The word diabetes underscores a number of related diseases leading the body being unable to regulate the amount of sugar (glucose) in the human body blood. Diabetes is of three main types-type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. This paper focuses on diabetes type 1 and type 2, which are the most common types. People afflicted by diabetes type 1 lack the ability to produce enough insulin. Those affected by type 2 diabetes are unable to utilize insulin well.
Insulin is a hormone that is produced by pancreases, and permits the movement of glucose into body cells from the blood where it is broken down to release energy. When one is affected by diabetes, the movement of glucose is inefficient, making the levels of glucose in the blood high. As a result, various cells starve and some tissues may be harmed due to exposure to high levels of glucose. Ten percent of people that are affected by diabetes in the US have type 1 diabetes (Wild, et al., 2004, p.1048).
Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed either during adolescent or child hood. It may also result from destruction of pancreases by alcohol in older people. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed during adulthood (mostly above 45 years), and it accounts for 90% all diabetic people (Wild, et al., 2004, p.1049).
The causes of diabetes are valid. Diabetes type1 is essentially autoimmune. This means that it results when the “immunity cells of the body attacks the insulin producing cells of the pancreases” (Rother, 2007, p.1499).
Environmental factors such as viral infections coupled with hereditary factors may cause diabetes type 1, but genetic links are more associated with diabetes type 2. Other factors that cause diabetes type 2 include ethnicity, high amounts of alcohol intakes, overweight, large amounts of fat intakes, aging, sedentary life styles, and hypertension (high blood pressure) among other causes.
Symptom of diabetes type 1 includes Ketoacidosis; a condition evidenced by vomiting and nausea, and accompanied later by potassium levels disturbances in the body coupled with infections of urinary tract partly due to viral infections or injury. In case ketoacidosis goes untreated, it translates into a comma and finally death. The symptoms of diabetes type 2 include stress, steroids, and a syndrome called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic (Saydah, et al., 2001, p.1398).
The symptoms that are common to both diabetes include blurred vision; infections such repeated yeast infections in genitals, skin, and urinary tract; wounds may heal poorly; alteration of mental status such as agitation, confusion, irritability, which cannot be explained and inattention among others, excessive thirst, excessive eating, fatigue, and large weight losses, which cannot be explained.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diabetes is treated in a number of ways. People with diabetes type 1 are normally treated by the administration of insulin on a daily basis to sustain their life.
On the other hand, people with diabetes type 2 are treated through exercise, diet control, weight loss therapies or even administration of oral medications. However, as Rother posits, “ more than half of all people with type 2 diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar levels at some point in the course of their illness” (2007, p.1500). As it is today, there exists no known cure for diabetes type 1 and 2.
A lot of intensive research is been undertaken to seek a cure for diabetes, but challenges exist since diabetes is genetic. However, over the last couple of years scientists have discovered about 2000 genes responsible to an equal number of genetic defects. It is thus probable that they will be able to replace the defective gene causing diabetes with a healthy one in the future.
References Rother, K. (2007). Diabetes Treatment—Bridging the Divide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 356(15), 1499–1501.
Saydah, S., Miret, M., Sung, J., Varas, C., Gause, D.,
Clovis People Origin and Culture Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Abstract
Origin and Settlements
The Pre-Clovis People
The Clovis Life Styles
Abstract The Clovis culture is an ancient Native American society which, according to archeological documentation of North America, initially emerged about 13,000 years ago, during the last part of ice age (kennely, 2005). The culture’s name originated from works of arts found around Clovis in New Mexico where the initial clues were found in 1932.
Most studies have failed to establish the origin and the reason for disappearance of this culture. Most of existing analyses are based only on the assumptions, although there are some discoveries of their remains in some regions of North America and Mexico. Some archeologists believe that their disappearances were brought about by over-hunting of huge animals like mammoths.
There are still debates if the pre-Clovis people and culture really existed, and some consider that if they lived, then they were poorly organized since there are no enough discoveries of their tools found during excavations in Northern America or Asia. Most of the information in this paper was found in books and studies which are available at the internet. This paper will dwell on the pre-Clovis people, their culture, origin, settlement, lifestyles and finally their disappearance.
Introduction The first evidence, the mammoth bones with a spear-point stuck in the rips, was found in Folsom, New Mexico, in 1926 and since then, various related sites have been found all over the North America as well as Central America and Mexico (Deloria, 2010).
Paleo-Indians is another name used to describe the Clovis people who are commonly considered as the first people to reside in North America. Moreover, they are believed to be ancestors of the natives living in South and North America (McManamon
Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Historically, people living with disabilities in the United States were discriminated upon. Glowacki states that before the 18th century, disability was closely associated with witchcraft, demonic possession or sin (5). As a result, people with various disabilities were in most cases hidden from the public, ostracized and victimized (social exclusion) by members of society (Glowacki 5).
Culturally, having a child with a disability was a source of shame and ridicule in most American societies. Despite the significant changes and efforts directed towards the promotion of social inclusion of persons with disabilities, there still remain cultural and social barriers that dampen such efforts.
Retish and Raiter stated that culture played a pivotal role in determining societal attitudes towards given phenomena (130). The authors described attitude as “a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorably or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object” (131). From this definition, it is evident that attitudes affect the way people react to different circumstances.
As such, cultural beliefs influence how we behave or perceive people and event in our societies. Negative feelings harbored by some people regarding particular disabilities are to a large extent as a result of cultural barrier. Therefore, it could be argued that cultural barriers are the greatest obstacles to the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in society.
Research conducted by Heyne, Schleien and McAvoy indicated that fear of disabilities was among the major obstacles in the formation of relationships between individuals with and without disabilities (23). Glowacki states that culture has contributed to the tendency of some societies blaming individuals for their disabilities. In addition, stigmatization, stereotyping and pity have been cited as sources of sociocultural barriers affecting individuals living with disabilities.
Previous studies indicate that cultural values greatly influence how society views disabilities. According to Mcloughlin, Zhou, and Clark, Confucianism is the predominant philosophy behind the Chinese culture (274).
The authors assert that this philosophy classifies people into three intellectual groups starting from people with great wisdom, those with average intelligence and finally, those with little intelligence. While Confucianism encourages tolerance, obedience and courtesy, it has led to the discrimination of people based on their personality and merits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mcloughlin et al state that Confucianism encourages people to be determined and participants in the process of national building, while on the other hand, it has led to the development of an elitist system characterized by social segregation and stratification that ignores the needs and efforts of the people with disabilities.
Buddhism as a core aspect in the Chinese culture encourages people to accept themselves as they are. Such values inhibit the ability of people with disabilities to develop because they have to accept their role in society as a marginalized populace. In addition, Buddhists’ belief in Karma also influences how they view people with disabilities.
According to Hampton, Buddhists believe that bad actions attract bad consequences, while good actions are rewarded (41). As such people with disabilities are often viewed as a sign of their predecessors’ bad karma. Due to such cultural beliefs, persons with disabilities in such societies always question whether they are a burden to their families or whether they are a source of shame to the family.
In regard to American culture, stereotyping, prejudice and stigmatization have been cited as the greatest barriers to social inclusion of people with disabilities. Byrne defines stigmatization as “a sign of disgrace or discredit which sets a person apart from others” (65).
In most cases, stigma has led to situations where particular people in society are marginalized and excluded in various activities. In addition, McKeever reveals that stigma can prevent people with ability to participate in society, thereby leaving them dependent on others in society (1).
In addition, stigma leads to stereotyping based on misconception. At some point we are guilty of assuming that a mentally ill individual is aggressive or violent. While this is not always the case, such perceptions make it difficult for persons with disabilities to interact effectively with society.
Stigmatization has social and psychological effects on the victim’s quality of life. Nolan et al states that stigmatization lowers one’s self-esteem and self-efficacy. In addition, the authors assert that stigmatization leads to stress, anxiety, denial and antisocial behaviors among the people with disabilities (24). These issues make it difficult for people living with disabilities to become fully integrated into their societies. This makes them view themselves as beneficiaries in society rather than equal participants.
We will write a custom Essay on Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, due to stigmatization, stereotyping and prejudice towards disabilities, people living with disabilities are not given equal opportunity when it comes to education and employment. In most cases, physical disabilities have been associated with mental inabilities.
For example, there are instances whereby cripples are denied a desk job simply because employers assume that they are not fully qualified to handle the task. This is a classic example of how stigmatization, prejudice and stereotyping act as social barriers to people living with disabilities.
In an empirical study conducted by McCallion, Janicki, and Grant-Griffin in regard to parental perception to disabilities, the researchers found great disparities between the results recorded between African Americans, Chinese, Korean and Mexican participants. The results indicated that Chinese and Korean parents viewed disability as a source of shame in community and that parents from these cultural backgrounds were more likely to hide children with disabilities in order to avoid public ridicule (354).
Similarly, a study conducted by Zaromatidis et al on the attitude of selected Greeks and Greek-Americans towards people living with disabilities, the results showed that the latter had a positive attitude towards disabilities in comparison to their Greek counterparts (1191).
The results were attributed to societal constructs. Greek society is collectivist in nature. This means that Greeks place more emphasis on group membership and communal benefits. As such, people with disabilities are viewed as a source of shame and a threat to societal development.
On the other hand, Greek-Americans, have adopted the individualistic nature of the American society. As a result, they are more tolerant to disabilities. While the Greek society fails to acknowledge disability as a part of life, the American society makes an effort to embrace disability. This is a classic case of social exclusion versus social inclusion between these two samples.
In Mexico, cultural barriers are not as serious as social barriers. In a research conducted by Skivington, the researcher found out that the government in Mexico had to a large extent failed in the provision of services that benefit people living with disabilities (1).
While the Mexican government promised to consider the educational social, architectural and employment needs of people living with disabilities, literature reviewed in Skivington’s research indicated that for the past decade no concrete action had been taken in this regard (3). This is further supported by findings from a survey conducted by members of the Mexico Child Link organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The study indicated that a large percentage of Mexican street children suffer from various disabilities. In addition, due to lack of specialized care, parents often abandoned children with disabilities. This was attributed to the fact that such children were viewed as a burden and unproductive in a society riddled with poverty.
Other studies showed that children and adult with mental disabilities were mistreated and looked down upon in Mexican societies. According to Moreno, a visit to various mental institutions revealed clear signs of discrimination, lack of concern and mistreatment of patients within these institutions.
The author wrote that “Patients are tied to wheelchairs, walls of shelters and institutions are stained with feces, and pools of urine cover the floor, and children and adults often scream in agony and confusion” (Moreno 1).
In regard to the availability of educational opportunities, a study conducted by Aviles revealed that only 53 out of 457 teachers training institution gave licenses in special education. This would explain why 45,000 out of over one million teachers in Mexico are special educators (1). These examples reveal the sociocultural barriers experienced by people with disabilities in Mexico.
Conclusion This paper set out to discuss the sociocultural barriers that affect people with disabilities. From the literature review presented herein, it has been articulated that cultural and social values, beliefs and practices affect how and why people perceive disabilities. Religion and societal structures have been identified as the major sources of cultural barriers. On the other hand, stigmatization, stereotyping and prejudice have been highlighted as the barriers to social inclusion of people with disabilities in society.
Results from various studies have been used to explore various aspects of the topic and to compare how similar barriers affect societal views on disabilities across different cultures. It has also been noted that while there are laws and regulations that seek to promote equality and fairness for people living with disabilities, there is need to create more awareness among the masses in order to foster attitudinal change regarding disabilities.
People living with disabilities should also strive to prove that they too can make a significant impact to society. Disabilities should not be used as an excuse to nonperformance, but should be accepted and capitalized on. This will ensure future societies accept the situation and treat people with disabilities as equal contributors to the development of the society.
Works Cited Aviles, Karina. “Fox presume plan de educación especial, pero cada vez menos niños son atendidos.” La Jornada, (2006): 1. Print.
Byrne, Patrick. “Stigma of mental illness and ways of diminishing it Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 6.1 (2000): 65-72. Print.
Glowacki, Robert. Literature review for captivate: local participation for all. Perth: Disability Services Commission Department of Sport and Recreation, 2007. Print.
Hampton, Nan. “Meeting the unique needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with disabilities: A challenge to rehabilitation counselors in the 21st century.” Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling 31.1 (2000): 40-46. Print.
Heyne, Linda., Stuart Schleien., and Leo McAvoy. Making Friends: Using recreating activities to promote friendship between children with and without disabilities. Minneapolis: Institute on Community Integration, 1993. Print.
McCallion, Philip., Matthew Janicki., and Lucinda Grant-Griffin. “Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on older families caregiving for persons with developmental disabilities.” Family Relations 46.4 (1997): 347-357. Print.
Mcloughlin, Caven., Zheng Zhou., and Elaine Clark. “Reflections on the development and status of contemporary special education services in China.” Psychology in the Schools 42.3 (2005): 273-283. Print.
McKeever, Rosemary. Rethink Anti-Stigma Campaign in Northern Ireland: Public Information Sheet on what is stigma. June 2006. Web.
Moreno, Ivan. Mexico’s disabled live in horrific conditions, report finds. 06 March, 2012. Web.
Retish, Paul., and Shunit Raiter. Adults with disabilities: international perspectives in the community. New York: Routledge, 1999. Print.
Skivington, Michael. “Disability and Adulthood in, Mexico: An Ethnographic Case Study.” International Journal of Special Education 26.3 (2011): 1 – 12. Print.
Zaromatidis, Kelly et al. “A cross-cultural comparison of attitudes toward persons with disabilities: Greeks and Greek-Americans.” Psychological Reports 84.3 (1999): 1189-1196. Print.
Treatment of Somatization Disorder Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Abbreviated as SD, Somatization Disorder refers to a medical condition characterized by several physical complaints. It has been found that SD occurs in chronic stages and patients suffering from this condition have a higher likelihood of suicide attempt compared to any other medical condition (Mai 653).
However, Somatization Disorder is not the main cause of suicide deaths reported across the world. The high level of suicide attempts among SD patients is attributed to cases of overdoses of drugs, emanating from the presence of numerous complaints.
Persistent physical complaints are quite often and these may last for years as several body systems are prone to the attack. Nevertheless, most registered cases involve complaints regarding the reproductive system, the nervous and the digestive system. Unlike other medical cases, SD carries a high level of stigma. As such, patients get dismissed by medical practitioners who argue that the condition is usually a manufactured disease in the mind of the patient (Mai 653).
SD presents itself through severe symptoms, capable of interfering with a person’s capability to work and even relate with other people around. Consequently, affected people seek medication from medical experts (Khouzam and Field 20).
Based on gender, Somatization Disorder is more prevalent in women than men. Coupled with other psychological disorders and anxiety, this condition may become fatal and is known to have poor diagnosis (Mai 653). Lowering the impact of SD is quite important with counseling and other psychological approaches being considered.
These help patients in dealing with the condition and augments stress management for better mental stability. Early intervention may further lower the severity of symptoms, which may lead to other harsh complications. This intervention is essential and healthy since most of the complications are uncomfortable and may deny the patient the ability to perform his or her daily chores and may lead to suffering of feelings (Khouzam and Field 20).
The condition is also known to fluctuate in one’s life and complete relief from the complaints is hardly possible. Additionally, Somatization Disorder develops between the age of eighteen and thirty years.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to mention that no single method has been identified in the treatment and prevention of SD (Mai 653). This research paper explores the best treatment option for people suffering from SD. It further explains dangers and disadvantages of these treatment options, which have to be known to patients before consideration.
Treatment As mentioned above, Somatization Disorder does not have a single treatment method. Its treatment may comprise of several management methods before positive healthy results can be realized. However, there are several challenges experienced in the treatment of SD among medical practitioners (Mai 657). Most physicians are pessimistic and negative towards this condition. It is believed that psychologists and psychiatrists perceive SD as a chronic condition that only exists in the mind of patients.
This pessimism further ignores the fact that poor management of Somatization Disorder can lead to high severity of complications associated with the disorder (Khouzam and Field 23). This commonly occurs when there is inconsistency in treatment, which dissatisfies most patients. The difficulty experienced by doctors in treatment of Somatization Disorder is highly attributed to ignorance, refuting organic diseases, discomfort of some doctors during the process and the fear by most doctors to miss an organic disease (Weiten 70).
General treatment Treatment of SD requires the efforts of both doctors and the patients in order to realize better recovery results. In this regard, the first general principle of treatment is to ensure that diagnosis feedback is known to the patient (Mai 658). This helps the patient to understand his or her medical conditions based on the findings recorded by the doctor.
However, rejection is common, where doctors consider patients’ symptoms as imaginative and not real. As a result, the patient is denied the ability to positively accept the situation. Empowerment of patients is highly recommended by giving tangible and rational explanation for manifested symptoms to allow self-empowerment and stabilization of the situation at hand (Khouzam and Field 23).
Specific treatment Treatment of Somatization Disorder is mainly through pharmacological and psychological methods. Additionally, a combination of the two methods could be adopted as determined by the doctor in charge. Under psychological therapies, patients are usually exposed to supportive psychotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy.
However, the two can be combined depending on the verdict of the doctor and the severity of the existing symptoms (Mai 658). It is important to note that supportive psychotherapy is best performed by physicians who are sympathetic and understanding towards the medical problem. In this case, the doctor is able to respond to both emotional and physical challenges presented by the patient.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Treatment of Somatization Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is recommended that therapy sessions be regular, consistent and well structured in order to eliminate several complaints. However, these sessions should not be in excess to avoid dependency among patients. For quick recovery, patients are encouraged to focus on their daily life and not current medical symptoms to avoid worsening of the situation.
On the other hand, CBT is the most effective method of treating Somatization Disorder. This approach merges several therapeutic procedures and is highly recommended for patients who do not respond to simple strategies of SD treatment and management (Mai 658). Under this approach, appropriate behavior of the patient is promoted through structuring of the patient’s physical and social environment.
This eliminates the possibility of being preoccupied with dangerous imaginations and behavior, which may hamper recovery. CBT experts reveal that family members and physicians play a crucial role in the recovery of SD patients and may also reinforce their illness (First and Tasman 385).
Treatment goals are equally important to define the number and frequency of therapy sessions. They also explain the need for patients to be involved in homework such as reading appropriate literature, recoding of feelings and keeping of a diary (Mai 659).
This helps the physician to track the lifestyle of the patient with regard to the prevailing disorder. CBT further allows the participation of family members in modification of the environment, allowing them to monitor the behavior and response of the patient regularly (Khouzam and Field 24). Under this category of patients, relaxation therapy could also be vital as a way of maintaining good health. This has to be done regularly over a long period of time.
Besides psychological therapies, patients suffering from SD can be treated using pharmacological therapies. Nevertheless, there is very little progress that has been realized in exploring medical treatment approach. Antidepressants are the most prescribed drugs especially for patients who do not suffer from dysphoria. The risk of using this method is overdose due to numerous complications.
Conclusion By comparing these methods, I would recommend CBT as the most efficacious way of dealing with SD. This is because it combines all psychological therapies and involves both the patient, physician and family members.
Nevertheless, the disadvantage of this method is rejection from doctors and family members who may not be able to understand SD symptoms being presented (Mai 660). In seeking medical attention, patients can consider community resources like public hospitals, hotlines, clinics, support groups and recreational centers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Treatment of Somatization Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited First, Michael, and Tasman Allan. Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.
Khouzam, Raoul, and Field Susan. “Somatization Disorder: Clinical Presentation and Treatment in Primary Care.” Turner White, 1999. Web.
Mai, François. “Somatization Disorder: A Practical Review.” Can J Psychiatry 49.10, (2004): 652-662. Print.
Weiten, Wayne. Psychology: Themes and Variations Briefer Version. Stamford, Connecticut, U.S: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Deforestation Problem Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Deforestation is the cutting down of trees for the purpose of converting the land to none forest use. Deforestation involves cutting down trees and stumps completely or partially for a variety of reasons. The major reason why people cut down trees is for fuel use whereby the cut down trees are used as a source of energy, a phenomenon that is very common in most developing countries.
Deforestation is carried out for agricultural purposes in that the deforested land is used for planting agricultural products or grazing. In this case, the cut down trees are burnt down which leads to the depreciation of the soil nutrients (Margulis, 2004).
Extraction of natural resources and construction of public amenities is another major reason as to why deforestation takes place. Large tracts of forest land are deforested to pave way for the extraction of mineral resources such as limestone, diamond, gold and all other sorts of minerals. Construction of roads, railway lines, buildings and dams are other reasons for deforestation.
Commercial logging is also another major cause for deforestation. In this case, the trees cut down are sawed into timber and pulp for various commercial uses ranging from construction to other industrial uses like raw material of making plain papers.
Deforestation has continued rapidly throughout the world regardless of the grave effects of this practice. Forests initially covered a quarter of the earth planet, but the encroachment of human activities leaving bare fields has continued to be a major threat to forests and has led to drastic reduction of the percentage of earth covered by forests.
According to Spilsbury, (2011), the percentage of land covered by forests has reduced drastically over a period of time. A good case study of this is Brazil where large tracks of Amazon rain forest have been destroyed due to logging.
In most developing countries, over 80% of the wood harvested is used for fuel purposes. Most of deforestation done for the purpose of fuel is done in dry forests where else deforestation for commercial reason is done in tropical rain forests. Wood fuel is preferred by rural and urban populations in developing countries because of its affordability and availability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the rural poor population residing near forests normally uses only wood fuel due to its proximity. In this case, the population cut down trees in the neighboring forests and uses them for cooking purposes. The urban population has contributed to deforestation whereby timber merchants cut down trees for the purpose of charcoal burning where they get their lucrative market in the urban areas.
One of the effects of deforestation felt globally is global warming. Global warming occurs as a result of deforestation as trees uses carbon dioxide during the photosynthesis process. Forests decrease leads to the increase of carbon dioxide in the environment which traps heat in the atmosphere leading to global warming. Other effects of deforestation include desertification due to lack of rains, environmental pollution as well as wildlife human conflict.
To curb deforestation, several measures need to be undertaken. This include reforestation, legislation to ban logging, recycling to cut down the use of forest products and protecting forested areas from human encroachment.
Another major measure which can be taken to stop deforestation is using alternative sources of fuel apart from wood fuel. Alternative fuel sources will drastically reduce the rate at which forests are being destructed. Governments across the world should adopt the use of bio gas, solar and wind energy as an alternative source of fuel energy (Miller, Vandome
Key functions and roles of the top management, middle and first-line management of Infoscape Technologies and Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC) Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Infoscape Technologies Infoscape Technologies is a novel technology firm focusing on the hospitality industry in the UAE region. It focuses on providing software solutions to the hospitality industry. Mainly, it provided solutions in Guest Incident Management, HR administration, concierge management system, and Hotel Service Optimization System. Vinod Philip, who is currently the CEO, started the company in 2008. The company has several middle level managers, director of sales, project manager, HR and financial officer.
The CEO is the overall manager in charge of the operations of the company. The CEO is responsible for strategic leadership in the company. The CEO, in collaboration with other senior level managers, has the task of devising policies for implementation within the company.
Since its inception in 2009, the company has grown in many dimensions; this includes an increase in the customer base and an increase in program outputs. The CEO offers guidance in what products the company distributes from other companies and sets targets for the percentage of products the company will market under its own brand. The number of high-level collaborations has increased as well as the output of Infoscape branded products.
The CEO maintains discretionary authority on decisions concerning which products the company markets from outside. The CEO also represents the company in industry conventions, within and outside UAE. The CEO receives reports on the progress of the company form the different departments and charts new course for the company. He also provides decisions on expansions; for example the decisions to expand to India.
The other mid-level manager is the project manager. The project manager is in charge of all projects undertaken by the company. The company deals with installation and maintenances of software solutions in the hospitality industry; consequently, all the functions of installation and maintenances fall under the office of the project manager. The projects manager oversees the implementation of projects related to varied technology products.
This includes presales, execution, training, project management, and support. All the activities pertaining to customer satisfaction fall under this office. The project manager has duties comprising of designing, instituting, and evaluating the progress of projects. She is in charge of monitoring the productivity and motivation of her workers. She also handles customer complains concerning the company products or products marketed by the company.
The director of sales deals with all marketing activities in the firm, which includes both the company brands and external brands. The manager has the charge of overseeing effective collaboration between his company and other company in marketing partnerships. He furnishes the CEO with information regarding the market requirements and recommend solution products. He has to keep the sales personnel motivated and productive. The other managers assume the roles designed for their departments in the same manner.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First-line managers include the assistant technical consultant, Robson Correa, and the personnel manager. The assistant technical consultant answers to the project director and is responsible for the providing consultation to company staff working in various projects. The personnel manager oversees the welfare of company personnel. This includes workstation transportations, complaints, leave, and general employee issues.
STC STC is a Saudi-based organization dealing in telecommunications. It was established in 1998. It operates through five operations units dealing in voice calls, data, internet, business, and mobile services. It has 21,190 employees and a market capitalization of SAR 79.8 billion (Zawya, 2012).
In 2011, the STC publicized its new organizational structure. The structure comprised of divisions descriptive of KSA Operations, Strategic Operations, and Technical Operations. The Group CEO, Group VP for Shared Services, CEO for Strategic Operations, Group CEO for Technical Operations, and CEO of Saudi Operations provide headship to the company.
The next level of management comprises of VPs in charge of Wholesale, Finance Saudi Arabia, Informational Technology, Home Services, Network, Strategic Affairs, Enterprise Services, Human Capital, Regulatory Affairs, and Personal Services. The third level of managers includes the project managers in all the divisions represented by the vice presidents (Zawya, 2012).
The top-level management consists of four persons proving oversight to all sectors of the company. They provide guidance to the multinational operations on the company. Their functions include setting standards for the company on the three key sectors of the company and making top-level management decisions. They also evaluate the structure of the organization to ensure that is consistent with company orientation.
The second level of management, consisting of the VPs for various subsectors, is responsible for the actual operation decisions in the organization. They cooperatively design strategies for the progress of the company in line with the goals established by the top management and the board of governors.
They have the task of running their subsectors to ensure optimum productivity. The middle level directors consult with project managers to address the issue of motivation, qualifications, and job satisfaction. They interpret the goals of the company in terms of their sectors and communicate them to the first-line managers.
We will write a custom Assessment on Key functions and roles of the top management, middle and first-line management of Infoscape Technologies and Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They receive and evaluate reports on the progress of their divisions and make appropriate recommendations. Finally, they report to the top management on the progress in their sub sectors. The product managers have the task of disseminating company policies and goals to non-managerial staff. They translate these policies into actual tasks that the personnel under them will accomplish. They report to their immediate supervisors. They monitor the productivity of the works and make appropriate decisions.
Advantages and disadvantages of their organization structures Infoscape follows a line-discipline organizational structure. This means that divisions arise from the different roles carried by the middle level managers. Command flows, in most cases, from the top. However, the middle level managers aid in the decision-making by furnishing the CEO with the relevant information. Policies developed from the top management eventually reach the last rank among the employees. This arrangement has several advantages.
It is the simplest method of administration, since the centers of command are easily identifiable and recognizable. Superior-subordinate relationships persist, and the organization follows a top-bottom chain of command, which results in harmony of command. There are fewer chances of miscommunication and conflicts. Since the command flows from only one direction, then all the personnel will be following similar directions, thus, reducing chances of confusion and conflict.
This organizational structure also presents the advantage of instituting better discipline throughout the organization (Murphy
Introduction to Management Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu
Emerging Issues That Will Affect Business in the UAE One emerging issue that businesses in the UAE must deal with in the future is localization. Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs) face the challenge of making their business operations local to effectively compete in the UAE business environment. There are laws in the UAE governing aspects of localization for MNEs.
However, their implementation is somewhat ambiguous. Thus, companies rely on the need to realize economic returns as a factor influencing their localization policy. Unfortunately, the present situation allows some MNEs to avoid the localization of their operations. Moreover, those that succeed in implementing localization may not go as deep as it is necessary to maintain their competitive strategies in the end.
Localization differently affects various companies. First, in the UAE, the government through its agencies is the biggest consumer of products and services in the economy. Companies that encourage the employment of UAE citizens and subcontract their work to native companies have a higher chance of doing business with the government.
The lucrativeness of government contracts in the UAE force many MNEs to hire local staffs. Not all MNEs will survive the dynamic market of the country if all they do is hire local staffs. The UAE continues to emerge as a force to reckon in the global business environment. As it rises, its citizens and laws also evolve to provide better control and management the economy.
MNEs that early adopted the concept of localization have an advantage over new companies, which are copying an already existing trend. For the former, their need to realize economic gains prompted them to develop strategic plans in accordance with their strength and weakness analyses. However, the latter only adopt localization policies to copy their competitors.
Copying strategies of another company in the same industry does not guarantee the effectiveness of those strategies in the future. The late adopters of localization have to deal with the emerging risk of becoming irrelevant in the changing market. The UAE is likely to develop professional bodies and associations that will stress the need for the adoption of local practices among MNEs. Thus, the companies that fail to support the localization projects are already jeopardizing their future operations.
Management should understand that the achievement of external legitimization by recruiting native nationals reduces their risks as they compete with homegrown firms (Forstenlechner
Improvement of Communication Strategies Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Abstract This paper is aimed at identifying strategies that firms can utilize to improve communications channels with its employees. The introduction gives a concise explanation of communication process in an organization. It then identifies obstacles faced by employees in firms. Using the theories identified by research recommendations explain viable strategies for organization are given. All this information then form the basis for conclusion that is also given in the paper.
Introduction In organizations, communication is the process by which information is passed from the top-level management that is comprised of the CEO and the Board of Directors down to the other subordinates and vice-versa. The significance of communication is any institution is to ensure that the recipient of data fully understands the information given. The main medium for communication in organization is people i.e. among managers, subordinates, customers etc (Gibson
How to Choose a Major Persuasive Essay a level english language essay help
Choosing an academic major, the students make one of the most important decisions in life. It is a complicated issue which is influenced by a number of aspects where gender one is the most significant. Such issue includes the psychological process of selecting the academic majors from the position of the gender stereotypes. Although gender rights and ability to choose the education and work are equal in the modern society, the gender aspect is still has a serious impact on the people’s choice, including the choice of college major.
Thus, according to the most widely spread stereotypes, girls rather choose humanities than technical majors or math, while boys prefer the sciences, technical subjects and IT. However, I think that the statement that girls and boys have the different ability to study technical subjects is incorrect due to a number of examples of successful women-scientists.
It is the absolutely illogical position, as the present aspect is based on the personal skills and inborn patterns. Therefore, analyzing the current situation within the educational system from the position of the gender stereotypes, it is necessary to develop the solution which should step-by-step improve the situation.
The most appropriate measures are the providing of the seminars for school students when the teachers could emphasize an importance of the personal choice in spite of the stereotyped opinions. As the students will comprehend that the decision-making process should be independent and based on the personal skills and desires, they will choose those majors which can help them to increase the inborn talent.
Therefore, it is necessary to change the stereotypical view of the gender definition of the sciences, developing the governmental programs which would guarantee the equality of every students no matter of gender and to provide the lessons and seminars for students, indicating and unmasking the gender stereotypes as a cause of the significant impact on the process of choosing a major.
It is obvious that the choice of a major is a one of the most important decisions in life. St. John says that “there is, perhaps, no college decision that is more thought-provoking, gut-wrenching and rest-of-your life-oriented – or disoriented – than the choice of a major” (22).
Most of the students make their choice not only because they do not want to study math or languages or, vice versa, they want to investigate the concrete subject. The foundation of the psychological aspects within the process of choosing a major indicates that the gender stereotypes have a significant influence on the students’ choice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, there is a widely spread belief in the society that boys are better in sciences and various technical subjects than girls. As it is a well-known fact that girls have more developed left cerebral hemisphere, while boys have right, many people suppose that girls should choose humanities such as literature, languages, psychology, etc. In every situation when the girl chooses the technical studies, math or chemistry, there are the doubts about an ability of female to cope with such sciences.
On the other hand, there is a stereotype than females are better teachers and psychologists than males due to the natural skills to comprehend the emotions and feeling of others and ability to teach children.
However, the simple analysis demonstrates than this statement is absolutely wrong, as there are different examples of the great male teachers. Besides, the majority of the famous psychologists are males. Therefore, I am sure of the necessity of explaining of this issue for students who are ready to make a choice of a major.
The present issue requires the development of the measures which could reduce the disbalance and stereotypes within the educational area. The research of this problem demonstrates that the issue needs more strict developmental solutions.
Many researchers emphasize that the gender stereotypes and gender equality are the parts of the international promoting programs which claim the importance of parity and the personal rights, including the choice of educational majors, in spite of the stereotypes. Thus, Subrahmanian says that gender parity and equality within the education are the international development goals (396). The author analyses the work of The Dakar Framework for Action, which contains the gender-based goals.
First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the gender inequality on the different levels of educational system, including the primary and secondary education. According to the researcher, a gender perspective within the educational system includes such elements as “learning content, teaching method and process, subject choice, assessment modes, management of peer relationships and learning outcomes” (Subrahmanian 403). Thus, it is possible to notice that subject choice is one of the key elements of the gender equality.
According to Bennett et al., the current situation within the educational system demonstrates the presence of such characteristics as “politicians’ concerns for the country to remain globally competitive through scientific innovation delivered by a skilled workforce; lobbyists’ campaigns for equal rights for women employees; and female academics’ challenges to the cultures and practices of their own science disciplines” (2010).
We will write a custom Essay on How to Choose a Major specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, the authors emphasize the feminist perspective, which has a significant support. From this point of view, there is no problem for the students to choose that major which they want no matter of gender.
However, as this situation is typical for United Kingdom and Ireland, a number of other world’s communities demonstrate the different statistics where the gender factor is significant. The researchers suggest the political debates like one of the measures which can improve the problem of the gender stereotypes within the educational system.
All children should have the same access to the educational programs and subjects. Although this problem is not significant in the Western countries, it is one of the major aspects of the Eastern societies and especially in the Middle East, where females have fewer abilities than males.
Providing of the equal access to the scientific disciplines will help students be more acquainted with the subjects and will help them to choose a major. Such problems should be discussed on the various levels, including the ministers and governments and the national and international committees. As the ministries of education will comprehend the problem, they will develop the measures to improve the situation and to change the stereotypes.
I see the development of seminars and lessons in the schools as the major step of improvement of the situation. One of the solutions is the creation of a list of recommendations for students.
This list should include those elements which will emphasize the equality of males and females in the process of choice of a major and an importance of the personal skills and inborn talent as the basement of the choice. Besides, I would like to provide the particular examples, for instance, the successful male teachers and female-physicists. Such obvious examples are more effective and convincing than the theories.
Reading the information about the concrete scientists, the students will feel freer and more assured of their choice of a major. For instance, the information about Sofia Kovalevskaya and Marie Skłodowska-Curie, among many other women-scientists, will demonstrate that students should easily choose chemistry, math or physics as a major, in spite of the gender stereotypes.
At the same time, the information about successful male teachers or designers will help males to follow their desire to study such “female” disciplines as literature or art. Although it is a well-known fact that men are better chefs than women, most of the male students do not want to study this discipline, in spite of the skills and desire.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How to Choose a Major by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, they are better fashion and interior designers. Although it seems absolutely female deal to teach children, cook and express the emotions, men can get more success as the teachers and artists. However, most of the time, they are scared to be mocked or misunderstood as well as girls are afraid to choose the technical majors and, as the result, to be misunderstood and do not be treated seriously.
The school seminars should demonstrate that both genders have the same rights within the choice of the academic programs and it is not shameful to follow the dreams. Moreover, it would be appropriate and effective to invite the practitioners form the different areas in order to show the students that it is possible to get the success in every field, in spite of gender.
As a result of the seminars, the students will be able to get the feedback from the professionals. Thereby, it is necessary to make those studies more practical than theoretical. As the theory can be good, while doing the research and investigating the problem, the practical examples are more effective and convincing in the process of decision-making.
Considering gender as one of the major issues that has a significant impact on the process of choosing of an academic major by students, it is necessary to provide the measures which should improve this problem. Thus, the possible solution can be found in development of the educational programs by the governments, which will guarantee the equal rights and parity within the educational system for all students.
This issue should be discussed within the political and social debates in order to improve the problem of gender stereotypes as one of the key elements of choosing a major. It is necessary to provide the possibility of choosing any subject no matter of gender of the student. Besides, the school program should include the seminars and lectures where the students will be able to get information about the different subjects which can be chosen as the majors.
Additionally, such seminars will provide an opportunity to learn about the particular examples of males and females who got success in the various fields of science. As the students will get the chance to meet with the professionals, they will comprehend the necessity of the choice of a major, according to their natural talent and skill and no matter of gender.
Works Cited Bennett, Cinnamon, Marina Larios, Louise Norman and Emma Parry 2010, Meta-analysis of gender and science research – Country group report: UK and Ireland countries. PDF file. Web.
St. John, E. “Majors.” Black Issues in Higher Education, 17.4 (2000): 21-27. Print.
Subrahmanian, Ramya. “Gender equalityin education: Deﬁnitions and measurements.” International Journal of Educational Development 25 (2005): 395–407. Print.
Personality of Julius Caesar and His Effect on Rome Report college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Caesar’s Effect on Rome
Kevin Rudd Compared to Caesar
Introduction Julius Caesar is an ancient Roman personality and an influential political figure. Moreover, conspirators, led by a personality called Brutus, assassinated him. Caesar’s role in the play is not immense, though he dominates the play, even after his demise in the third act of the play.
He is enigmatic and represents the focal theme of the play, the moral haziness surrounding his assassination (Shakespeare, 2011). The assassinating leader is an influential political figure and coveted leader who is a brutal and sadistic tyrant. Therefore, the conspiracy against him appears to be dignified and similarly malevolent.
Caesar’s Personality Caesar is undoubtedly domineering. His first appearance depicts scores of admiring followers behind him. He is accustomed to dominion. Caesar depicts his dominance by dismissing the soothsayer when they warn him (Loos
Social Inequalities in American Society Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Tax Avoidance by Billionaires
Have the people banded together against this inequality?
Introduction Social inequalities seem to typify the American society. The federal government is desperately attempting to raise the debt ceiling to cover up for high debt due to insufficient revenues. That notwithstanding, it is now apparent that myriads of billionaires and millionaires rarely pay their income taxes.
This is despite making huge incomes from their investments. Conversely, tax evasion amongst the middle and lower class is an offense that invites horrendous punitive measures (Kourvetaris, 1997). How do the rich avoid paying income tax to the government? Have people banded together to counter this source of social inequality?
Tax Avoidance by Billionaires There are various ways that the rich are able to avoid taxation. In 2009, the IRS revealed that almost 1,500 billionaires and millionaires in the country did not pay a single dollar as income tax (Wilkinson
Historical Changes in the Employment Laws in US Essay online essay help
Chronology of employment laws The Clayton Act was enacted in 1914, with the intention of establishing legal protection for organized labor. There was a need to assert the position of labor in the face of antitrust legislations, and this is what the law was intended to achieve. In 1926, the Railways Act was passed. It was meant to encourage collective bargaining among employers, and prohibit discrimination against unions.
The Davis-Bacon Act was passed by Congress in 1931, to address the problem of wage payment in the construction industry. Its provisions required a contract for construction into which the federal government entered, to specify the minimum wage to be paid to laborers employed under that contract (Federal Labor Laws, n.d).
In order to increase protection for union activities and collective bargaining, Congress passed the Norris-NaGuardia Act in 1932. The Act legalized strikes and other collective ways of dealing with labor issues, and also prohibited the enforcement of ‘yellow dog’ agreements or contracts through the courts of law. The National Industry Recovery Act was enacted in 1933, and congress intended to set standards of ‘fair competition’, by regulating regular working hours and wages (Federal Labor Laws, n.d)..
The National Labor Relations Act-1935 was passed by Congress in order to regulate labor relations among employees whose activities affected interstate commerce, except those in the agricultural sector.
The Act also established the NLRB, through which labor disputes would be handled, and prohibited employers from engaging in any of the prohibited unfair practices. In 1936, Congress enacted the Walsh-Healy Act, whose intention was to restrict the regular working hours, establish minimum wages and regulate the employment of children and ex-convicts (Federal Labor Laws, n.d).
In order to introduce some limitations to the rights enjoyed by trade unions, Congress enacted the National Labor Relations Act in 1947. The Act introduced measures to delay or avert ‘emergency strikes’ and prohibited the discriminative ‘closed shop’ practices of trade unions.
The Equal Pay Act was passed by congress in 1963 to prohibit the act of paying different amounts of money to male and female employees, only because they were male or female. This law was also enacted in order to protect employees from retaliation, if they filed complaints against their employers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Civil Rights Act of 1964, was enacted to protect the rights of individuals, and to prohibit various actions by employers that the law classified as discriminatory (Federal Labor Laws, n.d). This list is not exhaustive, and many more employment laws exist in the US.
In the recent past, there has been a marked increase in the calls for equality and protection from discrimination at the work place. Legislations such as The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Civil Rights Act of 1991, and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 all prohibit different types of discriminations.
These legislative efforts have led to the reduction of discrimination at the work place, as these laws prescribe heavy penalties for the commission of prohibited acts by employers and their agents.
Scenario Discrimination at the workplace on the basis of sex is prohibited by employment laws in the United States (EEOC, n.d). There are several options that an aggrieved party can pursue in order to have his/her grievance addressed. These options include; internal dispute resolution procedures at the workplace, filing a complaint with the EEOC, or litigation among others (EEOC, n.d). If an employee files a complaint against the employer, he/she is protected from retaliation by the law.
Smith has a case against the company for retaliation, since the law prohibits retaliatory acts by the employer against an employee who files a complaint against it.
The remedies available to a victim of retaliation include; compensatory damages for expenses or losses that he/she may have incurred as a result of the retaliatory act, and punitive damages to punish the employer especially where the act was malicious or reckless (EEOC, n.d).
Before he can recover, Smith will have to prove; that he exhausted the internal dispute resolution mechanisms laid down by the company before proceeding to the EEOC, and that he suffered damage or loss as a result of the retaliatory act. He will also have to establish the company’s vicarious liability for the acts of the offending party in order to recover against it.
We will write a custom Essay on Historical Changes in the Employment Laws in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References EEOC. (n.d.). Sex-Based Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sex.cfm
Federal Labor Laws. (n.d.). Web.
The Problems that Lake Tahoe Faces Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Lake Tahoe has not only transformed America, it has also played a major role in the conquest of California. The lake put a beginning to a sexual revolution, was a premise for a ski industry and also led to the launch of Republican Party. The novel Tahoe beneath the Surface by Scott Lankford tells about a hidden history of the most famous residents of the Lake Tahoe. The novel provides tales about Rat Pack, Mafia dons and mysterious legends of Indian tribes.
The novel brings to light the values of Lake Tahoe illustrating why it is one of the hot spots in America. It also traces the steps of authors like Maxine Hong Kingston, Bertrand Russell and Michael Ondaatje. In addition, it reveals the darkest pages of the American history, such as Kennedy assassination and anti-Chinese racism.
The novel also shows how lives of such famous people like Frank Sinatra, John Muir, and Mark Twain were influenced by this lake. These characters both have specific reasons as to why they value Lake Tahoe, for example Sinatra value lake Tahoe because of its glamour and glitz, while Muir values it for its natural beauty and Cousteau values the lake for its natural waters (Scott 98).
However, even regardless of the influence on life of many people, there are several environmental threats that the lake faces making it increasingly vulnerable. There are also Tahoe Blue in the lake, which is a term used by the author Lankford to describe the meaning represented by the lake, its beauty and range of life around it. It is however important to preserve Lake Tahoe since it has transformed America and the people leaving around it.
Lake Tahoe has acted as one of the most beautiful cites in the whole world, however, it is still troubled by numerous environmental harms. Since 1844 when Lake Tahoe was discovered, the lake has acted as scenic attraction site because of its natural beauty and surrounding which is one of the reasons why John Muir, a character in the novel, valued the lake.
On the other hand, Frank Sinatra who is one of the characters in the novel, also valued the lake because of its glamour and glitz. This is one of the reasons why Lake Tahoe needs to be preserved, as its site can act as a source of revenue to America when tourists come to view the place. Many scientists, community leaders and government seek to find ways to preserve the lake and restore its distinctive biological diversity.
Cousteau who is one of the characters of the novel Tahoe beneath the Surface values the Lake Tahoe for its natural waters. Lake Tahoe straddling along the California-Nevada border is well known for its clean waters usually referred to as jewel of the Sierra (Scott 100).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, subsequent development and growth has become one of threats faced by Lake Tahoe since it menaces the clarity of the natural waters. This part of the lake is the centerpiece of ecosystem where many resource managers and scientists have continually been examined. They measure, sample, test and restore the biodiversity and landscape of the lake.
They try their best to ensure that Lake Tahoe restores back its natural waters which has acted as a home for many plant species and wildlife. If the water is endangered then it means that the lives of these plants and animals are in danger too. This is why it is very crucial that the lake be preserved to save the plants and animals and also the clarity of the water. About 200,000 acres of the lake have ecologically sensitive slopes, marshes and meadows (Dylan 110).
Economic development and growth have a negative effect on the environment of the lake despite the fact that it has contributed to the prosperity of the region that is situated near the lake. Nevertheless, there is a great decline in biodiversity in the lake due to the polluted air and soil.
The soil and air around Lake Tahoe need to be fresh to enable survival of living organisms in it and around it. It is therefore crucial to preserve the lake. Regional goals have been adopted by American government to promote and expand bio-logical diversity of wildlife, fish and communities that habit in and around Lake Tahoe.
Landowners around Lake Tahoe have also taken the initiative of reclaiming those parts of the lake that are troubled to see in it that they are well preserved. 85 percent of the land along Lake Tahoe belongs to California Department of Parks and Recreation, U.S Forest Service, California Tahoe Conservancy and Neva da Division of States Parks. However, the remaining part of the land along Lake Tahoe is privately owned (Byron
Different quality services between Asia and Europe Hotels Essay (Book Review) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Factor impacting on customer satisfaction (culture)
Research questions and objectives
Introduction There has been an endless debate among travelers concerning the standard of quality of service in the hospitality industry. It is worth noting that the debate is focusing on whether European hotels offer same level of services as their Asian counterparts.
There is no doubt that different people have different test when it comes to the quality of service they would like to receive from hotels as well as other hospitality industry. There are those of the view that whenever they are out of their country, they expect to receive services equal to what is offered back home while there are those who believe they need to receive a different level of service (Naraya et al., 2009).
Since the world has turned into a global village, travelling has been faster and cheaper, thus people find themselves out of their motherland more often. This kind of travelling has offered hospitality industry with an opportunity to grow. One area that scholars have noted to be of interest and can be successfully used as competitive advantage is to provide customers with very high standard of service; this can be attained through incorporating cultural aspects.
As a result of rising significance of service quality in the hotel industry, scholars in the hospitality industry dedicated their efforts to come up with a framework as well as measurable scales to help determine perception of service quality. As a result SERVQUAL model was developing and up to date it is well known and has been applied in various studies. The model is made up of 5 service quality dimensions and includes the following; tangible, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and reliability (Tse, 2009).
Tangibles are those physical facilities; equipment as well as how the employees of a hotel look, when the expectations of a customer are met this will contribute to satisfaction.
Reliability means the ability to accomplish and provide customers with services initially promised, responsiveness defines the willingness of hotel workers to help customers and give them prompt services, assurance refers to knowledge and courtesy of workers towards visitors finally empathy is the caring and personalized attention that customers are provided with by service providers.
Ideally service quality has been simply thought of as the difference between perceptions of customers and his or her expectations. Therefore service quality is one way to help manage business process in order to ensure that total satisfaction to customers on all levels is attained. Ideally the concept ultimately results in higher level of competitiveness, effectiveness as well as flexibility.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Robinson, 2003, he asserts that every nation has realized the importance of tourism and has embarked on efforts to attract more tourists. To match the demands and aspiration of the visitors, hotels are in the forefront to ensure that the visitors are satisfied with everything which will ensure customer loyalty as well as retention.
Asian hotels Asian hotels has the advantage of being considerably less expensive compared to those in America and Europe zone. For this reason, every individual can afford to enjoy the services of the hotel industry.
However in Europe, individual of lower income level can only share room with many other visitors. Similarly, hotels in Asia tend to give much better services as compared to their European counterparts. Additionally the facilities are better too (Tse, 2009).
For instance room are relatively larger in size, they are new bathroom are also newer and larger. Visitors have indicated that they love to spend their holidays in Asian hotels since it is affordable. They claim that they can stay in a hotel in a beach or a block away from the beach at relatively lower cost. Taking dinner every single night is fun and affordable too. Interestingly visitors indicate that they are more attracted to the unique culture of the region.
Europe hotels Hotels in Europe are quite expensive as compared to those in Asian countries. From previous studies, it has been revealed that most of the hotels in this region are smaller; however visitors find it to be charming as well as offer local hospitality. Nonetheless, there have been cases where visitors were of the view that the rooms and bathroom were quite smaller, with poor ventilation. Other visitors were unsatisfied with the quality of linen offered to them as well as lack of view from their room (Akbaba, 2006).
Factor impacting on customer satisfaction (culture) It has been shown that service quality or customer satisfaction with regards to services in the hospitality industry is dictated by a number of factors. The encountered services, employee training and culture are the three most important factors that lead to quality service.
As suggested by Yi, Marcelo
Robocalls in Canada Elections Essay argumentative essay help
Elections Canada warned the public not to trust any calls that claimed change of polling stations. The announcement was made on2nd May, 2011 by the election agency which went further to inform the public that the automated calls were not made by the agency.
The robocalls which mainly targeted the Liberal and NDP supporters gave misleading information to the public. The pranks and harassing calls asked voters to vote in other polling stations, claiming they were being made on behalf of a candidate.
Among the first people to report the prank calls to Elections Canada was Frank Valeriote, a Liberal candidate in Guelph, Ontario. The robocalls were common in Guelph and Thunder Bay where the people received automated calls or live calls with misleading and mischievous information.
Election Canada has evidence that the calls were from a number in Quebec which is no longer in use. The number is registered under a restaurant name in Guelph-Pierre Poutine. Further investigations indicate that the number was initially used to contact Racknine Inc.
Robocalls are legitimate methods of running campaigns in several countries including the USA. The robocalls are automated calls that help a candidate campaign by giving messages about the campaign and information that is relevant to the voter. However, if the service is used to give false and misleading information then it is declared illegal.
The conservatives agree that prank calls were made in Guelph, but the party did not have any role to play in the matter. On the other hand, the Liberal party and NDP believe that the ruling party may have used the robocalls to disrupt and mislead voters.
Even though, there is evidence that misleading and harassing calls were made to the public, there isn’t a clear indication of the effects. The strategies and tricks did not have a lot of influence on the 2011 election results because voter turnout was higher than the 2008 elections.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ruling party i.e. the conservatives are not treating the issue as a matter of national interest instead they termed it as a lot of noise from the opposition. The conservatives choose to blame the opposition and Elections Canada. However, the ruling party should have involved itself actively to find the source and solution of the problem. In so doing, they would have convinced the public that they are interested in solving the issue. Before the issue is solved the conservatives do not have full consent of Canadian voters.
The Liberal and NDP may be blowing the matter out of context. Though there may be some truth in the issue, the rate at which people are reporting fraudulent calls may weaken the issue. Some people view the increase of reports as mischievous and exaggerated.
Elections Canada the agency with the responsibility of solving the issue is not reporting the process and how far the investigation has gone. The complaints submitted to the agency have not been investigated. No one is sure if Elections Canada has the capability and resources to resolve this issue. When Elections Canada offers the results of the investigation then the public will be satisfied with the elections results of 2011.
Racknine Inc. has offered to cooperate with Elections Canada in investigating the issue. This is because some parties had tried to disrupt elections using their service. With witnesses from Responsive Marketing Group inc. Elections Canada should collect all the necessary information from these groups to find the main culprits, and the reasons for their actions. Elections Canada and RCMP should work together to reach the bottom of this issue.
The conservatives cannot fully govern with the Canadians’ sanction if this issue is not resolved. It’s clear that the elections of 2011 were affected by misleading calls, and the matter has to be investigated. Therefore, without faith in elections there is no democracy.
Discrimination in Labor Processes Essay essay help: essay help
There is a tendency to eliminate the gender differences in al aspects of human life and consider men and women equal in their rights. However, looking at some particular activities it is still impossible to say that the rights and freedoms of men and women are equal there.
For example, talking about labor processes and considering the desire of women to be treated equally with men the practice shows that the gender differentiation still exists. No matter how strong the social opinion about the equality of genders, the labor process is the expression of those considerations in practice.
Many works have been written in the relation to the equality of genders and explaining the differences in gender roles at the workplace. Therefore, studying the works by Lorber (2007), Braham (1996), Williams (1992), and Mullings (1997), the salience of gender in the labor process is going to be discusses as the working process is believed to be the most appropriate aspect in analyzing the gender relations.
Dwelling the problem of division of labor Braham (1996) states that the modern consideration of this notion has changed. Therefore, now, discussing the division of labor race and gender aspects are discussed in most cases. Discussing the labor processes and the role of gender, Braham (1996) has noticed the tendency that women more often choose the part-time jobs.
This is connected with their desire to be mothers, but to show that their professional growth is important as well. The author states that the part-time job does not show that women are not that professional in what they do. The author considers the history of women in the labor process and states that the number of women has dramatically increased since 1940’s. Even though a feminization of labor process occurs, the number of men remains higher in comparison to the number of working woman.
Considering the expression of Werneke in 1985 “women are concentrated in a limited range of occupations and are more likely to be found working in relatively less skilled and lower paying jobs than their male counterparts” (in Braham, 1996, p. 319) and comparing it with the modern times, the change in the labor segmentations may be seen. Nowadays women get high paid jobs and the variety of occupations has dramatically increased.
Even though, the segmentation of the occupation still exists. The desire to make the rights of men and women at the workplace equal, there are “male” and “female” professions even though the number of women in male professions increases as well as the number of men in the female ones.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, nursing, librarianship, elementary school teaching, and social work positions have always been considered as female sex-typed occupations, but the tendency to eliminating the sex factor from occupation has lead to the increase of the number of women in male professions and vice versa.
Nevertheless, the prejudiced attitude and discrimination still takes place. The society is struggling for equal rights at the work place, but people are not ready to accept men at the “female” positions too freely (Williams, 1992). Thus, it appears that men do not feel comfortable and have to leave the places they are interested in. The presence of such discrimination will never allow to equalize the genders at the labor market and make sure that the roles of men and women are equally treated.
Lorber (2007) states that the whole society is divided into two roles from birth, male and female and these roles support people through all their lives. The desire to make men and women equal in the social life does not make any sense as people are distinguished from their childhood.
Lorber (2007) pays much attention to the sports professions trying to state that men are stronger and more powerful, therefore the criteria in sports professions are higher for them. Additionally, analyzing the sports equipment, it becomes obvious that gymnastic equipment is created for slim female bodies, while men’s sports are tougher. Men’s and women’s professional sports are based on the capacities of each gender.
No matter how equal the rights in the society, it is difficult to combat with the physiology. Moreover, the author of the book adds the statement that even though the programming comes from Grace M. Hopper who has written a famous work on programming language, this job is believed to be a male one and those women who choose this profession are not paid too much.
Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the gender differences still exist in the labor segmentation even though women occupy high paid and top positions. The discrimination at the work place has been reduced dramatically, still, there are some particular prejudices in the relation to both male and female positions.
The changes in the position hierarchy have occurred for the previous several years and it is not a surprise to see a woman at the top management position, in politics and at other positions which have always been considered as male ones. Additionally, men begin to occupy the professions usually believed to be female. It says about great changes and the beginning of the process of equalization of the roles at the labor processes.
We will write a custom Essay on Discrimination in Labor Processes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering the situation at the labor market and the inequalities in the modern world, it is important to check the place of the employees from poor families in the low wage industries. The conditions at such manufacturing are extremely negative.
The greatest representation of the labor conditions at the low wage industries is presented in the documentary film China Blue (2005) directed by Micha Peled. The main idea of this movie is to show the conditions poor people have to work at. Even though one of the main themes of the movie is the dominant role of China as the exporter, the working conditions are also shown in detail.
The working shift is too long, the wages are too low, but people do not have an opportunity to leave the job as this position gives them the room and the food. The work is hard, but people do not have an opportunity to battle for their rights, as they will be left the most important items they have, room and food. Working in terrible conditions, here all men and women are equal, but there is another hierarchy.
Watching this video, I was frustrated and disturbed with the cruel conditions which still exist in this world. Being too civilized, such countries as China where people are at the threshold of poverty have an opportunity to get money on people who do not have another way out but to work in the current conditions.
Reference List Braham, P. (1996). Divisions of labor. In S. Hall (Ed.), Modernity: an introduction to modern societies (pp.308-339). New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.
Lorber, J. (2007). Believing is seeing. In B. A. Arrighi (Ed.), Understanding inequality: the intersection of race/ethnicity, class, and gender (pp. 153-160). New York, NY: Rowman
Canadian Politics in the Government Exploratory Essay essay help online free
Each nation comes up with a government that will best suit the governing of people being appropriate for the people of that nation. The government ought to consider the political, social and economic effects of the manner in which they choose to govern the nation. There is delegation of duties and responsibilities where the various arms of government come in.
The arms of government are put in place to facilitate thorough investigation, proper presentation of facts and adequate information from the grassroots level running upwards. The government is to serve its subjects with dedication and truth hence there is the need to relate with the subjects ensuring any relevant information is collected and put into use to ensure proper service is delivered to the people.
As a result, there is equal distribution of resources which in return will facilitate peace and growth of the economy. For the best results to be achieved and for a nation to grow, the various arms of government are to carry out their duties with care and dedication. The various arms of government are then to work together and have a balance of power to deliver accordingly.
When addressing the Canadian government, it is noted that the prime minister is the person who makes all key decisions and, in my opinion, has too much power. The prime minister decides on budgetary matters, election dates and the composition of the cabinet as well as structuring the government. The lack of strong political parties has greatly influenced this fact. The prime minister is a supreme ruler and has too many crucial decisions to make.
As much as this type of leadership enhances stability, it is as well extremely risky for the nation. Each person is prone to make mistakes and at this stage if the prime minister makes a few decisions which are not befitting, it can result in the collapse of an economy and the nation at large. In this sort of governance, the other stakeholders such as the cabinet are shelved in decision-making.
To represent people fairly, political parties need to come up with a way to grow strong. This will ensure their active involvement in the decision making process as well as the implementation phase of legislations. To properly implement the law, being part of the entire process from the problem stage, brainstorming phase and finally the decision making phase are of utmost importance. This is because one understands why some decisions were made and understands the problem at a deeper level.
In the Canadian judiciary there is an element of lack of independence by the judges. The courts serve to ensure the law is adhered to and also are part of the implementation of law. There is great need for the judiciary to be impartial and independent. Favoring a particular class of people can hinder proper law implementation and result in some sort of imbalance between different classes. Judicial selections should be done based on merit and some traditions are worth breaking for the growth of the nation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that the stability of political parties is not a ticket to ensuring democracy prevails. At times it will even slow down the decision making process but it plays an important role in representation of the people’s needs and ensures that decisions made fit the subjects of a particular nation. This also can facilitate the reduction of powers of the prime minister and encourage delegation of duties to the parties that have been side-lined.
Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service Research Paper essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Pinchot as Forest Service man
Pinchot as a politician
Pinchot as Governor
Introduction Gifford Pinchot was born in August of the year 1865, to a wealthy family in Connecticut. Gifford Pinchot’s life was centered on religion before he decided to join the field of conservation. He used to engage in widespread evangelism and read widely on religious classics in Protestantism.
He taught Sunday school, and was the class deacon at Yale who was trusted with conducting activities related to religion. From the readings in religion, Pinchot would later combine this moral perspective to institute the development of the greatest conservation movement in America. Gifford Pinchot rallied America to the heights of modern capitalism and democracy through political patronage. As a young man, he loved the woods which would later become his passion and career.
In the history of the United States, he stands out as the first man to be trained in forest management and conservation. After completing his studies at Yale, he went to engage in selective use of forests study in France. Later, he would join politics and ascend to the governorship in Pennsylvania where he acted to bring many changes that are still effective today.
This paper will look at Gifford’s impact on modern capitalism and his major contributions that have affected America in one way or the other. As a progressive individual, he persuaded America into the path of conservation and management of resources through scientific means that he strongly believed were profitable in the long run.
In his tactics, he used the market economy ideas to illustrate that the government had a role in determining how resources could be used for the benefit of the nation. He also sought for the delicate balance between use of resources and management. This was in contradiction to people like John Muir who advocated for whole conservation. This is best illustrated in his support for the Hetch Hecthy dam where he supported its construction.
The years between 1865 and 1920 characterized the height of American dominance in the capitalistic world. These years were characterized by large extensions of industrial prowess, military might, and advanced science. The American profits at this time grew by leaps and bounds, and the government and business almost became one.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Businessmen and managers who owned large shares in industries were often elected as mayors and chairmen of government committees. As a result, the business world went unregulated since the private hands used the political power to their own advantage. This was because there were no checks.
This would catapult American economy to the highest heights of capitalism beating the United Kingdom in industrial progress. The era was characterized by heavy monopolistic ventures that arose to curb the serious price-cutting tactics embraced by competing industries. The effect of the 1873-1879 depression had fizzled out leaving the competitive economy booming.
The investment bankers exercised enormous control on the economy, as well life insurance industry characterized by political interventions. The economy was essentially macro economic where heavy mechanization and the monopolistic measures led to earnings that were triple of the invested capital.
The capitalistic ventures at all levels of government, as a domination of the whole economy, could not present any advantage to the environment physically and in all aspects. The lumber mining industries consumed forests as a source of fuel and reinforcement to the mining developments. The capitalistic economy led to air pollution from smelting and mining.
The contamination of water occurred as a result of massive dumping of industrial effluents. This led to destruction of vegetation and occurrence of wide spread erosion. The environment was littered with debris that accumulated from mining machineries and thus the need for conservation could not have come at a better time than this period.
This environmental degradation had serious effects on some counties like California. Thus, the rise of Gifford Pinchot was a relief to the environment since his efforts and focus was directed to management. His other works in the public domain were through active political activities and engagement. It has to be noted that he also was the first individual to envision environmental conservation.
Therefore, these roles will be analyzed effectively in this paper. What stands out is his influence to capitalism and government. This is well characterized in the historical and economic aspects.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pinchot as Forest Service man Pinchot was a great friend of President Roosevelt and thus his ascension to politics and major impact to American economy and thinking cannot be under-emphasized. In 1898, Pinchot rose to become the Chief of the Forestry Division of US Department of Agriculture.
This department later became to be known as the Bureau and much later, it changed to “Forest Service”. Under his leadership and due to his close connection to the President in the Republican politics, the Bureau gained national control of the forest reserves, and this led to the name Forest Service.
In his work as a leader, he taught the value of diligence and a sense of mission, and thus he laid grounds for his political career at this early period. Pinchot and Roosevelt saw the same great need to use resources wisely in the environment. Therefore, they were both concerned with advancing strategies that would see that the resources helped the future generations of the American people.
In this effort, they coined the term “conservation” to mean the use and the movement advocating for management of the resources. In his tenure, America gained knowledge in non-exploitative use of forests, and as a fact, the acreage rose to millions in favor of national forest that were controlled and their use regulated by the government. However, this was a success under Roosevelt’s Presidency because things changed course when Roosevelt was defeated in the elections. This heralded a new era in Pinchot’s life, that of politics.
Pinchot as a politician As mentioned above, Gifford was a friend of Roosevelt, and a supporter of the Republican Party. Roosevelt struggled with Taft on the issue of the government owning land meant for forest reserves of which he was a supporter. This led to his breaking away to form the Progressive Party that Pinchot became a staunch supporter.
The party advocated for land reforms among other changes in the American society that were considered radical at the time. These issues included the regulation of child labor, the presence of a minimum wage for women, and the introduction of employment insurance in America. This led to Roosevelt’s defeat and thus Pinchot remained as the man who strived to keep the party moving.
As a mature politician, Pinchot ran for the seat of Senator in 1914 against Boies Penrose of the Republican Party. In his campaign, he advocated for radical changes such as the right of women to participate in a political process; a graduated income tax; and prohibition of alcoholic beverages, and other radical ideas that had been unheard of. However, he was not successful in the end as the progressive members returned to their old party. Although Pinchot joined the Republicans reluctantly, he was in severe opposition to the President.
Despite his loss, it is worth to note that he got married to Cornelia Bryce, a lady who equaled her husband in energy and spirit. She supported him in his campaigns and elections to Congress three times, and once as governor; all which he failed. After this period of loss in his life, Pinchot turned his attention to state politics away from national limelight. This was largely due to his opposition to President Wilson’s neutrality to the European in 1916.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, when Wilson was re-elected, Pinchot became a state politics sensation. Pinchot was thus one of early supporters of America entering into war. Gifford, a man of much knowledge and experience, gained a position a Commissioner of Forestry after being appointed by Governor Sproul.
In this position, he had gained an effective strategy to be elected as Governor and thus his administrative genius could not rest. Therefore, he believed that by promoting new administrative changes and by refusing to give political patronage, he would achieve his goal.
As a result, in his 1922 campaigns, he concentrated on reforms that stirred the greatest support from voters. These reforms would later lead to reorganization of the government and the economy. Also, these reforms prompted the implementation of injunctions and guidelines on public utilities. In his political experience, he toned down his earlier proposals on reform in order to win the support of the President of Pennsylvania Manufacturers Association who had political power in the State.
He won this election closely partly due to the internal succession wrangles of Republican Party after the death of Boies Penrose. After attaining this position, Pinchot dropped his campaign strategy and went full throttle to implement his radical reform agendas. This set him apart from his superiors and supporters since they considered him as having betrayed them.
Pinchot as Governor Gifford started his reign with some notable changes in the administration just as he had done during his tenure in the Forestry Service offices. He changed this by putting measures that saw that the spending budget of the state was completely controlled. He used his political persuasion tactics to bring the assembly to pass an administrative code that sought to standardize salaries. These codes also gave the Governor power to reorganize the executive branch of the government.
This process oversaw the establishment of fifteen departments and only three commissions in order to address the problem presented by the close to forty agencies that had duplicated functions. Pinchot ensured the introduction of a pension system that was run by funds from the state, as well as employees.
By now, Gifford had garnered enough public support and thus he was ready to push for increased reforms just as he had promised in the campaign for Senate position. He advanced another proposal seeking to prohibit alcohol consumption. In the reforms, only one bill passed, and it had to get funding from Women’s Christian Temperance Union.
This was because the Legislature was not in a position to give the required funding. In his macro-economic target plans to reduce the cost of electricity for the user and prohibit monopolies, he urged the government to pass a Bill that would achieve this. However, his bills were unsuccessful after a big defeat blow came from the utility lobbyists. He sought for a situation where the State would take a firm grip of connected electric companies with combined facilities.
As a man who had enough experience in diplomacy, he managed to solve strike situations in 1923 and 1925. The workers who mined anthracite coal had gone on strike in 1923. Pinchot used decisive arbitration to calm down the workers. The strike lasted only one week as compared to the second strike that lasted for six months. In the second strike, he forcefully mediated between the passive Coolidge government and the striking workers to gain an effective solution that ended the stalemate amicably.
This characterized the culmination of his first term tenure as a Governor. Pinchot’s efforts to rally him as the leader of Republican Party of the US failed. Therefore, he was to stay out of public office until 1930 when he got re-elected. There was an improvement in the effectiveness and economic conditions of the state while he was serving his first term as Governor.
In his second term, he revived his old battles for the bills of public utilities in the Assembly. He envisioned the need of relief for the unemployed, as well as the construction of paved roads that would help the farmers get access to basic necessities. In these endeavors, he fought for two years, backed by the Assembly, to achieve only three Bills passed.
The rest were defeated since the Senate supported the utilities. In this success, the Governor had sought wide support from the people through radio, mail, and newspaper. This can be attributed to the fact that he held that those serving in public positions were to put the public interest first in everything they did unless doing so was against the established law.
As an administrator, statesman, and politician, he became one of the first Governors to push for the relief package in the United States. This was especially exhibited in his personal efforts to help people who had badly been affected by the Great Depression in 1931 at Pennsylvania. He had already formed a committee on unemployment before he had taken office to cater for such needs. However, this was not enough; and since he could help everybody, he realized that State aid was not enough for the unemployed who were suffering.
Therefore, he used his political power and other measures to urge the State and the Federal Government to increase and improve the aids that would see the needy get enough help possible. Through his efforts, President Hoover and the Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
This corporation formed to provide assistance to various business firms and provide direct assistance to states. The State and the Federal funds were distributed on the non-partisan basis in his state. This was done through the Pennsylvania State Emergency Relief Board. In his state, he did not tolerate discrimination and various categories of individuals served in his administration.
In his famous quest for the public good, he is remembered vividly in the construction of ‘Pinchot Roads.’ According to him, the need for good roads was supported by the elimination of the barrier between the farmers and consumers.
In this process, he designed plans that would see the construction of 20,000 miles of road without the necessary need of heavy machinery in order to create employment for the many who had been employed. In 1933, Pinchot, supported by President Franklin Roosevelt, forced the U.S Steel Company to recognize the striking workers of United Mine Workers union.
As part of his achievements, Pinchot approved a session of assembly that facilitated the repealing of the prohibition amendment. This led to the formation of the Liquor Control Board that acted as a monopoly for selling liquor. In his political role, he supported the President F.D. Roosevelt who had chosen to execute economic recovery programs as a Democrat.
This was a good effort in the eyes of the public. However, to his fellow Republicans, he gained contempt and hate from the annoyed members. This affected his third time campaign for election into US Republican Senate. His attempt for re-election to Governorship in 1938 received a severe blow from Republican voters who had been angered by his support of the Democrats.
Pinchot’s Legacy The years of Pinchot as political heavy weight and a pioneer in forestry management were also characterized by scientific observations and recommendations. Gifford was much influenced by his studies in Europe on conservation and democracy. He took the spirit of equality and advocated that everybody should be treated equally.
He observed that those with the capability to use the forests were few when compared to the many that did not benefit from the forest. According to Pinchot, there was no need for a few to benefit at the expense of the many. This formed his future basis on reforms that were mirrored in “new conservationism” efforts.
He believed that the only way a nation would become strong was through the provision of equal opportunity for all, as well as protection and preservation of human life. This would mean development of a strong and stable nation. By combining his scientific orientation and political progression, Gifford remained strongly anti-capitalistic.
This led to many of his battles with leaders in the Senate, President Howard Taft, Muir, and Ballinger. At one time, he paid for his views dearly when he was dismissed by President Howard from his position. However, he is greatly remembered for shaping the direction of capitalism in terms of public equality and management of resources.
Conclusion Pinchot was one of the greatest visionary Americans who helped the modern America to stand on its ground through environmental conservation. Through his efforts and determination, the concept of sustainability in the management of resources continues to characterize America ahead of many other nations. His ideas on the public good were introduced in years when the world knew nothing except exploitation at all fronts in search of personal gain and profits.
His ideals for the public utilities are issues that have concerned economists all over the world in search of balance between property and the human welfare. Pinchot’s legacy continues to live through the Grey Towers as a center for forest and environmental conservation in his home at Milford. His ideas in progressive politics and sustainability today guide the debate regarding the aspect of global warming. Therefore, Pinchot is a revolutionary hero of modern capitalistic world.
Bibliography Atack, Jeremy. “Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation,” Explorations in Economic History, 22 (1985): 29-52.
Gifford, Pinchot. Breaking new ground. New York: Island Press, 1998.
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography. [Philadelphia]: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1877.
Hunter, Louis C. A history of industrial power in the United States, 1780 – 1930 2, Steam power / Louis C. Hunter. Charlottesville: Univ. Pr. of Virginia, 1985.
Koistinen, Paul, A., C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997.
Livingston, James. Origins of the Federal Reserve System. Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913. California: Cornell University Press, 1986.
Marc, Tool R. Evolutionary Economics: Foundations of institutional thought Volume 2 of Evolutionary Economics. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1988.
Miller, Char. Gifford Pinchot and the making of modern environmentalism: Pioneers of Conservation. New York: Island Press, 2001.
North, Douglass, C. “Life Insurance and Investment Banking at the Time of the Armstrong Investigation of 1905-1906.” Journal of Economic History, 14, (1954), 209-28
Penick, James Jr. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Reich, Peter L. “Western Courts and the Privatization of Hispanic Mineral Rights Since 1850: An Alchemy of Title.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1998), 57–87.
Richardson, Elmo, R. Dams, Parks, and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1973.
Richardson, Elmo, R. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.
Robbins, Williams G. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994.
Swain, Donald, C. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.
Footnotes Char Miller. Gifford Pinchot and the making of modern environmentalism: Pioneers of Conservation (New York: Island Press, 2001), 18.
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography ([Philadelphia]: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1877), 16
Tool R. Marc. Evolutionary Economics: Foundations of institutional thought Volume 2 of Evolutionary Economics (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1988), 325.
Pinchot Gifford. Breaking new ground (New York: Island Press, 1998), 25
Pinchot Gifford. Breaking new ground (New York: Island Press, 1998), 27.
Paul, Koistinen, A. C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919 (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997), 59.
Louis C. Hunter A history of industrial power in the United States, 1780 – 1930 2, Steam power / Louis C. Hunter (Charlottesville: Univ. Pr. of Virginia, 1985), 341
Elmo R. Richardson. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962), 25
Donald C. Swain. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963), 27.
Peter L. Reich. “Western Courts and the Privatization of Hispanic Mineral Rights since 1850: An Alchemy of Title.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1998): 59.
Williams G. Robbins. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994), 89.
James Livingston. Origins of the Federal Reserve System. Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913 (California: Cornell University Press, 1986), 33.
Douglass, C. North. “Life Insurance and Investment Banking at the Time of the Armstrong Investigation of 1905-1906.” Journal of Economic History, 14, (1954): 211.
Jeremy Atack. “Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation,” Explorations in Economic History, 22 (1985): 37.
Elmo, R. Richardson. Dams, Parks, and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1973), 243.
James, Jr. Penick. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 411.
American Africans Action in the Struggle for Equality Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
These are protests that came to prominence in the course of 1950s, which raised concern against the incessant discrimination and racial segregation experienced by the American Africans and other marginalized groups in the southern America.
Continued oppression against people of different color, race, politics, or even religion had inspired many young American Africans to join action in the struggle for equality (Chong 23). Some of the prominent figures in the Movement include Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X, W.E.B. Du Bois and Rosa Parks among others.
Although the civil rights mass protest was officially formalized in the 1950s and 1960s, the fight for equality in various institutions of the U.S. had started long time ago. Community leaders in various segmentations of the society had showed resistance to the white supremacy and domination against the African Americans which had been abounded in some states. ‘Everyday’s Use’ written at the peak of the transformational movement, is a perfect expression and reflection of the issue of the aspects surrounding the civil rights movement.
Set at the height of the social issue, the story is a real representation of the key aspects of the day. Here, the writer applies writing to highlight some of the main issues surrounding the Black Power Movement. Walker’s purpose on the story is achieved through the creative formation of characters who symbolize the plight of blacks and women as observed during those times.
The movement was initially facilitated by the progressive efforts of the descendants of African slaves who had always tried to resist the institution of slavery upon them. Regular protests and campaigns of resistance were some of the common characteristics associated with this movement. Civil disobedience and activities of nonviolent demonstrations and protests were also common. Sometimes, these would bear crisis scenarios between government authorities and the activists resulting to confrontations.
Although it took many years for the issues highlighted in the movement to be addressed, the protests had significant impact to the modern world. Many changes were realized owing to the pressure of the movement. For instance, the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act were introduced in the years 1964 and 1965, respectively thus granting all American citizens basic civil privileges, regardless of their race and ethnicity.
Alice Walker is a renowned female activist who was born and raised at a time when the Civil Right Movements in South U.S. was taking shape. At the height of the transitional movement, Alice, then a college student at Spelman, was lucky to meet and rub shoulders with some of the prominent players in the movement, such as Martin Luther King Jr. This inspired her to become one of the strongest female activists in the American history.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Her contribution in the struggle for human rights and equality has continued to raise strong impact to the world. According to Tuten, Alice is a woman with many records in life and her largest contribution in life can be perceived through her countless struggles against discrimination and oppression (126). ‘Everyday’s Use’ is just one of her many writings about race and gender which raised much alert in the civil rights movement.
Racism, feminism and the many issues frequently raised by young American Africans who’d tend to lose respect to the culture that gave birth to them are some of the issue that Alice explores in ‘Everyday’s Use.’
As it would be observed, the story in this essay is Walker’s response to the social discourse of the 1950s and 1960s, when the civil rights movement took place. The writer has vividly expressed some of the issues that continue to plague modern American communities, as expressed through the lives of the characters in the story (Whitsitt 448).
Economic, social, and political issues are illustrated in the story, through the family of the narrator, who is referred by the title of ‘Mama’ or Mrs. Johnson. The story strongly illustrates the big contrast between the narrator and Maggy, one of her two daughters who still share the same conservative life with her, and ‘Wangero’ or Dee, the educated daughter who scorns the culture that gave birth to her.
As observed from this story, the writer has based the two sisters on aspects constituting her own character. Whereby Maggy represents her difficult childhood, Dee remains to be a vivid reflection of her latter life which is characterized by education and success; the two aspects that would enable her to take part in the civil rights movement.
The two different positions represent the culture and the progress of the American Africans in mid-to late-twentieth-century times. The story is set in a time when the lives of American Africans were undergoing a radical transition.
These groups of people were able to gain freedom of civil rights at last, through the glory of civil rights movement, after many years of oppression and discrimination from the whites (Gianturco and Tuttle 18). The final outcome reached on the story, is a representation of the results which succeeded the movement as American Africans started gaining recognition in various segments of the American society.
We will write a custom Research Paper on American Africans Action in the Struggle for Equality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This freedom would see the emergence of a new generation that has contradicting views about crucial aspects of life. As a matter of fact, the writer has used the story to defend the legacy of her family and culture and to pay homage to the initial inhabitants of the South, where she grew up.
Works Cited Chong, Dennis. Collective action and the civil rights movement, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Print.
Gianturco, Paola, and T. Tuttle. In her hands: craftswomen changing the world, New York: PowerHouse Books, 2004. Print.
Tuten, Nancy. “Alice Walker’s Everyday Use.” The Explicator 51. 2 (1993): 125-128. Print.
Whitsitt, Sam. “In Spite of It All: A Reading of Alice Walker’s Everyday Use.” African American Review 34. 3 (2000): 443-459. Print.
Ramord Stockwell Case Study essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The Benson Metal Company has been a producer of steel in the world for many years now and they have curved out a sizeable amount of the specialized steel market for themselves.
They have for a long time specialized in the innovative and creative management, production and marking strategies to maintain their competitive edge in the market. The company has for some time been identified to have a leadership that invests in vertical sources of power (Jones, 2007).
The bureaucratic nature of their management structures may be identified as an advantage to the managers in regard to their particular authority in the company, but this may be detrimental to the motivation of line managers especially in an industry that relies so much on innovation as well as creativity in almost all aspects of its production and market structures (Thompson
Everything Tastes Like Liquorice Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction In the world we live in there are many things which happen and eventually change the course of life. These things happen in our day to day lives and have a great bearing on the direction which we take. These occurrences have come to be mentioned by authors and writers as they try to bring to the fore the issues which face the human beings.
One of the renowned authors is Hemmingway. In 1927, Hemingway skillfully brought to light issues which affected and still affect relationships. In his book Hills Like White Elephants, Hemingway utilized the setting to enable the reader to understand the theme and the character behind the story. During this time, Spain was a country which was considered to be religious.
This was characterized by many catholic churches which stood to represent the moral arm of the society. It is this setting that Hemmingway tries to illustrate the important of morals in the society that is seemingly dwindling from the moral path, following a path that is characterized by pursing selfish and lustful desires. Symbolism This is a story which can be considered to be deceptive in its simplicity.
The couple opts to sit and drink as they wait for the train to Madrid. During this moment, they talk about issues of life. However, the talk comes to an end even before the train arrives. Yet within this quiet scene is a moral struggle, an investigation of the spiritual barrenness of modern love that is piercing its precision.
Hemingway does not cast moral judgment on the operation itself but on the narcissistic selfishness of the man, his ability to hear the young woman’s voice plea for home and family. Her surrender at the end is no less poignant than the death of a soldier on the battlefield, both because of its inevitability and the powerlessness of her morality and desire in the face of his more modern egotism.
The story opens as the man and the woman sit in the shade of the station café, discussing what to drink to cool them down from the oppressive heat. During a conversation, Jig comments that the hills resemble white elephants. In actual sense, the white elephant is a term which is used to describe or symbolize a situation or a thing which is considered to be useless. This symbol describes the kind of relationship that is exists between Jig and the American.
The man refuses to acknowledge her imaginative view, though, and an argument sparks between them. She changes the subject, asking about the words painted in the bead curtain of the café. It is the name of a drink, Anis del Toro, and after tasting it she says its licorice taste reminds her of absinthe. “Everything tastes of licorice (Hemingway). Especially all the things you have waited so long for, like absinthe.” “Oh, cut it out,” he says, and again it is unclear why they are quarrelling (Hemingway).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Only when the reader realizes that she is remarking obliquely that everything she had longed for seems the same, in that it is ruined, does the emotional intensity of the scene make sense. The river in the story reflects life. Ebro River is a river which originates in the Cantabarian Mountains. This river flows into the Mediterranean, which is 550 miles from her source. It is worth noting that the river in this play represents vitality. This notwithstanding, the river also represents time.
That is the passage of time from one era to another. The baggage that is being carried by the travelers can be associated with the issues of the past (Resseguie). The landscape is in a dry and desolate state. This state of the landscape represents death and a sense of wastefulness. On the contrary, the greenside represents newness and a sense of promise. The newness is a representation of a baby and the anticipated new beginning. Jig’s inability to face the real landscape, the brown and dry hill suggests lack of acceptance of the real life ahead.
She fails to realize that the relationship between them is deteriorating as is the case with the parallel railroads, which denotes that they are not likely to meet on the matter at hand. Unfortunately, she opts to hold on to the belief that the American man will commit. She is hopeful that the pregnancy means something to the man. Unfortunately, to the man, the relationship is nothing more than an illicit affair.
The “wind” of the hills simply defines casually and literally what an abortion is: As “the warm wind blew the bean curtain against the table,” he is quick to say, “I know you wouldn’t mind it, Jig. It’s really not anything. It’s just to let the air in. I’ll go with you….They just let the air in and then it’s perfectly natural” (Bloom 50). The rail road junction represents the decisions that have to be made by both parties. This junction is used as a symbol to represent the quagmire of whether to carry out an abortion or not.
It also brings to the fore the question of changing directions which is sought by Jig and the American. In conclusion, it is quite clear that there are many lessons which a person can pick from this story. First, is the role of men and women in intimate relationships. This is clearly captured by the way Jig and the American are relating especially in light of the pregnancy. Secondly, it brings an emphasis with regard to responsible behaviors in relationships.
This is captured when Jig conceives (Bloom). Following this eventuality it seems that the American is not willing to take full responsibility. Hemingway paints a bleak, amoral world where people are trapped by “the good times.” The story is effective because there is not only a hero, but a credible woman struggling against him, defining his shallow and selfish desire to have only Jig (but not the child) thereby authorizing the abortion as the only plausible solution.
Works Cited Bloom, Harold. Ernest Hemingway, New York: Infobase Publishing, 2002.Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Everything Tastes Like Liquorice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hemingway, Ernest. Men Without Women, New York: Scribner, 2002. Print.
Resseguie, James. Narrative criticism of the New Testament:an introduction, New York: Baker Academic, 2005. Print.
Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994)
The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference
Opinion on the ruling
Globally, the demand for human and civil rights by all people has intensified with time. Most social groups in society have moved to emphasize on the need to ensure that their demands are neither undermined nor overlooked as a major icon in enhancing acceptability and cohesion in the society. Sexual harassment in prisons today has been a major distressing issue that has caused massive suffering to victims and also great social disharmony.
Olsen posits that sexual harassment is a problem that affects individuals in a community as well as in prisons (199). However, deliberate indifference plays a critical role in disregarding the safety and health of inmates in prison. The latter goes against the provisions of the Eighth Amendment. This paper takes a critical look at the issue of deliberate indifference as ruled by the Supreme Court in the Farmer v. Brennan case of 1994.
Gardner posits that deliberate indifference constitutes a conscious and reckless disregard of the possible effects of an individual’s omissions or actions which can cause harm to another person (429). This lack of disregard goes beyond mere negligence. Over the years, deliberate indifference standards have been applied by law court to determine the knowledge of professionals concerning risks and their negligence of actions performed by others which may cause safety or health issues to inmates.
Gardner continues to argue that it is difficult to determine what constitutes deliberate indifference, but quickly adds that courts have identified ways like factual scenarios which they use to establish deliberate indifference (430). Some of those ways include lack of effective response to an inmate’s complaints and delaying or deliberately not supplying medical care to an injured inmate.
A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994) The above case concerned a male-to-female transsexual by the name Dee Farmer who having been charged with credit card fraud, was incarcerated in a prison with a general male population.
This led to Farmer going through repeated rapes and serious beatings from inmates. The consequences of the events were not only bodily harm, but also health problems as she eventually acquired HIV. In the court, Farmer made it clear that the prison administration neglected the fact that they were exposing her to the danger of sexual violence having put her among men.
The Supreme Court actually agreed by majority that the responsibility was on the prison administration terming their action as a deliberate indifference, an act that violated the Eighth Amendment. However, the prison administration was not automatically held liable to what happened to Farmer since the prison officials might not have known what was happening and abated it through reasonable measures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference The case of Farmer v. Brennan speaks of the need for prison guards to assume the duty of protecting inmates from harm by other prisoners. However, the ruling by the Supreme Court done by Justice Scalia on the objective components that the conditions of confinement of Farmer were fair and that the deprivations of her rights were not sufficiently serious was in reality a denial of justice.
Zangwill indicates the ruling by the court that there was no sexual harassment after the knowledge that Farmer, having a feminine appearance and preoperative transsexual was left at the mercy of male inmates to be beaten and raped clearly incarcerates transsexuals as targets for sexual harassment in prisons (100).
Olsen however differs with Zangwill on the point that the court was fair in its ruling since Farmer had not informed the prison administration that he was not safe. This could have seen prison officials either segregating her from others or securing better protection (199). Deliberate indifference could have therefore arisen if the prison staff had actual knowledge of the threat Farmer faced and refused to take reasonable measures.
Opinion on the ruling The ruling by the Supreme Court on the case of Farmer was indeed unfair and I strongly disagree with it based on the fact that prison officials and professionals were well aware of the fact that sexual harassment is common in prisons.
Putting Farmer in a prison dominated by men without considering her sexual nature and appearance was a clear indication of their negligence of the harm that would befall Farmer. Reporting a threat to prison officials without a clear indication or proof of a threat does not always guarantee an inmate of security. The ruling by the court on the ground that Farmer had not reported the threat was a sure way of protecting the administration from liability.
It is common practice among many inmates not to report sexual harassment for fear that they would be called snitches. Deliberate indifferences in similar cases to that of Farmer v. Brunner will be cited in conscious negligence of prison officials in the status of an inmate. Details of inmates, physical and emotional are normally supplied to prison official, a factor that provides them with information on the various rights of an inmate that needs to be protected.
Ignorance of those details and dependence on a prisoner to report threats to violation of those rights is a deliberate indifference on the part of prison officials. It is the duty of prison officials to ensure the safety of prisoners at all times with or without reporting. Having the background of widespread sexual harassments in prisons, it is upon prisons administration to establish measures that will curb any incidences of rape and sexual assaults.
We will write a custom Essay on Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gardner, Martin. “Rethinking Robinson V. California in the wake of Jones V. Los Angeles: the “Demise of the Criminal Law” by attending to “punishment”.” Journal of Criminal Law
The raise of Taxes at the United States Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Taxation and work incentives
Taxation and the pattern of demand
Taxation and investment decisions
The Rich Should Pay More
Abstract This essay will look at the effect of a change in tax rate in an economy. Based on the current economic and financial crisis relationships with be established on taxation with work incentives, labor productivity, investment decisions, budget and the rich so as to make informed opinion.
When an economy is facing a crisis, it adjusts its tax system as policy to rectify the deficit in the economy. For instance, United States has been hardly hit by the economic crisis and is contemplating on increasing taxes for the rich. The change in taxation has both positive and negative effects.
Introduction The current economic and financial crisis has adversely affected all the countries in the world. Those that have been hard hit by the crisis include the United States of America and European countries. Other countries, especially developing countries are suffering from the spill over effects. In United States, the effects of this crisis have been evident in various sectors of the economy.
The country has been hit by high rates of employment with nearly ten million people registering for the unemployment benefits. The number of people registering in job search centers has increased, with fresh graduates taking the highest percentage. The economy has failed to create new jobs, with jobs lay off mounting by the day. Most industries are streaming their workforce since they cannot adequately meet their needs, such as paying salaries and other benefits.
The situation has rendered a high percent of the populace jobless, with most of them having difficulties in paying their bills. Those who are unable to meet their bills have resorted to pegging in streets so at least to get something to sustain them. The suffering of most Americans has not gone unnoticed, with the President Barack Obama constantly giving an account of government progress on how the crisis is being handled. The most recent announcement by the President is an increase in the rate of tax for the rich.
The tax raise among the rich will lead to an increase in national revenue that can then be used to create jobs at national levels. This move has elicited controversy, with some supporting while others attack the move as inappropriate. It is like taking from those who are rich and distributing it to those who are poor. Despite raising taxes for the rich, taxes for foreign people should be lowered.
Discussion Taxation is a fiscal policy tool that government can use in order to have a balanced fiscal budget. The government to attain certain objectives like full employment, price stability and economic growth normally uses fiscal policy. Other policy tools that can be used include printing of money, sell of fixed assets, internal or external borrowing as well as consumption of fiscal reserves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When a government is facing huge deficits, tax revenue can be raised by increasing the tax rates. Taxation is a tool that can be used to rescue an economy facing difficult times. Proper design of a tax policy can be a panacea to the prevailing economic hard times such as unemployment. United State has sought to follow Germany’s way to rescue its economic from adverse effects of its current debt position.
Economist asserts that the only way in which an economy can reverse a crisis is using an expansionary fiscal policy. This will solve the issue of fiscal budget imbalance, unemployment and ‘crowding out’ effect.
Conversely, high taxes will look out private companies from investing in the country because of the cost of production which will translates to higher commodity prices. It will be hard for businesses to carry out business in countries with high tax rates. This is because it will render most establishments less competitive in the global market.
To encourage foreign investment tax rates should be reduced for them and sometimes coupled with tax havens, allowances and subsidies, this will encourage them to take up their new investment in the economy (Kivel, 2002).
Taxation and work incentives When there is an increase in the rate of income tax, the effect will be that the post-tax income of individuals will reduce. This is because the net income resulting from each hour of work will be lower. The move might encourage workers to increase their number of working hours to meet their target income. On the other hand, an increase in tax might be used as a disincentive to promote less work. The government normally sets a lower income tax rate for low-income employees.
This will act as an incentive for workers to do their job for long hours and earn more money. Low taxes on low-income earners serve as a tool of reducing ‘poverty trap’ risks where individuals will get high net financial benefits from their work. When tax reforms are favorable, it leads to an increase in supply of labor thus a reduction in unemployment equilibrium rate hence, the growth rate will increase.
Taxation and the pattern of demand Demand patterns for goods and services vary as indirect taxes are changed. When value added taxes (VAT) on commodities such as alcohol and cigarettes increase, it is aimed at causing a low consumption among consumers or a substitution effect. The result will be a low demand for such commodities. Indirect taxation can be applicable where there is a total market failure, as well as when the government wants to ensure equitable distribution of resources such as health care.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The raise of Taxes at the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taxation and investment decisions When the rates of business taxes and corporate tax are low, this can stimulate a business to increase its spending in fixed capital investment. An increase in investment will mean that the capital stock of a nation has increased thus an increase in capital stock of every worker employed (Mankiw, 2011).
Government can use incentives such as tax allowances to boost research and development and in encouraging new business developments. A tax regime that is favorable will attract increased inflow of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). This will be a stimulus that will benefit an economy’s aggregate supply and aggregate demand. Low rates of corporation tax will attract huge amounts of private investment.
Tax changes act as a stimulus of investment in capital assets, social infrastructure, and labor force skills as well as in technology. A good tax system will ensure an improvement in infrastructure, which is essential for economic growth through increased production and competitiveness. Government spending can be terms of development of an education system that is skills oriented and technology focused. This will ensure a steady long-term supply of human resources (Dye, 2011).
Company’s risk attitude and corporate income tax are the main factors that are considered by an organization before making an investment decisions, this is because this factors can affect the rate of return on investment. Amount of corporate tax to be paid is an important factor that is taken into consideration before making a financial investment decision. This is because low taxes will mean lower prices for goods and higher revenue generated.
The Rich Should Pay More For equal sacrifice and fairness among citizens, those individuals who benefited from favorable economic times such as boom, rescue packages among others should find it necessary to shoulder the costs that arise from a crisis. There willingness will save the economy from suffering the worst effects of a crisis that a time may spill over to drain resources of the rich. This argument looks at increasing government revenue through an increase in income as well as an increase in capital gains tax.
This was illustrated by Germany’s case after the World War II where legislation was passed which mandated financial compensation to gather for loses that arises during the war. This lead to a creation of tax on property and capital, this law was applicable to individuals who still possess substantial assets after the war. The law required them to pay half of their asset worth to a compensation fund over a period of thirty years.
In case of United States, an increase in tax has no chance any time soon. The reason being the required budget consolidation should occur on the expenditure part. This will imply a reduction in government expenditure and this will have adverse effects on the economy. On the other hand, an increase in income tax disproportionately has an effect on higher earners. The impact of high tax on the rich is minimal because large proportions of their income go to savings while minimal amounts are spent (Blinder
Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the essay help online free: essay help online free
Today the problem of solid waste management is current for developed and developing countries because the hazardous effects of the ineffective solution of the question can lead to influencing the state of the environment and changing the ecological situation at the polluted territories. There are many models and programs developed at local, regional, and governmental levels in the USA and the European countries which are worked out for providing the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management.
To overcome the issue of solid waste management, the USA and the European countries practice the collection, transportation, recycling of the waste at the local and regional levels, with focusing on the competitiveness of the industry, with involving the other countries’ landfills, or with concentrating on the inter-municipal cooperation.
It is necessary to develop the economically advantageous project of the industry’s modernization according to which the spending costs should become lower and results higher. The inter-municipal cooperation can be considered as the most economically effective solution to the problem.
The problem of solid waste is one of the most controversial for the urban territories with the constant growth of industries which provide the highest percentage of the solid waste. Moreover, the problem of municipal domestic waste is also current. Today it is more typical for the USA to use landfills and the system of recycling as the main methods of solid waste management.
Nevertheless, different states focus on various ways of waste management with paying attention to the regional and local programs (Bel et al.). However, the main problem which can limit the effectiveness of solid waste management remains unsolved. It is the problem of the local and governmental costs spent for the management. That is why the most effective solution to the problem must be also effective from the point of its financing.
The discussion on the effectiveness of this or that solution to the problem of solid waste management is still open. If it is possible to accentuate the successfulness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in such European countries as Spain and the Netherlands and in the USA, it is also possible to focus on the regional programs typical for the US counties with involving the citizen information programs, recycling, and depending on waste-to-energy plants, and on the cooperation between two countries (Canada and the USA) because they are used with following the standards of technology and provide definite environmental benefits.
Thus, the example of the realization of the regional program associated with solid waste management in the US counties is the system of waste management in Cheshire County. The main characteristics of the system are the usage of the citizen information programs, the waste stream reduction and recycling, the development of the network which connect the territories with the centrally located county landfill.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To support the system, many counties can use public and private partnership with the local transport companies. All these factors accentuate the fact that “municipalities are paying too much for solid waste disposal” (Monahan 7). That is why it is necessary to find the more economically effective solution to the problem.
The idea to use the landfills of the neighbor countries, for instance Canada and the USA, for realizing waste management programs can be considered as effective from the point of economy. However, it is important only for those territories which are located close to the countries’ borders. Moreover, there are many aspects connected with the problems of crossing the borders (transportation) and locating the waste in the landfills (Schaefer). That is why this solution also cannot be considered as the most successful one.
To realize the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management in the USA, it is significant to use the principles of the inter-municipal cooperation which also can involve the definite aspects of the public-private mixed policy. This system is more appropriate for the USA because of the high level of the local fragmentation in the country.
Moreover, it can be also discussed as the more developed one in comparison with the typical local and regional programs. Thus, “in the US, inter-municipal cooperation is usually not compatible with private production, although it is seen as a form of contracting out” (Bel et al. 5).
The inter-municipal cooperation allows decreasing the amount of the costs used for the collection, transportation, effective disposal, and recycling of the solid waste with sharing the responsibility for providing the necessary management. Thus, the effective inter-municipal cooperation can solve the challenges of funding and social costs. Moreover, such form of cooperation between the local authorities contributes to solving the environmental issue which is rather difficult to discuss at local levels independently.
Nevertheless, why is the inter-municipal cooperation more effective than, for instance, regional county programs? It is important to note that modern programs used in counties are predominantly based on the successful aspects of the inter-municipal cooperation which is economically beneficial.
The inter-municipal cooperation provides the opportunities to concentrate on the technological modernization of the processes, development of the transport system, to rationalize the division of the budget and involve all the necessary means with increasing the managerial capacity (Wilson and Scheinberg).
We will write a custom Essay on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inter-municipal cooperation as the solution to the problem of solid waste management is based on the efficient economy balance between the country’s territories and provides the effective developed system (Bel et al.).
In spite of the fact there are many programs which are used in the world for solving the problem of solid waste management, one the most economically effective systems is the inter-municipal cooperation which can be successfully realized in the USA.
Summary Discussing possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management, Matthew Schaefer in his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” pays attention to the relations between the USA and Canada, their integration in overcoming the issue of the solid waste with the help of the landfills abroad; Germa Bel and the group of researchers in their work “Similar Problems, Different solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain” focus on comparison the effectiveness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands; in their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”
David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg concentrate on the necessity of finding the easiest variant for solving the problem which can also be appropriate for implementing in cities and countries with low incomes; Matt Monahan in his “Municipal Solid Waste Study” develops the recommendations for using regional programs in US counties.
In his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?”, Matthew Schaefer discusses the peculiarities of the transportation of the waste between Canada and the USA. The author states that such practice has advantages for the economy of the both countries, but it also requires the solution to the question of the open borders and the creation of definite transnational standards for reducing the waste.
Germa Bel, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda, and Raymond Gradus developed the work in which they analyzed the peculiarities of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands with references to the experience of Great Britain and the USA. It is the most beneficial program from the point of economy for countries with the high level of the local fragmentation.
In their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”, David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg discuss the findings of their prolong research which was conducted on the problem of finding the most effective and less expensive way to cope with the issue of solid waste management which could contribute to the requirements of the developed countries and developing countries.
They focus on the difference in approaches to solving the problem in big cities and low-income cities. The necessary technological modernization of the process should be supported by the authorities and political commitment. Nevertheless, it is also important to pay attention to the modernization of the economically advantageous recycling system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his “Municipal Solid Waste Study”, Matt Monahan analyzes the features of waste management in the counties of the USA and concludes that the current system is not effective in relation to the level of expensiveness and requires the further development. It is necessary to implement the constant system with basing on the cooperative work of municipalities in order to monitor the process of collection, transportation, and recycling the solid waste form the territory.
The articles are similar in providing the analysis of the effectiveness of this or that program depending on the economic factor with the focus on the examination of the benefits resulted from the usage of the mixed (public and private) policy.
These examined articles are different in providing the possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management which depend on various criteria (the involvement of municipalities, governments, integration with the neighbor countries).
Works Cited Bel, Germa, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda and Raymond Gradus 2006, Similar Problems, Different Solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain. PDF file. Web.
Monahan, Matt 2004, Municipal Solid Waste Study. Web.
Schaefer, Matthew. “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” Canada-United States Law Journal 28.103 (2002): 103-114. Web.
Wilson, David and Anne Scheinberg. “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?” Waste Management
Econ of development Essay a level english language essay help
Many global investors have poured their resources in emerging market economies because of the returns accrued, which is higher compared to investments in advanced market economies. The returns are not necessarily high for the emerging market economies. External financing is always accompanied by high social costs to the countries with emerging market economies.
Moreover, volatile external financing may reduce economic growth of such countries because of some uncertainties involved. It is for this reason that government should intervene and place controls on this economic aspect. Too much intervention by the government is not productive because side effects will also arise, e.g., if a government imposes a limit to the amount of cash that can be ploughed into a country for investment, the investor may be limited to a strict budget.
This may deprive the country from gaining other benefits, e.g. infrastructure. Investors sometimes build roads and bridges for easy access and transportation of goods to the locations of investment. These remain the assets of the host country. It is very critical that the government limit their restrictions by formulating favorable policies.
Governments should issue contracts to all investors. These contracts should explain in detail the length of time that the investors will stay. In addition to this, the contracts should restrict pulling out of the investors until a certain stage in the process of market liberalization is reached.
This is better than having no contracts, and allowing investors to emerge markets at will. In so doing, the government plays an important role; they ensure that there is a constant and continuous accumulation of capital within the country. Without contracts specifying the stay of investors in a country, they may decide to pull out their resources and capital as they wish.
This is very dangerous to the economy of any country because the assets in that country may become less valued. The main reason why investors may decide to pull out of a country in the course of their stay is loss of faith in that country’s economy. Since the economic stability of most developing countries is uncertain, it is wise for them to give contracts (specifying the duration of stay, and the time to pull out) to investors.
Capital flight occurs when the capital injected by investors rapidly flows out of the country. This takes place when investors lose faith in the project or when their confidence on the economy of that country is gone. This is mostly associated with the fall in the exchange rate in the deserted country’s currency. One major way of dealing with capital flight is changing of the exchange rates of a country to values more favorable to the direct foreign investors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The investors should not lose a lot of money while converting their currencies and vice versa. There are other ways of dealing with capital flight other than adjusting the exchange rate. These methods are equally important in dealing with capital flight. One of them involves reducing the taxation rates on capital. When the government reduces the amount of tax imposed on capital, investors are more likely to stay.
This is because they end up retaining money that would have otherwise have been used as tax. Other than the two examples given, any initiative by the government in strengthening the economy of a country will ensure that investors always remain in that country. In general, it is correct to conclude that maintaining the stability of a country’s economy will win the confidence of investors thereby making them stay.