Table of Contents Identification and selection of Hurricane
Hurricane Risk Assessment at IUB
Human beings have little control over natural disasters; they can hardly prevent natural disasters occurrences. However certain human activities trigger the occurrence of natural disasters.
When natural disasters strike, they are destructive; in areas that are highly prone to occurrence of natural disasters, policy makers should enact risk management policies to ensure in proper natural disaster prediction and management.
The United State is prone to number of natural disasters that include earth quakes, hurricanes, tornados, blizzards (Winter Storm), floods, and Disease Epidemics (Barnes 2-12). This paper identifies a probable natural disaster likely to strike Indiana University Board (IUB); the natural disaster to be discussed is hurricane.
Identification and selection of Hurricane The natural disaster likely to affect Indiana University Board (IUB) is a hurricane. In the fast changing environmental conditions, triggered by human activities and natural occurrences, there are high chances that IUB will suffer a hurricane.
Hurricanes are strong destructive winds which originate from large water bodies like sea or ocean; when the winds reach the land surface near to the water body, the speed they reach with becomes destructive.
According to National Oceanographic
Standardization of language Expository Essay best college essay help
Necessity is the mother of all invention, this is a common phrase and it applies to language. The need to communicate led to the development of languages. With time, these languages have developed to suit the requirements and preferences of the people. These changes are responsible for the various languages and accent that are available worldwide.
Change in language is therefore an inevitable and a natural process (Crystal). Although change in language is unavoidable, people always want to stick to their known ways and methods of speech. The issue of what is the correct language remains a big issue.
If there is a perfect language, to what standards should it be. People have expectation on their language and they make a judgment. This essay therefore begins by looking at standardization followed by language expectations and finally the judgment on language use.
Standardization of language is the process through which a language has been codified, this process also include grammar and spelling development. It is also through standardization that writing of a language in an official format becomes possible. Standardization is of great benefits to a language.
Through standardization learning and teaching of a language is facilitated. The benefits that results from standardization of a language are numerous but the main issue that follows standardization is who is responsible for standardization of a language. The next issue is of course the need for standardization and if there are some persons responsible for standardization.
In the past, language standardization process has been hijacked from the hands of linguistics. In fact, the process has been utilized as a way of creating identity for a state or a group of people. Institutions of learning have also been linked with language standardization process.
Politics have also played a big role in standardization of language with the bottom line being the creation of dominance. Different standards in language have also been responsible in the creation of social classes that are present in today’s world. Language has been viewed as a cultural capital and that it create the differences between social classes, the educated and the uneducated (Finegant PBS. Org).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deresiewicz emphasized on the role language standards play in society classification by stating that “mastery of standard English language was the ticket of cultural admission” (New York Times). This shows that although standardization of language is important for development of the language and people’s culture the process has often been misused.
In order for the full benefits of standardization to be realized then it is important that standardization of a language be done for promoting the language.
As stated, the natural process of language change still applies in standardization of a language and therefore the people should be the main stakeholders in the standardization process. The process should also be a natural process, which implies that the process should not be influenced externally.
Expectation of a language to people goes beyond a tool or means of communication. People therefore have varied expectations for their language. With language, people expect to share their personality and to express their message beyond their words. As claimed by (Baron PBS. Org) people expect their “language to express their solidarity or group identity.”
For this reason, people expect language to create a distinction between genders, educated and uneducated. Expectation on language variation across gender is of great interest compared to the other expectations.
The main reason for this interest follows from the fact that there is a variation in language across gender even if other factors that cause language variation among people are constant. In the English language, for example “men are said to swear a lot, to be more coarse and casual.
Studies claim that American women know more color terms and men know tool names; that women use more qualifiers and diminutives” (Dennis Baron PBS. Org).
We will write a custom Essay on Standardization of language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Language change and use is subject to people’s judgment, people therefore judge a language as a bad and good language. How people use and judge a language determines its effectiveness and development. This in turn determines the survival and continued use of a particular language. As noted by (Nunberg PBS. Org) “the English language will survive its current critics complain.”
This shows that even though the English language is under harsh judgment it has a well-established structures that will ensure its survival. Survival of a language should be therefore the key factor that should govern its standardization, expectation and judgment.
Conclusion The use of any particular language reflects the changes that have taken place in the language. Language change is an inevitable natural process and people have not readily accepted these changes. Language standardization is essential in development of the language but the process has been applied for other varied reason.
People expect their language to serve a role that is beyond communication. After all is said and done language remains a subject of judgment from the people , where the judgment should be aimed at development of the language.
Works Cited Baron, Dennis. Language
Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Usual Diwali Celebration Style
Diwali Celebrations in Other Countries
The European and Australian Diwali
Festival Celebration in USA and Canada
Diwali in other Parts of the World
Incorporating Diwali in other Traditions
Introduction India is a beautiful country. It has unique festivals one of which is Diwali, otherwise known as Deepavali, the festival of lights. This festival is undoubtedly the most popular of the Hindu festivals.
Like most of the festivals celebrated mainly by Hindus, Diwali has a mythology and a historical basis behind it. Legend stories purport that Hanuman, the monkey god, crucial devotee of Lord Rama, brought the long-awaited message, declaring Rama’s return to his kingdom following an exile of fourteen years.
People refer the festival to as the festival of Sweets. Giving sweets is an activity that has become a tradition in these celebrations.
Usual Diwali Celebration Style Hindus, Sikhs, and Jains celebrate the festival that lasts for five days. The dates vary based on the Indian lunar calendar (Robinson 123). The celebration has extended outside India to the Diaspora.
It is a mainstream in Britain and countries like Indonesia, the United States, Malaysia, and Singapore. They have incorporated the festival in their local traditions (Robinson 123). Besides eating Indian food, most people outside India are still unfamiliar with the usual Diwali food.
The most common food during this celebratory period is sharing and eating sweets. Indians and other people celebrating the festival eat plenty of sweets during that time.
They also prepare confectioneries, desserts and sweetmeats, which come between snacks that people eat all the time. The sweetmeats or ‘Mithai’, as popularly known, are the most common and the favorite foodstuffs. It is hence the foods, which capture Indian cookery psyche outside India.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In India, it is customary for family members and friends to come together in the celebration. They also exchange gifts. In most cases, they exchange sweets, candy, dried fruits, and other snacks (Robinson 124). People dress up well for the occasion. They share, and exchange gifts of clothes and perfumes as customary activities.
Diwali Celebrations in Other Countries Since Diwali is significant to Indians as Christmas is for Christians, its celebration is extremely essential. During this celebration, people have their homes lit up with candles. They decorate the streets and businesses with lights.
The European and Australian Diwali Hindus in other parts of the world celebrate Diwali in a unique way. In the South East Asia, and Indian populations elsewhere in the world, people celebrate the Diwali somewhat differently. Where the Hindus are fewer, they only put on lights and celebrate it in their homes.
On the other hand, when they are many, they take the celebration seriously. The Indians make the celebration seem like a tremendous cultural scene. The United Kingdom has a well-established Indian demography, which allows the country to conduct bigger public events (Richman 67).
Since there are many Indians in Australia and Europe, people conduct the large-scale Diwali events like carnivals and fairs in cities. In Australia, the celebrations are common in Melbourne and Sydney. In the United Kingdom, they are mainly in London (Richman 67).
Featuring in these events are fabulous firework displays, public music and dance performances, stalls that provide services mainly painting henna, stalls selling assorted Diwali sweets, herbs, savories, and people often burning an effigy of the demon King Ravana (Plum-Ucci 12).
People also dress up nicely for the occasion with women wearing their best jewels and silk outfits. Some put on mehendi, temporary decorations of henna on their palms. Since people also refer the celebration to as the celebration of lights, they light various lights: candles, and lanterns, at the event, in houses and even around homes (Plum-Ucci 17).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The women present sweets on shiny, silver trays and garnish the dishes with candlelights called diyas and some time with jewels and flower petals (Plum-Ucci 55).
The Indians in Britain are usually enthusiastic about this festival (Richman 69). They clean their homes, decorating them with lights, mainly candles and lamps. The most salient part is that they also exchange gifts. This tradition goes back to the harvest time when people could offer gifts of their harvest.
Today, they give sweets. The common sweets are barfis and laddoos. Different Hindu communities come together in a central place like in London for the celebrations (Richman 69).
As the event has become more popular, people have observed non-Indians also joining the Diwali festivals. Sometimes the festival of light falls on same dates as the British Bonfire Night on fifth of November. This inspires joint celebrations, which are thrilling (Richman 71).
In Australia, Diwali is not a public holiday recognized across the country. Nonetheless, there is always traffic during the event. Parking places remain fully parked during the period of holding the event. Most Indians close their businesses for the celebrations.
Their Indian community has sent a request to make Diwali a public holiday in the country. In Australia, it is customary for families and friends to share and exchange gifts. In most cases, these gifts are sweets, dried fruits and candy. However, during the main festivity, elaborate food takes center stage.
There is also exchange of perfumes, clothes and soaps as gifts. Other appropriate gifts are lamps, candle stands and fireworks.
Festival Celebration in USA and Canada All the communities with Indian populations, or those who identify themselves as Hindus, always celebrate the festival of lights (Plum-Ucci 18). The celebrations here are mostly in homes. In Canada, some families organize trips to Niagara Falls in Ontario where the festival of lights takes place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This often happens because the winter festival and Diwali often fall on the same dates (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232). This Niagara festival is usually a spectacular event with an amazing display of lights and fireworks. There is usually adequate entertainment for families ranging from food, music and dance among other activities (Khandelwa 61).
In America, there are some cities with large populations of Indians and Asians. Hence, these communities sponsor large Diwali events (Shah 43).
For instance, Cupertino in California has set a day aside for which the celebration of lights takes place. There is usually, music and dance, cultural performances, foods and gift vending and many other forms of entertainment in cities (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232).
In cities, where there are diverse populations, people honor the event. The celebrations take place in Hindu temples like New York (Khandelwa 61), Phoenix, Chicago and Minneapolis. These communities still honor the celebration of lights by lighting up their houses just to celebrate the victory of Rama against demon king Ravana (Torpe 7).
This symbolizes the victory of light over darkness (Plum-Ucci 23). Hindus believe that, during this day, the goddess of happiness roams the earth during the day of celebrating Diwali.
She looks for the purest, cleanest and brightest house, which she enters. It is apparent that the celebration differs in different parts of the world. However, they maintain the general spiritual meaning. That is to increase awareness of the inner light.
Diwali in other Parts of the World In Asia, especially Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, people celebrate Diwali by placing lamps and candles on banana leaves together with coins and incense sticks. People then float these lights on a river. The view of thousands of candles along a river is always spectacular during the evening of the Diwali celebrations.
In Thailand, one can describe the Diwali celebration as insanely huge. They refer it to as Lam Kriyongh. In Singapore, people refer the celebration to as ‘Deepavali’. The government recognizes it as a public holiday. Its uniqueness is that, a light-up Little India District typically marks it.
The celebration is almost as Diwali customs in India where people come out exchange gifts, have merry performances. Distribution of sweets is the best part of the celebration, as it involves the giving out of sweets of different types.
In Nepal, people refer Diwali to as ‘Swanti’ or ‘Tihar’. The celebrations last for five days just like in the other countries though traditions done during the celebration slightly vary from those done in India.
People decorate the entire country with various lights and lamps in celebration of victory of Rama (Torpe 8). Women prepare exceptional foodstuffs especially sweets of different forms for making this festivity (Ganeshram, and Velloti 135). There are also lively performances, fireworks and crackers everywhere.
In Mauritius, Africa, people celebrate the event with considerable passion. It has been an age-old custom. The native believe the celebration begun even before the return of Lord Rama (Plum-Ucci 6). Diwali here holds a distinct significance for the natives for the coronation of Rama as King.
People celebrate by lighting earthen lamps in lines that make images and they worship Lakshmi (Torpe 6), the goddess of earth (Shah 41). They also burn crackers to scare the evil spirits roaming the earth.
Incorporating Diwali in other Traditions In the western nations, Diwali celebrations are evidently not as typical as they are in India. There are often some little variations from the traditional way of celebration (Shah 41).
In most cases, the elements of the Hindu culture, which may relate to Diwali, are also present in the celebration to highlight Indian customs and culture. Dances and songs prevalent in Hindu culture often find their way into the celebrations (Khandelwa 61).
For example, it is not a surprise to find men and women performing the ‘Dandiya Rasa’ dance in Diwali celebration outside India. This dance features wooden sticks. Besides, in other places, one has to see Punjabi Bhangra songs and Bhangra dances that people perform during the festival of light (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 233).
The dance and songs date back to the eleventh century. During that time, the Punjabi farmers would celebrate the coming of the harvest season by dancing to Bhangra folk dance.
The Punjabi musicians who have travelled to western countries popularized the folk dance hence causing the dance to be a popular culture in certain aspects of the western society.
Bhangra is currently popular in the United Kingdom and Canada. Because of the zeal to popularize the Indian culture during such fairs and festivities, there are numerous Indian merchandise also sold during these events besides the food not related to the festival (Khandelwa 61).
Therefore, the festival of lights in countries abroad forms a frightfully convincing way of knowing the Indian culture and understanding Hindu religion. In fact, some places the celebration is all about getting to know the Indian tradition.
The Diwali is a prominent religious celebration for three religious groups – the third largest celebration in the world (Torpe 4). Buddhists, Hindus, and Jains celebrate it. The festival is becoming more popular across the worlds, as more people from different nationalities, ethnicities, and races join in the festivals (Khandelwa 62).
When joining a Diwali festival, it is indispensable to expect more than just gifts. There is usually colorful pomp with elaborate meals, singing and dancing, as well as many other activities associated with the culture.
The goal of Diwali is to teach a tremendously significant lesson to everyone. That ‘good’ always triumphs over ‘evil’ the same way Lord Rama won the battle (Torpe 4).
The festival reminds people of the importance of thanksgiving. It helps in teaching family values and friendships, thus, persuading people to value these things.
Above all, the ceremony teaches people to be charitable to the less fortunate in the society. At this time, it encourages people to share and offer gifts to others. During Diwali, people usually salute one another in English as ‘happy Diwali’ (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232).
Conclusion From the Diwali celebrations across the world, it is evident that without sweets, then the event will not qualify as Diwali. The sweets sweeten the ceremony for everyone attending it.
The sweets are exchanged among everyone: young and old, and male and female. Hindus also share the sweets with other people from other religions, mostly those connected to them. The habit of giving gifts is also encouraging, as it spreads joy to every person involved, whether in India or abroad.
Works Cited Coward, Harold. Hinnells, John, and Williams, Raymond. The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States. New York: Suny Press. 2000. Print.
Ganeshram, Ramin, and Vellotti, Jean-Paul. Sweet Hands: Island Cooking from Trinidad
Four Functions of Management Theory Essay scholarship essay help
Management involves the effective organization of organizational resources in a way that is likely to help the organization in the achievement of its policies and objectives and aspired goals. Management is therefore a vital aspect of any organization.
Responsibility of management is normally left on the hands of managers who act as the stewards of owners interests in the respective organizations (Griffin, 1996). Managers in all organizations almost perform the same basic functions.
These functions entail; planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Buffett
Population Pyramids Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison of the three pyramids
Introduction The current population of a country is a product of the past trends in the population of the county under investigation. Consequently, this population will determine how the future population of the country will be. This has been demonstrated by a comparison of the population pyramids of the United Kingdom, Indonesia and Ethiopia.
A part from the past population trends in a country, other factors determining the current population of a country include the economic level of the country, influence from other countries and the effects of globalization.
This paper will discuss the effects of the current population in the United Kingdom, Indonesia and Ethiopia. This will be achieved by comparing the population current population pyramids of these countries. From the population pyramid, the paper will give an insight on the future expectations of the population in the countries under investigation.
Comparison of the three pyramids The current United Kingdom population pyramid indicates a fare distribution of people across the ages. The number of people in each age group in the United Kingdom is almost the same. From the pyramid, it is clear that this population is made up of more middle aged people than young people.
It is, therefore, possible to conclude that the United Kingdom has an old population. This can be attributed to the effects of civilization and modernization which brought about the issues of family planning. The pyramid indicates that most of the people in the unite kingdom are in their fertile age, yet the number of children is less compared to older people.
With this population trend, the population risks a drastic decline in future. The small percentage of young people as indicated by the pyramid will not be able to maintain the population after the current people in their fertile age bracket will be aged (Ehrlich, 2001).
From this population pyramid, it is clear that life expectancy n the United Kingdom is high. This can be attributed to the good health care of the people living in the United Kingdom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike in the United Kingdom, there are more young people in Ethiopia as indicated by the pyramid. A close analysis of the Ethiopian population clearly indicates that majority of the people in the country are young people.
The pyramid presents Ethiopia as having a young population. This can be attributed to the fact that Ethiopia is a third world country. In its efforts to develop, the Ethiopian government has been able to provide adequate medical services to its people.
The people of Ethiopia have started applying modern farming techniques and this has in turn resulted into more food being produced to feed the population (Connelly, 2010). The presence of few old people in Ethiopia indicates that life expectancy in the country is low. Many scholars attribute this to the many tropical diseases in Africa.
With adequate medical services, the motility rates in Ethiopia has reduced significantly and this has been reflected by the population having many young people. In addition, the introduction of science and technology in food production has ensured adequate food in Ethiopia.
Consequently, the availability of food in Ethiopia has raised the fertility of the people, thus high birth rates as indicated by the pyramid. Going by this population trend, one can conclude that the population of Ethiopia has a very high potential of growing in future.
Many people in Ethiopia are below the fertility age as indicated by the pyramid. This means that by the time these young people reach their fertility age, the population is bound to grow tremendously (Weeks, 2011).
In Indonesia, the population pyramid indicates a gradually increasing population. From the pyramid, the difference between the young people and the middle aged people is not big. This indicates a stable population.
We will write a custom Essay on Population Pyramids specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This stability can be attributed to the fact that Indonesia is a developing country that is affected by the effects of modernization and development. For instance, the people of Indonesia have started to embrace scientific methods of birth control.
Indonesians are also affected by polices adapted by other nations to check its population. The effect of this to this is that the population of Indonesia will grow gradually despite having a large number of young people (Pearce, 2011).
A close analysis of the population pyramid of Indonesia indicates a higher life expectancy as compared to that of Ethiopia. This shows that there is a better lifestyle in Indonesia than in Ethiopia.
Conclusion In conclusion, the above is a discussion of the current population of three countries. From the discussion, it is clear that all of them have a unique population trend depending on the past population and other factors that have been indentified as influencing the population trend.
Consequently, the future of the population in these three countries will depend on the current population. For instance, mature population as is the case with the United Kingdom means a population decline in future while a young population as is the case with Ethiopia will result into population increase. The population of Indonesia may not indicate any significant change in future.
References Connelly, M. (2010). Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population: London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Ehrlich, P. R.
Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls Proposal college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction It is certain that drug misuse and addiction is viewed as chronic diseases in western society. However, the views of drug use have taken a variety of forms over the centuries. Initially, the drug use was positively feted but this view changed gradually and drug use became condemned as evil.
The reason for the changing attitudes does not always bear any logical explanations as to why a particular attitude was adopted at a given point in time. Nevertheless, it is easy for majority of us to agree that the current view of drug abuse is a logical one.
A hundred or so years ago, drug use was legal. Anyone could have walked into a high street store and buy cannabis, or cocaine or whatever else one wanted over the counter.
By this time, drugs were freely available throughout history and across cultures in the western societies. The idea of prohibition that was pressed forward largely by the aim of alcohol elimination from the society was an ultimate disruption with the traditional wisdom of public policy.
In the beginning of the 19th century, the only familiar drugs available to the west were alcohol and opium but, by the early years of the 20th century, a constellation of substances that form the modern category of illegal drugs –opiates, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants and psychedelics- all found their way into the society. This was partly as a result of the international trade and scientific discoveries.
Today, modern western societies based on complex industrial and commercial systems loathe and prohibit the use of drugs for other uses other than for therapeutic reasons. This is built on the fears of loss of individuality as a result of addictions to a drug or the sensations it produces.
It is also based on the fears of the impacts of the drug use, concerns over the reduced productivity that’s likely to cause harm to the user and the society and so on. In general, drug use and misuse touches on concerns for safety, well-being, progress and the condition of the addict and the society at large.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research Question What are the psychological effects of chronic marijuana use in young women and girls?
Literature review Gender and ethnic differences in drug use
Wallace et al (2002) examined ethnic differences in legal and illegal drug use among American senior grade students and focused on girls. In this study that applied cross-sectional data from large, multiethnic, and multinational representative samples, Wallace et al administered questionnaires to total thousands of girls and boys in senior grades.
Results of the study showed that marijuana was the most widely used illicit drug by American girls. On average, 20% of 8th graders, 38% of 10th graders and 45% of 12th graders admitted to using marijuana. Between 1-3% of the girls admitted to using it on a daily basis while 19% admitted to using it in the last 30 days.
The findings also revealed that ethnic differences in drug use among girls existed. Drug use among Native American girls was higher than Mexican, Puerto Rican, and white girls. It was even lower among the African American, the Latinas, and the Asian Americas (Wallace et al., 2002).
On gender differences, the data indicated that boys are more likely to abuse drugs in each of the grades surveyed. Very high rates in alcohol use were recorded among girls in all grades. On average, 1-2% of the girls were daily drinkers.
The trend observed in marijuana use among girls in ethnic diversities was also recorded here. Native American girls led the pack with the Asian Americans trailing. Similar results were reported for cigarettes.
An important limitation of this study was that it researched on high school seniors alone leaving behind the onset of drug use among the young people and those who dropped out of school before they joined the senior year. Another limitation is that the research was carried out about 10 years ago (2002).
We will write a custom Proposal on Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Current trend data reveal that although there was a considerable difference between boys and girls drug users, the prevalence of drug use has now converged with time.
In 2003, Bryant et al carried out a survey to establish how academic achievement, attitude and behaviors influence drug abuse during teen-age years. The group collected biennial data regarding alcohol cigarette and marijuana use among people of between 14 and 20 years (Bryant et al., 2003).
On cigarettes use, it was reported that females smoked more than males. It was higher for the white students than it was for the African American and Latino students. Instances of cigarette smoking were higher for students with lower academic achievements than it was for those who performed better.
In terms of motivation and school attitudes, a comparable development was reported. While predicting variations in change in drug use over time, results showed a linear increase in cigarette use from age 14-20 being high among the whites than for African Americans and Latinas.
It was much higher for those with lower academic achievement in the eighth grade (Bryant et al., 2003).
Still interesting was the realization that alcohol use was higher for females than for males and still higher for white students than for African American students. A similar trend to cigarette use was reported for alcohol use for misbehavior, loneliness, motivation and school attitudes.
Regarding quadratic growth, female’s alcohol use accelerated at a lower rate from age 14 to 20 compared to their male counterparts. Similarly, results were consistent for marijuana use as a higher progressive increase was reported among females than among the males.
Like in other researches, this study was limited as it was based on adolescents’ self-report and researched on three drugs alone. Cannabis, which is in high use among girls, was left out.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a research to establish conjoint developmental trajectories of young adult substance use, Jackson, Sher, and Schulenberg (2008) used the national representative data from Monitoring the Future Project to reveal developmental courses of heavy drinking, smoking and marijuana use (Jackson, Sher and Schulenberg, 2008).
They applied 4 waves of data ranging from ages 18-26 in a multicohort young adult sample. In this study, they examined comorbidity by cross-classifying group membership in drug use trajectories.
In the final stage, they examined the extent to which risk factors such as sex, race, delinquency, alcohol expectation, and academic achievement and so on influenced the combinations of comorbidity happened in much greater extent than was by chance.
Their results identified four courses of substance use that were in agreement with those occurring in the literature.
According to their probe, heavy drinking, smoking and marijuana use highly increased the patterns of comorbidity. The inquest showed that delinquency, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies and religion predicted a combination of comorbidity that featured an early onset of chronic high use.
Cross-sectional relationship between cannabis and other drugs
In general, their report indicated a high cross-substance use over emerging adulthood revealing a similar developmental timing to use. This was largely due to experience of developmental transitions that are likely to influence the use of different drugs.
Individuals have a tendency to use multiple drugs due to a common vulnerability to each and not as a result of directional relations among drugs such as cross-tolerance.
Approaches of Business Strategy Concept Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Today there are a lot of different approaches to understanding of the concept of business strategy. If we consider the problem from a contemporary perspective, this concept can include the peculiarities of the process of adopting of appropriate action plans and distributing of the resources for carrying out the plans to meet the desired objectives.
Moreover, there is the problem of determining of the most effective and significant approaches to examining of the principal theories for the strategy development.
There can be defined two approaches which require further studying with the references to the peculiarities of the modern business tendencies. They can be considered as the prescriptive and the emergent approaches (Mintzberg 1990).
Referring to the peculiarities of the emergent approach as the ‘hustle as strategy’, Bhide (1986) affirms the critical importance of this approach to strategy in a financial services business firm.
Embracing this approach to the strategy development, he presents a scenario where the firm can take the advantage of transitory opportunities. Bhide affirms that flexibility, agility, and hustle are more important than a fixed plan.
Employing the processual view of business strategy, he postulates that the strategy is a continuing process of negotiation and adjustment of routines, as a way to make sense of the chaos in the world (Bhide 1986).
Thus, such strategies are seen as ‘emergent’, with their coherence accruing through the action and perceived in retrospect, while successive small steps eventually put the organization ahead in terms of customer focus, profit maximization and market leadership (Harfield
Seriousness of Global Warming Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Global warming is considered to be one of the most significant problems. The problem touches upon the rise of temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere as well as the influence of gaseous emissions and combustion gases, which are the reasons for the ecologists and scientists’ concern. Therefore, the anthropogenic factor comes into effect.
There are a lot of scientific articles as well as books and other sources which are devoted to the ecological problem. Generally, global warming is described as a rise of temperature. One of the authors who studied this ecological problem carefully, the author Cline (1992) states that “the most serious general problem is that the reports—especially their policy aspects—focus too much on climate change up to a fixed date, 2030, instead of giving equal emphasis to the longer-term changes that will result from human actions between now and 2030.” (p. 44)
The consequences of global warming which influence the future must be taken into consideration, but if one thinks about the present, there will be no need to anticipate things. The question which the ecologists ask themselves is what is to be done next? The actions of those who give consideration to this global ecological problem are not coordinated, as their quantity is not enough to affect others. Of course, it is easier to think about negative consequences which will take place in future, but not to take measures now.
There are many factors which are related to the origin of the ecological problem. However, global warming depends mostly upon the so-called greenhouse effect which is re-radiated towards the lower atmosphere. (NOAA Satellite and Information Service, 2007) The above-mentioned effect is the most important factor of the Earth’s temperature regulating.
In most cases it is the anthropogenic factor which is considered to be the principal reason of global warming. A carbon dioxide which is the main element of the greenhouse effect exceeds its norms by numerous times. For instance, various combustion gases influence the increasing of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Earlier, people thought that the climate changes depend upon the solar influence; however, today this point of view is recognized to be outdated. On the one hand, the statement makes sense; on the other one, the impact of solar effect is recognized to be rather small in comparison with greenhouse influence, so, the earlier statement is negligible.
Today, it is possible to predict the results of climate changes. Thus, computer technologies allowed to create the so-called climatic system to determine the interaction between global warming and greenhouse effect. The strange thing is that it is not the concentration of greenhouse gases which causes the climate changes, but their interaction with various physical processes does.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One may say that there are no visible results of the ecological problem. It is a wrong opinion. The negative consequences of global warming are noticeable on small islands. The problem touched the human health as well, so there is a strong necessity to find the solution to the problem. The global ecological problem is related to every person who lives on the Earth. Thinking about global warming and its possible consequences, is the first step of the problem solution. Underestimating the global warming is a mistake.
Reference List Cline. W.R. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/read/99472197/the-economics-of-global-warming
NOAA Satellite and Information Service. (2007). Global Warming. Web.
Joy Daycare Marketing Plan Report custom essay help
Joy Daycare pricing strategy Consumers within Joy Daycare target market are most likely to be concerned with quality than price. As identified previously, this target market consists of young parents who are sensitive to quality care for their children, and less concerned about pricing issues.
This implies that, although penetration pricing is the easiest for while introducing a new product, it might not be effective under these circumstances (Iacobucci, 2011). The latter author also underscores that penetration pricing (setting lower prices) is extremely risky since competitors’ might decide to retaliate.
Furthermore, reduction in price conflicts with Joy Daycare product and branding strategies. Consequently, premium (skimming) strategy will be adopted based on the belief that quality will mitigate price sensitivity among consumers.
According to Iacobucci (2011), skimming involves setting the pricing above the current market rates at the initial stages of introducing a new product. However, this strategy is short lived because it attracts other firms into the market.
Pricing tactics Cost based vs. value based pricing
According to Rao (2009), pricing is a significant, but delicate component of marketing mix. Apparently, pricing can either make or break a product, thus optimum care is necessary while making this significant business decision. This is because for a product to survive, it must be tolerable to the target market to promote profitability.
This implies that, the most fundamental pricing tactic should aim to satisfy cost and value criterion. On the same note, pricing for Joy Daycare services will consider the cost and value aspect, commonly referred as ‘cost-based pricing’ and ‘value-based pricing’(Rao, 2009).
As epitomized elsewhere in this marketing plan, Joy Daycare will strive to hire the best caregivers to ensure that children receive quality training. Obviously, this is going to increase business operation costs; hence, penetration pricing cannot work in our favor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, we also have to consider the perceived value of Joy Daycare services before settling on a certain price. Rao (2009) underscores that, value-based pricing is founded on the customers’ perspective about whether consumers considers the price to be reasonable.
Discounted and/or differential pricing
Similarly, Joy daycare will offer some discounts to parents who enroll two or more children to the center. Moreover, to promote word of mouth advertising we are going to offer some special rates to those who refer their friends to the center.
According to Rao (2009), differential pricing is not a unique phenomenon and most marketers have utilized it to promote customer royalty. Similarly, Iacobucci (2011) utilizes the term ‘target pricing’ whereby different prices are charged to customers within the same target market.
However, although this strategy might work in the business’ favor, it might be ineffective in the long run especially when one child attains pre-schooling age.
This implies that, the business will face an immense public relations challenge while trying to convince such parents to adjust their payments upwards. Nonetheless, the business will have to bear those costs since the benefits of discounted pricing are likely to be more than the costs involved.
Legal and ethical issues of pricing tactics
Noticeably, competition among businesses has become the biggest hurdle towards success. Against this background, some unscrupulous marketers may misuse the pricing aspect to shove off their competitors out of business. Moreover, some tactics might be exploitative to customers.
On this notion, several business laws have been put in place to eliminate unlawful and unethical pricing strategies. As a result, it is imperative to explore some ethical and legal implications of the pricing tactics adopted by Joy Daycare.
We will write a custom Report on Joy Daycare Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, discounted and/or differential pricing might be perceived as discriminatory since the consumers are purchasing a similar service, but at different prices. However, as long as Joy Daycare can prove that the strategy does not favor some customers at the expense of others, then the tactic is neither illegal nor unethical.
Joy daycare distribution channel
Daycare service is a unique product that defies the norms of marketing distribution channels. Iacobucci (2011) accentuate that distribution channels are adopted depending on the desired promotional and place marketing mix aspects.
Since daycare service is consumed at the place of purchase, the wholesaler/distributor/ retailer relationships are not applicable in this marketing plan. Consequently, Joy Daycare services utilizes exclusive distribution channel because the service is restricted to a centralized location.
This is implies that, the producer (Joy daycare center) interacts directly with the consumer (parents) without the necessity of middlemen services. On the same note Iacobucci (2011) adds that good/service that adopts exclusive distribution channels demands additional promotional aspect in order to educate the target market on the availability and advantages of those products.
As epitomized elsewhere in this marketing plan, quality and excellent service is the core differentiation strategy for Joy Daycare business. The key to the business success calls for heightened efforts to generate consumer delight at the point of service delivery in order to achieve the stipulated marketing objectives.
Consumer delight will enable Joy Daycare to cultivate consumer loyalty; thus increased enrollment will enable the business to achieve the targeted growth rate of 10% p.a. Moreover, brand image will also benefit from the cultivated loyalty.
References Iacobucci, D. (2011). Marketing management: 2010 custom edition. Mason, OH: South- Western Cengage Learning.
Rao, V. R. (2009).Handbook of pricing research in marketing. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Joy Daycare Marketing Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Language and Communication for Business and Commerce Essay essay help site:edu
Communication in any organization is a very important aspect as it can make or break an organization. Companies generally do not have a public language (Lang, 2010). It is of great importance that when the hiring is taking place, there is absolutely no tribalism or nepotism going on and that people are hired purely on a merit basis. Cultural identity helps in facilitating an extensive role in organizational interpersonal relationships hence being of great relevance when it comes to cultural identity.
Culture is often defined as “the coherent, learned and shared view of a group of people about life’s concerns that ranks what is important, furnishes attitudes about what things are appropriate, and dictates behavior” (Jameson, 2007, p. 5). When it comes to organizations, people or groups of people are known to be the main components of cultures.
This is evident in that when individuals want to spend a substantial amount of time in an organization working together, they end up thinking alike and sometimes taking up the organization’s cultural practices though not necessarily.
If one was to study different organizations and the different professionals involved, one would understand this concept. For example in the defense force, the culture of hierarchy is very well displayed in that they themselves can tell the ranks that their fellow officers are in and they have a way or some form of respect for those in high ranks. This is evident when one watches them in their places of work.
This is a culture that was developed and has been passed on thus not an easy form of culture to disband. Most professions require that before you are indicted into the profession formally, you ought to sign a code of ethics and conduct stating that you will adhere to the laid out guidelines and procedures in a bid to live by the governing code (Coopl, Etzion
Positive Psychology Chronicle: A Retrospective at the Results Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Positivity Ratio Assessment
Satisfaction with Life Scale
Strengths Finders Assessment
Summary and Conclusion
Introduction Because of the negative factors that have the most deplorable impact on most people nowadays, positive psychology as a means of letting a certain amount of positive emotions into people’s lives is absolutely inevitable.
Once considering the specifics of one’s character and realizing the issues that prevent the given person from efficient work and the relaxation, one can come up with specific ideas on how to improve the existing situation. With the help of the given chronicles, the mechanisms of people’s emotions and the change in the latter can be approached.
Thus, analyzing the peculiarities of people’s strengths, one is likely to come to certain conclusions about the role of positive psychology in the modern life and its impact on people.
Positivity Ratio Assessment Allowing me to assess the emotional state that I am most often in, the given activity offers rather fruitful discoveries concerning my own character and the main features of the temper.
Although the given test suggests only the figures that imply quite concise information, the Positivity Ratio Assessment is a perfect way to learn if the situation requires certain improvement.
The Positivity Ratio Assessment allowed me to evaluate the degree of positivity in my vision of the world. Providing a statement and offering me to evaluate how close to the truth the given statements are, the test allows to single out certain features of my character. The test helped me to figure out how positive my thinking is.
It is important to mark that in the given assignment, it is quite essential that five variations of answering the question are offered so that the results of the test could be more precise and, therefore, more credible. However, it is still worth keeping in mind that, even answering the questions of the test, one might not be sincere enough.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the obtained results, the score equals 1.17, which means that certain improvements should be made. Positioned as the “tipping point” (Fredrickson 2009) of the test, score 1.17 presupposes that certain progress towards a more positive life perception can be made.
Satisfaction with Life Scale I must mark that Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire presupposes much more room for specific clarifications and comments on each of the questions, and, thus, a larger variety of results.
The score that was the result of answering each of the questions made 31, since the points from 1 to 6 were labeled as “Strongly Agree” (as cited in Snyder, Lopez
Democracy in Canada Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Democracy in Canada
Canadian Democratic Gap
Introduction Democracy is a form of government where people have equal rights, make decisions concerning their lives and have a direct or indirect participation in the social, economic, cultural and political pillars within their country. This represents a political system where the choosing and replacing of the government is done by use of a free and fair election where there is active participation of citizens both in politics and civic life.
Democracy in Canada Canada is not only a federal state, but also one of the most developed economies in the world and in a world democracy audit of 2010; its democratic stature saw it clinch position 8 worldwide (1).
This represents a strong standing within its democratic structure and governance. In a nut shell, Canada is an independent constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy where the government is steered by a parliamentary system which consists of elected members of parliament. Canada also has a number of political parties and the government is headed by a Prime Minister.
Canadian Democratic Gap Though Canada is among the countries which are highly ranked in the realms of democracy around the world, it has a number of limitations and in-adequacies within its political system. Over the last decade, there have been a number of intensified calls for reformations within the democratic political institutions within Canada. This is in regard to how the democratic institutions serve to confer legitimacy upon the power of the Canadian state.
This democratic gap has been as a result of the populist tradition which is in dominance. The populist tradition holds that democracy is instituted by the practice of voting hence ignoring that these democratic societies are characterized by a number of other factors such as the rule of law, individual rights and protection liberties, freedom of press.
One of the challenges that the Canadian democracy has been facing is the lack of conforming to the Westminster parliamentary system especially when it comes to the administration of democratic procedure. This is as a result of the wide spread ignorance among the people and institutions on how the Canadian political system functions.
According to populists view, politicians are supposed to serve as public agents who propel the values of the population, but in Canada this is not the case because the public is divided on a number of interests that are related to pluralism of fundamental values (2). This is visible in that, the political tradition runs from the old Social Credit party, cuts through reform (The Canadian Alliance) and finally to the Conservative party.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This aids the proponents of the populist tradition who hold that all political legitimacy should be anchored through a popular vote. This proves that there is a deficiency of knowledge and information among Canadians who are misconstrued by the government’s opinion poll. Thus, most of them do not understand and are ignorant on the mechanisms within which the government operates in the tenets of economic and political systems.
This has encouraged irresponsibility within the formations of political opinions as well as biasness in putting social preferences in order. For example, the fact those voters have to choose between parties while voting in respect to the current Bill which prefers Liberals to Conservatives and Conservatives to NDP party.
The other prevalent problem is the fact that the current democratic model supports and encourages a strategic orientation to the political process that it is inclined to serve the individual private interests as opposed to the Canadian population. This has decapitated the population from actively participating in political agendas. This shows the extent to which parliament has aggravated to individualist mode of rule as opposed to the public interest mode of approach.
Another pressing issue in the Canadian democratic structure is the mode of leadership approach. Democratic politics central function is to create government which is the same primary mandate for the parliament. This is not the case in Canada because parliamentarians blindly endorse whatever legislation that is tabled by the cabinet such as same sex marriage legislation in 2005 which brought a lot of issues within institutions, parliament and from the population.
The first-past-the-post system in Canada has had a number of negative effects where it has greatly promoted regionalism. It has also promoted the formation of majority governments in the provincial level where some of the parties which did not have a popular vote have been instrumental in creation of these majority governments (3).
The fact that the Canadian senate members are appointed rather than elected has led to low levels of popular legitimacy and representation of a number of people such as Aboriginal people. This has also brought in a compromise within the senate where small provinces have taken advantage of the reform to create a fifth column for provincial interests within the federal government.
Conclusion Issues pertaining to Canadian democracy raise the arguments as to whether Canada still stands to be among the most outstanding democratic states around the world. But in counter to this, it has had a number of commendable amendments which also propels it to be among the best. For instance, the Canadian government initiated a new youth program that is meant for the youth to be actively involved in the country’s politics.
We will write a custom Essay on Democracy in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List 1. World Audit. (2010). World Democracy Audits: World Audit Website, Web.
2. Daniele A. (2004) Cosmopolitan Democracy and its Critics: A Review, London School of Economics
The ‘Obesity Epidemic’ and the Analytic Model of Bio-power Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The unhealthy child
Bio-power and Obesity
Introduction Childhood obesity is a term used to refer to children who are overweight by virtue of having excessive body fat, which can negatively affect their health and wellbeing. In light of the increasing number of children who are overweight and the embedding risk of young people developing complicated health problems, obesity in children has been referred to as an epidemic (Aphramor 2005, p. 315).
As a result, school health syllabuses, community resources, websites, television programmes, and health/physical education textbooks have been widely used to target young people in campaigns and intervention programs aimed at teaching them various ways of living healthy.
In so doing, societies and popular media have achieved to influence the way young people are thinking about their bodies and eating habits (Bordo 2003). In this paper, we will look at the various ways the society and popular media construct ‘the unhealthy child’ relative to the notion of bio-power.
The unhealthy child As mentioned earlier, one of the major discourses driving the changes in the way people think about their bodies and eating habits is the ‘obesity epidemic’. Here, the notion of biopower has been used to create certain ‘truths’ or ‘imperatives’ about childhood obesity, which are now widely accepted and used to regulate bodies and certain desirable qualities of health among the young people (Aphramor 2005, p. 317; Bauman 2001).
These ‘truths’ are explicitly delivered through various avenues including physical/health education in schools and communities. Therefore, through various media and information sources, people are led to believe that there is a clear causal relationship between overweight and obesity, which in turn affects one’s health.
In most cases, obesity and overweight have been used interchangeably, which then follows that one major instrument of measurement (Body Mass Index) has been used for both concepts.
Besides the body mass index (BMI) scales for characterizing overweight people, the children’s weight has been directly linked to various behaviors including playing computer games, lying around on the couch, and watching too much television among others (Jutel 2000, pp. 113-125).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, unhealthy children are also associated with poor eating habits such as consumption of sugary foods, less fruits and vegetables, and foods high in saturated fats. All these are major ‘truth’ claims, which are implicated in the way the society views overweight or obese children.
In the long run, it is common practice to have overweight or obese children being stigmatized and victimized because they are referred to as the ‘other’. And the most immediate risk of objectifying overweight children as the ‘other’ revolves around the way in which other groups of children relate or treat them.
Various surveys document that most overweight people get accosted in streets or reprimanded by their personal physicians for their poor health practices.
These and other acts of humiliation suffered by the overweight people lead them to blindly accept the imperatives underlying the obesity epidemic and the need to change their bodies and lifestyles in order to fit into the normalized social health prescriptions (Jutel 2000, p. 120).
Bio-power and Obesity According to Foucault (1997), the notion of bio-power involves certain truth discourses regarding the desirable attributes of human beings, authorities with the ability to hold the truth, intervention strategies to sustain life and health, and modes of subjectification, which allow people to work individually or collectively for the benefit of life and health.
As a result, the significant aim of bio-power is to improve life through seeking productive control over individual or collective life. Accordingly, the elements of bio-power highlighted in the foregoing discussions play a role in sustaining the idea of obesity epidemic in the society and popular media in many aspects.
Here, the obesity epidemic is treated as a ‘truth discourse’, thereby occasioning the popular intervention strategies delivered through various information channels such as health promotion policies, school curricular, and the media (Rabinow
Models in problem formulation and identification Essay essay help online: essay help online
There are several approaches to problem formulation and identification. Most of these models employ the use of various techniques. A person can choose one model over the other depending on the nature of the problem to be identified, and solution to be formulated.
Problem identification and formulation is rather a creative process. Therefore, this essay shall focus on creativity models used in problem formulation and identification. These models rely on problem definition as the key to its solution.
The simplex model use creativity to provide a practical method for a collaborative win-win problem solving model. The underlying technique in this process is the deliberate use of creativity in defining a problem. The model approaches a problem situation with a joint creative problem definition to provide a room for win-win results.
The model has four stages. The first stage involves the generation of the problem and fact finding, and then conceptualizes of potential definition, and idea of the problem. The next stage involves optimization of ideas, and the preferred action plan. Finally, the parties gain acceptance and implement the solution (Bateman
The role of the line manager in managing under-performance Report essay help online free
According to Swamson, 2009, human resources are the most precious factor of production that an organization has; to benefit from their intellectualism, an organization need to manage them effectively.
Human resources department has the role of ensuring the right number of staffs in terms of quality, quantity, and experience are maintained within an organization. to conduct their role effectively, personnel managers need the support of the entire workforce particularly those in management positions.
Line managers have the role of heading revenue-generating departments and are responsible for achieving an organization’s main goals; to effectively undertake this task; they need to manage their human capital effectively.
When managing their immediate subordinates, line managers play a crucial role in enhancing performance among the staffs; they act as team leaders, mentors, coaches, and team players (Armstrong, 2006). This paper discusses the role played by line managers to manage under-performance among staffs.
Human resources performance management Performance management within an organization refers to activities undertaken by an organization to facilitate the attainment of their corporate goals and objectives in an effective and efficient manner.
The focus of effective performance management is to improve an entire organizations performance; it may focus on a certain area, department, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service with the sole aim of ensuring that efficiency has been attained in an organization.
The concept of performance management was coined by Dr. Aubrey Daniels in the late 1970s where he looked at an organization from a scientific angle; he suggested that there is need to focus on total improvement of the organization for both behavior and results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human resources need to be managed effectively to facilitate the improvement of efficiency in the organization; the rate of performance as well as the processes they are using to attain high results need to be vetted to improve them accordingly.
Performance management aims at attaining three main corporate objectives as facilitating financial gain of an organization, enhancing and growing motivation in the workplace, and improving management control.
Performance can be seen as the difference between actual results verses desired results; it is always the desire of a company to record high actual results than the desired results/budgeted result.
Performance management is a continuous process that entails not just evaluation of the rate of performance of an organization but enacting such measures that enhance the improvement of processes within the firm.
Other than focusing on human capital, performance management aims at improving structures, infrastructures, and physical components of an organization; it involves partnering of teams of workers for future improvement.
To improve future processes and results, there is always the need to measure, gauge and analyze past and present performance of an organization (Bandt and Haines, 2002). Performance management can be analyzed into four main stages as:
At this stage the management has the role of setting goals and objectives to be attained with a specified period of time considering the available factors of production.
We will write a custom Report on The role of the line manager in managing under-performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When setting the standards of the company, the management has to be very genuine on how it will evaluate the outcome of the organization; this calls for vetting the resources available and making the right combination of available assets.
The standards can only be attained if processes are improved and people skills enhanced to facilitate high performance. Performance indicators should also be placed and indentified as they assist keeping the company accountable of its current performance (Beardwell and Claydon, 2010)
With set standards and expectations, leaders should develop performance measurement indicators, the measures enacted include gap-analysis (gap analysis involves considering the difference between the set standards and the actual standards attained), outcomes of data systems, and statistical responses.
Reporting of progress After comparing the outcomes of a performance management process, the next most crucial aspect is to make regular reports to analyze the progress of the process.
There are times that the process may give mixed reports likely to suggest that the business is not keeping pace of the standards expected; in such an event the management have the role of enacting remedies to the process.
quality improvement process
With the standards set and the right pathway determined, the next most crucial exercise that managers should do is to document the determined right path of operation. It is through the documentation that changes can be effected within processes and human resources training and learning exercises are set.
Line managers Line managers are mandated with the role of managing micro-teams within an organization that accomplish a particular exercise in an organization. In current management strategy, tasks are divided among different task forces that are mandated with the role of giving a certain output to the organization.
For example a manufacturing company may have the following departments, manufacturing, processing, human resources, supplies, procurement, sales, marketing, finances among others; the above departments may be lead by departmental heads assisted by line managers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of the line manager in managing under-performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In small organizations, departmental heads can double up as line managers. Line managers have the role of improving their employee’s performance through their actions and leadership skills (John, 2004).
The role played by line managers to manage under-performance among staffs The role of line managers in managing underperformance among staffs is facilitated by their leadership skills; in the event they have effective management skills, they are likely to improve their staffs skills and expertise. They manage underperformance through:
team spirit enactment and reinforcement
Line managers are team leaders of the sections they head; they have the role of ensuring that their team is effectively managed.
Effectively managed teams have the capability of enhancing the growth of strong team spirit that leads to efficiency, innovation, invention, and creativity within teams. there are different management practices that line managers should enact to facilitate the growth of team spirit, they include enacting effective communication systems where team leaders and members can discusses issues freely, creating a favorable working environment, and acting as the linkage between subordinates and top management.
Management experts have suggested that one of the most causes of underperformance or poor performance among staffs comes from lack of team spirit and ineffective teams. When teams are weak, opportunities are lost and businesses exposed to risks.
The understanding of this major role of creating a favorable working environment is the parting-point that line managers need to understand and take effective measures as a result.
Orchestrate teams are created when line managers have effective teams management strategies thus issues affecting his team are addressed effectively to avoid chances of failure; orchestrate teams are highly productive.
line managers and talent management
Under performance within an organization can be managed if human capital talents and intellectual capabilities have been managed effectively. At the level of line management, managers at this level need to understand how to handle their employees to facilitate the growth of their talents and intellectualism.
Line managers should take their time and understand the strengths and weak points of their team members and enact such policies that combine strengths and weaknesses optimally for high results.
One area that results to low human resources performance is when their talents, skills, and strengths fail to be matched with the kind of job in their company; they tend to become bored and unsettled.
When tapping human capital talents, line managers should have the skills, professionalism, and right attitude to build a winning team. An organization made of well managed talents has a competitive advantage over its competitors as this is an asset that is limited to individuals.
Other than managing talents, line managers should have the capability of combining their human capital effectively; the combination should be able to take advantage of human capital strengths and mitigate against any human resources risks.
Morale and attitude of employees is determined by the kind of relationship the company develops with its employees. When morale and attitude is low, it follows that the employee’s production is low and inefficient.
When managing a large team, line managers should have the team further divided into smaller micro teams on a certain basis, this helps in dealing with matters from a micro-angle which is likely to bring better and more satisfying results to the company.
involving employees in decision making
Decisions are the driving force of an organization, organizations that have effective, quality, and timely decisions have strong competitive strength. In contemporary management systems, management gurus are emphasizing the need to make decision via scientific decision making process; scientific decision making process requires that management involve their subordinates when making business decisions.
The inputs of subordinates are considered crucial as they might have some insight information either derived from experience, education or their intellectualism. When human resources are engaged when making decisions, they develop ownership to the decision and work hard to ensure that it has been attained.
By itself, engaging human capital when making decisions results to highly motivated staffs that are willing to work an extra mile for the benefit of the company.
In the event of failure, the human resources are willing to learn from the past activity; they take it as if it is them who wronged thus they are willing to take up the entire blame. Since line manager is the person on the ground or who is close to the subordinates, he should be the first element to involve his human capital in decision making.
He should learn how to guide the subordinates in giving their views, how to disregard that information that is not essential, and how to differentiate quality input by employees without hurting either. With such a policy, the human capital become motivates and willing to give their input to the organization.
Looking at involvement from another angle, when subordinates are involved when making business decisions, and the decision give rise to better working condition and improved performance, they become motivated and willing to learn. the satisfaction that subordinates derive from the knowledge that their input has given positive results is enough motivation to assist them work harder and improve their performance in terms of efficiency and loyalty.
With this in mind, line managers have the responsibility of ensuring they have structures that involve subordinates in decision making and communicating the results of the decisions with time.
Any challenge that comes along should be discussed and solution sort for the same. as a manager, line managers should be given some float to assist them arrange some social activities like team building with the aim of thanking subordinates and involving them when forging the way forward for the organization (Swanson, 2002).
enhance learning and training in the organization at micro-level
Business processes are changing fast, for competitiveness and high competition, organizations need to have employees who are dedicated, experienced, and well versed with the changes in their industry. Line managers’ act as coaches, trainers, and mentors in their departments; the extended role of line managers means they need to be knowledgeable of what changes are taking place in their industry as well as how to handle the situation.
When training, mentorship, and coaching is well embraced, leaders learn the weak areas of their subordinates and make such efforts that will assist them improve in the said area.
Line managers have the role of establishing the training needs in an employees and enacting such measures that enhance training by the subordinates; by so doing the line manager is assisting human resources and top managers enhance performance and productivity in the company. training can be done by internal parties who are experienced in a certain area or can involve third parties like experts, gurus, and professionals in particular areas of interest.
line managers in recruitments, promotions, demotions, and performance appraisals
When making decision on the employee to deploy, human resources managers should consult line managers who advise them on the right candidate to deploy in terms of education, experience, age and gender.
It is through recruitment that an organization is able to get the right caliber of employees who can handle the business situation of the company effectively. In the event that line managers fail to offer such quality advice, they are likely to mislead the company and get employees who are inefficient, inexperienced and who have little input to give to the company (Pause, 2009).
When the right candidates have been selected for a particular position, line managers have the role of orienting them to the company systems and organizational culture. With the move to include them in organizational culture, the companies need to have a positive culture that will enhance production.
Positive organizational culture involves having structures that facilitate the development of favorable working conditions and informed decision making procedures.
After recruitments, line managers should be actively be involved when appraising employees, the appraisal model should be a balance score board system as it assists the management know the exact strength of its human capital and make decisions on the kind of interventions they can make to facilitate an orchestrate team.
When appraising line managers should give their recommendations on what they think is fit for the company and the employees at large. the appraisal method adopted by a particular company can break employees or build them, in the event they are appraised by a person they are sure understands their issues, they are likely to give some personal business related information that can be of much benefit when making decisions.
Sometimes differences occur between the appraisal gotten by an employee and what the employee think its right for him or her, in such cases, the employer has the right to determine the right approach not to discourage or de-motivate the employee.
In most cases, appraisal comes with an appreciation or an acknowledgement to the staff; the right performance appraisal is thus important as it will assist the company give the right appreciation to the right person for the good of the company.
Line managers play a direct role when choosing the kind of employees that have to be deployed in their organization; they need to advice the management on the right candidate and enact such policies that will see them get the employees on board.
The growth of a candidate in an organization is determined by line managers thus they need to be fair and just to their subordinates. When the right employees have been deployed, chances of under-performance will be reduced; there will be structures that will enhance staff skills development for the benefit of the company.
Management gurus have suggested that one of the best methods to ensure high productivity in an organization is to have the right number and quality of employees at all sections (McGoldrick, Stewart and Watson, 2001).
line managers and fulfillment of psychological contracts
One area that many organizations have ignored is the appreciation that they have engaged in some psychological contracts with their employees; they are affected by the psychological and emotional well-beings of their human capital.
Human beings have different attitude, potential, emotional intelligence, and perceptions; the differences need to be professionally managed as it affects the performance of employees. effective line managers ensures that the psychological contracts of their employees have been fulfilled; in the book, “Organizational Behavior” by, MeShane, Olekalns, and Travaglione, the writers are of the observation that for a highly motivated staff, managers should look into their psychological, emotional, and intellectual well-being; this looks into the social aspects of employees and assists keeping them at peace with the system.
The advantage that line managers have is that human behavior can be predicted as well as molded; the most important thing is to know the right intervention to make to facilitate positive behavior reinforcements. line managers assisted by policies enacted by human resources management should enact policies that will facilitate the growth of positive behavior in their organization; the right method create an environment that enables a favorable working condition where employees feel their emotional and psychological needs are respected (Legge, 2004).
In managers in top management decision making and advising their subordinates When making corporate goals and decisions, line managers have the role of participating in the decision making and making sure that the right decisions have been made.
When in top management meetings, line managers should understand that they are representing a certain section so any decision that is likely to affect the section negatively should not be made. In this case, the line manager should understand that he is a link between the top management and subordinates staffs thus should keep a top gear approach which looks into issues from all sides.
Underperformance may result from decisions that are not attainable; this means that it might be optimism on the part of the management as they might not understand what is actually happening on the ground.
Line managers should be up to the challenge where they advise on the attainable targets as well as advice on what should be done to make the attainment of the goals even easier.
For instance they might recommend the adoption of a particular technology, buying of machinery or any other business action that will facilitate the attainment of corporate goals and objective.
It adds no value for line managers sit in top management positions without offering insight details that can assist in making the right attainable targets for their team. Despite this, the attainment should be justified and one that will ensure that the talents, capabilities, and skills in the team have been utilized effectively (MeShane, Olekalns and Travaglione, 2020).
Conclusion Line managers have the role of managing micro-teams within an organization; they are team leaders mandated with the task of enacting policies that fit their organization model. The role of line managers in managing underperformance among staffs is facilitated by their leadership skills; in the event they have effective management skills, they are likely to improve their staffs skills and expertise.
To manage underperformance line managers should work with top management and subordinates to determine their organizations strengths and weakness.
With an understanding of their organizations strengths and weaknesses, line managers should actively be involved in decision making to ensure their team’s interests has been considered. Some of the management practices that the managers need to take include talent management, skills development, psychological contracts fulfillment, and performance appraisals.
References Armstrong, M., 2006. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. New York: Kogan Page.
Bandt, A. and Haines, S., 2002. Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. San-Diego: Systems Thinking Press.
Beardwell, J. and Claydon, T. ,2010. Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach.New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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Legge, K., 2004. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities (Anniversary ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
McGoldrick, J., Stewart J.,
Intercultural Awareness Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Advantages of Intercultural Communication
Introduction Culture implies different things to different groups. For example, anthropologists define culture as the way people live. Others define it as the system that incorporates the biological and technical behaviors of community within their verbal and nonverbal systems.
NASW (2001) defined culture as “the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thoughts, communication, actions, customs, beliefs, values; and the institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group” (NASW, 2001, 1).
It is the totality of behavior passed from one generation to the other. Intercultural awareness campaigns try to figure out how people understand each other irrespective of their cultural differences (NASW 2000). 21st century living is described as a multicultural society in a global village.
Therefore, one may ask, what kind of communication and interactions are required to create a climate of respect, diversity tolerance with unified common goals? More so, one may wish to find out whether it is possible for neighbors to embrace their cultural differences (NASW, 2007).
Bennet outlined a great scenario on how a group of primates gathered around a bonfire would fight or take off on the sight of another group of primates heading to their fire place. This is exactly how it happens even to the more advanced primates Homo sapiens.
Arguably, our ancestors avoided people from other cultures in the best way they could. If all measures to avoid their interactions were unsuccessful, they opted for other measures such as converting them into their way of life.
Those who became stubborn to assimilations were ripped out of existence through killing; there is evidence of genocide from the history. Therefore, dealing with cultural differences, understanding it, embracing it and respecting it is vital to intercultural awareness and especially communication (Bennet 1998).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Intercultural Perspective Understanding objective culture is very different to understanding a foreign culture. There exist perspectives, which view that learning about other cultures, their social, economic, political way of life, their linguistics, arts and so forth are sufficient to understand culture.
However, there are professors, in such sectors as linguistics, who still are unable to communicate with people from that particular community irrespective of how broad their knowledge is. Understanding objective culture merely adds knowledge about the foreign culture but does not generate much cultural competence.
On the other hand, understanding phenomenological features that define a group, and the way the group reasons and behaves will mark a step to identifying with the culture of that group. It is defined as subjective culture.
Subjective culture is defined by Bennet (1998) as “the learned and shared patterns of beliefs, behaviors, and values of groups of interacting people” (p. 1). This type of perspective is said to be more likely to lead to intercultural competence. However, it requires understanding objective culture to understand subjective culture and to have social reality (Bennet 1998).
Many people ignore the advantages of cultural orientation. Most of them, view intercultural communication as the grammatical rules applied in spoken and written practices.
To some, learning about cultural practices poses a threat to their values. Some of the non verbal perspectives of communication from various cultures are picked from TV programs and movies, which have very little for communication purposes or, which may be of faulty conceptions (Bennet 1998).
Another problem with cultural perspectives is stereotyping and generalization. For example, it is very common to take notice of people discussing that a certain lady is not behaving like a Latin woman and so forth. This is so especially with the Arabic culture and Islam where gender roles are strictly divided.
We will write a custom Essay on Intercultural Awareness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is hard to find women from such communities in leading positions in politics or other fields. Stereotypes occur when behavioral assumptions are held by all members of a particular culture as shared traits. Such characteristics assumedly common can be respected by the observer (positive stereotype) or be disrespected (negative stereotype).
Either of the stereotypes is negative in intercultural communication because they often give false conceptions regarding the community or have partial truth in them. Secondly, stereotyping is an act of encouraging prejudice among the cultures.
However, it is important for a culture to develop identity to make a cultural generalization. Assuming that each person is an individual may lead to naive individualism (Martin
Process Analysis and Problem Solving Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction The level of competition in different industries in which organizations operate today is high and calls for increased competitiveness. In order to improve the competitiveness, firms could engage in different firm activities that may include process improvement.
This may call for analysis of the problem and seeking different ways of solving the issues. In order to improve business processes, an organization needs to have the necessary knowledge and expertise. The business process could be attained through establishment of change such as business process reengineering.
In spite of the good intentions of the changes, there is always resistance to change that could lead to project failure as examined in this paper. In addition, this paper examines reengineering as an example of process improvement in organizations.
History of Process Improvement Change is a constant element in organizations given the dynamic business environment that firms operate in. Organizations operate in many business environments that are characterised by free entry and exit, increasing competition and technological advancement.
In order for organizations to maintain their competitiveness, they need to embrace change and improve their manufacturing processes, service delivery and operations. Process improvement has occurred in firms over many years.
Over many years, quality improvement in firms was done using regular inspection and changed over time to total quality management and the modern six sigma approach. Process improvement concept was first used by Harrington James in 1991 when he published in his book on process improvement.
The method involves redesigning and reengineering business process in order to improve quality of an organization’s output while gaining a competitive edge at the same time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since its introduction, process improvement has been able to be applied in many firms. The application of information technology in the process is a vital ingredient that will revolutionalize the future of process improvement in firms.
Process Improvement in Firms The improvement of business processes in an organization has not been smooth for most firms. As the management of an organization introduces change in the company, there is always resistance to change with most employees opting to remain with the current processes of the firm.
According to Hammer