Human Resource Management: Price Waterhouse Coopers Essay A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction Human resource can be defined as the individuals’ contributions to an organization in terms of efforts, skills and capabilities, thus enabling the organization to maintain its existence. On the other hand, human resource management (HRM) is the division of the organization that deals with the management of human resource (Dessler, 2008, p. 4).

Human resource management can be looked at in two different perspectives: First, human resource management is the personnel or support function in the firm. They provide backing to the HRM issues to keep workers in line, or individuals who are directly involved in the production process. Secondly, Human resource management is a duty of the senior level staff. Whether in the formal or informal sector, the management of employees is always a function of the managers (Sokun, 2004, p. 3).

The management and staffing in organizations are done by individuals and without these individual organizations cannot exist. As a matter of fact, the prospect and challenges of developing and managing an organization is normally caused by individual-related problems that originate within them (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).

On the other hand, individual-related problems often originate from the misconception that all people are equal and deserve equal treatment in organizations. However, this is far from the truth. No two humans are precisely the same, even with identical or fraternal twins. Each and every individual is unique both physically and psychologically (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).

Even among individuals who are almost the same physically they must have different psychological characteristics. A number of them will be sociable, others snobbish; some will be gifted, others not. The point this study is trying to bring up is that the disparities among individuals in an organization call for more attention in order to maximize their potential. It also enables the organization to enhance efficiency and optimize the use of its human capital (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).

Managing human capital is an important role of the managers because of the current changes both within and without the organization. Studies have shown over and over again that HRM practices cam makes a significant, feasible difference in terms of crucial organizational results (Sokun, 2004, p. 3).

Maintaining a high level HRM system promotes strengthens employee commitment and loyalty which is very important in attaining business objectives. This applies to all types of businesses whether public or private. The success of any organization depends on the ability of the human resource department to acquire and assign individuals to a right job and pass on to them the necessary skills and knowledge (Wexley


Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal Essay college essay help online

FDR (Franklin D. Roosevelt) engaged in a program that was referred to as the New Deal. According to the program, the federal government would take more roles so as to improve the citizen’s economic welfare. The economic system was exceptionally poor when Roosevelt became the president in 1933.

A majority of the state governments had taken a banking holiday, which aimed at preventing depositors from destroying the banking institutions. The banks would be ruined if depositors withdrew all their cash. Roosevelt gave all banking institutions four days for holiday. Consequently, Roosevelt pressured the Congress and obtained a legislation for reopening the banks.

The federal government certified that all banks were sound for reopening. Afterwards, there were several banking reforms. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation allowed deposits to be insured.

According to the New Deal, a larger percent of the federal government funds would be used to pay all needy citizens. Grants, as opposed to loans, would be given to the needy citizens. A number of novel agencies were initiated to ensure that the unemployed benefitted from government- sponsored jobs.

The WPA (Works Progress Administration) initiated special projects, which offered jobs to the unskilled and skilled citizens. People trained as musicians, actors, artists, and writers benefitted from such employment. The PWA (Public Works Administration) initiated projects such as construction of dams, sports centers, and highways. The young men benefitted from conservation projects since they were employed by the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps).

In my opinion, photographs and paintings are not simply a recording of the past. On the contrary, they are fashioned and composed descriptions, which detail the past. Dorothea Lange’s photos were constructed to give different stories. The photographs advocated for sympathy for all poor people.

Dorothea was a renowned documentary photographer in America. Particularly, she was extremely popular for the Great Depression chronicles and the photographs involving migratory farm employees. She created photographs for the FSA (Farm Security Administration), which were assessing the farm worker’s living conditions in California. A majority of the laborers had migrated to the west as an escape strategy from the Dust Bowl.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dorothea took photographs, which depicted the depression in human lives. In 1934, Dorothea had the first show. It exhibited various issues, which were facing the government. These included breadline recipients, labor leaders, strike rallies, and political demonstrations. After presenting her photographs during the show, Dorothea got a job with the New Deal Administration.

The photographs were utilized as symbols of the White Angel Breadline migrant, which occurred in 1933 in San Francisco. Dorothea communicated the urgent need for government action to help the destitute Americans. 1939 was declared the year of a novel start.

The Florence Owens Thompson sequence of photographs had a picture of a migrant mother. Moreover, the series showed an underprivileged Californian pea picker. In another photograph, there was a migratory cotton picker from Mexico who was aged ten years. In the picture, the boy was working on the family car and was unable to attend school.

According to him, the father never allowed him to go to school since he was supposed to pick cotton. The boy picked approximately twenty five pounds of cotton every day. In my opinion, this was child labor. In essence, Dorothea’s photos and Roosevelt New Deal had a common goal; fighting for the rights of the underprivileged Americans.


“Greening the Ghetto” by Majora Carter Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Majora Carter is strongly committed to deal with environmental and social justice issues which affect residents of South Bronx, New York, where she grew up. She starts by revealing how South Bronx residents have been affected by the surrounding toxic environment due to poor zoning laws by New York City authorities.

Carter is selfless because she helped develop a park in South Bronx, an area which had been neglected by city authorities for more than 50 years.

She managed to enlist the support of New York Mayor and other community stakeholders to develop Hunts Point Riverside Park, in South Bronx, in an area that was previously used as an illegal dumping site. Carter advises urban authorities to have sustainable development plans which consider all residents to ensure they live in a good environment.

She argues that unsustainable development impacts negatively on people of color because they are victims of ineffective zoning laws. She reveals that many people in the South Bronx had their homes destroyed in the 1950’s, to pave way for the construction of the highway linking Westchester and Manhattan.

Poor zoning laws caused her family together with 600,000 other South Bronx residents to be displaced. majority of people affected by the displacement were African Americans. A combination of racial stereotypes and discriminative policies led authorities to zone off South Bronx as a low class district.

Many firms which pollute the environment have been allowed to operate there and this has exposed many residents to an unhealthy environment. Carter’s personal account shows how people of color in the US are subjected to institutionalized racial discrimination, which confines them in heavily polluted residential areas (Carter). This led her to start Sustainable South Bronx, a firm which advocates for sustainable development in South Bronx.

Her efforts have also encouraged sustainable development projects in San Francisco’s Baywatch area, by connecting firms with people who live there. She advocates against the pollution of big cities by big corporate firms, which fail to include locals in their plans. She describes the lack of commitment by big firms and government authorities to environmental conservation as economic degradation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Carter argues that economic degradation begets environmental degradation, which leads to social disintegration in communities directly affected by these unethical practices. She argues that poor zoning laws by New York City authorities allow business firms which pollute the environment, to operate in South Bronx. Therefore, these practices have made poor people in major American cities to live in toxic environments, which expose them to many health problems (Carter).

Carter reveals that open urban spaces need to be made more habitable to people living nearby. She asserts that private firms need to establish partnerships with community residents to protect the environment from degradation, before any commercial project is done. She argues that sustainable development brings triple benefits to the government, communities and private firms involved in specific projects.

This is necessary because projected population increases in New York and other major American cities will affect environmental conservation in the country in future. She argues that major developments in urban areas should not exploit vulnerable communities living in neglected zones (Carter).

She uses the example of Bogota in Colombia, to show how sustainable development has transformed the lives of many residents there. The city’s mayor has improved the lives of many residents and the same model can be used to improve many American cities.

Works Cited Carter, Majora. Greening the Ghetto, Ted Talk. You Tube, 2007. Speech.


The ecology of tigers Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Distribution and population





Effort to protect and conserve the natural habitat of tigers

Introduction This section reviews and discusses existing literature about the ecology of tigers. The focus on tigers was mainly due to the fact that they have been classified as endangered. The review therefore seeks to develop an understanding of the species in addition to evaluating the efforts made to protect and conserve the species’ natural habitat.

Characteristics Panthera Tigris commonly known as tiger is the heaviest and largest of all cat species. The brown and polar bears are the only animals feeding on flesh considered to be bigger than tigers. Full grown tigers can weigh up to 700 lb and have a body length of 10 feet. Tigers are known for their distinct and salient feature of reddish fur and black vertical stripes.

The animals are vicious with their stout teeth and long canines. In fact, their canine teeth are said to be the longest among felids. It is very easy to recognize tigers because of their popularity. Among the enigmatic mega faunas of the world, tigers are considered to be the most commonly known.

The underlying reason for this is the fact that tigers have been the center of several traditional myths and folktales in the world. Additionally, the world today also continues to portray them in books and movies, several popular sport teams use the picture of a tiger in their amulets and a number of countries also use the image of a tiger in their national flags and coats of arms.

Tigers can live for long. Their life span in the zoos is relatively similar to the number of years they can live in the wild. The lifespan ranges between 20 and 26 years. Just like lions and other wild cats, tigers have a tendency to be territorial even though it is a social animal. In order to survive in the wild, tigers would mark large adjoining areas of habitat to support their hunting needs.

Because of this tendency and need, the animal has always been in conflict with humans especially in the regions where it is indigenous. Such regions have a dense population of humans making it hard for the animal to have sufficient habitat area for their prey needs.

Distribution and population During the early years of the 20th century, tigers ranged from turkey all the way to the island of Indonesia and to the sea of Okotsk. However, today the various species of tigers cannot be found within this geographical location.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The population of the animal has drastically dropped over the years and has been marked as one of the animal species nearing extinction. As a result, this has led to concerns of protecting the remaining tigers and conserving their natural habitat.

In the islands of Indonesia and the south western region of Asia, tigers have become almost extinct. The remaining population of tigers is predominantly located in the south eastern region of Asia, particularly in Far East Russia and china. However, they only exist in isolated habitat areas.

Their numbers has greatly been reduced because in the early 20th century, tigers were estimated to be approximately 100000 in number. But today the figures have tremendously dropped to around 4000 individual tigers.

Bengal tigers are located in the region around India and Burma, Siberian tigers are located in the region around China and Russia, Sumatra tigers are located in the region around Sumatra, and south China tigers are locate in the southern part of china.

Habitat Tigers are associated with a particular type of habitat. They live in a wide range of habitations. The above mentioned geographical distributions have different habitat features including rocky grounds, savanna, grassland, mangrove, woodland, evergreen forest, and tropical forest. Due to their nature to conceal themselves while preying, tigers prefer habitat areas that have dense cover with ample water.

Migration As earlier mentioned, tigers are ranging animals. They migrate and travel throughout a year within a particular area. Season, sex, availability of prey, and the quality of habitat are among the major factors that determine the size of this ranging area. For instance, in a region where the availability of prey is high, the size of the ranging area will become relatively small. However, when the availability of prey is low, the ranging area becomes large.

India is known to be an area with a high density of prey. As a result, the ranging area for the tiger there is relatively small. It varies between 100 and 1000 square kilometers. However, in Siberia, prey is available but highly dispersed. As a result, ranging area for tigers located in this region is if large. The area can vary between 500 to 5000 square kilometers.

We will write a custom Essay on The ecology of tigers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sex is another factor that determines the size of tigers’ ranging area. Male tigers have a high propensity to travel or migrate than the female tigers. The male tigers are polygamous in nature, implying that they can mate with more than one female tiger in their life time.

Therefore, the male tigers have a wide ranging areas compared to female tigers. Ecological studies have indicated that a male tiger can have a ranging area that reaches up to around 160 square kilometers while that for female tigers reaches 50 square kilometers.

Studies have also exposed that male tigers accept females within their territories but, no other male is allowed to dwell within the territories.

Basically, their home ranges are considered to be intra-sexual whereby in addition to allowing several females to dwell within their territories, the territorial boundaries of male tigers may overlap with that of other females.

Female tigers do not necessarily have to establish home ranges. But if they do, they consider the density of prey and the quality of the habitat. The area must have a stable population of prey.

Seasons also dictate the size of tigers’ home range. For instance, the size is different during the hot season and the cold weather season. At the same time, the seasons where female tigers are required to care for their young ones, the size of their home range becomes smalls compared to other seasons when they do not have the maternal responsibilities.

In sections where their victims are widely dispersed, the territories may overlap. Tigers living in such areas do not have a tendency to migrate. This forces them to prey even within the territories of other tigers.

Marking of territories and home ranges is done through scent and the sense of sight. They do not produce a special chemical that gives their territories the scent instead, they use urine to mark and produce the scent. The urine is chemically modified to produce a lasting scent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The ecology of tigers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tigers would therefore use this fluid to mark their territories by spraying on rocks, bushes, and trees. Another way in which the animals mark their territories is by scrapping the ground with their rear feet. This is usually a visual marker of territorial boundaries. It can be accompanied with urine spray or depositing feces on the scrapped area.

Diet Wild tigers can feed on animals as large as a buffalo and as small as a chital. Its preferred prey can range from large to medium size. Studies have indicated that tigers prefer to feed on animals that weigh at least 90 kilograms. In other instances, tigers can hunt and prey on fellow predators.

They also display opportunistic behaviors whereby they prey on small animals, ground birds, and fish. Large animals such as elephants and rhinos are usually ignored as potential prey because of their size and the difficulty to kill them. For instance, a rhino has a thick skin which the claws and teeth of a tiger can hardly penetrate.

At the same time, rhinos and elephants can attack tigers making it a risky affair for tigers to have interest in them. In India where there too many elephants in the wild, conflict between tigers and elephants is a common phenomenon. The elephants usually take advantage of their size to dominate wherever they go. However, young rhinoceros and elephants can be an easy target for the predator.

Tigers are nocturnal animals meaning that their most preferred hunting time is at night. They can only hunt during the day in areas with no human settlement. They hunt by overwhelming their target using their immense might and body weight. They will do this from any angle until the prey loses balance and falls.

After which, they take hold of the victim’s throat with their canine teeth until it dies. However, their rate of success is usually very low because they get to outsmart only one in every twenty of their potential prey. Nonetheless, tigers have adapted to this phenomenon. They can go without food up to 14 days. But when they get to eat, they can consume up to 35 kilograms of meat.

Reproduction Tigers can mate anytime. Once a tigress accepts to mate, the process can be very frequent and continue for six days. Tigers have an average gestation period of three months after which the female tiger reproduces a litter of averagely three cubs. Sometimes the number can be as high as six cubs while sometimes it can be only a single cub. The responsibility of rearing cubs is left to females while the males have interest with the cubs. In some cases, male tigers can kill young cubs to coerce a female into mating.

The male definitely knows that the female can easily give birth to another litter within a short period of time. According to studies, the rate of mortality for cubs is usually almost 50 percent. Most cubs fail to live past two years simply because they killed by male tigers with the intention of forcing the mothers into mating. By one and half years, the cubs can be fully independent but still attached to their mother. However, by around 30 months of age, the cubs can begin to separate from their mother to fend for themselves.

Research has shown that tigers in captivity breed well than tigers in the wild. The population of captured tigers in areas such as the North America is increasing and may soon challenge the population of wild tigers. The captive tigers are also known to live slightly longer than the wild ones. Wild tigers are disadvantaged to live long lives because they are often hunted and preyed by human beings.

Effort to protect and conserve the natural habitat of tigers As mentioned earlier, tigers have been classified to be endangered. Their population has declined greatly over the years and can soon be extinct if the rate of decline continues. India has to almost half of the wild tigers in the world. Conservation efforts in the country have been underway for 40 years now.

Through the tiger project, the country has made significant effort in protecting the remaining tigers. A lot of accomplishments have been achieved over the years. For instance, 25 tiger reserves have been established in the country. The reserves are well monitored to prevent human development and encroachment. In Russia, similar efforts have also been made to protect the few existing Siberian tigers from poachers.

There are strict laws for anti-poaching with heavy penalties imposed on anyone illegally found within the protected zones. International conservation organizations are also partnering with local governmental and non governmental agencies to enhance conservation efforts.

In China, conservation of fauna was not immediately embraced because they viewed the species as natural resources which can be used in any way. This Stance made China to be isolated diplomatically from the rest of world and they had to review their stance in order to emerge from the isolation. In effect, they ratified the Care for the Wild International treaty and began making appropriate effort towards conservation of tigers.


Daimler Chrysler Demerger Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Organization culture

Learning and development



Introduction The merger of Daimler and Chrysler encountered various difficulties. These difficulties entailed the managerial policies adopted. They failed to motivate employees in one organization while the culture clash resulted in the decline of one of the organizations. Some of the models discussed can assist in the understanding of the issues, which Daimler-Chrysler encountered.

The managers’ failure to provide leadership in the above situations also contributed to Chrysler’s decline. Additionally, manager failed to enact a learning and development model, which would have promoted career development in Daimler-Chrysler.

Motivation Motivation denotes an intrinsic or extrinsic drive to undertake an activity. It has become an imperative aspect of management. Motivation increases employees’ productivity and that of the entire organization. There are various theories that have analysed motivation among employees.

The resultant assertions by researchers have provided vital details pertaining to motivation. However, their conclusions have differed owing to the environment in which the research was undertaken and the samples utilized. One of the models on motivations is the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The theory establishes five levels of needs that are fulfilled in a sequence (McGuire 2012, p. 174).

Fulfilling needs requires income that will finance the resultant expenses. As such, remuneration becomes the most imperative factor in the application of this model. If Daimler-Chrysler adopted this model, then it would have to increase its wage bill massively. Nonetheless, the corporation in question Daimler-Chrysler, is a profit motivated entity.

Hence, it has to manage its wage bill to sustainable levels, which will ensure that it maintains a certain level of profitability. The possible increase in the wage levels would be minimal. This is further compounded by the fact that the entity’s performance was deplorable. Thus, increasing expenses through wages would be a managerial choice that would worsen the crisis in this entity.

According to current management theories, modern employees are motivated more by non-financial aspects of their careers than monetary aspects. Therefore, managerial policies that encourage career development, recognition of contribution at work places and other desirable working conditions would be key to motivating employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Motivation of employees has changed. This has made the recommendations of classical managerial theories irrelevant since they treated employees as machines. Thus, according to classical theories the only way to motivate employees was through finances.

The applicability of this model in the motivation of employees at Daimler-Chrysler is limited. Employees are motivated by many factors other than remuneration, which is central in this classical motivation model. Reduced motivation emanated from issues such one organization dominating the other in the merger and the resultant change in managerial policies after the merger. Maslow’s model does not address such issues.

Hence, its applicability in this case study is limited. Motivation of employees in this institution would entail each organization having some autonomy on certain aspects of it operations. Merges generate a lot of anxiety among employees. The anxiety exists since most employees are uncertain of the outcomes of the merger. This was a key trigger of the reduced motivation. Such issues should have been addressed by constant briefings on what is transpiring in the organization.

Teamwork Teams are vital in organizations. Teams bring employees with different skills and knowledge together. They integrate their skills and knowledge in undertaking tasks. The working of teams is hindered by various factors such as domination and lack of understanding among the team members. Consequently, there are ideal ways of constituting teams such as the Tuckman’s process. The Tuckman’s process only includes four stages. These stages are forming, storming, norming and performing (O’connell


The women empowerment campaign in India Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction There are different types or forms of marketing strategies that organizations may adopt, for instance, campaigns among others. The campaign is one of the most common marketing strategies adopted by service provider organizations around the globe. Reaching the target group within a short time is easy through campaigns. Campaigns enable organizations and companies to easily reach the target groups within a short time, and using reasonable resources. This is a campaign audit on the women empowerment in India.

Situational analysis Campaign audit

Auditing of campaigns is one of the elements of effective management. It is the duty of the management team to audit campaigns. Campaigns are audited to ensure that the goals and objectives of the given campaign were achieved within the stated deadline during initiation and planning process.

Different campaigns have different goals and objectives and time frame expected for their completion. This campaign was on women empowerment in India. India is one of the fastest developing countries around the globe. In most developing countries, such as India, women and girls are not given equal opportunities to realize their potential.

Management is considered to be the highest rank or level in most organizations. The human resource team should provide fair ground for gender competition during recruitment and selection process (Snyder, 2002).

It has clearly illustrated that woman empowerment cannot only be achieved in the job market, but through implementation of innovative ideas that can assist the company in achieving its goals and objectives too. Moreover, it has clearly indicated and illustrated that women can develop new business ideas that can contribute to increased economic activities.

Additionally, the campaign was aimed at promoting gender equality by encouraging gender balance in all organizations and at all levels of management. The campaign encourages the human resource team to develop strategies that create fair recruitment and selection process. This is important for encouraging gender equality, which has also affected women empowerment in most developing countries (Melkote, 2002).

Aims and objectives of strategy

This campaign had as an objective women empowerment and gender equality promotion. Women are not able to take top management jobs in the economy because they are not honored professionally. This has killed their professional honor in the job market. Furthermore, education provision is not available to many women around the globe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The male child is given priority in education in most developing countries around the globe, which has led to the gender education imbalance. However, this campaign aims at eliminating education imbalance, and promoting equal education provision among male and female children in the society, especially in developing countries (Atkins


Efficient Consumer Response Report (Assessment) online essay help

Introduction Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) is a concept that originated in the United States in late 1980s and early 1990s. ECR emanated from the threats of substitute stores and their supply chain. Trippet (1995) defined ECR as a concept that ensures the grocery chain work smoothly and proficiently in serving the consumers wants (Perona, M. 2004).

ECR makes supply chain more competitive as well as bringing value to the consumer. They are four initiatives that define the Efficient Consumer Response. They include: efficient store assortment, efficient promotion, efficient product introduction and product replenishment (Kurt salmon associates, 1993).

Efficient store assortment – enhances the efficiency storage space use by reducing duplicate merchandise.

Efficient promotion – This is achieved by introducing better alternative promotions such as paying for performance.

Product introduction- this entails the development and promotion of new products to the industry

Product replacement- this is done through a replacement of the damaged products.

Benefit of ERC to supply chain ECR enhances the efficiency between channel members, reduces time between billing and payment, aid in establishing a paperless system and eliminate excess costs (Morgan, R.1999). The sharing of the information in the supply chain enables the companies to have efficient inventories.

ECR ensures that the manufactures, wholesalers and retailers work together as partners and this reduces the total operating cost, inventories and physical resources that are required during the distribution process (Brockman S. 2002). The inventory strategy which is a part of ERC processes involved in the supply chain enables the efficient delivery of better raw materials that results to production of high quality products which in turn satisfy the consumer (Coopers, L1998).

In ECR ensure that the supply and distribution chain run effectively and efficiency. ERC also ensures that there is smooth movement of goods in a warehouse with a minimal disruption and handling of goods. ERC also, plays a big role in labour saving hence enabling the supply chain to gain profit. ERC improves flow of the product from manufacture to retailer.

How ERC increases profit in the supply chain The ECR strategies have greatly led to increase of profit to the supply chain. ECR enhances the creation of a suitable, accurate, and paperless flow of information and it relies on electronic data exchange (EDI). This efficient flow of information between partners ensures that there is a strategic alliance between the supply chain members. The good relationship between the chain supply partners improves financial performance.

This is achieved due to shorter cycle exchange of information (Sansolo, 1993). These strategies enhance conditional efficiency in the chain management which increase profit (Brown, T.A (2001). The ERC goals take out the supply chain costs that are not of consumer value. ECR advances the competence of the chain supply to lessen costs while streamlining these operations. ECR diminishes time and reduces costs in the production of materials.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another impact of ECR is it ability to increase the value adding processes of the product making them best. ECR is composed of strategic initiatives, operational programs and number of enabling technologies that improves it activity and making them effectively. Also, products that are not performing well in the market are replaced with other products so as to improve the quality and value of the goods supplied this led to increase in profit.

How ECR increases efficient in supply chain The Computer Aided Ordering (CAO) enhances efficiency and the smooth movement of goods from suppliers to consumer. CAO is an effective way of meeting consumer needs as orders are well edited and properly stored. The information in these electronic catalogues is usually electronic in nature and this enables faster communications through the modern methods of information transfer such as the internet and mobile phones.

The trade partners are able to receive first hand information faster regardless of the part of the world they may be. This leads to the increase of efficiency of the total supply chain and encouraging inter- operability of world wide. The sharing of the information in the supply chain enables the companies to have efficient inventories.

Category Management (CM) enhances an interactive business process whereby the retailers and manufactures work together to manage supply chain (M. Arango, 1999).This strategy enhances the efficiency in flows of the goods in the supply chain.

How ECR decreases cost in supply chain The ECR program is supported by a number of technologies in decreasing the cost in supply chain management; these are barcode/scanner, Electric Data interchange (EDI), Computer Aided Ordering (CAO), crosses docking and Action Based Costs (ABC) Computer Aided Ordering (CAO), it objective is to speed up store replacement process and ensures that products are ordered on time. The main benefits of CAO are labour savings; dependability and inventory reduction (J.M. Griffin1998).

The labour saving enables the supply chain to reduce the production cost as they employs fewer employees (King, R.P, 1996) Electronic data interchange (EDI) link the local and international exchange of commerce document in a machined processed form hence reducing the transportation cost.

Activity based costing (ABC), this new costing tool ensures that all activities are linked to their costs. Through ABC costing, the costs of various activities are known and this enables the managers to determine costly activities and develop methods of reducing these costs. Continuous replenishment is also used in controlling and monitoring the goods movement from the manufacture to the distributor (Perona, M. 2004).CRP reduces the distributor’s inventory cost hence cut off the production cost.

We will write a custom Assessment on Efficient Consumer Response specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How ECR decrease the risk in supply chain ECR decreases the supply chain risk as it emphasis on production of high quality product to consumer and hence reduces the risk of reluctant for buying the products (Kurnia, S


Domino Pizza Strategy Essay online essay help: online essay help

The analysis for the entry strategy of Domino Pizza is done for the town of Scotsdale, Missouri. The data for the analysis if derived from two sources – American Fact Finder and Bureau of Labor Statistics . We begin with an analysis of the demographic character of Scotsdale.

According to the 2010 census data, the total population of the town of Scotsdale is 222. The age-group wise division of the population shows that most of the population is above 20 and below 50 years and then 27% of the population is above 50 but less than 69 years old.

The median age of the city, is 42.5 years indicating that most of the people tend to be closer to the age 42 years. The male population is higher compared to the female population, as the male to female ratio is 27:28.

Table 1: Age group

Total Percentage of total population Below 20 years 55 24.8 20 to 49 years 89 40.1 50 to 69 years 61 27.5 Above 70 years 17 7.7 The racial composition of the town is almost homogeneous with 99.55 of the population being white and the other 0.5% is American Indians. The total number of households of the town is 81 and 73 out of these are family households. The average household size in the city is 2.74. The median household income is $73,125.

Table 2: Household Income

Household Income Percentage of Households Less than $34000 3 $35000 to $99000 78 Above $100000 19 The household income grouped together in two three categories demonstrate that the maximum number of households in the city belong to the income group of $35000 to $99000. Only 3 percent of the households are found with an income below $34000.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regression Analysis A regression analysis is conducted on the producer price index (PPI) of the US for pizza and PPI for soft drinks . The data are considered as the dependent variable for the products, while other variables such as per capital income, population, wages and salaries, and leading index are taken to be the independent variable. A regression analysis is done using MS Excel and the findings are reported below.

Table 3: regression analysis of price of Pizza

Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.99 R Square 0.99 Adjusted R Square 0.98 Standard Error 3.25 Observations 10 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 4 4378.1 1094.5 103.4 0.0 Residual 5 52.9 10.6 Total 9 4431.1 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% Intercept -1083.5 153.8 -7.0 0.0 -1479.0 -688.0 -1479.0 -688.0 Per capita Income 0.04 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 Population 0.03 0.1 0.4 0.7 -0.2 0.2 -0.2 0.2 Leading Index -3.76 1.2 -3.2 0.0 -6.7 -0.8 -6.7 -0.8 Salaries and wages -0.002 0.0 -5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 This regression analysis actually shows how the price of pizza is dependent on other independent variables such as income, leading index, salaries and wages, population of the area, etc. The analysis shows that the prices of pizzas are positively related to the income and population of the community. However, it shows a negative relation to the leading index and the salaries and wages. The regression equation derived from the analysis is – PPI of pizza = -1083.5 0.04 per capital Income 0.03 Population – 3.76 leading Index – 0.002 salaries and wages.

The analysis shows that the demand for pizzas are directly related to the population size of the community and the per capital income of the community. If these two factors were increasing over time, it would be profitable to open a pizza business.

However, another factor requires attention, that is the demand for soft drinks as the business of pizza, and soft drinks are closely related to each other. This confirms that the price for pizzas are directly related to an increase in income and increase in population of the community, that confirms the demand laws which states that with increase in income demand increases which in turn increases price.

Table 4: Regression analysis of Soft drinks

Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.998 R Square 0.996 Adjusted R Square 0.993 Standard Error 1.282 Observations 10 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 4 2180.57 545.14 331.91 0.00 Residual 5 8.21 1.64 Total 9 2188.78 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% Intercept -614.64 60.59 -10.14 0.00 -770.39 -458.89 -770.39 -458.89 Per capita Income 0.02 0.00 4.91 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.03 Population 0.04 0.03 1.41 0.22 -0.03 0.12 -0.03 0.12 Leading Index -1.51 0.46 -3.31 0.02 -2.69 -0.34 -2.69 -0.34 Salaries and wages -0.001 0.000 -4.824 0.005 -0.001 0.000 -0.001 0.000 The regression analysis of the PPI of soft drinks demonstrates that the price of soft drinks is positively related to the income and population of the community. It, like the PPI of pizzas, also has a negative relation with the leading index and the salaries and wages of the community. The regression equation derived from the analysis is PPI of Soft Drinks = -614.64 0.02 per capita income 0.04 population – 1.51 leading index – 0.001 salaries and wages.

We will write a custom Essay on Domino Pizza Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The analysis confirms that prices of commodities are positively related to the income of the community. Therefore, greater the income, greater is the chances of the product having higher demand in the area. Further, higher the population in the area, greater will be chances of success of the product.

In case of Scotsdale, Missouri, the only problem that Domino will face is its low population level of just 222 people. Thought the median household income of the city is much higher than the national average, but still low population presence in the city may be an area of concern for the company.

Table 5: Future trend

Table 5 demonstrates the trend line that shows the nature of demand, based on the regression analysis that the product will have in the community for the next 4 periods. Shows that the demand for pizzas are expected to rise, and the community is expected to develop over the years. This shows that the price for pizza is expected to rise, leading to an increase in the demand as this price increases with increasing income.

Based on the above forecast it can be safely deduced that Dominos may establish its outlet in Scotsdale.

References Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). CPI. Retrieved from Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web.

United States Census Bureau. (2013). Scotsdale, Missouri. Web.


Operations Decisions in Dairy Commercial Holdings Term Paper best college essay help

About the company Dairy Commercial Holdings is based in North America. The gap in the provision of a wide range pasteurized dairy products created the need to form a dairy company in the area hence the formation of Dairy Commercial Holding. The primary line of business of the company is the production and sale of daily products such as ice cream, frozen desserts, milk packing, yoghurt, and chilled dairy products among others.

Products of the company are sold both in the domestic market and a number of neighboring countries. Dairy Commercial Holding is a public company that was formed by Brigham White in 2003. The owner raised capital from savings, note payable and bonds payable. In 2009, the company was listed on the stock exchange, thus making it a public limited entity.

Environmental scan factors There are a number of models that are commonly used by managers to carry out environment scanning of their businesses. When making major business decisions, it is important to carry out an analysis of the possible impact of the decision on the business environment. Some of the models are PEST, SWOT and PESTEL.

Based on these approaches, some of the factors that managers will focus on comprise of political, economic, social – cultural, technological, environmental, and legal factors. Out of the six factors, economic and legal factors are the most important in making decisions on whether to continue or to stop the operations of the business (Bhattacharyya, 2011).

The economic factors will give information on the cost of production and the profitability of the company. It will further give information on various variables in the economy such as interest rate, exchange rate that are likely to affect future growth of the company.

On the other hand, legal factors give management information on the various laws that might affect their decision. Some of the important laws are consumer law and employment law. All the other factors are significant however, economic and legal factors will have more impact on making the decision to close or continue with operations (Siddiqui, 2005).

Evaluation of financial performance of the business Total cost of workers in a month

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More = 100 * 20 * $70 = $140,000

Cost of other variable input in a month (20 working days in a month)

= $2,000 * 20 = $40,000

Total variable cost in a month = $140,000 $40,000 = $180,000

Variable cost per unit = Total variable cost / total number of units

= 180,000 / 6,000

= $30

We will write a custom Term Paper on Operations Decisions in Dairy Commercial Holdings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Total cost = fixed cost variable cost

The integral of marginal cost gives the total cost. Thus, from the marginal cost, we can obtain the total cost.

Total cost = 30Q C

Where Q = units of output

C = constant of integration and it represents the fixed cost

Assume that the value of the fixed cost (C) is $100,000.

Profit = Total revenue (TR) – total cost (TC)

Total revenue = price * units of output

Not sure if you can write a paper on Operations Decisions in Dairy Commercial Holdings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More = 32 * 6,000

= 192,000

Total cost = fixed cost variable cost

= 100,000 180,000

= 380,000

Profit = 192,000 – 280,000

= (88,000)

Based on the calculations above, a simple marginal cost statement can be generated as presented in the table below.

Dairy Commercial Holdings

Marginal cost statement

As at the end of the month of July, 2013

Sales revenue 192,000 Variable cost Labor 140,000 Variable input 40,000 180,000 Gross profit 12,000 Fixed cost 100,000 Profit (loss) (88,000) It can be observed that the company is making a loss. The sales revenue can adequately cover the variable cost of production but cannot cover the fixed cost of production. This implies that it will take the company a long period of time to recover initial costs of investment.

How to improve profitability There are a number of ways through which a business can improve profitability. All these ways should be used jointly. The first plan is to reduce the variable costs specifically labor.

This can be achieved by reducing the number of workers for example from 100 to 70. Secondly, the management should increase the number of units it produces and sells. The break even number of units for the company is 50,000 units. Therefore, management should increase production and sales from 6,000 units to a minimum of 50,000 units for it to cover the total costs.

Circumstances under which the company should discontinue its operations The decision to shut down is made by the management of a company when the revenues earned from the goods produced and sold cannot cover the variable cost of production. Based on the calculations presented in the table above, it is clear that the revenues can cover the variable costs of production. However, the revenue does not adequately cover the fixed cost of production. Thus, Dairy Commercial

Holdings should not be shut down in the short run. A major qualitative factor that management should consider before shutting down is the business surrounding. A favorable business environment will facilitate achievement of the various estimates provided in the cost benefit analysis (McGuigan, Moyer,


Financial Meltdown of 2008 Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help

Introduction The 2007-2008 financial crisis has considered to be the most threatening and largest economic recession since the times of the Great Depression.

It caused destruction of international monetary system and became the precursor of European debt crisis. The total failure of financial institution was also another serious risk that the financial crisis created. Stock markets and housing marketing also experienced hardships, leading to foreclosures and evictions.

One of the major reasons for the collapses includes the crash of the housing bubble in the United States, the phenomenon that undermined sub-prime mortgages. The financial crisis was also determined by a sophisticated interaction of reforms encouraging home ownership and over-evaluation of the credit market.

In the documentaries Inside the Meltdown and Breaking the Bank, the attention is given to the role of the housing bubble in creating the financial recession and breakdown of the leading financial institutions. Specifically, Inside the Meltdown focuses on the previous cases of credit market pitfalls that were not considered properly (Frontline 2013a).

What is more threatening is that most of the financial experts did not attain much importance to the dramatically declined figures. As a result, the crisis has changed entirely the financial system, but the news has spread immediately about the impossibility of the business companies and financial institutions to estimate the actual damages that the consequences of house bubbling caused to the economic system.

In Breaking the Bank, the focus is made on participants and victims of the crash of the financial system and credit market (Frontline 2013b). While discussing personalities, such as Merrill Lynch who was in charge of a privilege position, the documentary pays attention to his high competence and professionalism that, however, did not help him avert the crisis.

The financial meltdown of 2008 could be a great lesson for the leading financial institutions, as well as for those who are interested in sub-prime mortgages. Consumers, therefore, should examine carefully opportunities and threats that this venture could provide to them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These documentaries are beneficial for financial experts who should reconsider their credit policy and develop powerful structures and coping mechanisms to deal with economic recessions effectively.

In the pursuit of money, simple decisions and fast methods for gaining profit are not always the solutions. Analysis of political and economic backgrounds is also necessary for the financial institutions to evaluate the capacity of the world economy, as well as restructure the crediting system.

The documentaries succinctly represent a one-dimensional outlook on the predetermined conditions of the financial crisis. Interviews with the people from Wall Street, business managers, and chief executive officers have provided a broader insight into the case.

At this point, it is necessary to search for additional statistics about the crisis to justify the events described in the documentary. Additionally, analysis of personal attitudes and perceptions is another important stance that could be considered while watching the films.

In conclusion, it should be stressed that the burst out of the house bubbling has become the precursor of financial crisis, leading to the breakdown of the world’s leading financial institutions and banks. In the documentaries under analysis, emphasis is placed on the political, economic, and psychological aspects of the crisis of the credit market, as well as attitudes and perceptions on the part of specialists and victims of the economic recession.

References Frontline. (2013a). Breaking the Bank. PBS Video. Retrieved from

Frontline. (2013b) Inside the Meltdown. PBS Video. Retrieved from

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Xerox: Company Analysis Research Paper essay help: essay help

The ever-increasing technological pace has led to some companies legging behind in ancient hardware and unneeded services. Some have been able to barely survive while others have found ways to prosper and adjust to changing times. Xerox is one such company that is determined to flourish in the market and innovate its business techniques to suit the demanding times.

One of the ways Xerox has been able to serve a large amount of customers is by creating business partners and offering comprehensive packages that include a number of services. More specifically, it offers help in developing the business and taking care of the necessary tasks. Any business has a lot of paperwork and detailed processes that must be complete for the business to develop and move forward.

The advertisements, numerous flyers, documentation and dealing with customers are only a few services that Xerox offers. Xerox has also shifted a great amount of resources towards its customers and was able to better the already existing relations.

The number of locations has increased, enabling customers to ask any necessary questions and raise concerns, find out the specifics and data needed for the business, as well as financial and accounting services. It is also widening its global services and partnerships with other companies. Parts of the world that are starting to develop create a great market for businesses. The establishments of new agreements in countries such as India and China have opened up more ways and opportunities for partnerships and economic growth.

A great amount of innovation was in the changes of the company itself. The pressures from laser scanners, file transference, enhanced networking and technological advances in general, have forced changes to the company. As the common age is becoming clean energy oriented, Xerox has been able to lower costs and offer reasonable solutions.

Many governmental companies have a higher responsibility to avoid any pollution or over usage of energy, and Xerox has been a good resource to such businesses. It has been dealing directly with the federal government, as well as individuals, to provide cost efficient energy uses for the business and people’s homes.

Another important change was in healthcare, which is valued highly by governments and private citizens. Xerox understands the demands and needs for healthcare and has taken a step towards bettering the management and administration in the provision of healthcare.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are services that are primarily based on health information distribution, exchange of the needed advances, beneficial pharmaceutical progress, electronic databases in health records and a close management and organization of cases. It is clear that Xerox is very much involved in a lot of governmental and social aspects of life (Xerox, 2013).

The success of any company is based on the competitive market and advantages that a certain business can offer. Xerox has put extra focus on the internal scientific research, engineering breakthroughs and partnering companies that are interested in the common goal. The entrepreneurial potential of Xerox has also been on the rise, giving new abilities and ventures to do business with.

The innovation committee has been working on the implementation of new technologies into the global market and local customer population. Even though the primary business structure of Xerox has had some changes, it is still very much needed in the business world.

The success of every company lies in its management and internal structure. Xerox has been able to adjust to the technological changes and enhance it services and products, so that the company stays as popular as before.

Reference Xerox. (2013). Retrieved from


Managing Change and Innovation in Worley Parson Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

External Forces

Internal Forces

Streamlining Operations


Introduction Change and innovation are crucial aspects of management in any organization. Worley Parson’s management seeks to create improvements in its operations to allow change and innovation to have a positive impact. The firm’s management seeks to include all stakeholders in this vision to ensure that the company’s work systems improve.

Therefore, it is necessary for the management to consult workers and make them prepared of changes which they will face while working in the organization (Thomke 2003, p. 45).

They need to encourage workers to be more open to changes in operations to make their work environments conducive for various innovative practices. This will make them resilient and open minded to different situation at the work place. This paper will make recommendations on how Worley Parsons Company needs to initiate change management and innovative practices.

Worley Parsons’ management needs to make all employees understand that change and innovation have a positive role to play in the organization. There are various external and internal factors which drive an organization to change its processes to make it more competitive in the market.

The firm’s managers need to take an active role in preparing their organizations for change to create a culture of continuous learning in the organization (Thomke 2003, p. 49). They need to act as change agents to encourage employees to improve internal work procedures which have a direct contribution to performance and growth.

Worley Parsons’ managers need to understand external and internal forces, which require the organization to change and innovate its operations. These forces determine the direction which the firm moves and the manner it is likely to operate in the market.

External Forces External forces such as changes in customer needs and expectations, increase in competition, availability of new technology and changes in industry outlook, influence change and innovation. Worley Parsons needs to make its employees aware of these external forces to ensure they learn how to deal with them when they occur.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Changes in customer needs and expectations require the organization to improve the quality of its products to make them satisfy customers’ preferences and needs (Mosey 2005, p. 115). The introduction of innovative processes will enable the company to improve the design and quality of its products to strengthen their reputation in the market.

Worley Parsons needs to encourage constant learning in the organization to make employees have better attitudes to work. It is necessary for the firm to create a conducive work environment which encourages employees to use their creative instincts to achieve positive work outcomes.

Technology has a crucial effect on the organization. Therefore, Worley Parsons needs to implement changes in its policies to make various organizational processes benefit from technological improvements. Effective training needs to be done to all employees to make them acquire strong technological skills to make them more effective in their duties.

Worley Parsons needs to have a strong team of employees who constantly assess technology needs in the organization and how these needs can be addressed. In essence, technologies chosen need to be appropriate for functions which are performed in the firm to ensure they contribute positively to the process of innovation.

Any increase in competition in the market compels a firm to initiate appropriate changes in its operations to strengthen its market position (Mosey 2005, p. 119). Therefore, managers of Worley Parsons need to make their employees more skilled to enable them contribute new ideas to help the organization maintain its competitive edge in the market.

Internal Forces There are several internal forces which require a firm to change the way it operates to enable it move effectively into a new direction. A strategic shift in Worley Parsons’ business objectives may create appropriate conditions for the introduction of changes the firm’s operations.

Workers need to be informed on the importance of this change in strategy and how this affects their relationship to the organization. Workers need to be assured that a strategic shift in organizational objectives will not threaten their status to make them more committed (Mosey 2005, p.122).

We will write a custom Assessment on Managing Change and Innovation in Worley Parson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will make them improve their contribution to various work processes, which will help the firm to benefit from innovative practices. Worley Parson’s workers need to be assured that the firm takes their interests seriously to enable them share its vision. This will motivate them to work harder to achieve positive results.

Other internal forces which may compel an organization to introduce change include workers’ attitudes, introduction of new equipment and changes in work processes. Worley Parsons’ management needs to implement effective strategies that encourage workers to embrace organizational changes, which are caused by these factors.

Workers may have negative attitudes towards work due to poor job design or weak relationships with their superiors. This in turn impacts negatively on their ability to perform (Davila, Epstein Shelton 2006, p. 78). Therefore, workers should be made aware of any changes in equipment and work processes to make them perform their roles more effectively. This approach stimulates their creativity to come up with new concepts, which makes it possible for the organization to develop new products and services.

Streamlining Operations The firm needs to have a clear policy which addresses the way change and innovation concepts are related to its overall objectives. Worley Parsons’ management needs to manage expectations of their employees effectively to ensure change initiatives which are introduced have the desired impact.

All costs which are associated with the change proposed need to be evaluated to estimate returns which the organization stands to gain. Worley Parsons needs to put in place appropriate mechanisms which measure how changes and innovations in the firm add value to its operations.

The management needs to evaluate how innovations in the firm’s internal and external functions will contribute positively to its growth in the market (Davila, Epstein Shelton 2006, p. 82). This evaluation will help managers to allocate resources to satisfy priority needs in the organization.

Worley Parsons’ managers need to assess ideas which are generated by creative thinking processes in the organization. All innovative processes which are proposed in the organization need to be evaluated for their value proposition and competitive advantage before they are effected. Worley Parsons also needs to encourage employees to collaborate to develop plans on how concepts, which are developed internally can be applied to the market.

This will make it easy for the organization to develop products which add value to customers in the market (Davila, Epstein Shelton 2006, p. 87). This approach will enable the business firm to invest in development of products which are viable in the market to ensure efficient utilization of resources.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Change and Innovation in Worley Parson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Davila, T, Epstein, MJ


Abu Dhabi Wind Energy Report essay help free: essay help free

Executive Summary Abu Dhabi is under pressure to supply power to meet its growing economy. As a result, the rate of energy consumption has overtaken the rate of production. Thus, it must look for alternative sources of renewable energy. Wind energy is among the best solutions Abu Dhabi can exploit to meet its energy needs. The report covers energy crisis in Abu Dhabi, wind energy as a potential source of renewable energy for Abu Dhabi, and recommendations.

The survey showed that there was overwhelming support for wind energy as a source of clean and renewable energy in Abu Dhabi. Though there are few challenges, the overall impacts of wind energy in Abu Dhabi counter such challenges. Besides, Abu Dhabi can overcome most challenges through proper site selection, mapping, and continuous research in wind energy.

Introduction Many people believe that the top oil-rich nation would not focus on other sources of energy. However, wind energy is the next source of renewable energy that would ensure clean environment and sustainable use of natural resources for Abu Dhabi. Energy experts have projected that currently available sources of electricity and energy in Abu Dhabi would be insufficient, expensive, and cause harm to the environment in the future.

Project Description

Abu Dhabi has the responsibility of providing clean and renewable energy to its citizens. Based on the pressure on the available electricity, Abu Dhabi needs wind energy power in order to balance some demands for electrical energy in its major cities. This would also reduce the level of carbon footprint in the region. Specifically, Abu Dhabi has installed some wind energy plant at Sir Bani Yas in the west coast. These projects have harnessed wind energy resources and eased the demand on the national grid by producing renewable energy.

Abu Dhabi aims to use some of the largest turbines to generate its wind energy. The plant would generate power that would be conveyed to the station by using underground conduits for the project. The project should target the entire Abu Dhabi. However, Abu Dhabi must focus on energy intensive desalination plants in order to reduce dependence on electric energy and then spread the project to other regions.

Scope of the Study

The need to identify areas with the potential to generate wind energy

Develop a database of renewable energy potential in the country

Identify project issues like quality of the wind, land use, city planning, and protection of natural resources, parks, fire hazards, and agricultural land use.

Potential impacts

Report Format

This report has three important sections apart from introduction and background information. The report presents survey participants, methods of data collection, and the place of data collection. It also presents results of the survey, and conclusion, and recommendation based on the study results.

Background Wind is moving air. Wind energy comes from the harvested wind by using turbines that can generate electricity. The generated mechanical energy can provide power for running various tasks like desalination plants, water pumps, and even running conveyor belts. Still, it can generate electricity for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, a number of nations have embarked on wind energy as a source of electricity. Wind is a renewable energy because it is present. On the same note, the oil-rich Abu Dhabi has focused on renewable energy in order to establish a new chapter in energy production (Wang, 2011). However, developing wind energy has been a tough project than initially anticipated.

Lara El Saad noted that Abu Dhabi would face a major energy challenges in the future (Saad, 2011). The country would not be able to “provide enough natural gas to meet the seven percent to ten percent yearly growth in electricity demand continuing up to 2020” (Saad, 2011). Figure 1 shows that the usage of natural gas has overtaken production in the region, and trend continues to rise.

Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Company (ADWEC) noted that Abu Dhabi generates its electricity from gas turbines and steam, turbines, and diesel engines. However, the use of diesel to generate electricity has decline in the past few years.

Figure 1: Consumption


The movie Rebel Without a Cause Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

This paper is aimed at discussing the sequence from the movie Rebel Without a Cause. In particular, it is necessary to discuss the trip to the planetarium that is located in the Griffith Observatory. One should discuss how the elements of the mise-en-scène used in this section of the movie are related to the narrative presented in this film. Overall, it is possible to say that this sequence helps the author in several ways.

First of all, in this ways they can better introduce the main characters of the movie, especially the protagonist called Jim. Furthermore, this part throws light on his relations with other people. Finally, this section of the film is important for introducing some of the main theme such as the alienation of the main character and his attempt to establish relations with his peers.

This goal is achieved with different with the help of sound, camera movement, editing, and various types of shots. This is the main issues that should be examined in more detail.

This sequence starts with a wide shot that lasts for approximately seven seconds. One can see that the camera is trucked which means that it is moved from left to right (Zettl 2011, p. 96). In the way, the authors show the neighborhood in the vicinity to the Griffith Observatory which the scene was taken (Stephens 2011, p. 104; Ray 1955).

This element may be of great importance to the film-makers. Probably, they want to emphasize that the protagonist lives in a very prosperous community in which an individual has many opportunities. Additionally, the viewers can see that Jims drives a very expensive car that cannot be easily afforded by others. So, one can say that the first shot of this sequence is very informative. It is important for the in-depth analysis of the entire movie.

However, the most important elements of the mise-en-scène can be found in the later shots of the sequence. The authors attempt to portray the behavior of students who are sitting in the lecture hall. During this part of the movie, the operator takes a close shot of people with whom Jim will later encounter.

In particular one can speak about Buzz, who will later bully Jim, and his girl-friend Judy (Ray 1955). This camera operator enables the viewer to take a close look at the relations among teenagers who do not accept the rules accepted in the adults. To some extent, this goal is achieved with the help of close-up shots.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This scene shows that teenagers can behave deviantly even despite their own intentions. For instance, Jim parodies the lecturer who speaks about various constellations. This is one of the main issues that should be taken into account when discussing the actions of the main characters.

This part of the sequence is edited through a series of cuts when the camera operator switches from one character to another. For example, the viewers can see Buzz and Judy who want to demonstrate their intimate relations to others. Furthermore, the film-makers intend to show Jim’s aloofness or alienation from others.

However, at the same time, the protagonist wants to be accepted by others. This is one of the reasons why he moos when the lecture describes the constellation of Taurus (Ray 1955). In this way, he tries to show that he is not different from other teenagers who want to act in a deviant way (Newman, 2008, p. 355). This aspect is emphasized because the authors because they strive to describe the main motives that affect the attitudes of adolescents.

They can often act in a deviant manner only to gain the loyalty of their peers (Newman, 2008, p. 355). So, the need to raise his status in the eyes of his peers is the main factor that influence Jim’s actions. This is one of the elements that can be identified. This issue is critical for discussing Jim’s relations with others.

This sequence incorporates both diegetic and non-diegetic sounds. First of all, one should focus on the voices of the lecturer and people who attend the presentation (Ray 1955). These people have various interests, attitude, and goals. Additionally, it is important to remember about music which is used to highlight the experiences of Jim.

He is definitely fascinated with the lecture, but he does not want to show his attitudes toward other people, especially adolescents. He is afraid of doing it because by revealing his attitudes he can only become alienated from his peers. This is one of the things that he tries to avoid. So, this internal conflict is the main problem that Jim wants to resolve. However, he cannot easily cope with dilemma.

This sequences ends when Jim and Plato leave the lecture hall. The viewers can notice that these teenagers have befriended one another. Moreover, they are rejected by other adolescents, especially Buzz and his friends. Overall, this sequence should not be disregarded for several reasons. In particular, it shows that Jim is not a person who can easily establish relations with other people.

We will write a custom Essay on The movie Rebel Without a Cause specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He sets stress on his independence from others, but at the same time, he is influenced by peer pressure. The authors of this film use such elements as camera movement, shots, sounds, and editing in order to describe the conduct of these teenagers and their interactions with one another. These are the main techniques that are adopted in this film.

On the whole, this discussion indicates that the planetarium sequence is vital for introducing various themes that are explored in the movie. The Rebel Without a Cause give the viewers insights into the experiences of a teenager who want to discover his identity. This individual has to reconcile two priorities such as the need to retain his independence and the desire to establish relations with other people. The use of camera, sound, and editing help the film-makers explore these themes in greater detail.

References Stephens, E 2011, Griffith Park, Arcadia Publishing, New York.

Newman, B 2008, Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach, Cengage Learning, New York.

Ray, N 1955, Rebel Without a Cause, Warner Bros, Los Angeles.

Zettl, H 2011, Video Basics, Cengage Learning, Boston.


Accounting Cycle: Common Steps Exploratory Essay essay help

Accounting cycle is a series of activities that that shows the entire process a transaction goes through from start to end. These processes are repeated in each accounting period. The paper discusses the accounting cycle of the office of the chief financial officer. The cycle follows some common steps.

The first step is identification of the transaction and the events which surround the transaction. The second step focuses on the putting together source documents of the transaction. The third step entails examining and putting the transactions into classes. This step entails ascertaining the monetary value of the transactions and identifying the accounts where the transaction will be posted.

At this stage, the persons involved also identify whether to pass a credit or debit entry on the accounts affected. The fourth step involves recording the transactions into journals. These journals depend on the nature of the transactions. The fifth step entails sorting out the entries in the general journal.

Once sorted, the entries are posted to various ledger accounts. It is important to point out that these first five steps occur repeatedly throughout the accounting cycle that is from start to the end of the accounting cycle. The subsequent steps occur at the end of the financial year. The sixth step entails preparation of the trial balance.

The trial balance shows a summary of ledger accounts maintained in an accounting period. It shows the debit and credit balances from the ledger accounts. The trial balance has no significant accounting meaning. It only helps in identifying errors while posting transactions because, in the presence of errors, the debit and credit balances will not be in agreement.

The seventh step entails correcting the errors in the trial balance. The corrections can only be executed if the credit and debit balance are not tallied. The errors can be caused by wrong posting of transactions or omission during posting of transactions (Hunt, Kieso, Weygandt


International Assignees to High Risk Places Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Should Firms Venture into Risky Areas

What Employers Should Do if Employees Are Kidnapped

Protection to International Assignees

Workplace Support for Employees

Introduction Multinational companies especially those dealing with natural resources are often compelled to operate in several places of the world. It is vital to note that the inputs needed by firms can sometimes be found in very interior places and in countries far from the host country. Unfortunately, in places where the minerals and other vital resources are found abundantly criminal groups have sprung up.

In some places, these groups are well organized and have taken control of the resources as their main income earning activity. Consequently, these areas become highly risky to operate in especially for big companies which are known to be financially stable.

Should Firms Venture into Risky Areas Usually, multinational firms find themselves in situations where they have to choose whether to invest in some areas or not. Terramundo Drilling incorporation chose to involve itself in drilling of diamond in Columbia an area known to be under the control of Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC).

It should be noted that it is upon any firm to ensure that enough care is taken regarding the security of a place to invest. Investing in a place where kidnapping is the order of the day is not such a good idea. To begin with, the amount of money that can be requested by the kidnappers may sometimes be too high for the firm thus leading to increase min operational costs. Terramundo did not make a wise decision to invest in a place where they knew exactly what to expect.

Additionally, it is quite impossible to determine what the kidnappers may demand when they hold somebody hostage. Therefore, Terramundo would not purport to have done research and thus new with certainty the turn of events. On the same note, there is a possibility of people being killed when the deal with kidnapers goes wrong. Consequently, investing in a place with a lot of kidnapping and guerilla activities is certainly not a good decision.

What Employers Should Do if Employees Are Kidnapped Kidnappers are in their business solely for money. They therefore will not hesitate to hold hostage anybody from whom they will be assured of high sum of money. Consequently, when an employee has been kidnapped management should ensure that they seek for services of experts.

Similarly, high ranking managers are highly discouraged from involving themselves directly in negotiations with the kidnappers. In this regard, Reinhart did not act wisely by personally taking the ransom to the kidnappers. It is understandable that any employer should be concerned with the welfare of his or her employees. However, Reinhart presenting himself to the kidnappers was wrong because kidnappers are always concerned with how they can increase their bargaining power.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reinhart would have chosen to involve the services of a professional who has information on how to deal with kidnappers. Similarly, he would have used different modes of communication to negotiate with the kidnappers and then send a different person to deliver the ransom. He would have also involved the police who would have known what to do. However, it has been rumored that involving the police reduces the chances of the captive making it alive.

Protection to International Assignees It is upon international firms especially those operating in risky areas to protect their employee against any perceived danger. It is quite difficult for any firm to accurately guess the amount of money that will be enough to cover for ransoms and keep it a side. Fortunately, insurance firms have come up with a kidnap and ransom insurance coverage. These type of insurance covers the employee incase the kidnappers ask for any amount of ransom. On the same note, the insurance firm has expatriates in negotiations who handle the issue.

On the other hand, firms operating in risky areas need to train their employees on how to handle themselves in those areas. Human resource management should put in place programs designed to educate their international assignees on how to adjust to the cultural and political climate of their host countries.

Additionally, the employees should be informed on the expected behavior incase they are kidnapped. On the same note, the employees need to be aware of the duration it can take to secure their freedom and the measure the company will take in the event when there is a kidnap.

Workplace Support for Employees Gone are the days when only foreigners used to be victims of kidnaps. Nowadays, even the locals are targeted by kidnappers provided they work for a reputable firm. Therefore both home-country and host-country employees should be accorded the same kind of support regarding their safety.

It is important to note that life is life and whether it is a foreigner or a local kidnapped they both face the same risk. Though many people will argue that foreigners are highly susceptible because they are thought to be rich, it is also quite easy to know a local who is earning more. As shown from the Reinhart case, the majority of people kidnapped were mainly locals.


Correlation between Poverty and Obesity Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Obesity in the UK

Obesity in the US

Is There Any Correlation Between Poverty and Obesity?


List of References

Introduction Over the last few years, there has been a concern about the rising cases of obesity in the United Kingdom (UK). It is worrying that obesity may soon become an epidemic in the country. In the UK and other Western nations, the poor are now, for the first time in history, proportionately the most obese in the population groups.

There is the need to address this concern because as opposed to the usual perception that obesity varies by gender, age, and income among other factors, economic deprivation is now believed to be causing the disease. The changing lifestyles that link obesity to income seem to be on the rise.

The present discussion is complicated because of the fact that there are other several factors that might cause obesity, which is unrelated to poverty levels. However, latest research on the intricate links between obesity and poverty in the United States (US) shows uniformity for women and children from low socio-economic status (SES).

This paper discusses the correlation between obesity and poverty in the UK but also refers to situation in the US. Although the title suggests a link between poverty and obesity, it has not been proved and this essay is an attempt to examine many factors that contribute to impacts of poverty.

The present research seeks to achieve this through assessing the suggestion that today in the Western nations; the poor are now, for the first time in history, proportionately the most obese in the population groups. The paper will also attempt to establish whether there is a correlation between obesity and poverty as well as provide a summary of the crucial issues identified in the discussion.

Obesity in the UK It is notable that the proportion of the UK population with obesity has escalated significantly between 1993 and 2009. The increase has been 13 percent for males in 1993 to 22 percent in 2009. Conversely, the population proportion for females has escalated from 16 percent in 1993 to 24 percent in 2009 (The Poverty Site, 2011).

Furthermore, 22 percent of the working population presently has obesity. This percentage is significantly higher when compared with the case in 1993 when only 14 percent of the working population lived with obesity (The Poverty Site 2011). It is also notable that both men and women have similar chances of developing obesity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to point out that there is no apparent correlation between obesity and income. This is because the population groups with the lowest incidences of obesity include poor males and rich females. Furthermore, there is no clear correlation between fatness and social class (The Poverty Site, 2011). There is a general feeling among experts that the obesity problem in the country is not worse and the trend may be flattening out.

Obesity in the US The obesity problem in the US is significantly different from the situation in the UK. America apparently has the highest obesity rates. This is because one – third proportion of the population has obesity. In addition, another one – third of the population is overweight (Levine, 2011).

As opposed to the situation in the UK, obesity problem in the US is likely to worsen. Child obesity is also a major predicament in the US There are some environmental influences, which influence obesity.

Is There Any Correlation Between Poverty and Obesity? There is a consensus that varying household’s socio-economic level influences differing obesity incident levels. This is because the socio-economic levels that determine food security, defined by Zizza, Duffy and Gerrior (2008) as “limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways” is fluctuating significantly.

Notably, obesity incidences among women escalate with increasing levels of poverty (Levine, 2011). However, the level of poverty among men causes diverse obesity incidences, which form according to the varying occupations held. It is apparent that high poverty levels among women escalate their chances of developing obesity (Levine, 2011).

There is a considerable correlation between food deficiency and obesity for males and females in Britain. The correlation is observable when the prevalence levels for obesity are studied across economically deprived populations. It is notable that fatness prevalence levels escalate or stagnates at similar rates when compared against deprivation (Levine, 2011).

In England, 30 percent of females and 25 percent of males described as the most economically poor in the society are obese. The figures changes to 19 percent for females and 22 percent for males among wealthy people. Notably, the changes in the figures do not show large differences pertaining to the strength of the correlation between obesity and economic deprivation (Department of Health, 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Correlation between Poverty and Obesity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arguing that economic deprivation causes obesity becomes more confusing when studying the same across the population of children. The boys who have the lowest chances of developing obesity are slightly the poor ones (Department of Health, 2011). The trend changes slightly among girls because those who develop obesity are within the median income levels (Levine, 2011). Generally, children from economically deprived households frequently experience challenges with nutrition. This has undesirable influence on the youngsters’ mental health and well-being, which in the long-term may become a contributing factor to obesity.

Lobstein, Baur and Uauy (2004), also support this concern by arguing that in the industrialized nations such as the UK and the US youngsters in economically deprived groups are at utmost danger of developing obesity. It is notable that introducing overweight into the analysis process complicates the understanding on the relationship.

In Britain, people have continued adding weight while their food purchase rates have been declining over the decades. Therefore, it can be said that the changing lifestyle and eating behaviors may be causing obesity. This also has a link with the peoples’ engagement with physical activities (Franklin, Jones, Love et al., 2012).

It indicates that people are engaging in less physical activity sessions because of the changes brought about by globalization and technological advancement. These developments make people to enjoy sedentary life in the high and low-income households (Lobstein, Baur and Uauy, 2004).

There are studies linking sedentary lifestyles such as working with the technological materials, including playing video games and watching television for several hours to obesity. Therefore, while discussing the correlation between economic deprivation and obesity there is the need to study the sedentary lifestyles adopted by people in high and low-income areas (Zizza, Duffy and Gerrior, 2008).

The nutritional value of the food that people consume has a significant impact on obesity development. This is particularly in reference to the amount of fat and its nutritional value in the food consumed. The income earned by households influences their food intake. It is noteworthy that the differences in food consumption reveal no major gaps under varying income groups (Franklin et al., 2012).

For example, looking at two different scenarios involving an individual from the least economically sustainable household and another one from the richest household, their calories consumption does not show major differences Franklin et al., 2012).

However, the people who are not very poor and not very rich may consume more calories than the poorest mad richest individuals may. This indicates that there is a weak correlation between economic deprivation and obesity (Lobstein, Baur and Uauy, 2004). Furthermore, this brings up additional concerns such as changing lifestyles that makes people to avoid engaging in physical activities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Correlation between Poverty and Obesity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The claim for the changing lifestyle is strengthened by the notion that readily processed high-calorie foodstuffs are cheaper for the low-income earners (Levine, 2011).

It is notable that even supermarkets located in the neighborhoods of economically deprived individuals normally stock more unhealthy foods. Therefore, the economically deprived households will prefer the cheaper and unhealthy foods, which are high in calorie, thereby increasing their chances for developing obesity (Lobstein, Baur and Uauy, 2004).

In the US, the issues may be similar as pointed out by Levine (2011). A study conducted by Levine (2011) to establish the link between “poverty and obesity in the US” generated helpful findings. The study raised the issue that Americans living in the poorest neighborhoods were more likely to develop obesity (Kaiser, Smith and Allison, 2012).

The study indicates that people living in low-income areas are underprivileged in terms of access to food. Furthermore, the economically deprived individuals lack access to clean and fresh foodstuff. They also have challenges of accessing sufficient food (Cassell


The Military Development of Post-Mao China Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents The First Steps to the Reforms

The Strategic Development during the 1990s

The Chinese Military Development in the 2000s


The period of the Chinese post-Mao development is characterized by a lot of changes in all the spheres of the people’s life in the country. The sphere of the national security and military forces was also influenced by developing new progressive tendencies. The process of the military development in post-Mao China can be divided into three stages which are the periods of 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.

In spite of the fact each period is influenced by different notions, it is possible to accentuate three key notions significant for the military development stated at the start of the process of transformations and reforms. These notions are sovereignty, modernity, and stability (Finkelstein, 1999, p. 103). The concepts of sovereignty, modernity, and stability became influential for determining the main objectives and principles of the Chinese military development during the post-Mao era.

The First Steps to the Reforms The necessity of the reforms to modernize the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the military sphere in general was declared after the war with Vietnam in 1979 (Singh, 2011, p.48). The problematic issues were determined to provide the necessary changes to the sector. The accents were made on changing the outdated technologies and equipment, on developing progressive strategies, and training the personnel.

It was important to pay attention to the army’s structure and its size. In spite of the fact the proposed transformations can be discussed as typical for the process of the sphere’s development, the differences were in the country’s orientation to gaining the military superiority in the region (Fravel, 2008).

The Strategic Development during the 1990s China adopted the strategy of the country’s military development in 1993, and the strategy is still current (Fravel, 2008, p. 126). It is stated in the strategic plan that China requires “a new type of defense establishment and a new military strategic direction” (Finkelstein, 1999, p. 108).

Thus, such strategic concepts as “nuclear deterrence, political work, forward defense, and army building” were proposed for following while developing the country’s military sector (Finkelstein, 1999, p. 130). To meet the requirements of modernizing the sphere, the definite transformations were proposed to bring changes to the army, to provide reforms in the navy and air forces.

The accents were made on the reduction of the army size, but intensification of its possibilities with references to the modernization. It was also necessary to provide the army with the high-technology equipment, to accentuate the necessity of using the new information technologies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To guarantee the battlefield dominance, it was important to change the methods of military training and provide the reforms in the professional military education system (Finkelstein, 1999; Singh, 2011). Thus, the personnel system was also reformed according to the new strategy’s principles with references to intensifying the persons’ education in relation to the usage of upgrading information technologies (Bitzinger, 2011).

The Chinese Military Development in the 2000s During the 2000s, the process of the military forces’ modernization developed significantly in relation to the global changes in the military sphere and progressive tendencies.

The Chinese military forces’ structure was reformed, and the orientation to the “smaller, more agile and flexible units that are designed to win regional wars in the digital era with full use of information, communications and surveillance technologies” is observed today (Singh, 2011, p.47). It is necessary to note that the further effective development of the military forces in China became possible with basing on the previous reforms and transformations implemented in the sphere (Singh, 2011).

The realization of the reforms developed according to the strategic plan led to modernizing the Chinese military forces and to improving the country’s possibilities in the sphere of defense (Bitzinger, 2011). Such areas as missile attack, precision-strike, power projection at sea and in the air, and joint operations were worked out and improved with references to using the new technologies and methods in providing the national defense (Bitzinger, 2011).

Today, the level of the Chinese military development allows speaking about the effective competition with such countries as the USA, Taiwan, and Japan as a result of implementing the modernizing reforms successfully (Bitzinger, 2011). Furthermore, nowadays China “prepares to achieve its strategic goals by strengthening or developing three general military capabilities: internal control, area denial around its periphery, and limited regional force projection” (Fravel, 2008, p. 129).

It is possible to conclude that the changes, transformations, and reforms implemented to the military sphere of post-Mao China during several decades affected the military status of the country significantly with references to changing the priorities in structuring and organizing forces and using methods of defense and attack.

The accents were made on following the strategy of modernizing the sector to achieve the leading positions in the region. The notions of sovereignty, modernity, and stability became the key points for working out the principles and aspects of the Chinese military development according to the national military strategy. Today, China continues following the strategy to accentuate the superior positions and local dominance.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Military Development of Post-Mao China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Bitzinger, R. (2011). Modernising China’s military, 1997-2012. China Perspectives, 4(88), 7-15.

Finkelstein, D. (1999). China’s national military strategy. Web.

Fravel, M. T. (2008). China’s search for military power. The Washington Quarterly, 31(3), 125-141.

Singh, J. V, (2011). Chinese defence forces: Modernisation after 1980. Web.


West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority Essay best essay help: best essay help

The key ambition of West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority is making its area of operation safer by facilitating efficient, safety measures. The authority responds to fire fighting, floods, traffic accidents, incidents such as lift trapping and those involving hazardous materials such as petroleum, gas, and electricity.

The authority conducts education on matters relating to fires such as prevention and control to youth groups and schools. It also performs emergency planning, fire safety inspections, and first aid to fire victims. Firefighters and officers frequently visit commercial and residential premises to advice on fire prevention and hazard risk assessment.

The central office of West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority coordinates fire prevention tasks in accordance with legislation and support from specialist officers. This paper gives details of the legislation and standards that apply to West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority as a requirement of the Fire and Rescue Services Act of 2004, Fire and Rescue National Framework, and the Regulatory Reform Order of 2005. It also gives an explanation on how the International Organization for Standardization models can be integrated in the authority.

In the current economic conditions, public services are experiencing real challenges in supplying efficient and effective services. For purposes of quality assurance, there are several legislative requirements and standards that apply to the authority based on the Fire and Rescue Services Act of 2004.

According to the Act, it is the mandate of the fire and rescue authority to make provision with the intention of promoting fire safety in its respective area.

In doing so, the authority ought to provide information to the public on the steps that people should take to prevent injury or death by fire. In addition, it is the duty of the authority to give advice to the society on how to prevent fires and curb their spread in both private and public premises and ways to get away from buildings and other surroundings in case of fire (The National Archives 2004).

The Fire and Rescue National Framework requires for fire and rescue authorities to carry out the task in cooperation with their communities and other partners locally and nationally to deliver their services (Department for Communities and Local Government 2012, p. 7).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In connection with this, the authority has established a strong partnership arrangement with local communities in regions such as Bradford and Birkenshaw to guarantee service delivery that meets the organization’s statutory duties. The organization is transparent and accountable to the local communities in its decisions and actions to create the opportunity for communities to help plan for their local service through efficient consultation and involvement.

According to the Regulatory Reform Fire Safety Order of 2005, an employer must provide appropriate and comprehensible information to employees. The information should include potential risks at the work place and preventive and protective measures (2005, p. 14). This also applies to any employer employing a child.

The information must be provided to the child’s parent or any other person who has parental responsibility over the minor. Moreover, the employer should notify his or her employees of the existence of dangerous substances within the premises and provide them with in depth details about the substance such as the name of the substance, the risks it presents, and legislative provisions concerning the hazardous material.

In order to promote efficiency in authority, it is necessary to integrate the quality management principles on which the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) bases its standards. The principles act as a framework, to point the authority towards improved performance.

West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority can incorporate the principle of customer focus in its operation through direct involvement and consultations of the community members in its area of operation in planning and making decisions regarding their services. Doing this enables the authority to combine the principles of customer focus and involvement of people. The authority collects and stores data on its daily activities and operations.

Accurate and reliable data and efficient analysis of the data will result to realistic and informed decision making. This also ensures that the information is accessible to the people who need it. Processes such as employee training using effective tools, upgrading products and systems, acknowledging employee effort, and establishing goals result to overall advancement in the authority’s performance.

Incorporating the system approach management principle is an excellent means to recognition, comprehending, and managing systems. As a result, the authority attains efficiency in achieving its goals (International Organization of Standardization 2012). Since the authority and its suppliers are interdependent, the parties should ensure that the relationship creates value to both. Value can be created by ensuring open communication, establishing joint development activities, and sharing information.

We will write a custom Essay on West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This paper has discussed the significant legislation and standards that pertain to West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority in accordance with Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, Fire and Rescue National Framework, and the Regulatory Reform Order 2005.

Moreover, the writing has provided explanations on how the International Organization for Standardization principles can be integrated in West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority. A combination of these aspects will aid the authority in achieving its goal of making its assigned region safer.

List of References Department for Communities and Local Government. (2012) The Fire and Rescue National Framework for England [online].

International Organization of Standardization. (2012) Quality Management Principles [online].

The National Archives. (2004) Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 [online].

The Regulatory Reform Fire Safety Order 2005. (2005) [online].


Importance of Diagnosis Essay (Article) best essay help

The article examines the importance of organizational diagnosis in conducting managerial and organizational duties. It focuses on the contributions of Harry Levinson to the field of psychology. Levinson was a renowned psychologist who researched widely in the area of work and organizational practices (Lowman, 2005, p.17).

This article discusses how managers can integrate work and organizational skills in running organizations. It explores how managers can apply their knowledge in psychology to run organizations. Managers should learn to apply their knowledge of psychology in performing their roles as managers in large organization (Lowman, 2005, p.17).

Such knowledge helps managers to understand and cope with challenges associated with running of organizations. This paper highlights the esteemed contribution of Harry Levinson to the development and understanding of the importance of organizational diagnosis in the running of organizations.

The study focuses primarily on issues surrounding organizational diagnosis. It stresses on the importance of conducting a thorough diagnosis before recommending any solutions for problems that face an organization. The author stresses that solutions in organizations should match the existing challenges.

A thorough diagnosis should precede any attempt to generate solutions to organizational problems and challenges (Lowman, 2005, p.18). He argues that doing the contrary would raise serious queries on the credibility of any offered solutions. Organizations need to seek the indulgence of organizational diagnosis experts in probing and recommending solutions for problems facing organizations.

The essence of organizational diagnosis is to conduct a thorough examination of various organizational parameters with a view to decipher the root cause of problems in organizations.

Based on such analysis, organizational diagnosis experts prescribe solutions that contribute towards ameliorating the management of organizations. An organizational diagnosis seeks to remedy organizational dysfunction and need for organizational health and optimization of the prevailing circumstances (Lowman, 2005, p.20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Levinson was an avid proponent for the application of the psychoanalytic model in conducting organizational diagnosis. As much as he advocated for this model, he argued that psychologists should use a well-integrated theory to probe certain theoretical systems. The psychoanalytic theory advocates for intellectual honesty and candor in making decisions for organizations.

According to psychoanalytic model, people should perceive situations without interference from personal views, values, and prejudices (Lowman, 2005, p.20). The model encompasses personal storytelling and helping to simplify the personal understanding of history with minimum alterations to basic historical facts.

The article offers a hypothetical approach to organizational diagnosis with regard to contemporary organizational environment. To demonstrate the importance of organizational diagnosis, the author uses the example of a doctor prescribing medication without conducting a clear diagnosis on the patient (Lowman, 2005, p.22).

He contends that the prescription cannot be accurate under such circumstances. This hypothesis underscores the link between an actual problem and the resultant intervention by experts. The hypothesis actualizes in the essay presentation through qualitative evidence provided by the author. The author demonstrates the role of organizational diagnosis in solving problems in organizations.

The article has numerous lessons for psychologist-managers on how they can apply organizational diagnosis in managing organizations. Managers should assess situations before they embark on applying solutions. They should consider the non-psychological aspects of their positions in management (Lowman, 2005, p.26).

Managers should use the results of diagnosis to decide on steps that suit organizational restructuring. Managers should approach organizational analysis and diagnosis from a psychological understanding (Lowman, 2005, p.26).

Managers should endeavor to seek the services of organizational diagnosis experts to maximize on the possibility of achieving accuracy and timeliness (Lowman, 2005, p.26). The study has a strong and relevant approach to organizational diagnosis. The study creates a platform for discourse among managers regarding best managerial practices in the modern management of organizations.

We will write a custom Article on Importance of Diagnosis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Lowman, R. (2005). Importance of Diagnosis in Organizational Assessment: Harry

Levinson’s Contributions. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 8(1), 17-28.


Pros and Cons of Eighteen Year Olds Serving in the Armed Forces Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction There have been various debates regarding whether it is necessary to enlist eighteen year olds to serve in the military for two years after high school. This paper will focus on arguments which support and oppose the enlisting of eighteen year olds into the military.

Pros Proponents argue that mandatory conscription at eighteen makes the military stronger. The military is able to get new and passionate young people every year who appreciate the value of defending their country. These young people become valuable assets to the country because they make the military well prepared to deal with any form of aggression.

Military conscripts who are enlisted at the age of eighteen acquire strong experiences which make them see life in a different perspective. This makes the young conscripts to work hard to become more responsible citizens in the future. These experiences mould their characters and personalities.

Military conscription at eighteen helps the conscripts to be aware of the national security issues which the country is facing and how to defend it, in case of an attack. The conscripts are able to understand the best course of action, if the country is attacked by an external aggressor.

Eighteen year olds who are drafted in the military get an opportunity to acquire different skills and knowledge that will be helpful in their future careers. They acquire special knowledge in fields such as IT, medicine and engineering which improves the quality of human resource skills in the country.

These conscripts are made to learn the virtues of sacrifice and patriotism to the nation. They become aware of the importance of unity, peace and tranquillity in fostering national cohesion. The conscripts also learn to appreciate the role of the military in fostering national cohesion.

Cons If the military service is made mandatory, many young conscripts would not value its importance. Some conscripts are likely to find the experience unpleasant and this will result in a poorly trained military service incapable of fulfilling defence objectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mandatory military conscription at the age of eighteen strips away the right of young people to choose what they want to be in future. This violates personal freedoms and liberties that all citizens in the country are granted by the US constitution.

Mandatory military service can be used to achieve selfish motives of leaders and politicians who seek to achieve their own interests. Conscripts are likely to undergo military training whose objectives are not clear. They may be used to increase numbers in the military with the intent of attacking other countries without any provocation.

Mandatory military service wastes the valuable time of youth who join the program. These youth are likely to be sidetracked from their education and careers. The time wasted in the military denies them a chance to transition from high school to college and this reduces their prospects in life.

At eighteen, conscripts are yet to attain the required level of physical maturity to engage in combat. They can get severe fractures and injuries that make them dependent on state welfare from a very early age if they engage in combat. This restricts their future productivity because they become war veterans at a young age.

Mandatory conscription programs drain government financial resources which can be invested in other productive sectors. The government can divert these finances to other training programs, important for the professional development of young people in the country.


Cheating in schools Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction Cheating in schools has become the order of the day and is no more considered a big deal. Sometimes it is even deemed necessary. Students copy from others’ assignments and tests. Sadly, this is not only by the participating students but also by quite a number of teachers. Some merely ignore it while others go as far as taking part in it.

Public schools are the most affected by this particular issue. The reasons for cheating in public schools include; extrinsic inspiration of students, inadequate connection to school, negative frame of mind, risk taking comportment and setting of unrealistically high targets for teachers. Researches done over the years show that cheating is increasing steadily with time in all institutions (Baggish).

Extrinsic inspiration of students

There are two major categories of students: students who appreciate learning mainly for the sake of gaining knowledge and those seeking prizes, admissions to higher learning institutions and contented parents. The former are self- driven whereas the latter are motivated by the promised accolades.

There is however a third group of scholars who display equal rations of both inspirations. A survey done by the Independent Schools Health Check (ISHC) showed that self-driven students cheat the least (17.7%), mixed students cheat moderately (25.2%) and prize seeking students cheat the most (38.3%). Most students in public schools are either prize driven or mixed hence they tend to cheat more than private schools.

Inadequate connection to school

Learners in public schools mostly feel unsupported by their teachers and dislike studying. They find the school rules unfair and lack a sense of belonging. They generally experience little or no internal pressure to succeed, unlike their private school counterparts who relish their specialized curriculums, like their teachers and find them helpful.

This deficiency in public schools leads to increased cheating in assignments and quizzes. Due to the low internal pressure for success, most students do their work simply to maintain routine and not to boost their knowledge. However, even some of the students who retain a suitable connection to school take part in cheating.

Negative frame of mind

Such students are usually experiencing emotional, developmental and interactive troubles. The majorities are found in public institutions and are a much diversified set of students. They generally feel isolated, upset, dejected and displeased with themselves. Their rates of cheating are pretty high, between twenty and forty percent. This is in accordance with the study done by the ISHC.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Risk taking comportment

Students who take other risks include those who use tobacco, hefty consumers of alcohol, users of drugs such as marijuana and those who are taking part in sexual activities.

According to the analysis carried out by the ISHC, 15.3% of consumers of low alcohol amounts cheat, 29% of the moderate consumers cheat and 50.6% of heavy drinkers cheat in examinations. This shows that the risks taken are directly proportional to the cheating levels. Students who take more risks also cheat more whereas those who take fewer risks cheat less (Blackler).

Ignorant teachers

Cheating is no longer rampant in colleges only but also in high schools. This has caused the attitude that people now treat it with, considering it no big deal. A distressing 15% of students today hand in papers gotten largely from term-paper mills and websites on the internet.

They contend that the internet is a good research implement hence it should not be considered cheating. “We are partly to blame. We are not helping them to understand. Getting teachers to let students know they care about the issue is an important first step.” (McCabe-2001 referring to educators, parents and society in general).

Worse still, students today feel that teachers sometimes disregard cheating. However, now many high schools expect a solution from technology and anti-piracy software.

Setting of unrealistically high targets for teachers

In Atlanta, detectives who have concluded a two year investigation established that objectives set for public school teachers had been unrealistically high. Under the federal No Child Left Behind act for America’s public schools, it is essential for each student to accomplish annual advancements.

Success is rewarded and failure penalized. The gravity to yield grades by any method possible thus became more vital than genuine educational growth. This led to bullying of teachers from the uppermost ranks to lower ones threatening them to either achieve the desired outcome in three years or get canned.

We will write a custom Essay on Cheating in schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Teachers assembled to rub out wrong answers and correct them; they sat the lower-scoring students next to their more adept colleagues and conveyed answers to students both directly and indirectly. In one particular instance, a student sat under the desk and declined the exam yet astoundingly he made the required grade.

People who threatened this arrangement such as Dr. Jackie Boyce in 2009 were immediately silenced with intimidations. There have been established cases of cheating in several districts and states and they are still on the rise. The public education director of FairTest (The National Centre for Fair and Open testing), Robert Schaeffer is not astonished and feels that, “the more you look, the more you’re going to find.”


Although most surveys show that public schools cheat more than private schools, some tend to disagree. A study, (Report Card 2002: The Ethics of American Youth) issued by Josephson Institute for Ethics revealed that private schools cheat more than public schools. 78% of students who go to private religion based high schools take part in cheating whereas 72% of those attending public high schools cheat.

It was found that even those whose spiritual backgrounds mattered greatly to them took part in cheating. Surprisingly, the spiritual background does not seem to prevent students from lying. If anything, students attending religion based learning institutions lie more by 5% according to this study.

Regardless of these conclusions, believers of religion based education continue to emphasize that government assistance to religious learning institutions will improve the principles of students. A Yale University professor and supporter of vouchers, Stephen L. Carter, contended in Christian Today “For the millions of parents who continue to support school vouchers, the religious school is seen as a partner in training the child in right and wrong.”

He went on to say the fact that nine out of ten of all students go to spiritual based learning institutions is likely to portray a parental conclusion that nurturing decent and respectable children is of greater magnitude than improving academic performance (Kennedy).

Conclusion Cheating undoubtedly leaves a certain mark on every student who takes part in it. Impossible as it may seem, it actually leaves a positive mark on some even though most experience negative effects. Due to the inefficiency in enforcing measures to curb cheating, majority of the culprits get away with it; and most of them carry on with dishonesty in higher learning institutions and on to their occupations.

They also behave similarly in their family units. As a result, children brought up by these people wind up having a lower moral upstanding than their parents. This directly increases the percentile of cheating students with passing time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cheating in schools by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the cheaters however, are usually caught and disciplinary measures taken depending on the level of learning. For high school students, warnings, suspensions and expulsions in extreme cases usually suffice. In higher learning institutions more severe measures are usually taken.

Sometimes cheaters are sentenced to prison or barred from further learning in those particular institutions. This forces them to give up education altogether and seek other ways of earning a living. However, not all learn the intended lesson. Those who learn adjust their behavior and in many cases manage to bring up children with higher moral standards. However those who fail to learn end up just like those who were never caught in terms of attitude.

All in all, cheating should be eliminated no matter what the cost. Its eradication should begin from educators, parents and the community in general. This will improve the learning capacity and moral code of the students who being tomorrow’s leaders, will improve the world as a whole (ProQuest Education Journals).

Works Cited Baggish, Rosemary and Peter, Wells. “academic honesty and the Independent School.” Independent School. Academic Search Complete. Web.

Blackler, Zoe. “View from here – Exposed: Biggest Cheating Scandal in US History.” The Times Educational Supplement.4958, 2011

Kennedy, Robert. “Why You Won’t Find Cheating In Private Schools.” Private School Review. Kennedy Robert. Web.

ProQuest Education Journals. ProQuest Research Library; ProQuest Social Science Journals. Web.


Potential threats to children on social networking sites Report online essay help

In the modern times, the world has become a global village and people are connected more than ever before. Today, people depend on the internet to do almost everything. Individuals are using modern technology to communicate and to run businesses. Social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter have exploded in the last few years (Watters, 2012).

Children and adolescents have also become exceedingly active on social networking sites to communicate with friends and hook up with different people all over the world. Undoubtedly, the internet is playing a significant role in everybody’s life, and children have not been left behind. Although, the internet has much to offer, there are certain risks involved. This paper will discuss the potential threats of social networking sites to children.

Criminal elements Social networking sites can expose children to criminals (Roderic, 2006). Although Facebook and Twitter among other social networking sites are primarily designed for socialization, there are many users who are on these social sites for different reasons. There are many nice people on social networking sites, but those who have bad motives also do exist.

Children are exposed, and criminals are targeting the most vulnerable groups in the society (Roderic, 2006). Because children and adolescents post a lot of information about themselves, social networking sites, especially Facebook, Twitter, and My Space have become heaven for internet predators (Roderic, 2006).

Children are usually excited to share about their hobbies, friends, schools, their physical appearance, and their phone numbers among other exceptionally sensitive information. Such information mostly is read by criminals. When a child says that he will be at a certain place during a specific time, such criminals take advantage either to kidnap children or harass them.

Sexual content Social networking sites can expose children and adolescents to content that is only meant for adults (Watters, 2012). It is now clear that social networks are just more than socializing. In recent times, adolescents, youths and adults have become active on the social networking sites.

Some people are using the social networking sites to advertise while others are doing illegal business on the same sites. However, some individuals usually post statuses that can cause emotional damage, especially when accessed by children. It is clear that, most social networking sites, especially Facebook provides facilities that allow users to post images and videos (Roderic, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Watters (2012) some people are extremely sensitive, but others have bad motives and they only post images that are destructive to children. In fact, research has shown that big percent of images found on most social networking sites are sexual graphics. Even if your child has not posted such images, there is high likelihood that he/ she has seen photos on Facebook that are pornographic in nature.

Apart from such images, there are many videos posted on the social networking sites containing graphics that have a potential to frighten and harm adolescents (Rittinghouse and Hanock, 2003). By using fake profiles, some individuals do post pictures that show them necked (nude), and this is extremely harmful to young children. Others use strong sexual language, which is also harmful to young children.

Social networking sites are only designed for adults and therefore, young children should be monitored when they are using such sites. One of the biggest problems is that, many users do not screen their contents to make sure that children cannot view or access them (Stephan, 2000). Parents should be extremely careful when it comes to social networking sites.

Identity thieves It has been reported that criminals use fake profiles; they have fake identities, and some pretend to be children so that they can have children as their Facebook or Twitter friends (Rittinghouse and Hanock, 2003). Criminals are befriending children because they are pretending to be their own age.

Although these cases are rare, they are very serious because they come with many problems. According to most law enforcement agencies, faking profiles is one of the fastest growing problems, and parents should be very alert to prevent their children from being victims of such criminals. Criminals are targeting children because they want to kidnap them for sex (Watters, 2012).

Today, cases of adults using social networking sites and other chat rooms with attempts to befriend children and adolescents have been on the increase (Rittinghouse and Hanock, 2003). The biggest danger comes when these adults posing as children on the social sites want to meet their “new friends”.

It is, therefore, clear that social networking sites have become play grounds for fraudsters, kidnappers and other criminals whose aim is to find and prey on most vulnerable targets (children) (Roderic, 2006). Parents should learn various ways of protecting their children because they are relatively vulnerable on the internet.

We will write a custom Report on Potential threats to children on social networking sites specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cyber bullying Cyber bullying has increasingly become a serious problem in the recent times. Bullying is no longer restricted to the play grounds, but it can also happen on the internet too (Rittinghouse and Hanock, 2003). Social networking sites are the most targeted and children can be bullied even when they are at home or at school.

This form of bullying is not physical but it can be very damaging at times as it interferes with emotions of the young and adolescents. Statistics show that children are becoming victims of cyber bullying because they are constantly on social networking sites to socialize and on the internet to study (Stephan, 2000). Cyber bullying can happen through numerous means including email and social networking sites. It is necessary to address this problem because it can affect children’s lives in a negative way.

Emotional damage Experts have warned that apart from vulgar language and watching pornographic videos and images, children can also undergo emotional damage because of using social networking sites. The most risk social sites include Facebook, Twitter, and Bebo, which can interfere with confidence of users (Rittinghouse and Hanock, 2003).

In such social networking cites, users have friends and some have many friends than others. Having many friends is a source of self esteem for children, but those who have few friends are less confident; they lack self-esteem (Roderic, 2006). This is because many children measure their happiness and success based on the number of friends.

Even if a child is not facing other problems (such as bullying) on a certain social networking site, one may not feel confident enough because he only has few friends. Moreover, children are spending more time on the internet and they are losing their empathy on actual friends (Rittinghouse and Hanock, 2003).

Experts have reported that since social networking sites were launched, many people have lost their real friends because they have no time to interact with each other. This is because most people are spending a lot of time glued to their computers. Some children have even forgotten about their interests and hobbies, which is pushing them away from their friends. This trend is a serious crisis because young children are losing emotional skills, needed to retain true friends.

Malware and virus Another potential threat caused by use of social networking sites among children is the potential to harm their computers, phones, and PCs among other personal gadgets (Rittinghouse and Hanock, 2003). The internet is full of threats both for human and hardware. When children are on the social networking sites, they may accidentally expose their computers or phones to harmful malware such as virus among others.

Parents unlike children are extremely cautious when clicking on what to download from their computers. They are fully aware there exist hundreds of potential hazardous risks and are, therefore, likely to avoid them. On the other hand, children are most vulnerable because they are not likely to know which links are unsafe (Roderic, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Potential threats to children on social networking sites by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the internet, there are thousands of dangerous sites and social networking sites are not exception as they are the most targeted links. The risks that come with viruses are serious because some of them can cause hardware failures. Parents should monitor which links their children are visiting when they are on social networking sites to avoid such potential threats.

Recommendations It is highly recommended that parents should monitor, supervise, and guide their children when using Facebook or Twitter among others. This is because, children are innocents, and they are unlikely to sense danger. Criminal are targeting children and adolescents on the social networking sites due to their vulnerability.

Parent should install software that restricts accessing of certain pages or links. In addition, parents should train their children about various problems related to social networking sites. They should also warn them about the numerous potential threats caused by such sites.

Apart from helping and encouraging children, parents should also work with law enforcement agencies to make sure that those who are responsible for bullying and posting harmful materials (such as pornographic images and videos) are punished severely. The government should also impose tough penalties on such criminals to help reduce such cases.

Risk Assessment

Risk Level 20 40 60 80 100 Criminal elements High High High High Very high Sexual content High High High High Very high Identity thieves Medium Medium Moderate High Very high Cyber bullying Low Low Moderate Medium High Emotional damage Low Low Low Low Medium Malware and virus Low Medium Medium Medium High Conclusion The internet is utilized by people to run businesses and to communicate all over the world. Because of its efficiency, it has been embraced globally. Social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and My Space are the most commonly used (Rittinghouse and Hanock, 2003).

These networking sites have potential threats to children, who have continued to use these sites to communicate and connect with friends. The reason why children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to being preyed upon by online criminals is because they are naive.

Cyber bullying, exposure to malware, identity thieves, emotional distress, and being exposed to content only fit for adults are among the few potential threats that are presented by social networking sites to children. To curb these problems, parents should take the responsibility of monitoring, supervising, and guiding their children. Furthermore, parents should work with the law enforcement agencies to ensure criminals are punished. By so doing, our children will be safe whenever they are using social networking sites.

Reference List Rittinghouse, W., Hanock, B. (2003). Cyber security Operations Handbook. Missouri: Digital Press.

Roderic, B. (2006). Developments in the global law enforcement of cyber-crime, Policing. An International Journal of Police Strategies


Women Empowerment in Modern Society Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction For many centuries, the society has discriminated against women because men’s supremacy overwhelms women in every aspect of life. Cultures and traditions that men have made and maintained across centuries have hindered women from participating equally with men in the modern world. It took centuries of struggles for women to achieve the contemporary status because men did not pave way for them to achieve their rights easily.

Cultures and traditions perceive women as weaker beings when compared to men, and thus they do not deserve to have equal privileges and rights with men.

According to Fuller (1845), as women struggle to gain their denied rights, a man reasons, “Now you must be trying to break family union, to take my wife away from the cradle and the kitchen-hearth to vote at polls, and preach from a pulpit” (p. 125).

Women movements that occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries made significant steps that led to women empowerment the modern world. In view of the process that led to women empowerment, it is evident that people have the ability to shape their culture and traditions through social, religious, political, and economic changes in their environment.

Reasons for Choosing Women Empowerment The topic of women empowerment is a dominant theme in the study article entitled “Women in the Nineteenth Century” by Margaret Fuller Ossoli. The author fought for the emancipation of women from cultures and traditions, which restricted them from performing certain roles in society.

Moreover, some cultures and traditions denied women their rights by making them appear less human since they were not equal with their male counterparts. Fuller (1845) contends that supremacy of a man in the society has given him powers to trample upon women because “he has so framed the laws of divorce, as to what cases, going upon false supposition of the supremacy of the man, and giving all power into his hands” (p. 127).

Hence, supremacy of men in the society shaped cultures and traditions that discriminate and undermine women. By viewing the modern world, it is evident that women have made significant strides in their struggles to overcome men’s supremacy in the society. The achievements that women have made are attributed to their struggles; hence, their influence has shaped the modern society by overcoming male dominance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the topic integrates with the research question: how does our environment shape us and how do we shape our environment? This research paper uses three academic disciplines viz. socio-economic, religious and political disciplines to answer the research question

Supporting Evidence Social Changes

Social factors in the ancient society shaped the way people perceived gender. As men and women grew up, they adopted social norms that differentiated them as different entities in the society, which have different roles. The social norms dictate that the responsibility of women is to take care of their children while men go out to fend for their families.

Hence, the responsibilities of women revolved around their homes and could not perform activities beyond their homes. In the aspect of power, women did not have the ability to make decisions because chauvinism overpowered them. Under such society, women were submissive for they could not overcome societal social demands.

Friedmann (2008) asserts that social structures of society compelled women to accept societal dictates under the dominance of men. Thus, social norms, under the influence of men, shaped society to perceive women as lesser beings in comparison to men, thus with unique responsibilities.

However, as the society advanced into the modern world, emancipation movements started to empower women. When women realized that they had the capacity to shape social norms and advance their quest for freedom and social rights, activists created various movements. In this view, leading feminists have been agitating for women empowerment while demanding drastic readjustments of social structures in the society so that women can exercise their freedom and gain their rights as men.

Friedmann (2008) observes, women liberation “requires radical reassessment of established social norms and a progressive restructuring of society based on choice, autonomy, and ‘de-genderization” (p. 1). Through their movements, women have managed to transform social norms and restructure society.

Native American women have managed to empower themselves nationally, tribally, and academically through their movements (Mihesuah, 2003). In the modern world, women have achieved their freedom for they can now exercise all responsibilities without necessarily consulting their men counterparts. Additionally, in families, husbands and wives have equal responsibilities in taking care of their children and providing for them.

We will write a custom Essay on Women Empowerment in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic Changes

Women have endured poverty for centuries because society could not provide them with the opportunity to participate in meaningful economic activities, which would enhance their economic wellbeing. While women remained at home taking care of children, men went out to perform various economic activities to provide for the family.

In this view, women were unable to empower themselves economically because they could not access job opportunities as men did. Additionally, since men made and interpreted laws without involving women, they ensured that they favored themselves despite the fact that they oppressed women.

The laws gave husbands economic powers to own family property and dispose it, as they wanted without consulting their wives. The laws also allowed widowers to own larger share of family property than they allowed widows when death occurred in a family (Fuller, 1845). Hence, women in the past centuries did not have access to economic activities or property that could empower them economically as men.

As women realized that their weakness emanated from economic disempowerment, they started advocating for their rights to access job opportunities and wealth. Education is one of the factors that have helped women in modern society to access job opportunities as their male counterparts. Employers in modern society no longer consider gender as part of job qualification because educational qualification is the major criterion.

Furthermore, current laws protect all people equally, thus enhancing women’s access to jobs and property. Chaudhry and Nosheen (2009) state, “Women empowerment seeks change in the sexual division of labor, equal access to food, health care, education credit and employment, ownership of assets, and now access to media” (p. 217). Hence, modern women have transformed economic aspects in the society, thus ensuring economic empowerment..

Religious Changes

Religious beliefs and teachings also contributed to disempowerment of women in past centuries because they supported men’s supremacy in society. Feminists perceive that traditional religion is the main hindrance to social restructuring in the course of their movements.

Friedmann (2008) posits, “Seemingly preoccupied with order, structure, and boundaries, traditional religious systems view social divisions and hierarchies as predetermined realities” (p. 2). In the aspects of gendered roles, traditional religions believed that these roles were rigid, natural, and divine.

Moreover, religions asserted that men had absolute power to rule society, and thus women had to submit to their demands. Any attempts to restructure gendered roles in the society were against divine principles. Hence, religious beliefs and teachings that men and women subscribed to influenced roles and positions of women in society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Women Empowerment in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through religion, feminists pushed their agenda of liberating modern women from bondage of religious beliefs that demeaned women. Several feminism movements decried about traditional religious beliefs that degraded women and denied them opportunity to attain their dreams.

In the Seneca Fall Convention, women declared “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among them these are life, liberty, and the pursuit for happiness” (Fuller, 1845, p. 126). The convention set the pace, which led to transformation of traditional religious beliefs to recognize women as having equal capacity as men with inalienable rights of freedom to perform their responsibilities without undue restriction.

Political Changes

In the past centuries, women did not have a stake in the political arena because they did not have the capacity to vie for leadership positions. Their responsibilities just revolved around homes where they could only take care of their children and husbands. Moreover, women did not have right to vote.

Before recognition of women by the 19th Amendment to the US constitution, women did not have right to participate in politics by voting (Fuller, 1845). The supremacy of men in politics prevented women from venturing into the political arena and making their contribution. Hence, the political society had accepted that women had no responsibility in politics because they did not have the capacity to compete equally with men through their leadership or vote.

Dramatic changes in the political arena in the modern society have empowered women to venture into politics. Women movements during the 19th century fought for their rights and the 19th Amendment to the US constitution set the precedent, which led to recognition of voting powers of women.

Voting rights enabled both black and white women to participate equally in politics (Collins, 2000). As women participated in voting, they got the privilege of transforming political leadership and entrenching their interests in politics. In the modern society, many women have entered the political arena and become successful leaders contrary to earlier beliefs that they lack the capacity to become leaders.

Women leaders in political circles have made a significant contribution in transforming perception towards women. Women empowerment is attributed to courageous women who managed to venture into political fields and made a difference in political leadership.

Chaudhry and Nosheen (2009) state that women empowerment in politics has led to positive changes in literacy levels, societal participation, wellbeing status, and position of women. Therefore, politics enhanced the power through which women used to transform the world.

Conclusion Women empowerment, which is evident in the modern world, is attributed to series of struggles that women have made over the centuries. Women activists have been advocating for recognition of women in the aspect of life such as social, religious, political, and economic arenas, which men had dominated.

Owing to supremacy of men, women remained passive as society shaped them to accept oppressive and discriminative social norms. However, as feminism movements emerged, women started shaping their destiny by influencing social norms to recognize the role of women in all aspects of life. Hence, the significant findings is that, as society shapes the way of life, people also have the capacity to shape their society and define their destiny as women have done.

References Chaudhry, I.,


Jesuits in China Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents The Jesuit Mission

The role of Matteo Ricci

Scientific Achievements

Philosophical Achievements

The Rites controversy

The Age of inquisition



The Jesuit Mission The Jesuits in China represented one of the most significant events in the relations between China and the West. The Mission had a great impact in so many ways resulting in the revolution of China in a variety of fields.

Moreover, it has always served as a near perfect example of the interactions of two totally different cultures in the late imperial period. The missionary efforts in the county also played a huge role in the introduction as well as the spread of western knowledge, culture and science in China (Brockey, 2007).

It is now an established fact that the mission was the foundation of the Christian culture in China. Up until the nineteenth century, before the Catholic and Protestant missions had gained influence in China, the Jesuit missionaries were very influential members of the Chinese society. In the 16th century, various prominent Jesuit missionaries initiated missions in China by communicating with Chinese scholars who were representatives of Confucianism. They also introduced mathematics, astronomy, visual arts and western science (Hsia, 2009).

The role of Matteo Ricci As evidenced by the impact of his works in China, Matteo Ricci is the most famous Jesuit missionary. He was a great scholar who was able to influence many people through his intelligence and humble personality (Spence, 1984). Ricci’s contribution to the development and cultural exchange in China included the maps of the world and China that he drew.

This fascinated the Chinese, and he went a step further to translate Chinese classics into English for the European readers. His approach to the mission was somewhat different which made him stand out as he did not try to force the Chinese to convert but engaged them in conversation and presented them with gifts such as clocks hence building up curiosity among the Chinese. Within no time, the Chinese were interested in finding out more about Europe and Christianity.

Scientific Achievements The Jesuit mission in China was a blend of Christianity and scientific competence, not to mention, eastern and western science. In this respect, the Jesuits were regarded very highly in China. As a matter of fact, in the seventeenth century, two Chinese emperors displayed their admiration and respect for the missionaries by living close to them and giving them high ranking posts with great responsibilities in China (Cohen, 1999).

For instance, Ferdinand Verbiest, a renowned mathematician and astronomer was among one of the missionaries who stimulated Chinese researches in scientific fields. He was given the position of president of the mathematics bureau. In the performance of his tasks and duties, he made a draft of the solar and lunar eclipses; worked on the invention of a steam engine for ships, and he even reformed the Chinese calendar (Hsia, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another influential Jesuit missionary who won favor among the Chinese officials was Antoine Thomas. He had been trained by Verbiest and had great achievements to the scale of establishing a new itinerary between Europe and China and he also established the base of the metric system (Hsia, 2009).

Philosophical Achievements The Jesuits also had accomplishments in the field of humanities. In the 17-18th centuries, they translated some of the Chinese classics for the many interested European readers.

The result of this was a rich cultural exchange between the two belief systems despite the fact that communication was still poor at the time. Some of the Chinese philosophical texts were an inspiration for many European writers. The likes of Leibniz were inspired by the Chinese books which contributed to his reflection on a world language, as well as his binary system in mathematics (Brockey, 2007).

The Rites controversy This was a struggle that broke out after the death of Ricci and lasted well over ten decades. Early in the eighteenth century, a dispute arose within the church regarding rituals and offerings to the emperor; this was at the time considered by the church to constitute idolatry (Spence, 1984). It was among one of the main reasons why the promising mission of the Jesuits in China stalled (Spence, 1984).

The root of the problem was based on Ricci’s contention that converts were still allowed to practice the ceremonial rites of Confucianism and ancestor worship which he considered to be purely social and political in nature (Spence, 1984). The Dominicans, however, were of the contrary opinion, regarding Ricci’s position. In fact, they ensured that the case was taken to Rome leading to much more controversy.

Over time, the Jesuits appealed to the emperor concerning the issue and he agreed to endorse Ricci’s position. The emperor’s confusion was quite clear; missionaries were in dispute within his jurisdiction, therefore, he decided that the justified reaction was to consider expelling all foreign Christians from China.

Thanks to the discovery of the Nestorian monument in 1623, the Jesuits had the emperor rule against all missionaries who opposed Ricci’s position (Brockey, 2007). The monument was influential in proving that Christianity was indeed not a new religion in China as the Chinese often expressed. The monument was solid evidence that Christianity had been introduced into the country about a thousand years before.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Jesuits in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Age of inquisition The Spanish Franciscans did not give up the fight against the Jesuits. Eventually, they were able to convince the Pope at the time that Jesuit missions were dangerously accommodating Chinese practices that were not entirely consistent with Christian practice. This raged on until 1742 when Pope Benedict XIV officially forbade the worship of ancestors and disagreed with the Jesuits (Brockey, 2007). As a matter of fact, once Pope Clement XIV dissolved the Jesuits, many Christians were persecuted and the congregation scattered. Despite all this, the congregation remained strong.

In addition, the financial policies of the Jesuit missionaries also contributed to a lot of controversy especially among the Chinese on the nature of the religion. There was tension between the locals and the foreigners as the missionaries were involved in a variety of business ventures. They were landlords of various properties; organized money lending operations and greatly contributed to the development of the silk industry in China for trade with the West (Stockwell, 2003).

Conclusion As has been mentioned, the Jesuits approach to missionary duty was tactful and genius. Their approach, which included the accommodation of some of the Chinese practices, was their strong point. They had managed to plant a church with totals well into the hundreds of thousands by 1901 (Brockey, 2007).

All in all, they succeeded in rendering not just Christianity to the Chinese population but spreading western culture and education, especially science as they were well educated and equipped with skills in western knowledge, literature and culture. They also managed to deal with the tensions that emerged when the two civilizations came together, and the results are still evident to date with Christianity still prevalent in China.

References Brockey, L. M. (2007). Journey to the East: the Jesuit mission to China, 1579-1724. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Cohen, J. (1999). The sextants of Beijing: global currents in Chinese history. New York: W.W. Norton


World Cultures: Sainte-Chapelle in Paris and the Great Mosque in Spain Research Paper college essay help near me

Introduction Throughout the history, people have been faced with numerous questions about the universe, the creator, life after death and other fundamental questions that seem to have no definite answers. Consequently, people have turned to arguments that are not based on sight, but rather, on faith and belief.

Different societies exhibit their faith in the sacred realm of the spirit in various ways. Some associate it with gods and goddesses, and others with spirits of ancestors or nature and one God (Sayre 53). While some forms of faith have vanished with the passage of time, others have remained small and local.

Some forms of faith like Christianity and Islam have become significant religions that attract believers from all around the universe. Art has played a vital role in the relationship between human beings and the sacred realm.

It has allowed individuals and groups of individuals to envision, honor and communicate with their sacred realm (Sayre 53). This paper compares two works of architecture that were created to provide a setting to perform rituals of worship and prayer. These are the Sainte-Chapelle, or holy chapel located in Paris, and the Great Mosque at Córdoba, Spain.

The Saint-Chapelle

The holy chapel located in Spain is a spectacle that was commissioned in 1239 by the French king Louis IX. Its purpose was to hold a variety of vital set of relics that the king had obtained. These relics comprised pieces of the True Cross, the Crown of Thorns, and other instruments of Christ’s Passion.

The architects involved in its design created a high vertical space with walls that appeared like stained glass. The light passing through the glass wall forms a glittering effect that alters the interior into a radiant eerie space that creates an impression of the glory of heaven (Papanicolaou 57).

Sainte-Chapelle uses a series of high vertical buttresses that are linked horizontally by iron tie-rods that encircle the building, concealed in the masonry. They pass across the windows as part of the framework supporting the glass. Acquisition of the relics from the emperors of Constantinople was aimed at increasing the religious and political influence of both France and Paris.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Sainte-Chapelle, which housed the relics, served as a representation of royalty by divine right. The relics were displayed and worshipped in the upper chapel while the lower chapel served as a place of worship for the palace staff. The structure used a basilica-type layout with an arc shaped apse, which served as the model for other Holy chapels (Papanicolaou 58).

The lower chapel comprises a statue of Virgin Mary, a thirteenth century fresco, and struts that connect the aisle columns to the lateral walls. The upper chapel comprises the windows, the statue of saint peter, the great shrine, and the western rose. In the statue of Peter, he is holding the keys to heaven. The twelve pillars represent the harmony of the apostles with the faces of Parisian sculptures of the mid thirteenth century (Wilson 126).

The great mosque at Córdoba

Construction of the great Islamic house of worship started in the eighth century. It formed the largest place of prayer and worship in Western Islam. The interior of the prayer hall has a huge horizontal space that comprises a series of columns and arches. The hall gets its light from the doorways that are situated around the perimeter of the hall.

The light reveals a set of shadows that make the scope and form of the interior difficult to comprehend. The vision is interrupted by irregular red and white sections, as well as, the additional shadows created by the light from oil lamps hanging at the front of the focal point of worship (Khoury 83).

The Cordoba mosque represents a process that links the past and the future as portrayed by al-Hakam al-Mustansir. The mosque is a representation of the Andalusian Umayyad architectural style with a little twist in its style. In addition to its beauty, the mosque marks an era that saw the merging of historical, cultural and mythical paradigms. The mosque formed the link between a dynastic identity and the new caliphal one. Consequently, the Cordoba mosque was rededicated as a monument of Umayyad victory (Khoury 85).

The great Mosque of Cordoba is celebrated for its harmony, balance, incredible use of light and decoration, and its general harmony and artistic sensitivity. The architectural design combines elements of the old, reused and original styles to create a system of arches supported by thin pilasters on marble columns. This and other elements are characteristic of the history of western Islamic architecture (Khoury 86).

Compare and contrast

The two architectural works were developed to create an environment and atmosphere that presented an ideal setting for rituals of prayer and worship. These rituals formed the connection between worldly and heavenly realms. While the Saint-Chapelle is a small, intimate space that was created as a private chapel for King Louis and his court, the Great Mosque at Córdoba in Spain is a massive structure that was developed to serve the needs of the society (Sayre 55).

We will write a custom Research Paper on World Cultures: Sainte-Chapelle in Paris and the Great Mosque in Spain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The architects involved in the design of both the Sainte-Chapelle and the Great Mosque at Córdoba, attempted to build a place for worshipers and believers to converse with the sacred realm. The design of the Sainte-Chapelle was inspired by the development of a beaming vertical space with alterations brought about by colored light. The Great Mosque at Córdoba, on the other hand, was inspired by the creation of a large horizontal space that was characterized by columns, daylight and shadows (Wilson 126).

The architecture of the two buildings represents unique designs that use the elements of space and light to develop a sharp sense of obscurity and marvel. The brilliance of the structures is mainly attributed to their ability to represent their intended meaning.

While the sacred realm was not visible in human sight, the artists were given the responsibility of creating images and representations of gods and goddesses, as well as, angels and other spiritual beings. These representations were required of artists and architects throughout the ages, as seen in the two buildings, which were constructed several centuries apart each other (Wilson 126).

The two sacred buildings in Spain, and other religious images developed in history help to enhance the faith of believers by providing them with tangible forms to the abstract notions. Some representations hold more intricate and mysterious meaning, like in various cultures where the images serve as mediums for the transfer of sacred power.

Some cultures use the images to develop a sense of a dwelling place for a holy being, who can be summoned to the structure through ritual. In conclusion, it can be said that the Sainte-Chapelle and the Great Mosque at Córdoba are two religious structures that utilized different forms and style to develop a sacred realm for the intended individuals and communities (Sayre 57).

Works Cited Khoury, Nuha. “The Meaning of the Great Mosque of Cordoba in the Tenth Century.” Muqarnas (1996): 13, 80-98. Print.

Papanicolaou, Linda Morey. “Stained glass from the cathedral of tours: The impact of the Sainte-chapelle in the 1240s.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, 15 (1981): 55-66. Print.

Sayre, Henry. A world of Art: themes of art. prentice hall: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2010. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on World Cultures: Sainte-Chapelle in Paris and the Great Mosque in Spain by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wilson, Christopher. The Gothic Cathedral: The Architecture of the Great Church. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1990.


Sustainability in Global Business Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Sustainable Business Development in the Oil Industry

Legal Framework for the Flaring of Gas in Nigeria



Introduction Sustainable business development involves formulating and implementing business strategies, innovations, and initiatives to help create a more sustainable world (Turekian


Geography of Food. Restaurant Review Essay essay help

Carino’s Italian grill was located in Doral (Miami springs) at the center of Miami making it accessible to most people. It exhibited a casual but alluring atmosphere. Carino’s Italian Grill reminded Italians living in America of their traditions and cultures, which they missed because of staying away from their native land. It also gave a chance to non-Italians to sample the delicate flavors associated with Italian cookery.

The restaurant’s interior was painted in dark colors. There was free password-protected Wi-Fi, gigantic television screens, and background music that played in a low tone so that the clients did not have to complain of loud music interrupting their meals. The décor was moderately done, and there was nothing extraordinary. The clients could choose whether to dine in the restaurant or bar sections.

The service at Carino’s Italian Grill was outstanding. The waiters were extremely friendly and helpful when it came to choosing food. The restaurant served adequate portions of most meals and offered free soda refills. The meals incorporated traditional Italian ingredients and flavors especially the spices (Capatti, Montanari, and O’Healy 37). The quality of service at Carino’s Italian Grill rated first class because the staff served meals promptly (within twenty minutes of customers placing their orders) just as the menu indicated.

Carino’s Italian Grill was a pricey restaurant, but one could overlook that fact going by the well-prepared large servings that it offered. One expected to pay expensively for similar meals in the classier restaurant chains like Carabbas, but not at the Carino’s Italian Grill. However, one could take advantage of “happy hours” and special rates to save money and still enjoy sumptuous meals.

The high prices were probably because the restaurant was trying to fit in the same class as other highly rated restaurants. Another possible reason for the high prices was the cost of importing certain native ingredients from Italy. People from all walks of life frequented the restaurant including children, teenagers, couples, and the elderly.

The hotel was excellent for children and groups; it took reservations and was accessible by wheelchair (for the physically disabled customers). There was also the provision of paying using credit cards and carrying food away from the eatery (“Carino’s Italian Grill – Doral, FL”).

A large amount of the food provided at the café originated from the United States although a few ingredients were imported from Italy. The food was of moderate quality. It was impractical to rule out the presence of contaminating agents from food preservatives since some of the original “Italian food” was produced in Italy and thereafter exported to the United States of America before preparation in the restaurant. In fact, we overheard some diners complaining that their food tasted like canned beef.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We thoroughly enjoyed the dining experience especially the rich flavor of the food, the quality of service, and the fascinating ambiance of the refectory. However, considering the relatively high food prices at Carino’s Italian restaurant, I would only recommend the restaurant to anyone wishing to sample traditional Italian cuisine, but with more money to spend. I would undoubtedly love to go back to Carino’s Italian Grill with more people and sample the chicken scallopini.

Works Cited Capatti, Alberto, Alberto Capatti Massimo Montanari and Aine O’Healy. Italian Cuisine: A Cultural History, New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. Print.

Carino’s Italian Grill – Doral, FL. N.d. Web. .


Doing Business in the U.S Term Paper college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Doing business in a foreign country is not an easy thing. A company that is keen on investing in a foreign country has to examine the attractiveness of the foreign market in order to decide whether it is prudent to invest there. In this case, the company has to assess the ease or difficulty of doing business in such a country and some of the hurdles that it needs to overcome (Griffin


Apple and Dell Integrated Marketing Communication Mix Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Dell Manufacturers IMC

Apple Inc.


Reference List

Introduction Integrated Marketing Communication Mix (IMC) is considered as one of the major aspects of communication development over the last two decades. Since its inception, majority of the organizations have considered the technology to be source of key competitive advantages within marketing.

The idea has led to mass marketing where marketers are capable of reaching multiple target audiences at the same time. This led to the creation of retail selling system in the 20th century. IMC has enabled consumers to gain more information concerning specific products within the market (Lindgreen and Finn, 2005).

The promotional function in most companies was previously based on mass-media advertising. There used to be heavy reliance on advertising agencies in the aspects of marketing communication. Public relations on the other hand was used in the management of organization’s publicity and image but were not considered as integral participants within the marketing communication processes.

These functions built barriers which hindered effective marketing and promotional functions since they were managed as separate entities. However, there was growing need of broader marketing communication tools and more strategic integration of the various promotional tools. This led to the formation of IMC which incorporated coordination of the various promotional elements as well as other marketing activities capable of reaching the intended consumers (Fill, 2009).

The kind of communication strategy applied in the market leads to increased productivity. The integrated communication system enables instant sharing of information. Apple and Dell products enable efficient sharing of information based on computer applications. This ultimately reduces total costs and time required in the process of searching and delivery of goods to consumers.

Mobility is enhanced since there are sufficient communication access points and remote users are enabled to directly access security-enhanced points without any difficulties. The laptops are enhanced with appropriate operating systems and necessary Microsoft services which enables easy business partnerships between organizations. Protection of vital information from various companies is enhanced through servers and data centres. (Holbrook, 2003, pp. 45-61).

Dell Manufacturers IMC Dell Inc. is one of the top manufacturers of laptops and personal computers. The company is known to apply customer centric business model which enables effective customer service operations. This makes Dell to be considered top company within the Computer Industry especially in the sale of Personal Computers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company uses strategic and available information systems to position itself as number one retailer of PCs in the global market. Dell is considered technically versed based on their wide range of IT and network solution services. Their computer services provide satisfaction to various customer needs in every market segment from home to corporate storage servers.

Majority of laptops and computers from Dell provide individual workstations for companies making it possible accomplishment of various tasks based on forms of communication. The company offers through their laptops, affordable infrastructure solutions example being provision of Intel based servers. Dell products outstand in the market despite the available competition since they implement the use of customer direct business strategy.

Dell is recognized as technologically oriented company with most of its core processes operated electronically through e-shops. There’s heavy reliance on online services and web-based communication links. E-marketing services provides Dell with integrated means of reaching consumers and ultimately grants easy means of projecting current and future customer needs and wants within the wider global market (Johnson et al, 2008, 51-59).

Dell offers its consumers the benefit of logging into their website and also calling toll free for the purposes of customizing computers of their own choice.

Also it performs extra services by shipping the goods directly to customers. There are possibilities of customers to price and configure the systems before placing an order and at the same time capable of tracking the manufacturing process until the product reaches the final stage of being transported to respective destinations.

The company designs one product at a time ensuring maintenance of high quality standards and directly selling to customers. Such strategy has enabled the company to reinforce personal relationship with consumers hence effecting efficient solutions towards consumer needs.

The company realizes its competitive advantage based on the business model of bypassing the middleman. Dell saves time and money by excluding retailers within their supply chain and at the same time gets primary information direct from customers. They save on manufacturing many computers which would otherwise demand personal customization aspect.

We will write a custom Assessment on Apple and Dell Integrated Marketing Communication Mix specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is immense ability of utilizing available technology and quick incorporation into the market system. Their production strategy allows for quick implementation of available technology through simple replacement of the current hardware within the customization phase.

Contrary to other competitors the Company has the capability of providing real time adjustments within the industry. Other companies like Apple Inc. has no such capability of quick implementation of technology since most of their computers, with older technology, stay stocked for longer time within the retail stores.

Dell’s direct business strategy enables efficiency in customer information which assists them in identifying preferable technology. The internal management team is capable of accessing vital information necessary for the analysis of current market trends. The use of direct phone calls as applied by the company ensures direct satisfaction of customer needs, their use of online website contributed towards their success in the international market.

All its market strategies have been centered on internet efficiencies. The company ensures that their website is run by their own products contrary to some companies that sell network devices like Apple Inc. which do not use their own products to run online businesses (Piercy, N 2009).

Utilization of the internet in marketing has enabled Dell to realize various efficiencies related to the internet. At the same time they are capable of selling their products and services without any regional barriers.

Some of the efficiencies related to the internet include; procurement, customer related services and management issues. There is capability of sharing product related information such as quality and at the same time provide necessary inventory and industry leading support systems to customers (Flint et al. 2002).

Apple Inc. The company manufactures a host of digital products and computers. The company is also involved in providing software services, networking solutions and computer peripherals. Apple Inc. markets its products through many channels such as well-developed online stores, retail stores as well as third-party wholesalers contrary to Dell Company which utilizes more of one distribution.

The company’s commitment is focused in providing consumers with best personal computing, mobile communication network as well as provision of portable digital entertainment devices. Their business strategy revolves around designing of unique operating system, hardware, software capable of providing customers with new solutions. Their products are characterized by ease-of-use and seamless integration based on superior innovative designs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple and Dell Integrated Marketing Communication Mix by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Within their marketing strategy, the company utilizes experienced and knowledgeable salespersons. Such people are used for the purposes of conveying the company’s value based on its products and services to customers. They use retail and online stores to directly reach the consumers.

In order to boost its third-party reseller concept, the company places employees strategically at specified locations to enable provision of superior customer services. They believe in delivering efficiency through direct contact with customers. The stores together with the products are designed in a manner capable of simplifying the process of marketing the products and finding necessary solutions (Flint et al. 2002).

Apple Inc. strategies on satisfying the needs of their respective customers focus on improvement of available technology. Most of the potential customers have varied satisfaction levels and needs depending on the solutions required. Consumers normally demand satisfaction based on their preferences making laptop manufacturing companies to apply more innovative techniques.

Within the computer industry different segments carry varied weights based on the kind of communication required hence requires an upgraded IMC. Both Apple and Dell apply almost the same differentiation methods in order to reach their targeted customers. One of the major strategies involves fine-tuning the elements of respective marketing mix capable of selling computer products and services (Fifield, 2007).

Apple bases the volume of their laptop sales on customer value which is linked to the nature of operating system and microprocessor. Previously Apple’s laptops and iPods dominated the market owing to their portability nature and capability to enable digital player system. Inclusion of the device contributed towards Apple’s Inc. command of up to 75% of the US market within the last couple of years.

However, the company got equal competition with the launch of similar device from Microsoft. The device known as Zune commanded good percentage of the market compared to Apple’s computers in terms of features and pricing. This led to reduction in the pricing of Apple’s products.

Apple Inc. uses its value proposition to command the required customer base. This is since they are capable of identifying most attractive market segments more easily. The competition within the market is attributed to the company’s simplicity on integrating vendors and appropriate systems.

Such a strategy appears unique to other competitors such as Dell. Apple computers are capable of running on windows platform enabling easier application of many programs hence source of convenience to customers. Apple’s business model differs from other competitors within the market making it possible for them to attain high profit margins.

Major differences are noted in the organized supply chain and variety of product lines the company operates, from the sale of applications to upgrade on accessories. However, there is need to focus in the manufacture of third and fourth generation software systems (Ahmed and Rafiq, 2002).

Positioning of brand image within the market forms a good basis for Apple Inc. progress within the market. This has contributed to Apple being considered by consumers as sole leaders in laptop and other computer accessories manufacture. Their system utilizes modern technology and applies available resources in gaining customer base which assists in building the company’s brand name.

The company has supplied the market majorly through various retail stores with high quality computer hardware and software products. The nature of their working environment enhances their chances of being trusted by consumers. This can be revealed from the benefits accorded to all employees based on individual performances.

Public relation is one of the vital components of communication mix utilized by the company, and this has ensured that their relationship with consumers is solidified at tertiary level. However, the strength of such relationships lies in the nature of products provided within the market and superiority of their customer services over that of the competitors. Innovative abilities play an important role in granting competitive advantage within the computer industry (Johnson et al, 2008, 51-59).

The focus is on providing efficient products and services to individuals, corporate bodies and organizations. Both companies’ products can easily be differentiated owing to the brand name appearing not only on the package material but also on the computers and their accessories. This enables assurance and trust on the side of customers who ultimately turn to be loyal clients (Ahmed and Rafiq, 2002).

The value portrayed by these manufacturing companies is examined from the customer centric view based on the nature of market segment served. Consumers are usually attracted towards products based on specific attributes and values. The nature of pricing determines the kind of value attached towards particular consumers.

High pricing is an indication of greater benefits obtained from the products and their accessories. Third-party systems from Apple Inc. provide customers with more useful ways of effective communication and computer operation systems (Barnes et al, 2009).

Enough resources are allocated to marketing related activities since the sector forms the core driver of the company’s operations. Such marketing integration incorporates the use of public relations and advertising programs through media. The company performs lots of marketing research for the purposes of ensuring efficient provision of products and good relations between the company and the market. Apple uses media advertising to draw public attention towards uniqueness and quality of their products (Hoopla media, 2008).

The company basically utilizes magazines, newspapers and internet in providing detailed profile of their company including product and service portfolios. However, both Apple Inc. and Dell do not spend much in media advertising owing to expenses involved despite the concept’s ability to command significant percentage of the market share.

Display of the various products and services is done within the chain stores enabling extensive attraction of public interest. As discussed, Apple Inc. establishes their stores within the crowded streets (Kotler et al, 2009). Such strategy is efficiently utilized in the process of product launch and at the same time is used in giving product information.

Both companies use several promotional tools for the purposes of creating public awareness concerning their new inventions; Apple Inc. applies this method quite often. Normally, most companies use press release where products are publicized through media art and statement.

This is also done through internet by utilizing the company’s websites. Such methods are necessary within the computer industry since they ensure quick understanding and acceptance of the various products supplied (PR Ideas, 2006). The nature of the brand positioning Apple Inc. enjoys within the market assist in commanding good percentage of consumer base.

Strong brand has contributed positively towards profit margin since the organization’s value revolves around the nature of its image perception amongst consumers. Stronger brands have the capability of steering the organization towards greater achievements. The marketing team utilizes public relations in conveying company’s image amongst consumers.

Image brand of the company has been realigned with the company’s core values and consumer preferences. Positioning of Apple’s Inc. image within the various market segments ensures that consumer minds are captured with the sleek nature of its products. The strength of brand equity is determined by appropriate incorporation of marketing communication tools.

The brand quality of Apple and Dell should incorporate an element of simplicity to enable easy understanding amongst consumers. Such ensures easy penetration of the various products within the international market. Third-party endorsement is used by Apple for the purposes of gaining favor and trust with majority of the consumers. This is since there is belief amongst consumers that such products contain verified positive details.

The concept demands less expenses compared to other components of integrated communication mix. The idea ensures full details concerning Apple Inc. products are revealed to the consumers. This has enabled Apple to win back former customers with majority of the consumers revealing that they do not always have confidence in most of the advertisement message until they prove practically quality of the intended products unless endorsed by third party (Driscoll, 2010).

The use of third-party salespeople ensures that the company’s image is maintained through the media. The independence of third-party endorsers also reinforces consumer confidence since the question on company’s credibility can better be explained by superior authorities within the market. The concept has engineered completion of transaction processes within the market enhancing provision of complete information (Dean and Biswas, 2001).

On the other hand Dell’s use of public relations enhances their marketing techniques, hence utilized in the upgrading quality and speed of their search engines within the internet. This has enabled improvement in the sale of their products since the current generation is internet oriented.

Integration of marketing communication within organization’s business models enables efficiency in performing strategic tasks (Harris 1998). Marketing communication process involves application of public relations in connecting consumers with the various products and services. Such applications involves use of convincing powers capable of ensuring that consumers have deeper understanding on the nature of products and services provided.

Within its application several marketing tools are incorporated which include; mobile marketing, events and media. Public relations presents as one of the most valuable marketing tool with the capability of impacting consumer responses towards products sold in the marketplace. However, appropriate application of marketing communication tools within the market requires intensive training on the side of marketers so as to avoid fraudulent cases, such as photocopying company products by fake organizations (Dubois et al, 2007).

Conclusion Apple Inc. appears strong in the market since their use of public relations in advertisement overlooks consumer perceived knowledge about the products. The company breaks the prior notion concerning products which is majorly based on perceptions. The level of quality within products can best be expressed through communication.

This is since the link between consumers and product manufacturers can only be reinforced through information (Duncan 1997). However, advertisement and promotional activities should be considered as crucial part of marketing communication tools capable of reinforcing organization’s brand name.

Publication of company products can be done through various options which include mass media channels and internet. However, launching of new innovations should be done in the open media for the purposes of consumer exposure to the products.

Reference List Ahmed, K.


Impacts of Industrial Revolution Expository Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Social Impacts

Economic Impacts

Religious Impacts


Works Cited

Introduction Industrial revolution had several impacts on the western civilizations. First written in German, the book Condition of the Working Class in England by Friedrich Engels discusses social, education, economic, political, and religious effects as some of these impacts. Essentially, the book was meant to address the German audience. Indeed, Engel was the son of a very prosperous German industrialist who specialized in textiles. At his early twenties, Engel was engaged in radical journalism.

When he was sent to England, the effects of industrialization that he saw at Manchester prompted him to write about the Condition of the Working Class in England, a book that was published first in 1884. This paper discusses religion, social, and economic impacts of industrialization as argued by Friedrich Engels.

Social Impacts Firstly, Engel documents unimpressive social impacts of industrial revolution among various cities in England. This documentation is based on his direct observations while living with the poor people who worked at the factories. It is also based on contemporary reports about the issue.

In the book, he paints pictures of overcrowded housing, child labor, drunkenness, abject poverty, sexual exploitation, and cities with immense dirt. These social impacts had the overall effect of hiking mortality rates within the industrializing cities of England. For instances, he exemplifies the fact that, in large industrializing cities, deaths due to diseases were higher in comparison to similar causes of deaths in the countryside.

In Liverpool and Manchester, the death toll due to whooping cough, measles, small pox, and scarlet fever was four times the death tolls due to similar diseases in the countryside (Engels 57). Interestingly, in Carlisle, “4,408 children out of 10, 000 died before attaining the age of five years when mills were not introduced” (Engels 58).

Upon the introduction of mills, the number hiked to 4,738. In the case of adults, “1,006 persons in every 10,000 persons died before mills were introduced while 1,261 persons out of 10,000 persons died upon the introduction of mills” (Engels 58). Consequently, industrial revolution made workers socially worse.

Economic Impacts Economically, industrial revolution had far-reaching impacts on people. According to Engel, industrial revolution had the effects of making the textile industry have substantial improvements technically. Individually, small amounts of improvements were experienced. However, in collective terms, there was a profound economic impact on financial conditions of people. For example, Engel explains that inventions of the industrial revolution resulted to increased number of yarns that were delivered.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He continues to argue that, even though prior to industrial revolution weavers had employed many spinners, yarns were never adequate. Hence, weavers had minimal choices other than waiting. This situation changed upon the onset of industrial revolution. Yarns for weaving were made more abundant than they could be woven by the number of workers who were available.

Therefore, industrial revolution enhanced the productivity of workers thus resulting to increased earnings in the textile industries. However, Engel notes one problem with these impacts. He says, “now that the weaver could earn more at his loom, he gradually abandoned his farming, and gave his whole time to weaving” (Engels 18).

Arguably, industrial revolution resulted to the disappearance of a class of weavers who were small-scale-based. He amplifies this economic impact by asserting that the classes of weavers were replaced by a “newly arising class of weavers who lived wholly upon wages, had no property whatever…and so became working men, proletarians” (Engels 18). Therefore, industrial revolution made many people dependent on employments at the industries rather than being self-employed in their farms. Thus, a shift of occupation took place.

Religious Impacts Lastly, from the contexts of religion, industrial revolution fractured the morals of people, which were based on religious teachings. The working person in the industry was essentially guided by commands and instructions from the employer.

Engel argues that erosion of morals guided by religious beliefs among people working in the industries was a negative impact associated with industrial revolution since “it is sufficiently clear that the instruction in morals can have no better effect than the religious teaching, with which, in all English schools, it is mixed up” (Engels 144).

Furthermore, he argues that, upon the negation of religious beliefs to guide the morals of the workers, the English bourgeoisie took over through its egotism. However, English bourgeoisie “does not even take the trouble to impress upon the workers the morality of the day…it has patched together in its own interest for its own protection!” (Engels 144).

The consequence of negative impairment of religion arising from industrial revolution in Engels’ view was the creation of a workforce that was stupid, short sighted, and short minded. This workforce often engaged in vices such as drunkenness and sexual immorality within the highly populated poor dwellings.

We will write a custom Essay on Impacts of Industrial Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, the paper has deployed Engels’ arguments, as brought out in his book Condition of the Working Class in England, to discuss the impacts of industrial revolution. The impacts considered are social, economic, and religious impacts. In this extent, the paper has held that, according to Engels, industrial revolution had undesirable social and religious impacts. On the other hand, it resulted to the creation of a society that was economically unequal. It also changed people’s occupations.

Works Cited Engels, Friedrich. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Print.


Atlantic Waterfowl Celebration: Situation and SWOT Analyses Report essay help online: essay help online

A Situation Analysis The Atlantic Waterfowl Celebration (AWC) started as an organization that was intended to offer basic services to the public at relatively low costs. AWC was not intended to be a profit-making organization; in addition, it was also not allowed to operate as a legitimate charity due to the fact that it was intended to exclusively offer cheap services to tourists.

The governance structure of the organization consisted of a board of directors, which was constituted by individuals from different backgrounds, who represented the interests of the members of the community.

The board of AWC established some of the most effective ways of raising funds that were used to run the organization’s operations. These ways included fundraising, government’s grants and funding, donations from the private sector, corporate contributions, and its own revenues accruing from the sales of memorabilia and souvenirs.

For instance, money collected from the organization’s activities during that time amounted to close to $100, 000 and government grants were about $44,000. The management of AWS was good at maximizing the organization’s projects by using a lesser amount of money.

AWC organized a lot of events from which it collected revenue; it is through these events that the organization found the chance to extend its services to the community. In addition to the celebration, the other events included: the Duck Decoy auction, the waterfowl carving exhibition and competition, the sale and silent auction, and the art exhibition.

The organizers of these events used them to give the members of the community a chance to be part of AWC. For instance, the members were allowed to display and sell their products in the trade shows and exhibitions that were organized by AWC.

Marketing is one of the major tools that AWC’s management applied in the operations to ensure success of the organization. The management gave a lot of importance to marketing and employed large amounts of money to ensure that its products and services were thoroughly marketed to the organization’s potential customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management used a local advertising agency to help them develop the organization’s products in a way that would attract more customers and make it remain at the top of its competitors. The advertising agency was also part of the marketing team of the organization. For instance, it assisted the team in designing the posters that were required for the 1991 event.

Lastly, the management committee of AWC relied on effective communication to market its products and to improve its general performance. The most common mode of communication in AWC was use of posters. Besides using the posters as marketing tools, they were also used to bring out the visual imagery of the organization.

For that reason, the posters were built with a strong visual outlook that depicted either some of the pillars or the events that were held at that particular time. AWC also used brochures to pass some of its crucial information to the community and tourists. The brochures acted as tourist guides at times as they contained sufficient information that could lead them to various destinations.

A SWOT Analysis Strengths

AWC had so many advantages that it enjoyed as an organization. AWC had a staff that was constituted by individuals who were highly qualified; for that reason, the organization was smart at organizing lucrative events that assisted it to make sufficient money to maintain its operations.

The organization also had reliable sources from where it got money to carry out its operations. For instance, it obtained funds from the government, the private sector, and other corporations. AWC also maximized its financial resources to avoid running operations that were not valuable. The organization had a unique selling proposition (USP), which enabled it to offer relatively cheaper products and services than those of the other competing organizations in the tourism industry.


There were a few limitations and weaknesses at AWC that barred it from exploiting its resources fully. The limitations also prevented it from dominating the tourism industry as it was expected to. The first limitation was the purpose for which AWC was incorporated into the tourism industry.

AWC was formally incorporated as an organization not with the intention of making any profits, but to offer basic services to the community at affordable costs. For that reason, the organization could not compete favorably with the other organizations, which strived to maximize their profits.

We will write a custom Report on Atlantic Waterfowl Celebration: Situation and SWOT Analyses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another weakness that is evident in the organization is the weak governance structure that existed in AWC. The top governors were volunteers, who were not rewarded for their efforts; consequently, the organization’s directors were not adequately motivated like in the other companies. Interference from the government also hindered the growth and prosperity of the organization.


AWC’s management made good use of the opportunities that existed within as well as outside the tourism industry. For instance, from the time it realized that other organizations were not holding numerous trade shows and exhibition within the industry, it began to conduct the exhibitions regularly to complement some of the basic services it offered to the community. The management of AWC also noted the trends in the industry and started implementing them within its areas of jurisdiction.

Some of the new implementations it carried out included the use of posters, which none of its competitors had regarded as an effective mode of marketing and communication. The changes in population profiles and social patterns also brought about the attractive performance witnessed in AWC. AWC realized that more youths than elderly people frequented the industry and as a result, considered them as its target customers.


There were many obstacles that AWC faced at the time, which greatly prevented it from prospering the way it did before. One of the obstacles was the lack of qualified managers, which came about after the board disintegrated, with some of the directors resigning from the organization to seek better opportunities elsewhere. The organization was also faced with a serious debt problem; as a result, it experienced a significant shortage of the funds it needed to clear the debt.

The problem of lack of enough funds also affected the organization’s marketing activities. The organization could not afford to carry out an elaborate marketing strategy to help it in advertizing its products during the celebration.

AWC was also faced with the threat of losing most of its customers. In fact, this threat became real when it lost several customers to its competitors as a result of a sharp increase in the prices of its products and services. The management thought that by increasing the prices, the organization could recover from its financial crisis; however, the recovery plan never succeeded.


Organizational management Term Paper college application essay help

Respect is perceived to the value attached in dignifying oneself and others (Business Lobby Team par.1). In our daily lives, we have to deal with other people at one time or another. Respect comes into perspective when we have to relate with our peers and colleagues. Respect also involves giving dignity to oneself as well as other people’s privacy, views, philosophies, abilities, beliefs and personality differences.

This paper outlines the importance of respect at the workplace and how an employee can earn respect in a diverse working environment. Besides, it discusses how an individual can show respect to colleagues and other employees at workplace.

Why is respect important? People respect themselves when they feel that they are equally respected by others. When we are respected by other people unconditionally, there is a higher likelihood to be positively influenced by those who respect us.

Workplace relationships play a major role in ensuring that organizational goals are met. For an organization to work towards certain goals, relationship between managers and other employees as well as the relationship among other colleagues is of great importance. Relationship in various work places is enhanced by several aspects. These aspects include mutual respect, integrity and honesty (Mayhew par. 2).

The resultant effect of effective workplace relationship is cooperating towards a common goal. This is an important aspect that enhances profitability in any organization. Mutual respect initiates collaborative teamwork which in turn helps to push the organization policies towards the set goals (Mayhew par. 3).

Mutual respect among colleagues in an organization enhances productive working relationship. People become more open to each other and thus communication between employees is improved both vertically and horizontally. This move promotes a work environment that is flexible and results in improved productivity (Webster par. 3).

Mutual respect is a key aspect that enhances knowledge transfer between workers in an organization. When employees respect each other, they develop mutual trust and allow information to flow. It also enhances work relationships and at the same time helps employees to work as a cohesive team.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It becomes easy to solve problems when knowledge is effectively transferred from one person to another. Respect comes out as a prerequisite in actualization of the above mentioned components of knowledge transfer particularly in cases where ideas have to be created and shared among employees. In a workplace environment, the attitude of the group towards knowledge transfer should entail respect among each other.

In terms of sharing knowledge, it is worth to mention that positive sharing can only occur where members have respect for each other. In other words, a good workplace relationship is required for effective sharing of knowledge and skills. People will pay attention to information being passed on by persons they respect. In addition, willingness to contribute towards knowledge and information sharing occurs when people show mutual respect within small or large teams (Levine par.5).

An organization where everybody is respected enjoys significant benefits in its operations. In order to achieve a collaborative workforce, employers are expected to undertake extensive training of employees. This practice promotes mutual respect in an organization. It also helps to align the goals of employees to an organization.

Respect makes it easy to identify employees based on the position they hold. In addition, it increases their commitment in maintaining high quality work. Mutual respect helps to recognize the talent of employees and the contributions they make in the organization. The overall goal of respect is to increase a firm’s profitability. This can be realized if there is workplace respect. In the event that high performance is needed, diversity should be integrated in the goals of an organization.

In other words, a diverse workplace is highly likely to produce the much needed work balance and productivity. Instead, mutual respect in an organization should be based on the ability of an individual to respect the skills of other people. In addition, it is imperative to mention that mutual respect is an integral parameter that can only be experienced in a diverse work environment. Moreover, respect helps in breed profitability in an organization.

In addition, respect helps to foster cooperation, collaboration and synergy. All these ingredients are highly beneficial especially in establishing workforce that can ascertain the significance of performance, productivity and quality of goods and services. Respect at the workplace also facilitates the transfer of knowledge between different people in an organization.

In most cases, employees who accord respect to their fellow workers finds it easy to respect other members of the management team with high levels of knowledge and skills. As a result, it becomes less cumbersome for employees to get additional skills from their superiors. It is worthy to note that the workplace training can easily achieve the expected outcomes if the trainees are willing to respect the expertise of the mentor or trainer.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Organizational management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, respect helps to reduce or eliminate possible conflicts at the workplace. Incidences of the workplace conflict are likely to increase if employees fail to respect one another. This is because employees who lack respect are likely to involve themselves in behaviors that portray lack of respect to both the person and to the contribution made by other employees in an organization.

Having conflicts at the workplace is likely to cause negative impact on an organization for instance by reducing employee morale, job satisfaction and productivity (Norville 112).

How to gain respect in a diverse workplace Workplace diversity is based on principals that call for equal opportunities in employment. Diversity at the workplace is caused by inherent differences like ethnicity, age, gender, cultural background, physical ability and sexual orientation. Managing diversity and gaining respect in a diverse workplace involves the ability to recognize individual differences in a given organization.

This help employee to realize their full potential and also enables the organization to realize the set goals and objectives. Respect in a diverse workplace can also be realized with the help of managers especially when they are able to establish and maintain appropriate work environments.

In this case, the similarities and variation of the employees should be valued in order to enable them make maximum use of their potential in order to benefit the organization. This helps an organization to achieve the set goals and objectives (Esty, Richard and Marcie 96).

Respect in a diverse workplace can also be realized by recognizing the contribution made by employees from different backgrounds. This is from the fact that employees can bring in fresh perceptions and ideas that facilitate product development. The ability of an organization to manage diversity successfully helps to nurture innovation and creativity which improves the competitive power of the organization.

In addition, having respect in a diverse workplace helps an organization to build strong relationships with different people. It also becomes quite easy for an organization to make improvement on its services and other programs that enhance the contribution made by employees. An inclusive and supportive workplace environment can be created when employees in an organization work as a team.

Besides, a cohesive workforce will demonstrate the much needed respect towards clients. Increased productivity and greater levels of creativity can also be achieved if respect is maintained in a diverse workplace. Therefore, effective implementation of diversity strategies in the workplace helps to improve employee retention, reduces expenditure and enhances productivity (Esty, Richard and Marcie 99).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Workplace diversity is a term that is used to mean differences in physical characteristics as well as variations in working styles. It also encompasses differences in one’s philosophy as compared to philosophies held by other colleagues. The Workplace diversity includes cultural diversity.

The latter is defined as human differences that play an important part in the culture of an organization (Mayhew par.2). Respect in workplace is also two pronged. This implies that for one to earn respect in the workplace there is a need to show respect for themselves and others as well.

In order to maintain self respect, it is important to refrain from engaging in direct confrontations whenever there are personal differences. Therefore, peaceful problem solving skills would be the best way to deal with situations that trigger anger and hatred.

As mentioned earlier, different people have various personalities, abilities, and beliefs that make them unique. In order to earn respect from these people, there is a need to respect them in spite of their diverse attributes. The greatest challenge arises in terms of the approach to use in order to take care of each person’s views irrespective of their emotional, economic, and social aspects in life.

Balovich (par.1) indicates that for an individual to show respect to others, it is necessary to recognize that they are worthy to be accorded that respect. In addition, in order to take care of the diversity of other people at work, one must refrain from making sentiments and utterances that may depict a negative image of themselves towards others. Similarly, they should refrain from commenting negatively against other people’s attributes.

The question on how leaders should show respect to their juniors and vice versa will also arise. For team leaders to earn respect from their juniors, it is important for them to keep away from making negative or demeaning comments against their juniors. If team leaders feel that their juniors have done less satisfactory job, they need to guide them learn how to achieve better results.

On the other hand, individuals at the workplace should not allow to be demeaned when their work is relatively satisfactory. In the case of employer’s attitude towards workers, there are instances when the employee is criticized and silently agrees to the comments of the team managers just because of their status. This phenomenon may leads to lack of respect to the top level of management (Balovich par.2).

Mayhew (par. 3) observe that employers should organize training on the subject of respect at the workplace in order to achieve a collaborative team of workers. The training should target the need of promoting respect among all employees irrespective of diversity of personal attributes and status.

If employees in an organization are focused towards a common goal, mutual respect will be developed regardless of their statuses, position and the roles they play in achieving the organization’s goals. As a result, their differences in terms of philosophical views at work do not matter so long as they deliver their duties as expected.

Organizational culture plays a major role in ensuring that employees respect and get respected by others. Business Lobby Team (par. 5) provides indicators that show that the workplace environment upholds the aspect of respect in the workplace diversity.

These indicators include giving credit facilities to employees when they make positive achievement or when an individual or a team meets an objective. Recognizing people’s hard work usually enhances a positive relationship between managers and colleagues. As a result, it helps in forging a common goal.

Another indicator is when employees are accountable for their actions and do not blame others. Hence, an individual earns respect by avoiding confrontation with other colleagues that may have been caused by either commission or omission. Respect at the workplace is also demonstrated when employees work towards a common goal and avoid being distracted by their differences.

Employees who respect an organization’s structure encourage mutual respect among themselves. In this regard, employees should not use the organization structure as a weapon against others. Other indicators that show that people in an organization uphold mutual respect is when they talk positively about their work, colleagues and have a positive focus for the organization rather than expressing distrust (Mayhew par. 4).

How to show respect There are different ways of showing respect at the workplace. On of the simplest way to show respect at the workplace is by being courteous, empathetic, kind and polite. Managers can show respect to employees by encouraging them to share their opinions and ideas. In some cases, employees may be shy to communicate their opinions and ideas.

Managers should assist such employees to express their ideas by promising high levels of confidentiality and commenting on their ideas with sincerity. In addition, managers can also show respect to employees by being ready to listen to their complaints. Managers should avoid interrupting employees when they are making complaints or suggestions.

Respect in the workplace can also be realized when every member in an organization is ready to use good ideas from other workers to help improve performance. Using ideas from other people is a form of expressing respect to people who create good ideas. It is necessary for employees to inform the managers whenever they use ideas from their co-workers. This helps the management to acknowledge the contribution made by employees.

Members in an organization can also show respect for one another by avoiding insults or despising their co-workers. Employees should also avoid criticizing, judging and patronizing their fellow employees or managers. Avoiding such actions is an acceptable way of showing respect at the workplace.

As mentioned earlier, for individuals to demonstrate respect to others, they must first respect themselves. In order to show respect to others especially at workplace, one important aspect is to recognize achievements, contributions and abilities of other colleagues without considering their personal or cultural attributes.

Quite often, when individuals’ capabilities are assessed, their diversity should not be put into consideration. It is therefore important for people to recognize and appreciate other people’s abilities and skills without considering their race, gender or color (Business Lobby Team par. 4)

Keeping promises is an important and sure way to show respect. Although it is closely related to being honest, keeping promises may include being reliable and punctual. When people depend on the reliability of others at workplace, it means that there is adequate respect among all of them.

On the other hand, being reliable may be interpreted to mean respect for work and roles. In workplaces, the management team always gauges employees’ commitment to work by the respect they have accorded themselves particularly regarding knowledge on their areas of jurisdiction as well as their reliability.

Keeping the word of mouth goes hand in hand with being a hardworking person. Everybody who is worthy being respected respects a hard-worker. In this regard, meeting deadlines for duties assigned, going an extra mile to achieve the set goals and also engaging in learning of various aspects are some of the attributes that demonstrate that a person is hard-working.

Being kind and a source of inspiration to people enhances respect between people. When people share challenges and problems, they do this with the hope of finding a listening ear. Being there to listen to fellow’s problems reassures them and in turn respect is given back. This can be shown through empathizing with people facing different challenges, helping them out, assisting them solve problems (Business Lobby Team par. 4).

Quite often, we express our emotions through the word of mouth. It is necessary to consider what we say in the presence of others will result to lacking respect to oneself or lacking respect to them. It is therefore important to express oneself through talking with humility and gentleness.

Besides, it is important to communicate clearly and straightforward in order to show respect to others. This goes hand in hand with being honest and always telling the truth. Sometimes speaking about issues that one has little information on may make other people disrespect them.

Appearance and personal grooming are important tool that can show respect. First time appearance is enough to show whether you respect others, authorities and even one self. In workplaces it is important to adhere to codes of dressing and general conduct for one to be regarded as respectful.

Taking care of ones appearance does not necessarily mean wearing official outfits but means being presentable to fellow workers and also to seniors. Good appearance is necessary to every person if they mean to show respect and should be upheld regardless of the roles one has in the workplace or status. Respect ought not to depend on wage or age bracket.

Respecting managers/managers respecting employees Morris (par. 2) illustrates that a successful manager ought to earn respect from the team he/she leads. On the other hand for managers to earn respect from their juniors they must show respect back. Some of the things that managers can do to earn respect include inspiring people by encouraging humor in the workplace. Also, managers should allow all employees to have equal opportunities to excel and gain experience. This can be achieved through enforcement of guidelines that should apply equally to employees without favoritism.

When a good example is set by team members and leaders, the managers will earn respect from their subordinates. This may include getting involved in production directly, willingness to go an extra mile in achieving goals and encouraging workers to perform their duties (Monica par.3)

In addition, managers can earn respect from their juniors due to their ability to solve problems. Managers should iron out conflicts arising in the workplace as first as possible and though the use of conflict resolution measures that maintain respect for other employees. Morris (par. 4) indicates that employees accord more respect to managers who are able to resolve conflicts promptly and fairly.

Managers can also earn respect from employees if they share information with them especially when dealing with a difficult issue. On this case employees are able to share their views and at the same time understand manager’s line of thinking.

Listening to employees’ views will always make them feel valued, dignified and respected. In this was managers can learn important aspects in the workplace that may be important to them to help them in solving problems or strategic planning (Heathfield par.5).

Other modes that managers can use to show respect to their employees include establishing trust, collaboration, kindness and giving feedback to concerns raised by employees. On the other hand, employees ought to show their managers the same amount of respect. When employees adhere to their respective duties as stipulated in an organization, managers will equally feel respected.

In addition, employees should show respect to their managers by positively inspiring other employees through the promotion of good working relationship. Other aspects that show respect to managers is to accept positive criticism aimed at improving working relationships between them and their fellow subordinates and management as a whole.

In addition, sharing important information that is crucial in the running of the organization demonstrates respect towards work and top level management. This kind of communication can be enhanced by creating communication channels that promote sharing of knowledge and information.

The reason why employers hire employees is to perform specific functions in an organization. These functions are usually linked to the operations of the organization. These operations are expected to help the company to provide value-added services or products to customers.

The employees are compensated for the work done through remuneration. This can either in the form of a salary, retirement benefits, health benefits or a bonus. In order to achieve this, the employees should be willing to respect their managers. Similarly, managers should also respect the employees since workplace respect provides mutual benefit to the parties involved (Taiwo 107).

Employees can express their respect to the managers by observing the following. Firstly, employees should always act in a professional manner. Employees should understand the main reason why they were selected for a given position in an organization. The managers and other superiors expect the employee to be aware of his tasks and perform them well for the good of the organization.

Employees can also express their level of professionalism by ensuring that they dress appropriately, reporting for work early and completing the assigned tasks on time. Secondly, employees can express their respect to their managers by showing their desire to raise their performance level.

Employees can improve on their performance by operating consistently. This means that employees should not be reminded of their duties by the managers. Being a performance employee was requires them to act like initiators and problem solvers. To achieve this, employees should be able to come up with ideas that aid in providing solutions to some of the problems or challenges that might be affecting the organization (Taiwo 109).

On the other hand, employers can show their respect to employees by acknowledging the opinions from the employees. This should be done even under circumstances where the ideas from the employees are not feasible. Managers should be willing to communicate the level of the contribution made by employees, and if possible they should appreciate the job done by employees using reliable methods. Managers should understand that praising employees can provide significant benefit to the company.

Another way of showing respect to employees requires the managers to respect the subordinates and the peers. Managers should also ensure that every person in an organization is treated with respect, irrespective of the position he or she holds. A respectful workplace is likely to raise the morale of employees and consequently realize an increase in productivity. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the managers to ensure that the concerns of the employees are addressed appropriately (Taiwo 109).

Respect between colleagues Every person in an organization has a valuable role to accomplish. Hence, it would be difficult to accomplish organizational goals without the input of all employees. If a person views others and treat them with respect irrespective of the roles they play in an organization, objectives will be met quite easily.

For colleagues to have mutual respect, they have to accommodate their colleague’s different views to work and avoid condemning them for what they are or for their belief systems. In order to promote respect at workplace, each person must cultivate a culture that upholds the much needed respect (Heathfield par 3).

Several aspects of organizational culture are important in promoting respect among employees. These include a culture of accommodating everybody irrespective of their differences, defining personal rights, responsibilities and the authorities in the organization, defining an appropriate code of conduct in an organization, promoting accountability, encouraging discussions and team work development as well as enhancing formal communication channels and forums such as meetings, use of emails and newsletters (Business Lobby Team par.5).

In view of the above methods of promoting respect among colleagues at workplace, there are some aspects are within the confines of the management while others are initiatives that employees develop on a regular basis. For instance, the management in consultation with the employees should come up with codes of conduct, detailed roles of each employee and accountability measures. This forms part of an organization’s culture where every employee is aware of the accepted norms.

The management should devise avenues where individuals can raise their concerns. Therefore, each employee should be given due attention and also be able to give the same attention to other colleagues.

When the term disrespect at the workplace is mentioned, an individual is compelled to think about serious acts of violation such as racial discrimination and sexual harassment among others. It is important for working teams to understand that there are other behavioral patterns among employees that have a great impact at the workplace relationships, productivity and general wellbeing.

Negative behavioral patterns such as gossiping, rumor mongering, talking to each other at loud and irritating voices as well as withholding vital information tend to promote a disrespectful workplace (Byres par. 4).

There are a number of things which can be done to earn respect between colleagues. These include the following. First of all, it is necessary to develop acceptable work ethic. This requires the employee to report on time, doing the expected thing and being ready to help others whenever they need any help.

Employees should also be excited and appreciate the job. To achieve this, employees should avoid making complains about work problems and work towards finding solutions that can provide mutual benefit. Respect between colleagues can also be realized by being honest and trustworthy and avoiding any discussions that relate to the personal life of other people. Following all the rules and regulations and acting professionally at the workplace also helps to earn respect between colleagues (Taiwo 111).

Respect in the work place training Respect at the workplace is an attribute that can be acquired over time. Sometimes it does not come out naturally. This is because some aspects at the workplace are closely related to code of conduct and sometimes ties with an organization’s culture. An employee is considered to be respectful when he or she observes positive workplace ethics that largely promote favorable working relationships.

There are some cases when employees might feel harassed at places of work. Harassment at the workplace can be in the form of discrimination in terms of the amount of training which employees are accorded. Therefore, it is important for an organization to organize training sessions that are fairly distributed among various levels of workers at workplace.

This can be done regularly through scheduled training for all employees or through trainings organized for specific teams. In addition, training sessions focusing on teams’ interaction forums like team building can be used as avenues for training.

It is important for employees to understand that the most serious negative actions like gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination often result into a less dignified place of work.

Other minor acts such as gossiping, rudeness towards fellow workers, ignoring or withdrawing important information also contribute to a disrespected workplace. In addition, employees should learn the importance of respecting themselves at place of work. This kind of respect should also be extended to the organization and its management as a whole (Heathfield par. 5).

Some of the acts of disrespect toward fellow employees at the workplace may amount to criminal acts that can be grossly prosecuted. Employees should also be well equipped with information on what may amount to crime against fellow workers. These acts should be dealt with by the legal system of an organization. However, the management should introduce and implement disciplinary measures against employees who show acts of disrespect that are considered to have enough substance to warrant such actions.

Training on respect in the workplace acts as a way of demonstrating the desired qualities of a given organization. Training also helps to realize good relationships between different members of an organization.

Respect is also critical especially when there is a need to ascertain productivity and overall values of an organization. Workplace training also helps employees to be equipped with practical skills that help employees to identify violations and unproductive behaviors that hinder employees from completing their tasks.

Conclusion Respect is a prerequisite in effective relationships at workplaces. It is important for an organization to incorporate respect within its cultural practices such that old and new employees are incorporated in the adopted culture. As discussed in the essay, respect at various places of work can only flourish when both sides maintain a dignified and respectful relationship.

Hence, an individual has to show respect to others so that the same amount of respect can be given back. In addition, before employees can be able to show respect to others, they have to exercise respect among themselves. Respect also contributes towards the productivity of workers. The wellbeing and performance of an organization can also be replicated by the same effect.

Therefore, it implies that there is a significant relationship between the extent to which organizations uphold the value of respect and in relation to performance. Although there is need to conduct training sessions that can enhance and assist in building respect at workplace, there is minimum financial investment for a company to uphold a culture of respect yet it pays a part in contributing to overall performance.

Managers play a significant role in ensuring that the culture of respect prevails at workplace. It is easy for respect to be promoted when managers first demonstrate respect towards their juniors. In addition, communication structure in a company affects how employees uphold the value of respect. When communication structure allows managers to pass information to their juniors and vise versa, employees are able to maintain the value of respect towards fellow employees and also to their managers more conveniently.

Training is important in enhancing the culture of respect in an organization. The management should engage in forums aimed at promoting respect among employees. Some of these activities include team based groups activities such as team building days, appreciation parties as well as extracurricular activities like games and competitions.

These are forums that improve the workplace relations since people are able to interact and share their views freely irrespective of their job status, race, physical characteristics and so on. Therefore, the latter are important tools that are crucial in promoting a respected workplace atmosphere.

Revision and opinion about respect in the workplace The importance of mutual respect among employees and managers cannot be overemphasized. Respect is contagious and yields good working relationships. Mutual respect is a source of motivation and leads to positive productivity. Besides, daily challenges and lack of morale may make employees engage in acts that demonstrate lack of respect to management or fellow employees.

Although respect emanates from an individual, there are factors that may cause an employee to act in a disrespected manner. These factors may include the level of job satisfaction, employees’, and level of motivation.

According to my view, respect is a reward of a favorable working condition and sometimes triggered by aspects such as remuneration as well as fringe benefits and bonuses adopted by an organization. In addition, respect does not have monetary value or any direct influence on the budget. However, it has enormous contribution to the workplace relationships and leadership development.

Respect quotes Some valuable quotes on respect include “respect others to be respected, respect is the foundation stone of organizational effectiveness because it encourages us to recognize the skills and experience of every individual” (Learn Quote: Promoting respect in the workplace par. 2).

Works Cited Business Lobby Team. How to promote respect in the workplace. Business Lobby. 2011. Web.

Balovich, David. Respect in the workplace. 2006. Web.

Byres, Nicole. Cultivating culture of respect in the workplace. 2012. Web.

Esty Katharine, Griffin Richard and Hirsch, Marcie. Workplace Diversity. Holbrook, Mass: Adams Publ, 1995. Print.

Heathfield, Susan. How to demonstrate respect at work. Web.

Learn Quote: Promoting respect in the workplace. 2005. Web.

Levine, Gilbert. Managerial Practices Underlying One Piece of the Learning Organization. 2012. Web.

Mayhew, Patrick. Why is respect important in a diverse workplace? 2012. Web.

Mayhew, Ruth. Elements of effective workplace relationships. Web.

Monica, Patrick. How to make your team respect you as a manager. 2012. Web.

Morris, Briwn. How supervisors can show respect for employees. Web.

Norville, Deborah. The Power of Respect: Benefit from the Most Forgotten Element of Success. Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson, 2009. Print.

Taiwo, Niyi. Respect: Gaining It and Sustaining It: a Comprehensive and Practical View of the Concept of Respect. New York: Xlibris, 2007. Print.

Webster, Amanda. Motivational strategies that affect productivity in the workplace. 2012. Web.


The Weight Loss Science and the Recommended Procedures Research Paper college essay help near me

Introduction Weight loss is the act of engaging in a number of activities, including body exercises and dieting, in a bid to reduce body mass. This is normally done by obese people whose weight causes a lot of discomfort. Obesity may at times result to detrimental diseases like heart illnesses. This paper is aimed at explaining the science behind weight loss and the recommended procedures one should take while going through this process.

Quite a number of people go on diets, and take food supplements so as to lose their excess weight and achieve a desirable body weight and shape. Apparently, many of these people do not know or understand the manner in which the weight loss mechanism actually works. Consequently, many of them end up with unsatisfactory results due to their ignorance about the matter (Ratcliffe 134).

Dieting and random body exercises do not comprehensively facilitate weight loss if the concerned party is completely unaware of the science behind it. In fact, this notion should be scrapped off people’s minds because it is misleading. If one is serious about losing his or her weight, it is imperative that they understand that weight loss process is no work of magic.

A healthy diet and exercise routine must be planned in correlation to specific body needs. In order to do so, it is essential to acknowledge the scientific mechanism of weight loss. This will then play an imperative role in enabling one to plan accordingly.

According to a deeper scientific knowledge on metabolism, body weight is determined by energy intake on one hand, and energy expenditure on the other. Body weight loss is, therefore, a reduction of the total body mass. From the two statements, we can deduce that an energy intake lesser than energy expenditure of the body unavoidably causes a decrease of adipose tissues.

An adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue that naturally stores excess energy in the form of fat in the body. Since a decrease in body fat is always accompanied by a decrease in lean body mass, it is important to note that this simple theory can be used to reduce body weight inconsiderate of the age or gender of the victim. Reduced body fats, therefore, results to a decrease in body weight and vice versa (Ratcliffe 84).

Those who are intending to lose their weight have to take into consideration a number of scientific theories. For instance, energy required by the body must be observed. This is done in order to give the body just the amount of energy it needs without providing excess or limited energy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, balances between body weight and energy intake and body weight and energy expenditure have to be monitored and perfectly regulated in order to achieve weight loss. This is important in enabling the patient to reach the late phases of weight loss mechanism where body fat is burned and body weight is reduced considerably (Dokken, Betsy and Tsu-ShuenTsao 120).

This is an implication that an obesity victim has to meticulously understand his or her energy requirements before embarking on dieting and body exercises. It is only through this that one is able to effectively go through the tiresome weight loss procedure and achieve desired results.

In addition to understanding one’s energy requirements, it is also important to know the nutritional values of some foods and their composition in order to give the body exactly the foods it needs during weight loss process. Glucose, for instance, is a simple sugar and a crucial carbohydrate in biology.

Living cells rely on it as a basic source of energy. It plays an imperative role in the physiological process of weight loss and burning fat. For this reason, glucose is an important part of the diets for the obese. It is basically the first step to lose weight when taken in recommended proportions. As a matter of fact, glucose is converted to glycogen which is the primary source of energy. It is not only the primary source of energy in humans, but in most living organism as well.

Glycogen is a substance deposited in body tissues and stores carbohydrate sugars such as glucose as mentioned above (Craig 159). The existence of this substance in the body may facilitate either weight gain or weight loss depending on the degree of its consumption by the body and intake through ingestion.

It is stored in the liver and in the muscles as a primary energy source but is converted to fats in the event that the amount stored exceeds the body’s daily consumption of energy. This implies that obese victims must know the approximate amount of glucose their bodies need on a daily basis in order to avert the conversion of excess glycogen into fats to facilitate weight gain (Dokken, Betsy and Tsu-ShuenTsao 93).

The burning of fats in the body is largely determined by the daily food intake. This can be described scientifically as glucose intake. There is always the production of the hormone insulin by the body each time one consumes glucose. This hormone filters the glucose, transforms it into glycogen, and stores it in the storage tissues in the body such as the liver and muscles.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Weight Loss Science and the Recommended Procedures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is done so that the human body can make use of it in the production of energy needed to carry out a number of activities done by an individual. At this level, one must balance his or her energy expenditure so that the energy used up is not less than the energy ought to have been produced by the ingested glucose.

In other words, one must workout him or herself and burn the consumed calories based on their goal plans. In the event that this is not done, what happens in the body is completely astonishing. If the glycogen contained in the body is inappropriately consumed and others remain unutilized, one ends up with excess glycogen in the body. This will then cause an unavoidable process of converting the overload of glycogen into body fats. As a result of this, one is bound to increase his or her body weight (Canfield, Mark and Andrew 67).

Conclusion The ultimate goal of weight loss should be to compel the body to utilize its glycogen without storing excess. In order to do so, one must modify his or her diet to fit own preferences and lower the amount of carbohydrates consumed. This is the only viable way of preventing the body from converting excess glycogen into fats which apparently contribute to a lot to weight gain (Fletcher and Anne 154).

The weight loss mechanism can be fairly complicated, but it is understandable. All that people need to do is modify their diets to conform to their energy requirements, exercise regularly and make sure that they do not end up with excess calories and this should see them through effective weight loss.

Works Cited Canfield, Jack, Mark V. Hansen, and Andrew Larson. Weight Loss. Deerfield Beach, Fla: Health Communications, 2005. Print.

Craig, Gary. Eft for Weight Loss: The Revolutionary Technique for Conquering Emotional Overeating, Cravings, Bingeing, Eating Disorders, and Self-Sabotage : Featureing Reports from Eft Practioners, Instructors, Students, and Users. Fulton, CA: Energy Psychology Press, 2010. Print.

Dokken, Betsy, and Tsu-ShuenTsao. The Physiology of Body Weight Regulation: Are We Too Efficient for Our Own Good? Fulton, CA: Diabetes Spectrum, 2007. Print.

Fletcher R and Anne M. Weight Loss Confidential: How Teens Lose Weight and Keep It Off and What They Wish Parents Knew. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2006. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Weight Loss Science and the Recommended Procedures by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ratcliffe, John. Health


Field Trip of the Pewsey Downs Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction This is a field trip report about the Pewsey Downs. Pewsey Downs is a nature reserve of Marlborough in Wiltshire. The place provides an attractive view from three hills overlooking Pewsey Downs. The place has controlled agricultural systems to sustain the natural environment.

Field Trip of the Pewsey Downs: Knap Hill, Adams Grave, Golden Ball Hill, the Eald Burh, Milk Hill, and Tan Hill

From the car park, the direction is eastwards to the Knap Hill. Knap Hill has pleasant grasses. It also has a Neolithic Camp with visible earthworks (Thomas, 1999). Knap Hill gives the best view across the Vale of Pewsey to Salisbury Plain. The Neolithic Causeway Camp connects Adam’s Grave and Knap Hill.

The pathway leads to Adam’s Graves through the White Horse. Adam’s Grave is a long barrow in Walkers Hill. Early occupants of this place called it Woden’s Barrow. These places are visible from the car park. The place has well-kept ditches. The chalk has beautiful flowers and varieties of butterflies. This is ten minutes walk from the car park. The view reveals steep slopes of Marlborough Downs to the north. This place also has sarsen stones.

The road continues to Golden Ball Hill beyond Knap Hill. The place has the Mesolithic buildings and Mesolithic flint knapping wastes (British Archaeology, 1997). The southwest route leads to earthworks of the Eald Burh (‘Older Castle’). This place is the back of Milk Hill. Visitors can cross to Oxna Mere and to Adam’s Grave using the Walkers Hill pathway.

Knap Hill connects with Golden Ball Hill through a steep place with the shape of a saddle.

The southwest route leads to the Eald Burh. From here, visitors can find their ways to Milk Hill. The heights of Tan Hill and Milk Hill look the same. However, Milk Hill is taller than Tan Hill. Conversely, Tan Hill offers a perfect view of Wansdyke and other surrounding areas.

Why the Pewsey Downs is important: setting, Location, Chronology, and Conservation

Pewsey Downs is on the southern parts of Marlborough Downs. It lies on a steep location overlooking a scarp facing the Vale of Pewsey. This place is within the setting of North Wessex Downs. These hills make Pewsey Downs an outstanding attraction site.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Pewsey Downs has unique flowers and grasses. These are mainly common in the upper chalk. The place has created fine herbs due to its natural climate. This place also has different types of plants.

Pewsey Downs has rare butterflies, fragrant orchids, and burnt tips. These species are not common but are within the bank of the plains along the way. There are also field fleaworts in Pewsey Downs.

Knap Hill has several round-headed rampions. The place also hosts rare species of thistle flowers without stems but have tuberous systems. Knap Hill also has the frog orchids and bastard toadflaxes. This is usually during July.

Walkers Hill conserves lady’s stresses, which are common along driveways during September in autumn.

These plants are in the grassland of Pewsey Downs. The area only has the two types of outstanding grass species in England. These are mainly the upright brome and the red fescue.

Grazing and farming in these areas are mainly for conservation purposes. The Natural England conserves the place through controlled grazing of local cattle to keep the overgrowing upright brome under control. This allows flowers to grow during various seasons.

Milk Hill has the red fescue grass for cattle and sheep. This is a grazing field throughout the year. Both Knap Hill and Walkers Hill have low activities of grazing between May and autumn. Winter seasons are for sheep. However, during April, the grazing stops so that the upright brome can grow.

We will write a custom Report on Field Trip of the Pewsey Downs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The planned grazing has ensured that these fields have the best conditions for animals, varieties of plants, and other types of insects found on these plains. Pewsey Downs has unique butterflies, which conservation efforts aim at protecting. There are skippers, wall browns, and green hairstreaks during early periods of spring. During late summer, there are chalk-hill blue butterflies. In addition, there are also rare varieties of marsh fritillaries, dark green fritillaries, and small coppers and marbled white fritillaries (Natural England, 2007).

Pewsey Downs also has rabbits, moles, and badger. These animals create conducive environments for coexisting in the park in different ways.

Chronology and Own Interpretation

Pewsey Downs has rich archaeological features dating back to 1812. The White Horse makes the place noticeable. Students have used Golden Ball Hill for their geological classes.

Between 1966 and 1970, there were major excavations in Pewsey Downs. The excavations at SU 117648 and SU 193665 revealed Roman artefacts. This showed that there were elements of post-Roman activities in the area (Fowler, 2000; Draper, 2006). During excavation for water pipes in 1997, excavators did not discover any artefact along the existing Causeway running to West Wansdyke. The excavation revealed that the soil was of a modern formation (Anon, 1999).

According to a study by Maud Cunnington, excavations of 1909 and 1910 at the Causeway Enclosure revealed some activities archaeologists did not discuss earlier. As a result, Cunnington believed that the Causeway Enclosure was Neolithic (Cunnington, 1909). This was a period before the age of radiocarbon dating. Cunnington based her argument on the remains of pottery and features of the Causeway. She found bones of domesticated pigs and ox, and a pottery currently called the Windmill Hill.

In 1961, Graham Connah adopted the Cunnington’s method of excavation (Connah, 1969). However, he used advanced techniques together with methodical approaches. He also had high standards of recording and applied radiocarbon dating to evaluate his discoveries. Connah confirmed the discoveries of Cunnington regarding domesticated ox in a Neolithic setting. However, the study did not draw conclusions on the bones of pigs, sheep, and goats (Connah, 1965). This was because the stratigraphy remained unclear.

Pewsey Downs also presents periods misunderstood in history (Tubb, 2011). According to Tubb, most people do not understand prehistoric activities in the Vale of Pewsey in Wiltshire. Therefore, understanding of prehistoric activities in Pewsey Downs requires “a combination of archival reassessment, aerial photographic interpretation and non-intrusive fieldwork” (Tubb, 2011).

According to Connah, it is difficult to classify the origin of artefact at Pewsey Downs. However, he shows that the Causeway of Knap Hill did not receive many activities during the prehistoric occupation (Connah, 1965). At the same time, it is difficult to know what activities went on at Knap Hill. However, interpretation shows there was a meeting point at a flint. Still, it is difficult to establish significant activities, which took place there.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Field Trip of the Pewsey Downs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the recent studies, Tubb shows that the “Vale was the location for a considerable density of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age sites” (Tubb, 2011).

Reference List Anon, R 1999, ‘Excavation and Fieldwork in Wiltshire’, The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. 92, pp. 133-143.

British Archaeology 1997, ‘Three Mesolithic houses discovered near Avebury’, British Archaeology, no. 28, p. 1.

Connah, G 1965, ‘Excavations at Knap Hill, Alton Priors’, The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1-23.

Connah, G 1969, ‘Radiocarbon dating for Knap Hill’, Antiquity, vol. 43, no. 172, pp. 304-305.

Cunnington, M 1909, ‘On a Remarkable Feature in the Entrenchments of Knap Hill Camp, Wiltshire’, Man, vol. 9, pp. 49–52.

Draper, S 2006, Landscape, Settlement and Society in Roman and early Mediaeval Wiltshire, Archaeopress, BAR British Series, Oxford.

Fowler, P 2000, East Wansdyke, Red Shore and New Buildings, Alton and Savernake. Web.

Natural England 2007, Pewsey Downs: National Nature Reserve, Natural England, Wiltshire.

Thomas, J 1999, Understanding the Neolithic, 2nd edn, Routledge, Oxford.

Tubb, P 2011, The LBA/EIA Transition in the Vale of Pewsey, Hadrian Books, Oxford.


Psychology of Implicit Attitudes Essay essay help online free

Introduction An implicit attitude refers to the hidden attitude that an individual may have towards something. It has been observed that most people have implicit attitudes towards people with disabilities.

Implicit attitudes Discrimination of people with physical, emotional, social, and mental disabilities has mostly been as a result of the hidden cultural and social beliefs that given people might have against people with disabilities.

Most people have been socialized to believe that people with disabilities are unable to function as full members of the society. Discrimination against people with disabilities is therefore a result of the implicit attitudes by certain people in the society.

The Implicit Associated Test (IAT) has been used to measure the hidden beliefs of individuals towards people with disabilities. The test is computer based.

The test enables one to measure attitudes that are not consciously acknowledged and thus prevents false reporting of the attitudes related to social desirability.

The Implicit Associated Test that has been administered in certain communities is as shown below:

“Strongly prefers able persons to disabled persons.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moderately prefers able persons to disabled persons.

Little preference towards able and disabled persons.

Slightly prefers disabled persons to able persons.

Moderately prefers disabled to able persons.

Strongly prefers disabled to able persons”.

The responses generated from the Implicit Associated Test are meant to enable the individuals to be aware of the implicit attitudes they show towards people with disabilities. In addition, the responses enable individuals to be sensitized about the nature of implicit attitudes that able people have towards people with disabilities.

Awareness, sensitization, and mobilization enhance capacity building on how to reduce the biasness that certain people have against people with disabilities.

We will write a custom Essay on Psychology of Implicit Attitudes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is recommended that biasness against people with disabilities should be avoided by all at all costs. This is because biasness against people with disabilities reduces equity and equality in issues of resource distribution and national development.

To avoid biasness against people with disabilities, individuals should extend social interaction with people with disabilities in all contexts like at school, work place, at home or in the church.


John Rawls’ Philosophy of Liberalism: Strengths and Weaknesses Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Strengths of Rawls’ Philosophy

The Major Weakness of Rawls’ Philosophy


Reference List

Introduction John Rawls have developed a comprehensive theory that can be useful in addressing contemporary issues. One of the major advantages of his theory is that it contains major principles that can be applicable nowadays.

Rawls’ philosophy can be used when addressing the contemporary issues associated with unequal distribution of resources.

It is also necessary to note that Rawls’ philosophy of liberalism is based on principles of justice, but there are still certain weaknesses in the theory.

Strengths of Rawls’ Philosophy As has been mentioned above the philosophy can have specific implications in the contemporary society. The major strength of the philosophy is that it provides people with a specific tool to avoid any bias.

The “veil of ignorance” is an effective way to develop certain principles to govern a society (Shaw


Consumer Behavior in South Korea and Australia Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Consumer behavior varies according to countries and markets. This paper will analyse the consumer behavior of two countries, and where they differ. The two countries to be analysed are South Korea and Australia. Culture influences the behavior of a given market.

There is a need to analyse a market before doing business in that market. Australia and South Korea are two countries that differ in culture. South Korea consumers are known to be homogeneous in character, and in the way they purchase products.

This is evident, especially when it comes to food consumption. The specific products that will be analysed in this paper is that of cosmestic products that are used by women.

Women have been using cosmetics since time immemorial to enhance their attractiveness. Attractive women are thought to be intelligent, socially acceptable, confident about themselves, and seem to have professional success.

Women spend on cosmetics for mainly emotional reasons. They hope to avoid guilt of not paying attention to their looks. Women prefer cosmetic brands based on packaging, effectiveness on use and sensorial experiences like smell, smoothness or coolness (Majumdar, 2010).

South Korea is estimated to be the biggest per capita market for cosmetics and cosmetic procedures. The figures stand at an astounding 20% between the ages of 19 and 49 in Seoul, who have gone through cosmetic surgery (plastic), laser hair removal and Botox (Botolinum Toxin Type A).

This chemical is is injected into muscles and used to improve the look of moderate to severe frown lines between the eyebrows (Tyagi,


Tenants and property owners Essay essay help free

Introduction Over the years, property owners have been involved in confrontation with their tenants. The confrontation normally occurs when the tenant fails to pay rental rates within the stipulated time. In most cases, property owners had been unfair to tenants.

Consequently, the government of Canada in collaboration with other stakeholders enacted the Landlord and Tenant (L


The Modernization of China and Japan: Why Japan Developed Faster than China Expository Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Japan has made progressive steps in economic growth since the beginning of the 19th century to the present (Wan 234). Gigantic steps in economic growth over the last two centuries have seen the economy of Japan become the third largest in the globe (Ohno 78).

Unlike the economy of her Japanese neighbor, which had a significant leap in growth during the last two centuries, the Chinese economy was mostly stagnant during the past century (Wan 234).

A range of elements (that were both present in China and Japan during the past two centuries) resulted in different economic progress for the two economies during the past century (Wan 234).

Among the most important parameters that have influenced the economic paths of China and Japan include pre-existing conditions before the onset of westernization, the role of western powers, the pace of embracing new ideas and technology, political stability, business environment, and globalization (Hayami 18).

Western powers began an aggressive process of increasing their wealth and power at the start of the 19th century. During the 1800’s, the Japanese population had already acquired a spectrum of behavior that is closely related with the aggressive and enterprising spirit of the western world (Johnson 124).

Here, the Japanese population could be described as well educated, hardworking, well organized and disciplined (Ohno 78). These characteristics formed a favorable pre-existing environment in Japan which would later contribute to high economic growth there.

Once a link was established between Japan and the western world (following the aggressive expansion of western colonies into the Asian region), Japan obtained an important opportunity to learn new ways of expanding her economy from her western counterparts (Hayami 18).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, Japan had a population that was more ready to initiate high economic growth than China.

Unlike her Japanese counterpart that has enjoyed relative peace and stability in the last two centuries, China has had many years of war and instability in the past two centuries. Between 1839 and 1842, a protracted war between China and Britain over opium trade destabilized China (Steinfeld 87).

Rebellions from the Taiping, Muslims, among other quarters were then to follow the opium wars. Protracted wars between China and Japan also contributed to the destabilization of China. There was also the Chinese civil war which lasted from 1945 to 1945 (Wan 234).

A study of Chinese history reveals that there was no decade of peace in China between 1839 and 1945. Moreover, autonomous provinces that were under warlord’s control fragmented China. Continual Conflicts in China at the time thus created an environment that hampered Industrial development there.

Although Japan had its fair share of conflicts, which included an array of coups from the military, she had relative stability than her Chinese neighbor (Hayami 18). Japanese wars often led to a more stable and stronger Japanese society unlike the Chinese wars that weakened the Chinese empire (Johnson 124).

For example, the overthrow of the Tokugawa dynasty gave rise to a more centralized and capable Meiji State (Hayami 18). The Meiji Empire was responsible for embedding important reforms that would catalyze high industrial growth in Japan (Ohno 80).

For Example, the Meiji rulers adopted a constitution that heavily borrowed from the western Prussian constitution. The new Japanese constitution would lay a foundation for a modern society in Japan.

We will write a custom Essay on The Modernization of China and Japan: Why Japan Developed Faster than China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Multiple aspects that were present in the Japanese society attributed to a high industrial growth there. I have already mentioned about the presence of a functional and stable government.

Although the emperor was still very powerful, a democratic system of government was fruitful for the creation of a foundation that helped in the further evolution of democracy in Japan.

The talented, visionary and creative leaders of Meiji state played a crucial part in implementing changes that spurred economic growth in Japan (Johnson 124). Apart from able leaders, Japan had a working monetary system which helped in the financing of important industrial projects.

Moreover, Japan implemented important infrastructural projects such as a rail and cable system at an earlier stage than China. Starting with a railway line that was only 18 miles long in 1872, Japan expanded the length her railway line to over 2000 miles by 1894 (Ohno 78).

Today, Japan has one of the most developed railway transport systems in the world. The development of the railway line was helpful in opening up the Japanese hinterland for economic growth. Unlike her Japanese neighbor, China’s pace in developing a suitable environment for industrialization was slower.

As indicated earlier, The Chinese Empire was fragmented and weak during the entire 19th century (Steinfeld 87). Such a direction prevented Chinese leaders from focusing on reforms that could catalyze industrial development there (Wan 234).

Because of their participation and influence in the affairs of Asian nations, western powers played an important role in the industrial growth of Japan and China.

While some actions of western powers were positive in driving the economic growth of either country, the behavior of western powers was occasionally negative in influencing the economic growth of either country (Steinfeld 87).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Modernization of China and Japan: Why Japan Developed Faster than China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A long feud that eventually resulted in the collapse of the Tokogawa Empire started after Mathew Perry Imposed a friendship treaty on Japan in 1854 (Ohno 78). In many respects, the collapse of the Tokogawa Empire created a room for the emergence of talented and able leaders who were helpful in driving industrial growth in Japan.

Understanding the power and impact of western powers on her Industrial growth and development, Japan was quick to initiate policies that created a range of strategic advantages for her.

For example, Japan tried to establish friendly relations with western powers to get support for her aggressive campaign in the Manchu Islands (Johnson 124).

Having supported the allies in WW1, Japan positioned herself to gain a lot of support for industrial growth from the United States and Britain. However, the fray of hostilities between western nations after WW1 created a complex environment for Japan (Johnson 124).

As a result, Japan made some miscalculated steps such as the bombing of the US naval base (Johnson 124). Unlike her Japanese neighbor, China did not enjoy friendly relations with western powers (especially Britain) during the 19th century (Steinfeld 87).

For example, China’s attempt to ban opium trade resulted in a war with Britain. After three years of fighting, Britain defeated China in 1839 (Steinfeld 87). As a result, Britain forced China to sign a treaty that transferred part of her territory and power to her.

Unlike her Chinese neighbor, Japan was quick to initiate important reforms that were crucial in driving her industrial growth. The Meiji rulers replaced traditional education with western education. By the mid 1800’s the Meiji government had already embarked on a process of building schools, colleges, and universities (Johnson 124).

In an effort to learn from her western counterparts, Japan exported many students to western Institutions. Japan had begun a series of foreign missions to Europe and the US by 1871 (Johnson 124). The purpose of these missions was to help Japan learn from the industrialized western societies.

The Japanese did not just import aspects of the western society into their own society; they modified and improved on what they had learnt from western nations. For example, Japanese universities tailored their education to help in Agricultural research and development.

Unlike her Japanese neighbor, China was slow in embracing a modern form of learning. China initiated educational reforms following her defeat by Japan during the Manchurian wars.

Here, China had begun amending her education system and even exported students to Japan (Wan 234). However, the education reforms had come very late to make substantial impacts on industrial growth.

Conclusion Japan underwent a faster pace of modernization than her Chinese neighbor did during the last two centuries. The Japanese leaders initiated important steps that helped their country to become the most modern economy in the Asian region.

Here, The Meiji Empire was responsible for embedding important reforms that would catalyze high industrial growth in Japan (Ohno 80). The creation of a framework for industrial growth through the development of infrastructure and improvement in education has helped to spur great economic growth in Japan.

Protracted conflicts created political instability and hampered industrial growth in China. The Chinese were also slow in embracing important reforms that would have led to a faster pace of economic growth (Wan 234).

However, the Chinese seem to have learnt their lessons and are now on course to become an economic powerhouse (Wan 234).

Works Cited Hayami, Akira. “Japanese Economic History” World Development 11.2 (1988): 18-22

Johnson, Chalmer. MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy. New York: Stanford University Press, 1982. Print

Ohno, Kenichi. The Path Travelled by Japan as a Developing Country. Tokyo: McMillan, 2010 Print.

Steinfeld, Edward. “China’s Shallow Integration: Networked Production and the New Challenges for Late Industrialization” World Development 32.11 (2004):87-96

Wan, Lee. Growth of Total Factor Productivity and the Pace of Catching-Up Cheltenham: McMillan, 2004. Print


The Hours (2002) directed by Stephen Daldry Essay (Movie Review) college essay help online

The problems depicted in movies often reflect the most important and problematic issues which are characteristic for the definite society or period of time.

The Hours (2002) directed by Stephen Daldry can be discussed as the movie in which such a controversial moral issue as suicide is presented with references to three main characters who commit or think about committing suicide.

Although the problem of suicide is discussed from the point of different philosophical movements and visions, there is no single idea according to this controversial moral issue.

The plot of The Hours is organized within three time perspectives. Thus, the audience can observe the peculiarities of Virginia Woolf’s life during one day in 1923 when she starts writing her novel Mrs. Dalloway, suffering from a mental disease.

Then, it is possible to observe Laura Brown, a pregnant housewife from Los Angeles, who is preparing for her husband’s birthday, but she thinks only about committing suicide. It is the year of 1951. The next story is about Clarissa and her friend Richard who suffers from AIDS.

They live in 2001. These characters are connected with the help of Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs. Dalloway. Woolf is depicted while writing the novel, Laura Brown reads the novel, and Clarissa is discussed as the embodiment of the novel’s main character.

However, one more issue which connects all these characters is the issue of committing suicide. Thus, the act of suicide is presented in Mrs. Dalloway, the frame of the movie is associated with Virginia Woolf’s committing suicide in 1941, Laura Brown thinks of suicide because of her unhappy marriage, and Clarissa’s friend Richard is inclined to commit suicide to find the relief from his sufferings caused by AIDS.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The question of suicide is one of the most controversial in philosophy and ethics. According to the Natural Law, the people’s task is to preserve their life. That is why, the concept of suicide can be discussed as contradicting to the main principles of this theory.

The Natural Law prohibits committing suicide as the act of breaking its main principle. Immanuel Kant discusses the human actions as moral or not with references to the other people.

Thus, the idea of suicide is in contrast to the idea of humanity that is why people should not commit suicide if they do not want the other people could imitate their actions. It is impossible to universalize the act of suicide as ethical.

The philosophy of Utilitarianism is based on the actions’ consequences and on the idea of the personal well-being.

These two concepts influence the discussion of the issue of committing suicide which can be considered as unethical when it has the negative consequences for the other people, but it is possible when it satisfies the personal needs and can help relieve from sufferings.

The principles of the Social Contract depend on the fears, and the fear of death is basic. Moreover, according to the theory, people should preserve their lives, and the act of suicide is immoral.

The approach to committing suicide discussed in relation to Utilitarianism can be considered as relevant for analyzing the problems depicted in the movie with references to Woolf’s position when she speaks about the right to live the life according to her own desires and visions.

We will write a custom Essay on The Hours (2002) directed by Stephen Daldry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, when persons can experience the same issues they should remember about the unethical nature of this act in relation to their own life and its consequences for their close people. From this point, the reaction to the issue should be based on the Natural Law’s principles and the people’s obligation to preserve their life.

The problem of committing suicide is one of the most controversial moral issues, and it depends on the necessity to discuss the question from the perspective of the consequences of the act for the person and for the other persons, including relatives and close people.

The representation of the problem in The Hours allows discussing the issue from all the points.


The Concept of Senate and the House of Representatives in American Government Essay essay help free

The Senate and the House of Representatives forms the U.S. Congress. Article one of the Constitution establishes the powers and unique composition of the Senate. After examining the nature of representation and democracy, it is agreeable that all the people need equal representation and provision of equal rights (Caro 23).

During the elections of Senators in different state, the majority rule is usually applied. However, this seems to affect the democratic position of the country and equal representation. In addition, some States have lesser populations compared to others.

For example, the state of New York has a population of 19.5 million people while the State of South Dakota has 0.82 million people. With each state producing only two senators, it is notable that the people are not equally represented going by the state population margins.

As a nation, we all have the right to vote, equal representation, and ability to practice our liberties as the citizens of a free nation. What this means is that the people of the United States need equal representation under the current constitution.

While most of Articles and amendments on the American Constitution are effective towards equal representation, I want to state here that the current Upper House does not fulfill these rights to the people of the land.

That being the case, it would be right to amend the constitution in order to have a good Senate that represents the people of the country in an equal manner (Caro 73).

I would like to base my arguments for this paper on several issues: the nature of representation, the ability to address the needs of the people, the issue of majority vote, the senatorial term, the filibuster, and the election of Senators in the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As provided under the current constitution, the Senate fails to offer the right support to the people with some states with large populations having only two senators (Caro 54).

There is need to consider the number of senators from every state based on the population. This is the best approach to have equal opportunities and representation for all the citizens.

From the above issue, it is agreeable there is the need to amend the American Constitution, especially Article one towards better representation. Given the opportunity to amend the constitution, definitely I would consider having a new pattern for the senate to promote the issues affecting our people.

With the necessary amendments in place, the Upper House will have the right number of senators based on the population they represent. This means that the house will make the needs of the citizens a priority (Caro 56).

The other consideration is to have the Senatorial term reduced to four years. This will coincide with the elections for the House of Representatives. By so doing, the Congress will come in place at the same time to ensure policy implementations and ideas are meaningful towards promoting economic growth.

The Congress will also address the needs of the citizens equally. The entire Senate will be coming up for election at the same time. The current two-year elections are inappropriate because the idea does not bring in the house new people and ideas.

As well, the new approach will ensure equal representation of the people (Caro 76). With the elections taking place at the same period, the people will be able to make proper decisions and put in place the right leaders whose ideas match with those of the Lower House. This will make it easier to have the needs of the people met within a shorter period.

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Senate and the House of Representatives in American Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For very many years, the Upper House has rejected debates and bills that could have transformed the lives of the people. This has resulted from what the senate calls the filibuster. This is a tactic put in place by the Senate to continue defeating motions and bills in the house.

The house achieves this by prolonging the motions and debates indefinitely. When the senate invokes a cloture, the filibuster ends indefinitely (Caro 78).

Currently, some positive motions and bills remain prolonged because a two-thirds majority is always required. Some constitutional experts have indicated that the tactic is ineffective because it does not allow the senate to consider some bills and debates by prolonging debates.

It would therefore be necessary to amend the current constitution and have a better Senate that addresses the above issues. When these changes are in place, the Senate will be able to practice its constitutional right to monitor and check the functions of the Lower House, and the federal government (Caro 82).

It will be able to offer the best advice to the government and consent to treaties in an effective manner. With a reformed Upper House and its representation, the people of the United Sates will have better representation and achieve economic development.

In conclusion, I would propose the above amendments and changes to promote the dignity of the Senate and ensure it represents the rights and minds of the citizens.

Works Cited Caro, Robert. Master of the Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson III. New York: Random House, 2002. Print.


Race Superiority: Comparison between a Research Carried Out by Suein Hwang and Richard E. Nisbett. Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free

The debate about race superiority based on the level of intelligent quotient is an issue that raises significantly conflicts. Many research papers have been written, favoring the superiority of one race against the other.

This paper provides a comparison between a research carried out by Suein Hwang and Richard E. Nisbett.

According to Hwang, a mistake that the 15- point difference in I.Q between Africans and the whites is attributable to their genetic difference was advanced with wrong evidence. Rather, Hwang argues that the evidence supports that I.Q differences are environmental, not genetic.

The difference in I.Q. between Africans and whites has also been attributed to the smaller size of brain size among the Africans. However, the difference in brain size is considerably higher between men and women, yet men and women score nearly the same in I.Q. tests.

Some of the people living in Ecuador having smaller brain sizes and yet their I.Q. is as high as those of their unaffected relatives. The intermarriages between Africans and Europeans show no significant difference in I.Q.

According to a research by community college the blacks did quite as well as the whites on their ability to learn new words. As a result of the decreased I.Q. difference between African and Whites fro 15 to 9.5 points, Hwang argues that all children have the same ability to develop their minds.

On the other hand, Richard argues that there is a notable difference in schools between Asians and Whites. Many parents are taking away their children from public schools to private ones. They argue that the schools are not well rounded and as such focus largely on the academics at the expense of other extracurricular activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Else, they say that the schools are too Asian. The exodus of the whites from these schools is largely based on race-based presumptions, not all of which are positive. For instance: Asian parents are too competitive. This is a stereotype of the whites who see the increasing Asian population as a threat.

In this paper, Richard documents that in Cupertino’s schools the whites always end up in the stereotyped class of underachievers. In one of the lowest-level math class, the students are an electric mix of the whites, Asians and other racial groups.

This is a clear indication that no race that lacks those that are intellectually superior and inferior ones. A further example is given where in an advanced chemistry level class there are only few Whites with the rest being Asian in Cupertino.

In this school, the principal explains that all races go alone well, but the Whites suffer from the ‘white-boy syndrome’. This means that the children who are white feel as distinguished minority among a majority culture.

The Asian parents feel that it is not the academic competition the Whites are uncomfortable with in the schools but the academic competition with Asian-American. Some of the schools have been blamed of overemphasizing the academics at the expense of developing other critical aspects in a student.

Form the above; we can conclude that it is not the race that determines the I.Q. quotient of an individual. Whites, Asians and Africans have the potential to develop their I.Q.

It is also clear that changes in amount of wealth and environmental changes can contribute to I.Q. change. The drop of I.Q. from 15 to 9.5 points between the whites and Africans can be indirectly connected to change in the social factor.

We will write a custom Assessment on Race Superiority: Comparison between a Research Carried Out by Suein Hwang and Richard E. Nisbett. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


The American Scene: John Steuart Curry’s Baptism in Kansas Research Paper college admission essay help

One of the most remarkable aspects of renaissance religious paintings by John Stuart Curry (1897-1946) is that it depicted life in the natural world and expressed the practice of fanatic religious sects.

Having been born and raised in Kansas, his exotic locale was important for artistic work as depicted in his memorable paintings. It also provided inspiration for his art as well as a powerful drive for high and mundane artistic elements.

Pinto et al describe Curry’s artistic works in his paintings of Baptism in Kansas and the Tornado as some of the most amazing and influential pieces of art during the renaissance era. Curry astonishingly used colors in his paintings to bring out the intensity and reality of the circumstance in Kansas.1

In agreement, Howe indicates that his use of colors was very instrumental in developing open air religious activities and impending natural disasters.2

This paper deduces that Baptism in Kansas was one of the most defining paintings by Curry that greatly displayed his extensive and substantial abilities since it illuminated and described his paintings by articulating his view on the practice of open air baptism.

The painting describes the practice of open air baptism by fanatic religious sects. His painting has a unique compositional layout that most representations of well known baptism lack.

Agreeably, his artistic aesthetic as described later in the paper is greatly inspired by his experience (what he saw) and represents unique contribution to the study.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Curry’s painting attempted to relate real life experiences with an abstract world of artistic work. According to Pinto et al, his piece of artistic work elicited greater understanding and was conceived as well as treated with a greater reverence.3

Today, the painting Baptism in Kansas stands out as one of the works that express a deep observance of religious fundamentalism. Pinto et al describe the painting as a complex one that is expresses a spectrum of emotions like submission, and is filled with religious practice carried out during the renaissance.4

It is important to note that while some observers regard the painting as curiously ambivalent and satirical of religious practice of renaissance, others characterizes the practice as reflective of early Christian rituals which is expressed in complex interaction of colors showing dark shadows and brightly reflective areas.

Julia concurs with Pinto et al’s view of the painting and observes that the complex communication of colors create vivid contrasts which augment the sense of quiet, peaceful and heavenly atmosphere.5

Although the above piece of painting was eminent as one of Curry’s works, Tornado is another painting by Curry which depicts an approaching tornado. The painting which was unveiled in 1929 shows a farmer struggling to shelter his family and pets from an approaching whirlwind.

The struggle and tolerance which the family goes through is depicted through images of societal workforce. Miller argues that the unique style of painting on The Tornado shows that Curry did not depend on the subtle and painstaking modulation of colors.6

Miller hinges this argument on the view that Curry used energized forms and free brush work, a consideration that shows a break-away from the tradition of painting. Curry’s painting applies traces of shocking, brilliant and pure color pigment.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The American Scene: John Steuart Curry’s Baptism in Kansas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A person can clearly observe primary colors like the blue and the powerful blacks and grey shadows which appear in sharp notes. In agreement, Howe indicates that the effects in the picture are electrifying and vivid especially when observed against broad gray and dark areas.7

He concludes that this style faultlessly corresponds with the event and shows how the tornado is advancing towards the family as depictive of a massive wind partially hidden by the distance and a heavy dark cloud hanging in the sky.8

However, it is imperative to point out that in this picture; Curry depicts the struggle among the family members to reach safety with great clarity. Cox-Rearick points out that these figures play a pivotal role of representing the intensity of the coming calamity.

Besides, Cox-Rearick describes the piece of art The Tornado and especially the approaching whirlwind as a picture that has a touch of classical display. Of utmost importance to analysts in the picture is the idea behind Curry’s expression of intensity of the situation.

Renaissance analysts posit that although it is in the picture, the intensity indicates an embodiment of an idea. The tornado appears to be approaching with greater force enough to suck up everything, pull down the houses and everything within the farm.

Curry appears to be aware of the tornado and its effects, a factor that is pegged on the experience in Kansas where tornados frequently occur.

John Steuart Curry career lasted for a period of about twenty years beginning from the time when he displayed his artwork in New York at the National Academy of Design. His first exhibition took place in 1924.

For a period of two decades until in 1946 when he died in Madison, Curry managed to stir up the field of painting with his attractive pieces of art. As a matter of fact, the foundation of American artwork was shaken during the two decades.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Scene: John Steuart Curry’s Baptism in Kansas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is imperative to note that these were also the years when the country was reeling back from the effects of the Great Depression in addition to onset of the Second World War.

As a matter of fact, the social, political and economic structures of American life were heavily reshaped during this period of time. In addition, the moral and spiritual grounding of mankind was greatly challenged.9

Curry was indeed an artist who defied all odds that were typical of these times bearing in mind that these were years of upheavals that promised no peace in the land in addition to the fact that he originated from the Middle West.

He struggled a lot to find deeper and underlying meaning of religion throughout his childhood life after being born in a rural setting where information on pertinent issues on religion were perhaps missing.

He attempted to explore various challenges of contemporary life in various areas of personal interest that elicited a lot of feeling in all his paintings later in life.

For instance, his main areas of interest in terms of religion included religious fanaticism, war, environmental destruction, and bigotry. In all of these confrontations, he openly described the underlying dangers of self righteousness and also demonstrated how the latter was the main driving force behind human suffering that was prevalent during that time.

Even as he was growing and developing as a polished and well renowned painter, there were myriads of international debates that were going on that directly affected his art work. For instance, there was continual clamor on the most suitable language to use in all forms of contemporary art.

In some cases, there were those who proposed the use of abstract forms of language while others wielded support for realism.10 Curry’s main theme in his various pieces of paintings largely depicted how mankind related with the environment either through social life, political arrangements or belief systems.

In addition, his paintings contained an important message on the general relationship between men and women. Needless to say, his rural life must have elicited a lot of feelings and the various interconnectedness he portrayed in his paintings.

This claim can be supported by the fact that he did not just focus on issues within the American Middle West. The socio-political and economic life of communities living in rural Kansas was significantly represented in the various forms of his paintings.

The painter gave form to matters that were dearly evident and affecting both the overall human experiences and specifically that of his generation. In any case, the rural Midwestern landscape was elevated to a different discourse altogether especially in regards to both spirituality and social way of life.

In spite of the negative prevailing circumstances that were typical during his years in painting, it can be argued out that his art was able to transcend various regions across the world.

The impacts left behind by his ideas presented in art form were indeed quite consequential both in terms of place and time.11

Nonetheless, it is perhaps worthy to discuss the epitome of his painting as depicted in the Baptism in Kansas. This piece of painting appeared in the minds of audience as a form of deep story-telling session and indeed espoused him as a talented storyteller.

The 1928 painting exposed the essence of religious fundamentalism and the increasing national passion towards it, the deep experience of the painter as well as his inner human feelings towards humanity.

He managed to develop a profound subject upon which his painting would be based. Hence, a religious rite would serve the most important title for this pairing of the decade.

It is evident that one of his childhood recollections was based on baptism when he was growing up in rural Kansas. In addition, the manner in which baptism was carried out during his life was instrumental in the form of this painting.

As a matter of fact, the painting depicts the relevance of baptism by submission as a spiritual rite in a certain religion. Moreover, this was the most appropriate time for Curry to recollect his childhood experiences especially at the time when he was at the Paris Academy.12

This was a fundamental test in terms of painting when relating very closely with his Russian instructor.13 In terms of narration and story-telling skills, he appeared in one of the renowned magazines in an actual story-telling experience on the form of his painting.

As a result, a chord was struck due the popularity of this painting. Hence, the intellectuals from the East Coast as well as the country’s urban population were merged in terms of common feelings and likes for his 1928 painting.

In other words, his place of origin did not affect the influence brought about by his paintings.

Curry spent his initial years in career as a painter in Connecticut at the colony of Westport. He had a lot of vantage points while operating in this place. For instance, this location formed one of his most formidable descriptions of social landscapes that shaped the nature of his paintings.

However, this was not the only place that laid a firm foundation for Curry since Midwest was also instrumental towards his artistic growth and development.

A marginal group which he encountered when he was paying a trip to Kansas was a major experience that also influenced the features of his painting.14

Other groups that influenced the creation of his painting included the Barnum


Management of Apple Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Apple Computers Inc

Samsung Electronics



Introduction With a market capitalization of more than $600 billion, Apple Computers Inc. Apple is the largest technology company in the world (Anon., 2012, para 12). The company boasts itself as the producer of computers and other electronic devices.

Apple is famous for its ‘i’ products. These include the iMac, iPod, iPad, and the iPhone. The company owes much of its success to the previous visionary leader, the late Steve Jobs. Jobs oversaw the launch of several successful products during his time at the helm of the company.

Apple mainly targets the high-end market that is willing to pay high prices to access high quality products. Customers love Apple’s products due to their high quality. Apple’s products have revolutionized the market.

Apple revolutionized the music industry with the iPod and iTunes. iTunes provided an alternative means of accessing music. However, the company’s success did not stop with the iPod and iTunes, the company went on to make one of the highest quality smartphones in the market, the iPhone.

The iPhone integrates phone with a music player. The company has successfully launched several versions of the iPhone. The latest version is the iPhone 5. The rate at which the company sold out the pre-orders is testament to how customers love the product.

Apple had pre-orders of more than 2 million iPhones within 24 hours of the launch of the iPhone (Gupta


A new alcohol and drug-abuse rehabilitation center in Liverpool Hospital, Sydney Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help

Liverpool hospital in Sydney is a leading public healthcare facility that has served the people of Liverpool for the last two centuries. Over the years, the hospital has been undergoing various phases of upgrading to ensure that it is able to meet people’s health needs.

Besides, the hospital has embraced technology in full measure, upgrading its quality of services to its clients. Being situated at the heart of Liverpool, the hospital has the capacity to serve over 800 patients at once.

The Liverpool Queens hospital has decided to put up an alcohol and drug-abuse rehabilitation center within the facility. The construction of the facility is projected to begin in January 2013, lasting to the end of February the same year.

This will be good news to those around the neighborhood as the problem of alcohol and drug-abuse has been reportedly rampant among young adults. The hospital receives over twenty cases of alcohol and drug-abuse related ailments every day, a trend that is causing a lot of worry.

The hospital, in response to this distress, has decided to bring help closer to the people of Liverpool by the construction of the annex facility.

The Alcohol and Drug-Abuse Center (ADAC) will provide full therapy to patients. This means that it will employ some of its staff to identification of cases within the community that need medical care.

This will be done by putting up a call center, where persons can freely and confidentially report on cases of drug users and addicts. The hospital’s social workers will then be dispatched to get these people and persuade them to come for treatment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once in the hospital, the patients will be counseled, nourished, and given rehabilitation care as well as medical care.

Successful rehabilitated people will be reintegrated back to the society through a number of measures, among them finding employment for them and reuniting them with their friends and family members.

This initiative will be highly beneficial to the community. Children will be able to succeed through high school and college without being in high risk for drugs. Security will be improved for the community.

Most alcohol and drug users pose a threat to the security of the community because of driving while drunk, theft and robbery, and carjacking among others. The morality for the community will also be on the increase as vices related to alcohol and drug use such as prostitution will be reduced.

Lastly, the community’s health will be generally improved through the intervention. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the leading causes of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C. A rehabilitation center would see these transmissions decline, thus improving the general health of the community.

The project will cost the hospital an estimated $850,000, plus or minus 10%. Most of these funds will be solicited locally and from the government. The hospital will also contribute to the costs, as well as providing land and capital asset facilities.


Psychological Perspective-movie review Essay essay help free

Introduction Autism is a devastating developmental disorder that can be diagnosed in any child regardless of social class, race, cultural or ethnic background. Its effects on personal development and relationship can be massive and may lead to stress among caretakers.

Moreover, personal life development is a complex interlink of personality, cognitive and sociological development that are molded by voluntary and involuntary environmental factors as this paper analyses from the movie The Black Baloon.

An individual’s development is a reflection of aspirations, successes and failures that a person and the community appreciate.

This paper evaluates the character of Maggie and the aspects of stress, preeclampsia, having an autistic child and her life stage using the cognitive, personality and sociological models.

Finally, the paper concludes by highlighting the importance of cognitive factors and emphasizes on mental health as well as moderating factors that anchor the ability of an individual to regain strong conscious of life even when under stress.

Brief background of the movie The 2008 film The Black Balloon was directed by Elisa Down (Down


Effects of Silver Mining on Indigenous People in Mexico Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Encroachment into the sacred sites

Environmental risks

Loss of sovereignty

Culture destabilisation

Displacement and relocation

Impoverishment and wealth risks


Reference List

Introduction Indigenous people own most of the expansive strips of undeveloped land in Mexico. These lands are renowned for holding numerous unexploited minerals, and in this respect, most of the mining companies target these lands leading to conflicts between the companies and the indigenous people.

According to Anaya (2000), the conflict drastically affects the sustainability of the land pieces. Mining may have positive impacts on the lives of the indigenous people.

For instance, it may give the indigenous people a chance to realise their goals through revenue generated from the mining industry.

On the other hand, mining may offer employment opportunities to the indigenous people and thus alleviate their living standards.

Nevertheless, if not well managed, mining may have unpleasant effects on the livelihood of the indigenous people. It may pose numerous insolvency threats and threaten their sovereignty (Armienta et al. 2007).

Indigenous people hardly hold their wealth in the form of income. Rather, their wealth is in the form of resources such as land that they associate with cultural values, environmental awareness, and institutions (Aronson 2009).

The cultures of the indigenous people act as timelines that help members retrace their past, understand their present, and forecast what the future holds for them (Ballard


China’s Rapid Economic Development Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Development economics

Development strategies

Change in economic views

Free market

Joining WTO


List of References

Introduction The rise of the Communists into the realms of power after the Chinese Civil War in 1949 was to usher China into a new form of political economy (Chow 2007: 13). The Communists set about to implement their economic policies which were to the most part based on a government planned economy.

Such governmental control on the functioning of commerce came at a large cost to the Chinese as their global competitiveness was almost nonexistent. The country was markedly prone to agricultural inadequacies resulting from a lack of capacity from the communally owned farms (Knight


Do People Believe Everything in the Internet? Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Indicators that People Believe the Internet

Why Caution Should be Exercised



Introduction The current generation is arguably the most informed because of the Internet. The internet has made information accessible to most people on a previously unprecedented scale. This prevalence of internet use is confirmed by Lankes (2007) who reported that majority of the adults in developed countries regularly used the internet in 2007.

This figure can only be expected to have increased as internet connectivity has risen significantly in the past 5 years. Many people today make use of the internet to obtain information on a wide range of issues.

Bates et al. (2006) observes that because of the perceived openness and democratic nature of the internet, most people view it as a trustworthy source of information.

This is in spite of the fact that creating and maintaining a website requires only rudimentary skills and people post information that is unverified or at times out rightly false. An experiment by the Swedish production company Day4 illustrated how easily people believe what they read online.

This paper will analyze the claim that people believe anything they find online with specific reference to the online Apple hoax initiated by the Stockholm production company Day4.

Indicators that People Believe the Internet The great reliance on the media as the leading source of information for many people demonstrates a perception of its credibility. Stavrositu and Sundar (2008) acknowledge that the reliance on any medium by the population is normally an indicator of a perceived trust in it by the audience.

As more people look for and obtain relevant information from the internet, their perception of its credibility increases. This causes some people to believe that all the information provided therein is true just because some of it has proved to be true in the past.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relationship between the internet and traditional media also increases the level of trust people have in this medium. In the provision of news, the internet normally functions as a supplement to traditional media use rather than a substitute for it.

This increases the perceived credibility of the internet since people view it as an extension of the traditional media that they have grown to trust and rely on (Greer 2003).

The Age (2012) demonstrates this by noting how the dubious rumours about Apple were accepted by the internet community once they were reported by journalists with connections to mainstream media.

Another indicator that people believe anything they find online is the fact that many only make use of a single website for their information needs on a topic. They do not seek out other sources of similar information to compare the views expressed since they believe that one webpage is as good as any other.

Bates, et al. (2006) reveals that with regard to internet-based health information, significant differences in the perceptions of the quality of health information would be developed if a person looked at different sources.

In the Apple hoax issue, many users obtained the information from one site and proceeded to share it with their friend without verifying with other websites.

The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of people who rely on the internet for their news and informational needs. Most of these users regard the internet as a credible source and they act and react according to the information they obtain from this source (Johnson


Novice Meets Expert Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Use of social networking tools by IBM

Type of IT projects



Introduction Business organizations across the world are using the social networking tools such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter among others to boost employee relationships, achieve credibility, set up an opportunity for having communication between the organization and its customers and also to promote sales.

Moreover, it is reported that “company recruiters are going to sites like LinkedIn to get access to the almost 25 million resumes posted” (Brottlund, 2009, p.1).In this paper, there is going to be a discussion on the use of social networking tools by companies in general and by the IBM Company specifically.

There is also going to be a discussion on the type of IT projects. The report is basically based on an interview with one of the company’s IT managers, George Rizk.

In addition, there is also going to be presentation of the information obtained from the review of the related literature; supporting or criticizing the information provided by the manager during the interview. The conclusion section will provide a summary of the discussion.

Use of social networking tools by IBM Following the interview, it was established that there are social networking tools that are used by IBM and these include, as pointed out by the interviewee; Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter. These social networking tools are used by this company for various purposes.

For instance, it was found out that the company uses these tools to advertise IBM’s initiatives like Smarter Planet, among others. It was also found out that the social networking tools are used to find potential employees.

Moreover, the manager pointed out that the social networks used in this company help the current and the former employees of the company to remain connected. However, the manager was also quick to point out that, to a certain extent, these social networks work against the company with other recruiters “poaching” the IBM employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Basing on information that has been presented in the literature on this issue, this manager’s view is correct. For instance, Zappone (2012) points out that in the present day, the social networks make it possible for the employers to engage in developing relationships with the potential employees even when they are working somewhere else.

The inclination towards recruiting the employed candidates, instead of those who are not working, poses a big risk of raiding the talent pool of a company. It is reported that in the last few years, the Sony Erickson Company gave instructions to those who recruit talents for the company to exclude the unemployed (Zappone, 2012).

Moreover, in survey conducted recently, it was found out that “more than 90 percent of senior human resources executives in the U.S regard recruiting ‘passive candidates’ as central to their strategy” (Zappone, 2012, p.1).

“Passive” candidates refer to the professionals who are not presently seeking another career opportunity (Zappone, 2012). In such situations, the “passive candidates” may be contacted via the social networking tools.

Zappone (2012) reports that, according to the information provided by LinkedIn, one of the social networking companies, “the rise of the social media and other new sources of potential candidates are driving a shift towards direct sourcing and recruiters expanding their search beyond active candidates to include ‘passive’ candidates” (Zappone, 2012, p.1).

However, according to the interviewee, the social networks need to be used in ICT environment. When asked the reason for this, he pointed out that it makes it a question of one company against the other and it is about the reputation of the company and how it treats its employees.

Mr. Rizk had also established that, other companies might engage in using the social networks as a tool to take down the reputation of competitive companies.

We will write a custom Report on Novice Meets Expert specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This view is also shared in the literature presented by Shullich (2011) where it is reported that a study conducted among executives by PRNewswire showed that; forty nine percent of them had a feeling that the use of the social networking tools could damage a company’s reputation.

When asked whether this is legal or should be prevented, Mr. Rizk’s response was that the business organizations and social media will always be used in an inappropriate way by people and other business organizations to ‘put down’ another company’s reputation.

According to him, this is not fair or moral but a company cannot stop the actions of others in another company. He explained that in the case of IBM, this company has their BCG’s extend to social media.

The company takes its BCG’s quite seriously to a level where every employee is asked to revalidate yearly and to complete an education module to certify and this includes “Digital IBMer”, which is based around social media.

Type of IT projects When asked about IT projects, the manager pointed out that IBM Company has many different projects. According to the manager, there are different components of projects and for instance, in storage there are four of them which include B


Rose for Emily and The Guest Explicatory Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Examination of Ms. Emily

Examination of the Arab


Introduction When examining the character of Ms. Emily from the story “A Rose for Emily” and the Arab from the story “The Guest” their divergent characteristics and origins would normally result in little if any consideration being given for finding similarities between the two.

Despite this assumption, the two characters are remarkably similar since they are both victims of the loss of their individual freedoms. In order to prove this point this paper will first examine the character of Ms. Emily and will point out the various facets of the character that are indicative of a loss of freedom.

After such an examination, a comparison will be done with the character of the Arab with the climax of the examination of the character culminating in the scene involving the 1,000 francs and the decision to escape to freedom or go to jail.

It is expected that by the end of this examination the similarity between the two characters will be revealed. It is the assumption of this paper that the concept of honor, pride and the perception of society can be similar to a prison of iron bars and stone walls.

Examination of Ms. Emily Ms. Emily’s loss of freedom can be characterized by her pride, her heritage and the image of being the last of the Grierson’s within their town as being aspects of her as a person. As it can be seen within the story, Ms. Emily can be described as aloof, prideful, haughty and considering herself far above others within the town.

Evidence of this can be seen from the following quote from the story: “the Grierson’s held themselves a little too high for what they really were “(A Rose for Emily, 545). Such an attitude alienated her from making friends with the other women within the town.

Not only that, it eliminated the possibility of suitors from successfully wooing her as seen from the quote: “none of the young men were good enough for Miss Emily” (A Rose for Emily, 545).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even when her father’s death left her nothing but the house she lived in she still continued to maintain the attitude of superiority that isolated her from others within her area.

Based on the ending of the book, where it was shown that Ms. Emily had actually killed her suitor to keep him with her, it can be seen that she was a person that was desperate for love and companionship.

In the end, she let her pride and the perception of the people around her act as a prison against being able to gain the love and affection she desperately craved. Evidence of this can be seen in this part of the story: “the body had apparently once lain in the attitude of an embrace” (A Rose for Emily, 550).

When reading this part of the story it becomes immediately obvious that Ms. Emily continued to lie with this corpse even till her dying days. This was due to the way in which she let her pride and her arrogance prevent those she considered “inferior” from associating with her which in the end left her alone and depressed.

This can actually be considered one of the themes of the story “A Rose for Emily” where the author attempts to show the effects of letting one’s pride and the perception of others dictate your actions.

It must also be noted that the setting itself was during the era after the civil war wherein the perception of others played a crucial role in societal interaction this can be seen from the following part of the story: “the day after his death all the ladies prepared to call at the house and offer condolence and aid as is our custom” (A Rose for Emily, 545).

Examination of the Arab In the story, “The Guest”, we are introduced to a situation where the character of Daru is tasked to take the Arab prisoner to Tinguit in order to be judged for the crime of slitting his cousin’s throat.

We will write a custom Essay on Rose for Emily and The Guest specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the obvious dangers that such a man presented, Daru treated him kindly, fed him, spoke to him and in the end gave him the opportunity to flee instead of being judged for a crime.

Despite being presented with the opportunity to escape with 1,000 francs, the Arab chose instead to go to jail. Before proceeding, what you must understand is that the concept of freedom is a pervading theme within the novel wherein the author shows that a person’s ability to choose a particular action actually gives value to their life.

Despite being given the option to flee to safety, he still chose to go to Tinguit and possibly to his death. The reason behind this is actually similar to what can be seen in the case of Ms. Emily involving pride, honor and the perception of others towards them.

What you have to understand is that the actions of the Arab are inherently connected to the way he was treated by Daru. First examine the following section from the story: “….are you hungry? Yes, the prisoner said. Why do you eat with me? I’m hungry” (The Guest, 6-7).

As it can be seen from this snippet of their conversation, he was treated kindly and with respect instead of with disdain and annoyance as seen in the case of Balducci. This creates a certain degree of indebtedness on the part of the Arab which is expressed through his conversations with Daru and the fact that he could have escaped during the night but did not.

Secondly, he was given a choice instead of merely being taken to Tinguit as seen from the following quote “You have a two-hour walk. At Tinguit, you’ll find the administration and the police. They are expecting you” (The Guest, 10).

In this instance, Daru solidifies the removal of the Arab’s freedom by entailing that he views the Arab as being trustworthy enough to make his own decision.

While in a literal interpretation of the story it can be interpreted that Daru was trying to give the man his freedom, in actuality his kindness, generosity and general attitude towards the Arab made it so that the Arab lost his freedom to choose.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rose for Emily and The Guest by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He could not go against his honor of just escaping since he was being trusted to go to Tinguit by himself. His pride also demanded that he fulfill such a request since he was being treated as a human being instead of an animal.

Lastly, he valued the perception of the doctor towards him and as such he willingly walked to his possible death despite the fact that an alternative solution presented itself. This is evidenced by this particular part of the story: “the Arab again stood framed in the doorway, closed the door carefully, and came back to bed without a sound”(The Guest, 8).

As it can be seen, the Arab had the opportunity to escape but did not. This is indicative of the chains of honor and trust that were already set that prevented him from escaping. That is why at the end of the story the message “you have turned in our brother, you will pay” (The Guest, 11) appeared despite the fact that Daru had given the man the opportunity to set himself free.

The fact is that his actions of actually helping the character wound up creating the same social situation seen in the case of Ms. Emily wherein the character felt as if she had to uphold the image that was being fostered upon them.

As such, even if Daru seemed as if he had given the man his freedom it could be considered just the same as dragging him to Tinguit due to the consequences of his actions.

Conclusion It is based on this that it can be stated that the concept of honor, pride and the perception of society can be similar to a prison of iron bars and stone walls.

Such aspects can restrict the freedom of choice resulting in people fostering an image, attitude and behavior that they may not necessarily want to portray but in the end have no choice but to display.

In a way, Albert Camus and William Faulkner in their individual stories involving Ms. Emily and the Arab have treated their characters similarly by showing how freedoms can be taken away simply by the act of thinking and perception.


Role of Bronislaw Malinowski in the Development of British Social Anthropology Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Ethnography refers to the “branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of specific human cultures” (Okely, 2011). It has four elements, namely; participant observation, natural setting, holism, and use of subjects own language. The field of ethnography usually focuses on human societies through a branch of cultural anthropology.

Ethnography involves extensive travelling due to its aspects of fieldwork. Ethnographers study their subjects objectively. This process involves living an ordinary life among the population of study. The study period is usually long, but depends on the area of interest. This essay critically looks at the role of Bronislaw Malinowski in the development of British Social Anthropology and his influence in the contemporary ethnography.

Contemporary ethnographers consider Malinowski as one of the most experienced ethnographer. They consider Malinowski’s works as highly systematic with clear theoretical approaches in studying social systems. Other scholars have often referred to Malinowski as the first anthropologist to bring anthropology “off the veranda” (Kuper, 1973). This means that Malinowski had firsthand experiences of lives of his study population.

This gave rise to the idea of participant observation in social research. According to Malinowski, it is necessary for an anthropologist to establish a contact with the study population in order to understand and record experiences of subjects objectively. This is crucial for understanding cultural aspects of the study population. He also brought the idea of functionalism and reciprocity, and the relationship between culture and people.

Proponents of Malinowski look at anthropologists of the past centuries against the works of Malinowski. They note that Tylor and Frazer were the armchair anthropologists who relied on reports of missionaries, colonialists, travellers, and other people who could give them information for their studies (Kuper, 1973).

JG Frazer was famous for studying social anthropology and showing the link between rituals and myths. He provided detailed accounts of religious and magical beliefs in his work, The Golden Bough of 1890. Frazer identified three stages of human belief as primitive magic, religious stage, and science stage.

On the other hand, EB Tylor remains the scholar behind the idea of cultural evolutionism. Tylor looked at scientific study and anthropology as “a functional basis for the development of society and religion” (Kuper, 1973). Tylor believed that the British society could transform itself by understanding history and prehistory of man. Tylor and Frazer remain the founding fathers of modern anthropology.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next generation moved closer to fieldwork but remained in the armchair as they worked from the verandas. This category included Rivers, Seligman and others. These scholars moved to various countries but did not go to the subjects.

Instead, they would stay in verandas and subjects would come to them for interviews. However, Malinowski’s approach changed subsequent studies in anthropology. According to Malinowski, “true and intensive fieldwork could only take place by living at the centre of the natives’ village” (Malinowski, 1922).

The British Social Anthropology Malinowski was among the founding anthropologists of the British Social Anthropology. Malinowski advocated for a change in the British Social Anthropology from “the speculative and historical to the ahistorical study of social institutions” (Young, 2004). Ahistorical study does not take into account historical contexts when examining cultural phenomena that change with time.

This paradigm shift marked the introduction of functionalism and fieldwork as ideals of studying social anthropology. Functionalism gained influence around 1920s. It worked as a form of applied methodology in social science. However, it did meet certain conditions in studying social or cultural changes.

Functionalism regards society as a complex system. This complexity results from various parts, which work as a unit for establishing stability and solidarity. Malinowski applied functionalism to understand a society using its macro-level structures. In this context, Malinowski focused on social structures of society.

These structures are responsible for shaping a society. Functionalism also focuses on social functions of a society. According to Malinowski, it was necessary to study social behaviours and relations in a society within their cultural contexts. This led to the theory of participant observation. Malinowski argued that it was important to take into account the observable variations in actions and norms of the people. This captures what society does and what it claims to do.

Participant observation is a form of data collection method, which is common in qualitative research paradigms. It has spread to other areas of research studies such as social psychology, sociology, and studies in communication. Malinowski applied participant observation in order to achieve close relationships with the society and informants under study. This approach also enabled him actively take part in the daily life of the subjects under study over a long period in their cultural environments.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of Bronislaw Malinowski in the Development of British Social Anthropology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Malinowski was able to provide a detailed account of Trobriand social life due to an application of the participant observation approach. As a result, Argonauts of the Western Pacific of 1922 became one of the most popular works of the anthropologist.

Malinowski studied marriage, religious, and trade activities of the Trobriand extensively. This study and others developed the field of the British Social Anthropology from a mere discipline of evolution to a psychological and social field of scientific enquiry with both theoretical and methodological approaches.

Malinowski challenged the Freudian approach of Oedipal Complex and the idea of primitivism among the natives. He showed that such primitive people had same levels and types of mental abilities like other advanced societies. He observed and substantiated such claims that primitive societies were not different from advanced societies.

He observed that societies had different viewpoints about motives, beliefs, and emotional responses. However, human beings had similar manners of perceiving and processing information irrespective of culture or race. This also extended to use of creativity and intelligence when adapting to situations. He made these assertions after studying Trobriand social life for many years.

Malinowski’s ideas also spread beyond Britain. For instance, his methodologies also found their ways in Boasian methods among the American anthropologists. This established Malinowski as one of the most influential anthropologists of his time.

Malinowski also developed the theory of reciprocity for understanding cultural anthropology. He aimed to define lives of Trobriand’s informal exchange of goods and explain how informal economic system worked. He identified that reciprocity was in “savage societies” as well as civilised societies. Malinowski extensively applied reciprocity in his study of the Kula ring (Stocking, 1983).

The influence of Malinowski also reached in Africa through Rockefeller funding. He was in charge of field research in Africa in the 1930s. This showed the influence of British Social Anthropology beyond Europe. This explains how the British Social Anthropology found its ways in former colonies.

In fact, Peter Forster looked at anthropology in Africa and noted its influences and changes (Forster, 1994). As an effort to credit and adopt Malinowski’s approach to studying local social systems, he notes that cultural factors have not “received due attention since peasants’ knowledge and culture remain misunderstood” (Forster, 1994).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Bronislaw Malinowski in the Development of British Social Anthropology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Malinowski approaches to Fieldwork and its application in modern social research Scholars had already started fieldwork before Malinowski. However, Malinowski studies popularised and revolutionised fieldwork in anthropology. Malinowski believed in association with the native language. The works of Franz Boas also reflect this approach to social science.

Malinowski believed in understanding mundane aspects of daily life of the society. In this context, Malinowski believed in going beyond the informant’s account in order to find true practices as they occurred in reality (Sanjek, 1990). Participant observation enabled the researcher to collect data about cultural aspects of the society. In this way, Malinowski was able to understand the psychology of his subjects.

Establishment of Fieldwork Wax noted, “In the final analysis, the major credit for discovering the technique of intensive personal fieldwork among a single people must go to Bronislaw Malinowski (Wax, 1972, p. 2).

Malinowski established three conditions for effective fieldwork. First, the research must have scientific goals, apply the values and approaches of contemporary ethnography. Second, the ethnographer must be in a better position when conducting the study. This implies that the ethnographer must live among the natives when gathering information.

Third, the ethnographer must use several scientific methods of collecting, analysing, and fixing data. These three aspects should lead to three specific types of evidence from the fieldwork. First, ethnographer must understand the natives, their organisation, and anatomy of their culture. Second, the researcher must understand the actual life and behaviours of the natives. Finally, the researcher must present all materials from the field for analysis. According to Malinowski, this was the ideal fieldwork.

Malinowski puts emphasis on the second principle as a root for successful fieldwork in ethnography. Living among the natives enabled the ethnographer to consider them as companions. This was an opportunity to learn about customs and beliefs of the native from a natural intercourse.

Therefore, it was necessary to create proper conditions for fieldwork first (Wax, 1972). Malinowski then applied the first principle for effective fieldwork. This requires the ethnographer to pursue evidence using scientific principles. The scientific approaches enable the researcher to develop a conceptual framework of the problem under investigation. This is the appropriate way to achieve reliable results for contemporary studies.

Thus, the researcher has to foreshadow the problem when developing a scientific approach. In this context, Malinowski insisted on three fundamental types of evidence the ethnographer must separate from one another. First, the ethnographer must focus on the organisation of the natives and elements of its culture.

In this area, the researcher must apply a proper technique of statistic in documenting data. Second, the research must focus on actual life of the natives and their behaviours. The research must document details gathered. This is only possible by establishing a close contact with the natives. Third, the researcher must review a corpus of ethnographic statements, utterances, narratives, traditional beliefs, magical approaches, and mentality of the natives. This observation is similar to the approach in “Collection” of Franz Boas.

Malinowski presented a concrete approach used in fieldwork. This provides clear evidence on how scientific methods should work. In this sense, the method reflects final aims of the ethnographer, which are to capture ideas from the subjects’ point of view, aspects of life, and views about the world.

Such detailed account of fieldwork led Malinowski to debunk observations of the Social Darwinist. This idea claims that all societies pass through “the same distinct and predictable stages, in the same predictable order, along a single linear trajectory” (Kuper, 1973). According to Malinowski, societies are different and difficult to predict due to their great variations. These various are diverse and not linear as the linear model indicates.

Malinowski brings out three elements of effective fieldwork in comparison to his contemporary, River. He shows that ethnographer must show specific details of data collection, how to implement the method, and establish awareness of participation.

Urry observes that Malinowski’s fieldwork approach classifies “the types of information for collection under concrete evidence, imponderability of social life, and native statements taken in vernacular” (Urry, 1993).

From this point, Malinowski concludes that these are “the main three realms of ethnographic data the researcher should collect” (Urry, 1993). In this manner, Malinowski provides a detailed approach to fieldwork, which is applicable in modern social science.

River’s approach concentrated on interviewing the subjects. On the other hand, Malinowski stressed the importance of participation by taking part in the village life. Thus, he notes, “it is good for the Ethnographer sometimes to leave camera, notebook, and pencil, and join what is going on. He can take part in the natives’ games. He can follow them on their visits, walks, sit, listen, and share in their conversations” (Malinowski, 1922, p. 22).

The application of functionalism enables us to understand the place of magic rituals in modern societies. For instance, people who cannot bear challenges of modern, professional life or tragic trauma usually resort to tribal of positive visualization. This acts as a form of therapy and healing process to such individuals as they imagine of positive outcomes in their roles. Therefore, the studies of Malinowski enable us to understand how traditional rituals can facilitate productivity in society.

We can see contributions and scientific influences of studies of Malinowski in scientific research. Scholars have accredited Malinowski as the father of functionalism. As a result, there are attempts to contrast structural-functionalism of Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowski, and structuralism of Émile Durkheim. These approaches view society as a whole as they recognise contributions of its various institutions. Malinowski approached the society with the focus on actions of an individual. In this context, he argues that society exists to serve individual’s needs. He also focuses on “customary practices, and beliefs and how the psychology of those individuals might lead them to generate change” (Stocking, 1983).

Malinowski also achieved influence through his lectures, writings, and mentorship. Still, most of Malinowski’s contributions to the British Social Anthropology also emanated from his contact with Radcliffe-Brown. These two scholars had differences but aimed to change past theories of social science. They aspired to create a new form of British Social Anthropology favoured with new ideas and practical, scientific methods.

Malinowski insisted that ethnographers who wanted to experience life of the native had to adopt a fieldwork approach. This led to the development of a “scientific theory of culture” after his death (Kuper, 1973). This theory posits that it is “the function of an institution and the purpose of its existence that contribution to the biological survival of individuals within an interlocking matrix of such institutions” (Ellen, 1984).

Fieldwork today Today, many ethnographers believe that conducting fieldwork using Malinowski’s approach is the best approach to understanding anthropological research as it is the only way of distinguishing the research (Watson, 1999). However, fieldwork has evolved since the time of Malinowski and now has several practices and methods, which modern social scientists use for gaining intimate knowledge of a society.

Ethnographers of today conduct fieldwork in highly contemporary environments as well as remote villages. Still, they used several techniques to collect data. First, researchers collect data using quantitative approaches through surveys or existing records on the subject. Second, some researchers apply quantitative techniques to gather information.

However, this is mainly common among biological anthropologists who study demographic aspects of communities. Unlike in the past where researchers worked independently, studies involving quantitative techniques may require cooperation among researchers as they take an interdisciplinary approach (Antonius and Sulka, 2006).

However, social studies of today prefer qualitative information. They also use various approaches such as “individual or group interviews, undertaking oral histories, online discussion forums and, most importantly, through the Malinowskian tradition of participant observation” (Okely, 2011).

Participant observation still plays the role it did during the time of Malinowski. It enables the researcher to “undertake detailed, lengthy, and often complex observations of social life in fine details” (Okely, 2011). Such approaches may target various sources of information such as virtual network communities, a native society, and social groups of the modern society.

Modern fieldwork also has moved to the museums, institutions, archives and other places of keeping information. In these cases, the anthropologist seeks to understand “the underlying symbolic and cultural meanings of a text or a collection of objects” (Okely, 2011).

Susanne Wessendorf shows challenges modern social ethnographers face during the course of their fieldwork (Wessendorf, 2009). The researcher observes that modern social research is quite different in urban settings. There are challenges involving practicality of applying participant observation in urban contexts as it raises ethical concerns too. Wessendorf highlights that such issues can change the course of participant observation.

The researchers can fail to establish the relationship that Malinowski created with his informants and the natives. For instance, Wessendorf noted that her “everyday social relations with her informants consisted of casual encounters and participant observation in cafés, at Salsa classes and at Italian club nights” (Wessendorf, 2009).

Similarly, modern researchers have also based their studies on human subjects as the use of fieldwork expands to other fields such as medicine. Such researchers come closer to their subjects for exchange of information. Consequently, there are ethical problems earlier researchers such as Malinowski, Rivers, and Radcliffe-Brown did not experience.

As a result, modern researchers face ethical dilemmas with human subjects during fieldwork. This is because they have to invade privacy of their informants. Therefore, researchers have to address the need to “extend the ethical decision-making paradigm to address ethical dilemmas arising during the course of fieldwork” (Qudsiya, 2008).

Despite these observations, fieldwork remains the cornerstone of ethnography. Moreover, the idea of spending time with participants is the only way for ethnographers to collect reliable data from the participants.

Conclusion The paper has highlighted contributions of Malinowski in developing the British Social Anthropology. Malinowski established ideals of fieldwork in ethnography by declaring clear stages of fieldwork, and what researchers should do while interacting with the natives. We have noted four principles Malinowski emphasised in social research. First, the ethnographer had to spend considerably extended time with the subjects.

This is where Malinowski applied participant observation in order to understand cultures of the natives. Second, Malinowski applied functionalism to understand structures of the society through its members by analysing data collected. Third, the study used holistic approach. Fourth, Malinowski focused on the “savage societies” rather than civilised societies.

Reference List Antonius, R and Sulka, J 2006, Ethnographic Fieldwork: An Anthropological Reader, Wiley-Blackwell, London.

Ellen, R 1984, Ethnographic Research: A Guide to General Conduct, Academic Press, London.

Forster, P 1994, ‘Has Anthropology a Future in Africa After Colonialism?’, UTAFITI: News Series, vol.1, no.1, pp. 48-69.

Kuper, A 1973, Anthropologists and Anthropology: The British School, 1922-1972, Allen Lane, London.

Malinowski, B 1922, ‘Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea’, Studies in Economics and Political Science, vol. 65, p. 22.

Okely, J 2011, Anthropological Practice: Fieldwork and the Ethnographic Method, Berg Publishers, London.

Qudsiya, C 2008, ‘Fieldwork and social science research ethics’, Indian J Med Ethics, vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 22-3.

Sanjek, R 1990, Fieldnotes: the makings of anthropology, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Stocking, G 1983, The Ethnographer’s Magic: Fieldwork in British Anthropology From Tylor to Malinowski, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Urry, J 1993, Before Social Anthropology: Essays on the History of British Anthropology, Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, Switzerland.

Watson, C 1999, Being There: Fieldwork in Anthropology: Anthropology, Culture and Society, Pluto Press, London.

Wax, M 1972, ‘Tenting with Malinowski’, American Sociological Review, vol, 37, no. 1, pp. 1-13.

Wessendorf, S 2009, Doing fieldwork with busy people. Web.

Young, M 2004, Malinowski: Odyssey of an Anthropologist, 1884-1920, Yale University Press, New Haven.


History of the Telescope Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction Telescope is an instrument used to observe minute objects. It has the capability of collecting and analyzing radiations from objects that are at a distance. It has an electromagnetic spectrum that helps to magnify the size of an image when taking a photograph.

Information is also collected/ gathered through image sensor. There are various types of telescopes that are operational but the most common one is called optical telescope (Dupre 2008, p. 250).

This category of telescope has mirrors / lens that are used to magnify objects that are at distance or help to increase the brightness of objects that are faint.

Furthermore, optical telescopes are classified under three categories. One of them is called refractors. This kind of telescopes use lenses to magnify objects also called dioptics.

The second is called reflectors and use mirrors for magnification also called catoptrics. The third category is known as catadioptric. This uses both mirrors and lenses to magnify objects.

Background information The history of telescope dates back from 1608 when the first refracting optical telescope was invented. The telescope recorded for the first time in Netherlands. The invention is credited to Lippershey Hans and Janseen Zacharias in Middelburg, who used to make spectacles.

Another important contributor who was also a manufacturer of instruments as well as optician was Metius Jacob came from Alkmaar. Later on, Galileo improved these inventions. He was later accredited as the first person to use his telescope in astronomy. In his telescope, he adopted the designs that were used by Hans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hans’ design had used a concave eye lens and convex objective lens, which he adopted. His new telescope therefore was an improvement to that of Hans and it was popularly known as the Galilean telescope. This was not to be end of the journey in terms of improvement of the telescope.

Kepler Johannes came with a proposal that sort to improve on the Galileo telescope. His new design was to be made using convex eyepiece. The telescope was also named after the founder – Keplerian telescope.

The invention of achromatic during 18th century brought about great development as refractors were used in the telescopes (Consolmagno


The Important Harassment and Employment-Related Laws and Regulations Essay online essay help

Introduction The implementation of the labor laws and regulations in an organization is imperative as it leads to increased productivity. This ensures that there is low employee turnover due to worker satisfaction as well as motivation.

The work environment should foster productivity through dealing with issues that affects workers motivation and productivity. The employment policies affect the organization’s profitability all the time.

The essay is about the regulations as well as the implications on the company policies in relation to employee harassment.

The discussion is about the Occupational Safety and Health Act as well as how the organization will align its policies with the United States of America Labor laws.

The Important Harassment and Employment-Related Laws and Regulations Harassment of workers is a major issue where the senior employees act in a manner that emotionally or physically hurts other workers. This affects new workers who may do things that are unethical because they are not yet used to the new environment and the existing workers do not accept them.

It also involves discrimination of workers based on the race, gender or religion. According to the United States labor laws, it is illegal to discriminate workers due to their gender, age, race or religion.

This organization therefore will not discriminate anyone based on gender, race or religion. All the workers will receive fair treatment where compensation will be based on merit according to the agreed terms and conditions (Norman, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Harassment also includes actions that harm the other person sexually. This form of harassment may be either verbal or physical. In most cases, it involves doing something to an individual in order engage in sex against his or her will.

The organization should not tolerate individuals found guilty of such actions. The other major form of harassment is institutional harassment where a given institution harasses the employees through legal procedures or policies intended to coerce the employees to act in a certain manner.

In most cases such policies involves threats, termination of employment and overworking policies that are not according to the compensation given to the workers.

In addition, it involves bureaucratic processes, which restrict employees from communicating with the superiors. The organization can foster productivity by eliminating institutional harassment of workers and provide motivating environment (Simon, 2008).

When complying with the United States labor laws, the organization must include the wages and salaries as part of the labor policy in the organization. The wages set by the organization should be according to the minimum wages set by the government of the United States of America.

However, different states have their own minimum wages that they have set. When determining the wages, the company should have a good structure on how different employees at different levels should be compensated. The payment policies govern the employees’ terms of employment whether casual, contractual or permanent.

This ensures that there will be resources due to the growth of the company and creation of appropriate time when the employees are supposed to report for work.

We will write a custom Essay on The Important Harassment and Employment-Related Laws and Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company should also know how and when the employees would receive payment to avoid inconvenience as well as motivate them to be productive. The policies should also state the amount of money to be paid for the outsourced laborers (Honeyball, 2008).

The other regulation when creating the resources of the company relates to the formulation of Occupational Safety and Health where the company must have measures of protecting workers in the workplace.

The occupational health and workplace policies should explain the safety measures, procedures and compensation put in place by the company. It should have an incident action plan to enhance safety and outline the measures as well as policies for compensating the workers who are injured.

The compensation should adhere to the compensation outlined by the states rules and regulation on Compensation Act. The other issue relating to the occupational safety is that the company should conduct policies of development in the country (Norman, 2008).

The policies that will govern international employees are significant and should be considered by the management. These policies ensure that international employees receive compensation without discrimination and provide their ideas to the managers of the company.

In many instances, most of the international employees are harassed due to inability to have their issues addressed quickly because of the long distance from where the company is located. The company should create employment policies that favor the international employees to take care of their needs.

The international employees should not be discriminated in terms of wages but compensated equally like the local employees (Gillian, 2005).

Conclusion The management of the organization should ensure that appropriate policies are provided for the employees. They should have policies, which ensure that the working conditions are favorable and motivating to the employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Important Harassment and Employment-Related Laws and Regulations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The policies should create an environment that promotes cohesion and motivation among the employees. When the organization has proper policies, it is likely to experience innovation, employee loyalty and high level of productivity.

References Gillian, M. (2005). Labor law. New York: Hart Publishing.

Honeyball, S. (2008). Honeyball and bowers’ textbook on employment law. New York: Oxford University Press

Norman, S. (2008). Selwyn’s law of employment. New York: Oxford University Press.


Irish Culture in Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Music and Dancing





Works Cited

Introduction The entry of Irish immigrant in Cape Breton began after the discovery of the island by John Cabot in 1497, this also saw the influx of other communities such as Scottish, French and English in the island.

Since then, these communities and others who came afterwards have remained on the island to date. Various historical authors have given the factors why Irish immigrated to Cape Breton. The potato famine, which occurred 1840s in Ireland, is thought to be the driving factor behind their immigration.

However, other historians cite that Ireland is a country that has been made up of tenants, laborers and farmers with its economic lifeline dependent on Britain. Hence, these economic struggles and challenges with prospects of land ownership in North America motivated them to emigrate.

The Irish people carried along their culture to new lands during their emigration; hence, this became a part of their community daily life. In Cape Breton, where they settled between 1700s, they continued to practice their culture besides adopting other cultures among other communities they interacted with.

This paper discusses the Irish culture in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The writer indicates that the Irish people have continued to preserve their culture over the ages, hence, this is reflected in their music and dancing, symbolism, language, religion among others.

Music and Dancing Music and dancing are important elements for a human soul. Music inspires and relaxes the soul, thus bringing about happiness. Similarly, dancing is captivating and is also critical for a person’s mental and physical well-being.

Thus, Irish community in Cape Breton has maintained this culture close to their heart. McGee illustrates that Irish people still embrace their traditional music on the island to date (60). Hence, common musical varieties on the island include

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Anglo-Irish folk songs, Gaelic, pipe and fiddle music among others. Also, McGee (83) indicates that Irish music is a popular among other communities on the island because it is lively and fosters passion.

On a similar note, Irish dancing styles are astonishing. The Irish people have continued to uphold “Step Dancing”, a style of dancing, on the island (Hedican 319). Step dancing is where a dancer swings his/her loose ankle swiftly causing the sole of the shoe to make comical sounds.

Similarly, an Irish dancer uses rigid torso and a free leg while dancing to the music rhythm. The uniqueness of Irish Music culture in the island has attracted many young people from other communities. Hence, most of them have emulated the music and dancing styles through learning and practicing.

Besides, music and dancing culture has encouraged young people to participate in Irish competition such as Feis (Hedican 317). Feli, a form of dancing has been replicated by other cultures, such as Acadian and Scottish living in Nova Scotia.

Also, the Irish communities have set aside a period where youngsters are taught about storytelling, local history and community customs. They view these aspects as a part of Irish community living culture.

Thus, activities such as “Kitchen Party” or Ceilidh (a visit) are famous within the community. They provide an opportunity for sharing language, story, song, tracing family roots, and music (McGee, 94).

Symbolism For ages, Irish people have revered symbols in their daily lives. They view them as a reminiscence of some phenomenon or certain important events in life. Elliott (140) points out that the most widely recognized symbol in the Irish community is the Celtic cross.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Irish Culture in Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is a symbol which was used by Irish Catholic communities in 1800s. Hedican (129) cites that the cross was significant to Irish community because it was used to decorate tombstones and jewelry among others during the celebration of Celtic culture.

Presently, Houston and William (89) note that this symbol helps Irish people remember significant events in Irish-Canadian history.

Also, the names also contain symbolism, which forms a significant part of Irish culture in Cape Breton. According to Houston and William (123), Irish names are unique compared to others in different cultures, thus, it is easy to differentiate them.

For instance, Hedican illustrates that a person with a surname starting with O’ is always perceived as a person who has an Irish origin (319).

Elliott demonstrates that another significant symbol among Irish in Cape Breton is St. Patrick (136). Irish people recognize St. Patrick as the Patron Saint of Ireland, and the onset of Christianity in Ireland, hence, this day is important for Catholics and Anglicans in residing in Cape Breton.

The Irish people celebrate this day by consuming Irish bacon, cabbage and drinks. The Irish people use this day to recall their motherland and bond with their countrymen.

Religion Despite some Irish joining with other religions, majority of them is largely Catholics. They follow Catholicism to connect with their native land, which is predominantly Catholics. They have also borrowed architectural styles of building churches from their native country, most catholic churches in Cape Breton bear resemblance.

Akenson (102) illustrates that this architectural designs show their strong connection with their motherland. Besides believing in Jesus Christ and Mary, they also embrace Saints.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Irish Culture in Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They view saints as a link or intermediaries between them and Jesus Christ, hence, the church has set aside specific days for commemorating their feasts (Houston


The Miami Beach Descriptive Essay essay help site:edu

One of nature’s most captivating sights is the beach. A sandy landform lying along the shoreline of the ocean, the beach is filled with splendor and it inspires feelings of tranquility and bliss to the person who happens to be on it.

The Miami Beach is one of the most beautiful beaches in the world and observing it can be a moving experience. Walking along the Miami Beach barefooted on an early morning is a memorable experience.

The grainy sands feel soft and comforting and one cannot help but drag their feet to prolong the experience. One might chance to come across crabs lazily crawling along the beach as it seeks out their prey or a sea turtle munching on plant debris at the shorelines.

Watching the sunrise over Miami Beach is one of the most delightful treats nature has to offer. The sun seems to emerge from the endless ocean and as it shows it appears from the horizon, it paints the ocean in bold bright colors.

The clouds also begin to be filed with deep hues of crimson and rose as the sun rises behind them. As the sun slowly makes it way upwards, one cannot help but rest their gaze, if only for a moment, on the brilliant, silvery waters.

For the moment, one can afford to ignore the huge multi-storied buildings that lie a few blocks behind and get lost in the intoxicating appeal of nature.

The keen, fresh ocean-air gently caresses the visitors face. As the sun moves upwards, it heats the ocean air and its warmth can be felt in the gentle breeze that fans the person’s face. The morning air is lovely and one gets a giddy feeling from inhaling the salt filled air.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rhythmic rise and fall of the waves adds to the splendor which is only equaled by the comforting sound of the waves as they crash gently on the shore.

Every now and then, the crushing waves bring with them a seashell or a piece of wood that might have travelled for hundreds of miles before landing on this beach.

The Atlantic Ocean stretches out endlessly into the distance and one cannot help but feel awed by its vastness. In the distance, dolphins can be seen diving up gracefully for a moment, only to return to their watery world.

In addition to the sea creatures, the ocean is punctuated by sailing boats which cut their way merrily towards the docks with the gently sea breeze nicely swelling their sails. A peaceful calm lies over the beach, and, with a contented, graceful motion, the sailing boats rise and fall on the gently lapping waves.

The melodic chirping of the birds in the early morning provides the background music for the experience. Together with the rustling palm trees nearby, they form a natural symphony that makes it easy for one to lose track of time and reality.

Eventually, one has to say goodbye to the beach and venture back into the city that has concrete streets and noisy traffic. For many people, this is the gloomy part of the beach experience and if they had their way, they would postpone the moment indefinitely.

However, the allure of the beach and the serenity it creates continue to linger long after the person has physically left the magical beach.

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Ancient Greek Democracy that Still Makes People Strive for Perfection Essay college essay help

Ancient Greece is often referred to as a cradle of the Western World. This is not just a smart metaphor, but a certain fact that can hardly be refuted.

Thus, Greek dreams of a perfect society where everyone (or at least the majority) is happy resulted in the creation of the first democracy in the world. This invention of humanity has had a great impact on the development of the human society.

First, Greek cities were governed as any other kingdom in the ancient world. However, a number of uprisings made Ancient Greeks work out a unique political system. Thus, in the 6th century B.C. Greeks created the first democratic society.

It is possible to understand the major principles of Ancient Greek democracy when considering the meaning of the very word democratic. Thus, the word consists of two composites: demos and kratos. The first composite is translated as “the people” and kratos is translated as “power”, which gives us the following meaning: “the power of the people” (qtd. in Ober 3).

Therefore, there was no single ruler in the country and there was no risk of tyranny. Basically, people discussed the problems and worked out specific solutions to the problems. Admittedly, it can be a bit naïve to think that the majority always benefitted as there were always elite groups that pursued their specific objectives.

Nonetheless, needs of many people were taken into account and many people could enjoy basic rights. It is possible to state that the creation of such a democratic society was revolutionary. Of course, it had an enormous impact on the development of humanity.

Notably, many societies are based on the principles of Greek democracy. Many European countries followed the example of Ancient Greece to create new better societies. Thus, French Republic was based on major principles developed by ancient Greeks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The USA can be regarded as one of the brightest examples of democratic societies. Undoubtedly, Americans used experience of French people and used the principles outlined in Ancient Greece. Apart from such significant political implications, democratic principles of Ancient Greece have become certain part of people’s consciousness.

As far as I am concerned, I am also affected by the democratic principles. I think Ancient Greeks managed to outline major principles of a perfect and just society. More so, I think I have specific views on society due to the influence of Ancient Greece.

I have heard of justice and equality from my childhood. Of course, these views date back to the ancient world. Now I think that people should take a stand whenever they may need. I think that people can find solutions if they start a proper discussion when they listen to each other.

I also think that these principles have affected my life. For instance, I believe discussion is the most important thing in any human interaction. Thus, I always discuss issues and I never jump to conclusions. I try to consider all possible factors and take into account all opinions.

Of course, some time ago I thought I developed such principles as I was so smart and just. However, I think I did not work out these ideas. I only adopted them.

These ideas are in the air and people cannot but adopt them (or try to oppose to them). Most importantly, no one remains distant as these ideas are integrated in our universe.

Works Cited Ober, Josiah. “The Original Meaning of “Democracy”: Capacity to Do Things, not Majority Rule.” Constellations 15.1 (2008): 3-9. Print.

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Why is it an Enjoyable Story? Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

In literature, stories are very common. Since the time of William Shakespeare, many authors have delved into writing romantic stories. This is because most of works of William Shakespeare were considered very successful and were romantic.

However, the biggest question that most literature students, as well as other professionals would have is when a piece of writing is to be considered enjoyable. For instance, an individual would ask whether to consider a piece of writing enjoyable if it discusses characters only.

These questions could only be answered by looking at some of the factors that would make a piece of writing exciting. This essay is meant to look at the factors that would make a piece of writing enjoyable.

An enjoyable piece of writing is that which has a clear logical flow that is easy to follow. A story would be enjoyable if it follows the basic rule mentioned above. There should be a sequence of events.

For instance, in the morning, an individual would wake up, take a bath, take breakfast, and leave for work or school. It would not be logical to start a story by explaining how an individual took breakfast before waking up because this would not make sense.

It is also important that a story create a picture in the mind of the reader. Take for instance the story ‘The Use of Force’ by William Carlos Williams. The author creates a clear setting of the room in which the patient is.

The mood in the house including the facial expression of parents, the agony that the patient is going through, and her fear of medical instruments are clearly brought out in the narration. One reading this story would have a clear picture of the environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An enjoyable piece of writing should have a mix narration and dialogue. It would be very boring to read or listen to a story that does not have any form of dialogue. Writing a story as if it were a report would make it very boring to readers.

In the story stated above, there is dialogue between the mother and the doctor. This makes the story lively and more realistic. Good stories should also include such literary devices as symbolism (simile and metaphors), personification, flashback, and rhetoric.

These devices are very important because apart from giving the story a sense of humor, they also help in bringing out some features that would otherwise been left out. However, the stylistic devices should not be overused. Misuse of the stylistic devices would spoil the tone of the story.

A good story should have a form of conflict. The conflict keeps a given story going. The conflict should be logical and it should be comprehended easily. It would be illogical for an author to create a conflict that is too complex to be understood by the target audience.

A story written from a third party perspective would be considered good if it is capable of capturing other characters in the play, including thoughts. This way, it would be possible to capture all-important factors. A good story is not just a romantic story.

It should be the one, which has the above core elements. Listeners would be bored if the story does not contain various stylistic devices such as similes and metaphors. Apart from stylistic devices, the author must incorporate simple, compound, and complex sentences into the story.


Absenteeism amongst employees in Abu Dhabi National Bank Research Paper college admissions essay help

Background of the Study Employee absenteeism is considered one of the most detrimental occurrences facing employers. Personnel from different organizations across industries report different patterns of absence behavior. There’s need for managers to understand the relationship existing between job satisfaction and rate of absenteeism. This is since the consequences of this aspect affects organizations negatively leading to great financial losses.

Most organisations agree on the fact that employee absenteeism is one of the factors affecting productivity. However, research reveals that one of the causes of absenteeism is the level of job satisfaction. There are three types of absence; ‘sick absence’ where the employee misses work due to health issues, ‘authorised absence’ where the employee acquires permission and ‘unexcused absence’ where employees absent themselves for unrecognized reasons.

The understanding of the relationships provides good platform for designing effective policies capable of providing conducive work environment to the employees. Studies reveal that workers who are less satisfied with their work shows frequent rate of absenteeism compared to those experiencing job satisfaction.

Absence is a function of an individual and situation hence can either be described as “voluntary or involuntary”, where voluntary is based on conscious decision by the employee while involuntary absence incorporates situations that are beyond immediate control of the worker such as sickness.

This study focuses on the National Bank of Abu Dhabi (NBAD) which was founded in the year 1968 and is considered to be amongst the top performing banks in the United Arab Emirates. The bank has extensive network within UAE operating 120 branches within Abu Dhabi and 50 branches across four continents of the world.

Global Finance magazine ranks NBAD’s as one of the safest banks in the world and specifically in the Middle East. The bank offers various services ranging from retail, investment and also provides Islamic banking services. At the same time the bank appears in the Abu Dhabi Exchange (ADX) listings.

Employers like NBDA bank face some of the common challenges at work place one of which is absenteeism. The bank operates its working system under the country’s labor Law which requires employees to report any form of illness within a period of two days before being granted leave.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees are required to produce medical records and evidences of illness covering absence within consecutive days. In dealing with absenteeism, NBDA adopted and enforced the use of medical certificate policy.

All employees are entitled to a leave of 90 calendar days annually with pay as prescribed by the bank’s policies which denies any payment to employee on sick leave if the illness resulted from the employee’s misconduct. Any absenteeism from work without reasonable cause is countered by disciplinary sanctions. The employee is not paid any salary for the day of absence; the fines vary depending on the frequency of the offense.

Statement of the Problem Absenteeism is associated with no clear cause since the concept is influenced by a host of interrelated factors. This makes the concept very expensive for organizations as well as individual employees. In most cases, studies have focused on employee attitude as major cause of absenteeism.

However, managers and employees tend to view absenteeism from different perspectives. Managers focus on absence as a category of behavior while to employees, the concept comes as a result of perception, feelings and social phenomenon. Research reveals that persistent absenteeism has negative impact on overall productivity as well as morale.

Most researchers argue that job dissatisfaction is directly proportional to the number of days absent therefore necessitates the need for the employee to feel rewarded. Studies also show that absenteeism can be brought about by personal characteristics for example marital status with the unmarried reporting more absenteeism predominantly married females. It is in this respect that this research seeks to evaluate and address the concept of absenteeism within institutions such as NBDA.

Aims and objectives Aims

To place rules and policies to manage absenteeism among employees at ABU DHABI National Bank

To establish the major causes of absenteeism among the employees of ABU DHABI National Bank

To propose a model which can be utilized in testing the proposition that personal characteristics, situational factors and satisfaction are key causes of absenteeism

To develop a strategy that is beneficial to both the employer and employee in order to improve productivity


To examine the relationship between individual characteristics, situations, job satisfaction levels and absenteeism for employees in Abu Dhabi National Bank in Dubai

To investigate the relationship between personal characteristics of age, gender, marital status, education and source of income and rates of absenteeism

To establish a programme that will help manage and control absenteeism at Abu Dhabi National Bank.

To establish a reward system that will help deal with absenteeism at Abu Dhabi National Bank

Scope of the project

The study seeks to discuss absenteeism amongst employees focusing on causal mechanisms and reasons as to why employees absent themselves from work. Also knowing the relationship between job satisfactions, personal characteristics i.e. age, marital status, income level and absenteeism.

This study also seeks to establish the effects of absenteeism to the bank’s productivity and profitability levels which in the long-run affects the country’s economy. The research also gives insight to the management of the bank concerning necessary prescriptions capable of handling absenteeism.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Absenteeism amongst employees in Abu Dhabi National Bank specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This study also tries to establish whether the management is capable of adopting modern systems used in regulating the number of sick days. There is also discussion on the existing relationship between reward, punishment and absenteeism.

Focus of the Study

The study focuses on establishing the major causes of absenteeism and consequent effects on productivity within organizations such as NBDA. The focus is on the nature of working environment offered and individual reactions towards work in general. This paper emphasizes on personal characteristics relationship to absenteeism and also relations between job satisfaction and absenteeism.

The paper also analyses the various types of absenteeism and seeks to analyse several models which have been proposed for the purposes of establishing and testing levels of job satisfaction. This has generally resulted in different results and findings of which this paper seeks to explain such differences.

Significance of the Study

Frequent employee contributions represent some of the important aspects within an organization. The level of effectiveness with which absenteeism is managed within organizations determines organization’s performance in the long-run.

Whether ‘voluntary’ or ‘involuntary’, absenteeism should be managed using appropriate policies aligned to defined labor laws of specified regions. Work should not be viewed by employees as form of punishment but as a means of fulfilling one’s purpose in life, hence should be performed based on company’s underlined policies, principles, vision and mission statements.


The History of Rice in Japan Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Among all the cultivated cereals, rice and wheat are among the most important as the leading food sources for humankind. However, rice is consumed by a higher percentage of people across the globe-almost half of the world’s population. Rice is cultivated in over 100 countries in the world.

However, the about 95% of the cultivated crop is not only grown but also consumed in the Asian countries. Research has shown that rice provides for 60% of the food intake in South-East Asia. In the Eastern and Southern parts of Asia, it accounts for 35% of the food intake.

The countries that have recorded the highest levels of per capita consumption of rice include Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Laos and Burma. Other parts of the world that have embraced the rice culture include Africa and South America. As far as trade is concerned, rice is one of the most traded basic foodstuffs in the world. Since the introduction of rice in Japan, the Japanese have shown a significant attachment to the cereal in many aspects which it has protected up to date.

The origin of rice in Asia The cultivation of rice is a potent symbol of civilisation for many of the Asian nations. According to the preliminary findings by a team of Chinese and Japanese archeologists, the practice of rice cultivation may have first occurred along the middle Yangtze River in central China.

A detailed study carried out by an environmental archeologist, Syuichi Toyama, at Japan’s Kogakukan University helped in the clarification of the findings. He surveyed both the published and the unpublished radiocarbon data on 125 samples of rice grains, plant remains as well as impressions of rice grains in pottery for more than a hundred sites along 5400 KM of the Yangtze River (Normile 309).

His findings showed that the oldest samples (with a median age of 11, 000 years) are clustered along the middle Yangtze in Hubei and Hunan provinces. This provides evidence that rice cultivation originated from the middle Yangtze River from where it spread to the rest of the Asian countries.

In Japan, rice seems to have been cultivated first in the southern island of Kyushu about 2,400 years ago (400BC), presumably having been introduced from the Yangtze region and gradually spread northwards (Latham 2; Jintong 108). The expansion of rice cultivation across the Asian continent continued even in the 20th century.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although rice had been in Korea for almost 2000 years, it was not the staple food since they depended among other grains and foods. As late as the 1920s, only a third of the cultivated fields were under wet rice-the economy depended on dry rice and field crops like millet and soybean. When the Japanese colonial government carried out a programme to increase rice production in the Korean Peninsula, rice culture reached its fullest development in Korea.

The earliest forms of cultivated forms of rice are thought to have been indicas that developed from wild ancestors in the Northern and Eastern India, Northern and South-East Asia and Southern China. Both kinds of rice continued to be grown in China where they were noted in the earliest Chinese dictionary of AD 100 (Totman 96).

The colonial powers in Asia had long maintained agricultural research stations. In the 1870s, the Japanese too established agricultural research stations as part of their thrust for modernisation and development. It was that in the 1920s when they found the rice in their colony of Taiwan not to their taste, they encouraged the local farmers to adopt high yielding species-japonicas.

In the South and South-East Asia, irrigation facilities were greatly extended in the colonial period with the British, Dutch and French heavily investing in irrigation. In India, the great grain-growing region of the Punjab was developed towards the end of the 18th century with irrigation facilities.

There were many other irrigation schemes in other parts. There was also great expansion of the irrigated rice land in the East Asia. Most of the rice growing lands in Japan were irrigated in 1868 and by the outbreak of the Second World War so were two thirds of rice lands in their colonies in Taiwan and Korea.

Rice yields were running at an average of 2.5 metric tons per hectare even though modern fertilizers were not used. A similar situation existed in the major rice growing regions of South China. However, there was less of the rice growing flood plains of South and South-East Asia where even by the end of the Second World War irrigation provision had barely started.

The spread of rice in Asia through Trade Trade in rice dates back to the ancient times. As early as AD 900-1000, there was long distance trade in rice in China along the Yangzi and other major rivers in South Asia; availability of water transport and hence cheap freight costs being crucial. Research has shown that by 1200 AD, ocean-going junks were carrying rice to Indochina. In the course of time, Exports gave way to imports and by 1720, rice was being imported to the Yangtze delta not only from the central Yangtze region but also from Taiwan (Latham 28).

We will write a custom Essay on The History of Rice in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International rice trade was attained towards the end of the 18th century, which continued to the 19th century. During that time, Bengal, under British control, was a major exporter of rice particularly to Sri Lanka, which was also under the British rule. Burma (Myanmar) emerged as a major exporter of rice in the region with much of her rice going to Britain and other European countries (Sabillon 301).

Some of the rice going to the Britain was re-exported to the Caribbean countries, America, continental Europe and the Mediterranean. As the population grew in Bengal, more of the annual crop was consumed there and less left for export so Burma’s export expanded to other countries e.g. Ceylon.

Demand for Burma rice was also growing in Malaya where there was an increasing number of Indian laborers employed in the rice plantations up-country. Consequently, Burma emerged as one of the World’s great rice exporters. The rice production in Burma (in the Irrawaddy delta) was paralleled in two of the other great delta regions in Asia i.e. the Chao Phraya delta in Thailand and the Mekong delta in the French Indo-China (Vietnam).

Rice form the latter regions was preferred by the Chinese migrants who established themselves all over South-East Asia. Some of the rice in Bangkok and Saigon regions of China was exported to Singapore. Some of the rice received in Singapore was trans-shipped to Indonesia.

The two main rice distribution centers were Hong Kong and Singapore, which played a pivotal role in the shipping of rice to Japan, Hawaii, California and Philippines. This pattern of trade continued in the early years of the twentieth century, through to the 1920s.

The depression had a devastating impact on the rice market. There was continued expansion of the area under rice in the three great exporting countries, but the prices began to fall in 1926. Nonetheless, the year 1920 saw excellent crops. High yields in rice continued until 1933.

This coincided with a series of good wheat harvest. During the same year, the prices of both grains fell drastically as world grain markets were glutted. With the collapse of the rice prices, the depression came into Asia. Major rice-trading companies failed and so did the agricultural banks.

The various governments tried to isolate themselves from the depression opting out of the world market. They resorted to import controls as well as import substitution. The freedom of the world rice market was the major casualty. As early as 1921, the Japanese government in response to rice shortage of 119-1921 had tried to stimulate domestic production while keeping prices down. In 1933, they imposed duties to keep out the cheap foreign rice.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Rice in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They began a policy of government purchasing to raise prices and increase domestic production. However, it did not take long before they were faced by warehousing problems. Towards the end of the 1930s, the government took control of the rice markets and licensed all the brokers as well as rice dealers.

In the American colony of the Philippines rice control was introduced in 1936. The government corporation bought paddy, milled it and distributed it. By doing so, they excluded the Chinese brokers and millers an aspect that helped in the control of the prices for not only the farmers but also for the consumers.

A similar policy was formulated in Siam where the government by-passed the Chinese distributers by buying direct from the farmers. Siam used the profits to set colonies of Thai farmers free from debt to Chinese rice merchants. In China, import duties were raised to prevent imports. In French and Indochina, export duties were put in place to prevent exports. With the import and export controls operating simultaneously, the international rice trade came virtually to a halt.

The Asian governments, both colonial and non-colonial sought to achieve self-sufficiency as a response to the shock of the depression. After the Second World War, governments continued control over rice. Initially, Burma, Indochina and Thailand resumed their roles as major rice exporters.

However, when Burma became independent the government held prices to such a low level that incentive for farmers to produce rice was reduced. Consequently, Burma gradually faded of the international market and moved towards economic isolation. Exports plunged in 1966 and remained low for many years. In Indochina, the chaos in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia turned this major exporting region into a major importer.

Only Thailand remained a leading exporter, and its government remained in control. The most significant circumstance in the rice trade in the post war world was the emergence of the United States as a major exporter. Vietnam was a major beneficiary of the United States’ exports.

Rice in other parts of the world Rice is also believed to be ancient staple food for communities in West Africa. It was grown along the Gambia River , the Upper Guinea Coast as well as the Senegal River in 16th century. The domestication of rice in West Africa was not widely known until the 20th century.

Owing to this, descriptions of rice before the 20th century assumed all rice to be sativa– rice of Asian origin. Certain characteristics of African rice distinguish it from sativa. One is the red color of the African rice, glaberrima, bran. It shifts between purple and black hues in different varieties. Although some sativa types are also red, they occur over a limited geographical area in Asia.

During the colonial period in America, the African rice was introduced to America-Carolina through a slave shipment solicited by Thomas Jefferson in 1790. He hoped to reverse the Carolina emphasis on tidal rice to upland cultivation. He believed wet rice to be crop of mixed value since the whole country needed to be laid under water annually an aspect that caused pestilential fevers to many inhabitants. Jefferson initiated rain-fed rice cultivation in America.

He did so by the adoption of the red glaberrima rice of the upland-inland farming system cultivated in the Southern portion of the West African rice region. Jefferson called the rain-fed rice Oryza mutica due to the apparent shortness of the plant. One of the challenges that the Americans faced with the African rice was the milling process, which was rather hard.

Despite the Linnaean classification of rice as of Asian origin, Jefferson believed mutica to be a species much harder to mill than other types. Jefferson believed that the greatest service, which can be rendered to any country, is the addition of a useful plant to its culture. He used this statement in reference to rice.

From Carolina, the African rice spread to other states e.g. Georgia through trade. Historical sources from Brazil dating to the period prior to the 18th century provide numerous references to rice including a red type (Oryza mutica)grown along the food plains of the Amazon river and in low lying swamps. Some colonial authorities promoted the cultivation of this rice. The glaberrina/ Oryza mutica spread in various locales of the 18th century Americas.

Red rice emerges in the commentaries from the second half of the 18th century when Portugal attempted to establish a rice plantation system in the Eastern Amazon of Brazil. Slaves imported from Africa provided the labor in the plantations. The year 1767 witnessed the first exports of the milled rice to Portugal (Judith 151).

The cultivation of red rice aroused repeated official concern. In a 1772 decree, the Portuguese colonial administration mandated a year’s jail sentence for the whites who planted the red rice and two years of imprisonment for the slaves and Indians who did so. Portugal was trying to build a rice plantation economy that would reduce the metropole’s dependence on imports from South Carolina. The red rice also spread to many regions of the world through trade.

The original rice farmers grew their rice in swamps. Subsequently, rice has been grown in tropical rainfall areas or close to rivers, which seasonally overflow their banks. It is clear that irrigation provides the most effective system for growing rice. Irrigation means not only supplying water but also draining water when necessary. The supply and control of water is necessary if high yields are to be achieved.

In Malaya, the British introduced the irrigation schemes. In Java, the British and Dutch were also active in the provision of irrigation schemes for rice both in the 19th and early 20th century. There was also great expansion of irrigated rice land in East Asia.

Most of the rice growing areas in Japan were irrigated by 1868, and by the outbreak of the Second World War so were two-thirds of the rice lands in their colonies of Taiwan and Korea. As opposed to the sativa species, the red rice (mutica) species is a dry land species and can do in areas with some climatic hardships. However, under optimum conditions the sativa species produces high yields.

The history of rice in Japan From the ancient times, rice has been one of the most esteemed cereal in Japan. In Japanese language, gohan refers to cooked rice. The actual meaning of the word is ‘honorable food’ indicating the value that the Japanese attached to the cereal. Research has shown that although rice was not the primary element in the Japanese diet in the ancient times, the people used it as a form of money.

The value of rice in the Japanese community continued for many years that “even after money had entered the Japanese economy, samurai warriors were paid not in gold, silver or copper but in fixed amounts of rice” (Hayami 125). In 1993, there was an acute shortage of the crop in Japan.

Consequently, the government was compelled to import rice from other nations (Shogenji 210). The consumers’ reaction was a clear indication that they were not prepared to do without their favorite brand (Japanese) as long as they could access a limited amount. In addition, during that period reports that some mice were found in the shipment created a lot of dissatisfaction about the consumption of imported rice.

Most of the Japanese had heard the rumor that foreign farmers made heavy, indiscriminate use of insecticides and that shipments were treated with strong chemicals to prevent the deterioration of the product. This also played an important role in lowering the Japanese demand of foreign rice. Knecht says that “for many Japanese, rice is not nay rice and rice is not mere food” (6).

For a very long time in Japan, not all people even the small scale farmers who produced the grain would afford to eat enough of rice. This is considered the root of the Japanese tradition of eating even the last grain of rice served to them since according to them, it is ill mannered to leave rice in their plate (Francks et al. 120). However, during the Edo era, which lasted from 1603 to 1868, the scarcity of rice to the majority of the population decreased.

Although not all the villages in Japan are actively involved in the production of rice, everyone has a constant supply of the cereal in the country. For instance, amid the steep mountains of Shikoku, people do not have rice plantations but they rice is still there staple food. The land consists of patches of cleared mountain forest that were made into dry fields.

The availability of rice to such areas was attributed to the food rationing policy of the Japanese government (Estudillo 83). It had been existence until sometime during the Second World War. According to Knecht, being in a position to eat rice or not is not necessarily a consequence of the environment where one lives; it can simply be the result of government policy i.e. an act of authority (16).

The Staple Food Control Act of 1942enabled was the most significant factor that ensured that every household in Japan ate rice regularly. The government issued the policy during the time when Japan’s war effort was about to reach its peak i.e. the Second World War (Tokoyama et al. 180; Suzuki 28).

The primary role of the act was to ensure that there was sufficient supply of rice to the fighting soldiers. Additionally, it was to provide an equal distribution of the rice to the noncombatant citizens to keep them healthy. In the Japanese culture during that time, health meant more than the physical well-being of the society-it also meant social stability.

Therefore, the purpose of the act was to keep the power base of the government as well as the political system intact and undisturbed. In other words, the Staple Food Act of 1942 served to ensure that Japan became a ‘culture of rice’ in the sense that the government delivered rice to everyone in the country thus controlling the country.

The attachment of Japan to rice As far as foreign products are concerned, the Japanese have a strong affection for most of the products but they feel differently when it comes to rice.. Their attachment to the domestic rice can be attributed to several factors.

Economic importance

During the feudal era, the size of the territory of a feudal lord, daimyo, was stated in terms of annual yield or rice in his land. Additionally, during that time land taxes were determined by the number of kokus of rice (the koku was the economic measurement of rice). Therefore, rice was the fundamental economic product. Research has shown that most of the people in Japan are still family farmers. This greatly affected the liberalisation of the rice market.

Group orientation of the rice farmers

As aforementioned, rice farming means more than just food and the opportunity to earn a living in the Japanese community. It is one of the most important aspects in the Japanese tradition of group activity. During its growth period, rice farming requires a relatively large amount of water for irrigation. In the ancient times, water could not be controlled without the cooperation of the entire village. To become not only successful but also efficient rice producers, the members of a given community and/or village had to think and act together.

Religious value of rice in Japan

Though it might be difficult for difficult for individuals to understand its importance, rice farming is a significant factor in the Japanese community as far as religion is concerned. The religious attachment of the Japanese to rice has evolved through centuries of history and tradition.

Rice is an important cereal in most of the Japanese religious celebrations. It is the main offering during Shinto and Buddhist rituals. It is noteworthy that rice products including sake are the most sacred of offerings in the Shinto religion. Additionally, the Japanese Emperor plants rice in his palace garden on an annual basis as one of the most important royal ceremonies.

Despite the erosion of most of the Japanese traditional lifestyle aspects by westernisation, they still have a strong feeling that cooked rice is their staple food and that rice and the Japanese are inseparable. Therefore, religion made rice an integral part of the Japanese community or rather culture.

Government created tradition

In Japanese schools, domestic rice forms the major part of the lunch menu. The justification for the incorporation of domestic rice in schools stems from a government created tradition. Although Japan has always had shortages in grain products, it has always had an over-supply of rice.

To ensure efficient disposal of rice, the Japanese government introduced rice into school lunch programmes in the 1970s. To ensure the adoption of the effort in all schools, the government stressed that eating domestic grown rice would enhance their understanding of the country’s agricultural tradition.

The political significance of rice

Rice farmers have been the target of most politicians for many years. The strength of rice farming in Japan has been demonstrated by its ability to bring together the strongest of opponents in politics-the Liberal democrats and the Social Democrats. It is particularly significant to the Liberal Democrats since they rely heavily on the votes of the rice farmers.

Owing to this, they have been in the frontline as far as the opposition of rice imports is concerned. Over the last few decades, it has become increasingly clear that opening Japan’s rice market would be helpful in enhancing the success of the nation’s agriculture as well as its economy. However, many of the politicians are very reluctant to let go of the political power they have had for years.


Rice is not only an important component of the Japanese religion and culture but it is also a symbol of the nation’s independence. Japan imports most its foods such as meat, fruits and fish. It is noteworthy that Japan is only 30% self sufficient in its cereal products. The Japanese government considers it crucial or rather necessary to maintain this level in its staple capacity.

Health standards, taste and image

The Japanese community appreciates quality standards in all dimensions, which includes that quality of their staple food-rice. In 1992, the Japan Times conducted a street poll in Tokyo to assess the Japanese preference for rice. The results showed that they considered taste and purity as the two most important parameters as a far as the quality of rice is concerned. The price and brand name came in the third and fourth position respectively.

Additionally, the Japanese consumers are concerned about the type and levels of the chemicals used during the production as well as the processing and preservation of rice. They are also concerned about the health hazards that the commodity may have.

For instance, when rumors were spread that imported rice was inferior in quality, had high levels of pesticide residues besides having dead rats, they understandably preferred to pay more for the domestic rice than the imported rice. This explains why despite GATT being able to introduce foreign rice to Japan, foreign rice is still not popular among Japanese consumers.

Threats to Japanese rice culture

The rice market across Asia became competitive after most of the nations began exporting their rice products causing economic hardships to all the rice-producing nations. It was a painful experience for the rice farmers. This called for the efforts of the nations to protect domestic rice producers from cheap foreign competition.

Japan’s government increased the price of rice to more than eight times the world market’s price in the 1980s. This significantly affected most of the other aspects of the Japanese economy such as land process, labor, foreign trade and rural investments. It has had an impact to the international community. For instance, the closed border for rice in the country exacerbated tensions within the United States, which is one of the countries that have a surplus in rice besides its deficit with Japan (Timmer 149).

If the rice cultivation were eradicated from the Japanese agricultural system, it would be accompanied by a wide-ranging disappearance of Japan’s traditional culture. It is the major reason as to why the Japanese government has never allowed the liberalisation of rice imports in the country (Dey et al. 119).

There has been a lot of economic friction about the role of rice in the Japanese economy as well as in the international scale. The 1993 rice failure was caused by the worst weather that the Japanese had ever experienced in 40 years (Yim-Yu 49). Rice prices increased to levels of nearly 2.5 times normal.

Accordingly, the Japanese government made an historic decision on 30 September 1993 to import rice on an emergency basis. Study has shown that this was the fourth time that Japan had imported rice from the U.S since World War II. In 1997, there was an argument between the Japanese government, the bureaucrats and farmers cooperatives against the United States.

They were saying that rice is one of the major national security parameters of the Japanese government or that the nation was self sufficient in rice. Lu asserts that “the course that Japan must adopt is to declare that rice cultivation belongs to Japan’s consecrated ground and it cannot be placed as an object of economic friction” (Lu 599). After the 1993 crop failure, rice farming has been strongly protected by import restriction as well as other domestic policies (Takahashi 680).

Measure(s) taken by Japan to protect its rice culture Rice as a major source of trade disputes between Japan and the US

Except for 1995, Japan’s trade surplus exhibited an increasing trend. During the same period, although the US merchandise and service exports of Japan had some significant increase, the trade deficit with Japan continued to increase. The U.S deficit caused an increase of the accusations against Japan’s trade barriers. The barriers include tariffs, subsidising of its local production of rice, quotas as well as dumping practice.

Although the Japanese protected markets have for a long time been a major problem for the global trade, there have been some developments as far as the rice market is concerned. Originally, one of the most protected Japanese markets, the rice market was among the first to be opened to the rest of the world. However, it continues to present serious problems for the international market managers.

Due to Japan’s large consumption of rice, its rice-based product markets have been of major interest to other rice producing countries including the U.S. For instance, in the 1990s, the average price of foreign rice in Japan was $1.52 lb, which was 1.47 times the price in the U.S (Yim-Yu 47).

Foreign interest in the Japanese rice market has been so strong that some of the major bodies in the U.S seem willing to forego the US government subsidies if the government can somehow open up Japan’s rice market. Some of the bodies include the Rice Growers Association of California, the California Rice Promotion Board as well as the California Rice Industry.

The protection of agricultural products especially rice is not an exclusive phenomenon to Japan. Research has shown that the European Union and U.S have more quantitative restrictions on agricultural imports than Japan.

During the Second World War, Japan imported a significant quantity of rice mainly from China to supplement its domestic supply. After the enactment of the 1942 Staple Food Act, there has been no buying or selling of rice in the private sector. In 1962, Japan announced that it would be fully self-sufficient in rice.

By the end of the 1960s, Japan seemed to have achieved this goal. In the beginning of the following decade i.e. the 1970s, the Japanese government illegalised the private import and export of rice as well as its private distribution. Although the government broadened the Staple Food Control Act in 1988, Japanese consumers believed that the act still limited competition very much besides discouraging cost cutting efforts similar to those implemented in other countries.

Factors that led to the liberalisation of the Japanese Rice Market

In 1994, rice production accounted for over 30% of the nation’s agricultural production. Other than the 1993 historical failure of rice in Japan, other factors brought the Japanese rice market to its climax. Firstly, the Japanese government sought to protect the free trade system under GATT.

GATT regulations made Japan to adopt strict regulatory measures as far as the rice market is concerned. Towards the end of 1993, GATT’s Chief Peter Sutherland took advantage of Japan’s crop failure and urged it to convert quotas and other restrictions entirely into tariffs including Japan’s ban on rice imports (Yim-Yu 50).

In response, the Japanese government denied and stated that the opening of the market was a correction of its protectionist stance. It was rather in the spirit of the cooperation with GATT’s international free trade objective.

The Japanese had a more liberal attitude towards trade. The small farms as well as the soaring price of arable land made it clear that the reforms in the Agricultural system were overdue. The process was also aided by the influence of the politicians. Many of the politicians began to support market liberalisation in order to lure voter support.

Prior to the 1993 crop failure, the Japanese foreign minister and agricultural administration had developed policies (in 1992) in preparation for the liberalisation of the nation’s agricultural sector. In a number of different opinion polls conducted prior to 1993, an increasing number of farmers as well as Japanese consumers had expressed their views in favor for the liberalisation of the rice market. Furthermore, one of the influential public figures, Prime Minister Hosokawa, supported the liberalisation of the rice market.

Under the 1942 Staple Food Control Act, the government was given the mandate to supervise the distribution as well as the sale of rice. Research has shown that during the five decades that followed the adoption of the Act, the central government’s practice of selling rice grew ineffective (Hareau 6). Additionally, the multi-layered state-affiliated distribution system became very costly to the consumers. For instance, the Japanese consumers paid nearly six times the world price for rice.

This resulted in a major black market in rice that accounts for approximately 16% of rice production. Another 33% is attributed to direct selling by farmers to wholesalers in contravention of the government policy. To cope with direct selling as well as the black market, the Japanese government had been relaxing its monopoly control of rice marketing and permitting higher quality branded rice products. This approach is deemed to enhance market liberalisation.

In 1992, there was a growing concern in the Japanese government that a change in U.S Policy would have a direct impact on the Japanese rice market. The concern was fostered by the election of William Clinton as president since he was the former governor of the largest rice-producing state in America-Arkansas.

The U.S focus on Japanese rice market intensified towards the end of 1992 following the resolution of the dispute between the U.S and the European Community over agricultural subsidies. The opening of the Japanese rice market would be interpreted as giving in or rather bowing to the United States’ pressure.

Rice in the 21st century

In the 21st century, rice still remains the most important source of calories for more than 3 billion inhabitants in the world. Research has shown that it supplies 21% of the calories for the world population. In Asia where more than 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed, at least 30% of the daily caloric intake is from rice.

A significant proportion of rice consumers are the 250 million small-scale farmers who grow rice in Asia and consume half of their own production. Planted in 250 million hectares of land every year, rice remains the second most cultivated crop (in area) after wheat but the first in terms of food production.

In Asia, China is the largest rice producer harvesting 190 million metric tons in 2000. It is followed by India, which produced 132 million metric tons, and Indonesia with 52 metric tons during the same year. Unlike in the 18th century, most of the irrigated rice is grown on bounded fields that guarantee the continuing water supply to the rice crop from either rainfall or irrigation during both dry and rainy seasons.

Conclusion Rice is one of the most important cereals not only in the Asian economy but also to the rest of the world. Research has shown that it originated from the Yangtze River in China from where it spread to the rest of the Asian region as well as the world. Trade played a pivotal role in the spread of the cereal throughout Asia.

West Africa is also recognised has the origin of the red rice. In Japan, rice has been an important component of the people’s culture with quality and brand as the most important parameters of the cereal. From 1965 to 1994, Japanese rice consumption averaged approximately 11 billion tons per year. Besides being a source of food, the traditional cultivation of rice has played a pivotal role in the shaping of the landscape.

The maintenance of the paddy fields is a vital contribution to the ecology. In addition, rice is the symbol of not only self but also nation, purity and force of life. Since it is an important part of the Japanese culture, the Japanese government has always sought to protect its rice market. In the 21st century, rice has remained the most consumed agricultural product in the world with China being not only the leading producer of rice but also the country that has the highest consumption of rice per capita.

Works Cited Dey, Mark, et al. Rice Research in Asia: Progress and Priorities. Manila, Philippines: CAB International, 1996. Print.

Estudillo, Quisimbing, et al. “Income Distribution in Rice Growing Villages During the Post-Green Revolution Periods: The Philippine Case.” Agricultural Economics 25.1 (2010): 71-84. Print.

Francks, Penelope, Johanna Hyop Boestel,


The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Columbia River has been providing the surrounding human beings with salmon for a long period. In the beginning, a remarkably healthy relationship between this natural feature, and the people surrounding it was very healthy and productive.

The people used to treat all natural features with respect, as thy also benefited from them. It was the responsibility of everyone to protect rivers and other features. On the other hand, natural features used to provide enough sustainability to humankind.

Everyone would wish this mutual relationship to last forever. Before the arrival of non-Indians, the land and water bodies were rich and very productive.

The people who lived around this basin relied on salmon, as part of their religion and culture. The society had a culture of honoring salmon, as they served them with plenty food, and surplus to trade with in other regions (Roe 117).

The above chart shows the positioning of Columbia River in Washington Oregon, and Idaho (

The culture of the people around the river connected Columbia River both spiritually and physically. This was made possible through salmon providing humankind with the necessary energy to move on with life.

On the other hand, Native Americans made efforts to experience and learn more about the great river. The cultures of these people taught them that salmon as part of smolts they used to go to pacific for some food and a chance to grow (Cox 307).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the changes in temperature and other forces in the pacific, failed to favor the life of salmon, making them go back to their streambeds for reproduction and death. According to the beliefs of the Native Americans, salmon were coming back through spiritual forces, as they were less expected back.

When salmon got back in Columbia River, it turned as a great joy to these people, as they considered this as their harvesting season. They took this issue as a gift, as they were never involved in either planting or growth of salmon. Their work was only harvesting.

The history of the area provides evidence that Coyote used to advise the Indians on how to cook salmon properly. Coyote also shaped the big rocks at the falls, so that people would use them to catch fish.

According to one historian named Richard White the technologies that were initiated by indigenous humans as one of natural technologies of the Columbia (Cox 118). It was the culture of these people for men to work hard in hunting the fish, and women to preserve them.

The major method, which was used to preserve these fishes were by smoking, to make them available during the fluctuations.

This region also provided humans with enough sun energy that would dry those fishes. Most Indians proffered drying their fish with sun energy, unlike the Native Americans who used to smoke.

Nevertheless, the relationship of Columbia River and the people surrounding it started changing slowly. For the last 150 years, several wasteful and disrespectful practices affected the river, and other natural features around the area.

We will write a custom Report on The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These activities marked the onset of conflict among the people who solely depended on these natural resources. The natural resources were destroyed, due to lack of adhering to the treaty that was made in 1855 (Hall 23).

Lack of good human management of the Columbia River and ocean resulted to destruction of the natural resources. The people around the region discovered that things are getting out of their hands, when they realized some species are disappearing.

Several attempts of fighting back for the productivity of Columbia River were made by these people. It was evident that, salmons have been the sole source of sustenance of people within the locality. Some people used salmon when offering religion gifts, as well as played as a great part of their culture.

Geology of Columbia River The formation of Columbia River is estimated to have started approximately between 12 and 17 million years ago. This period is dated back to the Miocene. Approximately between 700000 and 2million years ago, is when the Columbia River started taking its current shape (Roe 98).

Geologists date this period with Pleistocene, when the activities of forming cascades ranges were ongoing. In addition, the formation activities of cascades ranges resulted to the mechanical movement of Columbia rivers delta, towards the north side of its current position.

The above figure shows the Columbia River flood basalts leaving organic rocks exposed (

For a period, the Columbia River slowly eroded the surrounding land. Geologists considered some of those activities as minor, while others were significant to be noted.

For instance, there was a great impact of the river towards the end of the final ice age. During this period, the river flooded, the steeps were destroyed, leading to strong walls that exist today along the river (Cox 312).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The relationship of Columbia River and the humankind surrounding it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Severally, the Columbia River caused strange and strong floods, some going as high as Crown Point. To some extent, the flooding resulted to quick soil erosions to the nearby land, leaving large layers of rocks exposed.

Fresh water The Columbia River is a fresh water system, surrounded with green trees such as big leaf maple and vine maple. The various precipitation within this area results to different types of ecosystems.

The major feature that contributes to increment of fresh water in this river is the availability of temperate rainforest wit average annual rain of 1900mm. Other important natural resources that contribute to the existence of fresh waters are the waterfalls.

The area has more than 90 waterfalls, with some as high as 190m high. Much of the Columbia water flows into Pacific Ocean. It is considered as the most dominant water system in that region. It has been estimated that approximately 15million people rely on the presence of fresh water from this river (Roe 106).

People’s several activities like transportation, fishing and industrial water rely on the Columbia fresh water. Globally, this is the highly utilized river in hydro electrification generation. The hydropower is generated from this river through the establishment of more than 400 dams.

The Columbia ice fields are the relied source of water for Columbia River. Among all economic activities supported by the river fresh water, the most crucial for people surrounding it is fishing.

The above figure shows the flow of Columbia River fresh water flow (

There was a time, when people around the basin decided to look for a permanent solution, to save their natural resource. These people could not let the natural provision of fresh water to be destroyed.

They searched for ways of saving salmon and its entire species, as a way of sustaining themselves and boosting the economy in the area. The plan was meant to be their solution, to safeguard the future of their grandchildren, and many generations to come (Cox 216).

The efforts of humankind to save the productivity of Columbia River received some religion support from “catholic bishops of Columbia river watershed”. The religion forum suggested that the values that these people will express, the objectives that they will raise, and their insights would dictate the direction of solving the issue.

The main theme of restoring and solving the complex issues of Columbia River was that it entailed the spiritual, social, and cultural lives of the people around the basin.

Works Cited Cox, Ross. The columbia River: Adventures during a residence of six years. New York: Biblio Bazaar, 2010.

Hall, Stewart. The columbia River. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 2007.

Roe, JoAnn. The Columbia River: A historical travel guide. Michigan: Fulcrum Pub, 2004.


The Runners World Marketing Strategy Report essay help

The Runners World primary business was to sell shoes and provide advice to people in the booming jogging business as identified in the case study.

The Runners world have shown commitment to marketing concepts evident in the problem recognition process based on the facts that a market can only exist when there are unsatisfied needs, the desire to address the needs, the ability to communicate between involved parties, and that there is something to exchange to satisfy the needs.

In this case, the problem recognition included the need to satisfy people in the jogging exercises.

The marketing concepts was also evident in adding value for the customers because of the quality of the products offered by Runners World, which emphasized on Nike shoes and attempts to establish good customer relationships reflected in the aggressive marketing campaigns and the positive image developed.

The underlying concepts included creating, delivering, and communicating value to the customers.

Runners World ensures customer satisfaction based on the underlying desire to establish and identify their needs by collecting information about customer needs, and then using the gathered information to address the needs.

That is evidently reflected in the search for information such as customer interest in style shoes, and the economic side that influences buyer decision making to purchase the product. In addition to that, Runners World has added differently priced shoes to address the economic demographic needs of the customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Providing specialized shoes for different categories of sports provided additional sources for customer satisfaction. The case study shows evidence of the desire to develop the right combination of product, price, place, and promotion that are key issues in satisfying consumer needs.

The Runner’s World distribution channels include the Nike line and other retail outlets. In summary, Runners World has a store from which to distribute their shoes in the supply chain that starts from the manufacturing to the store supply chain.

In addition to that, the business could employ department stores, use discount stores, and use of regular stores which point to the competition the current business is facing, justifying the conclusion that the Runners World had a similar supply chain.

The primary target for the Runners World were the jogging group that provided a significant rise in the sales and a boom in the business. The secondary market included walking people as evident in the walking shoes that were later addressed as a need in the market.

That was in addition to the secondary market that included the aerobic exercises market, the basketball market, the cross trainers market, and the tennis players.

Additional secondary market included people not involved in serious exercises such as buyers of casual shoes. The market could target both men and women.

The underlying motivation impelled customers to buy the above stated products is based on the right mix that addresses customer needs unique to their income levels and demographically diverse environment.

We will write a custom Report on The Runners World Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The products address customer value, lead to customer satisfaction, and the information provided in marketing of the products.

The business registered a decrease in performance in profits and sales because of a rise in completion from other manufacturers and stores, especially the supply of low priced products that many consumers opted to buy.

That is in addition to changes in the products the Runners World is offering the customers because of the changing trend in consumer behavior.

The overall Runners World marketing strategy is to promote and enhance the marketing position of the current store and product line to address current diverse product needs of the customer to increase sales and generate more profits.

The promotions used include increased choices of products that could address the varied customer needs. The other approach is to retrain the current marketing staff to conduct qualified product marketing to improve on public relations to convince people about the need to buy.

In addition, the use of fashion oriented people could improve the promotional marketing aspect.

The pricing strategy was to provide products priced according to the economic incomes of the target markets.

Products with similar features, but with different price ranges and quality, but same purpose and varied quality are provided to satisfy the customer needs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Runners World Marketing Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The competitors include Wal-Mart, which has introduced products with rock bottom prices with an assortment of lower quality products at lower prices.

In addition, there are other retail chains that include Lady Foot Locker who have targeted specific market segments.

The market position enjoyed by Runners World has significantly dropped compared with other competitors because of declining sales and the fact that the entry of the new players cut a significant share of the market.

In addition to that, the entry of the new players was based on lower prices and lower quality products that could address the lower income market segment while providing the same services and needs to the customers.

There is every possibility that the Runners have to formulate a new marketing strategy to address the rising competition and position the organization strategically to gain a competitive position.

The changes have adversely affected the sales volumes of the Runners World, the products the organization is offering, reduced the profits, and significantly impacted negatively on the market position of the firm.

There will be a need for the Runners to refocus the type of products on offer to address the changes in the needs because of the changing demographics.

The greatest strengths include provision of quality products and the provision of a variety of products.

The greatest weaknesses include highly priced products and poor marketing mix.

Recommendations The Runners World need to refocus on redefining a new marketing strategy and formulate a new marketing mix to address the competitive edge competitors have already driven Runners World to. These include a focus on the marketing strategy embedded in the organization’s vision.

One critical problem with the case is the Runners World never conducted a continuous assessment of their competitors and the changing market environment to gather information to help in continuously formulating a new marketing strategy.

There is need to come up with new strategies to identify the changing market needs, to identify the most appropriate products to address the needs, and analyze the competitors to establish approaches of revising their strategies to position Runners World and attain a better position.

That is because the firm failed in realizing new marketing trends, failed to identify the threats due to new entrants, failed to revise their pricing strategies, and their product promotion approaches.

There is further need to assess the pricing, product, promotion, and place concepts and integrate them into the new strategy suing market intelligence information.


Music Industry: Michael Jackson and 50 Cent Careers Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The career of Michael Jackson

50 Cent and his rise to prominence



Introduction It is often believed that the career of a performer depends only on his/her talent. However, one should not disregard that the outcome greatly depends on the managerial skills of the artist and the promotion of his/her works.

Moreover, one should not disregard the cultural environment in which this person lives. This paper is aimed at discussing the careers of two successful performers, namely Michael Jackson and 50 Cent.

They represent dramatically different styles; in particular, pop-dance and hip-hop, but their careers have some common traits.

Certainly, these artists may differ in term of musical genre, style, and influence on other musicians; yet, by looking at their progress, one can see that the success of a performer can be attributed to talent, hard work, and the knowledge of the music industry.

Moreover, without managerial skills it may be difficult for them to rise to prominence. These are the main issues that one can identify.

The career of Michael Jackson Michael Jackson began his career in the early sixties when he was a member of the Jackson 5. This band was managed by Michael’s father, Joseph who attempted to promote the band.

One should point out that his musical career began at the time of the civil rights movement was very strong in the United States.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, one cannot say that his success can be attributed only to the social changes in the country; however, they removed various barriers that prevented many black artists from reaching the popular concert halls or signing contracts with recording studios.

The influence of social environment cannot be disregarded. Additionally, Michael Jackson grew up at the time when Black Arts Movement was extremely popular, and it was aimed at showing that African-American could invent their distinct culture and art.

In his turn, Michael Jackson strived to create his own original style that did not exist before and this style is one of his major achievements. Thus, social and cultural environment affected this artist.

He achieved recognition in the eighties when he became the symbol of an emerging musical style, called dance-pop. This style has such attributes as constant tempo, emphasis on grooves or beats, and catchy lyrics that is more likely to be remembered by listeners (Warner 2003, p. 15).

In the eighties, the name of Michael Jackson was associated with many successful songs and albums. In particular one can mention his studio album Thriller that still remains the best-selling album in the United States and all over the world (Hombach 2001, p. 97).

This album contains many successful songs; among them one can distinguish Billie Jean; this song was written and composed by Jackson. This song is blend of such styles as rhythm and blues (R


Plato’s dialogue Crito Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu

Is it necessary for people to listen to the opinion of the majority because they live in the society? Is the majority’s vision of the problem always right? Plato’s dialogue Crito is based on the discussion of such issues as justice and injustice with references to the notion of the majority’s opinion.

Crito insists that a person must listen to the opinion of the majority, and Socrates argues that it is impossible to pay attention to the opinions of all the people because it is important to concentrate only on the wise men’s ideas and examine it in relation to his specific situation and his vision of it.

In spite of the fact the opinion of a single person can be discussed as irrelevant in comparison with the opinion of many people, Socrates’ focus on the value of the opinion helps determine the main aspects of the issue and find the most appropriate variants to resolve it.

Socrates’ argument based on the principles of value, expertise, and justice is more convincing than the opinion of Crito which depends on the notion of reputation in its association with cowardice and tangibles.

Discussing the situation of Socrates’ being in prison, Crito provides his vision of the problem’s resolution with references to his values and ideals. Crito claims that it is possible to save Socrates from execution giving some money to the guard.

His decision is based on the idea that it is a kind of injustice to have money and not to use them to save the friend. It is the problem of reputation, and according to Crito’s arguments, it is possible to conclude that reputation is the social notion which depends on the opinion of the majority.

Crito draws Socrates’ attention to the fact that there can be “no worse reputation than to be thought to value money more highly than one’s friends, for the majority will not believe that you yourself were not willing to leave prison while we were eager for you to do so” (Plato 44e).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Crito supports his argument about the necessity to concentrate on the majority’s opinion, emphasizing that “the majority can inflict not the least but pretty well the greatest evils if one is slandered among them” (Plato 44d).

One the one hand, Crito’s arguments can be discussed as relevant if the majority is the group of people who can be discussed as wise.

On the other hand, the majority is the group of different people, and their opinion can be based on the principles of justice as well as injustice. That is why, Socrates disagrees with Crito’s position.

Socrates’ argument sounds more convincing because it is organized consequentially, and the principles on which it is based are correlated with the ideas of virtues. Thus, according to Socrates, the opinion can be discussed as valuable when it is expressed by wise persons who are experts in their spheres.

It is impossible to rely on the opinion of any person because of the lack of knowledge. Moreover, Socrates states that “the most reasonable people, to whom one should pay more attention, will believe that things were done as they were done” (Plato 44e).

From this point, it is also necessary to pay attention to the personal reflection on the problem and on the opinion.

Socrates emphasizes that “we must therefore examine whether we should act in this way or not, as not only now but at all times I am the kind of man who listens only to the argument than on reflection seems best to me” (Plato 46c).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Plato’s dialogue Crito specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Basing on the reasonable opinion of wise persons and connecting its importance with the notion of justice, Socrates concentrates on the fact that unjust actions can lead only to injustice.

However, Crito develops the argument in the discussion with Socrates, stating “I do not think that what you are doing is just, to give up your life when you can save it” (Plato 45d). Nevertheless, if Crito pays attention to the life of a concrete person, Socrates discusses the issue with references to the larger context.

Injustice can lead to injustice and this chain can be endless. It is impossible to resolve the problematic issues with the help of definite unjust actions because of their consequences.

The discussion of Crito and Socrates is based on the opposition of the basic principles which they operate, developing their arguments. Socrates determines the notion of value paying attention to the idea of justice.

Thus, unjust actions which are not based on the reasonable opinions of the experts and which are harmful for the people’s body and soul can corrupt the person. Furthermore, when the person’s soul is corrupted it is worse than the corruption of a body.

From this point, unjust actions based on the wrong values cannot be discussed as the way to justice. Socrates’ argument helps understand that Crito’s ideas depend on the wrong values which are reputation as the reflection of the majority’s opinion and money which can be used for supporting unjust actions.

Socrates’ arguments lead to Crito’s agreeing with the philosopher’s position. Thus, Socrates presents his main argument stating that “we should not then think so much of what the majority will say about us, but what he will say who understands justice and injustice, the one, that is, and the truth itself” (Plato 48a).

It is possible to rely on the opinion of a person who knows the truth about the issue because of taking the expert’s position. Furthermore, relating to the situation of Socrates’ imprisoning, it is necessary to rely on something which is credible according to this definite situation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Plato’s dialogue Crito by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More That is why, Socrates bases his argument on the discussion of the Laws as the main source of the truth for resolving his situation. It is important to analyze the fact of Socrates’ imprisoning from the perspective of justice which comes from the city’s Laws.

Socrates proposes to examine the situation from the point of the Laws, saying “if what we say is true, you are not treating us rightly by planning to do what you are planning. We have given you birth, nurtured you, educated you; we have given you and all other citizens a share of all the good things we could” (Plato 51d).

From this point, a person cannot decide what to do without references to the Laws. In spite of the fact the Laws can be interpreted as unjust in relation to Socrates’ situation, it is his duty to rely on them as the source of the truth.

Having presented the basic ideas which reflect his vision of the problem of justice and injustice, Socrates concentrates on persuading Crito. Socrates uses questions, answering which Crito begins to agree with the philosopher’s position.

The discussion of the idea that it is relevant or not to focus on the opinion of the majority develops with references to such concepts as reputation, expertise, and values.

Thus, according to Socrates different people can have different values, and such values and money and reputation which is based on the other people’s opinion are the values used by not wise men. Moreover, wise men rely on their knowledge of the subject and their values are related to the notion of justice.

In this case, the possibility of Socrates’ escape from prison can be discussed as logical according the majority’s opinion, but it is unjust with references to the ideals of justice based on the Laws. Therefore, according to Socrates, the Laws can speak the truth and support the idea of justice.

Socrates’ point of view and position can be considered as more reasonable because he develops his argument basing on the ideals of justice. Socrates examines the issue from several perspectives and concludes that people should rely on the opinions of the wise people, but not all the persons are wise.

That is why, the majority’ opinion is not always good or reasonable. Thus, Crito’s claim can be discussed as less convincing in comparison with Socrates’ one because those values which are accentuated by Crito cannot be considered as relevant due to their unjust nature.

Furthermore, Socrates emphasizes that the person’s decision should be based on those opinions which are not only reasonable but also reflect the personal understanding of truth.

Work Cited Plato. “Crito”. Classics of Western Philosophy. Ed. Steven M. Cahn. USA: Hackett, 2002. 42-48. Print.


How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? Research Paper college essay help

Depression is one of the most widespread psychological problems adolescents face now. It has been acknowledged that a number of factors contribute to development of adolescent depression.

Notably, peer pressure is one of the most significant factors that cause development of depressive symptoms. At this period of their lives, adolescents need to feel a part of their peer communities, they want to be respected or even admired by their peers.

At the same time, disapproval and rejection on the part of peers lead to development of depression. Therefore, it is possible to note that peer pressure is one of the most significant factors contributing to the development of adolescent depression.

Many researchers agree that depression is a common psychological issue among adolescents. At this stage of human development, individuals are vulnerable to depression. Thus, Klykylo and Kay (2012) provide a detailed analysis of psychological constraints children and adolescents may experience.

The researchers pay special attention to adolescent depression. The researchers claim that peer pressure is one of the major factors contributing to development of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Klykylo and Kay (2012) note that both male and female adolescents develop depression due to peer pressure.

However, the authors also note that different types of peer pressure affect males and females differently. Thus, body image is very important for adolescent females and inability to fit a specific pattern becomes one of the reasons for development of depressive symptoms.

At the same time, toughness and popularity among peers is more important for adolescent males than females. The authors depict a number of strategies that can be used by practitioners to help adolescent patients cope with their problems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As has been mentioned above, adolescent females are especially vulnerable to particular types of peer pressure. Some researchers focus on these specific factors. Thus, Strauman et al. (2011) provide an in-depth analysis of common factors contributing to development of depression in adolescent females.

The researchers depict specific cases that show the correlation between peer pressure and development of depressive symptoms in adolescent females. Notably, self-image and popularity can be regarded as the most influential factors. Adolescent females try to fit a specific pattern that prevails in their peer community.

Popularity among girls is closely connected with appearance. More so, it is possible to note that popularity can be seen as a certain indicators of the right and ‘suitable’ appearance.

The authors also note that many girls find it difficult to fit the accepted image pattern and develop severe depression.

Admittedly, self-image and weight control behaviors are also closely connected with popularity as well as with development of depressive symptoms in girls. Mackey and Greca (2008) implemented a survey that included 263 adolescent females.

The researchers found a strong correlation between peer pressure, self-image, weight control behaviors and development of depressive symptoms in adolescent females. It has been verified that girls tend to strive for peer appreciation and certain kind of fitness to a particular image pattern which is regarded as appropriate in certain groups.

Importantly, media create certain image which is regarded as exemplary, but it is peer pressure that makes adolescent females adhere to the image created. Inability to fit the image makes adolescent females feel frustrated and develop depressive symptoms.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is necessary to add that self-image and popularity are closely connected with peer pressure, which is also one of the most significant factors contributing to adolescent depression development.

Girls who do not fit a specific patter are often victims are neglected which are two common forms of peer pressure.

Interestingly, such factor can also be traced in adolescent males. As has been mentioned above, popularity can be regarded as a factor that influences both male and female adolescents. According to the research implemented by Teunissen et al. (2011), popularity among peers is very important for adolescents of both genders.

Thus, 600 participants were involved in the research that showed a strong correlation between lack of popularity among peers and development of depressive symptoms. The researchers note that girls are more vulnerable as they need peers’ appreciation while adolescent males are more independent, in this respect.

However, popularity among adolescent males differs greatly from female popularity concept. Thus, adolescent males try to gain an image of a tough guy without paying much attention to appearance (though appearance can also be important for adolescent males).

It is also necessary to note that a number of factors are associated with development of depression in adolescent males. Thus, Chhabra and Sodhi (2011) note that socio-economic factors contribute greatly to the development of depressive symptoms in adolescent males.

For instance, economic status of the family often makes adolescent males feel outsiders as peers tend to take into account financial well-being of peers. Again, this has a lot to do with popularity among peers. Being unpopular often leads to victimization.

Peer pressure is manifested in the creation of a specific fitness patterns. Thus, to be a part of a group, one should fit economically. If peers think an individual does not fit, they do not accepts the individual or create a specific atmosphere to make the individual leave.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Does Peer Pressure Contribute to Adolescent Depression? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, adolescent males often develop depressive symptoms as they feel disapproval or neglect of their peers.

Apart from, socio-economic factors bullying can be regarded as one of the factors which contribute to development of depression in adolescent males. Kaltiala-Heino and Fröjd (2011) claim that bullying does not only contribute to development of depressive symptoms in victimized adolescent, but it also affects those who bully others.

Notably, bullying and victimization have often been considered as some of the factors contributing to adolescent depression, but it has hardly been studied from the perspective of bullies. Obviously, bullying has dual effects on adolescents and it can also be the cause as well as an effect of adolescent depression.

Moreover, it has been acknowledged that bullying contributes to development of depressive symptoms. Admittedly, this topic needs more attention and further research as it is unclear what exactly makes adolescent males bully others and how exactly it affects psychological state of bullies.

It is also important to state that though there is quite a lot of information on major factors contributing to development of adolescent depression, further research is necessary.

Thus, it has been acknowledged that peer pressure is one of major factors, but it is still quite unclear why adolescents pay so much attention to their peers’ opinion. It is also important to understand to what extent peer pressure affects adolescents and development of adolescent depression.

This will help develop specific intervention strategies aimed at neutralizing effects of peer pressure. These strategies should help adolescents cope with their psychological problems.

Reference List Chhabra, G.S., Sodhi, M.K. (2011). Factors contributing to psycho-social ill-health in male adolescents. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, 10(3), 1-4.

Kaltiala-Heino, R., Fröjd, S. (2011). Correlation between bullying and clinical depression in adolescent patients. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 2, 37-44. doi:

Klykylo, W.M., Kay, J. (Eds.). (2012). Clinical child psychiatry. New York, NY: John Wiley


Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible Proposal best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of the Study

Significance of the Study

Reference List

Reference List from Main Paper

Introduction Religious positions on social issues encapsulate a wide variety of instances such as gay marriage, stem cell research, the death penalty, divorce and other such issues that have ethical and moral underpinnings.

It is usually the case that religious positions on such issues often result in positive or negative effects depending on the inherent intent of the religious group involved.

In justifying their position on such issues, religious groups utilize the supposed inerrancy and infallibility of the bible, as stated by their respective religious doctrines, in order to show that their position on particular social issues is based off of the word of God (Durland, 2007).

Importance of the Study What you have to understand is that the bible being inerrant does not mean that the interpretations of the bible that manifest itself through religious doctrine are sufficiently inerrant themselves.

On the other hand, the premise of the infallibility of the bible is based on the fact that it was created as a direct action of divine intervention wherein the Holy Spirit inspired the original writers of the text to create the scriptures that we know of in the present.

It must be noted though that various biblical scholars have indicated that the bible was originally meant as a guide for social interaction and not as a means of dictating how people should live. Not only that, it was not meant to encompass issues related to overpopulation, medicine and the spread of AIDS.

As such, this study sheds light on the current problem in utilizing the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility of the bible and will attempt to argue against its continued usage by religious groups who reinterpret the bible and use biblical scripture out of context in order to justify their own agendas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Significance of the Study The significance of this study is related to its use in enlightening individuals that religious positions on social issues based on the inerrant and infallible nature of the bible are inherently fallacious.

It was seen in the work of Grass (2007) that interpretations of the certain text within the bible is selective in that different religious groups had diverging methods of interpreting particular types of scripture (Grass, 2007).

For example, one religious group in particular, the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, actually interprets biblical text in such a way that they indicate that all women should be subservient to men and that only men should have leadership roles both in households and at work.

On the other hand, the religious group “Christians for Biblical Equality” interprets the bible under the context of men and women being equals and possessing the ability to have the same rights and roles.

It is due to these diverging methods of interpretation of biblical scripture that the justification of church groups regarding their position on certain social issues based on the inerrancy of the bible must be called into question.

For something to be considered inerrant it should not have multiple interpretations. It should have a single all encompassing interpretation that is not subject to the whims and agendas of third parties.

If such a text is subject to interpretation, then it cannot be considered completely inerrant and as such should not be utilized as a means of justifying particular social positions based on its supposed inerrancy.

We will write a custom Proposal on Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Durland, Stanley. “The Structure of Biblical Inspiration.” Journal Of Spirituality


Films About Africa and Africans Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

General view of Africa and Africans

Ways in which non-Africans are presented



Introduction Africa is characterized by political instability as experienced in many countries. Political situations have remained unstable in most countries since one-party systems and military regimes replaced the multiparty democracy in those regions.

Since the implementation and acceptance of the borders created by the Europeans in the 1880s, one-party system was seen as a potential solution to conflicts between various ethnic groups.

The films portray African leaders as those primarily focused on their personal gain as well as retention of power which leads to inter-cultural conflicts (BBC, 2008).

A good example of such movies is Hotel Rwanda which is based on a true story concerning the responsibility actions of Paul Rusesabagina, a Hutu working as a manager in Belgium five Star Hotel in Kigali.

Rusesabagina together with his Tutsi wife managed to save over one thousand lives (Adhikari, 2007). The scriptwriter and director of the film Terry George’s aim, as he claimed, was to show people a love story of an individual in the midst of the conflict and make the audience to feel it.

However, a lot can be withdrawn from the contractedness of the film in relation to genocide as true experience. The central theme in this film is the possibility of a change from the traditional social set-up of the black liberation struggles and the current violent struggle for egocentricity.

Hotel Rwanda portrays the good versus the bad guy stereotypes within the African context. The movie features how some Hutu extremist exterminated Tutsi, and at the same time, powerful Hutu provided assistance to their fellow powerful Tutsi friends (George, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the same context, some Tutsi killed Hutu in the process of defending themselves and their families (George, 2004). The black screen violence could be traced back to what is referred to as Hollywood’s Blaxploitation period.

Despite African blacks presented as heroic icons within these films, their political significance is referred to as “popcorn” violence leading to destruction of peaceful democracy (Melvern, 2005).

Hotel Rwanda clearly shows the aspect of racism arising based on biological traits. The film shows the extent to which such traits are treated in African countries, particularly to a point where identities are demonized leading to the ugly reality of neighbors turning against each other (Lu, 2004).

The African continent is also characterized by military conflicts amongst the ethnic divides within same countries. The films portray Africa as one of the most affected continent by wars as compared to other regions of the world (Global Security, 2007).

The frequent conflicts show African leaders within the continent as those unable to implement efficient methods capable of bringing solutions. The arising conflicts are at times based on economic reasons as revealed by growth and structure of income within most countries populations.

Such situations have led to the destruction of infrastructure and educational facilities as well as killing good percentage of working population. This makes successful economic performance impossible since economic goals are rarely achieved.

Taking into account the movies about Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya, the violence and its consequences are clearly presented to the audience there (Anderson, 2003). Such films include Simba, Safari and Something of Value (Anderson, 2003).

We will write a custom Essay on Films About Africa and Africans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The horror of slavery amongst the Africans is revealed through frequent hangings and bizarre mutilations of human rights by their white counterparts. The confrontations that took place as well as the random conflicts made it possible to recognize the individuals who were at the frontlines.

At the same time, those films feature material relations that surrounded human day to day livelihoods during such times. The Africans are shown as people who are deprived of common good.

Hence, they always seem to feel uneasy and troubled as compared to their white counterparts who in contrary are depicted as peaceable and enjoying their lives. This leads to stereotyping which gives some ground of legitimacy to racial ideologies.

The Mau Mau films show how the stereotyping led to complications in the lives of African perpetrators as well as the victims of regime.

This reveals the level of widespread of color-blindness within the African society, based on the confusion about the true political views and significance of race (Anderson, 2003).

General view of Africa and Africans From the perspective of the films, Africa is portrayed as a continent under siege. Africans are presented as a race which is described through the use of many daunting ironies based on unsettled paradigm shifts.

More than forty years have passed after majority of the countries gained independence from the Whites. However, Africans are portrayed as ill-educated people belonging to prisons since, according to some stereotypes, struggle surpasses public education to them.

They are viewed as those who have little influence on conditions that are structurally determined; hence Africans appear at the bottom of economic and social gap. Those people are associated with ghetto streets where they are supposed to live.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Films About Africa and Africans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Africans are marred with fear of each other, their ethnic background, thus the region seems to have a different enemy to fight. The feeling of unity amongst individuals and countries does not exist making it impossible to work on defined common principles together.

The ever increasing differences cannot allow for the formation of some kind of African Union. This is further complicated by the existence of 2000 different languages increasing the possibility of conflicts of interests (BBC, 2008).

Ways in which non-Africans are presented The history of ethnicity as portrayed in Hollywood films is a clear reflection of ethnic inequalities within the African society. The non-Africans have been presented in these films as superior race.

Whites, in contrast, turn out to lead a lifestyle worth following and have a superior status, which is as well worthy to be achieved. They are shown to belong to the race united by achieving its main objectives.

The films have a lot of racism aspects, such as African men are linked to persistent violence and women are seen to have sexual promiscuity as the main characteristics of their identity.

Based on the colonial era, the foundation of USA was depicted as that which called for a war against the British forces for liberation purposes.

Despite the US case viewed as similar to Africa during the similar period, the thirteen states within America were portrayed as having fought cooperatively not divisively as it happened in Africa.

Hence according to the film makers, the whites understood the aspect of shared identity amongst people from different states with different backgrounds (Denzin, 2002).

Conclusion Such films on Africa and Africans complicate the issues on societal relations within African countries. Revelation on identities through films portrays the racial and ethnic wars as well as murderers and their victim, hence fueling political discriminations.

The gender sensitivity portrayed in the film also promotes discrimination in the role of an African woman in the society.

References Adhikari, M. (2007). “Hotel Rwanda: Too Much Heroism, Too Little History — or Horror?”. In V. Bickford-Smith and R. Mendelsohn (Eds.) Black and White in Colour: African History on Screen. (pp. 279-99). Athens: Ohio UP.

Anderson, D. M. (2003). “Mau Mau at the Movies: Contemporary Representations of an Anti-Colonial War.” South African Historical Journal, 48 (1), 71-89

BBC. (2008). The Story of Africa. Retrieved from

Denzin, N. K. (2002). Reading race: Hollywood and the cinema of racial violence. California, CA: Thousand Oaks.

George, T. (Executive Producer). (2004). Hotel Rwanda. [DVD]. United States: MGM Home Entertainment.

Global Security. (2007). The World at War. Retrieved from

Lu, M. (2004).Movie reviews: Hotel Rwanda. Web.

Melvern, L.(2005). A People Betrayed. The role of the west in Rwanda genocide. New York, NY: Zed publishers.


The China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) Report essay help free: essay help free

One of the greatest events which had a notable effect on shaping of Chinese history was the China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) also known as the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”.

It may be regarded as the political event of the century, taking into account the far reaching effect it had on the China’s politics, economy and culture. The architect and creator of it all was the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Mao Zedong.

According to Joseph, “The Cultural Revolution can be traced to the mid–1950s when Mao first became seriously concerned about the path that China’s socialist transition had taken in the years since the CCP had come to power in 1949” (par. 2).

Mao believed that a privileged class of professionals, who had emerged since 1949, following China’s progress, was acquiring too much power at his expense. Mao understood the fact that new elite was unaware of the common and widely-accepted lifestyle of an ordinary citizen in China.

The revolution seemed to be aimed at purging the CCP of anyone, who did not fully support Mao. Mao Zedong’s desire was to create a country with a classless society where all the peasants, workers and educated people would be working together for the common good of China (Trueman par. 4).

This decade-long event can be divided into three main phases. The mass phase (1966–1969) was described by the activities of a vicious ‘army’ of school and college students, also known as ‘The Red Guards’, who responded to Mao’s call to “raise a revolution”. This phase saw most of Mao’s rivals in the top leadership deposed, including the China’s president, Liu Shaoki (Joseph par. 4).

The military phase (1969-1971) was mainly dominated by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) who Mao had called upon to suppress the anarchy of the ‘Red Guards’ (Joseph par. 7). Mao saw the need to suppress the ‘Red Guards’ after the activities of the ‘Red Guards’ had gone out of hand.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In some areas, they fought against themselves and even turned their aggression against the foreigners. The British Embassy was completely burnt down as a result. (Trueman par. 6)

The military phase ended in September 1971 with an attempted coup by the defense minister Lin Biao. Biao was one of Mao’s main allies in launching the China’s Cultural Revolution. His attempt, however, had failed, and he later died in a plane crash while on his way to the Soviet Union.

The succession phase (1972-1976) mainly concerned who would succeed Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou Enlai, both of whom were in deteriorating health.

After the death of Mao Zedong in September 1976, his key allies, also known as ‘The Gang of Four’ which also included his widow, Jiang Qing, were arrested. This marked the end of the Cultural Revolution.

The China’s Cultural Revolution is generally regarded as the most depressing moment in the country’s recent history. As Joseph puts it,

The movement’s ideals were betrayed at every turn by its destructive impulses. Hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of officials and intellectuals were physically and mentally persecuted.

The much–vaunted initiatives that were to transform the nation often had disastrous consequences for China’s education and cultural life (par. 8)

We will write a custom Report on The China’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The decade-long event remains a landmark in the Chinese history making which will be remembered as the one which had a great effect on shaping of China.

Works Cited Joseph, William. China’s Cultural Revolution: A Brief Overview, 4 Aug 2003. Web.

Trueman, Chris. The Cultural Revolution. 2000. Web.


Japanese Immigrants to the US Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Process of Entering the US

Americans Attitude to Japanese

Japanese’s Values and Beliefs

Current Conditions in Japan

Opinion on Their Journey

Reference List

Japanese are among the different ethnic groups that immigrated to the United States between 1870s and 1880s. At that time, the Japanese economy was in the transition stage slowly transforming into the economy that it has today, and this led to numerous economic hardships, like unemployment and crime.

Bankruptcies were wide spread in the economy and civil disorders were common. Such economic hardships forced most Japanese people to immigrate to the US and particularly to Hawaii (Schaefer, 2011).

During the time, the sugar industry in Hawaii was booming, which attracted the Japanese, who were mostly laborers. A decade from 1885, almost 30,000 Japanese have moved to Hawaii seeking jobs and hoping to return home.

When America took over the Island of Hawaii in 1900, the sugar plantation owners anticipated the legislation of American laws against the contract labors (Johnson, 2010).

To beat the ban, they imported about 26,000 laborers from Japan in 1899; this was the single largest group of Japanese to leave for America in one year. Finally, the law annulled the contract labor permitting all the Japanese to migrate freely to the mainland USA.

Process of Entering the US For many years, Hawaii was densely populated by the Japanese people, as opposed to other regions in the USA, and it was due to racial discrimination in the country.

Racial discrimination was not significant in Hawaii as it was in the mainland US this had become known to the Japanese government, and it stopped issuing passports to citizens wishing to travel to the mainland US.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, many of those who received permission to travel to Hawaii found their way to mainland US (Johnson, 2010).

Americans Attitude to Japanese The initial relationship between the Japanese and the American people were similar to those of Chinese and American relationships, as Chinese had also immigrated as laborers to Hawaii.

The Chinese in Hawaii and mainland had ventured into small business and were successful, and this led to resentment and rejection from the Americans because of their hard work.

The Japanese had followed the same pattern, initially like a substitute to Chinese labor, but soon there was a growing dislike for Japanese.

These attitudes were more severe in the mainland as opposed to Hawaii and regulations were put in place that limited their progress and activities. In Hawaii, the laws limited the movement of the Japanese to more skilled jobs, and in the mainland they were not allowed to own land.

The theory of racial profiling can be used to describe the experiences of the Japanese Americans, and it became even worse during the Second World War (Schaefer, 2011).

Japanese’s Values and Beliefs Japanese society does not believe in one God like most Americans who believe in God who controls everything and determines the fate of people. The Japanese believe in a number of virtues that affect the character and the destiny of the individuals.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Japanese Immigrants to the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Japanese have all along been a collective society as compared to the American way of life where emphasis is made more on group values rather than on individual ones. These social groups play a significant role in helping other members in the community; this could explain their relative success of the Japanese.

The Americans are individualistic society, where individuals look on to themselves and the members of the immediate family (Onozawa, 2003).

The Japanese have an exceptionally strong filial piety, where all members of the society respect the elderly and take care of them. They value them as an excellent source of oral traditions that are passed to future generation.

Current Conditions in Japan Since the first immigrants moved to the US, the economic conditions in Japan have changed drastically (Schaefer, 2011). Since 1950, Japan has been among the strongest and the fastest growing economies in the world and by 1995 it had caught up with the American economy.

It is now one of the most highly industrialized and developed nations in the world and occupies the third position after the United States and China (Onozawa, 2003).

When the first immigrants were heading to the US, the country was primarily agricultural, but now it has turned into an industrialized nation with sectors such as manufacturing, service and trade, playing a vital role in the economy (Onozawa, 2003).

According to IMF, Japan has one of the highest per capita incomes, and the unemployment level is extremely low. The country is a member of G8, meaning that it has a powerful influence on the world’s politics and economics.

Japan currently ranks as the top most innovative country in the world, as seen in the number of patents registered. From 1968, Japan was the second largest economy until 2010 when China dislodged it to third position.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Japanese Immigrants to the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Almost 70 out of the 500 fortune companies are Japanese, and despite the effects of the Second World War, they emerged with resilience, and its economic growth is almost unbelievable (Schaefer, 2011).

Opinion on Their Journey Given the experiences of the Japanese immigrants in the USA, especially during and after the Second World War, the journey did not benefit them; instead they lost all they acquired (Johnson, 2010).

When the Pearl Harbor was attacked, it marked a turning point and ushered in the most traumatic experiences of the Japanese immigrants. As a result, many Japanese were murdered and even more were taken to custody and they lost all their investments and jobs.

Their assets were liquidated by the state, and after the war Japanese were mostly laborers, while those in professional jobs dropped significantly (Johnson, 2010). I would not have made the same decision of moving to the US, in my opinion I would have remained in Japan.

Reference List Johnson, R. (2010). Be Good Americans: The Message of the Japanese-American Courier. The Great Depression in Washington State. Web.

Onozawa, N. (2003). Immigration from Japan to the U.S.A., Historical Trends and Background. Web.

Schaefer, R. (2011). Racial and Ethnic Groups. (13th ed.). Washington, DC: Pearson.


The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment Essay scholarship essay help

The Potential Role of Vitamin D for Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis and Infectious Diseases This study investigates the use of vitamin D for the deterrence and cure of tuberculosis and other contagious infections. Deficiency of vitamin D is a global problem which results in higher occurrences of the immune system ailments.

Its deficiency also augments the proliferation of communicable diseases. Vitamin D is a vital micronutrient for healthy bones and prevention (or treatment) of many chronic ailments because of its intricate activity on the immune system.

Dini and Bianchi (2012) cite that deficiency of vitamin D leads to an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). This study explains the use of vitamin D as a drug before the invention of antibiotics.

The unearthing of vitamin D as a therapeutic agent begins with the detection of rickets as a childhood malady and the subsequent association of rickets to lack of exposure to sunshine.

Cod liver oil, which contains vitamin D, is then used as a cure for rickets and tuberculosis.

Studies show that vitamin D production increases in the body when special receptors (Toll-like receptors or TLR) sense the presence of the tuberculosis bacteria. This vitamin is in the form of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Its synthesis encourages “VDR-mediated transactivation of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis” (Dini and Bianchi, 2012, p. 319).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cathelicidin has antiviral and antibacterial results. TLR instigation also yields defensin-2, another peptide with antibiotic properties.

This study hopes to find out how cathelicidins control immune reactions. This knowledge aids the creation of complexes containing the normal chemotherapy, antimicrobial proteins, and dietary shortage rectification components. Such complexes symbolize a significant advancement in TB therapies.

Pharmaceutical Aerosols for the Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis This study investigates the ability to offer TB treatment in a unique form by deviating from the traditional tablets and injections. It aims to improve the competence of TB treatment in terms of cost-effectiveness and efficiency.

Hanif and Garcia-Contreras propose the use of powdered aerosols to mitigate the hindrances posed by liquid drug formulations (2012). Pharmaceutical aerosols provide the advantage of effective drug distribution and cost effectiveness.

Tuberculosis remains a key community health hazard worldwide although it can be treated and precluded. Hanif and Garcia-Contreras cite that a significant number of people who contract the TB bacteria develop the disease and die.

Treatment of obtrusive airway ailments always involves aerosols. However, the recent inventions see this treatment extend to cure lung diseases related to cystic fibrosis. An individual acquires tuberculosis by breathing in aerosol drops containing the infectious bacteria from the infected person.

The basis of this research is that since tuberculosis mainly upsets lungs, then the lungs are a substitute means of administering TB drugs.

We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, this method requires precise drug formulations and administrative procedures for effectiveness. Pharmaceutical companies can utilize numerous techniques to produce the fine particles suitable for inhalation.

An earlier therapy approach, the Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS), requires direct monitoring of TB patients as they take their medicine.

This is extremely involving as Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli (MTB) are among the most stubborn human pathogens due to their ability to multiply remarkably fast intracellularly and outside the living cells (2012).

This study uses small animal models to test the efficacy of the powdered aerosols and hopes to extend the same tests to bigger models. It also hopes to improve the available inhalers for the administration of large dosages essential in TB treatment.

The Value of Systematic Physical Training in the Prevention and Cure of Pulmonary Tuberculosis This study examines the benefits of physical exercise in the mitigation and cure of tuberculosis and other chest infections. Doctors notice “long, narrow, flat-chested” people have a high risk of contracting tuberculosis and low chances of healing (Ingals, 1898, p.40).

Physical exercises improve the wellbeing of the respiratory system. According to Ingals, pathological studies show shrunken air-cells provide the most suitable environment for multiplication of the tuberculosis bacteria (1898).

He attributes this to anemia which reduces the ability of the air-cells to fight infections. Prevalence reports estimate 80% of the human populace has the Koch’s bacillus (1898).

Ingals explains that the Koch’s bacillus is not detrimental, and ample body resistance is sufficient to avoid the real illness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Vitamin D for Tuberculosis Treatment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This study aims at educating the public “to strengthen the resisting power of all the body tissues, but more especially those of the lungs, because they afford the most favorable conditions for the spread of the disease” (Ingals, 1898, p.41).

It suggests that large heights above the sea level offer the most excellent circumstances for preclusion of pulmonary tuberculosis. The high attitudes also aid in healing the disease in its initial phases. A patient’s attempt to take in more air expands the air cells thereby strengthening the lungs.

The study suggests that patients ought to learn how to inhale deeply and methodically inflate the lungs several times daily. Ingals further demonstrates the actual steps to follow when breathing to meet the desired effects. He asserts that continuous physical exercise may improve a narrow-chested individual’s ability to fight tuberculosis.

References Dini, C.


The Epic of Gilgamesh Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


The theme of Love

The theme of Power

Love in the Mesopotamian society

Power in the Mesopotamian society

Love and power in present day society



Abstract Gilgamesh, the King of Uruk, was a tyrant and a leader who greatly oppressed his charges. He considered himself to be God which led to the fact that he perceived himself much superior to others.

Enkidu, another man who is also depicted in the Epic of Gilgamesh as having a power in terms of how he treated his companions, meets King Gilgamesh in some of the scenes in the epic ensuing their unrivalled friendship later. The theme of love can be traced in the behavior of these two friends as well.

As a sign of platonic love for his new-found friend, Gilgamesh offers Enkidu a portion of his treasures and shares his power with him. These two themes become very evident and obvious when Enkidu dies.

On realizing that he can never have again his great friend by his side, the king cries in grief and embarks on a journey to achieve his immortality.

The ancient Mesopotamian societies depicted love and power in many areas. Most recorded stories have shown that people in power proclaimed themselves as deities in an attempt to show superiority to others. Another notable attribute of the male rulers is their oppression of women.

Women were usually given the role of doing house chores and making sure that their husbands are attended to. This form of male chauvinism shows similar traits among the rulers of the present day society and those in the Mesopotamian society.

Introduction The Epic of Gilgamesh is perhaps one of the oldest epic poems that were ever recorded. It tells the story of Gilgamesh, the King of Uruk, who ruled the empire between 2750 and 2500 BCE.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The epic portrays how Gilgamesh, an arrogant and oppressive leader, met and made friends with a savage called Enkidu who had in turn a tremendous impact on his life.

This paper seeks to discuss how the themes of love and power permeate the poem. It also makes parallels between the Mesopotamian society and the modern one in terms of both themes under discussion.

The theme of Love Love is seen as a major theme in the Epic of Gilgamesh. This theme motivates changes within the characters. An example of such a change is evident in Enkidu who was believed to be an introvert formed from clay and siliva by Aruru.

At first, Enkidu is portrayed as a very wild man who was brought up by animals. He knows very little about other human beings and their way of life. Later on in the poem, he interacts with human beings and starts to get used to the new environment.

There occurs a turning point in Enkudu’s life. He drew closer to civilization by interacting with human beings and this climaxed in wrestling match with Gilgamesh.

This friendship with Gilgamesh makes Enkidu shun his wild character and embrace a nobler demeanor (Damrosch


Foreigners and Foreign Ideas Research Paper essay help online

Introduction In the early centuries, China was ruled by dynasties. The last dynasty that ruled China was the Qing Dynasty between 1644 to 1912. In the 19th century, the dynasty underwent reforms and modernisation as Chinese leaders embraced foreign ideas and foreigners.

There was the need to interact and learn new ways of life because of the ever-changing world. The paper delineates on the significance of foreigner and foreign ideas, their views, and the role of the views during the reformation period and modernisation of China between 1860s and 1890s.

Significance of foreigners and foreign ideas during the Qing Dynasty Reforms and Modernisation Reforms and modernisation caused a paradigm shift in the away Chinese people viewed and perceived the ideas of foreigner. One of the personalities that were credited for these changes in perception was Feng.

Feng was an intellectual that recognised that the world was changing and that the Chinese nation was required to open up and appreciate other worldviews. This could enable the Chinese to be part of the wider world (Feng 1964, p. 51).

Foreigners and foreign ideas had great significance in China especially during the Qing Dynasty reformation and modernisation between 1860-1890s. These ideas led to the appreciation of western sciences in China as central or necessary sources of knowledge.

Most of the western education areas such as mathematics, science and geography became pertinent in China. The subjects were incorporated in some of the academies, and were taught in China.

For instance, the introduction of western subjects led to the established of Kuang fang- yen kuan academy at Shanghai that taught western sciences and languages (Feng 1964, p. 51). Foreigners in China were perceived negatively. Most Chinese believed that all foreigners were bad people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, they could not be trusted or believed in whatever way. Chinese people were suspicious and jealous about all kinds of barbarians and that they had a negative attitude towards them. However, this reformation and modernisation brought a turning point in their perceptions.

The view of the Chinese was changed. They realised that foreigners required good treatment and respect. This contributed to the adoption of different cultures and worldviews that helped to establish positive relationships between the Chinese and foreigners (Rozman 2002, p. 217).

Foreign ideas were also of importance during this period of reformation because they helped the Chinese people to acquire relevant skills in various industries that later empowered china as a nation.

China’s relationship with foreigners helped it to acquire various skills in manufacturing of machines and weapons besides helping to acquire military skills and training (Feng 1964, p. 53).

Even though this was done in disguise, China aimed at getting skills and knowledge that could empower and strengthen it to be self-reliant in various areas. Furthermore, foreigners and foreign ideas acted as a waking up call for the people of China during the Qing Dynasty reforms and modernisation.

They made the Chinese people think on the ways that they could liberate themselves to depend on their own.

The ideas they received from the western countries and other developed countries made China change its mindset to prepare itself sufficiently in terms of military, weapons, ships, and other areas that made it strong to compete with the rest of the countries such as western and countries such as France and England.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Foreigners and Foreign Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Foreigners or foreign ideas also influenced the administration and governance issues of China. The Chinese people appreciated the way western nations governed themselves. Therefore, China entrenched some of its values in its system of governance.

For instance, it became opened minded and sought to have a government that respected the rule of law through the establishment of efficient legal systems. It believed that a visionary government was important in ensuring the success of the countries in different areas.

Another importance of the foreigners and their ideas is that they made the Chinese to set up schools to train its people on various issues of diplomatic (Rivlin 2009, p. 45).

This was intended to stir innovation to greater heights to enable the people of China widen their scope of knowledge to ensure that they benefited from the ways other countries lived and prospered.

Chinese views on foreigners and/or foreign ideas Chinese people viewed foreigners as uncouth. This therefore made many of the Chinese people have a negative perception about the foreigners. However, in the reformation and modernisation era, this mindset changed as they began to appreciate the ideas of foreigners.

They even adopted such ideas in their own culture to aid in achieving their goals and objectives. They viewed foreigners in good faith, appreciated them, and even gave them their due respect.

Chinese people had a feeling that the ideas of foreigners surpassed theirs. The foreigners had high skills in sciences and general knowledge that surpassed theirs. For instance, they believed that they could supplement their skills and knowledge with those of other countries to ensure prosperity of strength.

Their Confucian teachings and ethics could serve as a foundation to attaining the level of prosperity they required to attain (Reed 2007, p. 291). They also viewed themselves as inferior compared to the Americans, Russian, French, and the English people, yet they had the largest territory.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreigners and Foreign Ideas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, they were inferior in terms of using their soils correctly, maintaining a close relationship between the leaders/rulers and the common people, and their deeds to the foreigners. This inferiority was believed to be innate. It was their own mandate to control or ensure that they worked hard to end this inferiority to become equals.

They also felt that they were not sufficiently armed and that they needed assistance from the westerns in areas of military and arms. They also viewed foreigners especially from west as being intelligent when it came to making weapons.

They used mathematical concepts in their references and always modified or altered their army often according to various circumstances. They believed that they were at par when it came to military and civil systems but not in firearms.

On the revision of treaty, the Chinese view was to promote positive relations with foreign countries especially in their dealings. They endeavoured to show determination in all their undertakings. For instance, they resolved that they could not be forced to do things that they could not manage.

Therefore, they opposed such instances. On the other hand, they showed generosity and broad mindedness in order to achieve their objectives. Therefore, their view to the foreigners and foreign ideas was that they needed to be generous and supportive to their initiatives towards the end.

They were not to be swayed or involved in cunning arguments with the foreigners (Hung 1964, p. 58). Furthermore, they viewed foreigners as friends and people that required to be given respect all the time to ensure that peace was maintained and good relationships established.

For instance, they believed in Confucius, which claimed that, if people were able to rule their own country, no one would dare insult them (p. 64). Therefore, they believed that, in their unity, strictness, soberness, they could not be offended by or insulted by any foreigners.

They would have to live in harmony to avoid any anxiety in life (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64). They also believed that the foreigners/ barbarians were very difficult to manage because of their nature (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64). Therefore, to cope with the situation, they abided by the four principles, which were part of the Confucius’ teachings.

These included hsin, tu, Chung, and ching (Li 2010, p. 336). The Chinese words meant sincerity, earnestness, faithfulness, and respectfulness. They believed that, if they abided by these values, they would coexist well with the foreigners (Hung-Chang 1964, p. 64).

Roles of the views in shaping China during and after this period Chinese people had different views about the foreigners and foreign ideas. These views helped China during the transformation and modernisation period and even in the later development of China. During the period, they helped China to accept and change their perceptions about the foreigners.

They helped China to open its doors to foreigners to have a worldwide view about life. China had constricted and secluded itself from the western and other countries.

This made it have limitation in its scope of thinking and knowledge because it lacked the wide spectrum of life that was going outside the country (Xuezhao 2010, p. 56). One of the changes that this worldview changed is it made China to begin appreciating other countries.

For instance, China began reading books from their cultures, which helped it broaden its scope of knowledge. Furthermore, it helped to transform the Chinese’ linguistic acquisition.

Many Chinese enrolled in schools and studied foreign languages such as English that helped them participate in issues that were beyond their borders (Chan


Aristotle’s Definition of Virtue Essay writing essay help

In the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle provides a definition of virtue which has been discussed and disputed by many thinkers.

In particular, he writes that virtue is “a state that decides, consisting in a mean, relative to us, which is defined by reference to a reason, that is to say, to the reason by reference to which the prudent person would define it” (Aristotle as cited in Cahn 273).

This paper is aimed at discussing this interpretation in more detail because Aristotle highlights very important aspects of ethics.

First of all, Aristotle emphasizes the point that virtue is a temporary state of mind, and it is not an inherent quality of an individual. This definition may imply that vice and virtue may be characteristics of every human being.

Secondly, the philosopher sets stress on the idea of the mean or balance. This is probably the most crucial part of his argument because Aristotle extremism is not appropriate for ethical judgment.

Provided that this section had been absent, this definition might have led to the belief that there is a sharp distinction between ethical and unethical judgments or decisions. This section highlights the necessity of moderation and ability to avoid intolerance.

Furthermore, in the Nichomachean Ethics Aristotle adds the phrase “relative to us” (Aristotle as cited in Cahn 273).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This part of the definition should not be disregarded, because it implies that there is not universal standard of virtue since ethical norms are set by different individuals and communities and they may not be the same.

This is one of the key issues that should be taken into consideration by people who speak about ethics.

Apart from that, Aristotle adds two important components to his definition of virtue. In particular he mentions that virtue always refers to reason. Although this argument seems self-evident, for many people ethics is based on emotions, rather than rationality.

This is why the philosopher chose to include this point in the definition. Finally, it is important to mention that Aristotle refers to such a concept as prudence.

In this case, the word prudence means the ability to understand ones interests and goals. Again in this way, Aristotle shows the strong connection between the rationality of a human being and virtue.

Overall, by defining virtue in this way, Aristotle strived to explain how people should think about ethics, moral norms. He emphasizes such aspects as rationality, prudence, and absence of universal standards. These are the main points to which the philosopher attracts the readers’ attention in his works.

Works Cited Cahn, Steven. Classics of Western Philosophy, New York: Hackett, 2002. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Aristotle’s Definition of Virtue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Integrated Marketing Communication Plan (Billabong Company) Report essay help online: essay help online

Executive Summary This Plan details the promotion and marketing strategies to be used by Billabong Company which is a market leader in the sale of garments to surfers. Despite its immense success, the company sales have been declining due to increased competition and the perception that the company’s products are old and un-fashionable.

In light of these predicaments, the company intends to launch a new campaign that will increase sales and change the consumer’s perceptions. The main target market includes surfers and the beachgoers. The target market age group ranges from sixteen to mid twenties.

This campaign intends to increase the company sales, change the consumer perceptions about their products, expand the target market to include beachgoers, increase the market share by 30%, enable the company become the leading brand among surfers and to increase traffic in the company’s website.

The promotion and advertising tactics include SLSA Design Competition, runway show, re-launch of the company’s website and 12 months summer competition. The campaign events will be advertised through posters, online advertising, sending direct mail to participants, public relations activities and through radio advertising.

A three stage process will be used to evaluate the performance of the campaign, these include, the pre-test evaluation, post-test evaluation and measuring the effectiveness of the campaign. The bottom up method will be used to determine the campaign budget.

Campaign Evaluation Billabong advertising and promotion strategies will be evaluated through the following methods.

Pre-Test Evaluations

Screening of advertising and promotional messages

All advertising and promotions messages will be checked and re-read several times by the whole group. Errors and ambiguity will be corrected. The language used will also be evaluated to determine its complexity, meanings and impact (Waller 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Interview with target audience

Interviews with the target audience will be carried out. During these interviews, the audience will be asked to interpret what different images and messages portray to them. Based on their response, corrections to advertisements and promotional pictures will be done.

Focus group

A focus group comprising of the target audience, billabong management team and the marketing team will be formed. The members will be asked questions regarding their perceptions, attitudes and opinions towards the different campaign images, posters and messages. Based on their response, the messages will be corrected and rephrased.

Post-Test Campaigns

After conducting the campaign, a number of evaluations will be carried to ascertain the customers change in perceptions. The principle aim will be to determine the perception shift so that the company is viewed as setting new fashion trends in the industry. The following strategies will be used.

Checking the customer feedback

The feedback and discussions on the company’s website and the social media will be used to determine the perception that customers have after promotions and campaigns.

Focus groups

Focus groups comprising of a group of 30 people drawn from target market will be interviewed. Pertinent questions to test customer’s perceptions and attitudes will be asked and their responses will determine the successfulness of their campaigns (Belch


Developing HRMS by Raymond Wesley Report essay help online free

Introduction Human resource management system (HRMS) involves the process that merges and intersects the functions of HR with information technology (IT).This implies that HRMS takes the place of manual personnel HR systems so that paperwork is maintained at minimal levels.

Their central concern is to ensure that processing of HR-related data is both automated coupled with providing avenues for enhancing integrity of such data. Consequently, “HRMS allows an agency immediate access to employees’ records and enhanced reporting functionality thus providing managers with timely information to make essential human resource decisions” (Agarwala 2003, p.178: Laursen


Ocean Fisheries Sustainability Expository Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Fishing activities around the world have a big impact on sustainable growth and reproduction of species which live in the ocean. Large scale fishing activities that use advanced processes endanger the wellbeing of fish and other species which live in the ocean.

It is necessary for fishing industries to use better fishing methods in the ocean to ensure that their activities do not endanger the ecological balance. This paper will discuss ways ocean fishing can be made more sustainable.

Ocean fishing has increased at a very fast rate. The international waters are governed by international treaties whose enforcement is weak. Large scale industrial fishing is mainly responsible for the dwindling numbers of fish in the ocean. Trawlers that use large nets with small holes scoop big quantities of fish.

These nets trap fish species that are still breeding which stifles their growth. Fish species do not get the chance to replenish and this severely limits the quantities of fish in the ocean.

Large seine trawlers are responsible for this destructive practice which threatens to make some species to become extinct (National Research Council 116). To reverse this trend, there is a need to use pole and line fishing methods instead of purse seining which destroys marine ecology.

Marine life is vital for ecological balance on planet earth. The total quantity of fish caught from the world’s oceans has increased which has led to over-exploitation. It is estimated that on average, 100 million metric tons of fish are caught annually in the world’s oceans since 2000. Marine resources are getting exploited and there is a growing danger of some marine fish and species becoming extinct.

The fishing procedures have become more advanced yet fish supplies in major oceans have continued to dwindle. Fish industries need to share information with their governments to understand the average sustainable fish yields to be caught from oceans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Danson and D’Orso argue that breeding grounds such as continental shelves and coastal fringes need to be protected (67). Ocean zones that are close to the shoreline are most vulnerable to over fishing yet they are the most suitable for plankton growth; the main food for many fish species.

The use of the logistic growth curve has failed to conserve fisheries. The logistic curve approach does not take into account the age, the quantity and the reproductive capacity of the fish being caught. The approach does not propose means through which people involved in the fishing industry can be managed.

Ocean ecosystems are interconnected and complex and as such, the logistic growth curve is not a suitable tool for managing ocean fisheries (Helfman 290). The ecological environment in which fish breed and survive has become unpredictable because of the rapid increase in fishing activities. Countries have not agreed on a common way through which restrictions that are imposed on large scale fishing activities are to be observed.

The fourth option of assigning each fisherman a quota is more sustainable. It is necessary to control the manner in which the quotas are transferred. The allocation of quotas should only be done after the equipment to be used for catching fish is assessed and certified to be appropriate (Morissey and Sumich156).

Fishing zones need to be divided to ensure that fishing in vulnerable breeding areas is prohibited. Marine sanctuaries need to be established to protect the biodiversity of the world’s oceans from destruction. Marine sanctuaries offer rare ocean species the chance to breed and replenish their quantities.

Works Cited Danson, Ted, and Michael D’Orso. Oceana: Our Endangered Oceans and What We Can Do to Save Them. London: Rodale, 2011. Print.

Helfman, Gene S. Fish Conservation: A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fisheries Resources. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2007. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Ocean Fisheries Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Morrissey, John, and James Sumich. Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life. London: Jones and Bartlett, 2011. Print.

National Research Council. Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1999. Print.


Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction The island of Cape Breton is located along the coast of northern America. It is a constituent of the province of Nova Scotia in Canada (Dronet 12). The island has four counties namely: Inverness, Richmond, Victoria and cape Breton. In the recent past, this island has experienced a sharp reduction in population.

However, the most remarkable thing is the eternal presence of the Acadian way of life. The Acadian culture is predominantly visible in Cape Breton (Dronet 13). The cultural practices in the Acadian culture have managed to stand the test of time.

It is common for ancient cultures to fade away with time. However, the people of Cape Breton have managed to retain various aspects of the Acadian culture. This is evident in their music, dance, art, farming, cuisine, and other cultural practices.

Discussion The Acadian culture has an impressive array of inherent components that define it. These components have specific characteristics that make them unique. They clearly set the Acadian culture apart from other cultures (Dronet 17).

Of importance to historians and researchers is the fact that these aspects of the Acadian culture have managed to remain relevant to the contemporary world. This fact makes the Acadian culture unique because majority of traditional cultures have been diluted by western values that are anchored on modern civilization (Szivos 22).

One aspect of the Acadian culture that has remained relevant is music. It is arguably the most relevant and vibrant aspect of the Acadian culture. Before the dawn of the internet revolution, musical instruments were an integral part of Acadian households. Acadian musical instruments include guitar, fiddle, and organ (Szivos 24).

Over the years, Acadian people have propagated their music by ensuring that it passes on to emerging generations through oral instruction and active participation (Szivos 25). The Acadian music is rich in poetry, knowledge, and philosophy. Besides, their music is humorous and spiritual.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Acadian music is usually simple and based on topical issues that are rich in cultural heritage (Szivos 27). Mostly, their music is used to pass and communicate vital cultural information to young generations.

Acadian music is composed depending on the mood of the occasion (Salzman 14). There are songs that are composed for different occasions such as: sleeping time, showing love and affection, narrating historical events, giving counsel to the young and keeping people happy and motivated while working.

The Acadian music constitutes various styles. They include: reels, waltz dance, two-step dance, and the quadrille dance (Salzman 16). These types of music are known to inspire people into taking dancing seriously. It is important to note that in Acadian culture, music goes together with dance.

In fact, Acadians use dance as a way to express their rich musical heritage. Dance has become one of the most accepted and common avenues for expressing the rich Acadian cultural identity. Most of these songs were formulated by the early occupants of medieval Acadia (Salzman 20).

Another important and defining aspect of Acadian culture is their food. Food is at the centre of Acadian heritage. Over the last centuries, Acadian culture has been displayed and propagated through traditional cuisine. There are three most popular Acadian traditional dishes. They are: chicken fricot, rapure and meat pie (Griffiths 12). Chicken fricot is the most favoured dish in Acadia.

Chicken is its key ingredient. This dish is mostly cooked during festivities and merry-making. This dish is usually popular when there is a huge gathering of people, mostly for celebration or while conducting one of many traditional ceremonies that are a common feature in Acadian cultural heritage. Apart from chicken, Acadians use wild rabbit in the preparation of fricot.

Rapure is another popular Acadian dish. This dish is mostly favoured for occasions when there are special guests in the community of Acadians (Griffiths 16). In most contexts, this dish is cooked from pork. However, this varies depending on those who are preparing the dish. The other traditional Acadian dish is traditional meat pie. This dish is found all over the Acadian society.

We will write a custom Essay on Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This dish mostly prepared during the Christmas festive season. In Acadian culture, Christmas cannot be considered complete in the absence of traditional meat pie (Griffiths 23). It is cooked with fresh swine meat. Chicken is also added as part of the ingredients. The pie is mostly eaten without mixing with any other dish.

Another aspect of Acadian culture is their literature. In fact, the Acadian culture has been kept alive by its rich and comprehensive heritage in literature. There are numerous literary publications that are particularly concerned with propagation and preservation of the Acadian culture. Through such literature, the Acadian culture has remained alive through generations (Griffiths 24).

The culture is transmitted through short stories, riddles and fables. In most cases, these fall under the category of oral literature. This practice has ensured that the Acadian cultural heritage is passed on to other generations. Some observers have constantly argued that the Acadian culture is a self-preserving culture (Griffiths 30).

This means that the culture has internal mechanisms that provide avenues for continuity. The most important aspect of cultural literature is that it gives a clear picture of how certain aspects and affairs of a culture have been carried out over time. This ensures continuity of culture and its inherent factors. The Acadians have many pieces of literature that contain their rich cultural heritage.

Another important aspect of the Acadian culture is their farming practices. Acadians were especially known for their ability to transform and reclaim marshy land and making it sufficiently arable (Gough 15). The Acadians were solely acclaimed for their farming practices.

This practice was acquired through their interaction with Frenchmen. The Acadians became particularly known for their ability to transform poor land into a state of agricultural viability (Gough 18). They were too good in reclaiming land, to the extent that their migration patterns were greatly influenced by the presence of poor farming land.

Works Cited Dronet, Curney. A Century of Acadian Culture: The Development of a Cajun Community. Newyork: Pelican Publishing, 2001. Print.

Gough, Barry. Historical Dictionary of Canada. Newyork: Scarecrow Press, 2011. Print

Not sure if you can write a paper on Acadian Culture in Cape Breton in Nova Scotia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Griffiths, Naomi. The contexts of Acadian history, 1686-1784. Newyork: McGill- Queens, 1992. Print.

Salzman, Jack. American Studies: An Annotated Bibliography 1984-1988. London: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Print.

Szivos, John. Talking Acadian: Communication, Work, and Culture. Toronto: John Chetro-Szivos, 2006. Print.


Respond for the movie “Killer of sheep” related with neo-realism style and blue anaestetic Essay (Movie Review) essay help

Blue anesthetic meets with Neo-Realism in the movie Killer of Sheep (1977). The writer brings a blues aesthetic to a style of filmmaking in his work (Kapsis 49). The films deal with what is termed as the “ravages of fascism”. This fascism causes the decay of communities and leaves rifts in national identity.

The films clearly shows Italians “Oppressed and suffering”. Their oppression could not however, be completely blamed on the Black Shirts and the Nazis” (Kapsis 52). There is also a representation of resistance by providing a “continuing critique of the conditions, institutions, and individual predilections that cause pover­ty, violence, spiritual distress and isolation” (Kapsis 32). This depicts the use of Neo-Realism more clearly.

Burnett makes use of the neorealist aesthetic even more powerfully because of the addition of the blues. Long before the beginning of the cinema, the blues was able to generate cultural self-reflection in the very initial stages by embracing humanity.

The blues is a type of music which was in existence much earlier than the European literary movements of the early 20th Century in naturalism and realism that can be traced forward to neo-realism in the cinema (Murray 69). Much earlier in the years like 1550, English lexicographers have found records with the phrase “to look blue” meaning “to suffer fear, anxiety, low spirits and discomfort” (Murray 63).

In this movie, Killer of Sheep, there is an unusual innovation made by the soundtracks course throughout the entire film as more than the accompaniment, but as a character. The pre­sence of the character imbues the movie with an overall feel of blues. This clearly underscores the poetic modes of the movie’s visual story.

This effect results into a blues nuance that dominates the entire film. The soundtrack blends with R


How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Water hyacinth is a perennial aquatic plant which freely floats in tropical as well as sub-tropical waters. Water hyacinth is native in South America but has since been introduced to many regions. This plant has glossy, broad, ovate and thick leaves and rises up to 1 meter above the water surface.

Water hyacinth is among is among the fastest growing plants ever known and reproduces through stolons or runners that form daughter plants. There has been raging debate on the overall significance of water hyacinth on human society. Despite that the plant has some economic and ecological benefits; its adverse effects are overwhelming.

The presence of Waterhyacith has been associated with numerous economic and ecological damages. Water hyacinth has great harm on the local ecosystems. Water hyacinth degrades water quality and affects habitats for aquatic life. This research paper will explore, discuss and analyze how water hyacinth harms the local ecosystem.

Identification of Waterhyacith Water hyacinth has been ranked as one of the worst invasive species. The reputation of water hyacinth has been doomed due to its ecological and economic effects. Being a native plant in South America, water hyacinth has spread to other regions of the world. Water hyacinth produces beautiful flowers, though its problems are higher. Water hyacinth can be easily identified since it freely floats on water surface.

This plant has dark green, shiny and glossy leaves. The leaves are elliptical and round in shape. The leaves of water hyacinth are approximately 6 inches wide alongside being waterproof. Another key feature of water hyacinth is that it rises over 3 feet above the water surface.

The roots of water hyacinth are distinctive and hang below water surface, whereby they have a feathery appearance. Despite the harmful effects of water hyacinth on ecosystems, the plant has very attractive flowers (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).

Fig 1. Water hyacinth Flowers

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects of Waterhyacith on local ecosystems Water hyacinth has great harm on the local ecosystem and affects aquatic life and water quality. This plant blocks photosynthesis thus degrading water quality. The reduction of water quality through deprivation of oxygen has a cascading effect on aquatic life. Fish, plants and other sea life are adversely affected by this phenomenon. The biological diversity is greatly degraded by water hyacinth.

This is because water hyacinth has a negative effect on submersed plants. Water hyacinth also interferes with immersed plant communities through crushing and pushing them. By so doing, the general ecosystem is impacted. Animal communities are negatively affected through the elimination of plants as well as blocking the access of water which the animals rely on for nesting and shelter (Mariana et al, 2006).

The effects of water hyacinth are enormous on the ecosystem. This can be attributed to the fast growing nature of the plant. Water hyacinth grows very dense to the point that a single acre of the weed weighs over 200 tons. This is a great catastrophe to the ecosystem in the sense that it blocks oxygen in the waters thus inhibiting aquatic life.

The thick and dense mats formed by water hyacinth overwhelm lakes and rivers thus inhibiting biological and economic process. The life of other plants and animals is jeopardized by the rapid growth of water hyacinth. The enormous growth and concentration of the plant decreases water flow as well as leads to oxygen depletion.

As a result, a good environment for mosquito breeding is developed. Native plant species are overwhelmed by the plant thus leading to their elimination. Based on these changes, water hyacinth alters the entire ecosystems which animals and plants rely on (Weijden and Bol, 2007).

Degradation of water quality Water hyacinth has a distinctive effect on water quality. Past research has shown that the dense mats formed by the plant have adverse effects on water quality. The plant forms dense and interlocking mats which affect the oxygen flow in the water. As a result of the dense and interlocking mats formed by the weed, the dissolved oxygen concentrations declines, hence degrading water quality.

A low level of phytoplankton productivity also takes place which in turn dooms water quality. The higher levels of sedimentation resulting from the dense mats as well as the complex root structure of water hyacinth also affect water quality.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Water hyacinth leads to high levels of evapo-transpiration rates due to the dense leaves of the plant. This is in comparison with the evaporation rates hence leading to heavy sedimentation (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).

The levels of temperatures and PH in waters are also affected by the plant. Water hyacinth destabilizes temperatures and PH levels in the lagoons. This scenario prevents stratification thus increasing mixing in water levels. This phenomenon affects water quality since oxygen levels are degraded. The rates and levels of photosynthesis are also greatly inhibited by water hyacinth.

Water hyacinth does not produce oxygen as compared to other submerged vegetation and phytoplankton. This leads to low levels of dissolved oxygen concentration thus negatively affecting water quality.

The capacity of the plant mats determines the level of oxygen concentrations. High concentrations of water hyacinth mats lead to low penetration levels of light into water columns thus inhibiting photosynthesis (Mariana et al, 2006).

Decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations

Water hyacinth has been associated with the degradation of oxygen in water. This is in comparison with other aquatic invasive species like Sagittaria lancifolia and Hydrilla verticillata. Research has shown that water hyacinth greatly reduces oxygen concentration.

Water hyacinth has been categorized as the only plant leading to a massive decline in average levels of oxygen concentrations. An inverse relationship between water hyacinth and dissolved oxygen concentration has been identified. a significant decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen beneath water hyacinth mats in relation to that of open water has also been established.

This offers a clear picture of the negative effects of the plant in decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).

A point of concern is that the rate of decreasing oxygen concentration is not constant. The size of a water hyacinth mat that can cause a significant decrease in oxygen varies from one region to another.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Does Water Hyacinth Harm the Local Ecosystem? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over 25% of cover in 0.05ha can decrease oxygen concentration to levels which threaten aquatic life mostly fish survival. Nevertheless, a negative relationship exists between dissolved oxygen and water hyacinth concentration (Streever, 1999).

In the case of dissolved oxygen, areas infested with water hyacinth usually demonstrate lower ranges as compared to waterhyacith free waters. Shorelines without the plants or with lower concentrations have high levels of dissolved oxygen. This is in comparison with water hyacinth free regions.

The absence or decline of dissolved oxygen has adverse effects on the ecosystem. Low levels of dissolved oxygen inhibit plant growth and survival of aquatic life. The low concentration of dissolved oxygen is a result of blockage by the water hyacinth mats.

The metabolic activities of aquatic life are jeopardized thus leading to extinction of some of the animals, plants and insects. This leads to loss of biodiversity, which is in this case a great harm to the ecosystem (Weijden and Bol, 2007).

Absorption of heavy metals

Alongside the decrease of oxygen concentration, water hyacinth absorbs heavy metals. Water hyacinth is dangerous in the sense that it absorbs large amounts of nutrients in the water column as well as heavy metals. This is a serious problem in relation to aquatic life.

The mercury concentrations of water hyacinth are very high. Research on water hyacinth in California indicated that water hyacinth leaves had same mercury levels as the sediments beneath. Poor disposal of the plant on the environment will definitely lead to contamination.

This will lead to ecological problems since animals and plants which depend on the contaminated environment will be affected. Nevertheless, the ability of water hyacinth to absorb large amounts of nutrients justifies its use as a tertiary or secondary biological alternative for waste water treatment (Streever, 1999).

Water hyacinth has a higher capacity of holding heavy solids as compared to shorelines without the plant. Water hyacinth waters have a higher turbidity as compared to clear waters. The levels of suspended solids in infested waters are alarming.

Water hyacinth traps phytoplankton and detritus which in turn affect water quality. Water which would have otherwise been fit for domestic use is rendered useless. High level of suspended solids inhibits zooplankton organisms hence decreasing energy transfer. The safety of human transport and other recreational activities in infested waters is jeopardized (Mariana et al, 2006).

Alteration of water PH levels

Water hyacinth affects pH levels and free carbon dioxide. PH levels are greatly decreased by the presence of water hyacinth. On the other hand, a high level of free carbon dioxide exists in areas infested with water hyacinth. In comparison with water hyacinth free shorelines, areas infested with the plant have a higher free carbon dioxide.

These high carbon dioxide levels are as a result of respiration, decay and the decomposition process of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth mats which are dense and large in size also prevents free entry of oxygen. This phenomenon is very harmful to aquatic and human life.

Oxygen demand for aquatic life is doomed, hence leading to death of some species. This leads to decline of biodiversity, thus illustrating the harm of the plant on the local ecosystem (Richard et al, 2011).

The high absorption rate of water hyacinth on nutrients is harmful to the environment. This is because it destabilizes PH level of the waters as well as the surrounding environment. The high absorption rate of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate can not only cause ecological harm but also affect aquatic and human life.

Despite that the high intake capacity is useful in reducing nutrient concentrations; it may lead to environmental contamination. Land on which the plant is disposed will be affected by the chemicals. This will have adverse effects on plants, animals and humans (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).

Depletion of Nutrients

Water hyacinth has a great impact on the ecosystem since it affects the overall nutrient composition. This may lead to the disappearance of some of the plant species or animal species which depend on them. Existence of water hyacinth leads to a high decrease in phosphorous and nitrogen. This calls for continuous control of the plant so as to counter its negative effects on the ecosystem.

Despite that waterhyacith provides phytoremediation, it leads to significant nutrient loss. This however depends on the concentration of water hyacinth. In light with this scenario, the decrease in nutrients affects the biological process of the plants and animals. Plant and animal loss will definitely occur thus demonstrating the effects of water hyacinth on the ecosystem and biodiversity (Streever, 1999).

The levels of nitrate concentration as a result of water hyacinth are lower compared to shorelines without water hyacinth. The average of nitrate concentration in water affected by water hyacinth is significantly lower as compared to that of shorelines free from the plant.

This is associated with absorption of nitrates by water hyacinth. The high capacity of nitrate absorption by water hyacinth is hazardous since it affects the overall concentrations of nitrates in the waters. This has great negative impacts on PH levels and also on the aquatic life (Weijden and Bol, 2007).

Increase in Water temperatures

Water temperatures in water hyacinth infested areas are slightly above average. Research shows that the average temperatures of water in areas infested with water hyacinth is higher compared to the shoreline temperatures. The difference in water temperature would not occur without the water hyacinth. This clearly shows the effects of water hyacinth in influencing water temperatures.

Higher water temperatures are attributed to the dense mats of the plant, which in turn hinders transfer of heat. Decay of organic matter resulting from the water hyacinth also leads to heat generation hence leading to temperature rise.

Temperature fluctuations in areas infested with water hyacinth is hereby a common phenomenon. Breeding of insects like mosquitoes is hereby likely as a result of the temperature changes (Richard et al, 2011).

Breeding of harmful insects

From another perspective, water hyacinth offers favorable conditions and environment for the breeding of mosquitoes and other animals and insects. The breeding of these insects like mosquitoes will definitely threaten human life since it leads to diseases.

Snails also get a prime habitat as a result of the water hyacinth. A good example of the snail species is the parasitic flatworm. This is a dangerous species of snails which causes schistosomiasis (Mariana et al, 2006).

Water hyacinth forms good breeding places for mosquitoes and other insects. The prolific and high growth of water hyacinth leads to excellent breeding areas for harmful insects like mosquitoes. Incidents of malaria, skin rash, encephalitis, cough; gastrointestinal disorders, bilharzias and schistosomiasis are very rampant in areas infested by water hyacinth.

Water hyacinth is harmful to aquatic life since it reduces the concentration of oxygen by de-oxygenating the water. Nutrients for young fish are also reduced. This is due to the high absorption rates of nutrients by water hyacinth.

The effects of water hyacinth are diverse and a catastrophe for aquatic life. The large and dense mats of water hyacinth block water supply and thus, affecting local subsidence fishing. This is an ecological disaster which calls for urgent measures in addressing the problem (Streever, 1999).

Inhibits fishing and transport

Water hyacinth has been blamed for starving subsistence farmers and will become a major problem if not controlled. This is associated with the diseases it enhances through the breeding of snails and mosquitoes which threaten humans.

The blocking or covering of waters by water hyacinth also inhibits fishing. Invasion of water hyacinth into waters associated with human activities can easily unbalance natural lifecycles. Aquatic life can hereby suffer a fatal blow as a result of the waterhyacith. This in turn contributes to loss of biodiversity (Weijden and Bol, 2007).

Fig 2. Water Hyacinth

Lack of controlling and managing water hyacinth will lead to total coverage of ponds and lakes. This can have unprecedented effects on the local ecosystems. Covering of water deprive the native aquatic plants light and oxygen thus killing them.

Fish and other aquatic life will also be harmed since their food which consists of aquatic plants is no more. Death of aquatic plants and animals translates to loss of biodiversity (Villamagna Murphy, 2010).

Water hyacinth has a serious impact on local ecosystems in the sense that it inhibits free movement of aquatic life and humans. It has become common knowledge that water hyacinth inhibits water activities. For instance, boating, fishing and other human expeditions are also obstructed by water hyacinth.

The robust growth of water hyacinth outstrips other aquatic life. This leads to unnecessary competition for survival thus leading to near eradication of some of the species (Tacio, 2009).

The effects of water hyacinth on fishing and transportation are immediate. This is due to the thick mats and covering of the waters by the plant. Access to the beaches is hindered by waterhyacinth. This is due to the dense mats of the plant which hinder human transport. The dense mats formed by waterhyacinth hinter fishing. The movement of fish and other aquatic life is adversely affected by the water hyacinth.

This is an ecological problem in the sense that free movement of the aquatic life is hindered. On the other hand, water hyacinth inhibits irrigation, water treatment and water supply. These are natural and human processes which ought to be facilitated for sustainable coexistence.

Without proper water treatment and supply, biological and environmental catastrophes can emerge. For instance, the contaminated water is both harmful to humans and aquatic life. This is a clear manifestation of the hazardous nature of water hyacinth on the (Richard et al, 2011).

Reduction in biodiversity

Water hyacinth is an ecological disaster due to its prolific growth. This has resulted to its categorization as an ecological nuisance. The fast rate of growth of water hyacinth leads to covering of water surface thus affecting the growth and survival of other aquatic life. The fast proliferation of water hyacinth threatens the survival and development of aquatic species.

The effects of water hyacinth on water temperatures, photosynthesis, PH and nutrients are a serious threat to the survival of other aquatic life. For instance, the effects of water hyacinth in preventing penetration of light are unacceptable. Based on this phenomenon, the adverse effects of water hyacinth on the ecology are demonstrated (Mariana et al, 2006).

Water hyacinth has a serious effect on biological diversity. The prolific growth and spread of the plant has negative impacts on native submersed plants. Immersed plant communities are also altered by the growth of water hyacinth. This is because water hyacinth has fast growth and as a result pushes and crushes the native plants. Animal communities and other aquatic life are also altered by water hyacinth.

This is because the plant affects the local environments by altering temperatures, oxygen, PH and inhibiting penetration of light. By eliminating some of the plants, the animal communities are also affected. This is because the animals depend on the plants and vice verse.

Fish and other aquatic life usually disappear due to the changed environments in aspects of temperatures and PH. A serious human problem resulting from water hyacinth is that it results in the breeding of dangerous animals and insects.

For instance, areas infested with water hyacinth have higher chances of snakes and crocodiles. This ecological problem is a not only a threat to the human species but also to the entire biodiversity (Tacio, 2009).

Control of Waterhyacith Due to the adverse effects and harm of water hyacinth on the environment, there is the need for prevention and control. Research has established different ways in which the weed can be eliminated or managed. At present, there are different control approaches for controlling the rapid spread of water hyacinth. The harmful effects of water hyacinth on the ecology and economical prospects have called for its control.

Chemical, biological and physical control mechanisms have been established. Despite that each control mechanism has its benefits; they have also reported diverse weaknesses and drawbacks. Chemical through the use of herbicides affects communities and environment, thus the need to abandon it.

In addressing the problem of water hyacinth, there is a need to identify and administer the best control mechanism. Mechanical approaches of controlling water hyacinth have been widely used. In this approach, dredgers, mowers and other manual extraction methods are used. Nevertheless, this approach is costly and is not possible in large areas.

On the contrary, mechanical approaches for eradicating water hyacinth also offers only short-term solutions. Biological approach to eradication of water hyacinth is most favored due to its long-term and short-term effects. This is not only a sustainable but also an economical approach to controlling the weed (Tacio, 2009).

Manual or mechanical control

Physical control is mostly applied in short-term basis and in small scale. Mechanical methods are the best approach in providing short-term solutions. Nevertheless, this approach is costly and requires both machinery and human labor (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).

Early control using physical means targets concentrated areas. Physical methods remove the weed from their mats and dump them on land to die. Manual removal of the weed has proved successful in small scale as especially in farm drains and dams. However, the high rate of growth of water hyacinth makes it hard to attain total eradication. This approach is only successful when the rate of removal is higher than the plant’s rate of re-growth. From another perspective, physical of manual removal is not successful in large scale. This is widely due to the higher costs and labor (Denise et al, 2007).

Research has shown that mechanical control of water hyacinth is at times effective. Large infestations of the weed have been manually eradicated though at a higher cost. The time and cost of eradicating water hyacinth through manual means is high. It order to attain success, the removal should be done before flowing and seed set of the water hyacinth (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).

Fig 2. Dredging of waterhyacinth

Chemical removal

The use of herbicides in the removal of water hyacinth has been overwhelming in recent days. Chemical removal of water hyacinth has proved successful, whereby it has been applied for years in different regions. The success rate of using chemical methods is higher as compared to manual methods.

Nevertheless, there has been high concern for the health of communities as well as the environment in relation to chemical removal. In areas where people wash and collect drinking water as well as fishing, chemical application can turn hazardous. A number of herbicides have been registered which help in the control of water hyacinth. High volume spraying is the most used approach in the application of herbicides.

Handgun power sprays from the banks or on a boat can be adopted in applying the herbicides. Aerial spraying of herbicides can also be considered for large infestations. Herbicides should be considered in growing season mostly in Spring so as to enhance effectiveness.

Spraying recklessly can result in environmental and human catastrophes. Spraying on heavy infestation leads to sinking of the mats, which eventually rot. This can result into ecological disasters through de-oxygenation of water hence potentially killing aquatic life like fish.

In this case, spraying should be consciously undertaken by spraying only portions like a third of the area at a time. Physical or manual removal of some of the weeds before spraying is also advantageous and sustainable (Denise et al, 2007).


Biological methods of removing water hyacinth have been the most recommended due to their sustainability and ecological friendliness. Biological researchers have identified insects which can be effectively used to combat the spread of water hyacinth.

Two weevil species including neochetna bruchi, neochetina eichhomiae and moth species, Xubida infusellus, and niphograpta albiguttalis have been discovered to help control water hyacinth. These insects have proved to be successful in destroying the spread of water hyacinth.

The insects which feed on leaves by creating small scars have great effect in controlling water hyacinth. The laying of eggs by the insects on the water hyacinth leads to infection by fungi and bacteria thus causing the plant to be waterlogged and ideas.

Nevertheless, the inactivity of these insects during winter makes it hard for them to be relied on. Neochetina bruchi on the other hand has proved to be reliable during winter hence complements the inactivity of the other insects (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).

It is however notable that biological control can not be solely applied in control of the weed. Biological control only reduces the prolific growth of water hyacinth but does not lead to total eradication. Biological control ensures substantial reduction in growth rates and flowering thus countering the proliferation of water hyacinth.

The damages on the plants lead to sinking of the mats thus reducing their effects. Since chemical and mechanical control techniques are quite expensive and inefficient, biological removals offer the only suitable approach in controlling water hyacinth.

Researchers have confidence that biological methods are more resilient and effective as compared to the use of herbicides and mechanical control. This is the most sustainable approach to combating invasive water hyacinth, hence reducing their ecological damages (Denise et al, 2007).

Other control mechanisms to water hyacinth include cultural control, mulching, windrowing, and managing flood-stranded infestations. In the case of cultural control, nutrients run to infested areas should be limited. Reduction of water levels in dams and drains can significantly reduce water hyacinth.

Introduction of salty water into infested waterways can also help in combating the spread of water hyacinth. Flood-stranded infestations should be managed by using Earthmoving equipments to remove water hyacinth. This is applicable to verges and roads, which helps in breaking down the water hyacinth.

Windrowing water hyacinth with tractor-mounted blade is an effective approach to removing water hyacinth (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2010).

Conclusion The study has clearly demonstrated the harm of water hyacinth on the local ecosystems. Water hyacinth has greatly impacted on the physico-chemical environments thus affecting the ecosystems. Based on the research, water hyacinth affects local water temperatures, PH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, photosynthesis and nutrients in the water.

These influences have great harm on the local ecosystems by altering the normal environments for biological, cultural and economic activities. Aquatic life is adversely affected by the changes in the water environments thus leading to eradication of some species. Water hyacinth has led to significant reduction in biodiversity in infested areas due to the alteration of favorable conditions for survival aquatic plants and animals.

Based on these problems, effective water hyacinth control measures should be adopted. Chemical, biological, mechanical and cultural control methods should be considered. Cultural and biological methods of water hyacinth control are most sustainable hence the need for their prioritization.

References Denise, B. et al. (2007). Undesirable Side-Effects of Water Hyacinth Control in Shallow Tropical Reservoir. Freshwater Biology. Vol 52 (6), p1120-1133.

Mariana, M. et al. (2006). An Experimental Study of Habitat Choice by Daphnia: Plants Signal Danger More than Refuge in Subtropical Lakes. Fresh Water Biology. Vol 51 (7), p1320-1330.

NSW Department of Primary Industries (2010). Water Hyacinth- Weed of National Significance. Web.

Richard, M. et al. (2011). Invasive Plants as Catalysts for the Spread of Human Parasites. Neobiota. 9.1156.

Streever, W. (1999). An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation. London: Routledge.

Tacio, H. (2009). Water Hyacinth Ecological Value, Environmental Impacts. Web.

Villamagna, M. Murphy, R. (2010). Ecological and Socio-economic Impacts of Invasive Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes): A Review. Freshwater Biology. Vol 55 (2), p282-298.

Weijden, W. and Bol, L. (2007). Biological Globalization: Bio-Invasions and Their Impacts on Nature- The Economy and Public Health. New Jersey: McGraw Hill.


The Melanin Theory Essay college admission essay help

Melanin theorists purport that black people are more superior to the whites (Cashmore and Jennings 181) because they have greater quantities of melanin. They attribute whites’ alleged “inhumanity” and “inferiority” to lack of melanin. Melanin theorists also maintain that melanin bestows upon people of color some superhuman abilities.

The theorists are unanimous that melanin is both a superconductor and a semiconductor. They contend that melanin can absorb electromagnetic radiation and is capable of converting light and magnetic fields to sound. To these theorists, “melanin can process information without reporting to the brain because it is the chemical basis of the soul” (Barnes 88).

The presence of neuromelanin in a human brain’s substantia nigra aids in transmission of neuronal impulses. The proponents of the melanin theory also advance that “higher levels of melanin in the skin enable nerve synapses to fire more quickly and efficiently” (Barnes 90). This element underscores the black men’s athleticism.

These theorists also believe, “The lower incidence of Parkinson’s diseases among the Blacks is due to the high hypodermic melanin levels in their skin, which acts as a preventative against development of the diseases” (Irving 315). However, the melanin theory is a stereotype for it has no scientific backing to prove its claims as expounded in this paper.

The architects of this theory believe that white people are mutants and that whiter skin is a form of albinism with the likes of Wade Nobles opining that “Blacks are fully human because of their higher levels of skin melanin” (Cashmore and Jennings 116).

In addition, Nobles holds that the “central nervous system and the essential melanic system make one a full human” (Cashmore and Jennings 116). Therefore, to be human is to be black.

Frances Welsing coined the idea of hue-man instead of human to “illuminate the existing inherent and behavioral differences between black and white people” (Welsing The Isis Papers 200).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barnes, another Melanin theorist, states that melanin “is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness, and that is why the whites behave in a barbaric manner” (81).

He further adduces that melanin’s ability to absorb frequencies enhances the black man’s ability to feel his surroundings. In the eyes of the people of color, whites are rigid, cold, unfeeling, and calculating because their skins have lower levels of melanin.

In addition, some theorists relate the pigment melanin with intelligence and creativity. Europeans being the “ice-people” are therefore born cold and greedy, militaristic, and authoritarian. Frances Welsing also purports, “The prevalence of high blood pressure among African Americans is due to the fact that melanin picks up energy vibrations from people who are stressed up” (Welsing Blacks hypertension 65).

Dark skinned people therefore absorb stress in others hence stand higher chances of experiencing high blood pressure. Barnes also purported that white scientists created drugs like cocaine among others, which chemically bind with melanin by the mere fact that they are both alkaloids, hence the high likelihood of black people getting addicted faster or even stay addicted for longer.

Barnes argues, “The blacks can test positive for Cocaine even after a year has elapsed courtesy of cocaine’s ability to co-polymerize into melanin” (18).

Some of the arguments advanced by Melanin Theorists like Barnes that the whites deliberately created drugs like cocaine, which have high affinity for melanin, to make the black people get addicted faster and for longer cannot be factual. No one disputes that “melanin binds with cocaine; however, skin melanin cannot be linked to the mechanism of addiction” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 6).

An argument to the effect that in circumstances when hair has been used to test drug use, “people with darker hair are more likely to test positive for cocaine use because cocaine has high affinity for melanin, is not true because even the whites with dark hair can test positive for the same” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 8).

We will write a custom Essay on The Melanin Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Barnes’ accusation of the white scientists has no element of absolutism because so far, there is no evidence that points to white conspiracy to compound addictive substances that target the blacks.

However, people should not forget that there exists an established link between an aspect of melanin-related biology and substance addiction, especially the melanin found in the brain. Drug addiction is facilitated by complex neuronal processes that converge on the shell of nucleus accumbens that receive inputs from the lateral hypothalamus. Melanin concentrating hormone is produced from the lateral hypothalamus.

Regardless of the fact that the mechanism for nicotine addiction has not been fully understood, “melanin has a biochemical affinity for nicotine and that the greater the amount of melanin an individual may be having the harder it can be for him or her to quit smoking” (Mieczkowski and Kruger 11).

People who become dark skinned due to sun tanning, irrespective of whether they are black or white, are at risk of developing nicotine addiction. Welsing’s claim that “dark skinned people absorb the stress in others resulting in high blood pressure” (Blacks hypertension 65) cannot entirely be true if scientific studies that have been conducted in this field are anything to go by.

Science has for sure linked blacks to norepinephrine. The bodies of human beings produce this substance when subjected to certain levels of stress. This substance constricts blood vessels, but whites and blacks exhibit elevated blood pressure when subjected to pressure.

Melanin theorists stir fallacious thinking, as some of the reasons they advance are full of logical fallacies and accepting them in totality leads to error in thinking hence fictitious characterization of science.

While trying to support the truth of their opinions, melanin theorists seemingly resign to their views. They think that their entitlement is indispensable for the truth of the argument. They never seem to realize that “their entitlement to their opinions has no consequence for scientific truth neither does it validate the views they express” (White and Billing 191). Their entitlement is not backed with evidence.

The theorists’ assertion that possession of greater quantities of melanin makes black people superior and that its lack is a pointer as to why the whites are inhuman and inferior is not backed with any evidence to that effect. Some of their arguments are indeed a distortion of scientific facts.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Melanin Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The theory therefore has no credibility in mainstream science. Human rights and entitlements cannot be used to support a view, as the focus will shift from scientific evidence to human rights.

Being entitled to a given opinion in scientific discourses can only be equated to being wrong especially when there are no facts, evidences, and reason to support such opinions. Only data and evidence can make an opinion correct. Evidences adduced should be independent of one’s view.

The proponents of this pseudoscientific theory have committed the fallacy of argument to ignorance. Apparently, they have a belief that things have to be true because they have not been proved otherwise. They are oblivious of the fact that inability to prove a claim “does not necessarily mean that the claim is true” (White and Billing 181).

Look at it this way, an individual can claim that s/he is capable of running 100m sprint in less than 3 seconds. However, if s/he refuses to be tested in a race, “people’s inability to falsify the claim does not make the claim true by default; moreover, the fact that no scientific study has associated melanin to creativity and intelligence does not give melanin theorists license to posit that melanin is the source of intelligence and creativity” (White and Billing 181).

Moreover, this does not qualify them to assert that “ice-people” are cold and greedy, militaristic, and authoritarian because they were born melanin-deficient.

Carol Barnes also commits the fallacy of argument to ignorance by asserting, “Melanin is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness” (Barnes 81). In fact, no scientific study has illuminated this; however, the absence of any evidence cannot make such sentiments true.

Melanin theorists also commit the fallacy of generalization by suggesting that black people are proficient in athletics because they have higher amounts of melanin in their skin. Across the world, many athletes are successful, but they are not black.

It is also wrong to think that melanin is responsible for civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness. In the contemporary world, there exist many uncivilized and unrighteous blacks in spite of having elevated melanin levels in their skins. Barnes, one of the ardent Melanin theorists, asserts that melanin “gives human beings the ability to feel because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy” (81).

Barnes advances that white people are perceived by people of color as being rigid, heartless, and cold because they have least amounts of melanin. The burden of truth lies with Barnes with regard to proving her assertions. She never tells why she thinks that black skinned people can never be rigid, heartless, and cold. Her sentiments are mere assertions, as she never uses science to support her position with positive evidence.

In conclusion, melanin theorists propagate the misconception that Blacks are superior to Whites because the former have higher melanin levels in their skin than the latter. Apparently, according to these theorists, the presence of high melanin levels in Blacks underscores their athleticism and resistance to the Parkinson’s disease.

Moreover, Blacks are purportedly more human by the virtue of having high melanin levels; actually, to be human is to be black according to melanin theorists. In a twist of argument, melanin theorists explain that Blacks are prone to hypertension and high stress levels because their melanin absorbs stress from their surroundings.

Moreover, Blacks are prone to drug addiction because melanin has high affinity for drugs like cocaine. However, these arguments are full of assumptions and fallacies for lack of scientific proof. Therefore, these theorists commit the fallacy of argument to ignorance, fallacy of generalization, and fallacy of appeal to authority.

For instance, they commit the fallacy of appeal to spite by portraying the whites as an inferior race. By substituting attack on ethnicity and racism, the theorists are oblivious of fallacy of circumstantial Ad Hominem in their arguments.

Works Cited Barnes, Carol. Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness. New York: Lushena Books, 2001. Print.

Cashmore, Ernest, and James Jennings. Racism: essential readings. New York: Sage, 2001. Print.

Irving, Kessler. “Epidemiologic Studies of Parkinson’s Disease: II. A Hospital-based Survey.” American Journal of Epidemiology 95.16 (1972): 308-318. Print.

Mieczkowski, Tom, and Michael Kruger. “Interpreting the color effect of melanin on Cocaine and benzoylecgonine assays for hair analysis: Brown and black samples compared.” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 14.1 (2007): 7–15. Print.

Welsing, Frances. “Blacks, hypertension, and the active skin melanocyte”. Urban Health 4.3 (1975): 64–72. Print.

Welsing, Frances. The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors. New York: Third World Press, 1990. Print.

White, Fred, and Simone Billing. The Well Crafted Argument. New York: Cengage, 2010. Print.