Executive Summary IBM is the worlds leading producer of computer softwares and hardwares. The company has been in operations for more than a decade. However, given the current economic conditions, it has been imminent that the company comes up with strategies that ensure that it remains sustainable and profitable in the short run and in the long run. To achieve this, it has been essential for the company to focus on and modify its human resource in order to ensure that it global operations are effective and efficient.
Introduction IBM is an international company that has operations in over 160 countries worldwide. The company has been in operation for over a decade now. In the process of its operations, the company has managed to be a leader in creativity, technological advancement and innovation (Palmisano, 2010).
However, to achieve the current popularity and success that the company is enjoying, IBM has come up with and implemented a number of strategies in its operations. This has ensured that the operations of the company are effective and efficient hence enabling it to achieve its short term and long-term goals and objectives. At the same time, the company has always managed to satisfy the diverse needs of its customers given its wide range of activities in different business segments ranging from computing to consultancy.
However, never have companies and business entities faced challenging situations that at the present moment. The business world is highly dynamic, characterised with demanding customers, increased competition from local and foreign firms, rapid change in technology, increased costs of productions and a global economic crisis (Lesser and Blumberg, 2007).
Therefore, to become sustainable and profitable, it is essential for firms to come up with effective and efficient strategies that will ensure that they will stand at a competitive edge over their rivals in their respective industries.
IBM Business Context International Business Machine (IBM) is a multinational corporation that deals with the development and manufacture of computer hardware and software (Bartlett and McClean, 2006). IBM also offers consultation services. Other services that the company offers include infrastructure and hosting services (Austin and Nolan, 2010).
The company mainly deals in the building and development of mainframe computers and nanotechnology. This has been the trademark with which IBM has been related with for the last several decades. IBM was founded as Computing Tabulating Recording Company in 1911 (Applegate, 2009). This came about as a result of the amalgamation of three different companies. These were:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tabulating Machine Company
International Time Recording Company
Computing Scale Promotion
In 1924, the company changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM), a name that it is using up to the present moment. In the course of its operation, IBM has developed a distinct organization culture, which is reflected in its products, services, and operation. It is due to this fact the organization is normally referred to as the Big Blue (Garr, 2009).
In the 2010/2011 financial year, IBM had a total revenue turnover of $106,916 million and a net revenue of $15,885 million. Still in the same year, the company had a market capital of $232,891 million and a return on investment of $31,065 million (Maney, 2003).
It is due to this fact that Fortune Magazine ranked IBM as the second largest company in the United States in terms of the size of its workforce. This is because the company had 433,362 employees and fourth in terms of market capitalization. The same magazine ranked IBM as the 19th most profitable company in the United States in terms of revenue earned (Hemp and Stewart, 2011).
Given its long period of operations and its magnitude, it is inevitable for such a company to avoid challenges (Daniels, 2009). However, the company has always come up with quick, effective, efficient and responsive measures to ensure that it stands at a competitive advantage over its rivals within the technology industry and to be sustainable and profitable in the short run and in the long run. One of the measures that IBM has been using to stand at a competitive edge is mergers and acquisition.
In 2009, IBM acquired SPSS (Boudreau, 2010). IBM had acquired PwC in 2002. In 2005, IBM sold Lenovo and ThinkPad. To facilitate its operations, the company has an effective and efficient organization structure and culture that aims at ensuring that it achieves its vision, mission goals, and objectives.
Competitive Advantage Technology is evolving at a very fast rate (Cascio, 2010). As a result of technological advancements, firms have expanded their operations into overseas markets to expand their market share and increase their profitability. This has increased the level of competition in almost each and every economic segment.
At the same time, the needs, preferences, and expectations of consumers all over the globe are changing at a tremendous rate. This has put a lot of pressure to multinational firms such as IBM in the process of trying to keep up with the pace of these changes and advancements in addition to achieving their short term and long-term goals and objectives.
We will write a custom Report on IBM HR Strategies in Talent Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To stand on a competitive edge, Randy MacDonald, IBMs the Human Resource Vice President in 2003 realised that it is essential for the firm to come up with strategies that will enable the firm to overcome the human capital challenges that it was facing (Dowing, 2005). Together with the then CEO of the company, Sam Palmisano, they realised that the global market was evolving at an alarming rate.
It was thus essential for IBM to modify its operations to ensure that the firm is capable of meeting the market needs and demands. To explain the best means through which the organization can achieve this, Sam came up with a new term, Globally Integrated Enterprise (GIE) (Cappelli, 2008). He stated that businesses should soon start to operate on a global level. It was thus essential for IBM transform its operations to reflect to these trends before their clients adopt GIE.
To achieve this, IBM needed to modify most of its operations. This included its supply chain, its IT systems and networks, marketing strategies, and its product development processes. However, from a careful analysis, it is evident that all these operations rely on one main factor; the human capital of the company and the challenges that its human resource management was facing. For efficiency, IBM had to improve its operations on a national level, then to a multinational level and finally integrate it globally.
However, IBM is operational in more than 160 countries worldwide thus implementing these changes in each and every brand will result in redundancy, duplication of efforts, and inefficient utilization of resources. Therefore, to optimize its operations, Sam and Randy saw that it was wise to optimize IBMs operations on strategic locations in the globe and to integrate its operations horizontally and globally (Robson, 2009).
These changes have been effective since they have improved the level of operations of the organization as a result of the company conducting the correct tasks at the right places at the right time with the best personnel.
International Human Resource Management (IHRM) IBM is a multinational corporation. It is operational in all the continents of the world. Thus, in the course of its operations, the company normally meets with customers and clients who come from different cultures and backgrounds. In most cases, the expectations, tastes, and preferences of these people will normally vary.
In the course of operations of an organization, it is evident that talent and human capital are vital to its long run success (Wright, 2009). IBM is one of the few companies that have realised this and to have a competitive edge over their rivals, the company has developed a strong team that not only comes up with effective and efficient products and services to its clients but they also possess the expertise and deliver practical solutions to their clients.
To achieve this advantage, IBM has come up with strategic measures that impart necessary knowledge and skills to its vast workforce. Motivation and strategic deployment have also been put in place. These are but some of the human resource management strategies that have been put in place to ensure that the talent of its workforce is natured and developed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on IBM HR Strategies in Talent Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, to ensure that IBMs operations are effective in the different regions of the globe, the company has adopted the IHRM strategy. IHRM can be defined as a management strategy that focuses on a wide array of functions, processes and activities that operates on more than one nation (Antony, 2008). It is the strategy that is used in the management of human resources at a global level (Smith, 2008). The following approaches can be used with regards to IHRM:
Ethnocentric approach – Home country approach
Polycentric approach – Local approach
Regiocentric approach – Regional approach
Geocentric approach – Global approach
With respect to this, a firm has the option of recruiting the following kinds of employees:
Parent country nationals (PCNs)
Host country nationals (HCNs)
Third country nationals (HCNs)
IBM has been using the IHRM concept due to its global operations. To ensure that its operations are effective and efficient, the company has adopted the geocentric approach (Weatherly, 2005). Here, the most qualified personnel are chosen to hold specific positions within the organization.
However, due to the fact that different clients from different regions have different needs, IBM has come up with a concept of deploying HCNs on subsidiary offices while PCNs and TCNs are located at the headquarters (Boudreau and Ramstad, 2007). This ensured that the products and services offered by the company meets the expectations, needs and preferences of their clients from different regions in the world. ‘
IBM has also appreciated the ideology of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The main aim of IBM is to make the world a better place through technology and innovation. Thus, to achieve this, IBM is always involved in programs that aim at improving communities. IBM has been investing in local secondary schools to improve the quality of education and creating technological awareness and e learning. In addition, the company has been offering over 3,500 internship positions annually to nature and develop the talent of the youths.
IBM is also gender sensitive and ensures that women are part of its workforce. As of 2011, 18% of its workforce comprised of women (Cummings, 2009). This figure is expected to increase in the coming years. Finally, IBM has been facilitating a number of projects and has facilitated open door policies to ensure that the views and ideas of its employees and stakeholders are adhered to and implemented in order to ensure that the company has a competitive edge over its rivals and is sustainable in the short run and in the long run.
Global Talent Management Challenges As it has been depicted, operating on a global level brings about global challenges on the human resource department of IBM. One of the main challenges that IBM has been facing is its constant expansion (Harvey, 2010). IBM has been expanding into new territories in order to increase its influence in the technological industry as well as expanding its market share. However, in this process, the company has to adhere to the requirements, culture, and norms of the new environment.
To ensure that the company overcomes this issue, IBM has been striving to achieve employee loyalty. It is due to this fact that the company has incorporated HCNs in its operations especially at the local level. These individuals have a better understanding of the indigenous people hence they play an essential role in in-depth relationship building with local clients (Weiss, 2012).
These employees normally undergo rigorous training and adopt the experiences of the old work force to ensure that they perform their roles and duties as per the expectation of the corporation. In addition, there are learning, motivation and development avenues that ensure that all IBM employees develop the necessary knowledge and skills that are required to ensure that IBM stands at a competitive edge over its rivals.
It is with regards to this that IBM has also adopted Schulers et al strategic HRM model (Schuler et al, 2008). By adopting this model, IBM considers exogenous and endogenous factors while developing strategic multinational corporation models. Industry and national characteristics are examples of exogenous factors while the structure of international operations, the organization structure, competitive strategies, and the international management experience are some of the endogenous factors.
The fact that IBM has a clear understanding of its internal and external operating environment has always played a critical role in ensuring that it formulates effective and efficient strategies that enable it to be sustainable both in the short run and in the long run (Cunneen, 2008).
Once knowledge about the internal and environment is available, IBM normally develops inter-unit links and comes up with international operations strategies that will ensure that its operations are effective and efficient both locally and globally (Mullins, 2005). To achieve this, IBM formulates strategic IHRM functions and policies. Some of the functions include:
Selection of strategic locations for global operations
On the other hand, some of the policies that the company formulates may focus on:
Staffing (PCNs, HCNs, and TCNs)
Flexibility of operations
Research and development plans
After the development and implementation of these policies and strategies, the overall results that IBM enjoys are cost reductions, presence of effective and efficient operations, local, regional and global sensitivity and the development of learning and transfer strategies that improve the knowledge and skills of its employees worldwide (Seleshi, 2010).
Human Resource Planning The strategies that have been mentioned above cannot be successful without careful HR planning. In this process, IBM normally balances between labour demand and labour supply (Bradford, 2011). The following table shows some of the considerations that are put in mind at this stage (Davis, 2012).
An understanding of these factors makes it easier for the human resource department to analyze the impacts of the business on its operations and workforce. At the same time, a clear understanding of labour demand and supply is always arrived at. This increases the efficiency of talent location and re-location improving the management of employee cost.
However, for the HR to be effective in its operations, it has incorporated all of the Torringtons 7Cs. IBM has a strong organizational culture that is based on teamwork and respect among employees and focuses on satisfying its clients (Dow, 2010).
The company uses cosmopolitan techniques to control its international operations and compensates its employees who work overseas. IBM is a competent organization comprising of qualified employees in diversified fields. These employees coordinate together through teamwork that is based on effective communication and consultations when in doubt.
Organizational Capabilities Organization capability refers to the ability of a firm to undertake a particular activity (Stacey, 2007). IBM has a vast workforce that is highly qualified, motivated, and dedicated to their work and satisfying their clients. Due to this fact, the organization has become a leader in creativity and innovation standing at a competitive edge over its rivals (Mullins, 2005).
IBM is competent in understanding the needs and expectations of its clients from all around the globe. Through this, IBM has developed core competent strategies that have enabled the organizations operations to be effective and efficient. This has made the organization to be sustainable in the short run and in the long run.
Conclusion and Recommendations The market, needs, and desires of customers are changing at a high rate. Therefore, for IBM to ensure that it stands at a competitive edge over its rivals, it has come up with a number of policies and strategies that mainly rely on human capital and resource management. IBM has thus come up with Globally Integrated Enterprise (GIE), a strategy that has transformed its HR department to meet the global needs and desires of its clients. The strategy has been successful and has ensured that IBM remains a leader in the technology industry.
However, to sustain its operations in the long run, IBM needs to incorporate more HCNs in its operations as one of its CSR strategies. The company also needs to come up with means through which it can identify and develop talent within and outside its organization in order to maintain its role as a leader in the technology industry. Therefore, there is still need to further improve its IHRM in order to carter for its global operations in order for the organization to be effective and efficient.
References Antony, N 2008, Management control systems, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Applegate, L 2009, IBM’s decade of transformation: Turnaround to growth, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA
Austin, R and Nolan, R 2010, IBM Corp. turnaround, Harvard Business Publishing, Boston, MA
Bartlett, C and McClean, A 2006, GE’s Jeff Immelt: The voyage from MBA to CEO, Harvard Business Publishing, Boston, MA
Boudreau, J and Ramstad, P 2007, Beyond HR, Harvard Business Press, Boston, MA.
Boudreau, J. 2010, Retooling HR, Harvard Business Publishing, Boston, MA
Bradford, R 2011, ‘Communicating your strategic planning with your employees’, Centre for Simplified Strategic Planning, vol. 1 no. 2, pp. 13-22
Cappelli, P 2008, Talent on demand, Harvard Business Publishing, Boston, MA.
Cascio, W 2010, ‘Utility of selection systems: Supply chain analysis applied to staffing decisions’, Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC
Cummings, T 2009, Organization development
The Relationship between the European Union and the United States Essay (Critical Writing) essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Foreign Policy Relations
Personal Relationship between the U.S. and the UK
Russia’s role in the EU-US Relation
Introduction The European Union is generally a group of European countries, and/or nations that work together in the quest of improving the lives of their respective citizens and build a better world1. Cooper describes the EU as not a federation like the United States or other federations in the world; neither is it a state replacing already existing states, nor an organization for co-operations between governments, just like the United Nations2.
Over the last decade, EU’s success has been owed a lot to the unique way in which it generally works. It is unique because the member countries that form the EU have exclusively remained independent sovereign countries who, however, agree to pool their diverging sovereignties to gain strengths and global influences that none of them could have on their own3.
This paper tries to discern the relationship that exists between the EU and the United States. It will focus on the political, economic and foreign relation that exists between the two.
The historic relationship that exists between the United States and the EU is a very unique and crucial relationship. Both the EU and the U.S. have a deep sense of widely shared values and a strong belief in democracy as a way of governance, adherence to principles of the rule of law, respect for human rights and the market economy.
Most of these values are fundamentally entrenched in governance practices of both the EU and the US. Moreover, deep ties between the two are not only evident in the political and economic spheres, but also in issues such as promoting the use of clean energy, combating climate change, aiding the developing world in dealing with poverty and terrorism among many other issues.
The EU and the U.S. have also been at the forefront of ensuring access of adequate healthcare with key investments by the two in fighting the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS. These are but some of the main areas that the EU and the United States have shown deep co-operation over the last half of the last century to date.
Arguably, it is suffice to say that the United States and the EU are close allies. As has been stated above, their relationship goes beyond mere economic and political ties. Over the last century to date, the EU and the U.S. have increasingly been seen to be sharing the opportunities and responsibilities facing global leadership4.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through co-operation, the EU and the U.S. have indeed been playing an important role in promoting global norms that helped bring to an end of such things as the Cold War that consequently encouraged practices that were geared towards global market integration and democratization.
However, just like any relationship between two partners, various differences do exists between the EU and the U.S. Cooper points out some of the differing positions between the two partners such as on the issues of the legality of the death penalty and certain trade agreements.
Political Relations Political relations between the US and EU are hard to discern. They vary from one member country to another in the EU. This is because; member countries of the European Union do maintain their independent sovereignty even though they are still members of the EU. For instance, the US-French relations are stronger today in the Obama administration than in the past.
This is a trend that can be witnessed all over the European Union mainly because the United States is spending much more time to focus on strengthening relationships in the region unlike during past administrations5.
Economic Relations According to Cooper, the economic relationship between the European Union and the United States is currently the largest is the world6. These is majorly because the current economic relationship between the EU and the U.S has gradually been evolving since the World War II, when the European Community just comprised 6 countries to the present day 27 member European Union.
The EU member countries and the U.S. are said to have roughly equivalent levels of economic development. Undoubtedly, they are among the most highly advanced regions in the world. Together, they produce the world’s wealthiest nations, and consequently produce the world’s most educated populations.
Furthermore, these two partners, with a few exceptions in the EU, produce major technological advancements in the world annually. All this makes trade trends have a deep nexus since the EU and the U.S. find themselves trading in similar products and services. This further connects the relation between the industries in the two regions.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Relationship between the European Union and the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cooper further suggests that the EU and U.S. economic relationship has dominated the world economy virtually due to the sheer size of the combined economies7. He further notes that a combined population of the U.S. and the EU is close to 800 million people who are generating a combined GDP that is equivalent to 40% of the world’s GDP in 2010. Basically, what this means is that the EU –U.S. economic relationship has EU –U.S. economic relationship has a ‘clout’ over all other global economic ties.
The EU as a single unit is reported to be the largest trading partner of the United States in merchandise8. For instance, in 2010, the EU accounted for 18.7% of total U.S. exports and 15.4% of total U.S. imports9. The United States is again the major and largest non-EU trading partner of the whole European Union10.
Chief among the top U.S. exports to the EU are aircrafts, computers and their accessories. On the other hand, the EU mostly exports cars, machineries such as gas turbines and organic chemicals among many other products to the United States. The EU is also the largest trading partner when it comes to trade in services.
Foreign trade and investment statistics that have been produced over the past century have indicated a stronger and interdependent EU-U.S. economic relationship.
This relationship will further grow in its significance especially due to advancements in the global technology sectors and other forces affecting globalisation. As more and more countries are joining the European Union, the United States is also finding itself adding its list of trading partners since more trading barriers are being eradicated due to membership of these countries to the EU11.
Foreign Policy Relations Close relations between the EU and the United States have formed a vital component of the foreign relation’s policies of both partners. They have consequently played a key role in how global developments have been shaped over past years. Furthermore, the election of President Obama and the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty have further created a vital window of opportunity for both partners as far as foreign policy relations are concerned12.
Unlike in the Bush administration, what is different under the Obama presidency is that he captured a big popularity in Europe that were critical in the healing of divisions in relations that were as a result of the Iraq war. Moreover, through the creation of the European Council President and the new High Representative for External Affairs offices in the EU, there is seen a move by the EU beyond mere institutional belief to actual foreign policy identity.
When President Obama was elected as the president of the United States in 2008, his first main duty in re-shaping America’s foreign policy was to restore a multilateral approach in the way the U.S. solved international problems. Partnership and co-operation was his main emphasis to nations that wanted to protect world security and advancements in humanity13.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Relationship between the European Union and the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The EU had always argued over the years of the Bush administration that through global governance, then world would find it possible to get solutions that would effectively deal with global challenges. Therefore, the Obama administration was from the beginning seen as have a close agenda to the perspectives that the EU believed in as far as foreign relation is concerned.
Personal Relationship between the U.S. and the UK President George W. Bush Snr. once referred the special personal relationship between the UK and the US as the rock upon which dictators of the last century fell14. By this reference, he was trying to show the importance that the personal relationship that the UK and U.S. had in dealing with communism and fascism that had rocked the 20th century.
This just shows one of the many aspects that the two nations have heard a personal and very close relationship at the envy of many other nations. For instance, the sharing of the common law tradition is one of the historical pillars that keep the two nations close to each other.
Trade is the other factor that really cements this personal relationship. Both the U.S. and the UK are very great and old trading partners. Alcaro and Alessandri additionally state that both countries have major investments in each other’s economies than any other country in the world, and they are further reported to be leading in cross-border mergers and acquisitions15.
Another area that has made their relationship more personal is the unique diplomatic and security partnership that the two nations have formed. Ever since World War II, the U.S. and the UK have displayed a deep collaboration in each other’s defence and national security fields.
However, in the recent past, many British officials who are involved in UK’s defence and foreign relations have taken a relaxed position on whether the UK can play a leading role in European defence16. In the early 2000s, most of these officials would argue that the UK would still work on its defence and foreign policies at the same time benefiting from access to U.S. intelligence while continuing like any other EU member country in adhering to the European Common Foreign and Security Policy stipulations17.
Other EU member countries were convinced that if Europe was to become a good player in foreign and defence policies, then the UK would have to cut its close ties with the U.S. if she wanted to be a leading player in EU’s defence policy. This had undoubtedly placed the UK at a very awkward position especially after the Iraq invasion by the United States in May 2003.
At this time, EU member countries that were not at good terms with the U.S. found themselves colliding with the UK who also a played a big part of the Iraq invasion. UK’s image and influence was majorly dented since it was believed that Britain’s influence in global affairs was dependent on the U.S.
Russia’s role in the EU-US Relation Just after the Cold War, both the US and Western European leaders made an agreement that it was good for Russia to be integrated into the newly emerging world order18. This decision was made on the assumption that the costs incurred in sidelining and isolating Russia were going to be higher than those of allowing here in the new order.
Alcaro and Alessandri further add that Russia was desperate at that time and saw an engagement with the west as a viable option if it was to play a significant part in the new era19. Unfortunately, Russia’s relationship with the western world between the 1990s to the 2000s became more hard and difficult.
Russia does not mainly share the close values that the EU and the United States do share. This makes it more isolated from the economic and political benefits that these two partners enjoy. This is especially detested by post Balkan countries which are either in the European Union or are in the process of joining the union.
Most of them would demand a change of governance of Russian affairs so as to create a good trading atmosphere between the U.S.-EU relations. Russia also seems to have a lack of choice in the type of allies and partners which limits it from fruitful EU-U.S. relations20
References Alcaro, R.
Ethical Decision Making in Business Coursework college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors to Consider Before Making a Decision
Introduction People are usually faced with difficult situations that require critical thinking before any action is taken. Sometimes human beings develop various reasons to justify their actions in order to suit various situations. However, people do not always put to consideration ethical decision making aspects and this jeopardizes the value of their actions.
It is known world over that most people apply the principle of the end justifying the means at the expense of other factors (Curtler 2004). In this situations people are confronted with two situations that are not as easy as most of them think they are. This coursework is about ethical decision making regarding an iPod found lying in a classroom.
Participants Involved It is very important to think and anticipate who will be affected if the student decides to keep the iPod and not tell anyone about it. In this situation the first person to be affected will be the owner of the iPod who will suffer financial and emotional loss when he or she discovers the missing item from his backpack.
The second person to be affected will be the person who bought the item (parent or close friend who offered it as a gift to the owner). Other participants include the person who found the item and the one sitting close to him. The teacher on duty and the one in class should also be involved in locating the owner of the item
Factors to Consider Before Making a Decision An iPod left lying on the class room floor is a sure indication that it was dropped by someone who was hurrying to attend another class or get home early. The fact that the iPod is in a good working condition means that it was useful to the owner. The first thing that should come to an individual’s mind is to think and understand the situation in order to decide what step to take. The iPod must belong to a student who had attended class in the same room and dropped it without knowing. Accidents do happen and people misplace valuable items. In addition a person must ensure he determines whether he or she is capable of handling this situation or not (Josephson 2002). If the person is able to identify the right owner of the iPod and deliver it to him or her then that should be the best action but if he or she is not able to identify the owner then seeking help from other students and teachers will be the better option.
Consultations will enable the person to identify the correct way of dealing with this situation. The person should also review the ethical implications of keeping the item to himself or herself or leaving it lying on the floor. It should be noted that keeping the item or leaving it ton the floor may impact negative emotions and feelings of betrayal to the student. The person should also consider the social implications should he be found in possession of the item.
He should also consider any other occasion that involved a lost and found item and what were the actions taken and the outcomes of those actions. The person should also consider the religious, cultural and social teachings involved in keeping the iPod or leaving it lying on the floor and how these teachings relate to personal interests. In addition, the person should look for alternative actions that may be helpful in responding to this situation and ensure he or she arrives at the best solution that is not only good but ethical.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alternatives There are two ethical alternatives involved in this case. The first one involves taking the iPod and looking for the owner by placing announcements on the school’s notice boards regarding the lost and found item (Curtler 2004). The second alternative is talking the item to the administration and leaving it with them to trace the owner. The third alternative involves keeping the item to himself although this should be the last option after all other options have failed to yield positive results.
Consequences Involved However, there are varied consequences involved in this scenario. The first issue to consider is if he decides to keep the item and then suddenly the owner comes back to look for it and it is found in his bag people will think he is a thief and may take legal actions against him. Secondly, if he decides to present it to the teacher and the owner traced he will be considered well behaved and this may earn him gifts from the owner.
The main ethical issues involved in this case are transparency and accountability. Transparency is associated with the correct steps taken to ensure the owner gets back his lost and found item despite the fact that it was not stolen but misplaced (Curtler 2004). Accountability involves how committed the person is in taking the correct action with regard to tracing the owner of the iPod.
Conclusion Making an ethical decision is not as easy as most people think it is especially when there are conflicts of interests involved. However, people should consider the moral, emotional and legal consequences of their actions before taking any step in order to ensure the actions taken correspond with the society’s expectations.
References Curtler, H. (2004). Ethical Argument: Critical Thinking in Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Josephson, M. (2002). Making Ethical Decisions. California: Josephson Institute of Ethics.
International Organizations: NATO and the UN in Iraq Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Involvement of the International Actors
Introduction The international system is the interaction between units whereby various variables at the systemic level come together to influence the external behavior of a state. In this case, foreign policies are determined by the activities at the international level. In other words, the effectiveness of foreign policy depends on the interpretation of international system, states do not formulate policies based on their available resources or manpower but instead rely on the activities taking place at the international system.
Harold Sprout and Margaret Sprout came up with ecological triad to explain foreign policy formulation techniques. In this case, the environmental factors are to be considered in coming up with a policy that would determine the relationship between a particular state and another. The ecological triad captures the interaction between policy maker and the international system.
The triad is composed of the actor-state, environment that surrounds the actor and the actor-environment relationship. In foreign policy, the actor is surrounded by the international system. The policy maker must behave within the complex environment that is, the international system. The environment is usually complex because there are various units such as religions, civilizations, economics and international organizations (Held 158).
The environment can constrain the foreign policy maker, can provide opportunities for a certain behavior and can affect the willingness of decision makers to take advantage of those opportunities. The environment controls decision makers because it controls all limits that actors should do or not do.
These entities are actually states and international organizations. The states are only controlled by the international system. In this paper, the involvement of the international organizations that is, the NATO and the UN in Iraq is discussed. In the real sense, realists would argue that the organizations represent the interests and wishes of the developed states such as the US, France, Britain and Russia. On the other hand, the liberalists would argue that the international bodies exist to further the interests of the people of Iraq.
Involvement of the International Actors NATO established itself in Iraq in 2004when the alliance was charged with the responsibility of assisting the people of Iraq to form an effective military that would counter the influence and the power of the Al-Qaida. Furthermore, the NATO alliance was supposed to offer training services to the Iraqi military in order to be counted as an international body that would operate in accordance to the international standards.
On 31 December 2011, the alliance was requested to leave the country since it was perceived that its mission had been accomplished. Other actors in the international system complained about the existence of NATO since it did not have any legal mandate to operate in the country. The NATO training mission was established after the UN Security Council resolution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was after the interim government of Iraq requested the UN to use the NATO to train its soldiers. It should be understood that the formation of the NATO –Iraq was not aimed at suppressing the insurgents, as though by many people. Its main role was to offer technical and military support to Iraqi combatants. In other words, its major role was based on training, offering modern equipments, advising and offering military aid to the forces of Iraq.
The NATO alliance would also guide the Iraqi into becoming an international military force that would offer quality services to the people of Iraq. Since its formation in Iraq, the alliance was effective since it managed to offer training services to 5000 Iraqi soldiers from 2004 to 2011. Apart from training the military personnel, it also trained over ten thousand police and other security staff in the country. The member states of NATO provided various training courses to the Iraqi military.
It is argued that all the 28 members of NATO offered over two thousand courses. The courses were costly by the members of NATO went ahead to offer them to the people of Iraq. Apart from training services, it is true that the Iraqi military received over 115 million Euros in form of military aid through equipments and over 17.7 million Euros in form of trust fund donations.
The activities of NATO can be interpreted differently, depending on the scholar’s viewpoint and orientation. According to liberal scholars and policy makers, the main aim of NATO was to facilitate a democratic process in the country. The security sector would be modernized since the knowledge possessed by the military generals could not allow leaders to exercise personal and autocratic forms of leaderships. In this regard, the Iraqi government had to establish a working relationship with the NATO forces to achieve the above objective.
According to liberalists, there are usually many actors in the international system. In this sense, the international system is a community of both states and human beings. Therefore, the foreign policies of Iraq had to recognize the existence of all actors, including NATO and the UN.
Liberalists would argue that actions of units in the international system must be based on morality and actors must observe international codes and morals. It was upon the realization that the Iraqi military was not observant to the international codes that the NATO set its foot to salvage the situation. The military in Iraq was accused of being partisan since it only favored one side that is, the government. Saddam Hussein used the military to unleash terror to the citizens and eliminate any form of political and cultural opposition.
In this case, the international actors were not happy at all. When the environment gave chance, it was the good time for NATO to act. Through this argument, universal interests are usually valued in the international system. It was the interest of each actor for peace and tranquility to be achieved in Iraq. NATO forces were therefore formed to bring this peace. As Hoffman could argue, states have a duty beyond their borders.
We will write a custom Essay on International Organizations: NATO and the UN in Iraq specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A state should always be concerned about the affairs that take place another state. It is the responsibility of the developed nations to ensure that human rights are to be respected and upheld at a higher esteem worldwide. The United Nations Security Council endorsed the formation of NATO –Iraq since the lives and the militia groups led by Osama Bin Laden and Saddam Hussein did not respect THE rights of citizens.
NATO forces would therefore restore normalcy and constancy in the trouble state. The US, France, Britain and Russia had to act beyond their borders since they respect the sanctity of life. Therefore, they had to facilitate training services and other forms of military aid such as provision of equipments and techniques. According to liberalism, the end does not justify the means because the means should be just and humane.
In Iraq, the Hussein administration applied all forms of techniques to achieve state interests. The state interests included domination of the region and cutting links with the west (Gerd 45). This could be obtained by forming a military like administration whereby the rights of people are not respected. This was contrary to the interests and the will of the west, which would always emphasize on consultation and cooperation at the global level.
The west would always argue that problems at the global level need global decisions. Iraq under Sadam Hussein could not think of any possibility of working with the west to end global problems such as terrorism, global economic crisis brought about by fluctuating oil prices and the issues related to the environment. Therefore, the NATO, after being endorsed by the UN, had to intervene to save the humanity.
In case actions are to be taken in the international system, states should consult extensively in order to arrive at a win-win satiation. However, the Iraqi administration under Sadam Hussein wanted a play a zero-sum game where the west and the rest of the world would lose terrible.
This was something that angered the west and the rest of the world. According to liberalists, the policy makers should always be prescriptive meaning that they have to reflect on the outcomes of the policies. The Sadam regime supported terrorism even though the outcomes of the policy were detrimental to the people of Iraq and the rest of the world.
Iraq never appreciate the role of the international regimes such as the international law since impunity was encouraged at all quarters. The west appreciated the fact that world security could be achieved through cooperation. Therefore, activities such as nuclear disarmament and arms proliferation had to be curtailed at all costs, something that Iraq opposed always. There was no option but to facilitate military overhaul in Iraq.
This would be best performed by the NATO alliance. Iraqi leaders believed principles in the state were based on powers but not the norms but not the norms. In this case, actions could be based on unilateralism whereby the state decides to act without consulting anybody, not even the public, which should have the ultimate powers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Organizations: NATO and the UN in Iraq by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the policy makers are always inspired by the realism, which is a very strong theory in the study of foreign relations. According to these policy makers and observers, the involvement of the NATO and the UN in the affairs of Iraq could be interpreted differently.
To this scholars, the unity of analysis in the international system is the state whereby the state is usually guided by its national interests. The international system in this case exists according to the Hobbestain state of nature. In other words, the international system dictates what should be done.
The NATO and the UN took advantage of the current nature of the system to invade Iraq and impose policies. For instance, the developed nations took advantage of the confusion in Iraq to change the military ideology. This would only benefit them since the military would be sympathetic and appreciative to the activities of the west in the world.
Consequently, the US and the west benefited a lot since Iraq had to pay in form of oil. Indeed, the US benefited so much since a lot of oil was transported from Iraq to the US. In case states intervene in a foreign state, the interest is usually to obtain something.
This is true to some extent because the US has never bothered to marshal the NATO forces to intervene in Somalia, even after the claims that the Alshabbab insurgent group is associated with the world’s most feared terrorism group, the Al-Qaeda. The US intervened in Iraq and Afghanistan because of the availability of the natural resources. This means that the US was only interested in natural resources but not bringing back sanity.
Concerning the existence of NATO and the UN, they only exist as long as the powerful states would permit. The international organizations do not serve the interests of the poor states. For instance, the US invaded Iraq even after the UN had advised against the invasion.
This means that the US was only concerned about its national interests, which was security. After the 9/11 attack, the US resolved to come up with long terms policies that would ensure that its citizens coexist in peace worldwide. Due to this, the hotspots in the world were focused, which led to the sponsoring of military training in the Middle East. Therefore, the NATO and the UN involvement in Iraq were not in the interest of the people of Iraq but for the interest of the American people.
Currently, the peace witnessed in Iraq is conducive for American investors since they can operate without the fear of losing their stocks. It is very rare for the US to fund projects that do not benefit its population. For instance, the US cannot help in disarming an enemy, which does not pose any security threat to its citizens.
For a long time, the US has focused on destabilizing the Middle East because if given chance, the Middle East states can pose a serious challenge to the existence of the US and other developed nations from the west, mainly because of oil. The US allowed the formation of NATO-Iraqi alliance only to strengthen its presence and power in the Middle East, but not to better the living standards of the Iraqis.
This shows that military alliance between the NATO and Iraq was out of fear and suspicion that characterizes the international system. In the international system, life is brutal, short-lived and nasty whereby states engage in a zero-sum game always. States value their sovereignty so much to an extent of neglecting ethics (Koehn and Rosenau 107).
UN Failures On the flipside, the body has had a number of failures in its quest to uphold world peace and security. The UN was unable to bring order into Somalia through UNOSOM (United Nations Mission to Somalia), consequently leading to its withdrawal in 1995.
This was also the case in1994 during the Rwandan genocide whereby the United Nations Mission Rwanda (UNAMIR) was unable to stop the genocide due to lack of men and weapons. In Bosnia Herzegovina, the UNPROFORC (United Nations Protection Force) was unable to stop the massacre of Serbians.
Perhaps one of the most notable incidents on the inability of the UN to promote peace and security in the world was the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the coalition of the willing led by the USA. This went against a UN resolution 1441 of 8 November 2002. The resolution called for new inspections to ascertain whether Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. The US on its part ignored this resolution and instead invaded Iraq on 19 March 2003.
Peace and security remains a major challenge to global governance. In many instances, the UN has been indecisive or unable to act to promote peace and security. This has led to a situation where matters on peace and security are championed by a handful of nations under the guise of collective security. In most cases, these countries will be pursuing their own interests.
This has consequently led to issues such as terrorism arising. Terrorism has come about because of radicalism by Islamic fundamentalist who feel that the US led war on terror targets Islam as a whole. This in effect has led to violence and the loss of many lives as Islamist fundamentalists under the auspices of the global terror network Al Qaeda and other terror groups wage war on the US on various fronts.
The September 11 bombing of the World Trade Center in the US was a hallmark of terrorist operations. This in turn led to the US invading Afghanistan with the aim of smoking out Osama bin Laden, the suspected mastermind of the bombings. This war on terror has also been played out in the Middle East pitting Israel, an American ally, against various Palestinian groups such as Hamas (Porter 185).
In general, the UN and NATO have not been able to function independently since they only serve the interests of the powerful states. The UN for instance has been accused on several occasions for siding with the superpower.
Works Cited Gerd, Nonneman. EU-GCC Relations: Dynamics, Patterns
Insomnia: A Sleeping Disorder Type Essay essay help: essay help
Insomnia is a sleeping disorder where an individual is unable to fall or remain asleep satisfactorily or even both. Characteristics of insomnia include; lack of rest, reduced sleeping time, disturbed or lack of sleep. Poor quality sleep can be perceived as a result of difficulties in falling asleep, high frequency of waking up during the night making it difficulty to return to sleep and complete failure to fall asleep (Lacks
Influence of Information Systems Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Information systems are systems within a business organization that integrate business processes and computing knowledge for processing, storing, and transmission of important information for the decision-making process in the organization. Management information provides information on performance issues and suggests mitigation measures for management action. The smooth flow of information in a business enterprise is essential for the survival of the business.
All employees in an organization from low management levels to top management require information for the accomplishment of their errands. Nowadays, the way businesses operate has changed and continues to take a different shape as a result of continuous advance in technology. Most information in various organizations is computerized and a lot of business deals are now executed over the Internet.
Advancements in information technology have made the world to shift from the conventional way of doing things. Without proper flow of information in any business enterprise, the operations of the whole enterprise would be jeopardized.
However, information systems have greatly evolved and business information systems used nowadays are different from those that were used in 1910. This has had several impacts on accounting function of business enterprises and given the continuous evolution of business information systems the future seems unpredictable.
Differences between Ancient and Modern Business Information Systems Business information systems like face-to-face communication, telephones, telegraphs and paper-based record keeping had a limited scope in information storage and processing. The modern business information systems such as ERP, CRM, and SCM have wider scope in information storage and processing (Gómez, Serna
The World Heritage Case Study: Australia best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Primary Challenges Management
Protection of the World Heritage Values
World Heritage Committee
Introduction World Heritage sites are beautiful and wonderful places with great values attached to them due to their uncommon nature. According to the Department of Environment and Conservation: World Heritage: Shark Bay Heritage Area (2009, p. 1), world heritage sites are mysteries, and they bear great memories in those who visit them. In this paper, research will be concentrated on The Royal Exhibition Building, and Carlton Gardens found in Melbourne city in Australia.
The Royal Exhibition Building was constructed between 1879 and 1880 in Melbourne (Heritage Victoria: Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens n.d.). It was constructed at this particular point of time since it was to house the international exhibition in 1880. According to Sopray: Assessment of Significance (n.d., p.148), this site is significant because it is one of the world’s 19th century exhibitions that remains standing. It is argued that this building shows the wealth and confidence of Victoria era in the 1870s.
The Carlton Gardens are also significant since they serve as a habitat for many plants like palms, conifers, and evergreen trees. The Royal Exhibition Building and the Carlton Gardens are of great social significant to the people who interact with them, both the residents and the tourists (Sopray: Assessment of Significance n.d., p. 148).
Primary Challenges Management Adiplock: REB
Methodologies and multicultural research in multicultural sensitivity Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help
Multicultural competence in student affairs is an exclusive resource that guides professionals in the field of student affairs so that they are able to develop a model that incorporates all multicultural subjects. However, multiculturalism is a wide field therefore; gathering for all these issues is a challenging task to the education professionals.
Programs and policies have been developed to address issues of multiculturalism. Issues of race, class, religion, gender, age and abilities have been given priority. It is an obligation of student affairs professionals to address multicultural issues in institutions of higher education. Student affairs professionals have been in the forefront of the quest to create more welcoming and affirming campus environments and have always addressed issues of alienation and hostility in the campuses (Pope, Reynolds
Influence of Information Systems Essay essay help online free
Introduction Information systems are systems within a business organization that integrate business processes and computing knowledge for processing, storing, and transmission of important information for the decision-making process in the organization. Management information provides information on performance issues and suggests mitigation measures for management action. The smooth flow of information in a business enterprise is essential for the survival of the business.
All employees in an organization from low management levels to top management require information for the accomplishment of their errands. Nowadays, the way businesses operate has changed and continues to take a different shape as a result of continuous advance in technology. Most information in various organizations is computerized and a lot of business deals are now executed over the Internet.
Advancements in information technology have made the world to shift from the conventional way of doing things. Without proper flow of information in any business enterprise, the operations of the whole enterprise would be jeopardized.
However, information systems have greatly evolved and business information systems used nowadays are different from those that were used in 1910. This has had several impacts on accounting function of business enterprises and given the continuous evolution of business information systems the future seems unpredictable.
Differences between Ancient and Modern Business Information Systems Business information systems like face-to-face communication, telephones, telegraphs and paper-based record keeping had a limited scope in information storage and processing. The modern business information systems such as ERP, CRM, and SCM have wider scope in information storage and processing (Gómez, Serna
Methodologies and multicultural research in multicultural sensitivity Case Study best college essay help
Multicultural competence in student affairs is an exclusive resource that guides professionals in the field of student affairs so that they are able to develop a model that incorporates all multicultural subjects. However, multiculturalism is a wide field therefore; gathering for all these issues is a challenging task to the education professionals.
Programs and policies have been developed to address issues of multiculturalism. Issues of race, class, religion, gender, age and abilities have been given priority. It is an obligation of student affairs professionals to address multicultural issues in institutions of higher education. Student affairs professionals have been in the forefront of the quest to create more welcoming and affirming campus environments and have always addressed issues of alienation and hostility in the campuses (Pope, Reynolds
Pluto Telecommunications Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help
Pluto telecommunication is among the leading companies offering telecommunication services in Ireland, ranging from event production and conference management to marketing support and project management. In the recent times, the company has been on the brink of crumble due to internal wrangles in some of its departments including sales, marketing, and customer services departments that have had several face-off incidences, attributed to bonus allocation and time pressures.
Each department holds an unpleasant opinion of the resulting to unhealthy departmental competition, loss of business and general customer dissatisfaction. Acknowledgement of managerial differences is vital in improving the working relations and increasing productivity (Buchanan
Global Strategy and Competitiveness Term Paper online essay help
Human Resource Strategy of Haier Outside China and its Effectively Haier’s human resource strategy in the world market has been motivated by its need to beat stiff competition abroad. This company is the leading firm in the white goods in China. It has had consistent growth in the home country and currently it is ranked the sixth largest electronic firm in the world. The human resource strategy employed by this firm is based on various factors affecting particular foreign markets.
The firm has employed Host Country National strategy of human resource. This strategy has been appropriate for this firm for a number of reasons. According to a report by Palepu, Khanna and Vargas (2005), Haier Group of Companies has been keen to employ host country nationals for a number of reasons.
The first and most important reason is that the locals understand the local market better. This firm would pick only those employees in the foreign country who have had an experience in promoting brands. This is important because the firm has insisted on using its brand even in international markets.
Such experienced employees are aware of the best strategies that could be employed within the local markets to achieve the best results. As such, this firm would only need to provide the necessary resources for this team to penetrate the market. Haier would select specific entities that are well known in marketing specific brands to market its brand. These entities would be allowed to recruit locals to help in marketing Haier’s products.
Another reason that has made Haier to adopt this strategy is that the strategy would make the products be easily acceptable in the international markets. When consumers are reached through their country nationals, they would have the feeling that the product is their own other than being viewed as a foreign product. This strategy is also favored by many foreign governments because it creates jobs.
This strategy is very effective. One of the reasons that make this effective is that it reduces costs of operation. When locals are used, the firm would reduce its budget in research and development in the foreign country. The locals have a deep understanding of the local market. As such, they may not need to be trained to understand market forces. This strategy is also very helpful for this firm because it allows it to understand local competitors much easily. Because most of the employees would be taken from this industry, they are better positioned to champion winning strategies for the firm.
The Trade-Offs and Challenges Haier Faces in Establishing a Competitive Brand in the Global Market In Addition To In the Domestic Market Haier experienced a massive growth in size during the nineteenth and twentieth century, especially due to the non-open market that China had enforced. The country had a very large population which was a large ground for growth of this firm, given that foreign firms were not allowed in the country. It only had the local firms to compete with, and through its strategy of outsourcing for some services, its products gained fame for quality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As such, the firm became the best firm in white goods industry. However, by 2004, China had given in to the international pressure and opened up its markets to the international firms. New form of competition was introduced into the local market. With the open market, Haier also considered opening up subsidiary firms abroad to heighten its competitiveness. Haier had to restructure itself in order to remain as competitive as it had been even in the face of new competition which was obviously fiercer than the one that existed before.
In order to achieve this, the firm had to trade off some of its benefits and this came with a lot of challenges. The first trade-off was given by the government of China. By allowing foreign firms to operate in the local market, Haier had to forego a large chunk of its market share in China for foreign firms like Lucky Goldstar (LG), General Electric and many other foreign firms.
In its place, the firm acquired international markets some of which were previously dominated by the new entrants into the Chinese market. The firm also had to get into joint venture programs with other firms in order to remain competitive. According to Palepu, Khanna and Vargas (2005), Haier entered a joint venture with a number of German firms in its quest to improve quality of its products. This strategy involved some kind of trade-off between this firm and the outsourced German firms.
Haier had to share its profits with the other firms, a fact that lowered its net profits hence net income were considerably low. The firm also entered an agreement with these firms that it would sell the other firm’s products to the Chinese market, a deal which would strain Haier’s resources. In return however, Haier managed to get quality for its products. Haier became a well known firm for its quality products.
The Similarities and Differences in the Electronics Market (HTC Corporation) and the White Goods Market (Haier) The electronics market and the white goods market share similarities. As witnessed in the case of HTC Corporation, the electronics market is very dynamic. New products come into the market so frequently. This is the same case with white goods markets. The industry is so innovative and every firm is determined to introduce a new product into the market. Emerging technologies is the driving force in both cases.
As such, both markets require massive investment into research and extensions in order to manage market requirements. In both markets, competition is rife. While HTC faces challenge from such developed firms like Samsung, Nokia and Apple, Haier is facing competition from such developed firms as General Electric, LG and Amana.
In both cases, quality is the only way that a firm can manage to stay afloat the market competition. Finally, in both cases, brand is a very important tool for competition. A firm that does not have a well known brand cannot manage competition. It takes long and costs a lot to build a strong brand, but it is a firm would not have otherwise but to do this.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Global Strategy and Competitiveness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The market is obsessed with brands. They attach quality of the item they purchase to its parent brand. If the parent brand is known for quality, then the product would receive a massive sale. In case the product’s brand is hardly known, it would be very difficult to sell the product both at the local and international markets.
Despite these striking similarities, there are differences between the electronics market and the white goods markets. The first difference is the target group. According to Yoffie (2010) the main market for electronics are the youths. They are techno servy and are keen on fashion. A product meant for this market should be sensitive on modern trends. For instance, this group is obsessed with the social media.
As such, phone manufactures must ensure that their products are internet enabled and that they can satisfy the desires of the youth. On the other hand, white goods are mainly targeted at the middle-aged. This market is characterized by young individuals who are just starting their families. Unlike the youths who look for glamour, this group looks for service.
Inasmuch as they appreciate physical attractiveness of the items they buy, they put more emphasis on the ability of the product to serve the purpose it was intended to. This is contrasting the youths who would be attracted to physical features more than the performance level.
Similarities and Differences in the Acquisition Strategies of Haier and Newell Both Haier and Newell share a lot in common as far as acquisitions are concerned. As Montgomery (2005) states, one of the best ways through which a firm can get a competitive advantage is through mergers and takeovers. Competition in the market is so strong and therefore the bigger the firm the easier it is to gain competitive advantage.
Although this strategy may seem best suited for small and mid level companies, it is one of the most important tools that large corporations use to manage competition. Yoffie (2010) argues that this strategy is the best way of killing competition in the market. Newell strategy of acquisition bears resembles to the strategy used by Haier. Both firms are keen to acquire firms that are well known in the market.
They do not acquire just any firm, but only those with substantial market share and a strong brand name. Newell acquired Rubbermaid, a firm that was almost as strong as itself, with brand that was well known and a capital base that was over 60 percent that of Newell. Similarly, Haier Group acquired Qingdao Air Conditioner Factory and Qingdao General Freezer Factory which had very strong brand in the local market.
However, both firms differed in a way that they would select the right firm to acquire. Whereas Newell was keen on acquiring firms that were doing firm in all fronts, Haier was more concerned with acquiring firms that had problems with the management (Stewart 1990). Haier would take a firm with strong market share and brand equity, but because of lack of management, its existence was under threat.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Strategy and Competitiveness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another difference in acquisition of firms between the two firms was the financial strength of the firm to be acquired. Whereas Newell was only interested in firms that were economically viable, Haier would take over those firms that were struggling for existence. Haier would take over a firm’s debt and settle them when it acquired such firms, an act that Newell avoided completely.
Haier’s A-Third Strategy of Production and Its Relevance Haier has grown to become one of the strongest firms in the white goods. In its home market, it is the dominant firm in this industry, known for quality products and variety offerings in different lines. The domestic market is fast getting saturated. Inasmuch as it would be important to retain the local market share, it would equally be necessary that it explores the foreign markets to ensure that it expands its market share.
To do this, the firm has formulated ‘a third strategy’. In this strategy, a third of the firm’s production would be done locally and will find its market locally. A third of the production will be done locally and will be exported while the last third will be produced and sold in foreign countries. This strategy vision is achievable, given the current status of this firm. This firm has grown in size over the past three decades. In order to determine the firm’s suitability for this strategy, it would be prudent to conduct a SWOT analysis.
This firm has gained strength in the local and international markets in various fronts. Locally, this firm enjoys huge acceptance from the locals. Its brand is known among the locals as a mark of quality. This has enabled it to charge its products at premium prices. Through this premium pricing, this firm has been able to amass a large amount of wealth that can enable it conduct its productions internationally.
The firm also has a well established logistics unit through which it is able to export its products to the international market. The logistics unit would make it possible for the firm to take the locally produced goods to the international markets.
It has also managed to penetrate the international market and currently it commands a considerable huge market share in countries like United States of America, making it one of the leading general electronic firms. It would therefore be easier to establish production units in overseas countries to manufacture a third of its products.
Despite the above strengths, this firm faces some serious weaknesses that may make it fail to achieve the desired objectives. One such challenge is its reluctance to cover the third world markets.
Using its strategy of venturing into difficult markets before the easy ones makes it spend a lot of money trying to beat competition. It would cost much less in time and material resources to cover the young markets in South East Asia that it would capturing the German and the US markets. This has given way for other competitors to capture these markets before its entry.
There is hope in both local and international markets. As Palepu, Khanna and Vargas (2005) states, the market for white goods has increased tenfold, in the last five decades. The world is embracing technology and living standards is also improving.
White goods are fast becoming a basic necessity in many homes as time become increasingly limited. Families need machines to wash their clothes, refrigerators to store their foods and such other related items. Haier stands a better chance to reap maximally from this increased market demand. Moreover, many countries around the world are lifting trade bans, hence opening their markets to international firms like Haier.
However, the above opportunities also come with some threats. As this firms gets international markets to sell two-thirds of its products, its focus on the local market may be reduced, opening up competitive advantages to other competing firms. This may be dangerous because the home market is as important as the international markets.
Similarities and Differences in the Strategic Challenges Faced By HTC and Haier in Their Operation As HTC struggles to develop a strong brand equity that would help in marketing its products, Haier is struggling to extend its brand to new markets. Both firms are faced with many challenges in their operations and quest to achieve their set goals. These challenges are in a way similar.
One such common challenge the two firms face is that the market is saturated with better brands. As Haier struggles to expand its market, it has to come to terms with the fact that there are stronger brands in the new markets it is venturing into. Brands like LG and Sony are very strong.
As such, it would be a difficult task to convince these new markets that Haier as a brand offers more quality than the existing trusted firms. HTC has the same challenge. The electronics market is obsessed with brand name. Nokia and Samsung have developed a niche in the international market as firms that offers exactly what the customer needs but with added value. HTC is hardly known beyond its parent country. It would take a lot of effort to make this brand become a formidable force.
Another problem that both firm faces are the expenses they have to incur in these markets. In order to make the brand HTC popular, it would require a lot of promotional efforts, a fact that would reduce revenues for the firm. Similarly, to expand its market, Haier would need to do a lot of research and extension in the new markets, besides conducting awareness creation in the market. These costs would hurt its productivity.
Another big challenge that the two firms face is the stereotype that firms from China and by extension the larger Asia (with exception of Japan) produce substandard goods. Haier will have to fight this notion in the international markets, especially the American markets which makes one of the most attractive markets. Because of its decision to market its products in the first world countries, it would require this firm to convince the market that its products are as good in quality as others from other developed countries, or even better.
The same is the case with HTC. It must convince the market that despite its Asian origin, the products are produced with as good technologies as those used by other firms like Nokia and Samsung. According to Palepu, Khanna and Vargas (2005), this can be the toughest challenge. This is because once the market has developed a perception about a certain brand (especially if the perception is negative), it would be very difficult to convince them otherwise because they would not try it in the first place.
Although the two firms have similar challenges in their operations, there are some marked differences. HTC is specialized in electronics industry while Haier deals in white goods. The target group for the two firms is therefore different. While the products for HTC are targeted towards the youth, Haier products are targeted at the middle aged working class individuals.
To HTC, it is easier to convince the youths that their products are superior, especially if the products’ physical attractiveness is enhanced. Unfortunately, they can easily be swayed away from this brand. Conversely, Haier may find it easier to maintain its customers, but the big problem is convincing others into the brand.
References Montgomery, C. (2005). Newell Company: Corporate Strategy. Harvard Business School, 9 (799-139), 1-16.
Palepu, K., Khanna, T.
Crisis Management: Overdose of Premature Babies in Indianapolis, Indiana Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How the Hospital Responded
Why it was Necessary to Respond
How the Response promoted the view of the hospital
Outcome of Response
How I would have handled the Response
Introduction All organizations face crisis of different natures and scales at one time or another and how the organizations responds to the crisis may well determine its future success or failure. Devlin (2006) states that it is the responsibility of an organization through its public relations office to ensure that the organization recovers gracefully from a crisis and that this recovery occurs in a timely manner.
This paper will analyze the role that public relations played in the recovery from the over-dosage of premature babies’ incident by the Methodist Hospital. The success of the response by the hospital will be reviewed and anything that may have been done differently noted.
The Crisis The case in question involves the death of a number of babies as a result of a medical error in the Methodist Hospital in Indiana. A total of six premature babies were given an overdose of heparin due to an inventory error. As a result of this, there was a wide public uproar as the relatives of some of the deceased babies expressed their discontent and anger over the incident.
The hospital crisis was further heighten by the appearance of the relatives of one of the dead babies on national television (Indiana News, 2006b). The relatives expressed their anger over the incident and blamed the death of their baby on the misconduct of the hospital staff whom they claimed should have known better than to deliver the wrong dosage to their baby.
How the Hospital Responded The hospital was quick to respond to the issue and it gave details of the error that had led to the death of the premature babies. It took responsibility for the actions of its medical personnel and acknowledged that human and procedural errors were the cause of the overdoses that resulted in the fatalities. The hospital CEO also pointed out that the fact that the babies were very premature may have contributed to their death (Jones, 2006). However, he noted that it was the huge influx of the drug that led to their death.
Since an oversight on the part of the nurses is what had led to the wrong doses, the hospital enacted new policies that would require a minimum of two nurses to validate heparin doses so as to avoid any future administration of wrong doses.
The nurses who had administered the wrong dosages were also given counseling so as to help them come to term with their actions and help them return to normalcy and continue serving the community. The report also noted that hospital staff had met with the families of the affected babies and offered their apologies for the incident.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why it was Necessary to Respond The response of the hospital was necessary for a number of reasons. To begin with, the public needed information on the crisis. The response was also needed to disseminate information to the public. Being one of Indiana’s largest hospitals, the error at the Methodist Hospital had attracted wide public attention and everyone wanted to know what was going on.
Theodore and Webber (2006) report that the hospital’s spokesman kept the public up to date with news of how the affected babies were faring and also in case a fatality occurred. The official news provided by the hospital which was credible and truthful became the primary source for the public. By being the major source of information on the issue, the hospital ensured that sensational gossip did not become the primary source of information for the public on the issue.
The hospital had admitted that it was its traditional procedures of stocking vials from the inventory to the drug cabinet that had resulted in the fatal error. For the public to be reassured that such errors would never occur again, the hospital had to make major changes to the old system. To this end, the hospital stated that it would not keep vials of the adult doses of heparin (10,000 units) in its inventory (Indiana News, 2006).
The response also helped to put the public’s mind at ease. The hospital took full responsibility for the error with the CEO stating that “the blame for our errors falls upon this institution; a weakness in our own system has been exposed” (Pinto, 2006). In anticipation of the public questioning whether the error was not only limited to the premature babies, the hospital took the time to clarify that infant doses had not been given to adult patients (Jones, 2006).
How the Response promoted the view of the hospital The hospital was keen to demonstrate that it had learnt from the mistake and would take measures to ensure that such an error never occurred again. For example, all employees were expected to sign a document on the importance of correct drug administration so as to demonstrate their commitment to ensuring patience safety in future (Indiana News, 2006).
A senior figure in the hospital administration, the president of the organization which owns the Methodist Hospital, reassured the public that this error was an isolated case and it would not pose any risk to other babies who were being treated at the hospital. The view of the hospital was further advanced by revelations that errors occur in a number of hospitals over the country and that technology was used to try and reduce the number of this errors (Pinto, 2006).
Outcome of Response The public’s positive perception of the hospital was encouraged by the response. The fact that the top management of the hospital was willing to go on record accepting responsibility for the deaths of the two babies showed that the facility has integrity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Crisis Management: Overdose of Premature Babies in Indianapolis, Indiana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emphasis was placed on the fact that it was a veteran technician who accidentally stocked the drug cabinet with the wrong dosage of heparin (Theodore
Apple Inc’s Economic Principles Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Synthesis and Integration
Abstract Under the analysis of Apple Inc’s economic principles, this paper will analyze the concept of capital asset prices. The main contributions and limitations of the model will be illuminated.
Introduction The capital assets prices model was developed to illustrate the way prices of a risk is informed by the influence of investors’ preferences and the physical characteristics of the capital assets.
It shows the relationship between an asset’s price and the risks associated with it. At the time of its development, economist lacked enough microeconomic theory to explain the conditions of risks in the capital market (Boyes
Wireless charging Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The technology of wireless energy transfer is the electrical energy transmission from a power source to an electrical pack. This process normally occurs without a conductive substantial connection. This is necessary whereby there is a lot of inconvenience caused by interconnection of cords and cables.
As it would be observed, there is a big difference between the traditional charging and wireless charging. Traditional charging mostly relies on energy or power, which is connected directly from a device to the source, through connectors such as power cords or cables. On the other hand, wireless charging utilizes magnetic or electromagnetic form of energy to transfer power to gadgets and devices.
When using the wireless technology, power efficiency becomes the most significant parameter while dealing with electrical appliances and equipments. The wireless transfer system entails the source of energy sending out more energy to the receivers. This makes the system more economical in terms of power usage compared to the conductive charging system.
Direct induction is the most common form of wireless control diffusion applicable presently, and is followed closely by resonate captivating induction. There is another form of wireless power transmission known as the electromagnetic radiation. This form of wireless transmission is normally in the form of microwaves also referred to as lasers (Firestone 123). This paper examines the possible future development of wireless charging and its current market.
Discussion The application and constant development of mobile phone technology in the modern era is experiencing a boom, as innovators in the technology sector look forward to a future of introducing wireless charging technology for the gadgets in all parts of the world. This is likely to make the application of cell phones and other mobile devices much easier and more convenient, thus helping to shape the future of these technologies in the modern world.
With the progressive utilization and development of mobile gadgets or devices, the development and commercialization of wireless charging devices has also been on the rise in various parts of the world, to help maximize consumers’ convenience. The possibility of a wireless charging future for all mobile devices and gadgets is limitless, considering the great concern which has been directed on the issue recently (Zhi-yu 93).
As it would be observed, the wide range of wireless charging has grown from smartphones to other electric equipments such as vehicles and televisions. As a result, this has continued to influence active research and commitment from relevant companies, thus changing the way consumers power their mobile devices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Wireless charging is rapidly replacing the traditional way of powering our mobile devices, thanks to the increasing developments in technology, which has completely changed our lives as humans. There is no doubt that, the world is almost about to break free from wires and cords, when it comes to recharging mobile devices to keep them active.
The practice of plugging charging cables in electric sockets every so often to recharge our gadgets could be a tiresome habit. Instead of having to rely on the old-fashioned conductive charging system to supply energy to various gadgets and devices, consumers can now recharge their mobile devices through various forms of inductive charging technologies, such as the Powermat, the Duracell MyGrid, and Energizer Qi.
There are many benefits which can be associated with wireless charging technology over the conventional way of supplying power or energy to our electrical devices. One outstanding benefit of this trend is that, consumers can charge their equipment without the bothersome habit of untangling cords and plugging them into electric sockets or power adapters.
More importantly, the system is much convenient compared to the conventional way in that, a single charging system can operate with different devices and gadgets whereby multiple devices can be charged simultaneously, since energy transmission is in the form of waves, rather than cords or cables (Sample and Meyer 549). This has the meaning that, people could travel with a single charging system for all their mobile devices.
This is multitasking of machines and equipment, which saves on time and enhances machine efficiency, which is normally the main purpose of machines. Today, various devices which utilize the wireless technology are the most preferred option for the consumers. They are attractive because of their user-friendly nature and the fewer risks associated while using them. They also give people an opportunity to save on costs and time, among other resources.
Wireless charging is increasingly becoming common in most parts of the world, and this has significantly increased the current markets of the trend. It is apparent that modern giant technology companies in the world have already adopted the trend, by supplying their products along with the revolutionary induction charging technologies (Deng-Peng 29). However, according to the findings of a recent market study conducted by iSuppli, major growth for wireless charging is expected in the near future.
An overall increase in the market of the trend has been projected to increase by 65 folds in the next couple of years. Moreover, it has been estimated that over 230 million devices and gadgets that can function in wireless charging system are likely to ship in by the next two years. In this regard, future markets for wireless charging technology would undergo a sharp increase, as gadgets and devices compatible to the approach continue to greet the markets.
We will write a custom Essay on Wireless charging specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The global markets for the wireless charging technology have shown impressive momentum of late. This is likely to take another positive turn, considering the unwavering efforts of the Wireless Power Consortium, which is actively working towards the development of a universal inductive charging standard.
Conclusion The technology of wireless energy transfer for mobile devices has proved to be a convenient way of supplying power to the useful gadgets. Unlike the traditional form of contact charging, which utilizes cables and cords, the new system is completely wireless and hands free. This has automatically freed users from the burden of having to carry with them numerous charging devices for their mobile equipments, wherever they go.
Wireless technology is at the moment, part of our lives. The development has not only replaced several wires that are used in machines, but also it has the ability of replacing internal wires in various electronic devices. It implies few problems encountered while cleaning the surrounding and no fear of electric shock, which might be caused by naked wires.
The application of wireless charging system is in practice compatible with the modern technology which to a large extent focuses on the following; multitasking ability, portability and most importantly energy-saving ability (Klemens 45). This exceptional technology is rapidly taking shape in the modern world, and there is no doubt that it will soon be replacing the conductive system completely, thus bringing much convenience and simplicity to the users of mobile devices in the world.
As observed from this report, the market for wireless energy transfer system is expected to take another turn in the near future, as many people in the contemporary world become more familiarized with the technology. More importantly, experts in various sectors of wireless technology are working tirelessly to ensure that the system is made easy and reliable to all people in the world.
Works Cited Deng-Peng, Chen. Method and apparatus for optical wireless charging. New York: Google Patents, 2009. Print.
Firestone, Mary. Wireless technology. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications, 2009. Print.
Klemens, Guy. The cellphone: the history and technology of the gadget that changed the world. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2010. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wireless charging by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sample, Alanson and Meyer, David. “Analysis, experimental results, and range adaptation of magnetically coupled resonators for wireless power transfer.” Industrial Electronics 58. 2 (2011): 544-554. Print.
Zhi-yu, Liu. “Development and Application of Inductive Charging Technology.” Power Electronics 3. 12 (2004): 92-94.
Backwell IXL Company Strategy and Management Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Overview
Quality Management at IXL
Overview Backwell IXL Company is a manufacturing company dealing in the manufacture of computer chips. The company’s plant and headquarter is based in Geelong. The company has been in operation for the last seven years having been established back in 2005 by its owner Garry Backwell. Backwell IXL is known for producing quality computer chips with its main product being hte processor.
In 2010 Blackwell IXL was awarded the best processor manufacturers by the Union of Processor manufacturers. Blackwell IXL’s years of operation have been characterised by increased profits over the years as well as increased market reach. The company’s market reach widened from just Geelong to the whole world now. It is important to note that Blackwell IXL is
Organisational Structure The organisational structure is composed of the CEO at the top who answers to the board of governors. Under the CEO is a group of managers consisting of ICT manager, the Human Resource Manager and the Operations Manager. The ICT manager is responsible for new formats of manufacturing and ensuring the standards is adhered to.
The ICT manager works closely with hte operations manager who is responsible of ensuring the clients demands are put into consideration in manufacturing of the chips. Hte Human resource department majorly deals with employment of staff and promotion of the same. They also deal with the remuneration of staff.
Under the managers are the technicians comprising of majorly engineers and programmers. They are employed by the Human Resource department and deployed to either the operations department or the ICT department depending on the demand of any of the departments.
Company Strategy The major goal of the company is to widen its market reach even further and to dominate the very dynamic industry of computer manufacture chips. Long term developments include being able to assemble a computer of their own. The company has put forward strategies to see to it that this happens.
The company is partnering with IBM to assemble their first computer. This is going to put the company in a better position as they would have known what it takes to assemble a complete computer. This is a plan that it to implemented in a period of two years. By 2015 the company is looking to develop its own computer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Product Development The development of the chips is set to produce the highest quality of chips in the world. The production of the chips is divided into three main stages:
Blue print- Here the products estimate ability is identified and its design is agreed upon depending on the existing standards and technological development
Production- This is the stage where the actual manufacturing takes place. The chips are manufactured according to the design that was agreed upon in the blue print stage. The production is done to the finest of details to ensure standards are adhered to.
Testing- This is perhaps the most important stage of the product development process. It ensures that the final product is as was agreed to be at the blue print stage.
Quality Management at IXL Quality management is taken as the most important management strategy Blackwell employs the quality management through the ICT department. Quality management is imposed at the testing stage of the product development. We take quality as a product at Blackwell, the products we produce must attain the highest quality set since it is quality that has propelled the company to the levels it is today. As such, quality is not just what we intend to attain, it is who we are.
The Virtual Tutoring Owl Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction The Virtual Tutoring Owl is a product that has come when it is most needed. The Virtual Tutoring Owl, is founded by, Educational Concepts Inc., located at 2400 Calculus Blvd, Knowledge Rock, MD. Our company has chosen the test marketing area of Prince George County, a growing affluent county in Maryland. However, despite its affluent growing population, it has a declining under achieving school system.
Our in depth research shows that this is a unique situation, that has created a need for the school system to implement a tool that can drastically help improve their students performances. Introducing the Virtual Tutoring Owl, in that area will aid the school system and parents with a much needed supplement to enhance student’s academic performance.
Research indicates that students learn more with online tutoring systems and intelligent systems than by using the paper and pencil format. This means that this product has been developed to fill the learning gap needed and also to supplement traditional teaching(Beins, 2004).
The Virtual Tutoring Owl has been designed follow the trends of recent past of technological products. It has been constructed to mimic in design devices like the ipad or smartphones which are already familiar with the targeted clients. This will also give the product a more likely acceptance in the market place. This report will show the demand and necessity of the Virtual Tutoring Owl, based on the analysis of situational and external factors in the chosen test market area of PG County, MD school system.
Purpose and Mission The purpose of this product is to introduce a supplemental educational device that will assist students in homework, hence achieving better test scores, without attending a traditional sit-in tutoring class. The product’s appeal is that it is: durable, wireless, less time consuming, user friendly, and lastly fun to use because it is voice activated and yields voice responses. The product reduces the amount of time that students would otherwise spend in going for after class tutorials.
This is important as some students do not learn much from these after class tutorials as in most cases they are normally already tired. Classes are tiring to the mind. Therefore, if one is to have an after class learning session; it should be fun to the student to benefit him or her. The device also saves time for parents who have to look for a credible tutor and inspect the tutors past in order to establish their credibility.
The product thus kills two birds with one stone. Apart from time, the product also save the client money in the long term as they will not have to keep paying the tutor who normally demand regular payments that may be inconveniencing to the parent. Buying this product which has a price range $150-200 dollars, will include all the basic subjects like Math, English, Communication and others learnt by students in the school and also be onetime payment opposed to the regular payments demanded by the traditional tutors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The product is also advantageous since it is portable, durable, wireless, convenient and computer friendly. Since computers are a big part of our lives, it would be beneficial for the students to learn using this product which will help them to become computer literate(Beins, 2004).
Situational Analysis Current Product
What is the Virtual Tutoring Owl?
The product is a hand held voice activated device which is meant to assist students in their studies and in the process make the learning process easier and more fun. It is portable, easy to carry around, convenient, and yet affordable. Its database will have all major subject taught at public elementary, middle and high schools.
Therefore, the product will have the ability to assist students in most any homework study situation and makes it even more convenient. The device can also help the student store questions in the device which he or she may ask during class. This gives students learning aids that help them capture every moment in the learning process (Krugman, 2009).
How Does the Virtual Tutoring Owl Work?
The Virtual Tutoring Owl is operated by speaking into the device, which also can be operated by hand application. The operator chooses a subject such as math, then sub category algebra. The student asks the device the equation. The equation is then displayed on the screen. Now, the virtual tutor will proceed to help assist the operator along with the answer, yet not automatically giving the answering.
It will talk the students through the question step by step, asking rational questions, and confirming correct assumptions to help the students solve problems for themselves. As an incentive, the Virtual owl has a unique built in feature that motivates students to use it frequently and longer.
For every 30 minutes of use, the student earns 10 minutes of game time if they have 3 correct answers in any subject at the end of the session. (Krugman, 2009) Therefore, it will help pupils learn more, without feeling it is a chore. This will also make parents happier to know their children are spending more time studying, which is a goal of most parents.
As an onset point, the product is going to target majorly in a rising affluent income area, where parents are seeking to save time, but still can afford to give quality education to their children (Blanchard, 2008). The marketing strategy to introduce the Virtual Tutoring Owl, in the Prince George County, is simply to find an area where it is most needed and fill it.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Virtual Tutoring Owl specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Demographics of Test Area
Educational Concepts Inc., research shows that, the county has a unique socio-economic status and has great potential for launching the product in that area. According to Blanchard, the census bureau 2011, it is the 70th most affluent county in the nation per capita and the wealthiest county in the nation for Afro-Americans. The population in the area is well structured with a good number being in schools. Prince George’s County has a population with over 300,000 people and it has the third largest school system in the state.
Yet, it has one of the lowest student performances rating in the country. This disparity gap has been created from a progressive transitioning of the status quo from earlier years in 90’s. In the past, the county had a high crime and poverty rate.
However, since 2004, white collar workers have migrated to the area, and there have been decreases in crime and the poverty rate. However, somehow the educational system has not keep up with the growing increase in the rise of the community. This may also be due to, high turnover rate of the schools superintendent (Blanchard, 2008).
However, the increasing demands for higher scholastic achievement from the pressures of parents, school boards and teachers are still ongoing. If students do not achieve the minimum standards on state test, it will greatly reduce funding for schools in the county among other problems in the community.
Studies have shown, in an area where the median household is $71,000 dollars, and 36 percent have bachelor degrees, the concern for a better school system is greatly in demand. It has caused some families to relocate or enroll their children in private schools.
However, our organization understands that it is the concern of all parents, regardless of income status to have a competitive standard performing school system. Therefore, the Virtual Tutoring Owl will be made affordable, and collaborations will be made with the school system based on the family’s income, to either supplement, or partially reimburse parents for purchasing the Virtual Tutoring Owl.
In addition it will be marketed for its likeable attributes. It is hand held, voice activated and portable as a cell phone. Therefore, it will be tagged as the ’’hip or cool” device to own, in which is a major concern among youths. Our organization anticipates by introducing the Virtual Tutoring Owl to schools and parents in the PG County area, it will be a very beneficial profitable venture (Blanchard, 2008).
Moreover, the product will first target elementary, middle and high school students. This is because of the ease to inculcate the syllabus at these stages of learning. Students of these ages are most affected by the traditional learning process of tutoring, therefore giving the product good launch target in its take off stages.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Virtual Tutoring Owl by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To be relevant, the product had to focus on the portion of the market that needed it the most which is the learning stages mentioned above. The product also targets parents seeking to save time and money but still give quality education to their students (Blanchard, 2008).
The target distribution network will be in two segments. First it will be sold through a wholesale-retail-consumer format. The product will be delivered to all big boxes stores and big electronic stores the product and enable its development. The price range will be 150- 200 dollars (Krugman, 2009).
Secondly, the company will collaborate with the school district directly to have them introduce it to parents and students. This device will be out sourced to be manufactured. This way the product will have maximum potential to be as competitive as possible.
The products competitors include smart phones, online tutoring services and the traditional tutoring services. The competing edge against the smart phones is the lack of regulation that comes with smart phones. Parents are not able to monitor the contents being viewed by their children using the smart phone.
This gives Virtual Tutoring Owl a competing edge since Virtual Tutoring Owl is all educational. The traditional tutors are an expensive option in the long term in both financial and time terms. The competing edge against online tutoring services is the tempting view of non-educational views like pornography. This means that the product stands at a good position in the competition edge (Krugman, 2009).
The ability for the product to make a good profit margin will depend on the market uptake. Speculation is that the market especially where the product is launched is an affluent area meaning they have a huge purchasing power.
According to a sample survey conducted in The PG County area by CFO Melvin Blount, out of 48 participants, 37 felt their child would have interest in a hand held learning tool, 36 felt their child needed academic help, 41 felt their child would have interest in a cell phone device, 33 would purchase it if recommend by their child’s school, 43 would purchase it if the school reimbursed their purchase, and 32 would be willing to pay between $150- 200 dollars for the product.
Analyzing this survey report shows that the Virtual Tutoring Owl will be well received by its audience. If the tutoring device is successful in help raising the student’s performances, this could be used to enhance marketing for the product in other areas to widen the potential of making sales nationally.
By using an aggressive marketing campaign, such as big scale advertising and collaborations with school districts, a key component in turning this product into a potentially very profitable venture. A narrow manufacturing cost and a widened marketing which will lead to increased sales and therefore increased revenue will ensure a profit margin (Blanchard, 2008).
Market expenses would include the amount of money spent in promoting the product through the media and in the distribution. The product since it is a new product will require a lot of marketing and advertising in order to be known by the consumers. The product will need introduction to the consumers and therefore marketing in almost all forms of media for good results will be necessary.
This marketing would include use of billboards, TV adverts, the radio and also the newspapers. Taking the product for review will also give it a good attention and thus promotion. This means a lot of market expenditure for the new product (Krugman, 2009). For a more detail look at marketing expenditures, find the attached financial report.
The ethnical background of the population is also going to provide the product with a positive edge. It is important to note that the area has a relatively mixed racial residence and has a 59% African-American population, and therefore if any common cultural factors in terms of ethnicity arise, at that time it will be addressed.
However, because it is a common technology, and universally used, there should be no need for cultural adaptations to the product. The area has a good technological intake and therefore gives Virtual Tutoring Owl an ease in the adaptation process. Most of students residing in PG County are already employing technology in their education process and as such are at a good position to partake this new technology. (Blanchard, 2004) The higher quality life style perhaps gives them a common cultural
The legal environment for the product is ranging fare. There is no legal barrier that the product faces which will give it ease in the marketing stage. Technology has been well taken by the government and has been a part of life nowadays. This means that the development of Virtual Tutoring Owl will receive a positive acceptance legally.
Conclusion Educational Concepts Inc. believes that the Virtual Owl is an innovative technological product that will have a great positive influence in the education sector. The test area chosen gives the product marketing edge because it will be launched in an area of great demand for increased educational achievement. If the public accepts the concept of the Virtual Tutoring Owl, the company plans to expand into more broad fields such as SATs testing and colleges and universities.
Our company feels that we tapped into the heart of what make students attentive in their studies. Learning needs to be fun, innovative and intriguing in order for students to retain and maintain progressive learning status.
It has been our company’s mission to not only build an affordable device that will generate a high profit margin, but also give back to the education community, by making donations from sales to improve our schools. Educational Concepts Inc., feels that Virtual Tutoring Owl is an unique product, and is highly anticipated to be well received by the public, and therefore being a profitable venture.
References Beins, B. (2004). Research Methods: a tool for life. Michigan: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Blanchard, O. (2008). Macroeconomics. California: Pearson Hall.
Krugman, R. W. (2009). Macroeconomics. New York: Worth Publishers.
Managing People and Organization part of organization behavior Case Study college essay help
Introduction The concept of management has been studied and explored for centuries. Many business experts have endeavored to unravel the truth behind management of organizations and its overall impact in the business performance. Based on this analogy, it follows that managers play a crucial role in directing certain activities within an organization.
They can either cause an organization to prosper or fall down to its knees, depending on several management principles, which might be adopted (Jones
Moneyball Term Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Moneyball is a movie about an Oakland baseball team that is in serious trouble and is losing series in the American League division. The team is also in serious financial trouble. This report looks into the review of the movie through the eyes of management. Management is the reason the A’s are in so much trouble both financially and in terms of performance, which is when Beane comes in.
The movie revolves around his life in line with the team since he is the general manager running one of the poorest of teams meaning he cannot solve his team’s financial issues by buying players since the money is not there (Mcneill, 2009). This is very frustrating because he wants the team to perform yet he cannot buy better players. If different results are to be achieved, then things should at least be done differently.
Beane knows that he has to do something different but he is not sure what he must do different. He meets young Brand who gives Beane a way forward, sabermetrics, which is a statistical analysis of baseball. This is what the young economist thinks will work for the team. This is because the traditional way of viewing player is not efficient enough leading misjudgment of the value of player. Some are overvalued and other undervalued.
The decision that Beane make reflect his life as a professional player, taking us back to his time. All this changes when he adopts the new style of managing the team rather than throwing dice he decides to go with analytics to see if it will help the team win. This is when they set out with Brand to assemble a dream team composing of players that no one wants.
This is done with the smallest of budgets. The rest of the workforce does not understand his reason but he tries his best to make them see that n the long run the organization we gain. He meets opposition from those that prefer the old way of doing things. This is a movie of not just baseball but also management.
Solution 1 Solution 2 Billy Beane’s leadership styles and motivation styles
Starting with Fredrick Taylor’s management theory of improving economic efficiency, this is to ensure minimization of waste and maximization of labor productivity. This management style is all about managing talents. Taylor in his theory puts emphasis on performance measurement and being very objective while examining talent.
Talent management is very vital in any business setup. For example, we see that Beane and his assistant Paul did not just guess but they used the statistics, which would ensure that they were in a better position to win. This was applied on the offensive side which was something to do with the on base and the out base. They made sure they positioned themselves to win the game. This gave them an easier job in finding extraordinary players.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Autocracy in management can be a double edged sword since the manager makes decisions unilaterally. The subordinates are not give much consideration in the decision making process. This might display the confidence level manager of the business but also can put the company into a lot of trouble since the subordinates can decide to detach themselves.
Autocratic decisions may not be very healthy for the business especially if they are emotional which most are. A perfect example is Beane laying off some players because of their behavior at the lounge. Although this brought up issues with his general manager Phillip it was a good calculated decision giving the team a sense of direction.
Communication is very important in management. A manager who does not show effective communication skills cannot lead his team to great success on projects, this is impossible to achieve without first building a strong rapport. As demonstrated in the movie, Beane make a conversation with his team in a very short span of time and three of his players swing into action, this he could not have achieved without the rapport first.
Encouragement and motivation is vital in leadership; ability to inspire others to achieve greatness even when it is impossible. This is reflected when Beane turns a catcher, Scott Hatterberg into a first base and he understood for him to do that he must build a little confidence in Scott. This is why he leads the coaching staff in cheering for Scott when he makes the smallest of progress in practice.
Yes I think that his style is suitable since it allowed the manager to bring in a new system that would transform the team into a winning one. He was also able to produce a team that was now capable of winning against the “big fish” of the league having in mind no one wanted these players since they were viewed using the old traditional method as being of no value.
His management style was only suitable at the time because looking at his style critically. Beane’s concept of sabermetrics and other financial analyses was revolutionary in propelling the team to the top. He used a method that can be dangerous in other fields, low risk and high reward. So we can say that his management style worked for him at the time and could only be applied in baseball. This is because in business for instance is like trying to invest in a low-budget stock of a company that is just staring.
Solution 3 Billy Beane’s analysis styles and Statistics calculation styles to form a winning team, the differences between his strategy and mainstream’s strategy
Beane uses sabermetrics in his analysis of the records of both the players and what they are worth. For us to get some insight into how this analysis works we must first understand the game of baseball. This game stated in the 18th century with the creation of the National league around 1876, it constitutes of 28 professional team and some participate in the national or the American League.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Moneyball specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The game has millions of fan in America and around the world. The game is played with two opposing teams with nine players on each team. Some of these players just to mention a few may include; baseman, pitcher, catcher, second baseman, right, left and center fielders. The score are in runs.
The most important fact that is captured in analysis is the numbers of the game that are recorded. This is either during the game or after the game. These numbers mean so little to a manager who believes in insight rather than analytics. How the pitcher and batters perform is assessed by such number and this is what sabermeterics is all about. For instance, while batting, efficiency of the batter is what is the mean?
That is established by dividing the total at-bats by how many hits he has achieved. This data is then used to find out the player’s opportunity and his capabilities. Such information is used to establish the total worth of the player and the manager decides whether to sign him or not.
When it comes to the difference between Beane’s strategy and the mainstream strategy, we must note that beane concentrated on getting the job done other than other issues involved, that is why he makes it very clear to everyone that winning was their number one priority. Factors like the welfare of the workers would come next. As we do comparison of the two strategies we are likely to note that the mainstream was kind of convectional and believed that of one t do well money must be involved and a lot of it (Mcneill, 2009).
We should also note that there is a difference in the taking of risks and reward expectation. Beane one hand believes in low risk and high reward while the mainstream on the other hand believes in equality between the risk you take and the reward you get. For instance, let’s say there is a player who is 39 year and in the resent past has not been very successful with at least a hit out of 17 at-bats.
This player is in trouble for refusing a suspension due to failing a drug test. In main stream strategy no one would want to sign such a player but Beane takes a risk and gives him half a million contract. Beane’s has done the analysis that when this player gets back to shape ticket sale will go up and he can serve as a mentor to young upcoming players.
Solution 4 Relationship and effects between Statistics, information, and management
Statistics has become very vital to both information and management. Statistic can also be referred to as data and companies are investing millions of dollars in data. For example, a company will take it time to accumulate some data on the different marketing approaches and before even the time deadline it had previously set expires it will analyze the numbers; this it to derive information out of this data.
A proper example is how dell used a matrix approach worldwide that was about advertizing agency. This was to analyze dell sales for each region and the information derived was used to fine-tune its promotions. The fact that first they started with looking at statistic then created information and finally used that information to make an informed decision cannot be ignored. It could be a strategy that will see them increase their margins considerably.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Moneyball by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizations have become very dynamic and looking at what the effects of statistic, information and management are, we note companies in many industries produce the same goods or offer the same services. In addition they use the same technologies. For a firm to make its way to the top, then it has to do something different from its competitors. This must be in the business processes which must be properly analyzed and information derived from such data.
The information must be used by management in their decision. The business process should include knowing what the customer wants and prices clients want to pay for the products.
This establishes a proper system in form of customer relations management. This can be incorporated in an elaborate Enterprise resource planning system. Such systems are very vital in achieving core competence in an industry with same products and services. As such they should be given the utmost interest and attention and should be well exploited to realize profit.
Managers have been able to use the use statistic in order to make decisions that have impacted positively on their organizations not just in organization but also in sports. A good example is the manager of St Louis Cardinals using analytics plus intuitions to establish when to substitute a highly charged player into the field of play or whether he should hire a professional expert due to low morale level of players.
As we can see data combined with management can produce results but we must not also forget that it has to be done carefully since error can lead to high impact of failure. This impact of failure would be very difficult to recover from.
Conclusion In conclusion it is very true that not only fan of baseball have something to learn from this movie but managers have a lot to learn in terms of leadership styles, motivation style and the use of information. This movie looks at the relationship between leadership and successful initiatives that managers can pursuit. There is a good example of also bad behavior as a leader and what it can cause the organization.
Arrogance and being insensitive to the welfare of other can be a recipe for failure as demonstrated in the movie by Billy Beane where at some point tried to prove to everyone that he was better than all of them. It does not matter what our view of the movie are what really matters is the lessons learnt from the movie and what we can derive from Billy Beane’s role as the manager of the Oakland team. Further more if we can be able to implement these lessons to our organization and transform those organizations (Mcneill, 2009).
References Arnold, R. A. (2010). Macroeconomics. Chicago: Cengage Learning.
Barro, R. J. (2008). Macroeconomics: A Modern Approach. Chicago: Cengage Learning.
Mankiw, G. (2006). Macroeconomics. New York: W H Freeman-Usa.
Mcneill, S. C. (2009). Research Methods: Third Edition. Chicago: Cengage Learning.
A Discussion of the Organizational Members in Multinational Corporations Essay college application essay help
Multinational corporations (MNCs) are ranked second (after transnational organizations) when international organizations are categorized based on their level of involvement in international activities. By their simplistic definition, they are corporations owning facilities, assets and operating in at least one foreign nation. According to Haghirian (2010, p.59), modern MNCs have hundreds of thousands of organizational members or employees.
These members fall under three types; namely expatriates, host-country nationals, and third-country nationals. They form diverse workforces based on the notion that they are mosaic of persons who bring different backgrounds, perspectives, beliefs, genders, disabilities, races, competencies and styles as assets to the MNCs (Rasmussen, 2006, p.1). It is from the above motivational background that the succeeding paragraphs discuss what really describes each of the identified members.
Starting with expatriates, this essay establishes that MNCs’ definition of the term complies with that of most academic literature. As such, the term defines specialized and highly qualified members (or employees) whose overseas assignments last from one to five years. The key reason for calling on the services of expatriates occurs from the need to fill assignments which are demand-oriented.
An additional reason is derived from the fact that the existing members may lack requisite expertise or technical knowledge thus calling on expatriates to address this gap. Nonetheless, borrowing from Barbian (2006, p.31), this essay advices that there is need to advance pre-departure training to these categories of members to expose them to the envisioned ‘culture shock’ likely to be experienced in all foreign cultures.
Alternatively, Host-Country Nationals (HCNs) are residents or citizens of a nation that provide or “host” local facilities and property, for MNCs’ operations abroad (Vance
Behavior modification: Reinforcement and Punishment Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Behavior modification is the use of established techniques to determine behavior frequency in people and animals. Often, these techniques are empirically tested and used to increase or decrease pre-determined individual or group behaviors. Behaviors, mostly altered, include individual and group reactions to stimuli through introduction of punishments and reinforcements. Following some behavior patterns can be encouraged or discouraged through reinforcement and punishment respectively.
Reinforcement is used to motivate to behave in the following way, while punishment is meant to discourage the person from going on like that. Both reinforcement and punishment are complex concepts that influence behavior especially through applied behavior analysis.
This discussion will focus on reinforcement and punishment as important tools in the behavior modification. It is important to note that both concepts involve positive and negative elements in their application. Positive implies presenting while negative means subtracting or taking something away.
Reinforcement Reinforcement is always meant to ensure the likelihood of some action happening again. Positive reinforcement involves offering desirable elements to encourage right behavior in individuals or groups. For instance, it may involve praising or giving extra time to play to children if they succeeded in study.
Additionally, it is possible to encourage something through negative reinforcement – removal or subtraction of undesirable stimuli. For instance, teachers may stop issuing punishment warnings if a child does his/her homework. The child will, therefore, learn that if he/she does his/her homework, the teacher will not issue punishment warnings. The child will learn over the time to do his/her homework to avoid punishment warnings.
Punishment Though there are different assertions from different scholars regarding punishment, there is consensus that punishment as a behavior modification technique is very dependent on operant conditioning principles. Punishment involves administration of adverse stimulus in response to or in an effort to deter occurrence of unwanted behavior. In other words, punishment is supposed to lower the chances of a certain behavior happening.
It is important to note that there can be both positive and negative punishment. Positive punishment involves addition of undesirable elements, while negative punishment means taking away something pleasant. Both of the above actions discourage a certain behavior from happening again. For instance, a toy or video game can be taken away from a child if he/she has not completed her homework; this is an illustration of negative punishment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, positive punishment involves addition of undesirable elements to ensure a certain behavior will not repeat. For instance, a parent may oblige a child who does not complete his/her to perform some extra duties or house work. Imposing some function is equivalent to adding an unpleasant act to discourage the behavior from happening again.
Conclusion Behavior modification is a complex phenomenon that involves more than two concepts discussed. There are varying views on the use of these concepts for behavior modification. Some experts contend that use of punishment is not desirable while others advocate for it so long as there is an effort to show what is required of the subject after the punishment has been meted.
Without explanation, however, the punishment is likely to lead to undesirable outcomes, such as rebellion and resentment. Also, some scholars argue that reward may lead to undesirable behavior outcomes, especially if it is carelessly used. According to them, some people or animals may take advantage of a situation and fail to conform to required behavior by ‘blackmailing’ whoever is in charge.
Impact of Telecommunications on the Arab Society Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The paper under consideration dwells upon the role telecommunications has played in the development of the Arab world. It is argued that telecommunications has played significant role in the development of many Arab countries. These changes can be found in different planes: economic, social, political, educational, etc.
Thus, it is mentioned that telecommunication services in the Arab world are put into the private sector, which has made these services more accessible. This has led to certain changes in private life of people. Now increasing number of people prefer using telecommunications to do the shopping (e.g. use their phones to order goods) instead of going to malls or markets.
Apart from shopping habits, telecommunications also have influenced people’s attitude towards other cultures. Thus, now more and more people learn foreign languages (English and Chinese) to be a part of global communication. However, the change is not one-sided. Now Arabic is the seventh top language used in the Internet. More so, it is noted that the development of telecommunications has led to the spread of Shi’i Islam faith to other countries (predominantly Central Asia).
As far as social changes are concerned, telecommunications have influenced the way various issues have been discussed. Thus, such important issues as violence, democracy, civil rights and inequity have gained quite considerable attention.
Notably, telecommunications played really important role during the Arab Spring. Revolutions, rebellions, upheavals and protests in such countries as Egypt, Syria, Libya, Tunisia, Bahrain, Yemen, Algeria, Oman, Jordan, Iraq, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Sudan and some others were ‘nourished’ by telecommunications as people were able to discuss various issues and share ideas.
Admittedly, telecommunications enabled many people to enter the discourse. Eventually, this led to rise of awareness, and, as a result, to various protests and even revolutions. Therefore, the impact of telecommunications has been significant. At that, it is also pointed out that access to telecommunication services is still low in Arab countries.
It is important to note that the present research is very important as it provides insights into the correlation between technology (telecommunications, to be more precise) and the development of the society. The Arab world has been experiencing a lot of changes throughout decades.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many of these changes are due to the development of telecommunications in the region. The changes are manifested on different levels: political, social, economic, etc. The paper reveals the correlation between the spread of telecommunication services and changes which are taking place in the region.
Nonetheless, it is possible to note that further research will provide more insights into the development of Arab societies. For instance, the paper does not highlight changes in such important sphere as the sphere of education. Besides, it is mentioned that the position of women in the society (and associated issues like violence, inequity, etc.) has gained a lot of attention due to telecommunication services. Nonetheless, it is still unclear whether this attention has resulted in any changes.
It is also unclear whether the interest to the problem is increasing. Finally, it is noted that governments and other authorities try to control (at least, to certain extent) information interchange via the Internet. It is possible to try to trace the influence of such kind of control on the spread of telecommunications services and the development of the Arab societies, on the whole. Therefore, it is possible to state that the present research can be extended to look at the issue in more detail.
Rational Organization Essay (Book Review) essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction From my own understanding, rationality is the kind of thinking that a group of people or an individual wish to have to attain their goals if they are conscious of their best interests. Thinking is about the goals, beliefs, and decisions that individuals and organizations have. Rational beliefs are coherent rather than contradictory, but they should match the person’s experience. The behavior should be aimed at achieving some goals.
Decision-making is important, and it should be based on evaluation of the cost and the benefits of the behavior. Decisions, which result in more gain than pain, are preferred. Lastly, rationality involves utility maximization, the effort to minimize losses or disadvantages and increase the advantages.
The question whether behaviors and structures of an organization are rational or not has been a controversial issue. Using the works of Weber; DiMaggio and Powell, the paper will discuss differences perceptions and their contributions of organizations to making less or more irrational decisions by human beings (Handel 243).
Many people have the tendency to view their own actions, words, and thoughts as rational and consider other people’s views and perceptions as irrational. Irrational actions and opinions are those that arise from inadequate reasoning, emotional distress, and insufficient thoughts.
Organizations are mainly designed to achieve specific goals. According to Handel (244), organizations are social structures formed by a group of people, working under strict rules and regulations with the aim of meeting certain objectives. Organizations involve purposeful, deliberate, and conscious cooperation among the members.
The question whether behaviors and structures of an organization are rational or not has been a controversial issue. Using the works of Weber; DiMaggio and Powell, the paper will discuss contributions of organizations to making less or more irrational decisions by human beings.
Rationalization Weber highlights in the “Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism” that people are imprisoned by rationalist order imposed by capitalism, which becomes their iron cage. In his bureaucracy theory, he argues that rationality is a powerful and efficient way of controlling human beings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After its establishment, the power of bureaucracy is not reversible. Societies have been haunted by the metaphor of iron cage because of increase in spread of bureaucracy. Organizational rationalization must, however, change even though the spread of bureaucracy increased widely eight years after release of Max Webber’s documentations.
According to Webber, there are three main causes of bureaucracy, so there is an increased need for leaders to control citizens, states, and markets in competing capitalist societies, as well as demand for equality by middle classmen. Webber points out competition in the market as the main cause of bureaucracy (Handel 244).
DiMaggio and Powell argue that Weber’s assumptions should be studied again because rationalization and bureaucracy causes have changed. States and corporations have achieved bureaucratization. Bureaucracy is still the common form of organization but companies are homogeneous.
Most of the organizations have similar characteristics Efficiency and competition are not the main causes of organizational changes in structure. Processes that take place in enterprises and bureaucracy make organizations efficient and similar. Similar procedures are followed by organizations. The scholars argue that organizational fields cause bureaucratization and other similar characteristics in organizations.
An organizational field is group organizations that form a recognized institution. Organizational field includes resources, products, regulatory agencies, consumers, key suppliers, and other organizations producing similar products and services. Professions and state also contribute to the process.
These have been the main organizational rationalizes in the 20th century. Organizational fields, which are well structured, provide a good environment in which the efforts of an individual to rationally deal with constraints and uncertainties lead to total homogeneity in output, culture, and structure (Handel 244).
Most modern theories explain different actions of organizations as well as behavior and structural differences among them. Hannan and Freeman wanted to provide the answer to the question why there existed many organizations. Handel (244) seeks to provide answers to homogeneity in forms and practices of organizations but not variations. Organizational fields show differences in form and approach in the initial stages.
We will write a custom Book Review on Rational Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After its establishment, fields gradually become homogeneous. Winnowing, development of hospital, and radio industries can illustrate this assumption. In the above spheres, structurization emerges. Moreover, the organizations become homogenized. The state and competition structure organizations operating on businesses, which are made similar by powerful forces.
New practices adopted and goals modified form new organizations. Innovations are aimed at improving the performance of business. Rational strategies in an organization may be irrational if adopted by other companies.
Isomorphism is used in description of homogenization process. A restricting process compels an organizational unit to adopt strategies similar to those of other units exposed to similar environmental conditions. The drive toward similarity is referred to as isomorphism. There are two main types, institutional, and competitive. Competitive isomorphism is associated with the works of Hannan and Freeman.
The three main mechanisms behind changes in institutional isomorphism include coercive isomorphism, mimetic isomorphism, and normative isomorphism. Coercive isomorphism is pressure from the competitors to which the organization in question is subjected. As an example, governmental mandates originating from financial requirements and contract law may be given (Handel 245).
Organizations within the same geographical regions tend to be homogeneous because they share similar rituals. Small organizations are highly affected by large corporations. Mimetic isomorphism is the extend to which an organization moulds itself like other organizations. Organizations tend to shape themselves like companies that have been successful or those that they think are valid to them.
People may also bring about changes and consultants who moved into the organization by initiating changes, they think, may be a benefit to the organization. Professions exert normative isomorphism pressure to an organization. For example, employees with similar educational status tend to handle problems in similar ways.
They have the tendency of importing and pushing norms that are necessary in the organization so that particular forms and routines are adopted. Conformities in organizations are strengthened by socialization. Similarities between the three processes make it possible for easy interaction between organizations. This helps in establishment of legitimacy in organizations (Handel 247).
Max Webber developed a theory of authority structures, which describes activities in the organization based on legal authority. In this case, the subjects should obey rules enacted by people in authority. He argues that authorities are established by building structures, decision-making, and task responsibilities. The author defines the power and authority that an individual possess in the organization as a rational-legal authority.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rational Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Weber points out that rational legal authority should not be based on character of an individual, social status, or wealth. Bureaucracy is developed by this power. The main difference is that Weber stresses of bureaucracy as the cause of similarity in organizations whereas DiMaggio and Powell argues that bureaucracy has undergone changes (Handel 17).
Weber’s ideal principles include division of labor in his theory. Duties are broken down into routine, well defined, and attributed to simple jobs. The leadership form is hierarchy, in which lower offices are controlled by higher offices. Technical norms or rules are applied to control the behavior of people. Special training is required if application of the rules is not rational. Selection of members is formal.
Technical qualifications are a major determining factor in selection of members. Individuals appointed to serve in official positions must have technical qualifications. Rational democracy requires administrative members to be completely separated from ownership of administrative and production means. Rules, decisions, and acts of administration are recorded down for reference. After oral discussion, decisions arrived at should be put down in a written document.
This includes proposals, preliminary and final decisions as well as rules and orders. The office is composed of continual operation and written documents by officials. Workers, employees, and officials in the organization do not own non-human production and administration means. Officials are supposed to account for them clearly. The common belief between the two authors is that they belief in similarity (Handel 18).
Conclusion Weber argues that bureaucracy is the most recognized form of exercising legal authority in the system of administration. The supreme chief who attains his /her position by virtue of succession, election, or appropriation manages organizations. Other administrative staff members are appointed to serve different functions. Examples of organizations in which bureaucracy is applicable include privately owned clinics and hospitals maintained by religious institutions.
Bureaucracy is illustrated in the Catholic Church, in which priests and the doctrine of Papal infallibility dominate the church. In order for entities to realize success in performance, there must be common goals and regulations, which govern achievement of these goals. Rationality plays a major role in organizations. It is clear from both texts that DiMaggio, Powell, and Weber have some views that are similar and they differ in some perceptions of rationality in organizations (Handel 19).
Works Cited Handel, Michael. The sociology of organizations: classic, contemporary, and critical readings. New York: SAGE, 2003.Print.
Sustainable Development’ and Economic Growth’ Relationship Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The level of economic growth differs from country to country depending on the desired needs of the population. The various growth recipes involved include; growth by brute force and smart growth. The former involves quantitative growth based on the high level of input, such as labour and capital.
On the other hand, the latter is a qualitative growth based on the level of technology and institutional change, which ultimately results into high productivity. Economy is capable of improving when focus is made on infrastructure development and education.
There is also involvement of trade liberalization, deregulation as well as privatisation of productive institutions, which provides foreign benefits on knowledge (Hopwood, 2005). The study employs qualitative research comparing data and works from different literatures researched on sustainability and economic growth.
The discussion covers opinion based on both developing and developed nations of the world. Qualitative method within this particular area is more diverse and emphasizes particularity over-generalizations
How is economic growth defined? Economic growth refers to positive percentage change within an economy’s real GDP measured subsequently over a period of time. Production of goods and services capable of satisfying population’s needs represents a good reflection of economic growth. Economic growth has for a long time, been considered as the engine behind the development of modern societies.
Marketing, the level of production and consumption are the main instruments of measuring the economy as well as being used as a central organizing principle (Hopwood, 2005). The recent development is characterized by dominance of the free-market capitalist system, which is considered the most successful political-economic system in modern globalized world. Real GDP is used as a good measure for economic prosperity and progress.
Is sustainable economy achievable? Economy is known to be one of the sub-systems of the environment since all the requirements for building economy originates from the environment and the resulting waste return to the same environment. Economic growth is measured as the increase in the level of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is always described in terms of market value of goods and services within a period of time in a given economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economic growth requires more resources, which results into more wastes. There are no possibilities for perpetual economic growth because of the limited resources within the earth. The ability of a country to experience economic growth over successive periods of time depends on its sensitivity towards sustainability. Sustainable status is possible when a country has got the ability of maintaining stocks of renewable resources.
The extraction level should not exceed the levels of regeneration. The reason as to why economic growth is dependant on sustainable development is because GDP normally depends on natural capital.
Decrease in the availability of resources prevents anticipated growth of various economies meaning that sustainable development is a prerequisite to economic growth. The changing interest of consumers is also one of the good indicators revealing the necessity of sustainability in economic growth (Hopwood, 2005).
Sustainability Sustainability could be defined by considering conditions through which countries view production and manufacturing processes together with the products since such a perception leads to increased production based on responsibility.
Organizations are currently considering the act of being strategic towards sustainable development while at the same time making choices on lucrative processes capable of contributing positively towards more sustainable society (Sharma and Vredenbrug, 1998). The aim is to avoid the risks associated with destruction and at the same time pursue profitable dynamics.
Country’s GDP has long been used in measuring the standards of living, but most importantly is that in the developed nations many dynamics affecting quality of life such as the environment are not possible to measure using market dynamics.
This is since there is a possibility that ensures such parameters loose value in the occurrence of economic growth. Therefore, any initiative of sustainable development should encompass the three dimensions of environmental, economic and social aspects (Ekins, 2005).
We will write a custom Essay on Sustainable Development’ and Economic Growth’ Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Preferred alternative to Economic Growth Stability within the economy is an indication of positive economic growth over a period of time. Stable economy aims at maintaining stable level of resource consumption as well as stability in population growth.
Steady economy is characterized by features such as; sustainable scale, fair distribution, efficient allocation and quality standard of living. Sustainable economy could be made possible through various channels some of which are discussed below.
Limiting the level of resource use as well as waste production and bringing the two to fit within the ecological limits provides a steady-state. Renewable resources should be used in a responsible manner such that their exhaustion should not exceed their regeneration.
And at the same time, the non-renewable resources should not be exploited beyond the limits where their wastes cannot be absorbed within the environment. The best way to ensure effective sustainability is to utilize organizations as well as individuals at the local level.
Stabilizing the population assist in the process of achieving economic stability, since the level of consumption is determined by the rate of consumption. The higher the population growth rate, the higher the rate of consumption.
Development of non-coercive policies helps in incentive development, which satisfies the existing population. Achieving sustainable economic growth also requires reduction of the gap between the rich and the poor within the society. Appropriate policies dealing with inequality are required to deal with problems within stagnant economies. This could further be achieved through progressive taxation as well as social programs.
Sustainable development Sustainable development could be defined as the nature of development that meets the needs of the present without in any way compromising the capability of the future generations to meet their own needs.
The definition caters for the needs of the world poor, which could be met through trade and economic growth as well as restrictions brought by technological advancement and social set-up on the environment’ ability to meet present and future population requirements (Arrow,1995, 520-521).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainable Development’ and Economic Growth’ Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sustainability can be defined through different approaches namely thermodynamic, capital-based and human approaches. Thermodynamic approach looks at sustainable development as development confined within the limits of earth’s carrying capacity. This is where the quality of life is improved within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems.
Capital-based approach views the environment as a form of capital asset, which can be increased through replenishing and at the same time decreased through consumption. Human approach involves the process of considering sustainability as means of improving people’s lives (Hopwood, 2005).
Possibility of achieving sustainable economy There are several environmental issues always addressed by the economic status of a region or country. The economic status could be realised based on the population growth and the level of exhaustion of natural resource as well as natural capital.
The concepts of sustainable development and economic growth are interconnected with the aim of protecting the available wealth of the earth and at the same time creating more opportunities towards satisfaction of human needs. Climatic changes can be traced back to countless rises in pollutants capable of interfering with future global ecosystem. Saving nature is likened to saving humanity from extinction.
When evaluated in terms of productivity and consumption, economic growth is said to rise considerably with the increase in the rate of pollution. However, setting up institutions with the aim of educating people on the issues concerning environment and life provides central point to sustainable development.
This is based on the fact that transformations within the work area provide positive results. Sustainable economics plays a vital role in the process of production and consumption (Figge, 2005).
Possible hindrances in the process of achieving sustainable economy Greenhouse gas emissions from various manufacturing companies originate more so from operational activities, making considerable contribution towards global warming, which is seen as an environmental hazard in the long-run.
This makes it necessary the mission of initiating emissions trading schemes as a policy for the purposes of helping in limiting the level of emissions, which threatens economic growth (Arrow, 1995, 520-521). Some countries apply the use of government Carbon Pollution Reduction scheme policy to assist in the control of the emissions.
The per capita carbon dioxide emissions presents one of the greatest threats to anticipated economic growth since they affect adversely the ecosystem and biodiversity. Failure to control such emissions grants availability of potential element capable of reducing Gross domestic product of major countries (Figge, 2005).
The rate of change experienced in world climate presents greatest threat to global businesses and companies. It is believed that companies are generally affected by climatic changes and the policies geared towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
However, the impact is at times projected on consumer prizes on goods and services delivered. Such restrictions and values of environmental concern makes some companies loose considerable market share (Figge, 2005).
The level of technology and market forces within a country has the capability of successfully dealing with environmental limits towards growth. Technology determines the level of emissions within an economy, which ultimately determines environmental improvement. Such proves the definition of economy as a sub-system of the environment since the environmental limits defines a lot within the economy (Lovins et al., 1999).
Depletion of resources at times threatens survival within the universe since they become more less at a high rate than expected. However, the society is full of abundant resources and experimental results from technologically advanced activities, which tend to predict potential losses owing to climatic changes (Lovins et al., 1999).
Economic activity is relatively associated with people’s material standard of living, the level of resource consumption, production, which ultimately determines the quality of life. However, the nature of economic growth within any region is largely regarded as a positive goal since it involves increase in the level of income, which determines individual’s material well-being.
The level of growth is normally determined by responsible use of resources, environmental impacts and the issue of social change. Increased income should have the ability of considering its impact on the environment through provision into the future (Figge, 2005).
Various elements of economic activities influence the degree of future sustainable growth; these include investment done in sustaining economic performance, sufficient funds, and low rate of savings amongst others.
It is possible for residents of developed countries to achieve sustainable development since the current views consider growth as development in the present with a strategic view of ensuring sustenance of future generations. This involves various organizational considerations on expansion of the system for the purposes of accommodating sufficient resources.
Organizations get involved in the business of structuring their processes for the purposes of maintaining healthy stakeholders as well as the society. All these strategies involve future economic planning for the purposes of sustainability.
According to research, people tend to live longer within richer societies since they enjoy a better percentage of economic rights. The rate of economic growth and consumption depicts the level of inequality in income hence creating some social concerns.
Negative developments within societies such as insecurity contribute towards negative economic growth. Conversely, improvement in mental health, prevention of crime and environmental clean-up are potential contributors towards economic growth.
However, subjective well-being is closely dependant on the level of material consumption, but most importantly intrinsic values have been found to enable people live happier lives with higher levels of environmental responsibility (Jackson, 2009).
Human activity inform of work, results into development within various sectors, hence continuous production and satisfaction of human needs. The main advantage of work is that it results into integrated development, which ensures establishment of security and opportunities for social as well as intellectual growth. This is ensured through creation of more meaningful occupations.
However, considering such changes as development of more occupation, sustainable development may not be defined together with economic growth since this would only lead to creation of excessive polluting opportunities. Growth sometimes is associated with catastrophic consequences.
Compatibility of sustainable development with Economic growth Effective economic growth demands a politically stable environment; this is because the level of investment within a particular region demands sound political and legal structures.
Sustainable development is further promoted through consideration of economic, environmental and social outcomes within the circles of decision making. The process is applied in ensuring that only long-term impacts are given priority over short-term benefits. The benefits can sometimes be interrupted by high compliance costs, which lead to complication on investment processes.
Economic growth is also known for generating more income through provision of more work. This in-turn enables individuals to create wealth at community standards leading to improvement in living standards. High level of income is an indication of improved health and housing standards as well as increased geographic mobility and leisure time.
However, some level of constraints are also realised on environment as a result of improved living standards. This has the capabilities of altering patterns of economic behaviours due to the various changes in environmental perceptions. Additional wealth created through positive economic growth results into fair distribution amongst social groups hence resulting into differences in living standards.
Economic growth is also a good measure used by countries to contain demographic changes, like meeting the needs and desires of ageing population. This can also be used to raise the standards of education hence record individual’s improvement in skills. Social impacts of economic growth can always be realised through improved standards of living as well as social developments.
On the other hand human capital is normally used as one of the greatest input to economic growth. Appropriate skills are required for the purposes of providing the necessary workforce with relevant skills (Elkington, 1994; Figge and Hahn, 2004).
Human economic activities have broad impacts on the environment. Utilization of non-renewable resources presents a challenge since their usage cannot be replaced leading to their decline over a period of time. The other issue is on the impacts of economic activities on pollution-related effects.
However, the advancement in the level of science and technology assists in the sustenance of non-renewable resources, which ultimately minimise the environmental costs of economic activities. The processes are further initiated to cater for the substitution of non-renewable with renewable resources. Such substitution processes require incentives such as market prices and appropriate decision making (Hart and Milstein, 2003).
Businesses that are socially sustainable consider responsible action towards surrounding environment. Such actions as transparency in decision making together with efficient corporate governance creates some level of fair working conditions and at the same time ensures safety of employees.
Integration of foreign investment into the local system involves contributes towards economic growth when approached through trusted institutions and suppliers capable of delivering rightful information about products and services hence promoting the overall sustainability of the whole process.
This contributes positively to the performance of all stakeholders enabling the growth and economic success of the company (Wagner et al, 2001).
Businesses which consider environmental conservation normally use resources responsibly through recycling and at the same time foster what is known as biodiversity. This strategy applies more so in the manufacturing sector of the economy where strict sustainability measures are required.
Majority of the industries require application of necessary measures capable of reducing greenhouse gas emission and at the same time increases the proportion of utilizing renewable energy sources. Production of environmentally friendly products attracts value within the market creating some willingness in consumers to pay extra for the products (Wagner et al., 2001).
Conclusion The extent to which the earth’s resources are being exhausted demands that economic growth be viewed hand in hand with sustainability. The current generation requires economic growth and technological innovations for the purposes of establishing sustainable developments.
This is so as to counter the current depletion state of the natural resources. Sustainable development and economic growth are two inseparable entities and are important in the long-run. Both developed and developing countries should utilize the available natural resources to ensure development of sustainable economies capable of contributing positively in present and future generations.
The problem of over-dependency on non-renewable energy sources by developed and developing countries portrays some potential risk to posterity.
Appropriate utilization of natural resources ensures that there is enough accumulation of economic and human capital capable of sustaining livelihoods over longer periods of time. There is need for making people understand the nature of importance and interdependence existing between human, ecosystem and biodiversity.
Economic growth should be focused in ensuring increase in generation of more energy resources vital for a country’s economy. Such moves are created with the aim of ensuring that negative impacts on the environment are considerably minimized. Research from esteemed institutions reveals that majority of the currently existing energy systems are not sustainable.
Conventional energy resources such as fossil fuels and others known to be supply-focused fail to address fully the various consumer needs. This calls for countries to adopt the various energy sources capable of providing the required global sustenance.
Modern technology should be stemmed for the purposes of enabling efficient conversion processes that are environmentally friendly and at the same time supports economic development. Implementation of appropriate knowledge in the field of engineering and economics results into positive results capable of maintaining sustainable systems.
Benefits of sustainability resulting from environmental natural resources could be realised when appropriate measures are taken by individual countries in the process of satisfying societal needs based on efficient usage. The focus should always be on potential of the available resources based on effective means of utilization. Economic capital is vital commodity in the process of improving community needs.
Human activities and well-being cannot be equated to money or rather measured in terms of money. The world needs to be approached in new perspectives which involve integration of equality and culture. Cultural integration enables possible enrichment of other cultures hence enabling continual learning processes.
Research reveals that considerable number of society’s record progress and prosperity without any form of interference with their natural surrounding. This reveals that sustainable development is possible with wise management of the available resources. Such management practices create economic systems which are environmentally friendly and at the same time lead to improvement in people’s livelihoods.
Application of various concepts such as prudent use of natural resources through local knowledge, application of local means of transport could help in reducing the extent of natural destruction hence providing comfortable living conditions for people within various societies.
Reference list Arrow, K. 1995. Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment. Science, (268), pp. 520–21.
Elkington, J.1994. Towards the sustainable corporation: Win-win-win business Strategies for sustainable development. California Management Review 36 (2), pp.90-100
Ekins, P. 2005. Eco-efficiency – Motives, drivers, and economic implications. Journal of industrial ecology, 9(4).
Evaluation of anger management counseling and treatment of domestic violence by the Capital Area Michigan Works Proposal essay help site:edu
Anger management Program description Anger management and counseling program utilizes therapeutic techniques and tools of psychology in assisting families and inmates in correctional facilities to control their emotions1.
The program is being implemented in facilities from several states in North America with the sole intention of reducing violence among inmates and caregivers, and reducing cases of domestic violence, child neglect, and child abuse2. Most of the crimes committed can be directly linked to uncontrolled anger and emotions.
By running this program in correctional facilities helps to avoid recurrence of crimes committed even when the inmates and caregivers are placed under parole programs. Focusing the program on parents and care givers assist in reducing cases of child neglect and domestic violence. Many children from low families experience neglect and violence due to uncontrolled emotions from their caregivers or parents.
The program also ensures that the beneficiaries develop an assertive communication skill whereby they are able fight for their rights without infringing the rights of others. In Michigan, the program is administered by the Capital Area Michigan Works which ensures that all the correctional facilities in the state have the program running as well as offering counseling services to the parents and caregivers.
Problem statement The main problem that the program intends to create a solution to is domestic violence, child neglect and violence in correctional facilities3. This is one of the most serious problems in the society. It is therefore expected that the mentioned cases of violence will reduce as the anger management and counseling program is implemented in the society targeting caregivers and inmates.
Program mission The anger management program ensures that the inmates and caregivers gain important and essential skills that assist them to interact peacefully with each other. The program intends to achieve this by helping the inmates and caregivers to control their emotions and develop assertive communication skills.
Nonetheless create a situation where the inmates and caregivers solve their problems in an amicable way without leading to violence. The parents who neglect their children in most cases usually need counseling services to help them realize that their problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Program goals and objective The main goal of the anger management program is to help the inmates and caregivers control their anger. The inmates and caregivers are taught interpersonal communication skill, forgiveness, and honest expression of feelings, stress management, empathy, relaxation, and tendency to be appreciative all the time.
Focus of the evaluation project Description
The evaluation project for anger management program intends to ensure that the program is effective in its implementation. The evaluation follows the logic model for programs assessment.
This involves giving consideration to several aspects of the program that needs to be evaluated4. These aspects include: the problem that the program intends to solve, the results produced by the program, the activities of the program, and the resources that are used to achieve the overall goal.
Besides measuring the goals and results produced by the program, the evaluation will also focus on the curriculum used to run the program. This document will be evaluated to identify how effective it is in producing results in line with the overall goals and objectives of the program.
Goals and purpose of the evaluation
The main goal for the evaluation project is to assess the impact that the anger management program has on the inmates and caregivers to see if is proving effective. Through identified evaluation indicators the project will gather information that is relevant to the purpose of the evaluation.
For instance, the beneficiaries who are the inmates and caregivers have to illustrate improvement from the previous state where they were not able relate without violence. They have to demonstrate that they can express their emotions in a rightful way and utilize the critical skills that they learn from participating in the anger management program.
The evaluation also intends to assess the cost effectiveness of running the program. There are several resources that are needed in maintaining the program for a long period of time and the aim is to see whether the resources are worth it.
We will write a custom Proposal on Evaluation of anger management counseling and treatment of domestic violence by the Capital Area Michigan Works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, depending on the outcome of the evaluation, several recommendations will be made to various stakeholders to further improve on the effectiveness of the program and its adoption in other states and regions where it is still not yet implemented.
Assumptions for the evaluation
The major assumption made for this assessment is that the data collected and submitted for analysis will be accurate and the true reflection of the impact achieved. None of the information given to the evaluation team shall be deliberately false.
Another assumption is that the working team of evaluators shall be focused on achieving the overall goal of the evaluation. Ethical issues also have to be considered and it will be assumed that all the individuals in the evaluation team are very much aware of all the ethical implications of this project.
Stakeholders for the evaluation project
The main stakeholders and audiences for this assessment include: governments within the regions in which anger management program is implemented, the management and body governing correctional facilities in different states, and the anger management program implementers. These are the main stakeholders because in one way or another, the results of the program will influence them in decision making.
Some of the stakeholders are in a decision making position where they will be required to act upon the recommendations provided by the evaluation team. This mainly includes the program implementer, the body in which correctional facilities fall under, and local, state and city governments.
Contextual factors for the evaluation
The program has to be completed by March 4th 2012. It will run for a period of three months beginning from January 4th 2012.
Program evaluation questions and their rationale
The evaluation hypothesis is that anger management program is effective in reducing cases of child neglect, domestic violence and violence in correctional facilities.
The project intends to prove the effectiveness of the program and from a long term perspective; this can eventually lead to a general reduction in crime. In line with the hypothesis, there are several question and sub-questions that are included to define the scope of the evaluation. Each of these questions has their rationale, and identified audience or stakeholders directly linked to the questions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Evaluation of anger management counseling and treatment of domestic violence by the Capital Area Michigan Works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first question regards the program effectiveness in solving the intended problem. This question can be broken down to focus more on the challenges that the implementation process meets in trying to ensure that overall goals and objective of the program are met.
It also involves: defining all the purposes and goals for the program, looking at the area of focus that will assist in obtaining all the goals and objectives of the program, and the problem statement.
All the stakeholders are directly linked to this questions and any recommendation made here will require the action and participation of each stakeholder. The importance of this question is to ensure that the need for anger management program is real and it really exists.
It helps in clearing doubts that there are no cases of domestic violence, child neglect, and violence among inmates in correctional facilities. It assists the evaluator to know that there is a problem of uncontrolled emotions in the target population and the identified program is the right solution for the problem.
The second question regards the activities of the program in ensuring that it is implemented correctly to the target population5.
The question can be broken down into several other sub-questions including: the total number of staff members that work to ensure the program is implemented, the amount of money needed for all the activities of running the program, how the program is run on regular basis, how many of the inmates and caregivers actually receive the services offered in the program, and the general organization of the program.
The audience linked to this question mainly includes the program implementers and sponsors. This question is important because it will give the evaluation process a firm underpinning of data collection. It also provides the feasibility or practicability of the program in terms of sustaining it for longer periods. Strong and weak areas of the program can be identified by providing answers to this particular question.
The third question regards the relationship created between the program implementers and the beneficiaries. This question can be broken down into other more focused sub-questions including: the level of qualification for the entire team of program implementers, their professionalism in interacting with their clients, and the need for constant supervision of the services they offer.
The audience directly linked to this question is mainly the team of implementers. The question is important in ensuring that the right data is collected showing accurate reflection of how the beneficiaries are being impacted. It is the appropriate question for gathering descriptive data from the participants.
The final question focuses on the curriculum used to implement the program. This document has to be measured for its effectiveness and recommendations be provided that will enhance the curriculum. The curriculum is usually the most important tool for implementation of this program. All the other personnel have to be trained to follow the curriculum.
Program evaluation indicators
The indicators to be used in this evaluation project are to measure both the process of implementation and the impact of the program. Indicators basically are supposed to help in the process of data collection that supports the questions and the hypothesis for the study.
Therefore the two indicators selected to help in identifying measurable aspects of the program are: the capacity for service delivery and change in behavior. The first indicator aims at identifying aspects that help in measuring program implementation whereas the second indicator would help collect evidence that support the impact that the program has had so far on the participants.
Justification for the evaluation indicator
All of these indicators are very much important in monitoring the relevant aspects of the program that are appropriate for evaluation. They both guide in achieving the goals for the evaluation process. The main goal of the project is to assess how effective anger management program is proving in the facilities in which it is conducted.
The indicators are also based on the logic model for the program evaluation and assessment. Each of the steps in the logic model is a critical aspect that helps in judging or evaluating a program. It is possible to identify minor alterations during the process of evaluation just from the two indicators selected.
There are factors however that can alter or change the expected direction in which the indicators are supposed to lead. These factors therefore make the indicators not to be very reliable in proving that the evaluation project is successful or failing. In order to solve this problem, it may be necessary to make modifications to the indicators any time.
Evaluation methodology Description of program design procedure
The indicators have to be measured in order to ensure that the evaluation process is heading to the right direction. The design of the project will therefore be necessary at this point. Mixed method program design that involves qualitative and quantitative design methods will be used.
This is because of the nature of data that will be collected for analysis. Both descriptive and numerical data have to be collected. The descriptive data will basically be aimed at measuring the extent to which there is change in perception of the program beneficiaries. In other words the inmates and caregivers have to demonstrate from the data collected that their behavior is improving towards positivity.
Justification of design method
The main reason for picking on mixed method design procedure is because the data that needs to be analyzed will need both descriptive and inferential statistical methods of analysis.
Qualitative research design requires descriptive data for analysis whereas quantitative research design requires numerical data for analysis. There are several analyses methods for descriptive data but conceptual analysis will be used in making the conclusion for this study.
In order to collect data for qualitative method design, it will require that the program evaluation team, be involved in person during the process.
Each of the evaluator will be equipped enough during their training process to be looking for specific aspects as they interact with the inmates and caregivers and program implementers. This therefore means that the questions that would be used in for data collection will not be fixed questions but rather they will be adjustable.
Quantitative data collection design is equally important in collection and analysis of data using mixed method design. This will be used when it comes to collection and analysis of numerical data.
The source of numerical data for this evaluation will mainly be documented data from records of each program beneficiary and fixed non-open questions that only seek for specific answers. This method design is also important in collecting data that is aimed at evaluating the implementers and the process of implementation.
Data regarding the cost effectiveness of the program have to be numerical. In addition, data regarding qualification of each implementer and the number of staff and program beneficiaries from each of the facilities have numerical nature and therefore require quantitative data analysis.
Generally, the rate of violence in these correctional facilities has to demonstrate signs of reduction. In order to prove this, numerical data have to be collected and analyzed using inferential statistical data analysis. For instance, the number of times that violence has erupted in each of the facilities needs to be analyzed.
Limitations for the selected design method
The selected design method is not entirely perfect because it bears itself several limitations. One of the biggest limitations is the fear of validity and objectivity of the data collected; meaning, collecting incomplete and inaccurate data.
At the same time, this can also imply misinterpreting the collected data by the evaluation team or laying too much emphasis on specific data while disregarding others. This threat can seriously damage or affect the data collected for qualitative research analysis. Moreover, for quantitative research analysis, the main limitation that might occur is insufficient evidence.
The method design relies on data collected through fixed questionnaires interviews, and documented evidence. In case the program implementers do not keep the records of each of the participants of the program, then there will an anticipated problem in sufficiency of information.
Similarly, this may seriously affect analysis and eventually trying to reach the conclusion. Therefore one assumption made before beginning the evaluation is that the program implementers are keeping the necessary records that are vital for the success of this evaluation project.
Overcoming these limitations is also important and therefore several ways have been identified to assist with this. For descriptive collection, it is very important that the evaluation team responsible for collecting data transcribe their notes immediately in order to identify inconsistencies and other patterns resulting from the data collected.
This is also important for picking out themes that can be used for coding during analysis. The selected population for this evaluation will have to provide feedback just to ensure that the themes identified are accurate enough.
Target sample population
The intended population sample to be evaluated includes the program beneficiaries and the program implementers. These are respectively, the inmates and caregivers who benefit from the program and the staff team that work to see the goals of the program are implemented.
Sampling is important because it is not possible to interview all the involved participants of the anger management program. Therefore a representative sample has to be selected from the entire population.
The same techniques used in research apply in evaluation when it comes to sampling. The data to be analyzed will be collected from the representative sample as the primary source of data. The data will also come from documented evidence and literature material as secondary data source.
Considering the nature of the evaluation project it is important that both formative and summative evaluation be conducted. A bigger sample will be used to help in providing more accurate data for evaluation. The inmates and caregivers are definitely in large numbers and their interview is more necessary for proving the hypothesis of the study as compared to the program implementers.
Therefore the population sample for this group of inmates and caregivers has to be large in order for the data to be accurate enough. There are also several facilities that have adopted the program and therefore evaluation cannot be done on all of them.
Only five will be selected for evaluation. And this five will be a representative sample for the entire population of correctional facilities. In case of evaluating the staff team and its general performance, almost all members of the team will have to be interviewed. This is because, their number is small and it will not be as complicated to interview them.
Selecting the population sample
Selecting the sample population for the beneficiaries of the program will be done either through stratified random sampling or simply random sampling.
In this way, the inferences made from the evaluation project would be all inclusive or it will be a reflection of the entire population of inmates and caregivers and implementers. Through random sampling possibilities for biasness is eliminated and each of the members of the population has equal chance of being selected.
It would be inappropriate for the selected sample to be biased since this increases the error made from the process of data analysis. This particular program of assessment does not require only selected population sample that shows improvement in behavior change to prove that that the program is successful.
Therefore every individual or inmate participating in the anger management program will be given a number which will be used to randomly select them. The size for the sample population will be 100 from each facility. This is already a huge number that is expected to reduce possibilities of errors in analysis, and ensure that the data collected is virtually accurate.
The main limitation anticipated for selecting the design method and a large population sample, is time. In order to collect, analyze and come up with a conclusion for the study, it would take quite a long time for it to be completed perfectly.
Another thing that this study does not utilize is piloting program that to measure whether the intended result for the evaluation will be achieved. At the same time, it does not utilize a control group to measure extraneous factors that would alter the expected result.
Project timeline plan and budget
As stated earlier, the project will run for a period of one months beginning from January 1st 2012 to February 4th 2012. The first and most basic event in the timeline is a training seminar for all the members of the evaluation team.
The seminar will run for a one week where all the evaluators will be provided with the necessary information that they require to ensure the project is a success. Also during this seminar, the evaluation team in charge of data collection will be given an opportunity to simulate how they will interact with the inmates and caregivers and also the program staff team.
This will be more of a piloting exercise even though its main purpose will be for simulation and not to measure anything. The seminar will end on the 9th of January 2012. It is also expected that the sponsors will attend the training seminar in order to have a one on one interaction with the evaluation team.
The next event on the program timeline would be commencing the evaluation in the first selected correctional facility to the last facility. Each of these activities will run for a period of two days. In between these activities there will be breaks, which will be used to begin analysis after data is collected for each facility.
The main audience for the data collection and analysis activities will definitely be the evaluation team, the anger management staff team and the beneficiaries of the program. There shall also be progress updates done after every two days. This will involve gathering all the preliminary findings since it is expected that field notes be received immediately.
The budget for the program is focuses more on personal salaries and fringe benefits of the evaluation team. The team will mainly include a total of thirty individuals: five evaluators who will run the analysis, twenty student research assistants who will be responsible for data collection, four supervisors and a training consultant for the week long training seminar.
The total salary and fringe benefits for all these individuals adds up to $14,670. Other important and necessary cost is the cost of operation.
This mainly includes traveling and accommodation costs for the team of evaluators. They will be required to make trips to the five selected facilities. Therefore the total amount of money that will be required for the entire evaluation project is $ 25,000. This exceeds the $ 23,250 set aside by Capital Area Michigan Works. However, it is justified and every bit of it will be accounted for.
Reporting Reporting can take several different forms that coincide with the interest of the stakeholders. For some of the stakeholders a more detailed and intense reporting would be appropriate for their understanding while for others a simple report would do. Despite this, the reporting has to generally be in a standard format that summarizes every key point of the findings and provides an outline for every basic section.
For the general audience who may include students and members of faculty from universities, the reporting has to be detailed enough, even though they require a report that only summarizes the main ideas concerning the use of psychological therapeutic instruments to solve problems in the society resulting from uncontrolled emotions. For this particular audience, a general reporting format is necessary.
This includes a summary of the procedure and methodology, context of the evaluation, findings, and the inference made. Recommendations are not necessary for this audience because the findings do not mean a lot in terms of decision making for this group.
An executive summary will not be included for the general audience. In addition to this, the audience shall only be issued with a written report but no oral session aimed at delivery the report.
However, representative and officials from state, local and city governments shall have to be presented with both a written report and an oral presentation of the findings. This is because they hold the power to make decision concerning the need for anger management program in correctional facilities.
The government and authorities concerned are expected to take necessary action depending on the findings of the evaluation. Therefore it is appropriate that they be engaged in an oral presentation whereby they would get the opportunity to deliberate upon the recommendations through a session of questions and answers. This oral session is expected to influence the minds of this particular audience so that they act upon the findings.
Basically, the oral presentation will include a summary of what the audience needs to know with regard to the results, and what they need to do in response to the findings. All these will be done in a simple power point presentation that is easy to understand. The presentation must also use graphics and charts to bring out the summary.
In the executive summary, the key information that will have to be included is the cost of running and sustaining the program, and further recommendations. Since this audience has no technical expertise in any way, the language used in the executive summary and the entire written report must be very simple enough for general educated persons to understand.
With regard to delivery of the report, both oral and written delivery will be done and in addition to this, a master file shall be established where certain information can be used to measure the progress of the program in terms of improvement. This is for the sake of continuance of formative evaluation.
The program implementers also need to be served with a report which they can continue measuring improvements made on the program. This is important because they are mandated to ensure the program proves a success.
Finally, the findings will also be shared with a wide range of audiences. There are several interested parties that could benefit from this report. Therefore a detailed written article would be uploaded in the internet for easy download for the purpose of referencing. The summary will also be placed in newsletters of various psychology faculties in different universities.
In general, the findings of this evaluation project should be shared by many in different part of the world because they are intended to be action oriented. By this it means that if the program proves effective in correctional facilities, then it something worth being adopted all across the world.
Conclusion The project intends to make recommendations specifically aimed at each the stakeholders. The recommendations made will cause decisions to be made that are geared towards improving the program further.
The project also intends to cover a wider audience that will ensure the evaluation is used as reference in several other faculties of public administration in various universities. Through the findings of the project and the recommendations made, it is possible that anger management program be adopted in several other correctional facilities from different parts of the world.
Bibliography Bamberger, M. (2000). The Evaluation of International Development Programs. A View from the Front. American Journal of Evaluation , 21, pp. 95-102.
Capital Area Michigan Works, Development of anger management evaluation RFP (2011)
“The role of Innovation in achieving Competitive Advantage” Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Role of knowledge in innovation
Use of tacit and explicit knowledge in an organization
How does lack of tacit knowledge impact on an organization?
Capturing and transferring knowledge within an organization
A summary of the main body
Introduction As a result of the current economic crisis, most organizations have been forced to downsize their workforce in a bid to reduce their operational costs. One way through which organizations can reduce their operational costs is by downsizing. However, this might result in the risk of losing the knowledge possessed by employees (Martins
Presentation of the Target Grammar Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Grammar Lesson According to Larsen-Freeman (1986) the way a teacher presents or introduces the target grammar in a more meaningful context plays a critical role in making a student understand what is being presented.
The presentation of the target grammar provides an opportunity for students to either memorize it or neglect it in the soonest time possible as in the case “when a count noun refers to more than one thing, we make it plural….. Adding an “s” or “es” “.
Here, the teacher introduces the target grammar in a meaningful context, explains the meaning, structure and provides tasks to check the students have understood what has been presented.
Presentation of grammar varies with the teacher. It may be presented in explicit or implicit forms. Clear presentation allows the teacher to begin the presentation by stating grammar focus and explaining it using grammatical terms. In contrasts, when presenting grammar implicitly, a teacher may start with an example that embeds the target grammar.
However, whatever the context, Stevick (1996) illustrates that a teacher must incorporate multiple styles of learning and creating a non-linguistic imagery which reinforces the learning process. The teacher may avoid or delay an explanation of grammar. Our model shows the comprehensive approach taken by the teacher in presenting the lesson.
The teacher begins by explaining the grammar focus when he/she says, “when a count noun refers to more than one thing, we make it plural… adding an “s” or “es..“. The teacher may further add, “When the subject of a sentence is plural, the verb must agree with it” The teacher also proceeds with the lesson by explaining a series of examples.
For example, the teacher says “Find some pencils. Where are the pencils? Where are they?” In this case, the teacher does not explain anything about the target structure, but, rather, prefers to obtain this information from the students. Hence, we can deduce that the teacher’s strategy is effective in aiding the students learn and memorize the words being explained.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Guided and Delivery Pattern
According to Hardley (2001) when the teacher has presented the target grammar and assessed understanding of the new form’s meaning, the teacher moves on to the guided phase. The guided phases allow a student with an opportunity to exploit the structure in the context while other variables remain constant (Stevick, 1996).
On some occasions, during this phase, students attempt to use the target grammar in its expressive form and controlled contexts. Here the guided practice in teaching grammar is essential. This is because it provides a significant bridge between the instructor’s presentation of new grammar structure and the student’s use of the new structure in a communicative environment.
By providing a controlling context in which a student uses the target structure, it enables them to gain control of the form without added distraction and strain of trying to use the form for communication (Hardley, 2001). The model has also effectively embraced effective memorization methods. Generally speaking, methods such as repetition, infection, restatement, and completion have been utilized by the teacher.
Teacher: Find some pencils. Where are the pencils? Where are they?(Repetition)
Student: Pencil in bag.
Teacher: Ah, pretty good. Pretty good, but listen. Who can tell me something different?
Student: The pencil is on the desk.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Presentation of the Target Grammar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Teacher: The pencil – listen- the pencil is on the desk. The pencil is on the – do we like that? The pencil is on the desk. I see something different. I see pencils. Do you see pencils? (Infection)
Student: Yeah, I see two
The guidance approach and the delivery method accomplished by the teacher demonstrates the effectiveness of the language delivery.
The teacher’s role in this model is active and prominent. This means that it is a teacher dominated process. The teacher is responsible for modeling the target language, controls the directions and place of learning and oversees and corrects the student’s performance. The teacher is responsible for keeping the students committed by varying activities and choosing situations to practice structures.
Student/ learner’s Roles
A student is viewed as an organism which can be guided or directed through skilled training methods to deliver needed responses. In tandem with behaviorist learning theory, the teaching focuses on the exterior expression of learning fairly than on the internal processes.
In this model, we see a student assuming a reactive position by responding to stimuli, thus; she/he has little control over the pace, style of learning or content. The student listening to the teacher, mimic clearly and try to respond to activities as illustrated by the teacher.
Teaching Vocabulary Vocabulary building is a key element to ESL students. It contributes to understanding of reading comprehensions (Larsen-Freeman, 1986). Without explicit vocabulary practice and teaching, ESL students are not able to win the right competence standards for readings.
According to the basics and tactics of incorporating vocabulary into teaching ESL students, this class will fail to achieve its value. This is because of several reasons. One reason is that the teacher should have prepared a pre-reading activity using the vocabulary in context. Pre-reading would have provided the students with many new opportunities to face the word.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Presentation of the Target Grammar by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This would have been easy explained with either showing the word using the flash card or a picture. For example; the students fail to distinguish between the library and the police. Teacher:” who would you call if there’s been a robbery, if thieves have broken into your house, who do you call?”
Teacher: Library? Police
This statement shows the students fail to recognize the library and the police.
Secondly, the teacher would have provided the students with more opportunities to identify the word in different contexts in describing pictures, using sentences and through using games.
Thirdly, there are no obvious signs of different learning styles. Vocabulary learning demands an array of materials such as audio recordings for dictation practice tasks, pictures, among others. Pictures and audio elements are required when a student is learning a new word for the first time.
According to Larsen-Freeman (1986) a student progresses well in gaining vocabulary by recognizing style activities to production based activities. This needs a student to accomplish something else with the word besides simply knowing or understanding its meaning.
In this example, we don’t see the teacher involving students in construction based activities. Hence, this limits the class effectiveness. Creative opportunities such as spelling bees or short original writings can encourage students to brainstorm around a targeted vocabulary or word list.
Stevick (1996) emphasizes that a new language should be introduced in dialogue. The dialogue should be organized around the theme of the language concept being taught, and should comprise useful vocabulary in the language.
The learners should be encouraged to mimic what the teacher speaks in class and listen carefully to the features of the language as spoken by the teacher. The dialogue should be repeated by the whole class at first and finally repeated in a small group or individually.
The dialogue as presented in class should be consolidated and applied to individual students’ own conditions. After learning and mastering the common concepts of the language, the students should be encouraged to attempt assignments comprising report writing for practice purposes.
Pronunciation Omaggio developed a method of proficiency to define a new approach to teaching a language. She termed this approach as Proficiency approach. The proficiency approach is a communicative approach which shares similar characteristics of the Natural approach, which is; teaching language skills in the order in which the student naturally gains them. It also adds by fulfilling some error corrections to avoid student fossilization.
Besides, the method involves utilizing the student learning by tailoring the language in tandem with genuine purposes which is encountered in the target culture. Omaggio Proficiency approach is a criteria anchored on five hypotheses forming a guideline for teaching language communicatively.
Omaggio explains that opportunities should be provided to enable students to practise using language in various contexts which is likely to be met in the target culture. She points out that students should be encouraged to express own interpretation as early as possible after creative skills have been introduced during instruction.
In this theory, Omaggio asserts that a proficiency-oriented approach promotes active communication interaction among students. Also, the creative language practice (as opposed to only manipulative or convergent procedure) must be encouraged in the proficiency-oriented classroom. And, lastly, the genuine language should be used in instruction wherever and whenever possible.
In our model, the flyer points out various techniques that can aid a student express her/his own understanding of the pronunciation. This is suggested in the materials provided such as the 2 full colour 60 minutes video tapes, sturdy plastic binders with a table of contents which assist the student to pace his /her progress.
To develop the understanding more useful for the student and provides 46 sound lessons which include word endings. Besides, the flyers show special animations of the tongue and lips even inside the mouth.
Basing on Omaggio theory one, these activities/materials create interactions among the students, encourage creative language practice and enable a student to practice the language/pronunciation in a more meaningful discourse that flows logically.
Omaggio’s hypothesis two explains that opportunities should be provided to allow a student practise carrying out different roles expected to be necessary in dealing with others in the target culture.
In our model, the Perfect English Pronunciation materials provided support the second theory of Omaggio. They give the students opportunities to practise the language in the best possible way. This is sketched in the pictures marking the way pronunciation should be succeeded.
The flyer consists of unique animation shows which suggest the motions of the mouth. These materials provide the student the “opportunity” that Omaggio draws in her hypothesis, allowing a student to practise and learn the new language with ease.
The theory suggests there should be concern for developing linguistic accuracy from the beginning of instruction in a proficiency-oriented approach. Accuracy in our model has been captured clearly.
The flyer provides an easy to use instruction sheet, provides timing sheet, and each sound lesson is clearly labelled and each lesson provides a clear instruction on how to form a sound. Thus, these materials provide a benchmark for developing accuracy since they provide evaluative feedback and correction on the students’ part.
Omaggio points out the proficiency-oriented approaches should respond to the affective needs of students as well as to their cognitive needs. A student should be motivated to learn and must be given opportunities to express their own meanings in a nonthreatening environment.
The materials come on video tape and animation, rather than the student embracing the conventional method of learning, which is boring, the animations and video tapes provide a motivation learning environment which encourages a student to concentrate even more.
The final theorem Omaggio draws is Cultural sensitivity; it must be promoted in various ways. In this way, a student will be prepared to live harmoniously in the target-language community.
The model indicates that the materials can be used in schools, libraries, in speech/language pathologists, ESL instructors, a corporation with foreign employees, people who wish to learn English and ALL nationalities. Hence, basing on Omaggio’s theory five, the material embraces cultural diversity and sensitivity. This guarantees a student to live harmoniously with the target language community or in the society.
Stervick provides a practical manner in which the synthesis of the classroom material can be useful to a student. He asserts that memory is multi-sensual and multidimensional and therefore, language does not exist in isolation but is connected to other body senses. He also points out that winning a language is improved by understanding the holistic working of the memory. In this case, he favours different styles of learning.
Thus, the material present in the flyer can be improved by strengthening auditory images; this will confirm grammar and pronunciation. They can also be substituted or correlated with drill method. This method can improve student memorization process. Also, they can also be boosted by the 74 step exercise.
The 74 step exercise can increase the pronunciation and grammatical structure for students facing difficulties (Stevick, 1996). The 74 exercise illustrates the increments in word classes and constructions to a learner. It provides a teacher the experience in limitations and inherent difficulties of languages, thus achieving acquisition and learning needs (Stevick, 1996).
The materials are useful in backing the students’ success or those students facing difficulties in pronouncing word endings, vowels, consonants and diphthongs.
For example, the flyer demonstrates how vowels can be pronounced [ee as in eat]i, [i as in it]i. Vowels form the basis of English learning, and if pronounced inaccurately, they can result in misunderstanding the word meaning. Hence, the flyer eliminates inability of the student to precisely pronounce the different vowels/words.
On consonants, the flyer illustrates the way words can be pronounced. For example, it gives a difference between “both and boat”. Some students often substitute English consonants for ones in their native language which seem similar but not alike. Hence, this can make the listeners to feel that is trying to say a different thing altogether. Hence, the flyer is helpful in assisting in this skill.
The flyer demonstrates the rules of word endings. For example; it asserts that a word ending with “t or d” sound have their ending achieved by adding “ed”. Hence, this rule can help the student acquire the skills of using individual consonants at the end of a word(s).
However, the material won’t be effective in pronouncing cluster consonants. This is because they occur in a sequence thus making the student fail to pronounce. Hence, students should be careful on how to pronounce cluster constants at the beginning, middle and at the end of words.
Reference List Hardley, O., A. (2001) Teaching language in context. New York: Heinle and Heinle Publishers Ltd.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986) Techniques and Principles of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Stevick, E., D (1996) Memory, Meaning
Organization as a Learning Organization Research Paper essay help online
Introduction Majority of the organizations have acknowledge the imperative of organizational learning and the concept of a learning organization has been the fundamental orienting summit in this. Researchers have tried to recognize the superlative forms that authentic organizations could try to imitate. This means that learning organization is an ideal, towards which organizations require to develop so that they can retort to various pressures.
As a result, the definition of ideal learning organization is indescribable. On the one hand, it is where people persistently expand their ability to construct the outcome that they truly desire, where novel patterns of rational reasoning are natured, where there is freedom of collective aspirations and where people are constantly learning to observe the whole as a group.
On the other hand, the learning organization is an apparition of possibility, which does not occur by just training individuals but through learning as a whole at all organization levels. This implies that a learning organization facilitates learning of every person as it transforms itself continuously.
Therefore, system thinking, personal mastery, mental model, shared vision and team learning characterize an ideal learning organization and consequently, the manager should strive to achieve these characteristics by determining and alleviating all the barriers against these characteristics through development of focused strategies that will enable the organization to exist in the competitive business environment.
Characteristics of ideal learning organization
System thinking is a conceptual framework that involves an approach of reasoning about, as well as the language for illustrating and understanding the forces and the relationships that mould behavior of the system (Serrat, 2009). For instance, system thinking assists the managers and the employees to know how to change the system effectively and acting in line with the economic world.
Personal mastery is the commitment that an individual makes to the learning process (Agarwal, 2007). For example, learning cannot take place in an organization until people start learning via defining what they want to achieve and how. According to a recent research, most workplace learning is incidental and not due to formal training hence, organizations need to develop a culture where personal mastery is a daily activity.
Mental models are the assumptions that the individuals and the organizations hold and the assumptions need challenge for an organization to be a learning organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because individuals possess theories that they aspire to follow and work theories that they truly adhere to while organizations possess reminiscences that conserve some behaviors (Ramalingham, 2008). Therefore, in constructing a learning organization it is significant to substitute confrontational attitudes with a culture that is open and that which facilitates inquest and conviction.
Shared vision encourages employees to learn since they possess universal identity, which bestow them focus and vigor (Agarwal, 2007). As a result, it helps the organization to triumph in a competitive business environment.
Therefore, the organization should build its vision from an individual vision. This means that the manager should not create the vision of the organization by himself but through the interaction with the employees.
Finally, team learning is the sum of the individual learning. It entails thinking skills, which allow people to build up intelligence, which is greater than an individual talent. Learning organizations possess structures, which enhance team learning, and they include boundary crossing and the openness (Serrat, 2009).
For example, employees and employers should develop open communication and shared meaning because it is a fundamental in a modern learning organization.
Observable behavior for the characteristics of ideal learning organization
In system thinking, people have embraced the notion that system thinking enhances individual learning and as a result, they focus on the system as a whole (Garvin, Edmondson,
Coping With Stress Essay essay help free: essay help free
According to Aamodt (2009) stress is the psychological and physical reaction to certain life events or situations. Fear, resistance, resentment, change, relations with others, organizational politics, and unfavorable physical environment are the main causes of stress (Aamodt, 2009). Even though stress affects different personalities differently, it could result to grave consequences if not well managed.
Many people often think there is little that can be done about their level of stress. However, the fact is contrary. Individuals should identify their stressors and develop coping strategies aimed at neutralizing and finally eliminating the effects of the stressors. I have in the past adopted various strategies in coping with stress.
There are many stress coping methods. However, individuals often find themselves employing unhealthy and unproductive methods, which end compounding the problem. Such methods include withdrawal from friends and families, use of pills, drinking, smoking, overeating, and taking out of stress on other people. Even though these methods can work, their results are temporary as individuals soon face the reality of the stressor.
Healthier and effective ways of controlling stress require either situation change, or reaction change. Every individual exhibits unique response to stress, which makes it impossible to have a common method of coping. The simplest approaches to coping with stress, which I have used in the past, include problem identification and solving, acceptance, alteration, self-nurturing, and anticipatory approach also suggested by Aldwin (2007).
Problem solving approach is a strategy that its applicability is dependent on the determination of the main cause of stress. Once the stressor is identified, it becomes easy to solve the stress as an individual directs his or her energy towards subduing the stressor. For example, if lack of finances is the main cause of stress, then an individual may seek for new employment to provide for the much-needed cash.
The identification of the stressor also opens a window for an individual to explore other adaptation methods, which can be of help in the future such as avoidance. In anticipatory approach, an individual prepares for possible causes of stress and consequently prepares for them before their actual occurrence. Past trends and acquired knowledge can help an individual in such preparations.
For example, a student subjected to last minute revision pressures and stress for failing to revise in time may expect the same, hence prepare early in the following semesters to avoid going through the same. This method is very effective as an individual can review and continually revise the best method to use every time the stressor reoccurs. Sometimes stressful situations are not only complex, but also impossible to avoid.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is only prudent for individuals affected to alter and adapt to such situations. This involves finding possible ways of changing an individual’s operation to avoid the stress from reoccurring. For example, stress caused by coworkers could be avoided by expressing ones’ feelings to the specific workers instead of bottling them up. If the desired change is not achieved, then one can go a step further by changing his or her own behaviors.
Stressors such as the death of people we love, fatal accidents, and illness are unavoidable and impossible to ignore. However, letting such stressors take tall of an individual’s life is also unacceptable. In such cases, the best coping strategy is acceptance. Though hard to take, acceptance is the only way out for individuals facing unchangeable life-threatening situations.
There are other effective coping strategies, which even though I have not used, I would consider applying. Self-nurturing is such “effective way of coping with stress” (Aldwin, 2007).
Creating time for fun and relaxing, enhance our ability to copy with life’s unending stressors. It is therefore prudent for an individual to engage frequently in healthy ways of relaxing such as, going for a walk, playing with a pet, going adventures, watching comedies, and lighting scented candles.
References Aamodt, M. G. (2009). Industrial/Organizational Psychology: An Applied Approach (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Aldwin, C. M. (2007). Stress, coping, and development: an integrative perspective (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Reflective Thinking: The Power of Innovations. Using Brand New Ideas Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction: The Issues Learned Among the issues that have been learned during the curriculum, I should mention the idea that the innovations in the sphere of hospitality industry depend considerably on the added value. Once creating the right strategy in the world where globalization is taking its toll, one should keep in mind that the innovations are the key to success; allowing people to adapt to the changes in the world, they provide certain stability at the same time.
It is also essential to mark that innovation is most likely to result in a superior process, which, in its turn, will contribute to the management of one of the 3 Ps, namely, people (out of people, process, and physical evidence). Once offering innovations into the modern world of hospitality industry, one is likely to attract more tourists, since the barriers for free trade and other limitations are eliminated with the help of globalization.
The Innovations in the Hospitality Industry According to the researches conducted by a number of scientists, the most essential innovations in the sphere of hospitality industry concern mainly the issue of and are induced by such phenomenon as globalization. Among the most obvious changes in the sphere of hospitality industry, one should mark such phenomena as the radical innovation and the incremental innovation.
According to what Martinez-Roz
Historical expansion of Islam Essay essay help
Table of Contents Religion ideologies and philosophy
Tolerance to other religions
Use of force
Islam is a belief that is grounded on the teachings of the Quran and the prophetical teachings of Mohammad. In the 10th century, Islam was the prevailing religion, covering above a half of the identified world. It is one of the religions documented to have spread rapidly over a period of three centuries. Hence, it was influenced by several factors.
Religion ideologies and philosophy The fact that Islam has held a dear place in the hearts of its followers supposes that force was not used to convert them. As observed in the world today, many Islam converts come from Christianity but never do Muslims convert to Christianity. Such observations are based on the ideology held and taught by the religion.
The Quran, their holy book has teachings that are moving with promises of better and realistic life in this world and after death (Arberry 12). The Islam sharia laws are inclusive and all-encompassing. They depict and cover the way of life of people, written and formatted in a way that accommodates all people. The Sharia laws appeared realistic than the laws that are taught in other religions and never followed.
Further, the unending efforts by the Muslims to spread their religion coined and ingrained in their hearts leaves a long lasting effect on the hearts of people who convert to it. The religion emphasizes on living and enjoying the good by living an exemplary life that appeal to diverse people throughout the world.
Tolerance to other religions Despite the criticisms and prejudices against Islam by the western civilizations and Christians, Islam proved to be tolerant religion (Toynbee 246). Muslims are also recorded to have tolerated Christians to a higher extent according to the teachings in the Quran more than the Christians tolerated them.
For example, in the 17th century, Russian Christians exposed Muslims to harsh treatment as compared to the Ottoman’s treatment of conquered Christians. Muslims also were more persuasive in converting other religions to Islam. It is argued that, if Christians could have controlled vast regions like Islam did, some religions could have been exterminated due to brutal force applied by Christians.
Despite, the obligation of Muslims to use force to compel and exterminate other religions, they seem to have been more tolerant, that led to its rapid expansion. New converts were given time to learn and apply the principles of Islamic faith in life exhibiting how tolerant it was to people. Due to such process, local variations of pre-Islamic customs remained and were practiced in many areas all over the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Use of force Although, many Muslims refute this claim, Islam used their religious obligation as explained in the Quran to forcefully spread their religion. Use of Jihad was common among the Islam fanatics that gave their life for the sake of their religion.
During the life of Mohammad, Islam was largely expanding through military conquests of neighboring cities and lands. Battles were fought and those conquered were either forcefully converted to Islam or killed. The rapid expansion of the Arab Empire is attributed to use of military force in the spread of Islam. This empire was ruled under sharia laws.
Trade Started by Mohammad’s wife, Khadija who grew wealthy out of the spice trade, trade in spices created by Muslims first began along the routes that linked Yathrib and Mecca but later expanded rapidly along pre-existing route expanding from the Mecca center and with it the Islam religion spread parallel to the expansion of the spice trade (Crone 308).
This approach seemed more convenient not only to the trade preservation but also to people who bought the spices. The trade route passed through Islam territories and therefore, gave the Muslims chance to convert other people.
In addition, the Muslims revolutionalized the trade that was initially done by merchants and made it direct as they travelled long distances to exchange their products, reaching to people far away from their regions and converting them. The spices only thrived at particular regions that maintained the trade (Miller VII).
Works Cited Arberry, Arthur, J. Aspects of Islamic Civilization. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1977. Print.
Crone, Patricia. Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Historical expansion of Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Miller, James, I. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Clarendon, London: Clarendon Press, 1969. Print.
Toynbee, Arnold. A Historian’s Approach to Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956. Print.
The Emotional, Psychological and Spiritual Impact of a Family with a Terminal Ill Child Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Crisis of Discovering that your Child has a Terminal Illness The Expectations from parents
Many parents and their offspring interact in such a way that gradually parent’s dreams and expectations are modified by recognition of their child’s actual capabilities. As the fantasy of the dream child is replaced with day to day living, parents will always hopefully accept the child for what he or she is and wants to be.
Many a times when a child’s health is impaired, parents can be confronted harshly and abruptly with a reality that allows little or no hope for fulfillment of their dreams. The highly fantasized child is lost and a process of grieving starts. Most parents do feel genuine sorrow for the child whose health is impaired, but, parallel to that, parents grieve for themselves in their state of loss.
Parents are usually much aware that something somewhere is not normal with their child, but after many doctor appointments and many specialists, still come up with no definite diagnosis.
However, it may take years to finally get an accurate diagnosis for a child with Batten Disease. Parents, by this time, start fearing for the worst case scenario. A multitude of different events and questions have entered their minds and they just want answers (Kalter, Lohnes
Clothing company HRM Case Study college essay help online
In contemporary business environments, companies need to adopt effective human resources management policies; an effective personnel management strategy goes further than ensuring that employees are motivated to perform their duties diligently to involve respecting their human rights and fundamental freedom.
This paper is a response to a case study of an international clothing company that has had issues of disregard of human rights.
The paramount factor for the company as far as human capital is concerned According to the case, the company saw employees as the line or pathway through which they would earn profits and revenue for the company. The main focus of the management was to have increased revenue and disregarded the way employees gave the results.
With the managing style, the management was kept to ensure that employees were loyal to the company and worked for the benefit of the company. However the challenge that the company had was that the management was not willing to listen to the demand of employees. The management never was willing to negotiate with unions and neither did it to respect human fundamental rights and freedom.
Business risk and Merits to Do nothing with the situation
When the company decides not to react on the demand of human capital and opt to retain the same method of operation, the company might get negative publication. Negative publication means that the company will lose business as it will be portrayed as an un-ethical company that does not respect the demand of its employees. Customer loyalty will be eroded by negative publicity of an organization; it will give competitors an upper hand.
Cease using contractors
Given a chance to control people directly, I will use an integrated human resources management system. The management system I would enact would ensure that human rights have been respected and employees have been motivated. When such policies are adopted, the company will gain positive publicity which will work for its benefit. The risk that would be there is to change organizational culture that the company already had.
Make changes to contractors
When the structure of contractors’ human resources management is changed to adopt an effective leadership method, the company will be able to adopt policies that will ensure human rights have been respected and staffs are motivated. What should be changed is the approach taken by the contractors and ensures that the policies adopted are quality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommendations for the best approach For an effective operation, organizations need human and physical resources; properly managed organizations have an appropriate number of personnel’s in number, experience and expertise.
To ensure that the right number of people is available when required, a company’s human resource management should develop effective framework of planning human resources. The following are the main objectives that the human resources management approach should have:
To ensure optimum utilization of human resources; this will be attained through effective personnel motivation and empowerment programs
To forecast future requirements for human resources.
To integrate the human resources plan with the organization plan.
To establish ideal management development programs and ensure it meets the needs of expansion and diversification programs.
To assess the surplus and shortage of human resources and anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and human resources.
The Treatment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Case Study essay help
While discussing the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder, one should become familiar with some basic points, concerning the symptoms and causes of the disorder.
As it was mentioned in a case background, Madam Y was diagnosed with “obsessive behaviors of checking things and obsessive thoughts.” OCD is characterized by intrusive thoughts as well as by repetitive behaviors. It is well-known that people who suffer from OCD frequently perform certain tasks to seek relief from an anxiety.
Thus, according to a case background, Madam Y “would makeup over and over until she felt satisfied, she was tired during the process but she couldn’t stop her behavior.” The citation is considered to be another example which confirms the diagnosis.
Thus, people who suffer from OCD must do certain compulsive rituals to prevent unpleasant event from taking place. At least, they believe that their actions will help them to avoid the situations they are afraid of. Thus, certain rituals are considered to be the so-called escape from the obsessional brooding.
The most widespread obsessive thoughts include fear of germs, fear to cause pain or harm, some violent thoughts, focus on moral ideas, fear of losing some things, etc. Madam Y’s obsessions are in the category fear of losing some things: “She is insecure and anxiety, she is always keeping a handbag in her hands even sleep, because she worried she would lost the money or stolen by others.”
The most widespread compulsive behaviors are double-checking of things, doing senseless things to be satisfied with smth, washing or cleaning all the time, arranging things, etc. Madam Y’s compulsives are in the category doing senseless things to be satisfied with smth: “she won’t switch on the light and close the windows to avoid touching with all kinds of lights in order to keep white.”
The causes of the disorder are also to be taken into consideration. While choosing the treatment, one is to analyze both psychological and biological factors which influence the disorder appearance. Madam Y’s OCD is based on psychological factor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it is said that Madam Y’s father “was easy to get hot temper and would blaming and shouted to Madam Y.” The dominant character of the Madam Y’ father as well as his brute actions and coarse words gave rise to Madam Y’ complexes development, including “low self-esteem and lack of self-confidence”, as it was mentioned in a case background.
So, time is ripe for treatment. There are several ways to treat Madam Y’s obsessive behaviors. On the one hand, it is a behavioral treatment which is to be used. Thus, exposure and response prevention is recognized to be of great importance as a therapeutic effect is based on the fears confronting.
The second way is called person-centered psychotherapy and considered to be more appropriate method to treat OCD. M. Cooper says that “person-centered therapy is actualizing its potential in creative and original growth, forging new pathways and understanding.” (WAPCEPT, 2007) PCT is considered to be a talk-psychotherapy which appeared in the early forties.
The founder of the PCT is an American psychologist Carl Ransom Rogers.
Taking into account the psychological factors which caused Madam Y’s OCD, the therapist’s task is to provide Madam Y’s with non-judgmental environment to show empathy towards her personality. Thus, it is only a non-directive approach which may help Madam Y to solve her internal conflicts.
Of course, there are many contradictions concerning the therapy. On the one hand, some behaviorists and psychoanalysts suppose that PCT can’t be effective because of its conditional relationship; however, numerous investigations showed that the form of talk-psychotherapy is considered to be a vastly effective way of treatment.
So, let’s consider some points from the log. The actions are listed in consecutive order:
We will write a custom Case Study on The Treatment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To help Madam Y, the therapist must rely on the following basic steps: therapist-client psychological contact. Taking into account Madam Y’s complexes (low self-esteem/lack of self-confidence) the therapist is to show the personality importance.
Thus, Madam Y is to be convinced of the therapist’s good intentions. The next core concept is vulnerability. Thus, the contradictions Madam Y feels all the time (her internal conflicts) lead to the contradictions between her experience and awareness. The interdependence of Madam Y’s anxieties and internal conflicts impacts on her ability to think reasonably.
Genuineness means the relationship facilitating Unconditional positive regard is also one of the most important ways which is to be used to help Madam Y. Thus, her actions, words, ideas, thoughts should not be approved or disapproved. On the contrary, Madam Y must realize the uniqueness and utility of her own ideas for herself.
As far as Madam Y’s father attempts to psych out his daughter seemed to work, Madam Y’s low self-esteem was formed over the pressure. Madam Y’s self-regard must be increased through her ideas acceptance.
Therapist Empathic understanding allows creating fiduciary relations. Thus, it is accurate empathic understanding which plays the most important role in Madam Y’s treatment. Due to empathic accuracy, Madam Y is able to get a social support to adapt to certain conditions.
Perception is considered to be the last core concept of PCT which combines the empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard.
According to a case background Madam Y was diagnosed with OCD in 2009. ‘After the medical treatment for half year, Madam Y was feeling recovered and default treatment’. As far as the treatment was not completed, a little bit later the symptoms appeared again.
Thus, one is to make a conclusion that PCT can’t be considered to be the only method to help Madam Y as she feels “a negative emotion that involves feeling nervous, scared, afraid, or worried.” (Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, 2010) In my opinion, PCT is to be combined with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to consolidate the effect.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Treatment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Madam Y’s treatment defaulting gives us some misgivings concerning PCT reliability as the only mode of treatment, when Paul Salkovskis says that “CBT encompasses most areas of human behaviour and experience, and represents many different research methods, from randomized controlled trials to detailed case studies.” (Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 2011)
Cognitive behavioral therapy is based on the methodology of Albert Ellis. Thus, Madam Y is to become familiar with Ellis’ model ABC. She must learn to analyze her obsessive behaviors through the scheme ABC. A means activating events Madam Y experiences, B means her thoughts, ideas and beliefs about A, C is considered to be an emotional consequence based on her thoughts only.
Thus, Madam Y’s obsessive/repetitive behaviors are based on her irrational beliefs (which are considered to be B) which upset her all the time and she is unable to confront them (depression is considered to be C, e.g. a consequence which is caused by irrational beliefs). There are three core philosophies Ellis defined. Madam Y’s case is based on the third type.
It was rather easy to define what type Madam Y belongs to, as her psychological complexes (low self-esteem and lack of self-confidence) gives us a prompt: I can’t ever enjoy myself at all (as my complexes prevent me to succeed). The belief causes the negative consequences, including discomfort, inaction and avoidance. So, the practice of REBT is considered to be effective, as it was empirically proved.
Providing a life-acceptance philosophy is one of the most important tasks REBT uses. Thus, Madam Y is to achieve mental wellness. REBT task is to show Madam Y that her obsessive behaviors needlessly upset her all the time.
Generally, cognitive behavioral therapy is related to the above-mentioned discussion, namely exposure and response prevention combined with cognitive therapy itself. Exposure and response prevention was listed before to show the importance of different methods combining.
Madam Y’s treatment must be accompanied with special home assignments. For instance, to speed up Madam Y’s recovery, the following steps are to be taken: relabel – Madam Y must train herself. For instance: I am at home, there is no danger, and nobody can take my money; reattribute – Madam Y must imagine that there are two I – the first I is Madam Y who is real; the second I is Madam Y’s OCD.
Thus, when obsessive thoughts appear, Madam Y is to say: It is not Me, It is OCD ; refocus – when obsessive thoughts appear, Madam Y is to concentrate on some other things, for instance, she is to concentrate on her hobbies or the things she is interested in/fond of; revalue – Madam Y is to convince herself of the thoughts meaningless.
The most important techniques Madam Y must use at home are her attention refocusing and reflections her thoughts on paper. Thus, when obsessive thoughts come, she is to write them down. The technique will help her to realize the frequency of the thoughts appearance.
So, Madam Y can see how repetitive her ideas and thoughts are. Madam Y’s obsessive thoughts/ideas are to be said aloud – she is to repeat them a lot of times to be able to neglect them in future. Madam Y is to create a mental picture to be sure that her actions were already performed before. “Creating an OCD worry period” is also to be taken into account.” (HELPGUIDE. Org, 2011)
Thus, Madam Y is to think about negative thoughts for ten minutes only. Interval choosing is up to her. When obsessive thought appears, Madam Y is to repeat it until she feels irritation. Mindful meditations and various relaxation techniques are of primary importance too. Madam Y is to keep her emotional balance and get enough sleep. Social isolation is contra-indicated.
Healthy eating habits mustn’t be omitted while coping with OCD. Madam Y is to communicate with people she likes. Aerobic activity or any other kind of regularly exercises is considered to be a good way to cope with OCD.
New methods of “computerized cognitive behavioural therapy” can be also used to treat Madam Y’s OCD. (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2011)
Reference List Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. (2010). What is Anxiety? Web.
Cooper, M. (2007). Person-centered therapy. Web.
HELPGUIDE. Org. (2011). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Web.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2011). Depression and Anxiety – Computerized Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CCBT). Web.
Salkovskis, P. (2011). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. Web.
Levels of Government Essay essay help online: essay help online
Comparing and Contrasting Levels of the Government Various disparities exist in the distribution and spending, not only between the various levels of governance, but also within each level. However, a relationship exists between finance and budgeting in public organization and the level at which a governmental organization is operating.
As a way of example, as Yilmaz et al. reckons, “State’s and local government’s general revenues averaged $5,851 per capita and ranged from $4,694 per person in Arizona to $11,246 in Alaska for FY 2002” (2002, p.10).
Additionally, the general spending of the government was about $4,746 for every resident of Arizona to $13,172 for every Alaskan. Such disparities are perhaps indicative of the myriads of fiscal decisions that states need to either consider subject to necessity or alternatively out of preference in an endeavor to escalate revenues depending on the underplaying conditions.
Because of these disparities, the finance and budgeting in public organization suffers in the sense that the state and federal governments have a prerogative to ensure a more even distribution of the government expenditure in the provision of essential services. Yet, at the local government level, the revenue generation and or expenditures might be significantly different.
The revenue and the expenditures at various levels of governance may change depending on the resource endowments and or the productivity. Increased expenditure translates to a need to raise more revenue to fund the expensive programs.
Consequently, as Yilmaz et al. (2002) categorically states, “high revenues and expenditures reflect both the relatively painless cost to residents of raising revenues by taxing natural resources” (p.10).
The functions of the government organizations predominantly rest on the need to ensure a more unified distribution of wealth across all states. However, the functions of government organizations depend on individualized finance and budgeting plans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, states and their local governments may end up making decisions that would enable them hike their revenues to fund their differing budgets differently. One such ample strategy would entail focusing on increasing revenues and cutting on the expenditures. According to Yilmaz et al. (2002), one can achieve such a strategy by “promoting tax base growth or reducing long-term Costs of public service delivery” (p.11).
More often, states normally have fewer options available to them to ensure that they are able to cut costs or rather cut programs to enhance the increment of the tax rates in an endeavor to balance their budgets. Moreover, demographic economic traits immensely contribute to how states, federal and the local governments arrive at the necessary decision for raising revenues and cutting costs.
The key expenditures on the key government budgets appear within the various functions that the various levels execute. However, some clashes exist, meaning that some service provisions fall under the hands of several levels of government.
According to IRS (2010), Federal governments deal with “Defense, currency regulation, and foreign relations” (Para 3). In addition, the federal government “has a responsibility to health, education, welfare, transportation, and housing and urban development” (Para 3). Their budget must the incorporate all these expenditures.
On the other hand, states’ government has noble roles in allocating funds for the enforcement of “state criminal code, working conditions, internal communications, and regulations of the property, industry, business, and public utilities” (Para 3).
Finally, the local government budgets incorporate items such as housing, police, health regulations, public transportation, fire protection and education amongst others. Evidently, some similar expenditure appears in two or more levels of government.
Revenues and expenditures relate to different levels of government differently. One common trait among all levels of government is that they raise income through the taxation of the citizens.
We will write a custom Essay on Levels of Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the decision on how and on what to impose a tax is a decision made by every level of government independently. Good part of the federal government revenue comes from income taxes. Local and states taxes come from transaction taxes and property taxes.
Reference List IRS. (2010). Understanding Taxes. Retrieved from
Yilmaz, Y., Hoo, S., Nagowski, M., Rueben, K.,
Commander Abrashoff leadership Style Essay college essay help near me
The type of the leadership style applied in any working organization can contribute both positively, as well as negatively to an organization’s performance. Most of the common leadership styles practiced in the majority of the current organizations is visionary, affiliation, commanding, as well as democratic.
Majority of these styles of leadership have proved to be effective thus there is the need to practice some of them. Therefore, this script will provide a stance on some of the leadership styles and theories applied in this case.
In the previous classes, we have covered several leadership styles some of which relate directly to those depicted by Commander Abrashoff’s. For instance, one of the styles discussed in the previous lessons in class is the visionary leadership style. This category of a style is necessary, incase the organization demands a new course in its leadership.
According to a number of researchers with an enhanced interest on this topic, it is palpable that a visionary leader is able to predict an organization’s destiny (Hybels 2009, p. 20). However, such a leader does not specify the strategy to apply in order to accomplish the organization’s goals.
Such a leadership style allows the team members to conduct experiments, participate in some innovative activities that aid their process of identifying the most appropriate decisions to undertake. Therefore, in the Commander Abrashoff’s case, it is evident that his style of leadership is driven by his vision (Ihlenfeldt 2011, P. 1). He envisages the outcome of an effective leadership thus strengthens others to remain visionary.
He, therefore, instituted a new leadership initiative after assuming the commanding role at Ben fold. Consequently, its retention rate increased considerably from 25 to 100 percent and injuries also reduced tremendously. The current initiative also enabled the ship to run on a small ratio of its budget, but made higher returns.
In addition to remaining visionary, Commander Abrashoff’s practices affiliation, a leadership style that encourages team work. This has emerged significant as the workers harmony heightens. This is evident in the Abrashoff’s case. In an effort to enhance the crew’s affiliation, he incorporates any of the ideas presented by the crew’s member.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through this, he can permit a vigorous involvement since members are aware that their contributions are vital for an effective functioning of the crew (Ihlenfeldt 2011, p. 3). Via this type of leadership, he creates harmony and a strong communication among the crew. This as a result boosts their morale thus bestows their entire efforts to enhancing the crew’s positive results.
The Abrashoff’s situation applies the following leadership theories. They are “Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory” and “House’s Path-Goal theory” (Williams 2006, p. 469). For instance, in Hersey and Blanchard’s theory, Abrashoff adapted this approach to devotee development style. This approach depends on the devotee’s proficiency and motivation.
He conducted interviews in the analysis of his crew. He advocates different styles that match the development level of the devotees. Initially, there exist those devotees possessing limited proficiency, a reduced commitment, with little capability, and disinclined. In this case, he reacts by sky-scraping chore focus and little link focus.
He establishes the cause of the devotees’ motivation, and whether there exists some restrictions in their capability (Raney 2009, p. 10). The next level comprises of devotees that show partial proficiency, inconsistent commitment, and aggravation.
The leader reacts by soaring chore focus and elevated link focus. He is an excellent listener, advisor, and aids the devotee in acquiring the necessary expertise through training. In the third level the majorities of the devotees are extremely competent and depict variable commitment.
In this case, the leader reacts by squat task focus and towering relationship spotlight. The devotees need much motivation. The leader thus emphasizes on listening them, praising them, and letting them feel acknowledged whenever they portray some commitment.
In the last level, there are those devotees who with soaring competence, towering commitment, able and inclined to work (Raney 2009, p. 12). Devotees at this level need no prop up, or recurrent commend although acknowledgement is always necessary.
We will write a custom Essay on Commander Abrashoff leadership Style specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leadership style is the best for this situation because it helps the leader to utilize the workers to their full capacity. It also permits the leader to portray a good image therefore; he does not compromise his absolutes. He thus makes use of good judgment and strengthens others.
In the situation of USS Ben fold Abrashoff depicted outstanding leadership traits. For instance, he implemented a number of initiatives in the zeal to avert the situation. Therefore, his leadership brought numerous positive changes through the improved leadership styles. For instance, before acting on any problem, he had to establish the basis of the problem.
He reviewed the crew’s mission, as well as the vision for themselves and the navy. This helped him to identify the level of the crews’ motivation and the challenges that they were facing thus enabling him seek for new resolutions (Raney 2009, p. 15). In addition, he accentuated on the individual participation and incorporated their suggestions in performing some of the administrative roles.
The vital rewards of situational headship include its ability to facilitate easy understanding, as well as its usage use. A current research has revealed that an effectively functional situational leadership results in strengthened relationships. In addition, the followers’ progress enhances, and this results into an improved proficiency and assurance.
Although Abrashoff has the same authority as other leaders, he has to be concerned with his headship. This is due to his anxiety about the future of the organization, particularly through expansion and administration of the crew. Therefore, he engages himself in multifunctional and incorporative errands, he knows less than his efficient area experts exploits non-linear judgment, and he believes in tactical choice.
Consequently, he cannot just demand conformation for his commands. He is therefore, ought to be practical, figure ideas, and modifies the thoughts of the crew regarding what is enviable, achievable, and essential (Northouse 2009, p. 5). He is, therefore, certain towards risk taking.
He brings new approaches and resolutions to venerable problems, concerns himself with ideas, and hence relates to the crew in a discerning and compassionate ways. He feels detached from his working atmosphere though not belonging to his organization.
A valuable leadership style is essential for a successful management of an organization. Visionary leadership style is necessary in any organization since it allows a room for the establishment of new initiatives. It is only after Abrashoff, the crew leader utilizes this style that the crew’s performance enhances. In addition to the above styles, he also utilized a number of leadership theories.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Commander Abrashoff leadership Style by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two most commonly used theories are the Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory, and House’s Path-Goal theory. The two leadership theories applied by Commander Abrashoff works on the grounds of motivation and proficiency. Moreover, majority of the leadership theories demands a leader to establish the root cause of the problem before tackling it.
References Hybels, B 2009, Courageous leadership, Zondervan, Grand Rapids.
Ihlenfeldt, W 2011, Visionary leadership: a proven path way to visionary change, Author House, Bloomington.
Northouse, P 2009, Leadership: theory and practice, Sage, Thousand oaks.
Raney, H 2009, Understanding and managing public organization, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken.
Williams, C 2006, Management, Cengage learning, Mason.
Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) Essay college essay help: college essay help
Performance measurement that is widely used among the non-profit organizations should be warranted to Wounded Warrior Project.
This proposal will provide the explanation of the main reasons for implementing the performance measurement system, the main benefits which are anticipated after its implementation, outline the main steps for the development of the performance measurement system and start the preliminary data collection that can be helpful for the getting the measurement process started.
Explanation of why performance measurement is warranted to WWP Performance measures are defined as objective quantitative indicators which can be used for evaluating different aspects of performance of non-profit organizations (Bryson, 2004). Performance measurement is increasingly considered as significant for the long-run survival and success of a non-profit organization.
By the early 1990s, non-profit agencies tracked their financial accountability by measuring the compliance of their products and services with quality standards and stakeholders’ satisfaction. However, within the recent decade, the emphasis has been shifted towards measuring the outcomes of activities.
A wide array of American non-profit organizations, such as the American Cancer Society, Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, the American Red Cross and others, have already become involved into the outcome measurement process (Poister, 2003, p. 8).
Taking into account the specifics of the mission of the Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) and the goal of social betterment, it can be stated that performance measurement should be warranted to WWP with the main focus on major types of performance criteria, including program effectiveness and quality of services, operating efficiency of the organization and client satisfaction.
What benefits are anticipated after the implementation of performance measurement The engagement of WWP into the performance measurement process is expected to result in a number of improvements. The organization’s commitment to performance measurement would be helpful for providing a clearer focus on mission and strategies. The performance measurement plan would be helpful for enhancing the effectiveness of measurement and decision-making.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, performance measurement can increase the accountability of WWP to the external stakeholder, including its sponsors and society in general. Currently, the main corporate sponsors of WWP include Acosta Sales and Marketing, Under Armour, Raytheon, U-Haul and Overstock.com (Wounded Warrior Project, n.d.).
These corporate sponsors are coupled with numerous individual sponsors who decide to make a one-time donation or start a monthly gift program and make donations on a regular basis.
A detailed description of the recommended steps Notwithstanding the diversity of the performance measurement systems, most of them can be designed through a common implementation process. However, it is important to adapt the standard process to a particular purpose for which the performance system is designed and the overall mission of the non-profit agency (Poister, 2003, p. 23).
In that regard, the development of performance measurement system for WWP should include the following steps. The first step is to secure management commitment. In other words, motivation of the executives to support the performance measurement process is essential for its success. The second step requires organizing the system development process on different levels of the organizational structure.
The third step deals with clarification of system purpose and parameters. The fourth step presupposes identification of the outcomes and the rest of performance criteria. The fifth step requires defining, evaluating and selecting the most appropriate of the performance indicators. The sixth step implies developing the procedures for the collection of data. The seventh step requires specifying the system design.
The eighth step presupposes conducting a pilot of the system if it is necessary. The ninth step implies the implementation of the full-scale system. The tenth step would mean using the system, evaluating its effectiveness and modifying it if such a need arises.
Preliminary information gathering and analysis As it is proclaimed in the mission of WWP, the main goals pursued by this organization include raising the community’s awareness on the special needs of the wounded service members, to help injured warriors to assist each other and provide unique programs to assist them in their transition back to civilian life.
We will write a custom Essay on Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The outcomes which can be used to measure the organization’s success in achieving these goals include the number of wounded warriors who received support were involved into programs and received health care or psychotherapy services and/or found a job. This data is available and can be used as one of indicators for the performance measurement.
Another important indicator is the satisfaction of the warriors involved into the programs. The information on this aspect will need to be gathered through the interviews and surveys.
Additionally, the donation rates and public responses to the programs need to be analyzed to conclude whether the first goal of raising the public needs of wounded warriors is successfully achieved. A plan for indicator data collection would consist of two main parts, including gathering the available information and conducting the necessary research to cover the missing indicators.
Conclusion Performance measurement can be beneficial for WWP and should be started from ensuring the commitment of the main executives to the measurement process and enhancing their awareness on the potential advantages.
Reference List Bryson, J. (2004). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A Guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Poister, T. (2003). Measuring performance in public and nonprofit organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Wounded Warrior Project (n.d.). Mission. Retrieved from https://www.woundedwarriorproject.org/mission
Internet Technology, Marketing, and Security Report (Assessment) college essay help: college essay help
Advancement in technology and communication networks has changed how organizations market goods and services; the sales and marketing department are becoming computerized as a policy to attain competitiveness. The risk facing the globalized world is how to secure corporate and customer information; when using technology to market products and services, companies are able to reach a large number of target customers.
Balancing effective marketing, sales, and communication with security is a major challenge; however marketing managers should make strategies that address such issues if they are to remain competitive and earn customer confidence (Kurtz, MacKenzie
Events Management Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Globally, it is known that fashion shows are ways of introducing clothing lines, which are exposed to the general public or the community at large. Basically, it is also the best way of triggering an interest among buyers by just placing the clothing line in boutiques or beauty shops.
An organizing manager planning for a fashion show event must always pay attention to the details that are involved. In addition, he must have a general knowledge and understanding of the fashion show whereabouts and the fashion the community in that specific area prefers.
How to organize for a fashion show event Set date for the show
This is the first thing an organizing manager must always consider when planning for a fashion show event. The best way to do this is by choosing up to a maximum of three potential dates that appear convenient for audience to turn out in large numbers. Considerably, when selecting the date, the manager must ensure that there is enough time left before the show date.
As a manager, it is important to design a working budget which is composed of all necessary requirements to be used during the show. The manager must also select the venue where the occasion will take place early enough to be granted permission to access the venue at any time. It is always advisable that when selecting the venue, the organizing manager books at least two different venues.
This is because, incase the access to one bounces, there should be an alternative venue precisely to guarantee the success of the show (Braniac 2011). The organizing manager also has the duty of recruiting a team to ensure that the show is successful. Such a team can either be of a group of volunteers or hired workers to be paid based on the budget allocated.
Benefits and drawbacks of hosting fashion show at 02 arenas
The major benefit resulting from hosting of the fashion show among many other big events in 02 arenas is that the number of tickets sold generates huge income to the management of events. People visiting the show from all over the world pay a lot of money in foreign currency, hence boosting the economy of a country.
For example, the 02 arena of London that accommodates up to 20,000 people generates an awesome profit whenever an event is held. This primarily contributes to the successful development and advancements of the arena. As there are many sponsors who are willing to fund events, 02 arena benefit from renovations that are done without the management money.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Drawbacks
The most common challenge the 02 arena faces is the damage done on venue facilities by the large crowds of audience. Hosting such a crowd leaves so much destroyed by the excited audience cheers. On the other hand, security operations within the arena is also very challenging especially when considering the crowd management and the general safety of guests.
In a previous incident, according to daily mail online, a VIP guest was left fighting for his life after an unknown person among the audience stabbed him with a knife in the chest. Crowd violence is another challenge that is experienced whereby people use champagne bottles to fight one another leaving many injured or dead (Daily mail 2011). These are common incidents occurring when organizing for an event.
Critical evaluations The nature and scope of festival studies
A summary of key issues raised by the author
This study is based on defining festival studies, whereby three main areas have been identified and fully discussed. The major objective of this research is to develop a framework of understanding and also create general knowledge about how to plan and organize festival event (Getz 2010).
According to the author, festival studies have also helped in development and improvement of global festivals. This is because it is becoming a fast growing field of studies in education centers like universities.
Discourses on the role, meaning and impacts of festivals in society and culture
According to the author, the term discourse means a conversation. It can also be referred to as a rule based dialogue among different parties (Getz 2010). It is clear that a festival study corresponds to anthropology and sociological studies. Moreover, it is clear that festival management and festival tourism are more recent and immature fields with few researchers.
This is because, the knowledge domains about this two sub-fields of event managements unfortunately came about and developed without any reference to the former classical line of theory (Getz 2010). The author also points out that there are beneficial outcomes after participating on a festival event. These include general learning, income generation and healthfulness.
Discourse on festival tourism
This is an important part of festival event tourism. The author has specifically focused on a few areas such consumer behaviors, market concept and moreover, and motivations for attending an organized festival (Getz 2010).
We will write a custom Essay on Events Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author further has outlined the specific roles played by festivals in tourism. Such festivals contributes promotes tourism in a big way. They attract both local and international audience. Such tourist visit acts as a catalyst for local developmental reforms and also creating market for local products.
Discourse on festival management
This is the most recent or latest discourse to develop as far as research literature is concerned. Notable to mention is that, the literature pertaining event tourism is always considered to be of great help to festival managers globally. This is because it contains relevant information all the festival managers worldwide must know.
Such information include; how proper assessments are conducted and how important they are when it comes to strategic planning for an events. The author also insists that festival events manager must immerse themselves and gain knowledge in relevant fields of sociology and anthropology.
This is because, the two fields offer a classical approach and background information on culture and societies, which are part of festival event creativity (Getz 2010).
These are some of the evaluated themes the author strongly argues must be observed as far as festival tourism and tourist attraction is concerned.
Planning of how the festivals shall operate is another key consideration an event manager must always practice. Considering the strategic planning, most key consideration areas must contain measures and strategies to solve aspects such as whether the tourist potential can be improved, how the effects of climatic changes to the festivals can be avoided, health plans put forward for outdoor festivals, economic development and finally the risks and emergencies likely to occur (Getz 2010).
According to the author, it is clear that several researches have worked on determining the festival market orientation. Unfortunately, the art festival never displays such concern for tourism. Moreover, they take on a product orientation that precisely tends to ignore the other customers commercial needs (Getz 2010).
It is a very strong topic on festival events organization. Although evaluation is never considered to be very important, it is a strong step that must always be implemented carefully. Evaluation can be applied when evaluating the effectiveness or the efficiency of the festival events operation or even when determining the investments progress.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Events Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sponsorship, economy and financing
Based on this research, the economic and financing areas still remains underdeveloped. The issue of sponsorship is again categorized partly as a marketing topic and partly as relating to finances. Furthermore, many independent business and companies are ready to sponsor many event festivals.
This is because as traders, companies take festivals as an opportunity that they can use to market their products in a manner that many people will access (Getz 2010).
Finally, in my own opinion, after a systematic review throughout this research study, it is clear that festivals and festival tourism are just some of the events that need proper organization by an event manager. The three main discourses the author discussed are very clearly identifiable and are all related to the festival tourism and managements.
The strategic role of cultural and heritage tourism in the context of mega-events: the case of 2010 soccer World Cup Summary of key issues
The author admits that South Africa is still experiencing the effects of hosting the 2010 world cup long after the events (Steyn 2007). Some of these effects are directed to the major sectors like economy, tourism industries, environment, people, infrastructure and the general countries developments.
It is evident that majority of the developed and developing countries are struggling and bidding to be allowed to host some of the world mega-events, as part of the strategy of improving economy (tourists attraction) and other benefits. Most countries that have hosted some of the world mega-events acknowledge that such events can trigger a long term effect among its citizens.
The major aims that the research is to again explore and focus on developing a model bearing key guidelines that indeed will help host countries to fully leverage both cultural and heritage tourism opportunities as far as mega-event is concerned.
The main arguments
Cultural and heritage tourism within a mega-event context
The author in this chapter provides basic theoretical background of two main components. These are mega-events and cultural and heritable tourism. The author clearly defines the roles and importance of cultural and heritable tourism management principles, global competitiveness of the sector and profiles of a cultural tourist (Steyn 2007).
The study also explains the advantages of hosting a mega-event and also the socio-cultural legacies exhibited as a result of hosting the events. As part of the objectives, the author further examines the major concept of cultural and heritage tourism as a separate entity corresponding to mega events.
The contribution of cultural and heritage tourism in a mega-event context
The author argues that countries hosting any mega-evens benefit abundantly and gain new knowledge from the events experience. As part of the experience that is gained from the past events, the host country will always try and improve on the mistakes which might have been committed.
Strategic planning process is very essential in ensuring that such defaulters are omitted and that success is achieved. In this chapter, the author focuses on examining the best practical studies carried out, which contributes in promoting both cultural and heritable tourism in the host countries (Steyn 2007).
Cultural and heritage tourism in South Africa
The author points out that South Africa is one of the countries that possess rich and diversified culture. Such cultural diversity has helped the country by boosting the economic and social developments to a higher level.
Significantly, more employment opportunities have been created and social cohesion between locals and international tourists strengthened. The main objective of this chapter is to determine the strategies that South Africa need to employ in order to keep its tourism industry booming.
Based on the study, several gaps that generally keep on dragging South Africa behind were identified. As far as tourism industry is concerned. It is documented that in South Africa there are no variety of tourists attraction sites and that accommodation that is available is very expensive and of poor quality.
Moreover, there are no proper advanced conference halls that can host any international conference or meetings. Finally, the country also needs to improve on diversification of museums, niche tour and also development of international heritage sites that will frequently attract international tourists (Steyn 2007).
Conclusion This entire research paper strongly emphasizes on management of events and tends to clarify the roles of an organizing manager of any events. Furthermore it explains that events can be helpful and at the same time can bring both long term and short term disasters to the country.
References Braniac 2011, How to plan a fashion show event. Web.
Daily mail 2011, 02 arena security review. Web.
Getz, D 2010, “The nature and scope of festival studies”. International journal of events management research Vol 5, no 1, pp. 1-21.
Steyn, T 2010, “The Strategic Role of Cultural and Heritage Tourism in the Context of Mega- Events: The Case of 2010 Soccer World Cup”, National research foundation. Web.
E-Commerce and Digital Marketing Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Methodology
Opportunities in E-Commerce
Gainers and Losers of E-Commerce
Strategies of E-Commerce
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
Problems with E-Commerce
The term e-commerce is used to describe businesses that are carried out over the internet. E-commerce describes how businesses are conducted using internet applications such as shopping carts, e-mails, web services, electronic data interchange (EDI), and instant messaging.
Electronic commerce can be carried out between two or more businesses; the online business involves transactions of funds, data, goods, and services (Syed and Raisinghani 11; Stahl 150).
The success and efficiency of e-commerce typically depends on digital marketing, which uses search engine optimization (SEO) as the main tool to promote the products and services in the e-market (Needle 107). The best way through which, an e-business can prosper is building a competitive advantage through relevant people.
E-commerce has brought about a new idea in the field of business and this concept is growing very fast and is almost bringing the traditional business techniques to an end. E-commerce has provided not only a quick way to exchange products and services, but also provided the most efficient and convenient way of accomplishing the transactions involved in this trade (Syed and Raisinghani 13).
E-commerce has today developed into a large industry with companies making huge sums of money. For instance, online retail in the United States, which comprises of business-to-consumer e-commerce, sports and fitness, online travel services, and media distribution, managed to generate over $201 billion in 2009.
In the United States alone, it is estimated that more than 75% of the total population uses internet every day for private and business purposes. The same trend is also evident in other countries, which implies that the growth of e-commerce is likely to continue rising and nothing can weaken it anytime soon (Stahl 152; Needle 108).
Many startup e-commerce corporations have now taken over the biggest share of the market from the traditional businesspersons. As a result, the traditional business people have been forced to alter the structure of their companies and to develop their own websites as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This phenomenon is evident in the sectors of consumer electronics and travel services, where more than 50 percent of the total bookings happen online (Stahl 152; Needle 110). This has in turn, led to a drastic fall in the revenues of the traditional businesses that offer booking services.
Since most e-commerce oriented companies have lower operating expenses and a highly efficient inventory management, they have created a competitive advantage to attract consumers and retailers as well (Qin 208).
Methodology This paper will address the issues surrounding the concept of e-commerce.; the paper will review a number of literatures in order to outline the aspects of e-commerce.
The e-commerce concepts to be addressed in the paper include the how the internet phenomenon has developed in the past decade, the companies that have gained from the online business concept, the losers, the opportunities and the challenges that have come with e-commerce among other issues.
These issues will be addressed by examining the experiences that the companies that trade their products and services online have had since the introduction of e-commerce. The strategies that such companies have implemented to enhance their productivity in the online business will form the platform of understanding the benefits and the disadvantages of e-commerce.
The paper will address the challenges that online companies have and will present recommendations that can be put in place to deal with the shortfalls of e-commerce.
Opportunities in E-Commerce There are several factors that have promoted the growth of e-commerce in the globe. One of such factors is the enormous internet penetration n many parts of the world. Since e-commerce is an online issue, the increase in the global internet penetration has had a great impact on it.
We will write a custom Essay on E-Commerce and Digital Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, more than 40 percent of the world’s population can access the internet, which implies that this number can also access e-commerce if it chooses to (Syed and Raisinghani 11; Briggs 141; Epstein 176).
Many countries have strived to make sure the internet becomes a basic commodity to their citizens by lowering the surfing charges and increasing the reliability and the speeds of browsing.
Other strategies that have made the internet easily accessible to many people include improved internet technology that also covers expanded bandwidth. The organizations, which have been able to capture a big share in emerging markets are at a great advantage to competitors with increased sales margin and profits (Syed and Raisinghani 14; Briggs 141).
Many e-commerce players have also enhanced their businesses by lowering the prices of the products and services they provide. The players have been able to compete effectively by improving the quality of their products and services, a move that has assisted them in ensuring high customer satisfaction.
These are the tools that the largest e-retailers, such as Best Buy and Wal-Mart Target, have relied on in their quest to gain a bigger share of the online market (Syed and Raisinghani 13; Briggs 144).
Gainers and Losers of E-Commerce There are several businesses and service providers that have gained a lot since the introduction of e-commerce. A good example of such players is the online retail merchants such as Amazon.com and Overstock.com.
These online retailers have made use of the concept of e-commerce to expand their businesses and to improve their sales. The online retail players have a better focus on consumer electronic products (Harvie and Lee 171; Meier and Stormer 189).
Online businesses that deal in financial transactions and consumer electronics have also been favored by e-commerce. Financial transaction service providers such as EBay, EBS, and Authorize.net are some of the top financial transaction processors that have heavily utilized the concept of e-commerce.
Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Commerce and Digital Marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Their businesses require e-consumers to make an online transaction through their processing platform. Currently, close to 250,000 merchants rely on EBS and Authorize.net to convince their clients to accept electronic check payments and credit cards through the internet (Kamel 128; Harvie and Lee 175).
Other groups that also enjoy the benefits of e-commerce include travel and shipping industries. The manufacturers of e-commerce software have also gotten into e-commerce and are reaping the benefits of the current online way of trading.
Other companies such as hotels, airlines, and cruise ships are now selling their products and services faster than the way they used to before venturing into the internet as a method of trading. Shipping companies such as the United Parcel Services are now ferrying most of their products to the consumers who purchase them online.
The concept of –commerce has enabled the shipping companies to increase their profit margins, which depends on the volume of the products that e-consumers buy online (Kamel 130; Harvie and Lee 173; Meier, and Stormer 191).
The companies that deal in e-commerce software are thriving in their businesses as well. It is through the assistance of these companies that individuals and organizations that are interested in buying and selling products online, accomplish their goal. Examples of the e-commerce software companies include, GSI Commerce, Volusion e-Commerce, Digital River, and Web Cube.
These companies offer services that range from software to online marketing, web hosting and order fulfillment. The companies obtain their revenues from the sales of software meant for e-commerce applications.
Due to the software services offered by these companies, e-commerce has continued to gain popularity in the business sector. As a result, the e-commerce software companies will continue to make enormous profits (Harvie and Lee 174; Meier, and Stormer 191).
The companies that provide web analytics constitute another group that has been enjoying the benefits of e-commerce and that will continue making huge profits as the online business continues to prosper. The web analytics are tools that enhance the management of all e-commerce platforms and help e-companies in determining how their online businesses are performing in the e-market (Stormer 192).
These business tools enable the companies that conduct their business online to establish the expenses they incur in activities such as marketing and advertisements. They are the most effective equipments that the online companies use to optimize their expenditures and to promote sales.
Through these tools, the online companies can determine when sales increase and the factors that have effected such an increase (Harvie and Lee 175; Meier and Stormer 194).
Although many companies have been able to benefit from conducting their business online, there a few businesses that have not reaped any benefits. Some of the companies whose businesses have been impaired by the online concept include the traditional retail and direct retail marketing.
The traditional retailers such as Best Buy and Circuit City Stores have lost the biggest share of the market they once occupied before e-commerce came into being (Kamel 128; Harvie and Lee 176).
The most common examples of the direct retail marketers that have lost a considerable proportion of their market share include Systemax and CDW. The traditional retailers and the direct retail marketers are now working on a plan to develop their own websites to assist them in preventing any further losses in their businesses (Harvie and Lee 177; Meier and Stormer 191).
Strategies of E-Commerce Before a company decides to venture into e-commerce, it has to first determine and develop factors that will help it effectively sell its products and services through the internet. The strategies will determine the way the company would develop its structure, goals and staff in relation to the demand in the e-market.
These strategies would also assist the company to compete effectively with other firms that offer similar products and services (Plant 32; Fox 109).
The first strategy that a company that wishes to do its business online will have to address is resource expansion. Every company’s main goal of doing business online is to increase its revenues and minimize operational costs. The amount of revenue that a company wishes to generate will help the company determine the amount of resources it needs to allocate to each e-commerce activity.
Every company with a motive of making a profit not only wants to enter e-commerce to generate income to cover the expenses incurred in the production of goods and services, but also to produce revenues that it can use to support other plans; such companies will normally establish a strategy that will help it attract more clients (Plant 37; Fox 114).
The companies with so many goals to accomplish in e-commerce need to regard e-commerce as a means of expanding the resources they have. Such a strategy may involve activities that cover a full marketing plan. When developing a resource expansion strategy, a company should ensure that the activities it chooses do not impair its tax-free status.
The strategy should also be one that does not distort the company’s liability in case of a conflict or a disagreement with other companies. These are the issues that most development companies normally face when conducting their businesses through traditional ways (Plant 43; Fox 115).
Apart from the resource expansion strategy, staff and training and operational strategies also determine the way companies go about their businesses in the internet. A company’s success in e-commerce depends much on its administrative and technical personnel.
It is the workers who are responsible for proper maintenance of the company’s website. A company should ensure that its staff members are well equipped with the necessary skills and that they are willing to handle the company’s online transactions (Plant 63; Fox 109).
A company that does not have enough staff that can effectively handle e-commerce is forced to hire the services of outsiders who then sell the company’s products through the internet. However, hiring new employees is an additional cost that can be avoided by training the old workers.
A company is at a better position to develop more effective operational strategies if it has efficient employees, who possess the required skills that are necessary in conducting e-commerce (Plant 63; Fox 109).
Another strategy involves the determination of the capital costs. A company will need to decide the amount of money required in each e-consumer activity. The amount of money that a company directs to the e-consumer activities depends mostly on the level of complexity of the e-commerce platforms.
The company needs to ensure that the money it is willing to put into the e-commerce activities can match its revenues and ascertain the amount of money it can obtain from other sources such as donors (Plant 74; May 53; Fox 177).
The ability of a company to study the purchasing patterns of e-consumers may also a help a company in managing its online businesses. The companies, which sell and buy products through the internet, need to update new products on a regular basis.
This is instrumental especially when a company wishes to increase the number of goods purchased by the e-customers. It is also an effective way of attracting and retaining customers (Plant 74; May 53; Fox 181).
The ability to positively influence the e-consumers purchasing trend has a long-term effect on a company’s performance on the internet. This strategy can increase a company’s revenue by improving the sales volume of the goods that the company trades on the internet.
Therefore, it is recommended that a company adds a variety of new products to its websites as regularly as possible. Companies engaging in e-commerce should also consider placing different promotional offers regularly as a way attracting and retaining customers (May 62; Fox 181).
Digital Marketing An effective marketing plan will positively influence the way a company trades its goods and services through the internet. It is also through a good marketing strategy given that it enables a company to establish and maintain a steady trend in the sales of its products. This marketing strategy is categorized into two subdivisions, which include offline markets and online markets (Ryan 89; Wynne 242).
The offline markets comprise of the people and companies that can access the internet for other purposes, which do not include e-commerce. Such people and organizations can easily be converted into e-customers.
An e-company can capture the offline markets through newsletters, advertisements in publications, and mailing to supporters and members. A company can also turn an offline market into an online market through advertisements of promotional offers placed on the company’s website (Ryan 91; Wynne 242).
The online market is composed of people who can access the internet and who also have the potential to purchase products and services through the internet. In the case of an online market, the internet is the main tool that is used to capture customers.
There are several ways through which a company can develop an online market. A company can decide to identify a target e-market comprising of potential customers who like the products and services it is offering online. The company may also to decide to form a partnership with other firms, which are already in the e-market and that have well developed websites (Ryan 93; Wynne 246).
Besides promoting the company’s products through the internet, digital marketing also promotes the brand image of a company. The concept of digital marketing requires that a company’s management team be well equipped with knowledge regarding the behavior of the online shoppers and the general digital market.
In addition, the management team should be comprised of business executives who have an adequate understanding of the technology that is concerned with the internet, which can enable them to develop the most effective business plans and marketing objectives (Ryan 95; Wynne 251).
The digital marketing platform has many benefits; firstly, this type of marketing is cost efficient and it assists a company in cutting down costs spent on online advertisements.
In digital marketing, there are no expenses incurred on activities such as postage, printing, and distribution as in the case of traditional marketing. Secondly, there is high precision in digital marketing as it only reaches and lays more emphasis on the targeted e-market. This in turn, assists a company reduce the time and resources it would have wasted in mass marketing (Ryan 97; Wynne 247).
Thirdly, digital marketing has an extreme leverage in advertising a company’s products. It reaches a big number of potential e-customers at the same time. It is easier for a company to determine how its prospective buyers regard it through digital marketing.
This type of e-marketing has distinct measurable results; lastly, through digital marketing, a company can easily evade cases of costly pitfalls that are so rampant in the traditional types of advertisements (Ryan 98; Wynne 252).
In addition to the benefits addressed above, digital marketing can assist in enhancing a company’s image. This it does through a number of strategies; for example, this kind of marketing technique makes it easier for potential customers and the existing ones to identify themselves with the company. This type of marketing improves the visibility of a company in e-commerce.
Secondly, the marketing style increases a company’s credibility in the online markets. When a company has a strong digital presence in a market, it automatically becomes more credible in the eyes of many e-customers. Lastly, digital marketing helps enhance a company’s image by increasing the brand awareness of that particular company (Ryan 103; Wynne 261).
The principle of digital marketing is based on the various search engines that exist. Digital marketing uses these search engines to specifically target the prospective clients that are likely to purchase the company’s products, which are offered online. The search engines also help companies identify other organizations that are willing and able to do business with them through the use of the internet.
Unlike the traditional method of marketing that suffers from social and geographical challenges, digital marketing works to ensure that such challenges are addressed and properly evaluated to prevent them from negatively impacting on the company’s operations. Most companies apply Search Engine Optimization (SEO) in identifying and retaining their e-clients (Ledford 3; Wynne 261).
Search Engine Optimization (SEO) SEO is a technical method that is used to enhance a company’s visibility in relation to its website through various Google presentations. SEO does not have a short-term effect; the impact of its effects can only be felt after a long time of its application. SEO can take as long as six months to accomplish the task for which it is intended (Ledford 3).
However, the duration may be longer or shorter depending on the strategies, methods, and efforts applied in the engine optimizer. Even though the SEO effects are normally realized after a long time, the benefits attached to the engine optimizer are so vast and quite effective in enhancing a company’s image and productivity in the e-market (Ledford 3; Wynne 261).
SEO indexing and site maps are normally done through Google; before a company website is included in the Google index, Google has to verify and confirm the eligibility of the website. It is through the indexing of the site that Google is able to crawl and rank the site in search results.
The search result is a list that is created by Google and in which the companies’ websites are found by the potential e-customers who would wish to assess the products and services offered by the companies (Ledford 7; Wynne 271).
The Ad words make up the simplest way through which a company can index its website on Google. The company is only required to submit a manual website map, which contains other important details, to Google Webmaster Central. SEO contains other aspects such as tags, codes, keywords, and descriptions, all of which explain the situation and status of the company that is indexed on Google.
The SEO contents enhance the speed of indexing and improve the ranking of a company. Google can only list websites that are crawl-able, so it is upon a company to ensure that it submits to Google Webmaster account a site that meets this condition (Ledford 14; Wynne 273).
A company is bound to reap several benefits if it uses SEO to list its website on Google. Through SEO, a company is able to develop a proper content that will attract the potential customers to buy its products. The content can be made attractive by the use of the keyword phrases. SEO contains sites that are simple and easy to navigate through.
The simplicity of the sites helps in attracting more e-costumers, who find easy to get what they are looking for in such sites. SEO is one of the most effective ways that a company can use to beat its competitors, which offer similar products in the internet (Ledford 21; Wynne 281).
Problems with E-Commerce Even though e-commerce has helped many businesses solve most of the shortfalls that they experienced in the traditional business methods, it has a number of problems. Some companies have websites with so much detailed information that makes the buying procedure not only long but also laborious.
When the buying process becomes too long, it confuses the e-costumers, who would wish to complete the checkout process in less than three minutes. Such long processes are likely to discourage the buyers from purchasing the products since they normally experience problems with completing this process.
If some buyers happen to go through the long procedure, there is high probability that they may not come back to purchase from the company again (Meier and Stormer 121; May 43).
Some companies also run websites with very few payment options in the shopping cart. Customers would wish to be given a variety of payment options from which they can choose their favorite one. Companies with just one method of payment are likely to lose sales if the customers find the method tiresome or consider it inconvenient. One mode of payment can also make a company’s website appear monotonous (Kamel 131).
A company may also suffer from e-commerce if most of its potential customers do not trust its website. Even though it is not a common phenomenon in e-marketing, the targeted potential buyers may fail to develop trust on a particular company whose products are intended for them. If such a case happens, then the company is likely to experience a high volume of lost sales (Meier, and Stormer 121; May 47).
Recommendations There are various ways through which a company can modify it website to avoid the problems outlined above. For the case of the limitations in the mode of payments available, a company should ensure that it includes a variety of modes of payment to allow the buyers to choose the one they prefer. This is one the best ways to increase online sales since the customers will have many ways to complete their order (Fox 131).
In order to avoid long buying processes, a company should design its site in such a way that the important processes such as buying and payment remain concise. This not only gives buyers an opportunity to complete their orders in a short time, but is also a good way of attracting and retaining potential buyers (Epstein 74).
Lastly, companies need to make their websites as simple as possible. Many potential e-customers prefer simple sites to sophisticated ones. The customers tend to distrust the most complicated sites and they even shy away from them. A site that is simply designed contains sections that are clear and easily understandable, is what most prospective customers prefer (Epstein 81).
In conclusion, e-commerce and digital marketing have brought a lot of changes in business sector. Several companies have expanded their revenues and businesses by trading their products and services on the internet. The search engine optimization is the most effective equipment used in e-marketing. This tool helps companies in designing their websites in such a way that they attract a big number of customers.
Works Cited Briggs, Susan. Successful Web Marketing for Tourism and Leisure Sectors. London: Kogen Page, 2001. Print.
Epstein, Marc. Implementing E-Commerce Strategies: A Guide to Corporate Success after the Dot.com Bust. Westport, CN: Praegeer, 2004. Print.
Fox, Scott. E-Riches 2.0: Next-Generation Marketing Strategies for Making Millions Online. New York, NY: American Management Association, 2009. Print.
Harvie, Charles, and Boon-Chye Lee. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in East Asia: Sectoral and Regional Dimensions. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2008. Print.
Kamel, Sherif. Electronic Business in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2005. Print.
Ledford, Jerri. Search Engine Optimization Bible: Improve Your Site’s Search Rankings with SEO: Optimize for Mobile Web and Social Media; Target and Reach the Customers You Want. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley, 2009. Print.
May, Paul. The Business of E-Commerce: From Corporate Strategy to Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Print.
Meier, Andreas, and Henrick Stormer. E-Business and E-Commerce: Managing the Digital Value Chain. Berlin: Springer, 2009. Print.
Needle, David. Business in Context: An Introduction to Business and its Environment. Andover: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Plant, Robert. E-Commerce: Formulation of Strategy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times, 2000. Print.
Ryan, Damian, and Calvin Jones. Understanding Digital Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Engaging the Digital Generation. Philadelphia, PA: Kogen Page, 2012. Print.
Stahl, Bernd Carsten. Information Systems: Critical Perspectives. Milton Park, NY: Taylor and Francis, 2008. Print.
Syed, Mahburbur Rahman, and Mahesh S Raisinghani. Electronic Commerce: Opportunity and Challenges. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing, 2000. Print.
Qin, Zheng. Introduction to E-Commerce. Berlin: Springer Berlin, 2007. Print.
Wynne, Pauma. Pimp My Site: The DIY Guide to SEO, Search Marketing, Social Media and Online PR. West Sussex: Capstone Pub., 2012. Print.
Managing Innovation and Entrepreneurship Essay college essay help online
Innovation and Technology A popular statement in the field of innovation and technology in organisations reads that “innovation is not the same as technological advances”. It is noted that the two terms are totally different when applied to business and organisations (Christensen 1997, p.12). Analysts are of the view that innovation is a term used to describe creativity in a business.
This is creativity of the business which is targeted at capturing the attention of the consumers in the market. Technology on the other hand is a mechanism that allows or helps to catapult the innovations initiated on any product on entry into the market (Terkel 1991, p. 14). For example, technology can be used to target a particular segment of consumers in the market.
It is a strategy that can help a company to expand its range of products. Therefore the advancement of the two concepts in the organisation or advancement of one concept at the expense of the other does not mean that the two are tied together.
Having analysed the meaning of these two terms, the author of this paper is now going to provide an insightful analysis of the two concepts by assessing how they affect business operations in a given organisation.
Innovation plays a significant role in the business processes. It is innovation which introduces new ideas initially generated by technology into the market. Innovation takes those valuable ideas and applies them in the market.
Thus, technology can be referred to as an aspect of innovation through which new techniques that touch on the services and products in the market are introduced. It is no wonder then that business scholars often associate business success with innovation (Terkel 1991, p. 16).
Innovation has become an important aspect of business organisations in the world today. There are many studies and research carried out today and which are aimed at improving the various products and services associated with the company. This has led to the emergence of innovative marketing strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, researchers in their efforts to experiment on the correct mechanisms to boost business have stumbled upon valuable ideas that they did not intend to get in the first place.
These ideas have turned to innovative marketing strategies that have been used to catapult the business organisation to the higher heights in the market. Therefore, research has adopted trial and error methods to boost the market using the innovative ideas.
The value of innovation to any business in contemporary society cannot be downplayed. Without innovation, the business will be trapped in a ‘Red Ocean’ instead of what Chan
A Streetcar Named Desire Essay essay help online
The story of the play A Streetcar named Desire focuses on love. The research centers on Blanche DuBois’ lies. The research includes determining why Blanche DuBois lied.
The street car named desire shows, in a certain sense, Blanche is a liar. In a sense, Blanche is a liar. Blanche DuBois gave several lies to hide her true situation in life. Blanche DuBois never stated that she is a drunkard. Likewise, Blanche DuBois hid under a life of delusions of grandeur (Williams 79).
As a girl wanting love, Blanche DuBois would lie in order to make herself attractive to male suitors (Williams 40). The lies included creating a false historical life of Blanche DuBois. Just like the women of today’s generation, most women would go to the extent of hiding their unfavorable past in order to attract the male members of the community.
Normally, women would hide their past love failures from their current suitors (Shea 17). Likewise, Blanche DuBois lied about her school job (Williams 81). She falsely stated that her school administrators had allowed her to have a vacation in order to calm her nerves. In reality, Blanche DuBois had been fired from her teaching job. She was fired for having sexual relations with her 17 year old student.
Having sexual relations with students is banned in schools. One of the school policies is for teachers to responsibly take their roles as the students’ second parents. Blanche DuBois hid her teaching past to prevent hurting her sister Stella from the humiliation of having a sister fired from her teaching job.
Blanche DuBois also lied by not telling about her failed marriage. Blanche DuBois was married to Allan Grey. Their marriage finally failed when she uncovered her husband had a homosexual affair. She did not tell the truth that her husband, Allan Grey, committed suicide (Williams 76). Everyone deserves another chance.
Blanche DuBois travelled to her sister Stella’s home in order to bury her unfavorable marriage behind. In addition, Blanche DuBois created a world of lies. Blanche DuBois did not tell the truth by creating a world filled with fantasies and illusions (Williams 132). The fantasies and illusions crept into and became part of Blanche DuBois’ real life environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After Stanley uncovers Blanche DuBois’ lies, Stanley forces her out of their home in order to avoid bringing shame to the Stella household. Refusing to leave Stella’s home, Stanley rapes Blanche DuBois and calls the mental hospital to extract Blanche DuBois from the Stella household and treat her in the community’s mental hospital. The husband of Blanche’s sister, Stanley, uncovers her true secrets (Williams 79).
Stanley uncovers Blanche’s lies when Stanley’s friend brings news to Stanley about Blanche DuBois’ true life in Laurel. Laurel is the hometown of Blanche DuBois. Consequently, the uncovered lies infuriated Stanley.
The discovery of the lies discourages everyone. Stanley’s reporting to his best friend, Mitchell, the new discovery of Blanche DuBois’ prior unfavorable character in Blanche DuBois’ Laurel community discourages Mitchell. After hearing Stanley’s report about Blanche Dubois’ unfavorable past, Mitchell immediately drops his prior marriage promise to Blanche DuBois (Williams 73).
Based on the above discussion, the story of the play A Streetcar named Desire centers on love in general. The lies of Blanche DuBois were concocted to win male suitors. The research centers on Blanche DuBois’ past Laurel life creeping into Blanche DuBois’ current community life. Indeed, the play Streetcar named Desire shows Blanche DuBois lies to win male suitors.
Works Cited Shea, Rosemary O’. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: Insight Press, 2011. Print
Williams, Tenessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: Heinemann Press, 1995. Print
Kate Chopin’s Private Papers Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Kate Chopin is a personality which deserves attention. Being an interesting person, Kate Chopin has written many stories and her life may be considered as boring and usual except for the particular moments which make her biography deserve attention. Of course, the lives of famous people are always interesting, however, the biography of Kate Chopin attracts attention due to a number of reasons.
Being a person who wrote about the discrimination of women, their hard life in the patriarchy society and other similar aspects, it seems that Kate Chopin considered the society of her time unfair. Struggling for women rights and trying to present a woman as equal to men, it seems strange for me Kate Chopin described severe headaches once a month (each 28 days).
Such confession seems strange and unusual, therefore it is possible to conclude that Kate Chopin agreed on the role of a woman as the society believed was correct (Chopin, Toth, Seyersted, and Bonnell 10). One more fact from the biography of this woman seems peculiar and deserves attention is the fact that after the death of her husband, Dr. Chopin, Kate did not follow the tradition of six months of mourning.
This fact was rather confusing for the family members of her husband’s family (Toth 66). Considering the way how these people spent time together, one may say they fell in love with each and such behavior could not be understood in a proper way. Kate respected her husband, they spent much time together and her behavior seemed inappropriate.
Therefore, these are two facts from Kate Chopin’s biography which caught my attention. They seem strange and at the same time interesting. Such aspects in the biography of the author of Awakening make her life particular.
Poe uses both humor and horror to create the setting in The Cask of the Amontillado and this aspect is easily noticed. Reading the description of the catacombs and the way how Montresor makes Fortunato come there, doubtful opinion is created.
On the one hand, the setting is horrible paying attention to the final scene. On the other hand, it is impossible to miss the fun in the way how Montresor makes a fool of Fortunato making him go to catacombs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Montresor says that he wants a piece of advice from an expert in wine, a friend advice, stating that “The thousand injuries of Fortunato I [Montresor] had borne as I best could” (Poe). It is rather strange that Fortunato did not notice the fact of flattery.
The description of catacombs is also funny and horrible at one and the same time. The mentioning of human remains is horrible while the very fact of the inability of Fortunato to catch the atmosphere. The very process of immune seems rather funny. Being caught Fortunato repeats the title of the wine for several times, “The Amontillado!” as if he did not notice what happened to him.
But the reader understands what is happening and this awareness makes the whole scene more terrific and comic at one and the same time. However, the reader understands what Montresor is doing and it makes him/her terrified.
Therefore, it may be concluded that the surrounding atmosphere is funny while the background view is terrific. The author managed to make the readers smile while reading such a story, cruel and disgusting.
Works Cited Chopin, Kate, Toth, Emily, Seyersted, Per and Cheyenne Bonnell. Kate Chopin’s Private Papers. New Jersey: Indiana University Press, 1998. Print.
Poe, Edgar Allan. The cask of amontillado, 1846. Web.
Toth, Emily. Unveiling Kate Chopin. New York: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 1999. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Kate Chopin’s Private Papers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Biomass Energy – A Reliable Energy Source Report custom essay help
Biomass energy is a reliable source of energy that can solve the many problems faced by rice farmers in Mekong Delta district of Vietnam. People in the region are faced with various problems, which are mostly related to the environment hence the government needs to come up with a permanent solution that would solve their problems.
In a developing country such as Vietnam, cheap source of energy would be required since it would boost the productivity of citizens, as well as government. The Bio mass source of energy is expensive to establish but its maintenance costs are cheap. The source of energy is usually developed using natural products such as trees, agricultural crops and oil seeds.
This means that it has both advantages and disadvantages over other sources of energy such as electricity. Some of the advantages include renewability, availability, disposability, usability by plants due to its production of carbon dioxide and employability. However, some disadvantages including the initial cost, pollution, it is complex and durability is associated with it.
The community would benefit from the strategy in case the government adopts the project to invest in biogas energy. This would reduce the rates of poverty in rural areas and the living standards of people would go up. Despite the initial installment costs, the state can utilize the new technology to protect the environment and provide energy to the locals.
List of References Altro, 2011, what is bioethanol 2012. Web.
Binod, P., Sindhu, R., Singhania, R. R., Vikram, S., Devi, L., Nagalakshmi, S., Kurien, N., Sukumaran, R. K.
Mitalio Software Case Analysis Case Study online essay help: online essay help
Case Facts Mitalio Software inc. was a key player in the business process management software industry with operations in North America, Europe and Asia. Its offices were located in United States, France, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and Hong Kong.
The major product categories were divided according to the customers served and involved corporations in telecom, manufacturing, banking, financial services, healthcare and insurance.
A core product family was ProcessEdge which comprised multiple products that helped create new software platform, acted as a bridge between multiple platforms, and packaged business applications for specific industries.
These software involved many permutations and combinations of possible solutions, hence hard to implement.
Part of the revenue came from services as the sales people had to undertake extensive customer education and consultative selling.
Direct selling was the major determinant of Mitalio’s market performance.
Products were licensed and services sold through a direct organization in most parts of the world.
Selling through resellers was just a supportive sales force.
The direct selling was accomplished through sales professionals and sales support consultants who provided pre-sale technical support to prospective customers.
Mitalio Software put a special emphasis on marketing activities.
Market spending was about 7% as compared to the industry average which was between 2% and 5%.
Printing advertising in business magazine, industry events and tradeshows, and market services topped the list in the amount spent.
Online/Web-based marketing was bottom in the list with only 5% of the total spending.
Marketing productivity per employee was lower compared to peers and competitors.
The marketing focus was on educating potential customers, generating new sales opportunities and improving awareness of various products.
The marketing objective was lead generation or generating qualified leads that the direct force could pursue.
Lead generation was a great disadvantage to Mitalio.
Competitors had increasingly rolled out rapid fire promotion strategies.
Instead of enticing people to buy products, Mitalio continued to target an almost fixed set of customers.
In order to enhance brand loyalty, Mitalio was establishing thought leadership by increasing the time the sales people spent with customers.
Electronic marketing becoming more common over conventional forms of marketing, thought leadership faced a great challenge.
BEA acquisition was a great threat to Mitalio’s business.
BEA had been a long time competitor and the acquisition was an added advantage to the firm’s strength.
BEA had swiftly engaged in electronic marketing to advertise the acquisition.
People had begun to respond to the competitor’s call and traffic had increased significantly.
Mitalio had about 140 cases worldwide in the proposal stage and 60 pilot projects around the world which were directly threatened by the new wave created by competitors.
Mitalio’s marketing organizational structure: Director of product marketing (Carlos Pintera), director marketing manager (Susan Marakos) and then an MBA intern (Oscar Smith).
Director of product marketing
Carlos was a very observant person and was known for his quick response to issues that affected the marketing department.
One of his jobs was to oversee the development of marketing strategies.
Director marketing manager
Susan had been with the company almost since its inception.
Her responsibilities were to communicate, mentor and support the development of marketing initiatives.
The MBA intern
Oscar had great experience in hi-tech marketing with CPG.
He was to spearhead the team in developing a comprehensive e-marketing strategy.
Problems/Dilemmas and Recommendations Problems
Competition in the global market was intensifying as firms like BEA increasingly became stronger through acquisition and timely response to the changing marketing environment. The competitors were swift in adopting marketing strategies that aligned with the needs of customers and technology advancement.
Mitalio marketing management was still pursuing thought leadership which did not support or was in opposition to the current trend of e-marketing. Thought leadership was a way of creating brand loyalty by aiming to shape customer perceptions through long term service. Arguably, this could not compete effectively in the present environment where customers sort for speed, interactivity and efficiency.
The nature of Mitalio’s business did not allow for product diversification and most of the industry players offered similar product. This left the firm with no other choice but to maximize on marketing strategies in order to enhance brand loyalty and create a competitive advantage.
A wave of uncertainty about the success of the many deals Mitalio had with global customers was emerging as a result of intense competition. Many global customers were being taken by e-marketing which the company was yet to implement.
The BEA acquisitions might also take effect earlier than the six months Oscar claimed and surprise Mitalio. Indeed, the online communication of the acquisition was a surprise to Carlos and this could still happen for the implementation.
Carlos is already discouraged by the level of Mitalio’s e-marketing activity, yet he is expecting the marketing team to come up with a comprehensive e-marketing strategy. As a leader, he should be in the frontline to motivate his followers rather than leaving the effort to them.
The budget allocated to online marketing is the least and becomes a big obstacle to the success of the e-marketing strategy. The budget is just 5% of the total marketing budget.
Mitalio’s executives are not active in online activities since no blogs from senior company executives could be found. This is also an indication that the rest of the organization is not aware of the significance of enhancing e-marketing strategies and might oppose the proposal from the marketing team.
Susan is not ready to listen to Oscar suggestion that e-marketing is better than lead generation in term of expanding the customer base. As copartners in the development of an e-marketing strategy, this conflict of interest could have some negative impacts on the outcomes.
The number of marketing employees is also large and Carlos might not want to lose them as it is expected once the e-marketing strategy is adopted. Also, there might be a need to reorganize the whole department which might certainly face rebellions from employees.
Mitalio wanted to be a key player in the enterprise software industry, but did not make the necessary strategic changes on time such as revising and funding its marketing strategies appropriately. Also, competitors were more sensitive when developing marketing initiatives, forcing Mitalio to reconsider adopting e-marketing strategy.
Alternative paths of action
The marketing team implements an e-marketing strategy
Help Mitalio to lower the threat emerging from the BEA acquisition and the new wave of online communication. As Carlo noted, the present and a great concern was the increasing involvement of BEA in online activities.
Eliminate the risk of losing the 140 cases worldwide in the proposal stage and 60 pilot projects around the world which were directly threatened by the new wave from BEA acquisition. This risk results from the lack of involvement in online activities by the marketing team and the firm as a whole.
Increase the productivity per employee which is lower than the competitors as a result of ineffective marketing strategies. A change in the marketing strategies that responds to the situational needs might increase productivity as a measure of revenue.
Increase the speed of sending the marketing messages which Oscar thinks is too slow at present. The higher speed means that more customers could be enticed to make transactions with the company.
Addressing deeper, underlying problems at Mitalio that are probably the real reason as to why the marketing department is not doing well overall, such as employees productivity being lower that the competitors.
Reduce marketing spending especially because some of the marketing strategies will be dropped as well as a reduction in the marketing workforce.
Some sales people especially those doing consultative task will lose their jobs due to adoption of information technology. Also, e-marketing will eliminate some marketing strategies such as advertising through magazines forcing the company to reduce the workforce.
Extra spending will occur in outsourcing expertise, employee training and installation of the IT systems to enable online integration throughout the firm. This is because an integrated e-marketing strategy will require input from various departments to ensure that the customers get the confirmation on the marketing message.
Demanding restructuring of the marketing department: the e-marketing strategy will define new roles and eliminate others, hence the need to restructure the department to accommodate the change. Also, this will not definitely be accepted by the affected employees and might in turn affect their motivation.
The marketing team continues to focus on lead generation
Some employees will not have to lose their jobs neither will a restructuring of the department be required.
Expertise and experience will be maintained as the sales people will continue with their jobs. Mitalio has always performed better than competitors largely because of the expertise of the marketing team.
Avoid the risk of losing their competitive advantage which is embedded on the marketing strategies in place as defined by the marketing objective.
Allow competition to swell in as competitors achieve elevated competitive advantages. This will also lead to a loss of revenue as the competitors dominate the market.
The firm will lose brand loyalty as consumers become more and more sensitive to technological changes which increase speed, interactivity and efficiencies.
Recommendation Tony must oversee the implementation of a comprehensive e-marketing strategy and develop it to be more effective. Also, the marketing team should use web techniques such as search engine optimization and other tools to increase the effectiveness of the e-marketing strategy. This way, the marketing team is not putting the business at the risk of losing brand loyalty.
Tony is the EVP of marketing and should increase his involvement in the strategy development. He should be there to motivate talented and experienced persons like Oscar to maximize their input towards the success of this strategy. Oscar is an IT expert and can help in reducing the cost of outsourcing expertise during the implementation process. Tony is also strategically positioned to link the marketing team with the top executives in order for them to support the strategy and its development.
Three concepts from “Mastering the Three Worlds of Information Technology” Companies need to adopt information technology in the current information era in an effort to enhance efficiencies and speed in operations. This means that information technology has a central role in all functions of an organization and managers must take the responsibility of its implementation.
This is something with which Mitalio marketing team is struggling to achieve. The marketing department seems much focused on its success, partly due to the changing business environment and the emerging wave of its competitors.
The company could devise a way to adopt the necessary IT in order to succeed in the e-marketing strategy projected. It will be very important to involve all departments in the implementation process as a way of enhancing IT integration.
Leaders have special responsibility in terms of IT adoption and should not distance themselves from abandoning a vital role. Tony and other leaders should not leave the responsibility of strategy development solely to team members.
Leaders must help in selecting technologies, fostering their adoption and make sure their exploitation. They should not look at hi-tech marketing project as a system and consider it as an opportunity for organizational change that they are responsible to supervise.
Network IT is the most pertinent category of IT in hi-tech marketing. This class will offer a way by which Mitalio stakeholders can interact with each other. The major reason is that the class supports internet activities such as e-mail, instant messaging, blogs and popups. This technology will give the stakeholders freedom to experiment with the company. It will come with supplements, but allow customers and employees to execute and change them over time. Mitalio top leaders will also have the opportunity to write blogs.
Network IT will facilitate collaboration. It will allow employees to work together without defining what projects should be worked on or the teams that will be involved. Teamwork will be encouraged whereby the marketing teams will employ wikis to carry out assignments without directives from the supervisors.
Network IT will permit expression of decision as it employs unrestricted technologies that permit people to present opinions. Mitalio will be able to understand customer needs and communicate the strategies adopted to meet those needs.
Network IT fosters emergence or the manifestation of high level patterns because of low level interactions. Mitalio managers will be able to compare how marketing functions are done with how they are supposed to be done. Similarly, sales people can easily search and navigate Mitalio’s blogs and wikis for information without supervision.
The e-marketing strategy will require systematic management of information technology involved. Mitalio marketing managers should first select the IT applications that are pertinent to the hi-tech marketing strategy.
The company should invest in the internet marketing because others such as BEA are succeeding in it.
Second, the managers should put the technologies they have selected into productive use. The major role of the managers will be to assist in the creation of the supplements that will maximize the value of the technologies.
Finally, Mitalio’s managers should seek to extract the maximum benefit from internet marketing technologies. They should exploit technologies like blogs and wikis in order to help in sustaining and increasing the use of supplements to make the new technology continually more effective.
Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs Coursework best college essay help: best college essay help
Article Research Problem to be Solved This study aims to identify the internal and external factors that influence the inclusion of STEM education in curriculums for higher education fashion merchandizing courses.
Article Research Goals Fashion merchandizing requires both style and business strategy. It requires one to handle a wide variety of customers while staying within the set budget and marketing strategy.
For a successful career in fashion merchandizing, one needs proper education in both fashion and marketing. The input of business knowledge will be required when it comes to forecasting, cost analysis and so on. The fashion aspect is concerned with the design and production of the actual garments.
Fashion merchandizing classes usually begin with general education courses in mathematics, science, English, and social studies. There are also basic courses in the fashion industry like advertising, buying and selling, and personnel management.
In a typical fashion merchandizing class, students use various software applications to design patterns and garment specifications, and come up with mass production details. Fashion merchandizing students need to posses the necessary STEM skills and the capability to analyze new trends. The following research questions are to be addressed:
What internal factors influence the inclusion of STEM education in fashion merchandizing courses?
What external factors influence the inclusion of STEM education in fashion merchandizing courses?
Which particular STEM education skills are necessary for fashion merchandizing courses?
Type of Research This was a descriptive research on internal and external influences on program level curriculum development in higher education fashion merchandizing programs.
Limitations of the Study The major limitation of the study was the small sample used since only institutions in the United States participated. It was also assumed that the faculties participating in the study would all give accurate responses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Population Data was collected from 96 faculties offering apparel and textile programs from all over the United States.
Instruments and methods of data collection The researcher used electronic means to invite the chosen faculties to participate in the study. The survey instruments used were questionnaires that were sent through email to the relevant faculties. The respondents were then expected to load and send the filled questionnaires through the same means.
Conclusions Drawn by the Researcher The data revealed that internal influences had more impact on curriculum development than external influences. The main internal influences included faculty background and program mission, while the major external influence was employers/marketplace.
The study revealed that the goals and objectives outlined by external influences usually impact on the curriculum through state and federal laws, the funding of programs and in the requirements for accreditation and licensing.
Significance of the Study This study emphasized the importance of including a STEM educational background in fashion merchandizing courses. Institutions that provide fashion merchandizing as a career course ought to adequately prepare their students for the fashion marketplace by putting special emphasis on STEM related educational skills. This should be reflected in their faculty disciplines and program missions that are usually determined internally.
Recommendations The recommendations of this research support my study in many ways. First of all it recognizes the importance of STEM education in the teaching of fashion merchandizing courses.
It also recognizes that many institutions providing fashion merchandizing and related courses don’t put a lot of emphasis on STEM education, and there is need to change that. Lastly, it is calling on all stakeholders to work towards the inclusion of STEM education in fashion merchandizing and related courses in order to better prepare the students for the fashion world.
We will write a custom Coursework on Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference King, J. E. (2010). Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs. East Eisenhower Parkway: ProQuest LLC
MAC Cosmetic Strategic Plan Case Study best essay help
Executive Summary This paper analyzes the business Strategic Plan of MAC Cosmetic to establish how it is affected by the external factors like the societal expectation, status of the economy, law and the political environment. The needs and expectations of different stakeholders in the company have also been highlighted. In addition, the major changes in the environment of the business and their impact on the business have also been reviewed.
Furthermore, the business plan of the company has been analyzed to help determine the position of the company in the current market. Finally, a Swot analysis was done to establish the company’s competitive strengths and weaknesses.
Introduction MAC Cosmetics is a global company that deals with beauty products, fashion, film, TV, music and photography. The name MAC is derived from the initials Make-up, Art and Cosmetics. It has previously focussed its strategic plan on a specific market niche; the professionals.
Its strategy now has shifted to individual consumers, trying to meet the needs of each consumer as much as possible. This has resulted in the company sales sky-rocketing and actually hitting the “121 million dollar mark. MAC CEO is John Dempsey.
Historical Background MAC Cosmetics was found in 1984 in Toronto by two men, Frank Angelo and Frank Toskan. It opened its first shop in the US in 1991 in New York. It currently has 108 branches with over 50 of this in the UK.
Since its inception in 1985, it has marketed its products through the word of mouth and through different sponsorships. It has however avoided the conventional methods of advertisement. Its success is based solidly on researching the consumer needs and going out to satisfy it.
“The best advertisement is through testimony of those who have used a product” (Jaharveb, 2011, p.121). Mac cosmetics’ philosophy is captured in its mission statement; “All Races, All Sexes, All Ages”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first factor that an organization must consider is the social factor. “The general behavior, attitudes and customs of the market affects the business organization” (Ravi, 2011, p.218).
The changes envisaged in the business strategic plan should not be fundamentally in conflict to the target market. They advocate green principles by encouraging back-to-mac programme. The company has recently focused on the fight against Aids through the Viva Glam celebrity fund.
Secondly, the strategy of Mac Cosmetics must be in line with the prevailing legal framework with regard to employment laws. The company strategy might need to accommodate the new employees that will be hired. The business must also operate within the confines of the law.
Thirdly, the prevailing economic environment is not very favorable for a company dealing with non-essential commodities like cosmetics. However, the strategy of the company not to invest heavily on advertisement but depend on the word of mouth will work in its favor especially for its target market.
In addition, the company has established its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through several charities including Kids for kids and Viva Glam celebrity Aids fund (Andersen 2000, p. 186 ).
Finally, business is driven by technology and it will be necessary to review the technology adopted by the company viz a viz its competitors.
Stakeholders in a business organisation like MAC Cosmetics are the people that the organisation serves. Their relationships with the organisation is mutually symbiotic since they both depend on each other for survival.
We will write a custom Case Study on MAC Cosmetic Strategic Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Firstly, the shareholders are more concerned with the dividends they receive on their investment. The need to expand the business will mean that they dig deeper into their resources to provide capital for the envisaged expansion.
Secondly, employees’ benefits from job design that increases satisfaction enhanced working surrounding and, safety standards. The company has a retention rate of 80%, far much better than the average for the industry at 30% (Shahbaz et al 2011).
Thirdly, customers are interested in safe products that meet their needs and value of money. They are also keen on the cause that the organization focuses on and will support any cause that benefits the society.
Fourthly, suppliers expect prompt payment of their money following delivery of goods and being subjected to fair terms of trade. The also need the organization to be financially stable in order to receive future supplies.
Fifthly, the society expects the organization to sponsor local events and offer job opportunities to people living in the community. The society also expects that the organization will follow all the rules and regulations that relate to the standard of the products they produce and environmental regulation.
The consumer needs are not static. The business must prepare to meet the changing needs when and as they arise. The business cannot just focus on the niche market of professional, but must change to accommodate all people as stated in its mission statement.
When new competitors enter a market, the strategy of the company will have to focus on the differentiation of the business product so that it stands out from its competitors’ product.
New laws introduced by the government also affect the company and its strategy. The company must always strive to operate within regulations. A case in point is its non-cruelty policy aimed at protecting animal rights.
Not sure if you can write a paper on MAC Cosmetic Strategic Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to compete with the many small business rivals, the company will have to practice target marketing so that they meet the specific people they intend to meet. On the other hand, the company must also be ready to face the challenge posed by the few large rival firms.
There is also need for the company to adopt new technologies and give consumers products that meet their expectations. This way, they will be able to gain competitive advantage over their competitors.
MAC is currently spreading its wings in the cosmetics business globally. It has plans to expand its stations to more countries in Europe, Asia and the Far East.
The company’s business plan is influenced by the following views:
Financial Perspective The business plan needs to anticipate the revenue growth. There is likely to be an increase in profitability. Due to its expansion, there will be no cash flow since money is held up. The business must strive to ensure that the cost of production is reduced even as the quality of the product is improved (Hamel, 1989, par.3).
Customer Perspective The business must strive to understand what the customers needs are. This means that the key features of the product must be highlighted in their marketing. The value of the product to the consumers can be measured by how well the product is doing in the market in comparison to its competitors.
In addition, the rate of acquisition, retention and satisfaction by the customer will be an indication of how well the product is doing in the market (Hamel, 1989, par.7).
Internal Business Process Perspective This emphasizes productivity, quality cost and delivery characteristics of the production process. It also includes internal mechanism of handling customer dissatisfaction e.g. meeting regulatory requirements and after-sale service.
Learning Growth Perspective This area focuses on the employee needs. The fact that the company has an employee retention rate of 80% at a time when that of the industry is 30%.
A swot analysis of MAC cosmetics business strategy reveals that the company has strengths in their products like Heart to soul and their recycling policy dabbed Back-to-Mac recycling. It is also empowered by the fact that the prices of its products are comparatively cheap.
This is attributed to the fact that the company does not invest heavily in conventional advertising like its competitors since it relies on the word of mouth advertisement.
Its major weakness lies in the fact that their distribution does not include drugstores and therefore unnecessarily losing an available market.
One major opportunity available for Mac cosmetics especially now is a joint venture with the second largest company in the US The company needs to explore Far East countries.
The major threat for the company lies in the fact that its competitors are aggressively distributing their products in major US drugstores while they are not.
Recommendation The MAC cosmetic business strategic plan must incorporate internet sale to capture the market outside the US. This is more so considering that the brand distribution does not include drugstores but in select cosmetic stores that have been mandated by the company to sell its products.
Conclusion This paper has analyzed the strategic plan of MAC cosmetic business to establish how it relates to external business factors. The paper has also investigated how the businesses plan to meet the need and expectations of the different stakeholders.
The major changes taking place in the environment of the company have also been highlighted. The business plan of MAC cosmetic was also subjected to test in order to establish the position of the business in the market. A swot analysis was also done to determine the comparative strength and weaknesses of the business.
Reference List Andersen, T 2000, ‘Strategic planning, autonomous actions and corporate performance.’ Long Range Planning, [Online] 33, pp 184-199. .
Utah Symphony and Opera Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The organizational structure of the two organizations is well spelt out in the official chart and everybody’s duty is highlighted as well as the chain of command. In the case of Utah Opera Company, it is clearly indicated that the CEO is at the top of the chain of command and reports directly to the board members.
On top of that, the CEO is assisted by the director of productions and it is expected that the two should work together consulting each other when making important decisions in the company.
Though the CEO is expected to be the director general overseeing the operations of a company, there are managers in each department who assist the CEO in implementing, and sometimes making, decisions that directly affect their areas of operation (Naoum 2001).
In the case of Utah Opera Company, the CEO, Anne Ewers, has various managers under her who help in overseeing the daily events of their sections and report to her. They include director of finance, director of marketing, human resource manager, director of production and music administrator.
The departmental directors are responsible for general decisions that affect their areas of operation and they are supposed to be consulted in case the board of directors or the CEO wants to introduce some changes (Jelinek 2010). It should however be noted that, for the case of the Utah symphony both the CEO and the director of music report directly to the board of directors.
This is because musicians play a critical role in the operations of the symphony and they need special attention. However, the chain of command and decision making remains somehow the same as that of Utah Opera where each section has a manger that oversees the day to day affairs of the section and reports either to the CEO or the director of music depending on the department involved.
Major decisions are made by the board of directors in consultation with the CEO while in other cases the CEO can make decisions but mostly in consultation with the departmental heads who are supposed to implement these decisions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the departments, authority is given by departmental heads to their assistants and down the chain to the lowest (Daft, Murphy
Contextual Factors Essay writing essay help
Environmental context Racine, Wisconsin is a city that occupies an area of 18.7 square miles. Of the total area of the land the city comprises about 15.5 square miles. Water occupies about 16.76 percent of the area. As of the 2010 census report, it was established that Racine had about 78,860 people.
This figure comprised 33,887 households. The city has a balanced racial mix. For example, according to the same census report, the white population was 60.91 percent, the African American population took about 20.32 percent, the Native Americans took 0.61 percent, and Asia took 0.05 as the Pacific Islander comprised about 0.05 percent of the total population of the area.
The Racine Unified School District is a diverse community. With a student population of about 21,000 students the district comes out as one that takes education with a lot of interest. The students come from diverse backgrounds. Students come from urban, rural and even suburban regions. All in all, the students come from a catchment area that is within 100 square miles.
The urban district of Racine is situated within a small urban community on the shores of Lake Michigan in south western Wisconsin. In the district, there are 21 elementary schools with 3 magnet schools. There are 7 middle schools with one magnet middle school together with one charter high school.
The SC. Johnson Elementary school is located on the south western part of Racine. The school occupies about 13.5 acres with 33 rooms. Majorly, the school has a kindergarten and first grades based in one wing while the other wing houses second through to fifth grades are housed in another wing. The school is replete with an outdoor learning center.
Contextual Classroom Factors Every student comes to class with distinct learning abilities based on experience and personality. It is important for teachers to design the learning environment in the classroom to be accustomed to every learner.
At SC. Johnson Elementary school a classroom’s physical features are information posted on the classroom walls and notice boards. This includes; parts of academic subjects’ content in short form descriptions of school’s vision, statement and mission and school rules.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such information if well arranged on the classroom walls acts as a reminder to the students of their purpose in the classroom. Students’ artworks and pictures especially the most outstanding also form part of classroom wall hangings.
At the SC. Johnson Elementary school, technology equipment and resources such as desk top computers and laptops serve as important teaching aids in class. These equipments and resources are used for demonstration and research learning. Most learners are fascinated by the presence of Computers in class.
Presence of such facilities in class enhances their participation in the learning process. Therefore, proper rules and regulation should be put in place to ensure students don’t spent most of the time on computers at the expense of other subject areas.
Parental involvement in students’ learning process should be highly encouraged. Research indicates that parental involvement in their children’s education improves performance and quality of education. Concerned parents would for example ensure that their children attend school regular basis. They will also be involved in the evaluation and progress of their children both socially and academically.
School rules and regulations provide a guideline on students conduct within the school. The rules aim to maintain discipline and order among the student community. The rules and regulation of the school will normally define the rules and the penalty that an offender can face incase of breaching. The SC Johnson school’s rules and regulations book has guidelines on students dress code, grooming and conduct in school.
The school routine spells out the normal daily activities undertaken by students at various times. The routine schedule at SC Johnson School lists students’ names and activities assigned to them at various times. Students are guided by the routine to carry out manual work, such as; cleaning the compound, washing classes and maintaining the lawn.
Impact of Students’ Contextual Factors on Design of Instruction and Assessment The gender issue has received a lot of focus in the design of instruction material fora. Numerous complaints of gender discrimination emerge in various instruction materials and evaluation modes. It is important that when designing instruction materials and methods gender sensitivity should be accorded utmost priority.
We will write a custom Essay on Contextual Factors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is often the problem of male attitude where male teachers perceive female students as weak in particular areas and go ahead to make them feel they are weak. Teachers should take a leading role to encourage both female and male students to have an equal perception of the learning content.
Special needs students come to class with learning challenges that require special attention by teachers to effectively guide them in the learning process. For example, the design of instructional material for a deaf student should be of a similar standard as to balance his/her needs with other classmates without special needs.
This will be critical as it will make special needs student’s feel comfortable, adaptable, and have a fair access of the curriculum. Also, the Include strategy should be used when designing instructional material for special needs students.
On this, a student performance in school is based on the interaction with the instructional environment, thus, what happens in the classroom can either magnify or minimize the impact of special needs student on his/her learning, compelling adaptation.
Culture describes “a peoples’ way of life”, it affects the way people learn and perceive different aspects of life. Culture contributes largely to ones’ personality and experience. The aspect of cultural differences should be properly addressed in the process of designing instructional materials to ensure dominant and minority cultural aspects are captured.
Language which is one of the aspects of culture is a key component of learning and teaching process. Students’ consciousness of the differences in language can either promote or inhibit learning. Learning resources in schools library should reflect the culture of different cultural practices for inclusivity. The learning process in class should be directed in a manner that values the diversity of language as well as cultural practices.
Skills level equally plays a big role in the design and evaluation of a learning process. Both instructional materials and assessment must reflect the level of the students’ comprehension. Higher order content beyond the students’ comprehension discourages them from participating in the learning process.
The design of the instructional materials should check/analyze student strength, in other words, what a student can do successfully. Success promotes a student motivation and self image. The instructional materials should be able to address the social-emotional and academic areas. This will help in identifying a student’s skills and strengths and thus designing effective instructional materials.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contextual Factors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Influence of Prior Learning on Design of Learning Goals, Assessment and Instruction Students’ prior learning experience comprises of the skills and knowledge a student brings to class that is relevant to the content prepared for instruction. Teachers need to build on this experience to formulate instruction content that progress from known to unknown content.
This section looks at the influence of students’ prior knowledge on formulation of learning goals, instruction and assessment. Learning goals point to what a learning process aims to achieve. It should be understood that what the students knows about the subject content can either be constructive or destructive to learning.
Students’ prior knowledge should be taken in consideration in the instruction process. It helps a teacher build learning content in a systematic and hierarchical manner. Quality learning can be achieved if content is developed from known and basic concepts of the subject to more complex ones. The instruction process should develop continuous links between what the students know, to what they do not know.
The main aim of an assessment is to establish the level of student comprehension of a given content area. Any meaningful assessment should have specific goals and objectives. The SC elementary school teaching program is organized in a manner that teachers are provided an opportunity to carry out an initial testing on the students at the beginning of the term.
China and Machiavelli’s element of power and authority Essay college application essay help
Introduction Political power can be basically described as the ability of one person to influence another to do something1. Many past and present scholars have written theories describing different forms of power. Machiavelli produced political writings in the Roman republic during the 16th century2. In his writings, he adopted the Weber’s definition of politics that describes struggle as being the essence of politics.
Machiavelli describes politics in his writing, The Prince, which envisions the United National State in times when there were unending struggles for power3. The story elicits a social conflict and the notion of “who is fighting whom” to gain control and the ways being used to maintain the control4.
According to Machiavelli, love and fear are necessary to maintain the power, with fear playing a greater role. What comes out is that an authority can remain in power when the middle class and the Citizens support and favor their ruling.
The preferences of power as expressed in Machiavelli’s theory can be witnessed in contemporary political systems. This paper is interested in identifying how Machiavelli’s theory applies to the political situation in China. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is currently facing inevitable political and economic changes.
The country is shifting from strict socialism to socialist-capitalistic market economy. The paper will specifically address the in-depth correlation of Machiavelli’s power theory with China. The analysis will include the steps that should be taken by the Chinese regime to sustain their political power.
China political situation The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has ruled the country for more than six decades, a longevity that can only be compared to that of the Communist party of the Soviet Union5. The CCP came to power in 1949 after defeating the forces of Chiang Kai- shek Nationalists in a civil war. The Chiang Kai-shek moved their republic of China seats to Taiwan, leaving the CCP to rule mainland of China.
The CCP later named the country as People’s Republic of China (PRC). Since then, China’s political institutions and political culture have changed significantly6. The CCP’s readiness to adapt can be partly used to explain why it has maintained control on power. The various strategies employed by the CCP can be referred to Machiavelli’s political theory.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many analysts consider the Chinese political system to be monolithic or hierarchical, even though the CCP is committed to holding onto power and does not tolerate those who question right to remain in power7. Currently there are several instances where conflicts arise between institutional leaders, particularly those representing different sets of agenda.
Fierce differences are being witnessed even among the nine members of the Politburo Standing committee and the 25- member Politburo8. The two represent the highest decision making organs in China.
Competition and conflicts also exist among different ministries; between ministries and provincial administrations, which are bureaucratically ranked equal; between different provinces; and between the various service units of the military. It is common when the military disagree with the foreign ministry.
On various occasions, the delegates of the National People’s Congress (Weak legislature) try to track back on the government’s decisions, the courts and the prosecutor’s office9. This can be depicted as modest forms of political pluralization that are beginning to take place in China.
Moreover, there are other political actors who are increasingly influence policy debates. Such actors are now able to join forces and push for a particular cause, they include an increasingly independent media, both private and state owned corporations, official and quasi-official research institutes, officially sponsored societies and associations, universities, and grassroots and non-governmental organizations10.
Historically, a political system is usually tested by the ability to manage political transitions. The CPC will hold its 18th National congress later in the year and it is expected to appoint new leadership11. Xi Jinping currently holds the fifth position in the party’s official rank and is expected to assume the position of CPC’s generally secretary from Hu Jintao, who is going into retirement12.
The CPC has done all it could to portray the transition as a routine practice that cannot be avoided. Historically, only two transitions were relatively incident free. The first was from Deng Xiaoping who can be identified as China’s last supreme leader, to a collective leadership led by a party general, Jiang Zemin, following Xiaoping’s death13. The second peaceful transition was from Jiang Zemin to Hu Jintao in the year 2002.
We will write a custom Essay on China and Machiavelli’s element of power and authority specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This year’s transition particularly tricky mainly due to the challenge posed by the ousted of CPC Politburo member and Chongqing Municipality party secretary Bo Xilai14.
Bo Xilai represents a potentially serious rift in the CPC’s leadership, it has raised concerns about the unity of other Poliburo leaders, and, as due to his association with senior officials in the military, raised concerns regarding the loyalty of sections of the military to CPC’s inner circle.
Analysts from within and outside China doubt whether the current Chinese political system can remain viable in the long-term, especially in regard to the perceived black box leadership politics, all powerful party, and constrained civil society and free speech rights15. The outgoing premier, Wen Jiabao has expressed the need for political reforms in China, including reform in the leadership style.
He has warned that without proper political reforms, the country cannot undertake structural economic reforms. Many other analysts have raised concerns regarding China’s risk of losing the developments gained through a cultural revolution if urgent steps are not taken to resolve fundamental political issues.
Analysis of China’s political system’s consistency with Machiavelli’s theory As described earlier, Machiavelli’s theory mainly pertains to the strategies advanced by the ruling class in their bid to create a unified state. This, according to him, is an important step in the creation of a stable republican system.
He observes that authority can remain in power as long as the middle class and other citizens provide support to their ruling. In the description of the political situation in China provided above, it is evident that the ruling party (CPC) is in tricky situation due to a looming loss of support from the middle class and other citizens16.
The collective leadership that is currently practiced by the CPC was a strategic move, consistent with Machiavelli’s theory to consolidate support from majority of the Chinese people. The system was specifically designed against the excesses that might occur when power is taken by one person. It was meant to prevent a repeat of events that were witnessed during the era of PRC’s founding father Mao Zedong.
It also guards against the emergence of figures such as Mikhail Gorbachev, who was largely blamed by the Chinese for the collapse of the Soviet Union17. The collective leadership has fostered the unit through consensus building. This partially explains why the party usually slowly responds to events that spill into the public domain.
Not sure if you can write a paper on China and Machiavelli’s element of power and authority by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, in case of the disgraced former party secretary of Chongqing, Bo Xilai, the need for consensus may offer an explanation as to why, after his deputy attracted international headlines for seeking asylum at a United States diplomatic mission in February 2012, the party took six weeks to remove Bo from the office, and a further four weeks to relieve the party position he held18.
The transition that will come at the end of the year will provide a real test to the willingness of the Chinese Citizens to continue offering support to the current political system. The 18th National congress of the CPC will see major replacements in the three most important bodies in the leadership of China.
The “Politburo Standing Committee, the State Council, and the central Military Commission are required to replace about three quarters of their members due to age and other factors”19.
The country’s principle institutions that are directly responsible for the political affairs, economic administration, military operations and foreign policy will be largely made of new officials. In consistent with Machiavelli’s theory of power and politics they new leadership may still enjoy popular support from Chinese citizens due to its large number of newcomers.
However, in the cause of the next two years or so the watching community will pay attention to the policies of the new leaders, particularly the successors of the PRC president, Hu Jintao and the premier Wen Jiaboa 20 For the larger international business community, a proper assessment of the coming political changes in China is needed in the planning of future engagements with the country.
In a bid to maintain its popularity among the country’s citizens, the CPC has made some important changes regarding policy and politics in the country. The country has witnessed an improvement in the access to information.
There are various sources of information available on the internet even in regard to the military affairs. Various Chinese websites freely provide extensive information on the people’s liberation Army (PLA) activities including detailed information on the backgrounds of its officers, military strategies, development objectives and weapons21.
Other mechanisms have also been advanced to suppress popular uprising against the CPC in the PRC. No legal political opposition groups exist in the country as it is principally run by the CPC. There are also political parties that are called democratic. These parties are known to take part in the People’s Political Consultative conferences. However, they are mostly known to endorse policies outlined by the CPC.
There country has witnessed to move toward liberalization by allowing Congress elections to be held in villages and towns22. As described by Machiavelli’s theory, the CPC constantly enforces its rule by suppressing political dissidents while at the same time trying to reduce dissent through economic growth and allowing people to express the grievances provided they are not affiliated to any organization23.
Challenges however still exist in the CPC’s endeavor to maintain an absolute control of the affairs of the country. For instance, one of the main political concerns touch upon such issues as gap between the poor and corruption within government ranks24.
The extent to which the CPC enjoys support from the public is not clear due the fact that the CPC dominates all the national elections, additionally, there are no opposition parties25. Candidates who run on independent tickets are too scattered and disorganized to provide any considerable challenge to the CPC.
An independent study carried out in Hong Kong, an area that enjoys higher levels freedom, revealed that current CPC leaders enjoy significant levels of support.
Conclusion and recommendations This paper sought to identify how Machiavelli’s theory applies to the political situation in China. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is currently facing inevitable political and economic changes. The country is shifting from strict socialism to socialist-capitalistic market economy. The paper has specifically evaluated the in-depth correlation of Machiavelli’s power theory with China’s regime.
The analysis has revealed that China is at cross roads due to the major political changes that will be made later in the year. However, in consistent with Machiavelli’s theory, the ruling party (CPC) has taken necessary steps to ensure that it continues to enjoy support from Chinese Citizens26.
The political future of the country is however uncertain as analysts continue to cast a pale shadow on the viability of the CPC’s political system. Thus, as much as there are no significant threats in the short term, steps should be taken to ensure that future governments continue to enjoy support from the citizens.
This may include a move towards democratization, reduction in corruption cases within government ranks and reduction of the gap between the poor and the rich27.
Bibliography Bonner, Preston. A battle of politics :Machiavelli Vs Marx. 2011. Web.
Chang, Eddy. Perseverance will pay off at the UN. Taipei: Taipei Times, 2004.
Dana, Dillon, and John Tkacik. “China’s Quest for Asia.” Policy Review, 134 (2006): 12-18.
Holler, Manfred J., Niccolo Machiavelli on Power.” in Perspective in Moral Science, 2009, ed. M. Baurmann
Start-up Businesses in Saudi Arabia: Challenges of finding finance Proposal essay help online free: essay help online free
Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia Information on business venturing suggests that Saudi Arabia is increasingly becoming involved in this kind of business approach (National US-Arab Chamber of Commerce, 2010, p. 1). For the last few years, very many businesses have been established in the Arab region, but the rate of failure has always been proportional to the rate of venturing.
This suggests that there are great business opportunities which business people have identified in Saudi Arabia, but do not have the capacity to exploit them fully. The World Economic Forum (2011, p.9) notes that Saudi Arabia has a lower rate of entrepreneurial activities than United Arab Emirates, Jordan and Iran. One reason that has been put forward in regard to this trend is lack of adequate capital.
Therefore, the rationale of this study is to highlight the financing challenges that exist in Saudi Arabia for business startups. Additionally, it provides an opportunity to see its particular impact on new businesses. This in turn provides the opportunity to understand the reasons behind the successes and failures of business starters. Therefore, the aim of the study is to undertake an empirical approach to investigate the potential financing challenges that business starters face when venturing in Saudi Arabia. Three objectives will be considered:
To investigate the sources of new business ventures finance in Saudi Arabia
To examine the major financing challenges encountered by business starters in Saudi Arabia
To assess how business starters can best respond to the financial opportunities and challenges they face in Saudi Arabia
The research questions will be:
Where have the successful business starters in Saudi Arabia sort capital from?
What challenges do business startups encounter when financing their ventures?
What can business startups do to avoid failure when sourcing out capital for their ventures?
The failure of many new businesses may be due to the fact that the current approaches applied by business starters to get funds are not effective. This reason brings us to the first issue that the project intends to investigate. The approaches could not be convincing as it might be with respect to an integrated approach to business planning and the business financing opportunities that the starter intends to exploit.
It can be argued that many of them pursue business opportunities either without examining their viability within Saudi market or realizing the need to seek more capital when their ventures indicate failure. The development of a funding platform that provides business starters with accurate information may therefore help them to revise their strategies and attract more sources of funds.
It is apparent that these business people have not realized the problems they encounter in exploiting the funding opportunities of the Saudi market. Therefore, they need to find out these problems to succeed in their business endeavors which form the core focus of the study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This project will evaluate the current funding approaches used by business starters to obtain funds and investigate further the available funding sources with a view of making recommendation on the most suitable and effective sourcing strategy.
The major emphasis will be to highlight the available funding opportunities and how business individuals can exploit them to lower the rate of failures noted earlier. It will also be important to evaluate the challenges that business starters encounter in Saudi market with regard to their funding activities. The expectation from this project is that the project report can become a roadmap for business people to maneuver the funding opportunities availed to them by the financing channels.
The proposed investigation will point that there are several problems in Saudi Arabia about financing new business ventures that have emerged in the recent years. Generally, business men fail to prosper for some common reasons including insufficient capital and poor market research among others.
The policy makers may also have the opportunity to ‘see’ the importance of involving new ventures when developing funding initiatives. This research is a response to the observation made by Nnadozie (2003) that business financing is particularly crucial in both developing and developed nations owing to the soaring levels of productivity efficiency.
However, one of the objectives of this project is to recommend on the existing financial opportunities and problems which business starters in Saudi Arabia face. The final outcome will tell clearly that the research does not represent consultancy.
It may offer pointers at what components of the approaches to adjust, but will not comprise of a total assessment of the approaches. With these provisions, the report will escape the idea of providing advice. As much as the report is important in driving new business ventures, so is the need to take proactive measures on other areas outside the funding context.
Methodology The aim of the project is to provide recommendations giving information on the financial opportunities and problems that business starters face when venturing in Saudi Arabia. This will involve the identification of the main sources of finance and developing strategies on how to overcome the problems of accessing these sources. The literature review will consider the approaches by both successful and unsuccessful businessmen in sourcing out funds.
We will write a custom Proposal on Start-up Businesses in Saudi Arabia: Challenges of finding finance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A variety of theories will be used in developing the literature review. As such, theories concerning the topic will be explored to identify contribution by different authors on the subject. There will also be an investigation on the ways that banks and financial institutions approach lending to business startups.
It is imperative to discuss the factors that these entities consider when giving financial assistance. The study will carry out business level research into the small-to-medium size businesses. This will respond to the fact that most people start their ventures as small or medium size businesses due to financial constraints (Çetindamar, 2003, p.150).
The intention to investigate the available opportunities and challenges faced by business starters in Saudi Arabia makes this research is purely qualitative, thus the philosophy of the project will be critical realism (Bhaskar
Contemporary Issues in Social Policy Essay cheap essay help
Strength and welfare of a society depend largely on the extent to which government and social institutions care for their most vulnerable members. Under certain circumstances, people with a learning disability, particularly those who experience severe complications are considered the most vulnerable focus group of the British society.
There is convincing evidence that people with disabilities are less likely to receive sufficient support and care regardless the Disability Discrimination Act and other legislatures that have been established in the country. The highlighted problems reveal serious pitfalls in delivering equal treatment, sustaining a high quality of care practice, and problems with funding plans that have specifically been worked out for disabled children and adults.
In addition to these problems, society experiences such problems as income inequality and poverty contributing to extremely low standards of living. As a result, failure to adhere to legislative act supporting the quality standards of public health cases, as well as inability of the government to cope with the societal problems provides a strong framework for discussion.
The emergent problems need to be addressed from the perspective of treating the most vulnerable members of society, as well as define to what extent the unemployment rates and low-income rates influence the accomplishment of social polices in Britain.
Development of Social Policy and Welfare in Contemporary Britain In the context of the above-highlighted problems, the public care and social policies in Britain are under the primary focus. Evidence shows that many hospitals lack sufficient care and training programs that would make health care available for regardless of social status and physical abilities.
However, the contemporary situation fails to meet the established goals due to the insufficient funding, and lack of consistent action plan, and absence of specialized orientation for treating old people, as well as adults with learning disabilities. Despite the establishment of many social programs, such as Valuing People, much concern with social welfare in the country remains. According to the Valuing People program, health care professionals, as well as public officer, should follow three main principles.
First, they should assist the most vulnerable members of society in leading an independent life. Second, they should respect people’s rights, regardless of their social position and income. Finally, they should provide people with choice in terms of the type of care they need to get (The Secretary of State for Health by Command of Her Majesty, 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For certain reasons, some of the hospitals, particularly the establishment located in Cornwall failed to provide sufficient care and treatment to people with learning disabilities (Healthcare Commission, 2006). The investigation has also revealed the case of maltreatment and abuse practiced by poorly trained professionals.
Such a situation has been caused by serious pitfalls in human resource management on the part of the top leaders of the hospital. In addition, lack of plans of care does not provide professionals with accurate data concerning which tools and instruments should be used to cope with people with specific needs (Healthcare Commission, 2006). Moreover, lack of records, as well as full mismatch with Valuing People program enabled the investigators to introduce solid measure to prevent the problem in future.
The root of the problem goes deeply into the historic background of social policy formation. Specifically, the committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services (SIAS) introduced a survey on the analysis of existing social schemes tackling the problems of workmen’s compensation, social security, social insurance, and provisional rates (Beveridge, 1942).
At this point, Workmen Compensation Act of 1897 and Unemployment Act of 1934 need to be reconsidered with regard to the result obtained from the survey (Beveridge, 1942). Specific attention was also given to the analysis of medical treatment development, welfare of children, cash benefits for funerals and maternity, and voluntary provisions for a range of contingencies.
The above-presented historical background provides a better picture of necessary improvements, changes, and programs that need to be implemented in the future. Careful reconsideration of healthcare polices and public welfare strategies are indispensible to increasing the quality of living standards.
The Policy Environment in Which Decision Making in Care Practice Takes Place Introducing new policy environments changes health care vision on the welfare of the public sector. Hence, because public influence on governmental polices in Britain is minimal, the policy environment is largely controlled by the political reforms introduced in the British Parliament (Kavanagh et al., 2006, p. 3).
Within these context, the emergence of pressure group have provided a key platform by means of which civil society is able to participate in political discourse and influence decision making. The so-called liberal democracy prevailed in the British society creates a number of contradictions.
We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Issues in Social Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, interest groups offer a channel of political communication between society and government. Second, the groups can be connected with sectionalism that does not contribute to the general welfare of society (Kavanagh et al., 2006). Despite the presented controversy, the presence of pressure groups signifies the inability of the government to meet the needs and concerns of various social groups. Therefore, the emerged confrontation influences significantly the overall decision making in the sphere of health care practice.
Regardless of the current pitfalls, the presence of various interest groups allows the government tracks the changes within the society and introduces reforms that would improve the overall situation. This is of particular concern to health care practice where active engagement of insider groups into decision-making makes the government take these interventions while making policies in a particular field (Kavanagh et al., 2006, p. 8).
Hence, insider groups constitute an important resource for good information, as well as a basis for good administrative cooperation between health care field and the British government. In addition, because pressure groups operate at national and local levels, the authorities often rely on their concerns and try to identify the issues that can solve the problem.
The policy environment created as mixture of governmental and public initiatives is quite complicated due to the presence of various aspects, such as public objectives, functions and roles, and the extent of political participation at a particular level (Kavanagh et al. 2006).
Apart of positive benefits of the emergence of pressure groups, as well as governmental participation, the policy decisions often produce a number of problems. Specifically, a narrow-focused orientation on increasing the income of the citizens does not provide the country with sufficient level of living.
The Link between Legislative Development and Social Policy and Their Impact on Care Practice To introduce improvement in administrative field and public sectors, the UK government has a complex system of stage of parliamentary bill. These stages are imperative for considering and evaluating the purposefulness of a specific policy (House of Commons Information Office, 2008).
Because the House of Commons is a democratically elected wing of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, “the purpose of pre-legislative scrutiny is…to make better law by improving the scrutiny of bills and drawing the wider public more effectively into the Parliamentary process” (House of Commons Information Office 2008, p. 3). The process of Bill presentation and acceptance also takes places in the House of Lords (2008).
Both procedures are pivotal because they have a potent impact on the development of legislature in the sphere of care practice as well. The scrutiny of the parliament bill adoption has also been applied to the consideration of the Health and Social Care Bill that aims to protect future of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom and cope with the challenges it experiences to avoid the current problems and surpass the consequences of future crisis (Department of Health 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary Issues in Social Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the bill seeks to introduce innovations, develop a patient-centred approach and establish a new focus on health care in the public sector. As it can be seen, a systematic and multistage examination of specific principles creates favourable conditions for issuing bills in care practice field.
On the one hand, the complex procedures implemented in the UK Parliament introduce transparency and consistency in adopting decisions in various areas of public health care. On the other hand, the government often pursues personal interests in passing specific legal provisions. Besides, the legal assistance has undergone the change, which makes it challengeable for advice agencies and solicitors to deliver free services.
In this respect, there is a strong necessity to improve and promote access to civil legal assistance. Despite certain measures were taken to solve the problem, the sectors still needs substantial improvements to ensure wider accessibility of the civil legal services (p. 16). Due to the fact that the legal aid service has been practiced for 60 years, constant changes are indispensible for sustaining a favourable development of health care services, as well as advancing the quality standards in medical institutions.
With regard to the above-highlighted problems, the government should present a new vision for reforming public services and creating a consistent framework of high-quality social care that would meet the requirements of the current century. The shits in communities and populations imply that society become much more diverse and, therefore, the existing services should take that into the deepest consideration the demands of the contemporary people.
The Role of the Theoretical Approaches to Welfare in Determining the Shape of Care in the 21st Century The social welfare of society can be achieved through the establishment of efficient theoretical approaches that would provide a framework for action plans. The development of social theories takes it roots in the nineteenth century, when Marx made signification contributions to exploring political and economic situations leading to poverty, high unemployment, and social inequalities (Carling, 1991).
According to Marx, the inequality lies in the extraction of the surplus value from the product produced by the employees. In fact, the employer is entitled for the creating the value and, therefore, the surplus-value they get is theft unless it is distributed among the employees.
Therefore, capitalistic system does not contribute to social equality and welfare. In order to reach the freedom and equality, there should be an equal distribution of function among the people where labour power should be given especial importance. Looking at the future development, capitalism does not provide efficient approaches contributing to the welfare of the twenty-first century’s society.
Within the perspectives of the modern development, the functionalism theory can be developed. Greater awareness of social roles that each person should take can strengthen the social structure and provide a consistent framework for building a highly functional society. Considering culturally and social diverse environments is indispensible for defining which roles and functions should each social layer perform to bring in welfare to the twenty-first century’s community in the United Kingdom.
The current problems can be solved by addressing this theoretical approach because it can significantly enhance the work incentives and make the overall social system much simpler (The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions 2010). In addition, increasing costs of governmental support has a negative impact on maintaining welfare and sustaining an appropriate level of care in the public sector.
There are many reasons why functionalism can be effectively applied to improve the above-highlighted problems. To begin with, defining the accurate roles of each social stratum can introduce social order and transparency in making decision and increasing the overall quality of care in the majority of UK hospitals.
With regard to the problem of insufficient funding and lack of education in Cornwall hospitals, the establishment of functionalism theory with the division of labour principle at the core can help the managers understand the problems and take greater control of the existing shortcoming, including maltreatment, abusive attitude to disabled individuals, inappropriate education.
Introducing the so-called collective consciousness and an individual-centred approach to treating patient can strike the balance between personal interest and the interest of the entire community.
The collective behaviour can create shared value consensus that would satisfy all the parties involved into social welfare creation. Health care professionals will gain a greater awareness of the importance of responsibilities they should take in front of the patients with learning disabilities.
A properly arranged social system will make the individuals believe that their duties are accomplished for the sake of their personal interests. At the same time, their contributions will be valuable for the gradual development of the UK society. In addition, members of society should be able to adapt to the various environments, attain to a commonly shared goal, integrate into the goals accomplishment and follow the generally established values.
Conclusion The quality of health care delivery services in the United Kingdom fails to meet high-quality standards established in the world. This is of particular concern to the hospitals dealing with patients with learning disabilities. The group of patients should be able to receive an equal access to public care, which means that should receive qualified and specialized help from the health care professionals that should be much more advanced than those provided for people with ability to lead an independent life.
The major problem lies in insufficient funding, absence of appropriate recording system, lack of education and training programs for the staff, and absence of action plans. In order to solve these problems, specific legal regulations, as well as theoretical approach should be introduced. At this point, functionalism framework can significantly promote the social welfare in the 21st century.
Reference List Beveridge, W. 1942, Social Insurance and Allied Services, His Majesty Stationery Office, London.
Carling, A. H. 1991, Social Division, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Citizens, Advice Service 2009, Social Policy Impact Report 2009, Citizens Advice Bureau, pp. 1-15.
Department of Health 2011, Overview of Health Care Bill, pp. 1-2.
Healthcare Commission 2006, Joint Investigation into Services for People with Learning Disabilities at Cornwall Partnership NHS Trust, Commission for Healthcare Adult and Inspection. pp. 1-17.
House of Commons Information Office 2008, Parliamentary Stages of a Governmental Bill, Factsheet L1 Legislation Series. pp. 3-14.
House of Lords 2008, Bills and How They Become Law, House of Lords Briefing, pp. 2-6.
Kavanagh, D., Richards, D., Geddes, A, and Smith, M 2006, “Pressure Groups and Policy Networks”, In D Kavanagh, D Richards, A Geddes, and M Smith, British Politics. Oxford University Press, UK.
The Secretary of State for Health by Command of Her Majesty 2000, Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century. Department of Health, Britain, pp. 1-149.
The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions 2010, 21st Century Welfare, Department for Work and Pensions, pp. 1-52.
Consumer Decision-Making Models: Analysis essay help: essay help
Introduction The present paper attempts to critically analyse two CDP models, namely the Theory of Buyer Behaviour and the Consumer Decision Model, with a view to determine the extent to which they are vague and/or all-encompassing when applied to the postmodern hospitality industry.
The fields of consumer behaviour in general, and consumer decision-making process in particular, have increasingly attracted attention and intense investigation from marketing academics and mainstream practitioners from the sixties. During the last five decades, a multiplicity of models has been advanced for illuminating the behaviour of consumers’ in general decision-making scenarios (Erasmus et al. 2001).
Many of these consumer decision-making process (CDP) models are inspiring in scope and context, but their authentic efficiencies in explicating the behaviour of consumers have been substantially obscured by the fact that most research efforts have been focussed on explicit sections of the models rather than at the models in their entirety (Rau
New Product Development Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
Challenges experienced by new product managers and how to cope with them
Businesses in different economic sectors have over the past few decades experienced an increment in the number of challenges they are facing within the business environment. One of the major challenges relates to increment in the intensity of competition (Lamb, 2012, p.40). To cope with these challenges, firms’ management teams are integrating different competitive strategies.
One of the major competitive tools that are being utilized entails incorporation of New Product Development (NPD) (Krishnan
Business Case of Airlines: Boeing 787 Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Economics in the Airline Industry
The Features of Boeing 787
Introduction The Boeing 787 has been praised as the most fuel efficient airliner by its manufacture. The Boeing Dreamliner has two engines, which are of medium size and has the ability to travel for long distances; it is manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The plane has a carrying capacity of about two hundred and ten to two hundred and ninety passengers depending on variations in the size of the plane.
The Boeing 787 is mainly constructed using composite materials, making it the first airplane to be constructed using this type of substance as the main one. Boeing has also stated that the 787 dreamliner fuel consumption is twenty percent less compared to other previous models of the same size like the Boeing 767.
The features that make the Boeing 787 stand out from other airplanes include its smooth nose contour, four-panel windshield, and exceptionally silent engines fitted with noise reducing chevrons (Vos
A research investigation on purchasing intentions and customers loyalty towards Michelin in China Proposal essay help: essay help
When customers in a business firm are loyal, they make the organization to attain uninterrupted flow of income and relatively lower costs of production due to favorable economies of scale. The improved income is usually as a result of increase in production whereas the cost of production is cut down due to the decrease in promotional expenses.
The whole process is triggered by high customer loyalty and optimal purchasing intentions which culminate into increase in the firm’s profits. It is important to note that customer loyalty does not grow by itself. As a matter of fact, it is a product of quality marketing strategies in today’s competitive markets.
For a company to achieve customer loyalty, it must create an exemplary value for all its consistent and potential new customers. This dissertation proposal paper seeks to examine how consumer based value at Michelin has succeeded in marketing in addition to creating a loyal customer relations at the Chinese market. A comprehensive framework that leads to desirable results has been formulated.
Based on ground findings and reliable literature reviews, the customer perceived firm value can be investigated and evaluated. This research study will conclude with solid findings which can be evaluated using specified standards rather than the common monetary scales.
Studies reveal that customer loyalty is one of the basic elements which forms a stable foundation for business organizations to be operated successfully (Bloemer
Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees Proposal custom essay help
Introduction Health is viewed as a motivating factor and is required in any organization that is considering success. Incorporating health and wellness into the organizational corporate culture is one of the most influential strategies for the promotion of more productivity of employees (Riedel et al., 2001).
It is also important when an organization is seeking to decrease the costs of healthcare (Weinstein et al., 1996). This strategy would place an organization at a level higher than that of its competitors and therefore stand out.
The wellness programs are meant to promote the employee’s health lifestyles. They also help to improve and maintain their health and wellbeing. The programs are useful in preventing (if not delaying) the onset of diseases (Pelletier, 1999). In so doing, the employee would be in a position to work effectively and the organization would benefit.
Ill health is a contributor to decrease in productivity as the employees spend more time seeking treatment than working (Goetzel et al., 2000). This may be in terms of increased absenteeism by the employees. Ill health also contributes to loss of morale in the working place and causes less productivity.
The health and wellness programs aim at assessing the employees’ health risks and provide interventions to the problems (Aldana and Pronk, 2001). This could be in the provision of health education that provides training on lifestyle management that is meant to decrease the risks of diseases and to improve outcomes. The main aim of the programs is to prevent the occurrence of disease.
They may also provide assistance to those workers with chronic diseases. This is through the provision of disease management interventions and other nurse-based decision support systems. Generally, health and wellness programs may be deemed useful in increasing the performance of employees due to the assurance of health and the motivation that comes with it.
Literature Review Several studies have provided evidence to show the importance of workplace wellness programs. Many organizations have implemented the use of health and wellness strategies in order to realize many benefits. Some of the benefits include an increase in productivity, reduced absenteeism and a decrease in the use of health care benefits (Kessler et al., 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies have also shown that the use of health and wellness programs at the workplace increases the morale and loyalty among the employees. Additional benefits of these programs include the reduction of incidences of injuries and long-term disabilities. These programs also help reduce the health care costs (Aldana, 2001).
Through research, organizations have been able to understand that many diseases can be prevented through the use of health and wellness programs. The preventable diseases have been believed to make up to 80 percent of the burden of diseases. This also accounts for about 90 percent of all health care costs (Anderson et al., 2000).
This has prompted many organizations to take advantage of this statistic by implementing health and wellness programs within the workplace. If the employees increase their physical activity and keep fit, they would have lower chances of contracting some common diseases and conditions. Consequently, the companies will need to spend less in covering for the health costs of these diseases.
Apart from this form of cost, companies can also reduce the incidences of absenteeism due to these preventable diseases. With perfect health, employees will be motivated to work more effectively as compared to those individuals suffering diseases.
The United States has been reported to have spent the most on health care as compared to all other industrialized nation worldwide. However, it is also considered the unhealthiest. This just shows the need for workplace wellness programs in the workplace. This would help reduce the need for health care costs since the health and wellness programs would reduce the risks for diseases.
The implementation of the health and wellness programs in an organization has been regarded as a potential high return on investment. This is because of the rise in health care costs that has translated to high expenditure in the event that employees are treated for diseases, most of which are preventable.
Employers get back a substantial amount of return in reduced health care costs as the individuals become more fit and healthy. This program also helps lower absenteeism costs since employees would not require being away from work while attending to their health issues.
We will write a custom Proposal on Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Certain research studies have indicated significant relationships between certain health risk factors and the performance of employees. Aspects such as absenteeism have also been seen to have a moderate to high degree of association with the basal metabolic rate (BMI). Research also indicates that there is a relationship between the basal metabolic rate and various components of work performance.
In a certain research by Pronk and colleagues, the number of days spent away from work was used as a measure for absenteeism (Pronk et al., 1999). These were referred to as work-loss days. They concluded that absenteeism was significantly associated with severe obesity. These results corroborated other previous findings on the same.
However, there was a specific study that provided different results that showed gender disparity. In the particular study by Narbro and colleagues, the obese females showed a high level of absenteeism when compared to those who were not obese (Narbro et al., 1996).
When it came to the obese males, the situation was different. In fact, their level of absenteeism was less as compared to their non-obese counterparts. Research conducted by Tsai and Gilstrap (1997) also supported these findings.
Tucker and Friedman (1998) also conducted a similar study. They used the percentage body fat as a measure to categorize workers as obese, average or lean. The skinfold measurement was used in the categorization. They concluded that there was a significant relationship between absenteeism and the degree of skinfold. The measure of skinfold was taken to represent degree of adiposity.
In the study by Pronk and colleagues, a significant relationship between the basal metabolic rate and absenteeism was only found at the level where employees were severely obese. The severely obese category consisted of those individuals who had a BMI of 40 kg/m2 or above. There was no severe significant difference when it came to the obese category.
Where obesity did not have an impact on absenteeism, it caused a decrement on work performance. This was specifically as a result of issues associated with interpersonal relationships.
In order to measure the interpersonal relationships among employees, the researchers considered the degree to which an individual got along with the fellow employees. The results indicated a positive association between work performance decrement with obesity. However, this was not the case for other fitness variables.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The issues to do with interpersonal relationships among employees may be related to lack of motivation for employees to spend their time working. This situation worsens as obesity extends into severe obesity. This is probably because of the social stigma associated with this state.
It reduces the quality of peer interactions and increases the chances for absenteeism from work. Various studies have shown the existence of a relationship between obesity and certain characteristics of interpersonal relationships.
Studies have also shown a relationship between obesity and certain issues related with employment. For example, those individuals who were obese were discriminated against during employee selection and recruitment (Klesges et al., 1990). They were less likely to receive employment. Some were even discriminated against during pay – they received lower salaries than their counterparts did (Frieze et al., 1990).
Studies by Proper and colleagues argued that there was no relationship between employee performance and physical activity programs at the workplace (Proper et al., 2002). In their study, they focused on effectiveness. Therefore, they included the intervention trials only in the documentation search.
Other similar studies show that the association between fitness and other physical activities with work performance is not known. However, the health and wellness programs were shown to reduce absenteeism to a certain degree.
Pronk and colleagues reported a significant association between certain levels of physical exercise and the quality of work performance. The results also indicated a relationship between moderate and vigorous physical exercise and individual job performance. They concluded that those who had cardiorespiratory fitness required less effort to perform the same job.
This type of fitness had a relationship with the quantity of work done. This study is one of those studies that tried to provide a meaningful relationship between physical activities that try to ensure health and wellness of employees and their performance at work.
The workplace wellness programs are continuously providing many tangible benefits to the organizations. Research has provided evidence of an increasing support for the health and wellness programs in various businesses and organizations.
These programs are not limited to the big companies only but may be equally useful for the small businesses. Health care costs have been escalating and has raised serious concerns among the managers. This includes the health professionals, insurance companies and other employers.
The costs incurred by companies come in the form of insurance. Some of the health issues including diabetes and high blood pressure are common for overweight and obese individuals and companies insure them. Other habits such as smoking by the employees also contribute to health complications that need to be paid for by the companies.
The individuals with more risk factors cost the companies more than those with fewer risk factors do. The health and wellness programs help to improve the health of individuals who are already at risk. However, they also benefit the healthy individual. This is mainly through raising awareness of the importance of health. Therefore, they strive to maintain health and to prevent any risk factor such as being overweight.
It is obvious that employees spend most of their awake-hours at the workplace. This makes up about 50 hours every week. Therefore, it is the employees’ obligation to make use of the workplace health and wellness programs.
The programs have other benefits aside health benefits. Other benefits include the improvement of employee relations and morale. Therefore, a combination of these factors would be beneficial to the success of the organization.
Absenteeism is another aspect of employee performance that can be improved using the health and wellness programs. Research has suggested that healthier individuals spend more days at work than the unhealthy ones who need to be away from work occasionally as they seek treatment (Mundt, 1997). Work-loss days account for thousands or even millions of dollars as losses of the companies.
The health of the employees could also translate to better family choices. This means that these individuals would not need to be absent from work as they attend to the family members’ health issues (Simon et al., 2001).
Purpose of study The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of health and wellness programs on performance of employees. With an increased awareness of the impact of health and wellness on the employees’ ability to work, it is necessary to investigate its impact on their performance.
This study will look at certain aspects of performance in order to determine whether health and wellness programs are necessary for the success of our organizations. The manifestation of the health and wellness programs will be determined by looking at the increase in physical fitness (physical activity) and reduced weight.
The reduction of the level of absenteeism can be measured as the additional days that the employees (who had previously out of work due to preventable illnesses) are available at the workplace following an increase in the level of health and wellness.
The aspects of performance will include the timeliness of performing work, the quality and quantity of work, and absenteeism (availability at the workplace). The aspects that are modifiable with the intervention of health and wellness programs include body weight and physical fitness. Additional aspects of performance will include the number of days that the employees were out of work.
Others include the employees’ performance (quality and quantity of work) at the workplace and their interpersonal relationships. This study will provide useful insight for any organization that is seeking to increase productivity of its employees through providing an assurance of their health and wellness.
Research questions In order to determine the impact of health and wellness programs on performance of the employees, certain aspects of performance will be measured and analyzed.
What impact does health and wellness have on the employee’s self-appraisal and peer appraisal?
Does physical exercise contribute to increased physical fitness and the maintenance of weight at healthy levels?
Does increased physical fitness and reduced weight contribute to improved quality and quantity of work performed?
How is the timeliness of the performed work by the healthy individuals comparable with that of performed by an unhealthy lot?
Scope Basically, every individual at the workplace will be involved in the study since everyone’s viewpoint and perspective will be considered. For self-appraisal, the individual employees will be consulted in order to get a view of their own performance. In order to reduce biasness in these views, the fellow employees will provide a peer appraisal of the employees in question.
In order to measure the quality and quantity of work performed, the management team will be consulted. The records of employee performance would greatly apply in this case. The views of the managers concerning the timeliness of the individual employees will be consulted.
Methodology Research strategy
The research design that will be used will be the qualitative research design. This is because the human behavior and habits will be studied. The performance of the employees will be assessed in the context of the availability or unavailability of health and wellness programs. It will investigate whether these programs are useful for managers (in organizations) who want to make their employees more productive.
The variables that will be tested will include the aspects that indicate the outcomes of a health and wellness programs. These include the reduction of body weight, increase in physical fitness or physical activity and increase in the number of days that employees are present in the workplace. The indicators of performance include their timelessness, the quality and quantity of their work and the individual and peer appraisals.
For the investigation, 10 organizations will be selected within the area. Considering the amount of time and budget available for the research, this is a convenient and manageable number.
Therefore, the selection of the organizations will be a type of non-probability sampling technique and specifically the judgmental sampling. However, the organizations must not be in the same industry (performing similar businesses). This would ensure a representation of different employees from diverse working environments.
In each organization, 25 individuals will be selected randomly in order to reduce biasness. Of the 25 individuals, five were managers in the organizations. Therefore, a total of 200 employees and 50 managers will participate in the study.
The sampling technique that will be used to reduce bias but at the same time get a representation of the entire employee population will be the stratified sampling technique. This will also provide a higher statistical precision because the variability within the sub-groups will be lower when compared to variations that exist when the whole population is considered.
Questionnaires were used to collect data. The kind of information that would be collected using the questionnaires includes the incidences of absenteeism. The employees would be asked to provide the number of days (including full days and partial days) that they were absent from work.
In order to understand the reason for absenteeism, the employees will be asked to include whether it was due to health issues, compulsory leave or other reasons. This is in order to avoid biasness when all incidences of absenteeism are assumed to be due to illnesses. In order to understand the characteristics of the employees, information such as age, sex and position in the company were inquired.
Questionnaires will be distributed to both the employees and managers. The data on self-appraisal and peer appraisal will be collected using the questionnaires distributed to the employees. Information on interpersonal behavior and other personal habits will also be collected using the same questionnaires and during interviews (Kobak et al., 1997).
This information is vital because it is also an indicator of performance. The information collected from the managers will include those involving the quality and quantity of work performed by their employees.
Additionally, a 5-point self-anchoring rating scale will be used to measure the employee’s quality of work. This measure will be applicable for situations where the employee is actually working (working hours).
The interference with the quality of work done will be measured by the score indicated. A score of one will indicate a significant level of interference with the quality of work done. A score of five, on the other hand, will represent no interference.
The amount of physical activity of the employees will be quantified using a special kind of questionnaire. This is referred to as the Godin Leisure Time Physical Activity questionnaire (Godin and Shephard, 1985). This information will be combined with the amount of weight lost due to the physical activities performed during the health and wellness programs.
Least squares regression analyses will be used to find the associations between the risk factors and the work performance. They will also be adjusted for sex, age and positions to determine the associations between physical activity, weight and performance.
In order to describe the characteristics of the population, several measures of central tendencies will used. Where applicable, graphs and charts will be used to analyze information in the questionnaires.
Validity and reliability
In order to ensure that the observed effects in the research are actually due to the variables, the intervening, extraneous and confounding variables will be controlled. This would be necessary to ensure that the realized health facilitated by the health and wellness programs were responsible for the increased performance of the employees. Reliability of the data collected will also be ensured.
The correct instruments and tools will be used in data collection. Since the data on the employees’ quality of work will be collected twice (using self-rating and rating from the managers), the parallel-forms or alternate-forms reliability will be used (Dillman, 1991). It will be used to assess the consistencies of the data from the two sources since it is the same variable measured at the same time.
References Aldana SG 2001, ‘Financial impact of health promotion programs: A comprehensive review of the literature’, Am J Health Prom, vol. 15, pp. 296–320.
The labour market value of STEM qualifications and occupations Coursework essay help free
Article Research Problem to be solved The article determines the value of Science, technology, engineering and mathematics qualifications with special focus to vocational qualifications. According to Greenwood et al (2011), STEM is crucial in the present economy and it plays an important role on upgrading disciplines and qualifications offered in vocational training.
Article Research Goals (hypothesis or research questions) The research seeks to answer 3 questions; first is to establish whether there is wage premium earned by persons with STEM qualification compared to vocational qualification or not. Secondly, the study seeks to establish wage premium for persons with vocational qualifications working in STEM occupations.
Lastly, the research seeks to establish wage premium for individuals with STEM qualifications working in STEM occupations (Greenwood et al, 2011). Vocational training and STEM have a direct relationship because STEM qualifications have a higher wage compared to vocational; hence learners are encouraged to study STEM disciplines.
Type of Research Being Undertaken (historical, descriptive, or experimental The type of research undertaken was historical because it utilized recorded data. The research study has statement of the problem, research questions, data collection and analysis methods, target population, findings and conclusion (Greenwood et al, 2011).
The research shows a direct relationship between STEM and vocational studies. STEM encourages learners undertaking vocational studies to pursue STEM disciplines in order to have better wages.
Limitations The research had one limitation; most of the work published was based on secondary sources provided by UK Labour Force Survey (Greenwood et al, 2011). STEM combines its disciplines with those of vocational training in order to ensure learners think creatively.
Population The population of the research study involved households in UK; both males and females with age ranging between 16-64 years. Approximately 163,218 households were involved in the research. The research was done by UK Labour Force.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The households involved were employed with wages and they resided in England and Wales (Greenwood et al, 2011). The study showed that greater percentage of individuals in managerial positions had STEM qualifications.
Instruments and methods of Data Collection The research utilized relevant recorded data from UK Labour Force Survey. The researcher used secondary data which was ideal and had similar purpose with the study. No primary data was collected. Data provided by Labour force was collected from employed households in England and Wales (Greenwood et al, 2011).
The data included information on qualifications of an individual; occupation and wages. The data showed direct relationship between STEM and vocational studies. Vocational learners who have STEM qualifications are able to analyze data effectively.
Conclusions Drawn by Researcher A greater percentage of STEM qualifications a higher value in labour market compared to vocational qualifications. STEM encourages vocational learners to undertake STEM disciplines in order to increase their value in labour market (Greenwood et al, 2011). In addition, vocational qualifications in STEM occupations have less pay compared to STEM qualifications according to the researcher.
The researcher concluded that some STEM qualifications have an added value on STEM occupations. STEM disciplines assist vocational learners to be creative, original in their ideas and inductive in reasoning.
Significance of the study The study is relevant to my study because the information provided is somehow related to STEM, vocational qualifications and wages (Greenwood et al, 2011). The research forms an important baseline for my study because it provides information on contributions of STEM to vocational studies.
Do recommendations support your study? The recommendations of the study support my study because the study suggests that different STEM discipline have different values in labour market. Learners willing to take STEM disciplines should be advised comprehensively.
We will write a custom Coursework on The labour market value of STEM qualifications and occupations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, learners should be encouraged to study STEM disciplines because they have higher labour market value than non-Stem disciplines (Greenwood et al, 2011). In addition, conducting a survey would give more comprehensive findings and conclusions.
Reference Greenwood, C., Harrison, M.
Literature Review on Hospitality Strategic Management Dissertation essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Background Strategic Management Since Early 1950s
In the early 1950s, budgetary planning as well as control emerged to be the dominant theme in the hospitality industry management. Organizations within the hotel industry used these strategic planning aspects and as such, the hotel industry enjoyed a successful stint.
However, the main issue with these aspects was the financial control. In the early 1950, there was no effective approach to financial control and as such, it was a major challenge for the hospitality industry players. The major tools as well as concepts used in the budgetary control and planning during this time were capital budgeting and financial planning (Deighton 2006, p. 55).
This strategic management aspect had several implications for the management top teams of the hospitality industry players in that; it was the only way that coordination as well as control could be managed and facilitated was through the then established budgeting systems.
1960s to early 1970s
The budgetary panning as and control faded away as the corporate planning emerged to become the dominant theme in the hospitality industry. Budgetary planning and control was not however rendered insignificant. Instead, it was still a vital strategic element.
It was only that top management teams in the hospitality industry ceased its extensive use with the emergence of corporate planning, which became largely practiced by various industries, especially by the players in the hospitality industry (Porter 1979, p. 65). The major drawback that inhibited its usage was the planning of an organizational growth as well as diversification.
This was a major issue and it took a considerable time for hotel businesses to absorb this issue. According to Sasser, Olsen
Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry Essay essay help online free
What is cultural diversity? According to Gay (2003), culture diversity refers to a situation where an organization is comprised of employees from different backgrounds. These include racial, ethnic, gender, as well as nationality. This diversity, if properly managed, can result to a number of advantages to the organization as they contribute to the knowledge base of the company.
Management of cultural diversity entails recognition and appreciation of culture diversity and ensuring that culture diversity is incorporated in all the core operations of the organization. This is meant to ensure that all the employees are able to contribute towards the success of the organization.
Importance of managing cultural diversity in the hospitality industry Tanke (2000) adduces that those organizations, which effectively manage cultural diversity, benefit in terms of increased ability to consistently meet their targets in terms of profitability objectives. Additionally, effective management of cultural diversity helps an organization to reduce employee turnover.
Management of cultural diversity in an organization has been known to reduce conflicts within an organization, which has the effect of increasing its productivity. In addition, management of cultural diversity helps an organization to comply with government regulations, which are meant to eliminate discrimination.
An organization which effectively manages cultural diversity is able to attract new customers, enter into new markets, and has the ability to harness new business opportunities, which would otherwise be impossible in an organization where all the employees come from the same homogenous culture.
It has also been postulated that organizations which promote culture diversity are in a better position to attract talented employees. This is because they are able to draw from a wider pool as compared to those organizations which are culturally homogenous.
How can this give a competitive advantage? According to Cox (1994), cultural diversity has a way of availing to the company different skills and knowledge from the employees who come from different cultural backgrounds. Additionally, it provides a wider pool from which the company is able to draw talented employees. This can lead to enhanced creativity and innovation, which could be instrumental in enhancing customer service in the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Are there disadvantages with managing cultural diversity? Management of culture diversity brings with it a challenge to the management. This is because it has to look for ways of ensuring that the minority ethnic groups are not discriminated against. At the same time, it might result into clashes between the various cultures at the work place regarding issues such as dressing and language problems.
This paper is going to discuss people management, knowledge management, managing culture shock and managing recruitment as effective methods of ensuring the success of the management of cultural diversity in the workplace (Kirkbride 1994).
Discussion and findings Laroche (2003) notes that since culture diversity seems to be increasing with time, it is important that organizations come up with effective means of managing this diversity with a view to making them more competitive. Globalization has a profound impact on all the organizations in terms of increased competition from the foreign based companies as well as the need to be competitive on the international scene.
This implies that the organizations must come up with ways of making sure that cultural diversity is managed in the right way with a view of enhancing their competitiveness. This will help the company in attracting as well as retaining talented employees.
Management of cultural diversity can help an organization to capitalize on the advantages of diversity. This can help in adding value to the company as well as giving it a competitive advantage over those organizations which do not embrace diversity (Lessem 1998).
This is because if the organization makes every employee feel valued irrespective of their cultural background, it will foster an environment which enhances productivity. Effective management of culture diversity can help in providing an impetus for business growth as well as improving customer service, which can come as a result of harnessing the potential of the culturally diverse workforce.
The company can utilize the various attributes, which come about as a result of culture diversity within an organization. They include: language skills, cultural sensitivity and the knowledge of business networks in their home countries.
We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these attributes can help an organization to gain a competitive edge on their rivals. This is because the organization will be in a better position to market their goods and services to an increasingly diverse clientele in the home country as well as in the global market place (Henderson 1994).
It has been pointed out that the ethnic minorities would prefer to work for organizations which value diversity. At the same time, the ethnic minorities would prefer to buy goods and services from organizations which are sensitive and responsive to their cultural needs. Other benefits which can accrue from a diverse workforce are enhanced creativity and problem solving skills.
This is supported by the assertion that a diverse workforce is likely to be more creative than a homogenous one. This is because employees from different cultural backgrounds are able to bring different perspectives during the process of problem solving. This can help the organization to come up with new products as well as devise strategies to make their products more marketable than those of its competitors (D’Almeida 2007).
In order for the organization to be able to tap the benefits which result from cultural diversity, there are two main issues that they will need to look into namely: people management and knowledge management.
People management Bono and Heijden (2011) contends that under people management, the challenge for the organization is to ensure that they benefit from the diversity of the employees in order to achieve the objectives of the organization. The management should appreciate the differences which come with diversity and ensure that the unique traits which the employees bring with them are harnessed for the good of the entire organization.
In order for the organization to be in a position to benefit from diversity, there are two issues which they have to look into. These are some of the issues which can hinder effective management of cultural diversity.
Firstly, the management should find a way of dealing with ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism promotes the notion that one’s culture is superior to other people’s culture. This notion is detrimental in that it promotes a monoculture which advocates for one way of doing things.
This brings about the perception that diversity hampers the effective functioning of the organization. This makes it difficult for the organization to benefit from having employees who are drawn from different cultural backgrounds (Phillips and Gully 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity in the Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Daft and Marcic (2005), the second issue that the organization will need to look into is the glass ceiling. This can be described as an invisible barrier which is erected in order to prevent employees from the minority groups from ascending to top level management positions in the organization. These two issues namely- ethnocentrism and glass ceiling have a way of frustrating effective management of cultural diversity.
As a way of managing diversity in the organization, the management should ensure that there is genuine commitment from all members in the organization in promoting culture diversity. At the same time, the management should ensure that all the structures of the organization are supportive of the whole idea of culture diversity. The structures should be such that they are supportive of fairness in recruitment.
According to Laroche and Rutherford (2007), the management should involve all the employees in ensuring that the goals of management of cultural diversity are achieved. This is because without the participation and involvement of all the employees, the objectives of the management of cultural diversity cannot be achieved. The management should also carry out training programs, which are meant to equip the employees with skills.
These skills can help them to be competent when dealing with people from different cultural backgrounds. This would help the employees to be aware of their prejudices, which can hinder effective cooperation with people from diverse cultural backgrounds and thereby impact on their productivity and that of the entire organization.
Knowledge management It has been claimed that knowledge sharing is severely affected in multicultural settings due to language barriers. At the same time, if the problem of language barrier is not solved by use of an interpreter to facilitate communication, a lot of valuable information may be lost in the process. This problem can partly be solved by encouraging the employees to learn different languages which are used in the workplace.
In order to encourage information sharing, the organization should provide a friendly environment which facilitates free flow of information. More importantly, the management should demolish all the barriers which can hinder effective communication in the organization (Özbilgin and Syed 2010).
Managing culture shock For the effective management of cultural shock, the management should motivate the employees to learn about the new culture. This can help them in adjusting to the new culture. The management should also ensure that they have realistic expectations from the employees who are being inducted into the organization. The management should also ensure that it does not glorify one culture at the expense of all the others.
This can have the effect of assuring news employee that their contribution will be appreciated despite coming from a different cultural background. The management should ensure that the employees are provided with opportunities where they are able to interact outside the work environment in order to break down the inhibitions that may hinder effective communication (Moran, Harris and Moran 2010).
Managing recruitment According to Baumueller (2007), recruitment is a very important function which has the effect of affecting the performance of an organization. It can be argued that ineffective recruitment strategy has a way of adversely affecting the performance of the organization. The recruitment strategy should ensure that the company is able to net talented employees, who can contribute positively in ensuring the success of the organization.
This is very important since the business environment is increasingly becoming very competitive and the quality of the employees in a particular organization will determine the ability of the company to operate in this competitive environment. Towards this end, the management should ensure a non-discrimination policy which allows them to draw employees from different cultural backgrounds.
Conclusion and recommendations It can be seen from the preceding arguments that the management must devise effective means of harnessing the potential of diverse cultures, if they are to remain competitive in the current globalization era. This is because effective management of cultural diversity can help an organization to attract talented employees from diverse cultural backgrounds.
This has an effect of spurring on innovation and problem solving skills in an organization. Ultimately, this can help the organization to be able to come up with new products or take advantage of new business opportunities since they can utilize the various skills of their employees who are drawn from different backgrounds.
More importantly, the organization can harness this diversity in order to improve their customer service which can have the effect of enabling the company to increase its market share. In addition, the management should also appreciate that each individual possess unique attributes which if properly harnessed can lead to increased productivity in the organization.
Therefore, the main thrust of the management of cultural diversity should be to ensure that all the individuals in the organization are motivated to be productive, irrespective of the differences in cultural backgrounds.
In order to ensure that the organization consistently benefits from a culturally diversified work force it should be seen to be committed towards ensuring that all the employees, despite their cultural backgrounds, are provided with opportunities for growth.
In addition, the management should also ensure that all the structures in the organization are flexible enough in order to be supportive of the employees who come from diverse cultural background.
In current competitive business environment it can be argued that the employees are the most important component in ensuring the success of any organization. More importantly, the organization should ensure that it has well qualified and skilled employees.
This can only come about if the organization widens the pool from where they can draw their employees. This can only come about if the organization is able to embrace cultural diversity during the recruitment process.
Reference List Baumueller, M 2007, Managing cultural diversity: an empirical examination of cultural Networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations, International Academic Publishers, Hochfeldstrasse.
Bono, S and Heijden, B 2011, Managing Cultural Diversity, Meyer
Consumer behaviour Essay essay help: essay help
Abstract This paper critically focuses on Consumer Decision-making Process models of purchase and post-purchase in relation to the hospitality industry. The paper shall determine the extent these models are vague and all-encompassing, especially when applying to postmodern hospitality industry with the fragmented nature of consumer behaviour, and emerging trends in the global provision of products and services.
Scholars interested in the field of consumer behaviours have developed several models as attempts to explain consumers’ decision-making processes when making a purchase, and what follows after the purchase. Gordon and Saunders have identified six of such stages that involve passive and active consumption phases or sequences (Foxall, 2004).
They identify these stages as emerging needs, active consideration, researching, short-listing, purchase and post-purchase. Smith also supports these stages in his work.
A part from these scholars, other scholars have also offered different perspectives on consumer decision-making process (Kotler, Bowen and Makens, 1999; Chambers, Richard and Lewis, Robert, 2000; Onkvisit and Shaw, 1994; Howard and Sheth, 1996). However, critics argue that such models are vague and tend to be all-encompassing.
Introduction Gabbott and Hogg offer a brief definition of consumer behaviour as “any behaviour involved in the course of buying, using and disposing of products” (Gabbott and Hogg, 1998). Critics have noted that this definition is vague and not practical. From this definition, we can learn that consumer behaviour is a technical issue to describe precisely.
Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard have offered an advance definition of consumer behaviour as “activities which directly involve decision processes prior and after stages of obtaining, consuming and disposing products” (Blackwell Engel and Miniard, 2001). They further explain how consumers choose products and services using a model of Consumer Decision-making Process (CDP).
This model indicates how consumers make decisions before undertaking any purchase decision and post-purchase decision. Consumers make their purchase at the fourth stage after undergoing all other previous stages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumers look at the value of the products or service they have purchased against the satisfaction derived or fulfilled from using the product. This experience is fundamental for defining the fifth stage, post-purchase evaluation, which takes a mental evaluation of the value of the purchase.
We have noted that depending on the CDP model alone may not provide the necessary information when applied in a marketing environment. This is because there are other various factors that influence every process of CDP.
Understanding factors that influence stages of CDP model may help markets persuade consumers who intend to use their products or competitors. Consumers are likely to purchase services or products that have solved their problems in cases of recurring needs. This is a purchase they know.
The CDP model must recognise that factors such as culture, personal preferences, social status, family, and the situation also influence consumers’ purchasing behaviours.
At the individual level, we have attitude, resources, motivation, personality, and knowledge. For instance, we may consider how consumers who are conscious environmental behaviour towards purchasing green products or services in the hospitality industry.
Characteristics of products and services in the hospitality industry Hospitality industry mainly caters for tourists or visitors have that need a unique range of services and products. We can group these services and products as packages e.g. accommodation and meals, or stand-alone products such as catering, and entertainment, among others.
We shall focus on a combination of services and products at the hospitality industry so as to enable us to understand the consumer decision-making processes when making such purchases.
We will write a custom Essay on Consumer behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This sector largely deals in provisions of services. According to marketing studies and theorists, services are intangible purchases. Thus, such purchases never really result into any ownership. In this regard, they offer various characteristics of services as follows. The hospitality industry offer services that are intangible. We can never touch, see, taste, or even smell them before we make the purchase.
Marketers in the field of hospitality offer images of their services, such as accommodation locations and the surrounding environment to make such services appear real to the consumer. This is a means of overcoming intangibility. However, such techniques do not necessarily overcome intangible characteristics of such services as tourists have to care when purchasing such services in the hospitality industry.
Services in the hospitality industry also have inseparability characteristics between production and how the service works during consumption. This characteristic influences consumer’s purchasing behaviour. Consumers may link the service to the provider together with the performance, and change their purchasing pattern if the services do not meet their expectations.
Services also tend to be heterogeneous in nature. This means services providers at the hospitality industry may find it difficult to offer the same service to every consumer when their needs arise. Different aspects like emotional status of the customer may also affect how he or she perceives the service at a certain time.
It means that consumers of hospitality products and services may not be able to predict the quality of services they may receive at their favourite places. In addition, consumers cannot depend on past their experiences in order to make subsequent purchase decisions regarding the same services or products.
There may be inherent changes in the services, service providers, or the consumers themselves that may affect the quality as well as experience of services offered.
Services also lack ownership, at least to the consumer. Consumers only experience the service through their purchases and access. Consumers will not own the service. Thus, services serve the purpose of a need satisfaction rather than tangible ownership. Therefore, purchases of services will have significant effects on emotional aspects of the consumer.
The above characteristics are just some of the aspects that may influence consumers of the hospitality industry. Marketing pundits also look at the distinction between convenience goods and shopping goods. Convenience goods tend to have low prices and high frequencies of purchases, unlike other goods that have high prices with low frequencies of purchases.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, we look at shopping goods as serving higher-order needs according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Howard and Sheth note “the purchase of convenience-type goods involves the consumer in a routine problem-solving behaviour, whereas the purchase of shopping goods involves the consumer in an extensive problem-solving behaviour” (Howard and Sheth, 1996).
We can note that consumers will spend a lot of time in order to understand complex issues of services they are about to purchase in the hospitality industry. The acts of choosing tourism destinations and subsequent service providers involve high-level purchases that require consumers to search for information and make informed purchases.
It requires a high-level of commitment, time, and significant spending. Thus, Middleton and Clarke observe that such influences result into low brand loyalty and expectations of repeat purchases, and low chain of distribution (Middleton and Clarke, 2001).
Complexity in Consumer Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry Consumers involved in purchasing hospitality products and services usually experience some technical issues. Most products and services in the hospitality industry need a high degree of involvement in making purchase decisions and a high degree of consumer commitment. This is due to the nature of products and services that consumers wish to purchase.
Thus, there are no routine or similar behaviour patterns when making such decisions. Consumers consider every purchase unique and need different approaches in making purchase decisions. Consumers in the hospitality industry must first carry out a thorough marketing research before settling on a given decision.
In turn, decision-making processes tend to take longer than when purchasing other products or services. Factors that may influence consumers at this stage may also set in, such as a holiday destination, type of holiday, individual preferences and among other factors.
Consumers link intangible services and products to high levels of insecurity in the purchasing process. The challenge is that consumers cannot have a test of the product before they make any purchase. In this case, most consumers only rely on the assurances from the services or products vendors.
The level of insecurity involved results into complex behaviour patterns where consumers collect information from several sources, including agencies. Information may come from the family, advertisement, travel agents, companies’ Web sites, and social media, among others.
Holidays and visits are significant events in an individual’s life. Thus, there is a considerable level of emotions involved. Holidays restore physical health and provide a chance of escaping the routine of workplaces. Holidays are expensive. This implies that the decision to take a holiday may affect other members of the family, or colleagues in cases of where companies cater for such packages.
This calls for compromises at some points, especially with regard to a holiday destination. There may also be some pressing needs such as purchasing new items, car, improving a home. Thus, family members or colleagues may consider such an expensive holiday a waste of resources.
Consumers who wish to purchase hospitality products and services normally experience strong influences from other people such as family members, colleagues and reference groups. The study of behaviour patterns that are under influences from diverse aspects is extremely difficult. At the same time, such opinion leaders also have tendencies of changing their beliefs and opinions over time.
Most decisions consumers make about visits are long-term decisions that take a considerable amount of time to plan. The challenge is that people may be at different statuses of their minds when they plan their visits, and when they actually go for such visits.
Such decisions depend on aspects of the future that they might not be able to predict. The dynamic nature of the tourism industry may affect such decisions depending on the cost variations, climate changes and lately security.
Purchases made in the hospitality industry involve high levels of search for information. Factors such as emotions and individual preferences may determine the extent to which a consumer will seek for such information.
There is a wide consultation of different sources of information, and the final choice depends on such information gathered. There is a high level of complexity involved as people search for information and make decisions. It may also mean that decisions can change abruptly depending on the new information discovered.
The complex nature of making purchase decision-making processes in a hospitality industry is different from making purchases of other routinely used goods.
The intangible nature, uncertainty of the future and unpredictable of service standards make the process of purchasing services and products a complex experience for consumers. This implies that marketers in may have difficulties when promoting their services and products to such consumers.
The decision-making process in the hospitality industry The decisions consumers make to buy products and services in the hospitality industry are due to complex processes involved. These factors relate to the consumer, and other external factors that he or she may not be able to control when making a decision of purchasing a service or product without prior experience.
In addition, the nature of products and services in the hospitality industry also make purchase decision-making process a complex affair. For instance, in choosing a holiday destination, consumers consider such factors as the destinations itself, mode of travel, type of accommodation services, the length of the holiday period, the time of the holiday, package of the holiday, and agent to provide tour services.
These are among many factors that may influence the decision-making process of a consumer when choosing a holiday package and subsequent purchase.
We can note that the scope and number of such factors are wide and numerous. We also realise that choosing the destination alone is not enough and not an end in itself. There are issues and activities to engage in once in a holiday destination.
Visitors will also make further decisions regarding how to spend their time, what meals to take, and where to take them among others. We can notice that these decisions look simple. However, they form part of the complex decision-making processes that tourists must critically look before making any purchases.
Decision-making models in hospitality Cooper and associates provide three processes in the development of consumer behaviour with reference to purchase processes (Cooper et al, 2005). First, there was the early phase of 1930 and 1940s (early empiricist) where emphasis was on empirical research. Still, the industry tried to establish effects of advertising, product distribution, and promotion decisions.
Second, there was the motivational phase in the 1950s where attention focused on “focus groups, in-depth interviews and consumers’ perception studies, and other projective approaches” (Cooper et al., 2005).
The focus was on what factors motivate consumers to make their purchases. Third, there was the formative phase. This phase included published textbooks by consumer behaviour theorists such as Engel, Blackwell, Kollat, Howard and Sheth.
Most early approaches on the study of consumer behaviour “focused on manufacturing industries, and they later moved to general service industries” (Cooper et al, 2005). In the 1970s, scholars began creating purchase models in the area of tourism. These models presented linear representations of decision-making processes.
It was Moutinho who developed a tourist behaviour model that was different from the rest with two scopes (Moutinho, 1987). First, the model provided for three distinct stages in the consumer decision-making process. These were “pre-decision stage and decision process, post-purchase evaluation, and future decision-making” (Moutinho, 1987).
The model also provided opportunities for feedback mechanism. Second, the model recognised three behavioural aspects in making purchase decisions, such as motivation, cognition, and learning.
The Consumer Information Processing Model: Source: Adopted from Kotler (1997)
Post-purchase Evaluation Post-purchase evaluation occurs as a result of purchase decision. In this context, the consumer considers the level of purchase involvement. As we have identified above, purchases in the area of hospitality are high levels involvement.
In other words, the level of concern for the purchase is high in the hospitality industry because such decisions are not habitual purchases. The process is a continuum where the flow is from low to high level (Solomon, 2006).
High level of involvement during purchase decision-making process will result into an extensive post-purchase evaluation. Consumers usually question if their decisions to make purchases were the best among other alternatives. This is what we call post-purchase cognitive dissonance.
Elaborate Post-purchase Evaluation: Source: Adopted from Hawkins, Best, and Coney (1983)
Consumers are likely to experience such dissonance if the purchase is irrevocable, involves a high level of commitment, individual factors, selection among alternatives, and the importance of the decision.
Post-purchase experience of dissonance makes the consumer feel uncomfortable. Consequently, they resort to a number of ways to reduce such feelings. These may include preferences for the choice, disregard other alternatives, avoid negative comments about the choice, and reduce the importance of purchase decision.
Consumers who fail to reduce the level of dissonance may experience dissatisfaction with their choices. In this process, the consumer is likely to identify new problems and engage in the process of satisfying the need created due to dissatisfaction by the initial purchase. Consumers will use their experiences and negative feeling like part of the new information in making the decision for the next purchase.
Analysis of the purchase decision models There are inherent weaknesses that exist in consumer decision-making process models. These models do not explicitly show how consumers undergo complex processes when making decisions of purchasing services in the hospitality industry. These models cannot serve marketers when designing their marketing strategies.
Most critics argue that such models do not rely on any empirical research; thus, may not present reality of how consumers make their purchase decisions. In addition, most of these models are out-of-date in the postmodern hospitality industry, which is ever dynamic as consumers’ preferences are not static.
For instance, the tourism and hospitality industry has experienced changes with regard to the rapid changes in the Internet as a means of booking and purchasing hospitality packages and airline tickets, explosion of no-frills budget airlines, the development of all-encompassing holiday destinations, evolution of direct marketing, and changes in the buying behaviours of tourists that involve last-minute and spontaneous purchase decisions.
Third, a number of models that exist in the field of tourism, hospitality, and event management have their origins in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia. This implies that these models do not cater exhaustively cater for emerging markets in Eastern Europe, South America, Asian and African markets.
These models also tend to classify activities in the hospitality industry as homogeneous. However, consumers of such products are different and unique in their own ways.
Some of these factors that may influence characteristics of visitors may include their travelling patterns i.e. as an individual, family or group, past experiences of such tourists, and personal traits, which may involve planning patterns such as last-minute decisions or considerable amount of time for planning.
A number of models do not account for influences of motivators and determinants that affect consumers during decision-making processes. Some factors that influence consumers’ decision-making processes may dominate other factors and account for the entire decision-making process. However, such factors mainly depend on individuals’ preferences such as hobbies, means of travelling, or preferences for leisure activities, among others.
Other models take rational approaches to decision-making processes in purchases, which is not always the case. The ability to make rational decisions in purchasing among visitors depends on the availability of information.
In most cases, tourists may have access to imperfect information that does not give true accounts of their alternatives. In addition, rationality of the purchase decision-making process also depends on an individual’s factors such as personal opinions and prejudice.
These models assume that consumers’ activities and purchase patterns are constant. They fail to account for emerging trends such as conference tourism, holiday destinations, holiday patterns, effects of globalisation and instant decision-making process among some visitors. Such factors influence the nature of the decision and purchase patterns among consumers.
Postmodern consumers of hospitality industry Studies show that purchases and consumption in the hospitality industry have become fragmented. The perceived social roles have experienced “breakdown and left majority to adopt any identity they want in a postmodern society” (Thomas, 1997).
In the field of hospitality, the postmodern consumption rotates around “changes in consumer cultures of the late capitalism and the emergence of communication technology” (Brown, 1995). These changes have affected marketing trends in hospitality services (Williams, 2002). Thomas notes postmodernism has significantly influenced marketing.
Thus, he elaborates “Marketing, real-time, real-world marketing is thoroughly postmodern because postmodern marketing openly challenges some of the major axioms of the conventional wisdom as reflected in the standard marketing textbooks” (Thomas, 1997).
Thomas lists axioms that relate to postmodern as “consumer needs, consumer sovereignty, behavioural consistency, customer orientation perceived value, product image, buyer and seller separation, individual and organisation distinction, product and process separation, and consumption and production division” (Thomas, 1997).
We can relate these elements to consumption in the hospitality industry and establish consumerism in postmodern.
According to postmodernism, there is no single privileged form of knowledge, i.e. no theories are superior or inferior to others. Thus, it is no longer possible to believe in a generalisation or meta-discourse. A better understanding of postmodernism should entail sensitivity to differences, fragmented individuality, embrace uncertainty, and discourage the use of consensus to suppress heterogeneity.
In the field of hospitality consumption, we must embrace parallel and emerging trends in the social world. This refers to both self and other spheres of life. Postmodernism recognises that there is a lack of unity, lack of unifying central ideas, order, and lack of coherence.
Lack of certainty applies to an individual as well as the whole system. Therefore, the fragmented nature of consumer decision-making process models results from the fact that postmodernism does not recognise coherent and unified approach to issues as there is also general lack of certainty.
There is also breakdown in the system that leads to distinctions and differences. In turn, we have fragmentation in processes that replace unity or totality. Changes in society will allow for conditions of postmodernism characterised by hyperreality, ambiguity and reproduction of features (Gabriel and Lang, 1995).
Thus, postmodernism does not support any suggestions to replace or impose order to the existing chaotic and fragmented reality. Postmodernism puts it that we should embrace the “limitations of knowledge, question the value of generalisations and accept the impossibility of universal truths” (Thomas, 1997).
Fragmentation also emerges due to a low level of commitment to any one brand. What exists is only a momentary attachment, brand repositioning, and regeneration.
Thus, if we apply the principle of none is superior or inferior to another, then marketing becomes only sensible when it recognises language, symbols and elements of communication that imply and signify essential images in marketing. In the hospitality, the breakdown in the system affects marketing in the hospitality industry, which relates to the universal principle of marketing (Williams, 2002).
Postmodernism tends to question ideas behind generalisations and concepts in overarching theories as it sees them as limited in scopes. Thus, it posits that marketing approaches tend to impose order on the chaotic and fragmented statuses of the modern hospitality industry.
Postmodernism argues that there that the knowledge that exists has limitations about the nature of fragmentation. There is little empirical evidence to support generalisations regarding consumers’ consumption and behaviour patterns.
In addition, consumers’ consumption trends are not orderly and unpredictable. Consumers act on their wishes, ignore the set standards, and fail to maintain systems that may guide their activities (Brown, 1995). Thus, consumers are unreliable and changeable. Dynamic characteristics of modern consumers in the hospitality industry present difficulties in predicting buying behaviours and decision-making processes.
Conclusions This research has looked at the purchase and post-purchase models in consumption of hospitality services. Academicians and market theorists have made their inputs in order to provide theoretical account of the processes.
However, these models offered by theorists have inherent weaknesses both in describing and explaining how consumers make their purchase decisions. Some of these weaknesses result from elaborate decision-making patterns involved in choosing a holiday destination and subsequent activities.
The consumer decision-making process in purchasing hospitality services is a complex affair. It depends on a number of factors that originate from an individual and other external factors.
However, the models present linear processes that do not account for the complex nature and a high level of decision-making process consumers undergo when choosing a holiday destination. Despite these theories and models, understanding consumer behaviour in consumption of hospitality services remains complex.
The post-purchase evaluation occurs as a result of the decision to purchase. It is also a high-level involvement process due to the nature of the decision and purchase involved. Consumers will experience post-purchase cognitive dissonance due to their purchases. However, in most cases, they tend to find ways of reducing negative feeling about their purchases.
With reference to postmodernism, consumption of hospitality services remain unpredictable, fragmented and not attached to reality. Postmodernism believes that consumers of today live in a world of doubt, ambiguity, and uncertainty. Thus, applying a model to explain their decision-making processes involving a purchase remains difficult to limitation of knowledge.
To this end, we cannot apply generalisations to account for behaviours of consumers in the hospitality industry. Still, marketing remains a complex process as predicting purchasing patterns and consumptions among customers are also difficult.
Most consumers will base their purchase decisions on their wishes, make last-minute decisions, and create new trends in demand for services and products. Such are the difficulties that make these theories fragmented and all-encompassing.
Reference List Blackwell, R, Engel, J and Miniard, P 2001, Consumer Behaviour, 9th edn, Harcourt Education, Boston, MA.
Brown, S 1995, Postmodern Marketing, Routledge, London.
Chambers, R and Lewis, R 2000, Marketing leadership in hospitality: foundations
White Female Stereotypes in Media Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
This paper tries to explore the white female stereotypes in the media and thereafter gives the consequences. However, before the explanations, it is necessary to give the meaning of stereotype. It refers to a belief about a certain group of people with regard to their style of doing things. White females are perceived to be superior to the black females and this forms the origin of this racial stereotype.
The media has made profound efforts to make sure that white women are used particularly in advertisements and entertainment to capture the attention of the audience. White female stereotypes in the media have made children to believe that white women are beautiful than black women (Collins126).
Consequently, the use of white women in the media, for example, in television and the newspapers has enormously contributed to the growth of the media industry. Today, images of white girls and women are normally portrayed in the media, and they are empowered. On the other hand, black women and girls tend to think that they are ‘less women’ since in the course of these adverts, their self-esteem is lowered (Collins149).
In most instances, the images that are in the media are of exceptionally slim white girls and women, and this sends a negative image to those women that have bigger bodies. Thus, although there are many media stereotypes, white girls and women stereotypes are the most prevalent and the media use it mostly to influence the society negatively.
Apparently, images of white women that are scantily dressed are everywhere. Advertisements that are aired in the television have images of white women that are seductively displayed, with the degree of seduction varying with the nature of the product being advertised. In addition, there are also magazines that have articles that have images of slim white women.
Some of these images try to explain how women can easily lose weight as well as give the importance of weight loss. These advantages may include a sensational sex life, healthy children or a comfortable marriage. The main challenge that faces the audience is failure to realize that the beauty that is displayed by these white women is almost unattainable and they should not try to imitate them (Collins141-142).
Some of the black women are even depressed by their ‘incompleteness’ and they may even end up skipping meals all in an effort to slim. This is because they feel their bodies are insecure, and they can purchase beauty products at whatever cost or even adopt expensive dietary measures in order to boost their self-esteem. This makes the cosmetic and dietary industries to make exorbitant profits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More White girls and women stereotypes have also been used to portray sex and relationships in the media. Through advertisements, these women and girls are displayed to be sexually attractive by exposing their body parts. This sends an extremely negative image to the audience (especially men), and they may use it to compare the attractiveness in different women. Provocative images of white women are used to lure men.
The image of these women is belittled since they are viewed more as sex objects than human beings. However, the media, like any other business, is profit oriented and it makes good money through such displays. The idea of media stereotyping has made most young people believe that the media is better placed in explaining sexual matters. As such young people mostly rely on the media to be informed on such matters.
Therefore, many women have an impression that for one to be sexually attractive and physically admirable, one must be thin. On the contrary, there are images of women that are displayed in the advertisement, to show the other side of romance. Images of women who are sexually harassed are common in either magazines or television.
Interestingly, here the media is concerned with the life of young people and it illustrates how sometimes relationships are disastrous. By so doing, the media plays a particularly crucial role in educating the youths. Stereotype tries to show that women are vulnerable to sexual abuse and they should always be keen since they are potential victims.
White girls and women stereotypes in the media have adverse effects to the social world as a whole. This can be explained by the fact that it is through adverts that are displayed on televisions and magazines that young people develop an element of associating being slim with beauty, for example. Consequently, the girls may even go without food in order to be sexually attractive.
On the other hand, since most images of the white girls and women are linked with products that are thought to add beauty, women have to buy expensive products in order to live up to these ideal images. In cases where there are financial constraints, women may even sacrifice the most essential needs. The other effect of this stereotype in the media is that morals in the society are eroded (Amundson 34-35).
Women are used as sex objects in advertising matters relating to sex and relationships. In some instances, women have been coerced to sexual activities or abused sexually by men. Indeed, white women stereotype is the most commonly used by media.
We will write a custom Research Paper on White Female Stereotypes in Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Amundson, Daniel. Media Coverage of Religion in America. New York: Center for Media and Public Affairs. 2000. Print.
Collins, Patricia, Hill. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge. 2000. Print.
Chloramine in Drinking Water: When the Threat of Pollution Emerges Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction: The Significance of the Issue
ENDS Raising the Awareness of the Problem
The Factors Enhancing the Problem and How to Eliminate Them
Chloramine and the Formation of By-Products: Where It All Starts
Modeling the Procedure, Searching for the Solution
The Possible Way out: Alternative Disinfection Means
Conclusion: There Is Still Some Hope Left
Introduction: The Significance of the Issue In the age when the environmental awareness has become an integral part of everyone’s life, the issue of drinking water pollution causes considerable anxiety and demands immediate solutions. Unfortunately, in the light of the recent conducted researches, the fact that drinking water is being polluted by large amounts of chloramine is undeniable, as well as the fact that chloramines is especially hazardous for people’s health.
It is worth mentioning that certain steps have already been undertaken to avoid the danger of pollution. However, it cannot be denied that the issue of chloramines in drinking water remains unsolved, which calls for another consideration of the issue and offering probable solutions of the given problem.
Analyzing current researches (see Adams, C., Timmons, T., Seitz, T., Lane, J.,
Political Opinion and Public Policy Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Civil and political rights are categories of freedoms that safeguard a person’s rights from unwarranted infringement by state organs and clandestine institutions. The rights guarantee an individual political participation implying that discrimination and repression are never tolerated.
Civil rights entail protecting physical integrity and wellbeing, preventing discrimination based on physical or cognitive capabilities, gender disparity, ensuring that there is freedom of religion, preventing ethnicity, avoiding discrimination based on age and allowing diverse sexual orientation.
Civil liberties can also include freedoms of thoughts and ethics, speech and expression, and the freedom of press and movement. Political rights may include natural justice, rules of law, right to fair trial and the right to participate in political processes, which include the right to vote and the right to present candidature to the electorate.
In the US, civil rights developed first before political rights. The US has had an enduring history with regards to fundamental rights and freedoms. Women and people of color have struggled to fit in the wider society.
Their activities have contributed to democracy in the US. Americans showed their will and desire to govern themselves when they challenged the colonial government due to its high handedness and unresponsive behavior. The colonialists had established their own administrative units that were intolerant and indifferent to the sufferings of the majority.
Americans united to fight a war that was later termed as the American War of Independence. People were granted their rights after the leaders adopted republicanism as a political dogma. This meant that people had to be represented by candidates of their choice.
It was proved that the electorate was more powerful than the ruler. Afterwards, Americans drafted some guidelines that would dictate the relationship between the ruled and the ruler. The principles were found in the federalist papers. Each individual had to vote for a leader of his/her choice. Through this, the state was able to be governed democratically.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In early 1900, Americans entered into another war that was aimed at abolishing inhuman treatment. The war was referred to as American Civil War. The South fought with the North because of different opinions regarding slavery. The North wanted slavery to be abolished while the south posited that slavery was to be allowed. The war nearly divided Americans into two but the North finally won.
This was an indication that Americans were against inhuman slavery that had rocked the society. Some members were forced to supply free labor because of their skin color. Since then, America has never been the same again meaning that much has been gained with regards to civil and political rights.
Women have stood out to fight for their rights by lobbying government to institute laws aimed at protecting them. Presently, it is an offence to use a gender-biased language. Equally, it is a criminal offence to discriminate another person based on gender. Feminist groups have struggled to restore the dignity of women in society by advocating for equality in society.
Due to their efforts, women are currently employed in professions that were previously reserved for men only. At work place, women have found themselves in high positions because the constitution bars an individual from discriminating another person based on gender.
This means that American society is a diverse society that appreciates the efforts of all members. It is not surprising that women have been fully incorporated in the financial system.
Impact of New Technology on European Culture Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact of new technology in European culture
Response of artists towards mechanization
Introduction Mechanization is the process of changing from agrarian handicraft economy to one dominated by machine. The process started in Europe in the 18th century. It involves the use of iron and steel and the innovation of new machines that increased production. It also involves the development of the factory system, transport and communication. It started in Britain from 1760 to 1830 and then spread to Belgium and France.
Mechanization led to a major impact in cultures across Europe. In particular, it influenced the development of art and design. New technology in art and design started in the late 19th century. Although modern art and design developed in the late 19th century, contemporary paintings can be located earlier.
Impact of new technology in European culture Modern art is identified as having started in 1863, in Europe. The thoughts that led to modern art can be traced back in 17th century. Modern art involves artistic works developed between 1860s and 1970s. It involves the styles and principles of art produced in this period. In 1789, the French revolution removed assumptions and institutions that had been accepted for centuries without questions.
This helped people to choose their styles of buildings and design of wallpaper. The people who started modern art were romantics, realists and impressionists. In the late 19th century, movements, which were influential in modern art, started to emerge1. These were social and aesthetic movements that advocated for good design and craftsmanship.
This happened in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this period, there was increasing mechanization and mass production. The movements originated from Britain and were concerned with architecture and decorative arts. The movements advocated for the use of plain materials and surfaces which had a lasting influence on modern art.
Mechanization led to the development of graphic design, which is a visual representation of ideas. Graphic art and design are as a result of mechanization. This enabled cultures across Europe to communicate using conventional and inexpensive materials, which are easily transported. In 1922, a book designer developed a graphic design which enabled visual form to be printed.
Mechanization also led to development of languages which were adopted by cultures in Europe. Visual communication of ideas, and facts were developed in different areas from pictograms. The alphabets used today are based on the first alphabet developed by Phoenicians and then modified by Greeks and Romans. The alphabets led to development of languages used today, for example, Arabic, Greek, Russian and Roman.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mechanization in France led to the development of new kinds of paintings in late 19th century. The painting resulted to new fashion that was culturally tied to the development of new visual languages for the 20th century2.
Art Nouveau, which is an international style in decorative arts, reached many European countries, in the early years of 20th century. The movement was the horrors of mass production, and it was aiming to reintroduce the skills, and craftsmanship that was fading out. It rejected the order of a straight line and right angles and advocated for more natural movement.
It put emphasis on decorative patterns and flatness devoid of perspective. This movement is seen as the synthesis of European art. Some of its stylish revival was attributed to growth in nationalism. It arrived in Germany in 1896 with an exhibition of thirty five monumental embroideries at a Munich gallery. By the late 19th century, it had influenced all aspects of Munich’s artistic life.
This led to a demand of a new relationship between life and art. At the end of 19th century, new technology led, to the issue of modifying women’s dress. This became a fundamental element of feminist concern. In 1880s fashionable, tight lacings came under attack in progressive circles by criminals obstructing female movement. In 1890s, Britain’s dress reform was associated with socialism.
However, many historians had argued that dress reform was an issue of taste rather than politics. The new dressing styles implied a shift from earlier notion of clothing indicating class, and occupation to a more modern preoccupation with clothing as a means of identity.
Response of artists towards mechanization Between 1909 and 1912, many artists in England and France, were abandoning naturalism to stylized abstractions. Many artists such as Vanessa bell and roger fry concerned with developing a pictorial language received from decorative arts with a new content associated with the formal lessons. Roger Fry displayed post impressionist exhibitions in London in order to attack the Philistine tastes of the middle class3.
Experiments in decorations were started by Bell and Grant which involved the introduction of geometric patterns derived from mosaic and tile work. The design of Clive Bells art in 1914 also developed an aesthetic in which design and color determined the content. The artists established the Omega workshops which helped them in designing and decorating fabrics, furniture, pottery and other items.
We will write a custom Essay on Impact of New Technology on European Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These were developed to challenge the Victorian differentiation between art and craft. The work of participating artists was believed to be privileged compared to other forms of labor.
The women who started fine arts established a relationship between class and modernity which had major implications. As technology improved these artists were able to design items such as curtains, bedspreads and boxes that were displayed at places like Daily Mall Ideal Exhibition4.
Most of these designs were developed from oil paintings. The distinction between bells paintings and decorations helps in the development of structure and lyrical and color harmonies that improve her figurative work. The dress design in Omega experiment was not successful.
Few dresses were sold this is because the design was too exotic to clients. Delaunay was another artist who developed designs as technology advanced. She worked with textiles and embroidery in 1906. She started designing book covers, posters, curtains, cushion covers and other items from home. In 1913, she started making simultaneous dresses in accordance with the current fashion.
The patterns of the dresses were designed to enhance the natural movement of the body5. The patterns also helped in establishing a shimmering movement of color. The principle of abstraction helped in defining modernity for a broad public.
In the year 1913, Italian futurists exploited the idea of clothing to signify revolutionary modernism. However, futurist attitudes towards feminism were compromised by the cult of virility. In the first decade of 20th century, Russian artists believed that, they can only be able to express key ideas through culture and traditions. Between 1914 and 1917, Russia was forced into cultural and intellectual isolation.
During this time, many artists who were living in other countries were forced to go back home6. The artists developed a new art for the people in preparation of political revolution. This involves searching for a new aesthetic language compatible with modern industrialization. As technology improved art developed, and painting was taught in Moscow.
Popova who, started painting in Moscow emphasized on color and texture7. By 1923, Delaunay’s fashions and textile designs were commercially produced. Avant-garde spectacles such as Dada performances helped break down the belief about clothing as a cover of the body. This was replaced by an image of the body as a fluid screen.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of New Technology on European Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Delaunay’s designed male costumes although commercial developments were designed for women. Many architectural designs in Russia designed by artists remained theories due to lack of raw materials. By 1922, Moscow had large textile industries for manufacturing clothes. In 1923, there was an article which urged artists to address industrial problems.
Many artists responded through sending sketches to First state textile factory in Moscow8. Tatlin and Rodchenko established clothing designs, which were used in social functions.
Popova and Stepanova redesigned the clothes within the framework of the existing industry. In 1925 French and Russian design were combined together9. In the same year, exhibition of decorative and industrial arts was organized to combine art and commercial enterprise in decorative design.
There exist a relationship between an ideal fashion of cloth developed in 1920s and glamour which stress the modern woman and sexuality. This is a complex relationship as both are masked to profound economic and cultural changes. Kandinky was a great artist from Russia10.
He studied law and economics in the University of Moscow in Russia. He was brought up within a cultural heritage, which was partly European and partly Asian. The artist had an unusual interest in color as he contemplated Moscow architecture and its collections of icons.
He had lasting interest on nonrealistic styles of Russian folk paintings. By 19th century, he was a competent professional artist, in touch with new technology for art and design. He was influenced by impressionism and decorative effects of art Nouveau11. He displayed his work with vanguard groups and non academic shows which had spread all over Europe. He was the founder of nonfigurative paintings.
He was an active member of avant-grade movement in Germany. He assisted in the establishment of new artists association in Germany. Later on he informally organized a rival group together with German painter Franz Marc. He became a professor of fine arts at the Moscow academy.
In 1919 Kandinky established the institute of artistic culture. He was appointed as the director of Moscow museum for pictorial culture. This enabled him to help in establishing 22 museums across the Soviet Union12. He started the Russian academy of artistic sciences. He developed the general direction of geometric abstraction with a taste for detailed crowded pictorial space.
He analyzed the effects of abstract elements of drawing by interpreting a horizontal line. He developed visual languages, which turned into a collection of signs that looked like decipherable messages13. He influenced the developed of art in 20th century and his works are exhibited in other painters work. Paul Klee is another artist who made a major contribution to art and design.
He had a multifaceted artistic personality, which ranged from sensibility to theoretical lucidity14. He was a member of various avant grade movements. He became devoted to painting when he visited Italy and saw the work of Leonardo da Vinci. He was based in Munich where he made contacts with other artists about children’s drawings and non European cultures15.
He discovered the power rhythm and dynamism of contrasting colors. After the First World War, he combined figurative language with geometric forms in pictographic writing. He adopted abstracted style of cubists which is seen in a number of his drawings. He also developed the use of letters and other signs in his work16.
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Clegg, Elizabeth. Art,design and architecture in Central Europe. Yale: Yale University Press, 2006.
Crouch, Christopher. Modernism in art and design. London: St.Martin’s Press, 2007.
Drucker, Johanna. Graphic design history:a critical guide. Chicago: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.
Eskilson, Stephen. Graphic design:a new history. Yale: Yale Univesity Press, 2007.
Heller, Steven. Design literacy:understanding graphic design. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2004.
Heller, Steven. Graphic design history. Chicago: Skyhorse, 2005.
Heller, Steven. Graphic style. Chicago: Harry Abrams, 2007.
Hollis, Richard. Avant-garde graphics 1918-1934. Michigan: Hayward Gallery, 2007.
Hollis, Richard. Graphic design:a concise history. New York: Thames