battered Woman Syndrome was first introduced by a single researcher in the early 1970s where it was founded on clinical observations. Despite the fact that it became a popular manner in which behavior could be justified in some court it has not yet been fully accepted or established in the psychology arena.

It is therefore important for those advocating for battered women with a social agenda to start doubting the political value of testimony regarding Battered Woman Syndrome. Solutions should also be sought to the increased domestic battering and abuse taking place in America as well as most parts of the world.

Bibliographies Kilgore, Nancy, Every Eighteen Seconds: A Journey Through Domestic Violence (Volcano, C.A.: Volcano Press, 1992).

Saunders, R.P., Criminal Law in Canada: An Introduction to the Theoretical, Social and Legal Contexts (Toronto: Carswell, 2002).

Footnotes Kilgore, Nancy, Every Eighteen Seconds: A Journey Through Domestic Violence (Volcano, C.A.: Volcano Press, 1992), 69.

Saunders, R.P., Criminal Law in Canada: An Introduction to the Theoretical, Social and Legal Contexts (Toronto: Carswell, 2002), 120.

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Saunders, R.P., Criminal Law in Canada: An Introduction to the Theoretical, Social and Legal Contexts (Toronto: Carswell, 2002), 120.

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69.

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Saunders, supra note 2, 120

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

Kilgore, supra note 1, 69

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The dark side of Guatemala in the ’80s Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of Emigration in the 1980’s

Effects of the Genocide

Migration Experiences

Transnational Cultural Identities

Economic and Cultural Contribution of the Immigrants

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Guatemala has been in the spotlight for all the wrong reasons, as many would want to think; however, this beautiful Central American country has a dark past that might pass the ordinary eye in the contemporary times. The indigenous people in Guatemala are the Mayan people. Between 1960 and 1996, Guatemala underwent civil war between the military government of Guatemala and ethnic guerilla opposing the government with various acts of violence against the civilian population.

The civil war pitted the military government and the various guerrilla groups leading to mass emigration of Guatemalans to the neighboring countries like the US, Honduras and Mexico to seek for asylum. The emigrants included political leaders and professionals evading the autocratic regime. High emigration rates were experienced during the 1980’s, when there was much fighting going on.

In 1981, the Guatemala army attacked Mayan villages causing mass genocide following a non-violent protest march by Mayan leaders. The US involvement in Guatemala civil war occurred in the 1950’s, when the US aided in the removal from power of Guatemalan leader because of his communist beliefs. Trans-nationalism involving the immigrants to the North America has contributed to economic development of their native countries.

Causes of Emigration in the 1980’s In the 1980’s following a protest march by the Mayan leaders, the Guatemalan army attacked Mayan villages and committed mass genocide in which over 200,000 people died or went missing (Stoll 48). Earlier on in the 1950’s the US assisted in the removal from power of the Guatemalan leader Arbenz Guzman and his Government because of his harboring of communist ideals, as perceived. This led to civil war between the military government and insurgencies opposed to the military rule.

One of the causes of Guatemalan civil war was the opposition to communist ideas supported by Russia. To get US support the military government alleged that the Mayan people supported communism. The US aided the military during the civil war by provision of weapons and training them at the US Army School of the Americas. People used the training skills and weapons later against the Mayan people leading to the 1980’s genocide.

The atrocities committed in the 1980’s were fuelled by anticommunist beliefs held by Marxist guerilla organizations. In the 1970’s the guerilla groups supported by the indigenous people, who represent the majority of Guatemalan people, rearranged to regain control of the government.

They demanded equality for the culture with the non-indigenous ladino. However, this led to many acts of atrocity to civilians performed by the military government against insurgents and civilians alike. The military planned an offensive to wipe out the revolutionaries opposing the government. They burned down houses and farms in regions supporting the guerillas. Many people, mostly civilians were murdered in the process or taken into internment camps called ‘modal villages’ or forced to join the military.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The military targeted civilian population where the rural inhabitants were subjected to extreme violence. Human rights violations involving the civilian population were enormous with both the military government and the guerillas being responsible. The US support involving intelligence services from the CIA and military training helped the military government to commit crimes against humanity against the civilians in the 1980s.

Effects of the Genocide Executions, abductions, and disappearances of Mayan population each day, characterizes the Guatemala’s genocide (Mainz 135). This acts of atrocity led to mass migration of the civilian population to the neighboring countries for political reasons. The immigration of people from Guatemala to other neighboring countries was fueled by many causes.

The migration can majorly be attributed to political unrest experienced during the civil war, economic hardships and natural disasters. The civil war in the 1980’s in Guatemala led to emigration of several people to Honduras. Most of the migrants from the neighboring countries shared cultural and historical background with the natives Honduran Miskitos.

In addition, the United States had an agreement with the Honduran government to stage anticommunist battles in its territory against countries supportive of communism in Central America. Honduras was thus relatively stable politically and this attracted migrants running away from violence from Guatemala. The location of Honduras centrally in Central America made it easy for migrants to access it through the borders with conflict torn countries.

Honduras also adopted the policy of eradicating insurgents or guerilla threats within its borders. This policy was supported by the United States, aiming at promoting National security within the Honduran territory. This made Honduras relatively stable and a safe haven to refugees fleeing war and violence from their countries including Guatemala.

In the 1980’s the United States used the Honduran territory with the purpose of eliminating the influence of communism following the events of the Cold War. In an attempt to stem out any elements supporting the idea of communism, the US government promoted the adoption of the National security doctrine within Honduras. The doctrine enabled security personnel to deal with external threats of communism and internal subversive influence supporting communism.

The United States government also influenced the Honduran military to establish democratic governance through constitutional amendments. Through these constitutional changes, a civilian president, Roberto Suazo Cordiva governed between 1982 and 1986.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The dark side of Guatemala in the ’80s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This democratic government did not have the full control of the military but adopted policies to expand the democratic space as supported by the United States. Much of the Honduras, as controlled by the military, responsible for the internal security of Honduras, Suazo Cordoba and the successors of the democratic rule supported the national security doctrine promoted by the United States.

In 1984, the commander in chief of the Honduran military, General Gustavo Martinez was overthrown by an internal coup. This led to unprecedented human rights violations by the military. The national security doctrine resulted into torture and murder of alleged supporters of communism beliefs including students and religious figures.

Migration Experiences The Maya migrants faced many difficulties when they migrated to other peaceful neighboring countries. They encountered a hostile political environment with anti-immigrant and exclusionary policies developed in Georgia. They feared deportation to their war torn countries from the country of exile. The Maya migrants from Guatemala could not practice their culture and traditions in the foreign countries for fear of discrimination and even deportation.

Because of the suspicious treatment, the Maya people were forced to blend in with Latino communities in order to avoid identification by the authorities. Cases of discrimination and marginalization led to some Maya immigrants adopting the Latino culture. In addition, the children bore of Maya parents in the United States face difficulties in learning their native language and preserving their cultural identity. This is because of anti-immigrant conditions to the foreign country and poverty faced by the immigrants.

The Maya emigrants also underwent through traumatic experiences during their migratory process to the neighboring countries. The Guatemala Mayans first migrated to Mexico before moving north to the United States. Mexicans forced them to change their ethnic and cultural identity to avoid stereotyping experienced.

The men used Mexican style boots and cowboy hats while the women had to wear makeup to appear different from traditional Mayans. The Mayans also had to learn ladino or Mexican language to be able to communicate with the natives in Mexico and the United States Mexican migrants. To avoid discrimination and ethnic prejudice, the Mayans had to adopt anonymity and secrecy in practicing their culture and traditions.

Guatemalans migrants to the United States face difficulties in acquiring a refugee status as the laws do not recognize them. Apart from restrictive US immigration policy, the Mayan migrants face discrimination in the job market and cultural discrimination as the Latino religious institutions in the US dominate them.

Transnational Cultural Identities The international migration of the Maya led to the pan-Mayan movement that is associated with economic change. The pan-Mayan movement started in Guatemala after the civil war with an aim of promoting indigenous scholarship, Mayan traditions regarding dressing and improvement in agricultural activities in their land (Foxen 69).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The dark side of Guatemala in the ’80s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The movement fights against discrimination in education, employment and in politics. The pan-Mayan movement also enhances self-awareness through promotion of linguistic groups e.g. kanjobales living in different municipalities.

The pan-Mayan movement adopts strategies that promote trans-nationalism through the establishment of connections that allow different indigenous communities to stay in touch. This allows the different indigenous groups spread across the American continent to share cultures through meetings. Through the Labor Organization convention 169, the Indigenous and Tribal peoples from different countries are able to express their demands in the global media.

This acts as an instrument for ensuring that human rights are followed and reports any violations of individual rights of the indigenous people. The Agreement of Identity and Rights of Indigenous peoples of Guatemala in 1995 further ensure proper protection of individual’s rights.

Economic and Cultural Contribution of the Immigrants The Guatemala influence on the cultural patterns on the residents of the foreign country is evident. An example is in the honoring of the patron saint that is characteristic of the Guatemala culture (Loucky and Moors 77). The occasion is accompanied with social dances found in Guatemala indigenous highlands.

There is also the re-emergence of Mayan culture in conducting of patron saint activities among the traditional Catholic Mayan immigrant community in Los Angeles. The transnational communities provide labor in the North and give remittances that help promote Guatemala’s economic development.

The Guatemalan immigrants to the US start up businesses and provide labor to the industries. The immigrants also contribute taxes increase the National budget. The Guatemala immigrants fuel the US economy provision of labor force. They work in agricultural, construction and service industries. They have invested through the transnational network in the US in various sectors helping to stimulate economic development.

Migration to the US by the Guatemalans has led to the transfer of capital and has accelerated the exposure of the traditional communities to modern knowledge and education through the trans-nationalism (Daniells 118). The immigrants invest in Guatemala in large enterprises creating opportunities to those who did not migrate.

There was a transfer of the new knowledge and innovations acquired by the immigrants to the natives. This has helped to bolster economic development in Guatemala. The Maya ethnic communities in the US facilitated the cultural exchanges and created cultural awareness.

Socio-cultural transnational activities reinforced self-image of tribes like the pokoma Mayans who could not identify themselves as Mayans. The socio-cultural activities like collective solidarities among the indigenous Mayan migrants led to the economic and social improvement of the natives in Guatemala.

The members of the Mayan community have also been assimilated into the other ethnic groups through education. In the US, the process of acculturation stands out where the Mayan children born in US embrace the norms and cultures of the native Mexicans.

Conclusion The Guatemalan genocide of 1980 led to mass migration of the Guatemalans notably the Mayans to politically stable countries including Honduras, Mexico and northward to the US. The fear of perceive communist ideals held by the Mayan people led to acts of brutality that culminated into the 1980 genocide.

The genocide led to emigration of the Guatemalans running away from war and economic hardships to seek asylum in other neighboring countries. During their migratory process, they underwent racial discrimination and political hostility from residents of the host country.

Fearing reproach and other forms of discrimination, the immigrants never disclosed their cultural identities in public. However, through trans-nationalism, the Mayan people have been able to establish social and cultural identity and regained cultural identity. The immigrants have contributed immensely to the socio-cultural and economic development to the host countries including the US and their ancestral countries too.

Works Cited Daniells, Roger. Coming to America: A history of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life. New York: Haper Collins publishers, 1990.

Foxen, Patricia. In Search of Providence: Transnational Mayan Identities. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2007.

Loucky, James, and Moors, Marilyn. The Maya Diaspora: Guatemalan Roots, New American lives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000.

Mainz, Beatrice. Refugees of a Hidden War: The Aftermath of Counter-Insurgency In Guatemala. New York: State University of New York press, 1988.

Stoll, David. Between Two Armies in the Ixil Towns of Guatemala. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

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