The reality that human asset is the most vital element in success of organizations cannot be overemphasized. As businesses embrace the dynamics of globalization, human asset has become the only factor that differentiates an organization from its competitors. Moreover, the level of human asset strength in an organization will be the key determinant between losing and gaining in tomorrow’s global markets.
Although organizations strive to improve different types of assets so as to accelerate their performance, some tend to ignore the vital role of human asset. As the quoted author elucidates, deliberate measures are needed to attract, motivate and manage this significant asset and consequently an organization’s performance will be guaranteed.
On the same note, I fully agree with the author because in as far as some individuals are likely to argue that employees can be replaced with ease, the latter exercise may not yield positive outcomes bearing in mind that it is highly unlikely that a successor will posses the same level of skill-sets, expertise or knowledge. It is against this theoretical approach that human resource experts often argue that valuable employees are irreplaceable.
The same notion is shared by Armstrong and Baron (2002). The two scholarly authors attempt to underscore that human assets account for close to 85% of the total company’s assets at any given time. Moreover, the speed at which organizations attain success and success is heavily dependent on employees’ skills and subsequent motivation to drive a company’s goals forward.
On the same note, Boxall and Purcell (2003) highlight that most organizations today have realized the significance of human asset and as such, most are adopting what is called Strategic Human Resource Management to run this important asset.
Initially, the important role of employees to organizational performance was mainly overlooked, but through numerous surveys their significance has been established (Armstrong
Evaluation of the Care policy of Disabled Children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2011 Dissertation cheap essay help
Table of Contents Results
Results In Saudi Arabia, three central government arms are responsible for offering various services to the disabled children (Mcvie 2011). The ministry of education is responsible for provision of education to children that live with disabilities (Goodley and Runswick-Cole 2011). It operates the Noor Institute for the Blind, the Amal Institute for the Deaf and the Institute for the Intellectually Disabled.
However, the Al Noor training centre for children with special needs is faced by a myriad of problems (Pitts
Review of revenue estimates in Federal, State and Local Budgets Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Public budgeting primarily involves the allocation of resources, with the main objective of achieving the government’s goals and objectivities within a particular period of time. It serves to reflect the financial plan of the revenues and expenditures of the various levels of government, which are federal, state and local governments (Bovaird
A review of the key issues associated with an important practical and theoretical area related to consulting Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Transaction Cost Theory
Demand for management consulting services
Summary Management consulting is very important, especially in today’s business environment characterized by economic uncertainties. This report is based on transaction cost theory which provides a rationale for management consulting. This document discusses the demands made on people working in management consulting.
The demand for management consulting comes from the need to help organizations and businesses in strategic development and implementation. This includes providing financial and marketing advice, improve workforce efficiency, determining organizational risks and the project implications of the organizations activities, and improving the internal operations of organizations.
Introduction Management consultancy is part of business consultancy that has become very important for businesses and organizations today. Both start-up and established businesses and companies require expertise in setup and development, marketing, human resource planning and management, finance, operations, market analysis, economics, environmental management, manufacturing and other daily business activities (Drucker 1979, 22).
The modern business climate has made it necessary to acquire reliable feasibility appraisal. Management consulting focuses on developing strategies together with fine-tuning them to meet the needs of the individual businesses. Management consultancy firms are in demand to help organizations and businesses to transform their information systems, as well assetting up in regulatory and risk management structures.
Management consultants have to understand the various business environments and different cultures found as well as the factors which influence trends in the respective cultures (Canback 1998a, 8).
They also have to understand organizational cultures and complex organizational technology so as to help solve the problems experienced in the company. It is therefore necessary that they first listen and understand systems and situations before they begin advising and implementing new programs, practices or policies to achieve performance improvement.
Transaction Cost Theory One theory that explains management consulting is transaction cost theory. It explains why management consulting exists,and explores the real costs of distributing resources in an imperfect global business environment with misunderstanding, misaligned goals and uncertainty.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to transaction cost theory, an organization’s costs are categorized into production and transaction costs (Bower 1982, 4). Production costs are costs associated with production activities including manufacturing, logistics and product development.
Transaction costs are those associated with organizing the economic activities of the company. Both production and transaction costs vary with the organizational form. Transactional costs vary depending on technology and tastes, while production costs are influenced by resource allocation.
Transaction costs determine an organization’s operations in the market, which is regulated by prices, and its activities within the firm, also regulated by bureaucracy (Canback 1998b, 22). The optimum of an organization’s transaction costs is reached when its additional transactions in the firm exceeds the costs of conducting the same transactions across the market.
The relative level of market and internal transaction costs determines what is to be done in each sector or department in organization. The main market transaction costs include the cost of information failure, the cost of determining an organisation’s products and services, and the cost of creating and negotiating contracts (Kipping 2002, 34).
Prime internal costs include administrative costs of establishing the cost of motivating the workforce, the cost of resource allocation, as well as, the production cost (Canback 1998b, 23). Organizations acquire the services of management consultants to achieve this optimum.
Management consultants are therefore important to help organization structure perfect contracts, and reducing the possibility of individuals within the company acting out of their self-interest (Williamson 1975, 73).
According to Dawkins (1989, 72) organizations can only achieve credible and responsible behavior when their activities and operations are sustained by enforceable commitments since individuals can break agreements to serve their self-interest.
We will write a custom Report on A review of the key issues associated with an important practical and theoretical area related to consulting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Demand for management consulting services Management consulting involves the preparation as well as the delivery of business planning services. There is real demand on consultants to add value to businesses and companies (Frame 1994, 8). Management consulting firms must have across-the-board expertise in numerous areas into a singular solution for that particular business which requires market-focused, realistic plus impartial advice.
Emotional intelligence is particularly essential in consultancy considering that the work done by consultants involves interacting with people. Management consultantsare involved in offering solutions to business-related problems and therefore must engage with people on a daily basis. Thus, they have to be outgoing and have the drive to help companies and businesses prosper.
The expert or firm should be able to provide services to small business start-ups to enable them meet their needs, as well as to medium companies and global companies which are expanding into new markets. They should be able to provide business planning services such as feasibility studies, operational and financial planning, options appraisal, due diligence and market analysis (Block 2001, 147).
Management consulting firms/experts are also expected to work closely with the businesses/organizations to which they provide services in putting plans into action to enable them meet their goals. This implies that they have to work alongside the management teams of these organizations while filling various roles, which may include being trainer, client liaison, writer, analyzer and speaker (Buono 2001, 27).
Within the consultancy team, there needs to be experts in various forms industry and business fields. Today, many businesses and organizations retain the services of consultants to help them diagnose and analyse existing organizational problems in addition to developing plans for improvement.
Consultants are aware of an industry’s best practices and can transfer such practices to organizations which need them to improve their performance. This is as a result of their exposure to as well as relationships with several organizations.
During the consultancy, the consultants need to help the organization/business evolve its plans to adapt to unpredicted economic circumstances which may include changes in the market (Clark
Royal Dutch Shell Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
RDS plc, commonly referred as Shell, is a well known multinational oil corporation of British and Dutch beginning. Globally, it is 2nd largest privately owned energy firm, and one of the principal energy superiors (vertically amalgamated private segment oil exploration, natural gas, and oil product marketing firms). The corporation has its principal offices in The Hague, Netherlands, with its official offices in Shell Centre, London.
Royal Dutch Shell core business involves exploration, production, processing, transporting and marketing of oil and gas products. Also the firm has considerable petrochemicals investments (Shell Chemicals), as well as nascent renewable energy sector developing wind, solar and hydrogen energy opportunities.
RDS plc is incorporated in Britain with its commercial headquarters in The Hague (Bahgat 2003; Mishkin 1998). Also its tax residence is based in Netherlands, while its primary listings are on both London Stock Exchange as well as Euronext Amsterdam (only “A” stock shares are recognized as part of AEX index).
On global perspective, Shell runs its businesses in over 140 countries. While Shell Oil Company based in Houston, Texas, is one of the group’s principal division. RDS principal business is basically the management of vertically incorporated oil corporation.
The establishment of technical, financial and commercial expertise in all the spheres of this core vertical integration from the scope of exploration, production, transportation, refining in addition to marketing, forms the principal capabilities on which the group was founded.
The company has applied these aspects to its production and marketing segment and this contributed to its stable and proportional profit margins (Peters 2000).
Also the vertical business blueprint has given the company considerable economies allowing establishing explicit barriers to entry both geographically and on worldwide levels in specific areas of the energy market. However, the company noted vertical integration was diminishing in value despites the profound structures (Miller 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Delivering value shareholders Royal Dutch Shell plc has been described as a unique due to its organizational structure. This has made to be one of the most prominent organizations in the world such as the Roman Catholic and the UN. However, the group’s organizational structure is more complex than either of the two mentioned organizations.
From its inception the group has over the years strived to provide the best services to its clients as well as its shareholders (Wang 2005). Considering that the group is an incorporation of Royal Dutch and Shell, the group has formulated an approach that is unique in structure and execution. The said approach is referred as governance responsibilities.
From management perspective this approach has helped in the manner Royal Dutch Shell handles are issues regarding shareholder satisfaction. Though, the groups approach to diverse attributes regarding shareholders do not correlate to the ordinary managerial scope, it has over the years proved to be one of the most rewarding organizations despite its controversial undertakings around the world.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, common business principles determines how this group conducts its external and internal affairs. The objectives of the group are to efficiently and effectively engage, responsibly and profitably in gas, chemicals, oil and other preferred investments. This includes exploring and developing other dynamic sources of energy so as to meet the mounting requirements of energy in the world.
Equally, the group maintains a high standard of performance as well as a profound long-term position in the business environment. Also the corporation works closely with its clients, partners and policy-makers so as to advance more reliable and sustainable use of energy and other natural resources.
In order to deliver value to its shareholders RDS plc has established set of principal values-openness, veracity and respect for people. Also the group strongly believes in the fundamental essence of trust, honesty, teamwork as well as professionalism, including pride in what they do. These objectives are reflected in the group’s business principles.
And as part of its obligation to quality delivery they have initiated acts of balancing short as well as long term interests, incorporating monetary, environmental and civic considerations into group’s decision-making.
We will write a custom Report on Royal Dutch Shell specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These parameters have been reflected in the manner the group has succeeded in delivering value to its shareholders for the last five years (Pilbeam 2005). According to the market analysts, the company managed to deliver an average TR (TOTAL RETURN) of 2.55 to its shareholders (See Table 1).
Delivering value to shareholders plays a critical role to each and every commercial organization. Perhaps it is from such understanding that Royal Dutch Shell opted to diversify and provide its shares into two distinct classes-A and B (RDS-A and RDS-B). From 2005-to-2010 RDS-B was better placed in regard to use investors and shareholders (Emilio 2009).
The scope of this was that the shareholders enjoyed 15% tax exemption in that they were not Danish citizens. Also to sustain the value allied to service delivery, every RDS American Depository Receipt was valued at two shares traded either at Amsterdam or London. Also, the group managed to deliver a 0.55% average yearly increase in its EPS commencing from 2005.
The mounting increase in crude oil as well as gas prices played a role in boosting the group’s earnings. However, the swift fall in energy prices in 2008 and 2009 including to feeble global demand saw a 26 % decrease in anticipated earnings per share in early 2009 to $ 3.09 (Haley 2006). While for 2010 fiscal year analysts had anticipated the earnings to mount by almost41% to $5.77/share.
Equally the company was expecting EPS to reach 25%. The scope of this observation was trained at providing the shareholders with satisfactory results. Also these results were anticipated to provide the shareholders with the best returns in regard to their investment in the group.
To improve on its service delivery and the scope of increasing its profit margin the company initiated a process of disposing some of its unprofitable properties and refineries. Due to the shareholders demands the group has since 2005-2010 embarked on cutting down its global labor force in order to secure $1 billion in savings.
However, as is with strong and uninterrupted focus being on company’s economic discipline including capital efficiency, Royal Dutch Shell has over the last five years been positioned to move on generating shareholder value in its operations and service delivery.
The groups strategies from 2005-2010 was on stringent approach to diversified capital investment, creating a stable balance sheet as well as enhancing service delivery and distribution to its shareholders. This resulted in RDS setting its goals within this period on the scope of prioritizing on the to-most returning investments as a measure of improving the ROCE (return on capital employed) and capital efficiency.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Royal Dutch Shell by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Equally, the group optimized its portfolio within this period by disposing its non-core investments. The proceeds were employed in enhancing debt reductions as well as improving the service delivery to her shareholders.
This resulted in establishing profound financial positions, competitive market control as well as laying emphasis on cost control and operating excellence, hence providing the shareholders with the topmost value and profitable returns.
The success of Royal Dutch Shell plc in delivering value to her shareholders lies to the group’s concept of inspired leadership. The scope of leadership influenced its market position, annual returns as well as its stability in the stock markets.
With sound leadership, solid management procedures and disciplined financial control helped the corporation in providing the shareholders with the expected services reflected in the value of the group. Despite the unstable global energy markets RDS plc continued to explore diverse areas by which the delivery of value was reflected in the group’s profit margin including the groups share index in the leading stock markets globally.
And this is illustrated by the fact that the company has persistently doubled its dividend payment after every six years. The 2009 shares reports testifies to this observation (See Table 2).and this is a instrumental pointer of the groups success in delivering value to its shareholders.
How and why the market value of Royal Dutch Shell plc equity has changed over the past 12 months The groups combination of strewed executive power together with groups operating authority including its financial responsibility which has been evenly dispersed through its 250 operating organizations, shows that, evaluated against any other oil corporation, its services are compactly decentralized.
However, the economic dynamics and technical realities present in the energy sector have seen it that the group embraces the best service approaches. The group’s matrix system indicates that the group had undergone unprecedented changes within the scope of past 12 months. The scope of these changes touched on the organizations market value affecting the anticipated market capitalization heavily.
Economic instability and the group’s performance have over the period of last one year resulted in decimal RDS market value. As is testified by the group’s quarterly report it is emerging that the group is attempting to reverse the current decline in its sales. For instance, the group’s total revenue moved from 45.66% to $ 130 billion in mid June 2009 (Richardson 2011).
The reason the market value of RDS plc equity has changed can thus be attributed to slow consumption of oil products globally. Also the rate at which shares are plummeting at all major stock markets can be another major reason contributing to these changes.
Equally, the scope of production and price fluctuations has compelled the RDS equity to acquire a new dimension within the 2nd quarter of 2010 which has persistently crossed 2011 1st quarter. As established by 2nd quarter of 2010 the company’s market equity was anchored within the range of $ 434 billion which was substantially lower by 3.0% as compared to $ 447 billion three years earlier.
The drop in value can be attributed to the group’s stock loss which stood at 29.22% from the previous financial year (Iftekhar, et al 2010). Thus, the manner investors are purchasing the groups share can be described as being cautious. This has resulted in the decimal market performance.
Though the company is on the path of restoring its falling market supremacy, it is evident that its market value increased substantially with 115.1% within the 1st quarter of 2011. In essence, within the span of 12 month the group has shown unstable move, despite the fact that its operational margins increased with an average of 29.0% from the previous year.
Return on capital employed as well as ROE (return on equity) were considerably low and this affected the market value of the company’s equity as compared to other competitors in the same 12 months period-June 2010 to June 2011. Basically, it is difficult to simplify the factors affecting the RDS equity value due to the diverse conditions enveloping the entire stock market.
However, the group’s fundamentals which touch on revenues as well as valuation factors are core factors that affected its equity value during this period. Though other factors such as inflation, the groups market behavior, investor behavior, market liquidity and economic circumstances affected the group’s market value negatively.
The manner this occurred can be attributed to RDS plc internal factors such EPS, DPS (dividend per share), as well as the group’s book value (Richardson 2011). Hence, the investor’s reaction to the group’s dividend resulted in the group’s equity devaluation. It ought to be noted that inflation as well as interests during the twelve months had a negative impact on the group’s stock prices.
This observation can be supported by the instances of higher consumer prices, low money supply, as well as interest rates (Haley 2006). Exploring the relationship between inflation and industrial production as well as the stock prices relating to RDS, the monthly results covering June 2010, to June 2011 indicates that the relation of the group’s stock prices and inflation was all time negative.
Also, this can be explained by the group’s poor relationship exposed by macroeconomic factors which are typical within the equity market. Despite the changes that have affected RDS market capitalization within this period, it is evident that the group had exhibited attractive attributes relative to other energy corporations within the leading stock markets such as London, New York, and Amsterdam.
Though, the group’s shares have for the last nine been low due to markets and economic crisis which was experienced in the 2nd quarter of 2009. The group has thus realized that differentials in equity market, differentials growth in stock market and differentials in evaluations distinguish the performances of equity markets globally.
The group’s market capitalization has witnessed massive negative results as is with other super majors. This has resulted in the group inability to enlarge its production and this has considerably affected its market value. Equally, the dwindling investable resource quotas have played a considerable role in the corporation’s profitability in relation to its equities.
Thus, much of the groups remaining pools that are easily accessible and are resourceful to the corporation have been taken by governments which are anticipating controlling the oil production in their distinct regions. And this has resulted RDS plc equity being undervalued. However, RDS has opted to invest in other venues of energy such as natural gas as well as liquefied natural gas in order to boost its market value (Aaseng 2000).
Net Asset Value Net Asset Value refers to a groups or a company’s total excluding its total liabilities. For instance, if RDS has securities including other assets worth (total assets and total equity) $ 470.573 billion, the group’s total liabilities are $172.78 billion.
Thus, the group’s Net Asset Values is $297.793 billion. Net Asset Value is paramount in regard to valuation of any organization shares especially in areas where the value of the given organization comes from the assets it attains rather that the earnings generated by the given business (Leffler 2010).
Price/ Earnings Ratio Basically, valuation ratio of any organization current share price evaluated to its PS earnings is typically calculated as:
Earnings per Share (EPS)
Noting that RDS was trading at $20.46 a share while it’s earning over the last 12 months were $ 3.09 per share,thus,the P/E ratio for RDS would be $ 6.60 ($20.46/$3.09).
All in all, higher P/E may illustrate that investors are anticipating for higher earnings in the days to come in relation to organizations with lower Price Earnings Ratio.
Discounted Cash Flow
Royal Dutch Shell reported a 30.2 growth in regard to cash flow as per the latest quarter indicators standing at $9.7 billion, a remarkable increment from $7.40 billion in the similar period a year ago.
When evaluated against year over year growth in duration of one year trailing cash flow of 30.04%, the quarterly increase depicts a decrease in the groups operating income progression, which may likely contribute to fewer earnings. This may compel the organization to cut its operating costs so as to sustain its profit margins.
The groups debts, defined as TD (total debts) minus COH (cash on hand) ranging from $20.03 billion is plainly 1.23 times greater than in relation to the groups last financial period EBITDA calculated to be $19.09 billion (Leffler 2010). What this depicts is that the apparent ratio standing at 41.82% less than it was at the end of the similar quarter a year before, and this is a noteworthy decrease.
Equally, this provides the group with substantial flexibility in the manner it manages its balance sheet so as to stimulate instances of future growth, paying out for it dividend as well as pursuing its premeditated goals such as acquisitions.
In addition, minor signs indicate that Royal Dutch Shell is managing its balance sheet conservatively, its overall debt as a proportion of total capital was lessened during the last 12 months while its COH increased.
The entire debt currently stands for 20.40% of overall capital as compared to 23.5% twelve months earlier, while it had $ 19.40 billion in COH last financial period, 62.04% more than as it was recorded at the end of the previous year.
These key developments have enhanced the group’s fundamental flexibility in preparing the ground for the future growth and development opportunities so as to enhance its overall returns to its shareholders. Also, to measure the true economic income generated by Royal Dutch Shell during the past twelve months, operational costs as well as cost of capital, both debt and equity are considered.
Hence, based on the twelve month period trailing operating revenue, the group had a sum of 17.81% return on its $196.95 billion of sum invested capital, which comprise ordinary and preferred equity, in addition to long term debt (Leffler 2010).
Its total subsequent to tax cost of capital is profoundly slanted towards equity, through a total after tax expenditure of 6.70% weighed against to a 0.21% cost of arrears The group’s EVA (economic value added), which is attained from deducting the 7.00% overall cost of assets from its ROI (return on investment), is 10.80%. This is a concrete return to investors for a twelve months period.
The corporation increased its monthly common share on December 31, 2010 by 5.01%, to 85.00 cents a share from 79.05 cents (Iftekhar,et al 2010). It has at this moment spread dividends continually for the past five years and based on this latest disbursement the stock is now yielding 5.00%.
The $10.40 billion in ordinary dividends remunerated by the corporation last quarter was responsible for 32.0% of its cash flow in addition to 16.0% of overall earnings after taxes. This comparatively reserved payout was lesser than the 19.10% of revenues paid out in the twelve months which had ended immediately a quarter earlier (Tabak 2010).
Combined with commonly positive fundamentals, the present payout point affords the corporation suppleness in raising its share in the future devoid of eating into its balance sheet should it desire to do so (Tabak 2010).
Basically, there are diverse methods employed by firms to critically evaluate their performances. Hence, there those procedures which are fit for specific businesses. Thus, in as far as the Royal Dutch Shell is concerned the above explored procedures shed light on the best method which can be employed to provide the reliable results.
Looking at the values provided it is apparent that all the procedures examined have each provided a distinct value for the company. However, correlating the market performance with the groups equity discounted cash flow can be said to have provided the utmost value for the group.
The significance of the value provided by discounted cash flow is that it generates values close to ISV (intrinsic stock value) (Shaxson 2010). Also, the groups DCF can be said to be relative to the diverse evaluation procedures, which are in essence exploits multiples to evaluate stocks as demonstrated in the stock markets.
Some of these relative valuations favoring DCF are linked to price earnings, price-to-sales as well as EV/EBITDA ratios which are essential in evaluating the group’s performance. What this depicts is that DCF depends on the scope of free cash flow (Davidson 2009).
More so, free cash flow has been established to be a reliable measure that easily penetrates through the stock market estimates commonly embraced in groups reported earnings.
Thus, regardless of whether the scope of cash outlay is considered as an expense or equally declared as an asset on the balance sheet, as per DCF, free cash flow is employed to track the groups fund left over for the shareholders. And this makes the value arrived at through a DCF to be the most appropriate for the group (RDP 2006; Teall 2004).
Conclusion Between early 2009 and 2011 the petroleum industry experienced unprecedented economic challenges due to the unstable global economy. This has also been attributed the Arab revolution and civil instability in some of the oil producing countries.
From the fundamental perspective of global economy Royal Dutch Shell faced compact competition from other sources and this affected its market performance including the value of its equity (Brown,2007). Also the parallel loss of control over certain sources in both Africa and Caribbean saw its profit margin decreasing over the last 12 months.
However, as the world economic powers are in the verge of restructuring the global economy the group has since the last quarter of 2010 posted positive results as demonstrated by its shares in all major stock markets.
References Aaseng, N.,(2000). Business Builders in Oil. NY:OUP.
Alvarez, A.,(2004) Offshore: a North Sea Journey. Rome:TN.
Bahgat, G.,(2003) American Oil Diplomacy .NY:Prentice.
Haley, J.,(2006). Foreign Oil Dependence. Rome.McMillan.
Brown, J.,(2007)Oil and Revolution. Berkeley: University of California.
Davidson, P.,(2009) Financial markets, money and the real world. NY:Edward Elgar
Emilio, C., and Stanca,L.,(2009) Financial Market Imperfections. Springer.
Leffler, G.,(2005) The Stock Market. NY:Ronald Press.
Levinson,M.,(2010) Guide to Financial Markets.NY: Bloomberg Press.
Miller, J.,(2007) Oil Prices: Backward to the Future. Cleveland:FRB.
Mishkin, F., (1998). The economics of money, banking, and financial markets. Addison Wesley. Iftekhar,H and William, H., (2010). Bank and financial market efficiency. Emerald Group.
Peters, E. (2000)Fractal Market Analysis.NY: John Wiley and Sons.
Pilbeam, K.,(2005). Finance and Financial Markets. Palgrave Macmillan.
Richardson, B.,(2011)Energy and Security Revolution.Oxford:OUP.
Royal Dutch Petroleum (2006) Annual Report 2005.the Haag: the Netherlands, 2004
Shaxson, N.,(2006) Poisoned Wells : the Dirty Politics of African Oil.NY:OUP
Tabak, J.,(2010) Natural Gas and Hydrogen. NY: TP.
Teall, J.,(2004) Financial market analytics. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Wang, G.,(2005) Real Options: the Key to Values. Oxford: Imperial College University.
Tables Table 1 source: Levinson (2010)
Source: Richardson (2011)
Acquisition Strategy: Tyco international ltd Coursework college essay help: college essay help
Acquisition strategy refers to a high-level business and technical organization system designed to achieve planned goals within a particular resource limits and time. Acquisition strategy as management program can be viewed as a procurement method for the business components or services.
Before an acquisition plan is initiated, the target company market performance and market situation should be analyzed to determine the best target company, and its best acquisition price.
Tyco international ltd has been able to use acquisition strategy to promote its growth to very high levels of excellence, through its highly diversified world company incorporation of its three major business divisions of; security solutions, fire protection and flow control. In the early 1960s it acquired Armin plastics and the Ludlow Corporation to start packaging services.
After this acquisition, the company recorded booming business and consequently high profits due to diversity of products in the market. Due to this, the company met the business threshold to be listed in the New York stock exchange in the year 1974.
Soon after Tyco international joined the stock exchange, it gained competitive advantage against its competitors, as this acted as an advertisement to those who did not know it and its products. It continued to expand both in its products and services, and through acquiring other companies to a point, where it has gained an international recognition, further widening of its market share through export of its products.
Through this strategy, speed of growth in terms of resources and competency of the company is higher than that of competitors, with ability to provide a wide range of new products of high quality.
By the way of acquiring an already established firm with ready products for sale such as polythene and plastic pipes, after acquisition the company was able to minimize the risks and cost of developing these new products, hence making its production cost low. This is translated into low prices of its products in the market compared to those of competitors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The acquiring company has been able to increase its market power through enhanced market presence with a wide range of products and services. Many companies feel that they have inside ability to do business, but they are unable to exhaust their available capital and capability due to insufficient size.
During acquisition, a company gets a good opportunity to increase its size that is necessary to exploit its overall competences by developing and growing in terms of sizes. The major concern of increase of size is the market share of the company.
For instance, Tyco has a history of expanding its market shares through acquiring various companies from both within and without the industry. Whenever a company expands its market share, the market power as well increases, hence placing it at a more competitive edge in the market.
For a company to enjoy a powerful market share, it may be forced to acquire the relied supplier in the market, the most competing company, or the major distributor. To some extent, some companies like Tyco international have tried to expand their market shares through acquiring companies from a different industry, and the process has proved to be successful.
Starting a new company is usually associated with many hindrances, the company enjoyed easy acquisition of Armin plastics and the Ludlow Corporation and with minimal competition effect. Through acquisition, there is a very high likelihood of the company to overcome the main entry barriers.
The big companies with expanded market shares find it easier to venture even to the most competitive areas. This is facilitated by the strong financial base of that company, as most of the companies that are new and upcoming find it hard and expensive to enter the market.
When it becomes challenging for small companies to venture into the market, those opportunities are left to be exploited by the big companies. When Tyco international acquired the second company it was soon listed in the New York stock exchange, this increased confidence among shareholders and other stakeholders, due to anticipated growth which was then realized.
We will write a custom Coursework on Acquisition Strategy: Tyco international ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When it acquired Armin plastics and the Ludlow Corporation, the later management and workforce was also absorbed to the new program, they brought new ideas and management strength that has made the company prosper to greater heights.
In addition, the company may use acquisition as a way of eradicating the behavior of depending on a single or few products in its operating market. For instance, at the beginning, the company was majoring in three types of products only within its operating market.
Within a duration of less than five years Tyco international had acquired various companies dealing with different products such as fire control, security services, electronics, packaging etc. one of its target was to acquire such companies to gather the basic guidelines of venturing into such fields.
In conclusion, although it has benefitted widely from acquisition strategy, there are some weaknesses that are associated with that strategy. There are some of the companies that have tried acquisition to no success due to such challenges. Most of the researches done on acquisition strategy prove that the benefits of this strategy outweigh the challenges making the process acceptable.
References Birkler, J. (2004). An acquisition strategy, process, and organization for innovative systems. New York: Rand Corporation.
The Civil Rights Movement in the USA Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Civil Rights Movement in the USA
Introduction This paper covers two parts. Part one of the paper is a summary of chapter ten of the book “Studying At University, how to be a successful student” by David Mcllroy. The chapter title is “Applying for a job” where Mcllroy advises the university students on how to apply or seek for a job.
He also advises about how they should select a course to study in the university. Part two of the essay is Research summary on ‘The Civil Rights movement in the USA that took place from 1955 thru 1968’.
The Civil Rights Movement in the USA This was a movement that took place in the United States of America between 1955 and 1968. The movement was instituted when the southern states of America were dominated by racial discrimination against African Americans and denial of voting powers. The movement’s main aim was to end the racial segregation and fight for the voting power of the black people in America.
However, the aim was enlarged to include the fight racial dignity, freedom from oppression, and political and economic self sufficiency which were the major concerns of the African-American people. This was escalated by the emergence of the black power movement that took place between 1966 and 1975.
Their concerns and demands were fought using major campaigns of civil resistance where the issues were addressed. There was rampant oppression of the white people by the Native Americans during the period of (and before), the movement. The situation in America was worse and needed to be addressed with immediate effect.
It is apparent, therefore, that the movement came up due to the need to fight the racial discrimination that was being directed to the Americans of African origin. According to Renée (2006), these people had been denied various rights they were entitled to as Americans.
According to Renée (2006), the government had deliberately failed to provide adequate public services like schools and hospitals in the areas perceived to be occupied by the African-American. He states that even those that were lucky to have these services did not get the right quality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He says that although the blacks’ population in the United States was small compared to the Americans, they eventually won the battle and were given all the rights as other Americans.
Exploitation was another cause that led to the emergence of civil rights movement. According to Newman (2004), the people of African origin were being exploited economically. He argues that although slavery had been outlawed long time ago, the subsequent governments failed to address the plight of these people.
In places of work, he acknowledges that Africans and other colored people were paid very little compared to the whites for the same kind of job. This created a lot of tension among these people.
However, with the influence of one of their prominent leaders, Malcom X and W. E.B. Du Bois, they decided to demonstrate so that the government of the day could address their needs effectively and as soon as possible. He says that other notable leaders in this movement were Martin Luther King, Jr, and Rosa Parks who was regarded as the mother of civil rights movement.
It was also reported that there was a lot of violence that was directed towards the black people in different parts of the United States of America. This is according to Renée (2006) who points out that the local police were blamed for being used as agents of the government in suppressing any revolts that may have been anticipated to happen.
He argues that the local people, in collaboration with the police, organized attacks against the blacks. This was meant to instill fear in the black people so that they do not continue making demands for equal rights. He, however, says that under the leadership of the black leaders, the blacks and other colored people were able to fight for their rights. He says that today all people in the United States of America are equal before the law.
The other cause of this civil rights movement was the need to demand for equal voting right as the other citizens of the United States of America. This is highlighted by Edmund (2010) who argues that the Democrats passed laws prohibiting all the black people from voting when they came to power.
We will write a custom Assessment on The Civil Rights Movement in the USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This angered the affected people and therefore they organized themselves and called all the black people to come out in large numbers and participate in the movements to demand for their rights to vote.
One of the key highlights of this movement took place on 1st December 1955. The day was dominated by nonviolent protests and civil disobedience which was lead by Rosa Parks. Following this act, Newman (2004) argues that she was subsequently arrested and charged with breaking the local ordinance an act that angered her fellow counterpart in the whole of United States.
As a response to her arrest, the African –Americans decided not to use the public transport until the government addressed all their concerns. According to Newman, this boycott took more than a year after the government intervened and decided to do away with such laws.
After the civil rights movement took place, the government of the day and the subsequent one yielded to the pressure and the black people gained their full rights as Americans. Several acts like Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 among others were passed to address the concerns of the blacks in America.
Conclusion Part 1. David Mcllroy has endeavored to venture in a field where very little has been written about. Therefore, any person who is about to attend an interview should find this book very resourceful since it gives a detailed explanation of the do’s and the don’ts during an interview.
Part 2. The Civil Rights Movement in the USA took place in the United States of America between 1955 and 1968, a period that was characterized by racial discrimination and denial of voting power to the blacks. The movement’s main aim was to end the racial segregation and fight for the voting power of the black people in America
Reference list Edmund, L., 2010. America in the 1950s. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. McIlroy, D., 2003. Studying @ university: How to be a successful student. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Newman, M., 2004. The civil rights movement. Trowbridge: The Cromwell Press.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Civil Rights Movement in the USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Renée, C., 2006. The Civil Rights movement in American memory. Georgia: University Of Georgia Press.
Maximizing Revenues in the Minor Leagues Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Research adopted by Minor leagues
List of References
Introduction Market research is an important area that demands careful consideration before taking a decision on issues related to finance. A number of establishments in the contemporary society have failed miserably in their ventures. The failure to conduct sound market research to ascertain the real issue on the ground affecting the venture is the main reason.
Most organizations rush through their decisions without having the backing of a thoroughly conducted research. The primary aim of any business venture is profit-making (Johnson 1995). To achieve this, the company has to look into the behavior of the customers and ascertain the best strategy to use to drive its objectives. In addition, market appraisal is necessary if competition is to be contained.
Governments and other social institutions that employ this initiative before rolling out their products to the market have made a huge impact and realized most of their objectives. Most firms view market research as an expensive venture. However, the importance outweighs the costs incurred during the process.
It provides sufficient information to policy markers leading to well thought decisions. New firms normally overcome traditional companies who fail to apply market research. This is because of the constant changes in tastes and preference of consumers.
This article will analyze the research adopted by Minor league on how they can maximize their revenue in the sport. Baseball is a new sporting activity that is being introduced to a society where basketball and hockey were dominant.
The administration is keen to look into ways in which these small sporting clubs can maximize their revenues without exploiting them. The paper will elaborate the various stages undertaken up to findings of the study. Market research inferences have been compared with the objectives to ascertain whether the goals of the survey have been realized (Johnson1995).
Research adopted by Minor leagues When conducting a market survey, it is prudent to understand the research problem (Barr
Global Markets Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Going Global is a Long Term Project
The Need for Research
Introduction Technological advancements have made it possible for the world to be closely connected. Many business organizations have opted to widen the scope of their markets from just being localized to serving the world wide market.
In as much as this is a good step to take, there are considerations which need to be taken seriously before a business can embark on this journey. This article is a brief review of what it takes to globalize business activities.
Going Global is a Long Term Project It is very significant to acknowledge that going global is a long term project. Being a long term project therefore implies that the benefits may not be enjoyed in the short run and thus the need to have some funds set aside for this process. This might not be welcome for companies seeking profits in the short run.
When venturing into different markets, one needs to carry out an extensive research as in most cases there are many factors that differ among different regions which need to be taken care of.
Such factors may include issues such as customer preferences, legal considerations, and other logistics. These factors can not be taken care of at once; they have to be considered in a step wise manner hence making the whole process a long term one.
The Need for Research Going global means venturing into new markets around the world; markets constitute of people with different values which in most cases become determinants of what they consume. Going global has to be preceded by a market research (Lamb, Hair
Communication Models Term Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Shannon Communication’s model
Abstract Organizations have been in existence ever since humanity came into existence. Within these organizations, there has been a need for communications plans and proper organizations models so that there is a proper and smooth operation. Human beings do communicate differently and these in turn affects organizational operations, as they are the people who make up these organizations.
There have been several ways identified for human communications by experts in this field. Communication is a field that is so wide in relation to other sectors. Therefore, people have proposed the rise of the many models ever since the time of Aristotle to present times.
As wide as it is, it includes the various disciplines such as journalism, anthropology, rhetoric, and psychology amongst many others. This paper will tend to look into one of these very many communications model and one organizational model analyzing them side by side to come up with various weaknesses and problems that might arise from the use of such a communications model. The main analysis style will be the AMA 8-step process.
Introduction Communication amongst human beings is particularly valuable, and understanding of the same is supposed to be in the priorities of organizations that intend to remain relevant in the market.
Human communication is concerned with the conveyance of information from one source to the other, and this rule underscores the reason why the field has various models that look at it from different perspectives (Littlejohn,
Centre for Disease Control (CDC) Communication Plan Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
A communication plan is a tool used to reach certain audiences by means of information channeling and dissemination. A good communication plan guides an organization in its endeavor to reach its target audience. It must give in detail the methods and timelines to be used so as to accomplish its objectives.
It gives an organization an effective platform in which to exchange messages, ideas and information, both within and without the organization therefore, enabling it to align its strategies with its mission and objectives (Bell
Marketing research: Process and Progress Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of marketing research
Secondary research strategy
Primary research strategy
Introduction Marketing research is a marketing discipline that connects the customers, the public, and the consumers to a particular marketer by means of information. Marketing information helps marketers in coming up with strategic marketing decisions that can enhance the marketing process and monitor its progress.
Due to the increasing change in current market and market diversity, there is a critical need to carry out package redesign for market products in order to catch up with the emerging market requirements, and revitalize the product’s brand. Brand equity is strategically a vital aspect when it comes to brand market analysis (McDonald, 2007).
Importance of marketing research The marketing outcomes and effects result from a market product without a brand name when compared with the same products with brand names. Giving the orange juice products a new packaging is important because the company can decide to charge consumers the premium prices.
However, before going forward with the package redesign program, orange juice Company should evaluate the company’s brand equity and other crucial elements such as profit margins, consumer’s familiarity with the product logos, market share, visual elements, quality perceptions, brand language, and other important brand values (McDonald, 2007).
Packaging research is important for under-advertised brands or non-advertised brands. Product package in a retail shop greatly influence consumers when making decisions on the items to buy. Good package copy and design attracts consumers to buy a particular product (McDonald, 2007).
There is a need to address the orange juice consumer’s concerns when making a decision to change the product’s packaging. The company needs to change the existing brand package with respect to a prior research on consumer’s objectives (McDonald, 2007).
There is a need for great care in the process of final package design evaluation. This is to ensure that the introduced design package does not break consumer’s continuity with the existing product demand. A radical brand design may result into market share decline for the product brand.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If a product brand has a small market share, the resultant risks of the introduced brand design are relatively lower. Therefore, a radical change in the product design for existing brands must go along with thorough advertisement, as if the product is new in the market (McDonald, 2007).
Secondary research strategy When carrying out packaging research strategy for the orange juice brand, the company can use external secondary data sources such as commercial research organizations and competitors. Commercial research organizations can help to gather previously researched information on the market trends for other similar brand packages.
For instance, information on a similar brand packaging such as Pepsi products can help draw conclusion on the consumer reaction when the company decides to change the brand package for its products (American Marketing Association, 2004). Secondary research in marketing research strategy involves the use of already existing data to carry out research analysis on the appropriate product brands.
The company can also use the competitor’s strategies especially for similar brands that sell highly in the market to come up with a competitive packaging brand in the market. Although it may appear cheaper and faster, secondary research strategy is not much reliable especially in cases where first-hand information is required. It can therefore, provide misleading information (American Marketing Association, 2004).
Primary research strategy The company can use primary research strategies such as conducting interviews to collect data on the consumer reactions concerning the proposed brand package. It involves collecting original data to analyze the product’s branding requirements based on the consumer needs. The interviews can be orally or written. The consumers give detailed information on how they feel about the brand package.
This information can further assist the orange juice company to improve on the brand package based on the consumer needs. This type of research involves first-hand information and is therefore, much reliable compared to secondary research. A market survey can also assist the company to collect data on the market trends and consumer preferences on the company’s products.
The information gathered can later help the company make a decision on whether to repackage the brand based on the consumer preferences. Primary research is highly demanding and is therefore, expensive compared to secondary research (American Marketing Association, 2004).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing research: Process and Progress specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Marketing research plays a major role in assessing and identifying the changing marketing mix elements for a product brand. It analyses how these elements generally affect the customer’s behavior based on a given product brand.
It is broadly categorized into two forms namely; consume- based marketing research and business-to-business marketing research. It therefore, provides managers with the necessary, reliable, relevant, valid, accurate and up to date information concerning a particular brand in the market.
References American Marketing Association, (2004). The Definition of Marketing. Retrieved September from web.
McDonald, M. (2007). Marketing Plans, 6th ed., Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Advertising of American Express Company Products Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents The problems of the company
Important factors to consider at this stage
Marketing is an integral part of a company; after goods and/or services have been produced, a company needs to embark on massive selling campaigns using effective combinations of tools of marketing. In the 1970s, American express company had the highest market share in the credit card industry, it leadership in the industry had been attributed to its robust and effective advertising campaigns.
It was using celebrities and well-known people in the society to sell psychologically its products. in 2007 the company position in the market dropped to position five despite its “My life, My card” campaign that had been effective for the last campaigns (Salkind, 2003).
The major competitors that the company had to face were Trailing Discovery, MasterCard, visa and Capital One. This paper evaluated the turn of events as experienced by American Express; it will also recommend the way forward.
The problems of the company The obvious problem that can be seen in the company is lack of a strong marketing and advertising tool that has resulted to the company loosing the market it had once dominated.
Advertising is part of marketing whereby appropriate strategies are developed and implemented to create awareness and persuade customers to buy a certain company’s product/service; other than developing the advertising strategies to use, a company should understand that there is need for continuous improvement.
The loss of competitiveness that the company is facing can b attributed to obsolete of its marketing/advertising campaign. The company used celebrities like Robert Deniro, Tiger Woods, Kate Winslet and Laird Hamiton; although these people are still prominent, they may have lost the influence they used to have some years back; the method was monotonous
A product has three main stages; introduction, growth, maturity and decline, American Express is in the decline stages. From the 1990s, the company’s products were in the maturity and growth stages were it dominated the market. The emergence of other companies with similar products posed the greatest problem to the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another problem that the company is facing is the lack of aggressiveness, the company was comfortable with the success of “My life, My card” and the benefits it was bringing to the company and forgot to develop the campaigns further to tap emerging trend in the market.
Important factors to consider at this stage With the declined success of the companies advertising strategy, it offers the company a chance to think of another way of advertising. Before developing another advertising strategy, then it need to take a massive marketing research.
After realizing the deficit in their products if any, then the company should aim at understanding that their competitors are offering over and above what the company is offering. This will help in establishing the gap that American Express cards have over those of its competitors.
With the understanding of the products, the company should then aim at understanding the market segment; to persuade consumers effectively and have a winning advertising campaign, insight customer behaviors need to be understood. Before implementing a particular advertising strategy, marketers are assisted by market research to learn the behavior and attitudes of consumers for better strategies.
This is learnt through an understanding of physiological, political, social, economical and cultural factors that affects the consumers’ behaviors when making a purchasing decision that can be learnt through an aggressive advertising campaign.
American Express competitors, Trailing Discovery, MasterCard, visa and Capital One, have been able to outdo other companies in the industry because of their consistency in strategy development. American Express should go back to its strategies, know the area that it went wrong, and start to improve from there.
Alternative Alternatives that the company will have will be dictated by the result of the marketing research undertaken; the best alternative will be the one that will offer maximum returns at the minimal cost. Some options that are likely to be available they are:
We will write a custom Essay on Advertising of American Express Company Products specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the American Express products were outdated, such that consumers were not getting higher utility; then the company can improve the products and embark on massive advertising campaigns.
If the competitors are seen to have better products, then the company should aim at improving its technology so as it can offer better services.
When a company is in the decline stage, there are three main options opened to it; develop a products rejuvenation strategy, stop production or create a niche market by harvesting the product. The research could start by analyzing the effectiveness and responsiveness of its products; an evaluation of whether the products are still wanted in the community should be undertaken.
If the company’s products are quality and can give high utility to customers, the company should embark on changing is advertising approach and use an approach that will capture the attention of customers.
Knowing and developing the appropriate tools and strategies involves an analysis and research of current market and social developments; with the information at hand, the then the company will develop the appropriate methods of advertising as well as develop an appropriate advertising tool.
Of late, the world has developed in technology, the effects of such technology in advertising is diverse and varies among industries; American Express should develop strategy that can assist it fight its competitors effectively, such tools include social networking’s, the use of online advertisements, direct mobile advertising and brand extension strategies.
An advertising research of an ongoing campaign will assist a company realize the weak points of its processes and devise measures to improve them. At times even after advertising has been launched, it may prove inefficient or need some adjustments.
This can only be learnt through conducting research of both the products and the advertising strategy that the company can adopt. An effective advertising return will offer more channels for the company to use (Block,1999).
Recommendation In modern fast developing world, technology is creating numerous business opportunities, the credit card industry is fast growing and changing it features to make is more secure, efficient, and reliable and incorporate new features. From American Express history, the company is a sleeping giant that need to be rejuvenated.
The company should improve the credit cards to increase the utility that customers will have. The approach to develop the product is through a robust product research where the company aims at establishing feature that target market want but they are not available with current products.
Conducting an advertising research will be crucial: advertising research aims at assisting the advertising team effectively use available advertising tools for the benefit of the company; it analyzes the target market and the competitors so as it can advise the company on best advertising campaigns.
References Block, P. (1999). Flawless consulting: A guide to getting your expertise used. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Advertising of American Express Company Products by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Salkind, N. J. (2003). Exploring research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Law and Social Theory Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Social theory of law according to Max Weber
Social theory of law according to Emile Durkheim
Differences in the Two Accounts
The Similarities in the Two Accounts
Abstract This paper examines the social theories of law that were proposed by two of the greatest social theorists, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. The paper seeks to examine what each of the two theorists wants to bring on board in their theories with regard to law in the society.
The study will then go on to explore the role these theories have played in the society and lastly at the similarities and differences that can be identified in each set of ideas that were proposed by the two philosophers.
Introduction The understanding of law in the society is crucial. Therefore, the theories proposed by Emile Durkheim and Max Weber are very important in providing the different perspectives that are illustrated in attempt to come up with the meaning of law and the factors that dictate the leading role that determines the types of laws that are applied in reigning over a given society.
The two classical sociologists have contributed immensely in the theoretical study of law. In their work, they have given their views on the role of law as a consequential result arising from the drastically changing society. Durkheim aimed at demystifying the role of law in a randomly changing society due to forces of industrialization.
He also aimed at establishing the role of law in a society that is marked by a culture of individualism as manifested by its members. On the other hand, Weber was of the opinion that modern law is formal and it is formulated based on rational procedures to ensure effective running of the society and the activities there-in.
This paper will define each of the two theories and explain exhaustively what each of the theory has encompassed. The study will identify the fundamental differences and similarities that are disported by the two theories. Ultimately, the paper will draw a conclusion concerning the roles that have been played by the two theorists in shaping the modern law.
Social theory of law according to Max Weber Max Weber was a German sociologist and political economist (Cotterrell, 2001, p. 255). According to Andersen and Kaspersen (2001), Weber’s approach to law is from an external point of view (p.195). He concentrated on the characteristics that are exhibited in law. He understood law as an abstract that is not attributable to any person. He sort to define law as a rational and legal authority.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weber postulates that authority that is bestowed by law takes three forms; the traditional authority, the charismatic authority and the legal-rational authority. These three forms of authority have sort to explain how a legitimate system that is supposed to govern people by outlining how they interact with the formal authority and with one another can be created (Luhmann, 2005, p.388).
In the traditional basis of authority, Weber sort to explain that authority is legitimate via the sanctity of the traditions of a given society. He observed that the ability to rule others and the legitimacy of ruling others is passed down from one person to another. In a traditional monarchy authority to rule is hereditary in nature such that a son inherits the throne of his father and the continued inheritance becomes a cycle.
The same dynasty keeps the legitimacy of ruling others and this process could continue forever. He observes that in such kind of societies, the rules that are implemented in almost all the cases are inconsistent and irrational over a period of time. They are prone to biases, nepotism and prejudice.
The subjects of such form of authority in most cases are either absolutely dependent on the ruler, or they are independent from the ruler, but still subjects of the ruler. The two types of subjects are either feudalism or patrimonialism. It should be noted that in the traditional legitimacy of authority, the nature of authority is static (Andersen
Learning from Crisis Essay essay help online
Introduction The literature that has been presented by researchers in the field of organizational learning has, to this point, been not clear and hard to define. The guiding concept of this literature is marked with disorder and the researchers find the trend, as pointed out by Common, difficult to be defined, separated, measured and applied1.
However, in the recent times, there has been a sharp rise in the number of the studies that have been conducted in the field of organizational learning. But on the other hand, the literature that has been presented about organizations learning from crisis has remained to be inadequate.
In order to bring up the level of theoretical and practical understanding of the “organizational learning” process and the way it is linked to the management of the crises in organizations, this paper seeks to explore the experience of crisis as learning inducements by setting up solid theoretical and empirical frameworks for carrying out researches on organizational learning from crisis.
Literature Review Crisis and learning
Deverell defines crisis as “a situation that subjects a community of people, such as an organization, a state or a municipality, to a serious threat to its basic structures or fundamental values and norms which, under time pressure and uncertainties, necessitates making crucial decisions”2.
Basing on a definition that was given out by Schwab, organizational learning is observed to come about “when the experience systematically alters behavior or knowledge”3.
This view gives a distinction between behavior and cognition in a clear manner which, basing on several views, is the real meaning of learning4. Moreover, this definition does not, in a similar way as other definitions, give a distinction between lessons seen which do not alter the actual behaviors and lessons implemented.
The link that exists between learning and crisis is not very clear in the existing literature that has been presented by scholars. The organization researchers give a highlight of the effect which crises have on learning as well as on change.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies that have been carried out in the field of public administration as well as in the field of policy analysis seem to consider crisis as being an opportunity for learning which “may open windows of reform required for change”5.
However, the evidence that has been given out in the recent times in the literature of crisis management indicates that learning does not essentially come out of crisis6 7 8. Therefore, the literature that has been presented in the field of crisis management as well as in the fields of organizational learning and public administration give out varied views on the possible effect crises may have on learning.
In addition, rarely is there looking in to the issue of what the organizations learn and a time they carry out the learning9. According to Boin, ‘t Hart and Sundelius, the studies that have been carried out to this end draws a conclusion that crisis and learning “remains an open question whether crisis triggers learning and change”10.
It can be clearlyy seen that there is need to raise the level of knowledge concerning the link between crisis and learning.
A conceptual framework for crisis triggered learning
A study was recently conducted by Lalonde in which he set up a platform for a learning model for “organizational resilience” and raised the level of crisis coping capabilities. This researcher presented claims that the “management studies do not seem to lead to a crisis management learning model that fosters organizational resilience in coping with crises”11.
What is learned
There are two types of learning are presented by Deverell as; single-loop learning and double-loop learning12. According to Argyris and Scho’ n, a distinction between these two types of learning is possibly the most powerful classification of organizational learning13.
The achievement of the single-loop learning is realized at a time members within an organization engage in the detection and correction of divergences and mistakes in the organization as well as in the organization’s procedures, without looking in to the fundamental norms and premises of the organization.
We will write a custom Essay on Learning from Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, “single-loop learning” processes makes it possible for organizations to undertake operations and attain the objectives as well as policies of the day in the organization. Learning of this kind operates in the best way when the changes in the outer environment of the organizational environment are slow or at a time the organizational premises aren’t conflicting.
However, during the periods of drastic change, those who manage organizations may have a feeling of the urge to engage in inquiries that pose questions to the status quo of the organizations. The double-loop learning inquiries like these may assume the form of reforming the norms of the organization as well as strategies that are linked to such norms.
This deep-rooted learning “presupposes that error detection becomes not only connected to strategies and assumptions for effective performance, but also to the very norms which define effective performance”14.
Under the double-loop learning, those who participate in it are supposed to engage in the detecting and correction of the mistakes by engaging in the inquiring in to the modification of the motivating norms as well as goals and policies that the organization has set15.
This fundamental change implies that the former understandings are not regarded while there is addition of fresh ones. It can be very hard to operationalize these concepts. To illustrate this, a process of learning that may commence as single-loop learning may eventually become a double-loop learning, and the reverse can be the case.
Focus of learning
The focus of learning that is triggered by crisis is basically, either on response or prevention. In regard to prevention, this involves finding out what caused the crisis and taking the necessary measures in order to ensure the same won’t happen again in the future. This involves learning about the way to evade being exposed to a similar crisis in the time to come.
Response involves bringing down the level of the consequences of a similar crisis by engaging in the enhancement of the crisis management capabilities. This kind of learning involves the way to offer a response to the crisis occurrences, both at the present time and even in the future. The response and prevention focuses are quite necessary for “organizational resilience’.
However Wildavsky, presented an argument that “a strategy of resilience is more efficient than spending resource on anticipatory measures to prevent accidents from occurring “16. On the other hand, Shrivastava pointed out that a dividing line between repeat risk minimization and consequences minimization is thin on some occasions17.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Learning from Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Looking in to the root causes of one crisis does not bear fruits at all times. In most cases, the crises are a product of a sequence of the occurrences that are interlinked as well as those mistakes and shortcomings that are also interlinked, which may be brought about by the technical causes as well as the organizational and human causes18 (Perrow, 1984).
Lessons learned: inter-crisis or intra-crisis
The difference between the inter-crisis and intra-crisis learning is comprehended as an issue of timing. According to Moynihan, the definition for the term inter-crisis learning is given as “learning from one crisis and making changes to prepare for another”19.
He also gives the definition of the term intra-crisis learning as “learning that seeks to improve response during a single crisis episode”20. According to this researcher, the research that has been carried out on intra-crisis learning has not been developed to the same level as that which has been carried out on inter-crisis learning.
The activation of the intracrisis learning is carried out in the middle of such unfavorable situations as uncertainty, need for drastic action, and stress among others. Those activities that bring about learning that is induced by crisis give a message to the members of the organization that they are supposed to have fresh routines as well new procedures in order to succeed in the management of the events facing them.
These severe characteristics of the crisis cause intra-crisis learning to be harder as compared to inter-crisis learning, which generally comes about at a time there is enough time to engage in contemplating21. However, some limitations should be pointed out.
For instance, it should be pointed out that these prepositions are applicable to “fast-burning” crises and not to the slow-burning ones “crisis after crisis where systematic flaws are incubated and eventually erupt to the detriment of public trust in authorities and institutions, or creeping crises like for instance chronic environmental crises that takes years to erupt and to solve22.
Another issue to be pointed out is that learning from crisis is a process that is not static but rather dynamic and can not be located easily at one point in time. The third point is that, the difference that exists between intra-crisis learning and creativeness turns out to be not clear. Intra-crisis learning and creativeness are both responses to the information that has just come up.
According to Miner, Bassoff, and Moorman, intra-crisis learning and creativeness are distinguished based on the fact that the intra-crisis learning is on the basis of the previous experiences while creativeness or improvisation is on the basis of “real-time experience”23.
In conclusion, the idea of when learning occurs is handled by coding lessons as on one hand, “intra-crisis learning, initiated during the crisis, and on the other, as inter-crisis learning, initiated after the crisis”24.
Giving a distinction between the implementing lessons processes and observing lessons has a relationship with differentiating between behavior and cognition25. A large number of organizational learning definitions are in agreement that learning involves cognition as well as behavior26. However, isolating cognition from behavior may bring in concerns at a time an analysis of real events as well as processes is carried out.
According to Boin et al, “we learn the right lessons but when learning from crisis does occur, it does not necessarily lead to performance improvement”27. In addition, behavior isn’t essentially a reflection of cognition that is precise.
However, there is distinguishing between “lessons implemented” concepts and “lessons distilled” concepts by linking the cognitive action occurring as limitations are seen to the behavioral action played out while there is acting upon lessons. In case the lesson was just seen but not acted upon to the level that it changed the behavior of the organization, this lesson is taken to be a “lesson distilled28.
On the other hand, in case the “case narrative” depicts evidence pointing out that the lesson was acted upon, in such a case, it is taken that there was implementation of a lesson.
Confirmation of implementation can be traced in statements that are made in research reports as well as in the media reports and also in the interviews. In conclusion, the issue as to whether the lessons were acted up or fruitless is dealt with by the coding of the lessons as “lessons distilled” or “lessons implemented”.
Learning from crisis in the real situation
The 2001 and 2002 Stockholm blackouts
In the year 2001, during the month of March, there was the occurrence of a technical failure in a local cable tunnel in northwestern Stockholm. The interpretation of this by the power company was that it was not a major failure. There was occurrence of another failure a short time thereafter and this was accompanied with interruptions in the communication cables29.
At that point, the operators had suspicion that this was not a usual event and alerted the Fire Department. The problem intensified as there was lack of redundancy in the local network. There was burning of connecting cables in a blaze.
The result of this was a blackout that went on for 37 hours which affected more than fifty thousand people living in the region as well as seven hundred companies having over thirty thousand employees.
An announcement was made by the power company that everything will be restored to normal by evening making people not to see this as a very grave situation. A disparity existed between “operational rescue service and societal coordination of crisis management efforts”30. The real gravity of the resultant damages came to the attention of the manager of the power company eight hours later during the blackout.
A fresh release by the press, which served to initiate “societal crisis management and coordination”, indicated that power would be restored on March 13, at 10 P.M. In the end, the operational professionals came up with a temporary technique of repairing the destroyed cables and as a result, the blackout was ended before the night of March 12.
However, “makeshift repairs became groundwork for crisis reoccurrence…the tunnel was not sufficiently decontaminated and the repairs were not adequately controlled”31. On 29th May, the following year (2002), there was sparking of a fire in the same tunnel following fresh errors. Once again, the event was interpreted as not being serious but additional problem indications contributed to high level of awareness.
The experiences that had been realized in the previous year caused it to logically clear that the fire from the cable had brought in grave damages. Where there was execution of rescue service mission, the fire chief together with the city manager came up with plans for a “coordinated response”32.
The response of the year 2001 was carried out again by the city command and control. The blackout went on for 52 hours and came to an end as operational professionals engaged in the temporary connection of the “local utility’s network to the national grid”33.
Organizational learning from the crisis
According to Deverell, by pointing out the processes of the crisis management utility in the course of the initial crisis occurrence, there was a disclosure of 20 lessons that were crisis-induced34. A large number of lessons came out from the operational stage.”
They were in general single-loop inquiries in to problems noticed by the management on how to minimize the consequences if a similar failure would occur again, rather than how to prevent a repeat of the failure”35.
The analyses of the “process-tracing” nature offered some proof of crisis improvisation at “Birka Energi” in the course of the initial crisis. However, they did not offer evidence for the intra-crisis which is on the basis of previous experience.
It is possible that, the inadequate “crisis experience” in the organization caused lesson learning in the course of the initial occurrence to be very hard and reflections were intentionally thrown aside up to the time of the crisis consequences. Moreover, there was no implementation of the single big lesson in crisis consequences which questioned lack of perfection in the design of the system as a fundamental cause of the crisis.
It is pointed out that “process-tracing narratives of the city command and control unit’s management of the events revealed nine lessons triggered by the 2001 blackout”36. The lessons were linked to bringing down the level of consequences in case a similar crisis occurs.
There were no prevention lessons possibly because, as Deverell points out, “capacity to really prevent a repetition lay within the powers of the utility, while the city could only call the attention to issues of preventing crisis repetition”37. The lessons learned by the city from the initial crisis which occurred in 2001 were of the inter-crisis nature.
A large number of lessons were taken to be “structural single-loop” learning related to the “rescue service mission, the structure of the coordination group or information and communication routines….all but one of the city’s lessons was codified either in planning documents or by decisions made during the 2002 crisis”38.
The “process-tracing” of the management of the city in the second crisis, which occurred in 2002, indicates five lessons that were learned by the “command and control unit” of the city from this crisis. The five lessons handled the subject of crisis response and the way to bring down the level of the consequences that can be brought in by a similar nature in the future.
Three of them called for investigations in to the routines of the organization in the course of a crisis and they were therefore, “double-loop” lessons. There was implementation of a larger number of them. The 2001 crisis also contributed to a remarkable learning program which took the form of the “city’s long-term crisis management investigation and overhaul of procedures and protocols”39.
Conclusion Organizational learning is a very important current management issue that needs to be considered very seriously.
Carrying out adequate research in this field can go a long way in assisting organizations to be able to learn from the crises that they may encounter in the course of their operations in order to avoid the same in the future or for them to be able to have a clear understanding of how they can handle the same crisis if it comes about again in the future.
This study aimed to offer a theoretical analysis as well as an analysis of the real situation. However, more studies need to be carried out in order to bring up the level of the knowledge in regard to how to handle crises in organizations.
Bibliography Argyris, C. and Scho¨ n, D.A., Organizational Learning: A theory of Action Perspective, Addison-Wesley, 1978.
Birkland, T.A., Lessons from Disaster: Policy Change after Catastrophic Events, Georgetown University Press, Washington, 2006.
Boin, R.A., ‘t Hart, P., Stern, E. and Sundelius, B., The Politics of Crisis Management: Public Leadership Under Pressure, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005.
Boin, R.A., McConnell, A. and ’t Hart, P., Governing After Crisis: The Politics of Investigation, Accountability and Learning, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008.
Common, R. ‘Organizational Learning in a Political Environment: Improving Policy-Making in UK Government’, Policy Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2004, pp. 35–49.
Dekker, S. and Hanse´n, D, ‘Learning under Pressure: The Effects of Politicization on Organizational Learning in Public Bureaucracies’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2004, pp. 211–230.
Deverell, E. ‘Crises as learning triggers: exploring a conceptual framework of crisis induced learning’, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 17, No. 3, 2009, pp. 179 – 188.
Dror, Y., ‘Decision-making under Disaster Conditions’, in Comfort, L. (ed.), Managing Disaster: Strategies and Policy Perspectives, Duke University Press, Durham, 1988, pp. 255–273.
Elliott, D. and Smith, D, ‘Football Stadia Disasters in the United Kingdom: Learning from Tragedy’, Industrial and Environmental Crisis Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1993, pp. 205–229.
Hallander, L., Personal interview with the fire chief at the Stockholm Fire Brigade in 2001, 24 January 2002
‘t Hart, P. and Boin, A., ‘Between Crisis and Normalcy: The Long Shadow of Post-Crisis Politics’, in Rosenthal, U., Boin, A. and Comfort, L.K. (eds), Managing Crises: Threats, Dilemmas, Opportunities, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 2001, pp. 28–46.
Hornyak, I., post crisis evaluation, Stockholm Fire Department, 28 June 2001.
Karlsson, I. Personal interview with the power company manager of operations, 5 February 2002
Lalonde, C. ‘The Potential Contribution of the Field of Organizational Development to Crisis Management’, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2007. pp. 95–104.
Miner, A.S., Bassoff, P. and Moorman, C., ‘Organizational Improvisation and Learning: A Field Study’, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 2001, 2, pp. 304– 337.
Moynihan, D.P., ‘Learning Under Uncertainty: Networks in Crisis Management’, Public Administration Review, Vol. 68, No. 2, 2008, pp. 350–365.
Nohrstedt, D., Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-Induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 2007.
Perrow, C., Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Systems, Basic Books, New York, 1984.
Schwab, A., ‘Incremental Organizational Learning from Multilevel Information Sources: Evidence for Cross-Level Interactions’, Organization Science, Vol. 18, Number 2, 2007, pp. 233–251.
Shrivastava, P., Bhopal: Anatomy of a Crisis, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, 1987.
Smith, D. and Elliott, D. ‘Exploring the Barriers to Learning from Crisis: Organizational Learning and Crisis’, Management Learning, Volume 38, Number 5, 2007, pp. 519–538.
Toft, B. and Reynolds, S., Learning from Disasters , 2nd ed., Perpetuity Press, Leicester, 1997.
Tunnel-branden, Power company in-house ad hoc company magazine published after the 2002 fire, 2002.
Wildavsky, A.B., Searching for Safety, Transaction Books, New Brunswick, 1988.
Footnotes 1 R. Common. ‘Organizational Learning in a Political Environment: Improving Policy-Making in UK Government’, Policy Studies, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2004, pp. 35–49.
2 E. Deverell, ‘Crises as learning triggers: exploring a conceptual framework of crisis induced learning’, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 17, No. 3, 2009, pp. 179 – 188.
3 A. Schwab, ‘Incremental Organizational Learning from Multilevel Information Sources: Evidence for Cross-Level Interactions’, Organization Science, Vol. 18, Number 2, 2007, pp. 233–251.
4 S. Dekker, S.
Religion: The nineteenth century Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction The nineteenth century was a time of great revolution in the fields of agriculture, communication, transportation, technology, marketing and industry. It is in this period that the collapse of great empires like Portugal, Spain, Mughal, China, and the Holy Roman kingdom happened.
As a result, great empires like Germany, Britain, Japan and United States came into being. Great philosophers and religious leaders such as William Booth, who was the main founder of the Salvation Army, Karl Max, Ellen White, and John Stuart Mill, a great philosopher, among others, also arose in this century.1
This century marked the beginning of great evangelical revivals in various protestant churches. In this century, the modern scientific theory started having its way into the church, something that transformed the way Christians view their faith.
Scientific theories like Darwinism encouraged Christian followers to become inquisitive and many of them started doubting the beliefs and values they previously held.2 Consequently, Christians deviated from the regular and traditional observance of religion and belief in biblical teachings to secularism and faith in personal gods.3
As soon as the radical effects of scientific secularism became prevalent in the Christian churches, several theologians and scholars like Friedrich Schleiermacher came up to defend Christianity.4 Unfortunately, their defense did little to protect Christianity from the criticism it faced, since it led to the emergence of liberal theology and Christianity.
Liberal theology is on the other side of the same secularism coin, in view of the fact that it facilitated further criticism against the bible after its inception. Liberal theology is defined as a flexible method of understanding and knowing God. Although it uses the scripture, liberal theology still applies the same interpretations and principles used in exploring non-biblical ancient writings.5
This new philosophy has made it almost impossible for Christians to continue believing the bible is a divinely inspired script that is supposed to dictate their spiritual lives. Instead, they subject the bible to human reasoning and questioning, an action that greatly compromises its authority.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This compromise is so grave such that the bible is taken to be an anthology that records the author’s own feelings and beliefs about God.6 Liberalism has led to the emergence of further criticisms against the bible, therefore creating more reliance on human experience rather than the bible.
In an attempt to reject this influence, various radicals have decided to acquire their own religion. Christian fundamentalists arose to oppose these critical approaches to the scripture during the nineteenth century.7 However, their opposition was a futile attempt as it did not prevent atheistic scientific theories from influencing Christians.
These criticisms have led to the emergence of new knowledge concerning religion and science, a factor that has encouraged deism among Christians. It appears like every effort to defend God or the bible results into further attacks on Christianity. Although the intentions of earlier scholars and theologians like Friedrich Schleiermacher were to defend the scriptures, at some point they deviated from this objective.
What Went Wrong? Deviation from Initial Intentions
Modern scientific theories like Darwinism are responsible for secularism, the religion of humanity that does not acknowledge or give any credit to God or allow His worship.8 Secularism and humanism mainly focus on cultural achievements of humans and their possibility of getting fulfillment in this world.
Darwin’s theories place the authority of the bible at stake since theories of evolution make the creation story in Genesis to appear erroneous. They make the bible look like a simple a collection of different literary genres such as poetry, parables and stories among others, which simply speak of human experiences. This has led to the development of new critical approaches to the bible, aimed at questioning the facts contained in it.
In the nineteenth century, the liberal Christians emerged to defend the authority of the scripture and the reality and existence of God, but they erred when they deviated from conservative Christian beliefs to secularism.9 These liberals also compromise Christianity by subjecting the principles of the bible to human reasoning and wisdom instead of relying on faith.10
Darwinism theory promotes modernism, which motivates some Protestants to formulate a liberalistic approach to Christianity. Even though these scholars’ main aim is defending the authority of the bible, they normally subject it to further criticism.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Religion: The nineteenth century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, says that Christianity probably appears as foolishness to the intelligent.11 He says that the bible is spiritually discerned and can appear as nonsense when subjected to the reasoning of human beings.12 Subjecting biblical concepts to criticisms that are based on the understanding of humans, is considered erroneous since their wisdom, knowledge, and intelligence is limited.
How the efforts to defend God or scriptures resulted into the breakdown of an attack on Christian thought
The efforts by the liberals to defend the scripture were necessary at that time when a lot of criticism was being directed towards its authority. However, instead of resolving the issue, this defense led to further criticisms against Christianity as outlined below:
The movement focused more on retaining the spiritual and religious values of Christianity while at the same time denying the infallible authority of the scripture upon which these values are based. This attempt to exclude the bible from Christianity gave room for other teachings to define it. This provision compromised the basis upon which Christianity is built.
Instead of looking at the bible in its complete perspective, including the divine and corporeal aspects, this movement was attached to the physical aspects of the word of God. The bible defines itself as a scripture that is spiritual and divine.13 After doing away with the divine aspect of the bible, they made it appear like any other literal work or book of fiction that advocates for secularism.
This movement was aimed at denying the scripture its rightful authority. Denying the word of God amounts to denying God’s authority and power and this is manifested in acts such as questioning His existence. The existence of God and the authority of the scripture are the essence of Christianity and are the pillars upon which this faith is based. The removal of these facts makes Christianity no different from atheism.
These efforts were aimed at reconciling Darwinism and Christianity. Scientific reasoning diluted Christianity and its influence, and altered its teachings, values and beliefs.
This movement denounced the existence of miracles and divine healings and people started preferring naturalistic explanations. Miracles started being dismissed as legends or myths that did not exist and by this they denounced the existent of the spiritual world. The bible declares that God is a spiritual being that is invisible.14 The fact that a person has never experienced a miracle or seen God does not nullify His existence. Denying His existence only leads to further attacks on Christianity.
This movement is more of a Darwinism interest group as it lays emphasis on the value and importance of the individual rather than that of God. It aims at improving the life of human beings rather than strengthening their relationship with their creator, which is the major aim of Christianity.
This movement has made the belief in God to be based on individual experiences, since its followers misconstrue the bible to be a collection of the author’s own personal experiences with Him. This belief held by liberalists has completely changed Christianity in terms of the way it is perceived and interpreted.
In conclusion, the attempt by the nineteenth century theologians and scholars to defend the bible against the influence of Darwinism only encouraged more criticism against Christianity.
This attempt was a way to accommodate the humanism beliefs portrayed by Darwin, which eventually led to the emergence of a new religion called liberal Christianity. Liberal Christianity is responsible for the persistent criticisms against the bible and has since its inception only led to further disagreements among Christians.
Bibliography Ayers, Philip E. What Ever Happened to Respect? Bloomington: Author House, 2006.
Barnes, Michael H. Understanding Religion and Science: Introducing the Debate. London: Continuum International Publishing, 2010.
Webster, John B., and George P. Schner. Theology after Liberalism: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000.
Footnotes 1 Michael H. Barnes, Understanding Religion and Science: Introducing the Debate (London: Continuum International Publishing, 2010), 2.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion: The nineteenth century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 2 Ibid., 2.
3 Ibid., 2.
4 Ibid., 27
5 John B. Webster and George P. Schner, Theology after Liberalism: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000), 346.
6 Michael H. Barnes, Understanding Religion and Science: Introducing the Debate (London: Continuum International Publishing, 2010), 104.
7 John B. Webster and George P. Schner, Theology after Liberalism: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000), 24.
8 Philip E. Ayers, What Ever Happened to Respect? (Bloomington: Author House, 2006), 94.
9 John B. Webster and George P. Schner, Theology after Liberalism: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000), 104.
10 1 Cor. 2:5
11 Ibid., 1: 21
12 Ibid., 1: 18
13 2 Tim 3:16
14 John. 4:24
Business and an Impact on Ecosystem Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Definition of Biodiversity and Ecosystem
How Corporations Rely on Ecosystem
Case Study: Syngenta Company
Consequences of Loss of Ecosystem Services to an Organization
Consequences of Reducing Ecosystems Capacity to the Organization
Introduction All economic activities, businesses and corporations have an impact on ecosystems and biodiversity. They also depend on ecosystem services as well; an example is the biotechnology industry which benefits from access to genetic material but at the same time create risks through the introduction of genetically modified organisms into the ecosystem.
Other businesses and industries which benefit from ecosystem services are agribusiness and food sector businesses which rely on the services of ecosystem like pollination. Through land impacts and use of water resources, various industries deplete ecosystems of their resources; businesses which deplete ecosystem resources include lumbering factories, construction and publishing industries among others.
These businesses can similarly change forest structures and balance at the expense of wildlife. On the other hand tourism industry obtains its profit from cultural services and aesthetic values of natural landscapes.
It is very difficult to imagine of any business that does not make use of an ecosystem, this is because at one point or another they may have direct impact on nature; this may be through their central operations, supply chain, or lending and investment options.
Businesses can help to reduce pressure on ecosystem services through managing and mitigating their impact on ecosystem and biodiversity services by reviewing their operations periodically. To appreciate the impacts of biodiversity and ecological services, companies should evaluate and determine how they impact and depend on biodiversity and ecological services.
Definition of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Biodiversity is viewed as the unevenness displayed among organisms and plants. An ecosystem is a main component of biodiversity and is defined as a dynamic composition of plants and organisms which operate as one. Examples of ecosystems are wetlands, rain forests, grass lands and urban parks.
Ecosystem services on the other hand are defined as the benefits that human beings obtain from ecosystems; ecosystem services are synonymous with environmental services. Ecosystem services can be grouped into four categories:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Provisioning: this includes the goods and services that are obtained from an ecosystem like food, fresh water and timber.
Regulating: these are the advantages that are accrued when an ecosystem is well managed.
Cultural: these are non-material benefits that are obtained form the ecosystem; examples are recreation and spiritual values.
Supporting: these are the natural processes that can maintain other ecosystem services; they include nutrient cycling and primary production. Biodiversity are inextricably linked with biodiversity (Bishop, 2010).
How Corporations Rely on Ecosystem A business organization will rely on an ecosystem if the services that such an ecosystem offers can be used as raw materials or form part of the raw materials in the production process of such an organization (World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2011).
Several businesses rely on ecosystem services in their operations. Fresh water is one of the ecosystem services that no business can operate without; other business sectors that highly depend on biodiversity and ecosystem services are energy sector or electricity, oil and gas, mining, food, beverage and tobacco and construction.
The reliance of a business or corporation on ecosystem services depends on the location of a business, the source of its materials and the technology employed (Costanza, D’Arge, Groot, Farber, Grasso, Hannon, Limburg, Naeem, O’Neill, Paruelo, Robert, Raskin, Sutton
LGBT Labor and Employment Issues Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free
Many nations have established different criteria of determining the manner in which the scores of varied companies treat their workforce based on sexual orientation and gender characteristics. Among the many scales deployed is the ‘corporate equality index’. This scale “rates organizations on a scale running from 0 to 100 percent based on their treatment of gay, lesbian and transgender employees”1.
Scores realized upon the administration of gender and sexual orientation scales in some organizations reveal that gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered labor issues are pronounced in terms of workforce segregation and stereotyping in the realm of labor and employment. From this perspective, the research paper focuses on comparing experiences of lesbian and gay workers in public versus private sector, and then analyzes the policies of different organizations regarding gay and lesbian workers, both in public and private sectors.
In public and private sector, LGBTs have encountered varied experiences. These experiences range from discrimination, inequitable compensation, unequal employment benefits and sexual harassment among others. Much of these experiences arise from ignorance and misunderstanding.
While different organizations have made incredible strides in the 21st century through adoption of varying policies to ensure that LGBTs are sealed from discrimination, such individuals remain widely unprotected in the private sector. For instance, managers or administrators may possess little information regarding the LGBTs preferences, historical experiences, facts and perspectives of taking particular sexual orientation.
The repercussion is unfair and ineffective rules, policies and actions getting instituted by an organization without taking the consideration of concerns of the LGBTs. Rights of LGBTs remain contentious among certain faith groups such s Catholics and evangelistic groups. Such groups widely believe that ensuring the LGBTs have equal access to equal employment opportunities would give rise to slewing gay marriages within their neighborhoods, which result into an inevitable apocalypse.
Discrimination based on sexual orientation is a big challenge to modern organizations because the number of the transgendered, gays, lesbians and bisexual is on the rise. In this context, William institute estimates that, in the United States, “the number of LGBT employees is 7 million in private sector, 1 million state and local employees, and 200,000 employees of the federal government”2. In fact, 30% of all local and state lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered employees dwell in New York and California.
On the other hand, “lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people make up only one half of one percent of state and local employees in Montana, North Dakota and Wyoming combined”3. The statistics gives a concrete inference that different states may need to embrace diverse policies in an attempt to address LGBTs discriminations in the labor and employment, both in public and private sector.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Tilcsik’s research, two differing resumes were sent to about 1700 potential candidates of a new job opening. Despite the two “resumes being largely similar in terms of qualifications of the applicants, one resume for every opening mentioned that the applicant had been part of a gay organization in college”4.
The results of this study indicated that the applicants who did not have gay signal had higher chances of being invited for an interview (11.5 percent). On the other hand, applicants with gay signals had a chance of 7.2 percent of being invited for the same interview. Therefore, the study makes it clear that both public and private organizations need to enact suitable policies to help reduce the negative impacts.
The major policies that are deemed crucial for curtailing incidences of discrimination in public and private sector organization are those seeking to reduce discrimination to near zero percent. Labor and employment human rights activists treat non-inclusion of aspects of gender and sexual affiliation as part of workforce diversity as an attempt to foster discrimination in the labor and employment sector in both public and private sector organizations5.
Government advocates for equal rights for all people. Since, public organizations are highly inspired by the culture of the government in developing their policies; instances of discrimination experiences are lesser in public sector than in the private sector. Managers in private sector are widely guided by the human resource models that essentially require the managers to engineer and implement policies placed on them by executive directors and the employee rights.
This makes it difficult for managers to come up with policies that ensure fairness and effectiveness for all; and yet ensure that the organization attains its noble role: remain profitable. The situation is even bad in case organizational culture fails to favor the concerns of the LGBTs.
In conclusion, it is necessary to carry out an intensive research on the differences between experience of lesbian and gay workers in public versus private sector coupled with scrutinizing policies put in place by organization in both sectors to ensure that such experiences become beneficial to an organization. In this manner, it becomes probable to postulate possible interventions to deal with the rising problems in an endeavor to make private organizations succeed in future as organizations in private sector, especially in this era of globalization.
Bibliography Hunter, Chris. 2012. Commissioners of Anti-discrimination Amendment. The Salina Journal 1, no. 2: 415.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on LGBT Labor and Employment Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tilcsik, Anthony. 2011. Pride and Prejudice: Employment Discrimination against Open Gay Men in the United States. American Journal of Sociology 117 no. 3: 586.
Williams Institute. 2011. Estimates of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Employees. New York: Williams institute.
Williams, Steve. 2011.Trans Workplace Non-discrimination Bill. New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Publishers.
Footnotes 1 Chris Hunter, “Commissioners of anti-discrimination amendment”. The Salina journal 1.2(2012): 415.
2 Williams Institute, Estimates of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered employees (New York: Williams institute, 2011), 45.
3 (Steve Williams 2011, 44)
4 Anthony Tilcsik. “Pride and prejudice: employment discrimination against open gay men in United States”. American journal of sociology 117.3(2011): 586.
5 Steve Williams, Trans workplace non-discrimination bill (New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Publishers, 2011), 34.
Not sure if you can write a paper on LGBT Labor and Employment Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Heritage Tourism Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Tourism was voted as the option that has attracted most people in their leisure times. In the recent years, tourism has gone up by 9.3% that in the 1980’s in that in the year 2011 alone there was more than 983 million tourists who toured different sites across the world (Edinburgh Tourism Action Group 2012).
This figure represented a growth of over 4.6% from 2010 where there were 940 million tourists who visited different tourist destinations all across the world. Tourists visit different destinations for different reason which may include for leisure or relaxation to learning about the culture of the people that either lived there before or live there at the moment (Buckley 2004).
In 2011, the tourism industry accounted for 1.83 trillion dollars of the total amount of money that way transacted in the year all over the world. This translated to more than 25% of the total amount of money that was transacted in the same year.
In addition to that, the tourism industry account for more than 25% of the total employees in every country all across the world which are known to have the best tourist destinations (Che
Heritage Tourism and Cultural Tourism Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Heritage Tourism and Cultural tourism
Introduction Notably, the distinction between heritage tourism and cultural tourism has not been easy to draw. Researchers have devoted their time in an attempt to establish whether the two aspects are different or they just overlap (Timothy, 2011; Ivanovic, 2008). The key partners in the tourism sector have worked hard to find a way to define and distinguish between cultural and heritage forms of tourism. The subject has generated extensive debates that seek to find whether the two terms are similar and how to use them (Swarbrooke, 2001).
Heritage Tourism and Cultural tourism Cultural tourism is a form of tourism that deals with the country’s culture. It has a major focus on the diverse cultures that different communities have. Sometimes, it is pegged on the art of the community. It also takes an interest in the unique social diversity of one community in a region (Timothy
“Stalking the Wily Hacker” by Clifford Stoll Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Analysis of the article
Analysis of the article (based on chapters)
Realistic nature of similar threats in recent times
Available mechanisms that aids prevention of internet threats
List of References
Communication is a central pillar driving organizational performance at various levels. It holds the capacity to paralyze or propel execution of activities as it facilitates conveyance of basic information that appertains to enhancing productivity. Evidently, information, understanding and awareness of diverse issues form the lifeblood of corporations with strong growth aspirations.
Communication contributes to exemplary performance through advancement of creativity and innovation. According to the provided article, effective communication requires adoption of superior strategies and security elements that hold the potential of enhancing safety of the information relayed. The article emphasizes on the strategies that facilitate effective communication and development of security systems to curb fraudulent activities that hampers delivery of massages.
In particular, the article reports major factors that hinder effective communication where poorly designed institutions, low trust levels, unskilled team officials, and feedback lapses are cited. These elements influence delivery of credible and accurate information for decision making (Stoll, 1988, P. 484). Consequently, bureaucratic system of administration presents major complications to communication management since bureaucracy hinders formulation of clear line of information delivery.
IT is proper for institutions to adopt credible strategies that hold requisite capacity of enhancing performance through delivery of accurate massages based on the available products. This is vital since communication aids conveyance of the institutions performance policies and strategies, including promotion of services rendered to enhance consumer awareness.
Communication determines the level of performance and development of organizational networks. It is a paramount element that should be under effective management through adoption of high-security systems to avoid massage tampering. The article also emphasizes on the security issues to ensuring delivery of credible information with limited interruptions (Stoll 1988, P, 485).
The article addresses the security issue with reference to internet communication system that is prone to interruptions by ill-motivated individuals. Internet communication has been a viable and efficient mode of communication in the modern world due its relevance in boosting performance. It aids global connection and delivery of massages that range from monetary, social and cultural ideals.
The information relayed through the media can aid international integration if managed effectively. That is, such information holds the capacity of transforming individual’s perception on diverse issues if not hacked. Despite the nobleness of electronic communication system, there are various factors that hinder or attack its use. The factors are compromising the noble ideals of electronic systems, with most scholars asserting that, use of electronic systems requires superior protection mechanisms (Stallings, 2009, P, 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The protection techniques are to ensure safety of the information contained in one’s blog or site that influences choice making of persons. Evident security threats that hinder the effective use of electronic modes of communication include virus attack, electronic eavesdropping and electronic fraud.
Institutions should employ clear-cut strategies to ensure that information relayed electronically is safe and serves its intended purpose. Use of credible electronic systems with adequate protection elements is also vital to limit eminent attacks on diverse information that is conveyed.
Analysis of the article This article presents insightful information on communication with a specific focus on superior strategies of relaying credible information and security matters (Stoll 1988, P, 484). The guidelines are equivocally highlighted with clear identification of the relevant parameters that compromises electronic communication.
The article recognizes electronic communication as the most viable, effective and efficient mode of communication that individuals should adopt to advance conveyance of business, political and social matters. Electronic enabled systems have been widely used, especially the internet to deliver potential information to various individuals internationally (Stallings, 2009, P, 1).
Despite its excellent ideals, the system has its shortcomings that may severely hamper operations in diverse institutions. Adoption of requisite security measures is paramount in boosting the credibility of the information relayed. The security measures are designed to prevent damage of information by virus, tampering by electronic fraudsters, and eavesdropping effects. Security measures should be economically viable and geared to ensure absolute safety of the institution’s data.
Analysis of the article (based on chapters) The first chapter gives credible information on electronic usage. It provides authentic and current information on internet usage, including security standards (Hovland 2005, P. 1). Security standards are set measures aiming to enhance sanity in the usage of electronic materials. It also fosters development of composure among the electronic users who applies the systems for promotional activities to enhance market share. Such individuals are in constant fear of hackers who can tamper with the information to defame an institution.
Major security standards and measures presented include integration of antivirus systems and use of password systems to avoid unauthorized accessibility to specific data. Integration of security software that aids detection of diverse anomalies hampering delivery of services is also applicable. These measures have proved viable to IT users who credit their usage in reducing internet related complications (Hovland 2005, P. 1).
We will write a custom Essay on “Stalking the Wily Hacker” by Clifford Stoll specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The chapter also focuses on the computer security resource center (CSRC) that relays comprehensive information on the evident threats that affect technological usage that aid communication. The range of threats includes eavesdropping and internet hacking that remains key elements that compromise internet usage. Additionally, relevant list pointers to cryptography and web security systems are discussed.
The next chapter conveys information on symmetric encryption and data safety paramount in averting data hacking. Massage confidentiality is a significant element that set requisite restrictions to information access. It ensures that only authorized individuals are allowed to access the data contained or relayed via electronic mode.
It is a modern technique that various institutions and individuals are adopting as a requisite measure of dealing with unethical electronic practices (Lionberger
Domestic Worker in Kuwait Report essay help: essay help
Executive Summary Kuwait is one of the Middle Eastern countries that have benefited from foreign domestic workforce. It is estimated that the foreign domestic workforce forms a third of the country’s total workforce. Despite the essential role these foreign domestic workers play in the lives of the Kuwait citizens, still, they are inhibited from important social benefits such as free education and social healthcare.
Moreover, the domestic workers that comprises mostly of foreigners from South Asia and Africa are facing abuses and exploitations under the sponsorship program through which they got legal entry into the country. According to various research findings, foreign domestic workers in Kuwait face numerous problems that include none payment of wages, sexual and physical assaults, psychological abuse, excessive long working hours, among other unreported abuses.
Therefore this paper will provide a concise report on the problems these foreign domestic workers are facing in Kuwait. The conclusion that the foreign domestic workers in Kuwait face issues that range from non-payment of wages to long working hours are drawn from the finding that these domestic workers lack legal backing that would help them fight against these abuses.
The Kuwait’s labor legal system does not recognize the foreign domestic workers while the immigration laws forbid them from running away from their work. Besides, the immigration rules have outlawed shifting or leaving the original job without consulting the employer.
On the basis of the findings, it is recommended that the Kuwaiti government should first reform their legal system to recognize and provide protection to the foreign domestic workers. Among the critical legal reforms include repealing the Aliens Residence Law articles that give individual employers control over workers freedom of movement, immigration statuses and the freedom to terminate employment. Also to be included in the legal reforms is the recognition of the foreign domestic workers under the Kuwaiti labor laws.
The paper will first determine the problems faced by these foreign domestic workers and the legal prohibitions that act as obstacles to the realization of their rights.
Then the paper will present the legal findings that will form the basis for recommendations that should be taken by the Kuwaiti government as well as other stakeholders in providing the solutions to the problems faced by the migrant domestic workers. The recommendations will range from the legal reforms to the inclusion of the domestic workers in the labor laws of Kuwait. Finally, the conclusion will be drawn from the recommendations and findings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction The estimate by the World Bank is that over 74 million, approximately half of the total migrants, majorly from the developing countries do not move to the developed countries. Rather, they settle and reside in other developing countries (Motaparthy and Sandler 2).
Such south to south movements are very common in South-Asian countries where most of the migrant workers move and settle in the rich oil states of the Persian Gulf, including Kuwait. Whereas there are differences in the way these migrant workers are treated in these countries, a majority has remained in the low skilled jobs. The female foreign domestic workers make up a third of the total expatriate workforce (Motaparthy and Sandler 3).
In Kuwait, foreign domestic workers play an essential role in almost every Kuwaiti household. Thousands of foreign domestic workers have been found to be working for the Kuwaiti citizens (Motaparthy and Sandler 4). Women make the majority of these foreign domestic workers (Motaparthy and Sandler 4).
While some employers have successfully developed a friendly and caring relationship with domestic workers who do odd jobs such as caring for their children, cooking their meals and clean their homes, others have taken the advantage of the weak legal systems that barely protect the rights of these migrant workers and isolated home environments to abuse the right of their workers (Motaparthy and Sandler 3). Worse off, some workers go for several months without being paid.
It has also been found that among all the categories of the informal sector, the domestic workers earnings are extremely low and they face myriads of problems. Domestic workers are generally employed to carry out household tasks comprising of cleaning the houses, cooking food, washing dishes, clothes, fetching water together with a few outdoor chores such as childcare activities, irregular marketing grocery shopping and even ration drawing (Motaparthy and Sandler 3).
In fact, a majority of these women migrant workers are doing more than one type of job and spend more than the normal time doing their chores. Some are working even past midnight to ensure that they complete their employers’ assignments (Motaparthy and Sandler 4). Comparatively, these women spend more time working for their employers more than they could have spent in their households.
To add in to the woes of these foreign domestic workers, majority of the Persian Gulf governments have weak legal systems that could protect the rights of these migrant workers (Motaparthy and Sandler 4). Countries such as Kuwait have legal policies that further exacerbate the problems of the migrant workers. The Kuwaiti labor laws totally ignore the presence of foreign domestic workers while the legal immigration system prevents migrant workers from changing their jobs and leaving the country without the consent of their employers. As a result, most of the foreign domestic workers have been violently abused and deported without any legal redress.
We will write a custom Report on Domestic Worker in Kuwait specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore the objective of this report is to examine the problems of these domestic workers in Kuwait and the level in which such problems affect these domestic workers. Also, the paper will examine the legal obstacles faced by these women in order to offer recommendation that should be taken into consideration by the policymakers to ensure that all the foreign domestic workforce in the country are fairly treated according to the international labor organization standards.
Statement Problem Basically, across several fiscal years including 2009, 2010 and 2011, countries that send their domestic labor to the City of Kuwait received manifold complaints. Often, the domestic workers in Kuwait complained to their respective embassies concerning psychological abuse, sexual harassments, physical torture, and undue long hours of work with no rest as well as non-wage payments. There are very little redressing opportunities for the household workforce leading to various offensive cases lingering unstated.
The Kuwait domestic labor law also seems to bar the domestic workers from seeking redress, whereas the migration laws ban the domestic workers from abandoning their particular workplaces without the recruitment agencies consents. There are reported cases of deportation, indefinite detention and criminal charges tied to any domestic worker who quits job without the consent of the recruiting agencies and employers.
Each time, many household workforces are expatriated by the Kuwait administration because they are incapable of successfully following and raising their grievances. Other employers demand that domestic workers desiring to seek alternative employments must reimburse the initial recruitment fees given that they have violated the Kuwait labor regulations. This is done by withholding employment alteration consent and confiscating the passports.
The constitutionally drafted labor law has equally excluded the Kuwait household workforce from the requisite labor protection. The Kuwait sponsoring system for domestic workers spearheads obnoxious status for employment since it holds expatriate workers accountable for quitting employments without the responsible authorities consent and thereby violating laws. It is apparent that the contractual clauses are hardly enforced thus intentionally excluding the domestic workforce from legal protections.
The type of problem, those affected and failure to resolve the problem The current domestic workers problem that is reported in the Kuwait can be classified as being humanely, moral, legal as well as social. From the Human Rights Watch report, it is apparent that the entire domestic workers populations, the recruitment agencies, Kuwait government, local churches and family members of the abused domestic workers are all affected.
The unionization, the work conditions, the private labor supply and recruitment agencies also face a deteriorating growth. In other cases, the recruitment systems are considerably abused leaving the domestic workforces with diminutive lawful protections.
If Kuwait fails to resolve the looming problems, it is likely to lose the official ties it has with the rest of the world. In fact, Kuwait needs to sincerely demonstrate to the international community that it takes the basic human rights into consideration and that it is committed to the protection of the domestic workers rights.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Domestic Worker in Kuwait by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Solutions In case the Kuwait government notes specific migrant domestic workers vulnerability, it is advisable that the government should pursue decisive efforts geared towards ensuring that such workers are effectively protected both in practice and in law against any sort of discrimination. This implies that the Kuwait government ought to warrant that there are effectual access and enforcement of complaint procedures.
This can be realized thru introducing legalized solutions in all member states. The solutions could be inform of increasing household motivations to employ domestic workers who are duly registered, urging workers only to accept legally contracted work and offering provisions in areas like civil laws, labor laws, social insurance and tax.
The government of Kuwait should equally be obliged by the international law to sincerely protect all individuals’ rights and the domestic workers employment affairs irrespective of whether such workers are in possession of legitimate work permits. That is, provided the employment links have been instigated, the government of Kuwait must ensure that engaged domestic worker enjoys all the employment and labor rights until the termination of such relationships.
The provisional domestic labor rights include providing equal remuneration and fair wages for all domestic jobs that offer similar values devoid of discriminating between men and women. There should also be the provision of wellbeing and secure operational setting, rational working hours’ restrictions, vacation and respite hours with compensation through civic and episodic festivals.
Since the domestic workers have the rights of living dignified, peaceful and secure areas, the Kuwait government, the sponsoring agencies and employers must be obliged to warrant the domestic workers physical safety.
In case the employers failed to offer shelters to the domestic workers which would, in turn, warrant their dignity, peace and safety, then the Kuwait government ought to provide some alternatives. To realize these, there must be well-stipulated employment conditions along with ratified application procedures as well as domestic workers social protection by sponsoring agencies, employer and the government (Motaparthy and Sandler 20).
The Kuwait government should draft legislation for domestic workers. The drafted law should have provision establishing workdays’ equivalent to eight hours. The employers must be compelled to offer the domestic workers compulsory annual leaves during periodic and national holidays besides imposing penalties on employers who are reported to remit late salary payments. In fact, the Kuwait employers should be prohibited from recruiting domestic workers thru non-licensed state agencies.
A law should be implanted to burr recruiting or sponsoring agencies and employers from confiscating the domestic workers identity documents or passports. Moreover, there ought to be provisionary enacted laws that prohibit employers from forcing domestic workers to carry out house chores tasks which are not categorically stipulated in the contractual agreement.
To recognize the commonly raised non-payment of wage complaints, the Kuwait government needs to enact a law that requires the entire domestic workforce to set up genuine bank accounts in their respective residential home states before migrating to work in Kuwait.
Such bank accounts or payment systems should be used by the Kuwait government and the domestic workers countries to instruct the prospective employers to monthly or annually deposit the domestic workers salaries into the stipulated bank accounts prior to workers migrations. Thus, the receipts for bank transfers should serve as the justified and acceptable payment proof.
Kuwait should institute laws that lay down adequate procedures through which domestic workers complaints can be arbitrated and whenever they remain in doubt, they should be referred to a legitimate court system. This should warrant that all domestic workers with unresolved complaint cases will be exempted from the arbitration fees.
The Kuwait household workforce legislation must tolerate household workforce to transmit their service provisions devoid of seeking their guarantors’ approvals thru following particular occupation disagreement resolution courses.
The fines that are recruiting agents or the employers pay because of violating the domestic workforce rights and the Kuwait expatriate labor laws ought to be deposited into the state-administered fund which guarantees disbursements to the domestic workers in times of need. For example, in cases where an injustice is eminent and when a domestic worker becomes unwell for quite an elongated time.
Injustice situations include cases where the Kuwait domestic employers benefit unjustly from the services rendered by the workers through failing to remit their wages (Motaparthy and Sandler 35).
Consequently, the unjustified benefits to the employers might accrue from the failure by the employers to terminate or renew the employment contracts devoid of offering the requisite payments for the domestic workers end of service. Finally, effective complaint and monitoring mechanisms should be implemented such as translations services requisite for investigating abusive complaints.
Alternative solutions Various alternative solutions have also been proposed that includes
Strong domestic worker organization should be established with an aim of protecting the domestic workers rights.
Advocate for the transformation of societal power relations that would ensure gender equality, women empowerment and the observation of human rights including that of the domestic workers.
Advocate for the accountability and the democratization of the organizations that deal with the rights of domestic worker
Collaborating and working together with other labor unions
Ensure that the rights of workers, as well as proper working conditions, are secured through enactments of the proper legislations.
These propose solutions add to the restrictive laws and stringent penalties that will ensure that the rights of the domestic workers are properly observed. They also add to the measures are aimed at preventing abuse by the employees as well as the recruitment agencies of the domestic workers.
In other words, these proposed solutions will ensure security and safety of the domestic workers. In terms of cost, both the Kuwaiti government and the families will suffer. High costs are attributed to financial resources, time and human resources that will have to be spent to ensure that everything is in order. The cost challenge adds to the other challenges such as lack of support from the public, implementation challenges as well as conflict of interests.
Findings For decades, the Kuwait citizens have engaged the household populate emigrant workforce. In fact, the strains for household recruits have sequentially amplified since the fiscal 1965 when just 1000 household immigrant workforce worked in City of Kuwait. The trend began to take a different course in the middle of 1970s when the republic of Kuwait had up-surging revenues from its oil.
This made home workforce from various other states to travel to Kuwait to accomplish the escalating household work strains. By the financial year nineteen eighty nine, total overseas house workforce varying from one hundred thousand to one hundred and thirty thousand was housed by the state of Kuwait. The figure of Kuwait household recruits was accounted to have surpassed six hundred and sixty thousand by the fiscal 2009.
At present, the majority of household women workforces originate from South-East-Asia albeit a mounting sum of African drifters steadily enters into the Kuwait household employment bazaar. When compared to the rest of the Middle East, Kuwait is ranked second after Saudi Arabia in terms of domestic workers employment.
The total domestic labor is in excess of one-third of the entire emigrant workers (Motaparthy and Sandler 23). Whereas domestic workers play significant roles in the Kuwaitis homesteads, there are some lapses in the protection gaps by countries that send their citizens to work in Kuwait.
Protection gaps by the sending countries Whereas governments that send domestic labor to foreign countries rely on the migrant domestic workers financial contributions in making their local economies, it is reported that such countries take minimal steps when protecting nationals who migrate for domestic work be it during or before their respective migrations.
For instance, domestic workforces migrating to the Kuwait usually do so via the self-governing recruiters or agencies that pay visits to their villages or hometowns and then link them up with the recruitment or sponsoring agencies found in their abode states. The labor agents are bound to arrange for every formality that a migrating worker is required to have, including the signing of the employment contract by the domestic worker.
The weak regulations reported on the side of governments of countries that send their domestic workers to foreign countries such as Kuwait have left most workforces vulnerable to various abuses. These include human trafficking cases, forced confinements, misrepresentation of the contractual terms as well as other kinds of abuses while under the care of recruitment agencies. A report by the Human Rights Watch showed that scores of abuses were faced in the process of recruiting migrant domestic workers.
For example, the Indonesian domestic workers faced forcible confinements in overcrowded local centers for training for months prior to starting their journeys. The domestic workers from Sri Lanka reported that they were deceived about their job locations and working conditions besides being charged illegal recruitment fees (Motaparthy and Sandler 22).
Exploitative practices, namely the misrepresentation of employment terms and the substitution of different employment contracts instead of the ones signed in address nations similarly prepared stages for extra cases of domestic women workers abuses. Furthermore, government officials who are accountable for supervising the Kuwait domestic work have apparently failed to assume their responsibilities, thus causing additional workforce abuse cases.
The sending country governments have also neglected to recognize domestic workers abuses thereby perpetuating such abuses as result of the failure of the existing institution to implement the rights of the workers effectively and the dearth of labor protection rights under the law of Kuwait.
The labor-sending countries diplomats have tried to negotiate with the government of Kuwait concerning the improvement of domestic workers protection and observation of their rights via mechanisms like MOUs and political dialogues. The memorandum of understanding incorporates elements such as paying the domestic workers salaries into their bank accounts, prohibiting the confiscation of domestic workers passports, specifying the weekly rest days and minimum wages.
Nevertheless, the sending countries have failed to appropriately utilize the diplomatic tools for protecting domestic workers in Kuwait. The failure to realize systematic domestic workers protection in Kuwait is attributable to the competing priorities, which include diplomatic cooperation, maintenance of remittance flows and the political pressures intended to maintain domestic workers recruitments.
Legal frameworks pursued by the emigrant domestic workforce In Kuwait, the work of domestic migrant workforces is regulated through combining weak labor protections and the exceedingly restrictive immigration laws. Indeed, the 1959 Kuwait Alien Residence Law is perceived as the prime law which governs work permits and legal residency for domestic workers. However, lawmakers have incessantly excluded the domestic workforces from the legislative national labor protection.
For example, the Kuwait Interior Ministry updated their standard contract in the financial year 2006 by setting forth most domestic workers obligations upon the employers and the recruitment agencies.
The mandate given to these two bodies include the responsibility of the employer to pay the necessary recruitment fees to the sponsoring agencies. There is very little provision for protecting the domestic workforces while the Kuwait government dismally monitors the well being of domestic workers, and hardly are there effective means for domestic workers to pursue and lodge their complaints.
The Kuwait immigrant domestic workers have their rights protected under the conventional international law body which covers all their distinctive rights either as workers or as individuals.
The national laws of Kuwait equally offer certain protections to the working condition including the forced confinement constitutional protection, banning and prohibiting the recruitment or sponsoring agencies from asking for any fee from the domestic workers in addition to redressing rights in matters pertaining to unlawful offences such as sexual and physical assaults (Motaparthy and Sandler 27).
Pitiable enforcement of the existing domestic legislation, immigration laws and recruitment legislations has however the domestic workforce with very little avenues to seek when encountering hardships in Kuwait. Sometimes, the domestic workers hardly get access to the protections that human rights offer them in their local or domestic laws.
Other legal exclusions or laws tend to violate the commitments of international human rights. Specifically, there are the domestic work exclusions from the labor protection that infringe both labor rights as well as nondiscrimination protections. During the 12th May 2010 Kuwait Universal Periodic Review Session held in Geneva, most delegations observed that the domestic workforce in Kuwait remain barred from the major global labor rights standards such as those which are offered to workforces under the Kuwait labor law sectors.
Obligations of the international human rights Under the international agreement and universal human rights law, Kuwait is obliged to protect the ratified domestic workers rights within its territorial boundaries from abuses that ensue from the public officers, agency staffs, and the employers.
The treaties and laws similarly compel Kuwait to offer remedies to domestic workers with valid claims and to provide efficient recourse means to domestic workers who claim abuses. Despite the fact that Kuwait is obligated to protect the human rights, it has emerged that the domestic workers lacking valid residential permits or those who abandoned their sponsors face discriminatory treatments when seeking redress (Motaparthy and Sandler 28).
Systems breeding domestic worker exploitation The domestic labor recruitment sector of Kuwait is dominated by business practices, restraining immigration sponsorship systems and deficient labor protections. These form labor marketplaces where the Kuwait employers have both the freedom and financial incentives for exploiting the domestic workforce with diminutive fear of liability, whereas workforces exercise dismal power over the employment circumstances.
Basically, the recruitment or sponsoring agencies charging the Kuwait employers the primary employment fees that are equated to the domestic workforce yearly remuneration are bound to pass on such expenses illegally to the domestic workforce.
The employers might require any domestic workers who may want to part ways with their respective sponsoring employers to either remit or offer full services or repayment to the new employers. It is also reported that the Kuwait employers could similarly utilize such status advantages to act as the immigration sponsors of the workers to exclusively extort similar reimbursement payments (Motaparthy and Sandler 42).
According to human rights watch reports, it is true that employers and agencies often seek reimbursements with impunities. For instance, habitually the Kuwait employers demand that the domestic workers reimburse payments in order to fund the officially requisite release form needed to transfer the sponsorship for employment. Conversely, the Kuwait employers might demand to return backs the domestic workers’ passports and forcefully agree to let them leave Kuwait.
In some cases, the domestic workers reported that the sponsoring agencies asked them to make payments because they have violated the regulations of Kuwait and any payment reimbursements that employers demand (Motaparthy and Sandler 42).
For instance, an Ethiopian worker by the name Tigit A asserted that the recruitment agencies have rules stipulating that any domestic worker leaving her employment before completing a two years contract while citing abusive conditions are obligated to pay back the recruitment fees (money) as well as traveling ticket.
Employers pay high recruitment fees as they hire the domestic workers, therefore, making others to abuse their sponsorship powers. Generally, the sense that the employers have bought or paid for a domestic worker makes most Kuwait employers to have the feeling that they are unconstrained to handle and treat the workforce whichever way one wishes.
This takes place, especially in the context of poorly and inadequately enforced laws. The treatment assumes many forms ranging from locking the domestic workers inside the houses, sexually harassing them, hitting, insulting, withholding the salaries and demanding them to work longer hours devoid of days off.
Whereas not all employment situations attain these abusive levels, some Kuwait employers have the feeling that denying domestic workers contract agreements and individual rights is justifiable. Employers refuse to accept domestic workers request to terminate the contractual employment, retain their passports and restrict the workers movements.
After domestic workers have completed their two years of service contracts, recruitment agencies tend to facilitate repayments of the recruitment fees workers transfers (Motaparthy and Sandler 43). This is realized by arranging for the sale or return of the Kuwait domestic workforce. Such systems for hiring and returning the Kuwait domestic workers currently constitutes the secondary labor markets where employers hire domestic workforce for a time span of two years or even a few days.
Recommendation Various key recommendations have been offered to the problems faced by these migrant workers. The key recommendations range from those that are directed to the Kuwaiti governments to those that are directed to the foreign governments whose nationals are working in Kuwait. To the Kuwaiti government, it is recommended that they should first reform their legal system to recognize and provide protection to the foreign domestic workers. Among the key reforms include;
Transforming the sponsorship system, especially removing the job escape provisions as well as including the criminal charges and penalties for those employers who violate the rights of the workers. Besides, the Alien Residence Law should be abolished or adjusted to provide free labor mobility, especially to the foreign domestic workers. This mobility would allow an access to other opportunities without consulting their employers and losing their immigration conditions.
Enact labor legislations that recognize the foreign domestic workers. These legislations must ensure that all the foreign domestic workers are included under the Kuwaiti labor laws. Further, the labor legislation must ensure equal protection of the foreign domestic worker just like any worker under the primary labor laws.
While drafting the legislation, the standard labor right protected by the international labor organization conventions must be taken into considerations or included as part of that legislation. The international labor conventions defines the standardized working conditions, including the number of working hours, holidays as well as the minimum wage requirements. The legislations should be pegged on these conditions.
The recruiting agencies should inform domestic workers about the Kuwait legal requirements, regulations and their obligations. Further, the information and contact details should be made available in case there is need for assistance. It is essential that the information be made in a language that is understandable to the foreign domestic workers.
There is need for the ministry of labor to have extra authority to decisively deal with domestic labor grievances through the application of any available adjudication mechanisms. In addition, those cases that are beyond the labor disputes resolution or arbitration mechanisms should be referred to courts system.
This calls for the repeal of the laws that bar courts from arbitration of such cases. Labor-compliant courts should be established and backed by the legal framework in order to act as a trusted arbiter to most of the domestic workers grievances. Domestic workers who have reported any abuse should also be provided with the earliest opportunity to return to their own countries.
The government should also enact the legal system that prohibits the domestic workers employers as well as the recruiters from confiscating their employees’ passports and put serious penalties on those who have violated this regulation. The legal system should also put in place mechanisms for monitoring the compliance to this regulation as well as measures that should be taken to penalize those recruiters and employers that violate the regulation.
There is also a need for yearly based statistics about the nature and figure of grievances filed with various legal agencies as well as other departments dealing with domestic labor. The yearly bases records show how complaints are resolved and measures that have been taken against the violators of the regulatory laws.
The government should provide financial and any other support to the civil societies that shelter or work hand in hand with immigrant workers whose rights have been violated. However, the conditions of the civil society organizations of protecting the domestic workers must be within the international standards. Moreover, the civil society should be in the forefront in advocating for the rights of these workers.
The taskforce of domestic labor inspection should be created with a duty of ensuring that the working conditions for the domestic workers are within the law. The task force must also ensure that the employers are complying with the regulations that have been put in place. Generally the task force’s main responsibility should be monitoring the legal compliance of the sector.
Finally, the governments are supposed to put in place stringent measures to check the excesses of the agencies dealing with the domestic labor. In the first step towards this mandate, the government should hire more staff to the department of domestic workers as well as any other government-created monitoring agencies. In addition, the government should also create clear guidelines that ensure accountability for any of the agency abuses of the laws put in place.
To the foreign countries whose nationals forms the domestic workers in Kuwait, the following recommendations are proposed. First, the foreign governments should promote and capacitate their embassies as well as the consulate in order to be capable of dealing with the problems of the domestic workers from their original countries.
Most importantly, the foreign embassies in Kuwait should provide assistance to the migrant domestic workers whose rights are constantly being violated by their employers and running away from the hash working conditions.
Secondly, information in regards to the contractual rights, the workers’ rights under the international labor organizations as well as any other information concerning the working conditions should be provided to the domestic workers either by the recruiting agencies or any other international organization dealing with domestic labor. The embassies should provide other assistances such as finance and easy access to travel documents.
Finally, the cases concerning the domestic workers abuses should be brought before the international organizations for further scrutiny by the embassies in these countries. Furthermore, embassies are supposed to be in places where foreign domestic workers who face criminal charges get protection and redress.
The international organizations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), international labor organization (ILO) and the international organization for migration (IOM) should draft and promote the regional and international resolutions or uniform standards that provide protection to the domestic workers in line with the internationally acceptable labor standards and human rights.
These organizations should also offer technical advice on legal issues concerning domestic workers to the foreign governments together with the government of Kuwait. Moreover, these organizations should work with the Kuwaiti government in the implementation of the legal reforms as well as increasing the public awareness on the domestic workers labor rights together with other agencies that deal with labor issues.
Conclusions From the report findings, it can be concluded that more than a half a million female migrant workers from South Asia and Africa working in Kuwait face numerous problems ranging from sexual and physical abuses to lengthy working hours without pay.
Majority of these workers are women whose main duties include taking care of the households, taking care of the children, cooking meals and cleaning homes. Even though they play an important role in these households, most of the employers take advantage of the weak legal system to abuse these workers.
More stunning is the lack of legal backing against these abuses. Contrary to the expectations, the Kuwait labor legal system does not recognize the domestic workers while the immigration laws forbid them from running away from their work. Additionally, the immigrant workers are prevented by law from shifting their occupations without their employer’s acceptance.
As a result, most of the foreign domestic workers who have been abused and reported the matter to the authorities have ended up being detained or deported without pay. The studies have also found out that most of the domestic workers have faced immigration charges as a result of fleeing from their employers’ abuses, running away, or changing jobs without their employers’ consent.
The report indicates that many domestic workers who have no chance of seeking legal redress over the abuses are constantly being deported by their various governments. In some instances, workers are forced to reimburse the recruitment cost in case they want to change their jobs. This is done through withholding the workers passports and employers consent to changing the employment. The employers are doing this in total disregard to the government regulations.
Basically, the Kuwaiti government should repeal the Aliens Residence Law articles that allow individual employers control over workers freedom of movement, immigration statuses and the freedom to terminate employment. Fundamental legal reforms should be that which is all-inclusive, implying the recognition of the foreign domestic workers within the Kuwaiti labor laws. These reforms should go beyond enactments and repeals to include the implementation of these laws to ensure equal rights for the domestic workers.
Therefore, if Kuwait fails to resolve the looming problems, it is likely to lose the official ties it has with the rest of the world. In fact, Kuwait needs to sincerely demonstrate to the international community that it takes the basic human rights into consideration and that it is committed to the protection of the domestic workers rights.
Works Cited Motaparthy, Priyanka, and L. Sandler. Kuwait, Walls at Every Turn: Abuse of Migrant Domestic Workers through Kuwait’s Sponsorship System. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2010. Print.
Project Marketing to Improve Project Success Thesis essay help online free
Introduction This paper aims to provide a better understanding of project marketing and to contribute to the literature the perceived relationship between project marketing and project management.
A research question can be asked to get a closer look at the entire dissertation, that is: how can project marketing be used to attain project success? We have also to answer the question related to this one, which goes: Is project marketing the same or a sub-category of project management?
In the age of intense globalisation, organisations are continuously experiencing phenomenal changes and innovations. The world of business is constantly facing new challenges, innovations and applications, thus organisations have to cope with constant change. Managing change is one of the priorities of the new global organisation because change is an opportunity for improvement.
Organisations have to adopt and continuously train and improve because of these changes. Adoption and improvement are significant here because outsourcing companies (or those who provide outsourcing services) are a source of competition. This means there is a strong competition when it comes to talents and capabilities and output.
Globalisation involves systems, technology and processes. Technology is a part and tool of globalisation which has affected even the smallest community.
Global business has penetrated the remotest areas of the countryside. Small organisations have become global organisations, or they operate in a global scale. With the advent of information technology, organisations have to introduce various changes in their business processes, marketing strategies, product orientation, employee management or human resource management, and other organisational strategies in order to be competitive.
Project management is as old as written history. Tracing back history, we can analyze its role and importance to man’s activities. From the time of management scientists and industrial engineers like Elton Mayo and Frederick Winslow Taylor to Henry Ford’s production-line manufacturing famous with Model T automobile, to Henry Gantt and his famous charts, we see project management present in every aspect of labour and production. This was further enhanced with the emergence of mainframe digital computers which made processing and updating of products faster and easier. (Lock, 2007, p. 3)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Man-made projects are not new: monuments surviving from the earliest civilisations testify to the incredible achievements of our ancestors. Modern projects, for all their technological sophistication, are not necessarily greater in scale than some of those early large projects.
Formal management organisation structures have existed from early times. But history can also tell us of the many projects that failed. The Standish Group says that failure is an effect of innovation and innovation is one of the factors for success. (Chaos: a recipe for success, 1999, p. 1)
Productions and operations are linked to operations management (OM) and is the process by which goods and services are created (Shim
Tim Hertach at GL Consulting – Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Ethical considerations and practices are extremely valuable especially in firms that deal directly with clients. Ethical issues often raise tension in organization. They can result in some employees quitting organizations or being sacked. This can be explored in the tenure of Tim Hertach at GL Consulting (Khedher, 2009).
Presenting the ethical problems in the Hertach – GL Consulting Case Hertach got a job at GL consulting after working with several other organizations including Weston consulting and Habitat for Humanity. He held high standards of performance and ethics in his work. He understood work ethics in consultancy work. He upheld the ethical behaviors that are required of consultants.
He continued to uphold the same as he got working with GL Consulting. Having worked for some time with GL Consulting, his efforts were recognized by the management, who raised his rank in the organization. Hertach was assigned senior roles in the firm, which made him understand the organization (Nanda
The Dialogue of Phaedrus: The Crises of Love and Inquiry Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help
Introduction Plato outlines important lessons in the Dialogue of Phaedrus. The extract from the book, Plato: The Collected Dialogues philosophically examines the experience of falling in love. Philosophically, Plato, through this conversation draws people’s attention to crucial issues underlying love (Hamilton, 475). For instance, Plato indicates that the people an individual loves depict a clear expression of the humans’ personal fortitude.
The book, Plato: The Collected Dialogues presents a comical and philosophical analysis of the concept of falling in love. In his conversation with Phaedrus, Plato presents a typical scenario regarding issues surrounding the act of love. In particular, the human soul is examined. There is a critical evaluation of the obvious interplay between the soul and mind. Additionally, a person’s body is also included in this interplay.
Specifically, this relates to the issue of love and relationships. There are also vital lessons drawn with philosophical implications that require examination. This discussion describes the root of the crisis and its remedy with observance to the dialogue of Phaedrus. Furthermore, it examines how the Plato’s Socrates assisted Phaedrus to comprehend the crisis of love and inquiry. Notably, the application of themes is critical in this role. Lastly, the paper analyses Plato’s comprehension of the human soul.
Foundation of the Crisis and Remedy
Principally, this discourse resonates as a tough piece. This is because it defies the basic conventional judgment of a discourse. The conversation between these two personalities ensues along the renowned Illissus River. This is where Phaedrus and Socrates met. They had their speeches, debate and daily in the same venue.
Phaedrus emanates as the leader of the particular speech for the initial instance. However, in the course of the dialogue, crucial issues about Phaedrus bosom friend, Lysias emerge. The consequent speeches by Socrates are depicted to potentially overpower and rebut Lysias’ allegations so intrepidly.
As a result, the Phaedrus remains overwhelmed by Socrates power. Due to this, Phaedrus evidently misses his logic and presence throughout the entire conversation. An example of a strong claim is eminent. For instance, Phaedrus wonders “how madness seems indispensible to pursue potentially everything” (Hamilton, 475).
A closer analysis reveals how cunningly Socrates engages Phaedrus in the tussle of logic. As indicated in the book, Plato: The Collected Dialogues, (477), Socrates questions Phaedrus. He asks that, “And should I not deem the conversation of you and Lysias “a thing of higher import,” as I may say in the words of Pindar, “than any business”? Observably, these sentiments from Socrates stir Phaedrus to conceal vital information in the dialogue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is obvious that Socrates overtly orientates Phaedrus into several mysteries associated with love. Phaedrus appears to be an infatuated young man with an intended lover called Lysias. There is an eminent revelation of Lysias constant flattery of Phaedrus. This flattery as indicated, concerns the interest or consideration of the constant discourse. In his opinion upon reading the works of Lysias, Phaedrus considers her the best. In fact, in actual terms, he refers to her to be the “the ablest writer of [the] day” (Hamilton, 500).
The relationship between Phaedrus and Lysias is important. Together with the intrigues that surround this relationship, a philosophical base of the crisis comes into the limelight during the conversation. The major crisis predominant is obvious. Phaedrus, a young and open man, is considerably enchanted by fraudulent and deceptive love. An informed evaluation reveals that Phaedrus’ enchantment renders him a useless critical thinker.
This is because he potentially becomes unable to draw lucid differences notable between the ingenuity of the dialogue. Perhaps, this challenge or crisis forms the basic ground for analysis.
This inadequacy is well explicated by Socrates. From the highlights given by Socrates, it is obvious that Phaedrus lacks the competency to overpower his infatuation. Phaedrus has to transform this infatuation approach to the general life. Specifically, this implication in the dialogue considerably pertains to his intended love affair or relationship with Lysias.
The manner in which Phaedrus reports issues within the dialogue also creates a basis for the actual crisis. For instance, he indicates “how a handsome boy was tempted, but not by a lover.” Furthermore, Phaedrus reiterates that surrender must be meant to a person who is not in love.
Rather, his view is that surrender should be for the one who is in love. Generally, a philosophical and critical analysis of the Phaedrus’ postulations indicates great deviations and points of weaknesses (Hamilton, 495). The indulgence of the two principalities in the conversation in this trying moment may be indicative of his remedy. Phaedrus needs a deep insight and coaching on the issues of feelings, love, relationships, and their implications on one self.
Therefore, Socrates presents crucial remedy approaches to the problem of individuality facing Phaedrus his counterpart. Socrates provides this remedy through elaboration of his basic analysis of Plato’s comprehension of the human soul. According to him, there is an evident interplay between the soul and mind in leading the human body. This cannot be avoided in any circumstance, including those of falling in love.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Dialogue of Phaedrus: The Crises of Love and Inquiry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How Plato’s Socrates Help Phaedrus Understand Crisis of Love and Inquiry through His Own Understanding of the Two Related Philosophical Problems and Themes
Socrates helps the troubled Phaedrus. Basically, Socrates does this through his philosophical understanding of Plato’s methodic inquiry of crisis of love. Socrates uses the logic of the mind and soul to impart a sense of control in Phaedrus. Through this action, Socrates helps to protect Phaedrus from the lure of Lysias for sexual advances.
Socrates achieves his aim by the application of several repetitions of the similar arguments. Socrates advises Phaedrus about the dangerous implications eminent if Lysias is really not in love with him. In his proposition, if this is the case, then any union between Lysias and Phaedrus will remain to be an incompetent good. As he philosophically reiterates, “it is the madness of love that complicates physical liaisons when they are red hot” (Hamilton, 508).
Socrates warns that such situations also make issues unpleasant. This is, particularly, during the cooling periods of the love affair. Socrates makes Phaedrus understand Lysias’ witty kind of seduction. Furthermore, he warns Phaedrus that this witty seduction might particularly strike him into the heart. As Socrates states, this situation is likely to emanate from Phaedrus fear as well as fury. In the dialogue, it can be observed that Socrates assists Phaedrus to visualize the reality and his typical individuality.
He helps Phaedrus to see that his intentional love with Lysias is more dishonest in its grip of the merit of love. This is because; it is nothing but a despondent bit of rhetorical foolishness.
The thing at stake for this young man is the opportunity to know the reality of love. Phaedrus’ inability to differentiate precisely the philosophical as well as the rhetorical points of Lysias’ explanation might most probably dictate the things he gets to be aware of. On the other hand, as demonstrated by Socrates, it might also dictate the things he might be incapable of knowing about love and Lysias.
Analysis of Plato’s Perception of the Soul
There is a presentation of an application of the understanding eminent from Plato’s perceptions on the human soul. The basic fact underlying this understanding is that the soul remains as a central dogma in the control of human logic. Evidently, there is presentation of the sophrosyne, the wanton or hubristic soul and the mantic soul that pertains to rational sanity. By the application of the understanding of the temperance or rational desire, Socrates warns Phaedrus of the eminent danger (Hamilton, 517).
He stresses on the application of rationality and principality in the examination of an individual’s feelings or emotions. As applicable in this context, Phaedrus is advised to use his rational soul to direct his emotional logic and mind control. This is, particularly, with reference to the seductive advances from Lysias.
The application of mantic soul of rational sanity as potentiated by Plato is critical in wading off emotional foolishness. Socrates accordingly applies this explanation to direct Phaedrus in this dialogue. Plato, in his understanding of the soul, warns the public to be wary of the wanton or hubristic soul of irrational desire. He indicates in his explanations that this leads into dangerous relationships, decisions or actions that may be costly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Dialogue of Phaedrus: The Crises of Love and Inquiry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Hamilton, Edith; C. H. E. Plato: The Collected Dialogues. S.l: s.n., n.d. Print.
How did Reconstruction Change the United States after the Civil War? Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
End of Reconstruction
Introduction Reconstruction Era in America is a period that that refers to the entire history of the United States covering the period from 1865 – 1877. It is the period following the civil war. Reconstruction can as well refer to a period in which the southern states were to be transformed with the aim of reintroducing them back to the union. The reconstruction plan was brought forward by President Abraham Lincoln (Richter, 2004).
The southern states were supporting confederacy, and the reconstruction was to make them support the United States. They were to free all the slaves after the reconstruction. However, this was not easy, and much did not change after the reconstruction. The aim of this paper is to analyze how reconstruction changed the United States after the civil war.
Reconstruction Abraham Lincoln became the president of the United States in the year 1860. It was a time dominated by the crushes between the northern states and the southern states. Lincoln came with the plan of reconstruction. He was determined to make the southern states get back to the union, but he said he had no intention of opposing slavery. In his first inaugural statement, Lincoln said that he was not going to interfere with the institution of slavery since he had no legal right to that (Zinn 2005).
However, after the civil war, if the southern states rejoined the union it could mean that slavery would no longer be allowed. The southern states had to free all the slaves, and this was to be like a punishment to them for their attempt to split the nation into two. The president was assassinated in the year 1865, and his vice Andrew Johnson took over as the president of the US.
He came in with a different plan to forgive the southern states. Under President Johnson, the southern states were to be allowed back to the union after their governor approved the 13th amendment which was to free all the slaves. By the year 1870, the states had rejoined the union (Peacock, 2003).
Reconstruction helped reduce the mistreatment of the black people in America and especially in the south. Before reconstruction, the number of illiterate black Americans was unusually high. In fact, it is reported that 90% of the blacks were illiterate by the time slavery was abolished.
The number of the illiterate blacks reduced to less than 70 percent by the 1880. Illiteracy among the blacks continued to reduce further in the following 20 years, and by 1900, it was below 50%. This was a significant change that was achieved as a result of reconstruction. However, the number of literate black Americans was still far below the as compared to that of whites. It was an improvement from what it used to be before the reconstruction (Perman
Plan to conduct Theory based evaluation of tobacco control Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Theory based evaluation refers to a list of policy arrangements, projects, organization as well as structure of administration in which practitioners and experts exchange ideas, lessons and methods applicable to the process of evaluation of a problem.
For instance, the success of a government agency in trying to control the levels of use of a drug such as tobacco is directly dependent on factors such as the reactions of the community towards the policies, availability of resources for implementing the policies, likely reactions of the authorities of the specifics areas and possibility of obtaining findings from the government( Blanke,2004).
This is achieved through determining the causes of abuse of tobacco in the society and the methods of control that are believed to be capable of resulting into its control. This is followed by determining the steps that need to be monitored as the program is implemented and methods that can be used to develop the program for the control of the drug.
Success factors are then listed and if the available data and information shows that the factors cannot be achieved, it is concluded that the project is less likely to be successful in accomplishing its objectives. There are various approaches that can be used to control tobacco consumption or production. This article provides a theory based evaluation of the success in applying these approaches towards control of tobacco in a community or a country (Pechacek, 1999).
Discussion There are many goals for control of tobacco consumption in any country in the world. However, the major goals are reduction of consumption of the drug by under-age youth, reduction of exposure of adults and youth to tobacco smoking and monitor and assess tobacco consumption to improve compliance.
In order to ensure control, there are various approaches that can be used.
This paper provides an evaluation of these approaches.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Construction of regional offices
By constructing these offices, it will be possible to monitor drugs distribution to the youth, monitoring compliance with tobacco distribution regulations, regulating the levels of tobacco promotions, provision of management services for prevention, cessation, and education of the public to reduce the levels of tobacco consumption, build capacity organizations that empower the youth with knowledge regarding the consequences of tobacco consumption (Teh-Wei, 2010)
This approach towards control of tobacco consumption has certain demands that will have to be met. For instance, it will be necessary to allocate resources for construction of these offices, training of extension officers to educate the people with regards to tobacco consumption and paying them.
It will also depend on the readiness of the people in the community towards accepting the recommendations of the regional workers. The control process will be regarded a success if there is a possibility of attaining these demands. However, if these demands cannot be satisfied, the control plan is considered a failure.
The role of Office of Policy and Strategic planning
Tobacco control plan can also be achieved by creating the Office of planning and Strategic planning. This is an office that ensures frameworks and policies are developed to reduce tobacco use. It ensures a country is represented in international referendum and in creation of agreements that enhance international partnership in control of tobacco.
Internally, the office analysts who take part in educating the public can be trained by establishing partnerships with stakeholders and advisory individuals or other agencies of government and experts from other areas of the world. The evaluation process is based on the capability of the office to accomplish these objectives.
The success of the control program is dependent on their capability to control these objectives. However, this office has the capability to construct tobacco control policies that are informed, stable and focused on preventing excessive consumption of tobacco.
Formation of offices of Regulation and compliance offices
The success of control of tobacco use and manufacture is also another step towards control of its production and distribution, sales, labeling and promotion to ensure citizens are protected from health complications of tobacco use. The office is also responsible for developing regulations of tobacco production and monitoring the activities of tobacco manufacturing industries to ensure they comply with tobacco production regulations (Huey-Tish, 1990).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Plan to conduct Theory based evaluation of tobacco control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The success of this approach will be dependent on the willingness of the government to provide funding for management of these offices and availability of government control over the manufacture and distribution of tobacco in a country.
Formation of Office of Research, Evaluation and Surveillance
This is also an office that can effectively contribute towards control of tobacco consumption. The level of control of tobacco use will be dependent on its ability to monitor and analyze the use of tobacco and its impacts on the health of the people in a country.
Its success will also be measured by its ability to educate the people on the right way of behavior towards the drug and the economic and chemical impacts of use of the drug. Furthermore, its success will be measured by its ability to direct research on bio makers of tobacco and other toxic substances. They ensure Health Warning Messages are evaluated, tobacco sales data is monitored and research is conducted to estimate the level of exposure to tobacco our smoke.
References Blanke, D., Vera, S. (2004). Tobacco Control Legislation: An Introductory Guide: NJ. World Health Organization,
Huey-Tish, C. (1990). Theory-driven evaluations. London; Sage.
Pechacek, T. (1999). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. DIANE Publishing.
Teh-Wei, H. (2010) Tobacco Control Policy Analysis in China: Economics and Health. London; World Scientific
How HR Responsibilities Assist in Organization Change Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the case problem
The discussion of the case in relation to literature
Recommended change strategies
Introduction Organizational change has become a significant factor in minimizing the cost of operation in organizations. Economic pressures are forcing organizations to implement cost-cutting measures, while at the same time being cautious not to compromise customer service quality. Organizational change requires a continuous restructuring of strategies.
Organizational restructuring involves a change in organizational culture, which is quite demanding an organization. It requires full action and intervention of the human resource department of the organization. Organizational change programs are quite fragile at the initial stages thence need to be handled with caution (Ulrich, Younger
The Hydrologic Cycle and Water on Earth Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Water motion through the hydrologic cycle
Ocean current systems and their impact on climate
Layers of the atmosphere and their effect on weather
How natural forces shape the land
Introduction The amount of water molecules in the earth is constant although the motion of water is continuous. This motion supports processes such as water purification, replenishing the land through precipitation, and movement of minerals from one location to another (Kalman, 2009). This paper will discuss the hydrologic cycle and the process that it triggers to affect land and climate.
Water motion through the hydrologic cycle Precipitation occurs when water in the form of vapor falls on the earth’s surface. This occurs in the form of rain and snow. Once this water falls on the earth’s surface, it undergoes heating and changes to become gas. This occurs in the water bodies, on the surface of bodies of animals, and in plants during transpiration.
Transpiration is the evaporation process that consequently makes the water molecule light in weight for it to float in the atmosphere. Once in the atmosphere, the water is cooled down and condenses to become liquid forming clouds or fog. The water changes from this liquid form into vapor to repeat the process. This way, water remains in motion continuously (Bronstert, 2005).
Ocean current systems and their impact on climate One of the major ocean currents is the California current. It moves water from the Gulf of Alaska into the north equatorial current that moves along the equator. Further, this current moves north to become the Kurishio current. It flows along the eastern of the Japanese coast, bends towards the east, and completes the loop as the north pacific current. This process forms one major current that causes the cold climate especially in the Hawaiian Islands, Canada, British Colombia, and Southern Canada (Neumann, 1968).
The North pacific current is found on the Gulf of Alaska. This current moves northwards along the Alaskan coast through the Aleutian Islands. It combines with the Oyashio current to form the Kurishio current. Another current is the South Equatorial current that flows in a similar direction as the North Equatorial current.
When the two currents move in the same direction, they form the Equatorial counter current that flows in the middle of these two currents into the Mexican coast. This then diverges in the north to form the California counter current. Other major currents include the East Australian currents that flow westwards in the Antarctica. The south of the pacific is dominated by the Peru Current (Neumann, 1968).
The ocean currents cause elnino and lanina which occur every 2 to 12 years. Once they occur, some regions experience excessive rains leading to floods and mudslides. Other areas experience dry spells that lead to drought periods that may last for more than a year. They also cause the cold climate experienced in areas where cool waters are transported (Carson, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Layers of the atmosphere and their effect on weather The atmosphere can be divided into four main layers. The first one is the troposphere, which is about 11 kilometers from the earth’s surface. It is the most aerated and misted compared to the layers. It makes up the atmosphere in which wildlife can thrive. This is where the weather is evident because air from the northern hemisphere mixes with air from the southern hemisphere.
The next layer is the troposphere, which has no water vapor or dust. This layer does not support life. The other layer is the mesosphere, which forms the ozone layer. Its main function is to block ultraviolent rays from reaching the earth’s surface. The topmost layer is the thermosphere, which is very hot. This layer serves to absorb heat from the sun and supports the hydrologic process without drying up the earth (Carson, 2007).
How natural forces shape the land Erosion is the process in which loose top soil is moved by water, wind, ice and gravity away from its original location. This eventually leads to changes in shapes of rocks, formation of sand after rock breakage, and the breakage of minerals inside the rocks. Erosion exposes the inner layers of the earth leading to chemical changes that change the colors, texture, and shape of he inner layers (Kalman, 2009).
Mass wasting involves movement of material downhill and along the slopes over a long period. This leads to the accumulation of sediment on some parts of the earth thus affecting the topography. This affects the flow of rivers and the morphological characteristics of the mountains and valleys (Kalman, 2009).
Streams move sediments from higher regions to the lower regions to form columns, arches, or even caves. With time, these streams develop into rivers causing meandering due to the sediment that is deposited over time (Kalman, 2009).
Oceans change the shape of the land through currents and winds. When these forces move, water masses keep moving in a similar direction over a long period. The sea line is extended, and some of the land is occupied by sea (Lisitzin, 1974).
Glaciers are big masses of ice flow that have a slow movement which take bits of the earth with them. They wear away mountains and cause the formation of valleys on the land surface (Kalman, 2009).
We will write a custom Essay on The Hydrologic Cycle and Water on Earth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The movement of water on the earth’s surface and atmosphere affect the ocean currents and climate. This happens due to changes in the atmosphere that are controlled by heat energy. This defines weather and the processes like erosion prevalent on the earth’s surface.
References Bronstert, A. (2005). Coupled models for the hydrological cycle: Integrating atmosphere, biosphere and pedosphere; with 20 tables. Berlin [u.a.: Springer
Carson, M.K. (2007). Weather projects for young scientists: Experiments and science fair ideas. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
Kalman, B. (2009). What shapes the land? New York: Crabtree Pub.
Lisitzin, E. (1974). Sea-level changes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co.
Neumann, G. (1968). Ocean currents. Amsterdam [u.a.: Elsevier.
Temperance, Women’s Rights, Education, Antislavery and Prison Reform: New Objectives, New Concerns Essay essay help: essay help
When looking back at the events which took place in the XIX century, one can easily understand that the present-day rights and freedoms, as well as the modern highly developed structure of the society are the phenomena which can be easily taken for granted – and which should not be by any means. Indeed, it is almost impossible to believe that a couple of centuries ago the ideas of temperance were considered another potentially dangerous whim.
Unless the reformers of the XIX century established their idea of what principles the society should base on, the ideas of temperance and, consequently, women’s rights, antislavery and a number of other essential innovations, would have been established considerably later. Analyzing the objectives which the reformers pursued in their attempt to change the then social structure, one can possibly estimate the scale of the reforms and their impact on the society.
Among the most memorable reforms of that time, the innovations in the system of treating the convicts and the prisoners must be the reform that reflected the very essence of the XIX-century social ideas.
As Frank (2008) explains, the reform was opposed to the system existing in the XIX century and was aimed at changing the prisoners for the better rather than establishing an eye-for-an-eye atonement for their crimes. “Rather than punishing the prisoner through whippings, incarceration, or execution, prison reformers sought to improve the soul of the convict” (Frank, 2008, 4).
As for the education reforms, the aims of those who launched the process were a bit different. With the help of the latter, the reformers had fighting with poverty in mind.
Once the quality of education is improved, the competence and, hence, the wages and the well-being of millions of people is improved within a relatively short time period: “Educational reform aimed both to prepare children for life in an industrializing economy and to reinforce Protestant American culture; reformers also established new institutions to deal with the poor, criminals and the insane” (Boyer et al., 2009, 235).
However, the largest and the most impressive movement of all in the XIX century was the movement of tolerance. As Frank (2008) explains, “Reformers believed drinking led to a host of social evils, including poverty, crime, family violence and poor child rearing” (Frank, 2008, 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the focus of the reformers was the way to drive the alcohol abuse to minimum. It is quite peculiar that the drinking problem was also considered the cause of poor working performance and, thus, the number one obstacle to achieving the increase in the industry development. With the above-mentioned in mind, it becomes obvious that the temperance reform was the key one in the early 180-1810.
Another significant reform, the successful campaign for women’s rights was also triggered by a number of factors. Despite the growing scale of the female labor force recruitment, the moral restrictions imposed on women were immense. Among the most prominent people who impacted the women’s rights reform, Angelina and Sarah Grimke must be mentioned.
With the help of Grimke sisters’ efforts, namely, the fact that they “assumed the public role of men” (Frank, 2008, 7), women employees committees finally appeared and women gained their support in the sphere of employment. Caused by the unfair and extremely harsh working conditions (Allan
North vs. South, 1861: Face to Face. Strengths and Weaknesses Essay writing essay help
Among the most memorable events that had the greatest impact on the development of the United States, the war between the North and the South takes the first spot, not only for being one of the greatest bloodbaths in the history, but also for its results, which established final and complete abolition of slavery and heralded the new epoch which would follow soon, the epoch of equal rights.
However, it must be mentioned that, like any other war, the Civil War could have had the most unpredictable consequences and could have resulted in anything unless one of the sides used their resources in a different way. Therefore, assessing and estimating the factors which caused the existing results and finding out the strengths and the weaknesses of each side, as well as the goals of South and the reasons the latter were not reached, one can possibly understand why the North finally took its victory.
Starting with the Confederates and the factors that defined their war strategy and tactics, one must keep in mind the specifics of the South and the lifestyle which the residents of the South led. Having their fighting and shooting skills perfected, the dwellers of the South were rather tough opponents (Gallagher, 2001, 23).
In addition, the military leaders of the South were far more resourceful than their North opponents: “Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson were more skillful military leaders than those the Union initially brought forward” (Boyer, 2001, 130). The last and the most important thing that could have made the South invincible, if not for several crucial mistakes and the numerous disadvantages, was the location of the battles.
It is quite important that the fights which the Confederates led were located mostly in their native lands, which meant that the South had to fight in their homeland.
Since the given advantage allowed to locate the troops in the most successful way and make use of the fact that the North army could not choose the proper tactics in a completely unknown location, the given factor is of crucial importance – in fact, it could have even changed the results of the war, had the Confederates taken advantage of their sudden luck. However, once the South did not make use of its profitable position, the chance was lost.
Still, there were considerable problems in numerous aspects with the South and its political, economical and social factors. The first and the foremost, the South had less population, which meant that the quality of their fighting skills had to level the gap in quantity. In addition, the Union and its forces blocked all the ports in the South, which meant that the latter could not obtain any outside help or even continue the trading relationships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the industry in the South was underdeveloped and the war funds were not provided in the required amount. Finally, the Confederate states made too large an area to defend its every corner, which the Union knew and made efficient use of (Donovan
Analysis of Whirlpool Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Abstract Change management is one of the topics in business, which have been accorded a wide range of coverage. This is mainly based on the fact that change management has been found to have a profound impact, with regard to the performance and future of any business organization around the world.
Although it has been described by a host of authors and business experts, change management can generally be defined as a systematic shift from the current status of a business organization or an individual to a more desirable state. Even though this term exists, it has turned out to be ambiguous to some people based on the aspects, which it encompasses (Goldsmith
Healthcare Information systems Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Overview of healthcare information Technologies
Improving the Quality of Medication
Reducing the cost of healthcare
Overview of healthcare information Technologies Lack of relevant system-wide healthcare Information technology causes significant expenses that come in the form of the increased number of the workforce and wasted time. Research suggests that lack of appropriate IT platforms to deliver healthcare service contributes to over 10% increase in healthcare costs.
Therefore, IT systems are inextricably connected to healthcare costs for healthcare institutions, which trickle down to the population. Increased healthcare costs have prompted healthcare institutions to adopt cost-saving IT systems to optimize their returns while ensuring the delivery of quality service (Rodrigues, 2009).
There are many IT applications from which healthcare institutions can choose to improve the quality of service and reduce costs of delivering healthcare services. However, every institution must be able to select an IT base that is relevant and appropriate to its condition.
Improving the Quality of Medication Information technology has the potential to improve the quality of healthcare services. Studies show that most healthcare providers believe that adopting clinical IT systems improve the extent to which they can deliver quality patient care. IT systems can solve some of the problems posed by fragmented IT systems. Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) has become of the key clinical IT systems that have gained significant application in most clinical and medical institutions (Rodrigues, 2009).
Research shows that the application of CPOE reduces the frequency of repeat tests. The quality of healthcare service is connected with the number of repeat tests that a patient undergoes before a successful diagnosis is achieved. Surveys conducted on patients reveals that patients rated physicians based on the number of unsuccessful diagnosis or tests for their illness. The use of CPOE reduces turnaround times for laboratory, pharmacy and radiography request applications made.
Some medical studies have suggested that using CPOE reduces the error frequency during medical surgeries. According to a survey conducted by Bates et al. (1998), the application of CPOE systems had the ability to reduce medication errors by 55%. Out of 11 studies that aimed at estimating the accuracy of medication using CPOE, four studies showed that CPOE achieved to reduce errors, and improved the quality of medication and patient safety.
Studies show that the introduction of CPOE as an IT platform is a nonfinancial incentive for healthcare professionals. Surveys conducted in hospitals using CPOE shows that healthcare professionals are motivated to deliver quality service compared to hospitals that did not implement these technologies. It is significant to note that the professionals’ perception of quality service is inextricably linked to availability of alternative IT tools (Bates
Stickley Furniture. The Production Process in Supply Chain. Case Study essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Stickley Furniture’s Production processing
Recommendation for Stickley Furniture
Introduction During production, raw materials are converted into finished products, and this process involves procurement, allocation of resources as well as utilization of the resources. This operational process requires that goods are produced efficiently and in the most economical way. For an organization to realize its profits and satisfy the consumers, production is a key area of focus. Production management requires decisions be made about the products design, planning and control.
For the processes to run smoothly, the movement of information and materials should be consistent so as to unite the parts involved into one. This way, the goal, which is the final product, is achieved by many units working as a team. Given that the modern customer requires the products at the most convenient time, location, and at a low cost, an organization should perform its production process based on the nature of the targeted market.
Inventory helps to ensure that the organization responds to consumer needs in the shortest time possible. The nature of the raw materials and transportation is also another area of focus in production because a lot of costs are incurred in this area. This article will discuss on operations management using the Stickley Furniture Company as the model to explain the procedures and processes involved in the production.
It will further discuss how the management can efficiently improve product and service quality at a low cost while meeting the market demands (Ross, 2010). Efficient management in operations is an essential component in supply chain; it not only simplifies operations and cost but also acts as an area in which an organization can focus on so as to gain a competitive advantage.
Stickley Furniture’s Production processing Production in supply chain management comprises of drivers that support the conversion of raw materials into finished products that appeal to customers. These include the procurement process, designing the supply chain, inventories, transportation of supplies and the finished products, warehousing and the collaboration of these units to work as a team.
For the Stickley Company, timber is sourced from outside as well as other products such as glue and other equipment that are used in production. Its supply chain is centralized in one unit where procurement, production and distribution are operated. It has various dealers outside who are the main point of contact between the organization and the suppliers.
Inventory involves the semi-finished products which are assembled and delivered once orders are received. The scheduling office is used in locating products; this is a one way form of communication in which may not involve the rest of the units (Stevenson, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main form of the production process in this company is a job shop in which involves companies which produce a low volume of goods that have a wide variety. Given that when timber is received, the procedure is standard, they are cut into smaller sizes using a computer controlled optimizer saw. In this case, the optimizer is a standard tool that can be adjusted to fit the required sizes. It is always the first operation performed when timber is received.
Once they are cut into smaller sizes, differentiation starts and parts are produced according to the king of item required, thus the wide variety in production. The pieces are assembled so that the workers to come up with the final product. This means that the equipment used are not extremely flexible because the parts are defined and procedures required standard. For instance saws and sanders are a must use for any product.
The final product has different processing requirements, for instance some items may require carving while others do not. The function of the furniture also defines the processes to be carried out, design is not high because the variety available offers many designs changes are not frequent.
To a lesser extent, the continuous product processing is also applied in this organization because the products are standardized and some workers apply low skills while others need to be highly skilled. For example, carving requires skilled craftsmen while other procedures like drilling and mortising can be performed by low to moderately skilled workers (Stevenson, 2009).
In Stickley furniture the management stamps the date of production on every item, to ease tracking. Items are also stamped for identification during the assembling process. Stamping the items names and dates of production makes the assembling task simpler and the location of an item can be tracked easily. This is because the procedures are continuous and items made on a day have a standard period in which they are expected to be ready.
If required urgently, then they can easily be retrieved from the production stage as defined by the date. Updated records are kept to ensure that those items can be matched easily with their original pieces based on aspects like wood type and the finishing. Bar code stickers are used to simplify the process because once they are scanned in the computer; they are located from the scheduling office (Stevenson, 2009).
For supply chain management to be effective, this is essential because it promotes collaborative planning in which the participating partners can share information as compared to the simple exchange. In this case, the parties purchasing timber, the production workers and the inventory team should share information such that orders can be placed by just checking and updating the status from a common system. This will eliminate the long process that is followed while establishing product availability when an order is placed (Ross, 2010).
We will write a custom Case Study on Stickley Furniture. The Production Process in Supply Chain. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the company received an order for 40 mission oak dining room sets, it would require careful planning, scheduling and processing to ensure that the customer needs are met at the shortest time and the right customer expectations. This is necessary because it adds value to a product.
In this case, first the management would need to establish the complete parts available in the inventory. This will help them establish the exact number of pieces or items that will need to be prepared from scratch. This way, a plan is made to come up with the amount of timber that will be required to produce the deficit as well as replace the ones obtained from the inventory. Once this is accomplished, it will schedule the timber for timber to be delivered in the workshop.
Next, it will match the skills required, with the product for it to assign the workers on the task while considering the volume to be worked. This also factors in the time before delivery can be done. Once the available workers are identified the task is commenced, while some workers are working on the unavailable parts, others should be working on assembling the ready parts from the warehouse.
This ensures that the products are availed at the shortest time and in the best quality because inventory saves the organization the procedures required for such an amount of furniture. Finally, distribution is organized to ensure that the products are delivered according to the customers instructions. So in this case factors to consider including; the funds required, amount of labor required and the time available (Stevenson, 2009).
Stickley Company’s level production policy is convenient for this order. This is because the company keeps an inventory ready for the demand period. It is likely that the order received could be furnished if the items required are ready for assembling. The fact that items can be located from the scheduling office makes, it is easy to determine what is available and what needs to be acquired. This way decision making is fast and efficient.
The company has employed many workers who are utilized through preparation of inventory items. The extra human resource provides labor when demand rises. Another advantage of this system is that workers have specialized according to their skills. This causes the determination of the workers group to which the job can be assigned and scheduled. As outlined in Figure 1, the production process is the central point where the supply chain drivers interact (Stevenson, 2009).
There are challenges that may arise while responding to the oak dining set order, for instance; the inventory may not be having adequate pieces that match the customer’s requirements. This means that the whole production process would have to be carried out, and this may take a lot of time.
Another challenge can be the risk of unsatisfactory product given that the workers are responsible in making decisions about the quality of the products. A poor judgment may be done which can result in losses in case the products do not satisfy the customer. Obtaining workers readily to perform the task immediately can be a challenge if it happens to be a peak season when labor is a lot.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Stickley Furniture. The Production Process in Supply Chain. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If there happens to be a multiple of orders, then there is a likelihood of delay because job sequence is determined by the supplies on hand. If the oak wood is not available, then it is likely that it will be scheduled later when supplies are obtained. The scheduling is planned 8-10 weeks ahead, and this may disrupt operations if the order given is urgent (Stevenson, 2009).
Recommendation for Stickley Furniture The company keeps track of items by keeping records as defined by the dates stamped on these items. This could be improved by specialization of the production process such that similar items are produced in the same location. This way tracking will not require a lot of record keeping because similar items are stored together.
This way it will only require bar code stickers to identify the location of an item. The company has a range of low skilled workers and highly skilled ones. It would be necessary if the low skilled workers could work along the highly skilled craftsmen so that the learning process can be enhanced. Through this, innovation and creativity can be improved, and the company can acquire more workers who are skilled (Ross, 2010).
The issue of quality is a sensitive one because a mistake on this can lead to substantial losses in terms of resources and business. This should have a standard measure through which products can be defined. When this responsibility is left for the individual workers, it is likely that the products offered will be inconsistent in terms of quality. The organization defines the quality standards that each worker must attain to build customer loyalty.
This will eliminate the probability of a customer getting unsatisfactory products. Another area is on the issue of repair and sharpening of equipment used. This process involves the use of resources while there is no output. Therefore, such activities can be allocated down time such that the time used for maintenance can be included in planning. This will minimize waste of resources and improve efficiency, as well (Ross, 2010).
The management defines the level of output expected to maximize the production capacity for the workers and the equipment used. This simplifies the planning process since the profits can be estimated by comparing the estimated output against the costs incurred. Another area of concern is the costs incurred on inventory.
This could be reduced by working with the dealers by encouraging them to have inventories for the products that have demand. This way, the product is taken nearer to the consumer’s location. Once an order is placed, the final product can be assembled and delivered faster as opposed to assembling from the company’s workshop (Ross, 2010).
Warehousing is an essential aspect in supply chain; the locations determine the costs that are likely to be incurred during transportation. If the warehouses are located near the targeted markets, then the inventory costs go down. Given that Stickley furniture maximizes its production while anticipating for the demand that comes in the peak season, it is advisable that the company introduces ware houses. These can be located near the leading dealers such that when orders are placed, the turnaround time is effective.
This also favors the customers who would love to purchase directly from the organization. It also familiarizes the organization to the customers because customers get to know the company’s existence and demand also increases especially for the foreign markets.
For Stickley, a centralized warehousing location may not be convenient because the dealers are decentralized. Therefore, the company can opt for decentralized locations for the dealer’s convenience. It will improve the level of responsiveness and efficiency of customer service (Ross, 2010).
Conclusion Efficiency in production management gives an organization a competitive advantage. This is achieved by maximizing the available resources to obtain maximum output. Today, organizations are developing strategies to improve their efficiency in operations to reduce costs without compromising the level of customer service. If an organization introduces machineries that consume a lot of power, the productivity should be much higher to cover the costs incurred. In the case of Stickley furniture, the saws and sanders used should be included during the planning process to ensure that such costs are accounted. This minimizes waste in the production process. A market-driven demand is also essential because it encourages innovation an increases sales volumes. When the production process takes minimum resources, an organization can provide quality products similar to those of competitors at a lower price and thus increase its demand. When organizations respond to consumer needs fast, they add value to their products and this gives these organizations a competitive advantage.
References Stevenson, W. J. (2009). Operations management. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill.
Ross, D. F. (2010). Introduction to Supply Chain Management Technologies. CRC Press.
Appendices Figure 1. The position of the production process in supply chain
Level of Task Independence Acceptable between Teams and the Impact of Interteam Conflict on Departmental Performance Coursework essay help free: essay help free
Perhaps the most considerable philosophical shift in organizational and departmental management over the past two decades is the prevalent adoption and use of team-oriented structures as a method for successful task execution, decision-making, planning and problem-solving.
Indeed, academics and commentators are in agreement that the acceleration and employment of team-based structures as a preferred technique of organization, task accomplishment and decision-making modus operandi reflects the urgency for timelier and efficient processing of information in a business world characterized by intense competition and increased environmental uncertainty (Li et al., 2009).
Despite their effectiveness, however, team-based structures continue to experience a myriad of operational and structural challenges as they become increasingly used within organizational and departmental settings (Carton
Issues Facing Medicare – program established to provide health insurance. Essay college application essay help
Medicare plays an important role in the United States system of health care by providing more than 45 million American citizens with insurance cover. Medicare is a program established to provide health insurance to individuals regardless of the status of health and income level. Although it is mainly established to cater for health needs of the elderly (65 years and above), the program caters for the needs of about 7 million permanently disabled adults.
Registered members contribute a certain amount of money throughout their working life so that together with their spouses, their health needs are catered for after they have retired. In order to meet the financial obligations faced by the Medicare system, funds have to be sourced from beneficiaries, revenues from the federal government and tax. At present, nearly all people aged 65 and above are insured by Medicare. Although it is a popular program, Medicare is currently faced with many challenges and issues.
Issues Facing Medicare The greatest challenge facing Medicare is lack of sufficient funds to cater for health needs of the future generation. This is because of the high cost of health care and the increased number of baby boomers in the United States. Annual increase in the cost of health care has in turn increased expenditure. Studies conducted in 2010 show that the number of Medicare beneficiaries is likely to rise from 47 to 78 million by 2030.
For instance, the estimated population of Baby Boomers expected to join Medicare in 2011 (individuals born between 1946 and 1964) was 77 million. To handle this number, Medicare needs some improvements. According to the Medicare Board of Trustees, if changes on the Medicare program are no put in place, the likelihood of the program being insolvent/bankrupt by 2024 is high.
The following measures have been suggested if the Medicare Trust Fund is to be financially stable beyond 2024. The salaries of physicians should be reduced by 40% and payments made to other companies providing services to the programs will also be deducted.
According to government experts, available funds in Medicare Part A Trust Fund will not be enough to cater for full benefits of the large population. The experts also argue that the program requires additional revenue if it is to maintain the current benefits. This implies that beneficiaries will be forced to bear the burden of increased premiums.
Today, 30% of the cost of healthcare comes from the pockets of the beneficiaries. These costs increased annually. Like health care expenditure, increased spending in Medicare is caused by the high cost of services offered in health systems, new technologies, and increased utilization of services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The increased amount of funds utilized in the Medicare program influence smooth running of other programs. For instance, annual expenditure is expected to increase to about $3 trillion in 2030. The federal government will be forced to adjust the budget to accommodate the requirement of the program.
This will affect funding of other important sectors like education and defense. Because of the increased number of retirees, Medicare will lack funding because the workers will be few. This is because Baby Boomers include the largest percentage of employees in the United States. The economy of United States is largely determined by Baby Boomers because they are innovative. In addition to lack of funds, the program will need to hire more professionals to cater for the large number of retirees.
Cultural Clash in the Board Room. An ethical dilemma among top management in Almond China. Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Background
What should Liu Peijin do?
What are the problems in this case?
What are the options for Liu?
What should you do? why?
Background The case presents an ethical dilemma among top management in Almond China. One side (Chongqing Executive) is of the opinion that the company should avoid wasteful procedures and standards which among other things require that management should not bribe customers by giving them commissions or oversea trips in order to do business. Almond Chemical, the mother company located in Germany observes high standards of safety among employees, environment, product quality and proper disposal of waste.
The challenge however arises when the company starts operating in China and a section of the executive thinks that there is no need to observe these standards and procedures in the Chinese business environment. Those in opposition think that they’ll be able to reduce expenses, get more clients and then make more profits by violating these standards. The other members of the board are against bending of rules in order to make quick profits (Xin and Haijie 2).
What should Liu Peijin do? Liu Peijin, the President of Almond China is in a tricky situation. His conscience and belief in adherence to procedures and ethics have been defiled by the board which thinks that for them to get orders; they should bribe customers with commissions and trips to Europe. Peijin should accept his colleagues’ suggestion because of two reasons.
One, he is the only person on the board supporting the safety and ethics standards. This means that, as an individual he cannot oppose a complete board which is already determined to violate ethics and safety standards.
What are the problems in this case? There are several problems presented in the case. To begin with, the company has not been running at a profit because of its strict procedures which demands that the company maintains high standards of safety like workers putting on expensive helmets from Europe and proper disposal of MDI wastes. As alleged by some of the executives in the board, the company is spending a lot of money on precautionary measures which do not generate income to the company.
Secondly, the board members are required not to give bribes or any other inducement to get orders from customers according to rules of the company. However, the Chinese situation is different because companies have to give bribes to customers in form of trips abroad or commissions in order to make sales. It is obvious that without bribing Almond Chemical China will not be able to make any major sale in China.
Thirdly, members of the board have different perspectives on how to go about the whole issue. On one side is Schulman Dolf (Vice Chairman of the Venture and Vice President of Business Development) and other members of the board who think that they should go ahead and give bribes to be able to do business and Liu Peijin who thinks that they preserve the integrity of the organization by not giving bribes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He maintains that the company should continue with safety measures within the company and to the environment because of a situation he witnessed in the past when an accident took place in the company he was working for and because employees were not protected they were seriously injured.
What are the options for Liu? Liu Peijin has few options. The first option he has is to resign from the company because he says that one of the reasons that motivated him to join the company is the values and standards the company up holds.
The second option is a little bit risky, but it is an option any way. Liu Peijin could lobby for support from the headquarters in Germany so that the Chinese branch can receive instructions from the head office warning the board against proceeding with those activities that violate the company’s standards of safety and ethics.
The second option however is very delicate because it depends on the willingness of the head office to intervene. If the will does not exist, then he risks isolation by his colleagues on the board.
The third option is to accept their proposal because they are the majority. As the saying goes, “If you cannot beat them, join them”. This will give him an ample time and will reduce points of contention with his colleagues on the board. Being the President of Almond China, he needs the support of other members if he is to steer the company in a positive direction.
What should you do? why? If I was him, I would seek a transfer to a branch where the values I believe in are upheld. This is because I still want to keep my job in Almond Chemical. I would achieve this by presenting my case to the management at the head quarters in Germany explaining why I need the transfer.
If the request for a transfer is not granted then I would resign from the company and seek employment else where because my belief on integrity cannot be compromised.
We will write a custom Essay on Cultural Clash in the Board Room. An ethical dilemma among top management in Almond China. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Xin, Katherine and W. Haijie. Culture Clash in the Boardroom, Harvard: Harvard Business Review, 2011. Online.
Group proposal: Ending chronic homelessness in United Kingdom Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Each year, roughly 1% of the United Kingdom population, some 1-2 million people, experiences a period of homelessness that puts such individuals in contact with homeless care providers and no less than 750,000 individuals are homeless in the United Kingdom at any given period (Burt et al., 2010). People facing homelessness can gain from the various services offered by the program supported by the Community Human Services (CHS).
Among this group of people, there are various significant sub-groups, comprising: chronically homeless – among the 1-2 million people who face homelessness yearly, 10% have been classified as chronically homeless because of their prolonged durations of homelessness. At any given period, such a group will signify nearly half of the population (Park et al., 2004). This sub-group has been categorized as the chronically, or permanently homeless.
CHS, the United Kingdom Department of Urban Settlement (DUS), the United Kingdom Department of Housing Activities (DHA) and the United Kingdom Inter-agency Group (UKIG) have unanimously accepted the following description of permanently homeless people: unattended homeless individuals with hindering conditions who have either continuously been homeless for 12 months or have had no less than four cases of homelessness during the last 36 months; homeless family – information derived from the Public Analysis of Homeless Caregivers and members approximates that during 2009, family units encompassed 29% of the homeless individuals; 19% were young people and 10% were mature people in homeless family units (Burt et al., 2010).
On yearly basis, this implies 431,000 family units, comprising 929,000 young people, face homelessness in the U.K. Based on this proposal, a homeless family refers to one or two mature individuals escorted by no less than one young individual who are either homeless or who have had latest cases in which they were homeless; and at-risk persons – those people who may be vulnerable to become both homeless and permanently not-housed.
For instance, the yearly frequency of homelessness amid adolescents is approximated at 6.1% amid people aged 13 to 18, and data shows that people in this age set are endangered for facing homelessness (Koegel et al., 2010).
For the purposes of this proposal, a homeless adolescent refers to a person aged between 15 and 23 years who does not get support from family members and is not accompanied – living on the streets or in an unhealthy state. Other susceptible individuals in danger of homelessness comprise the disabled, refugees, individuals leaving institutions (for example, incarceration, hospitalized treatment for persistent medical or psychological states), frail aged, individuals facing abuse, and catastrophe survivors.
CHS and homelessness The community human services is the U.K chief agency for guarding the health of U.K citizens and assisting the provision of basic human services, in particular for any individual who is least capable of assisting himself or herself.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The community agency is the biggest grant-making group in the U.K. The projects and assignments financed by the agency are managed by 11 functioning departments that function directly with national, local, and community-based organizations. Various CHS-financed programs are offered at the community level through national, regional or local groups, or by local and faith-oriented organizations and private division.
Ending persistent homelessness needs accommodation combined with the kinds of activities backed up through CHS projects. The provision of healthcare to people facing homelessness is encompassed in the operations of the agency, both in two projects mainly focused on homeless persons and in three non-focused, or ordinary, service provision projects (as illustrated in table 1 below).
Very frequently, individuals facing homelessness may be suitable for any service financed by such projects. Since the funds available for the ordinary projects are so much higher compared to the funds allocated to the identified homeless projects, CHS has dynamically followed a concept of enhancing access to usual packages for individuals facing homelessness (Koegel et al., 2010).
Table 1: CHS projects appropriate to individuals facing homelessness
Targeted homeless projects Budget ($) Grants targeting Medicare for the homeless 44,000,000 Projects for at-risk population 51,800,000 Ordinary projects Access to recovery 98,200,000 Community-based health centres 56,100,000 Maternal and Children medical services 691,500,000 Short-term care for eligible families 602,150,000 CHS homelessness proposal Purpose of proposal
The objective of the proposal is to provide the agency with an outline for the future based on an official document that deals with how persons, young people, and family units facing homelessness can be better reached via the proposed management of agency funds. This proposal aids the leader in highlighting any achievement that has been attained in the last several months, as well as in charting an option for future operations for the agency that draws from the recent endeavours. The proposal covers a three-year period, from FY 2013-2016.
Audience for the proposal
The proposal has both intrinsic and extrinsic audience groups and hence may be implemented in very many avenues. The intrinsic audiences consist of the CHS working and personnel departments that shall endorse the proposal and accept to put it into practice as is suitable to their relevant program. For instance, the proposal may affect CHS groups’ operation and promotion schedules, group functions, coaching, information gathering/decision-making, and/or financial planning.
The extrinsic audiences will be broad-ranging, comprising CHS beneficiaries and other key supporters of settlement programs, members of the agency settlement policy academy, the investors of agency/community 5-year strategies to curb homelessness, a participant of DUS’s program of medical care procedure, support/interest groups, community representatives, researchers, national participants, and the United Kingdom Program on Housing.
We will write a custom Essay on Group proposal: Ending chronic homelessness in United Kingdom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Approach utilized to develop the 2013 framework
In developing the 2013 framework, a Strategic Planning Team was created, including participants from the different groups taking part in the Agency’s Program. This planning team, working in collaboration with the agency, used a strategic procedure in reviewing current achievements and in developing suggestions for the scope and tactics to be the outline of the 2013 activities, the planning team reported to the entire team and reviewed the program as per the responses of the entire team. The 2013 proposal was distributed to the CHS working and employee department leaders before being endorsed by the agency and released to the public.
Measuring group results
The Agency’s Planning Team will keep on meeting frequently. Before any meeting, the working and personnel departments that take part in the Planning Team will be required to meet with a view of updating the activities monitoring template. This template comprises main activity that the agency is implementing associated with housing and is drafted based on the objectives and procedures documented in the agency activity framework.
All activities recorded in the template comprise data regarding the activities, their durations, and their outcomes or expected results. The template can later be utilized as a diagnostic instrument for assessing the agency’s development associated with the activity through goals or strategies, in addition to through participants. All revised templates are circulated to those participating in the agency’s planning Team meetings. Also, any contributing group reports verbally on its operations in the meeting; meeting minutes are written and circulated to participants (Corey
British Petroleum Company Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill – Case Study essay help online
The BP oil spill which is also referred to as the Deep water horizon oil spill took place in the Gulf of Mexico in the United States. It took place in the year 2010 and has been termed as one of the worst crises in the company. It affected the economy that is dependent on the ocean.
Fishing could no longer go on with the gushed oil. The oil spill has devastating consequences on the marine and human life. It also disrupted activities along the Gulf of Mexico (Landau, p. 10). The spill of the oil took place within a span of three months without being abated.
The oil spill resulted from an oil gusher at the sea floor as a result of the deep water horizon explosion. Notably, eleven BP workers were killed in the explosion. Also, the explosion left many others with injuries. This was one of the worst environmental disasters to have occurred in the history of oil exploration within the petroleum industry. The disaster left the company with a tough responsibility of stopping the oil spill.
This was a daunting task for BP. The company was forced to apply several techniques one of them being systems engineering (Hagerty and Ramseur, p. 1). Therefore, this paper analyzes the projects that were initiated and used in mitigating this environmental disaster (Stephen, Gold and King, Jr., para. 1-3). The paper looks at the problems, costs, risks, schedules, timelines, success, and lessons that can be derived from the response projects.
The first projects were regarded to be rapid response projects to aid in stopping a further spill of the oil in the ocean waters. Other subsequent response projects were aimed at averting the environmental impacts that had resulted from the spill (Hagerty and Ramseur, p. 1).
Capping the leaks – Detection and response to leakages There are a number of standardization rules that have been set and which can be used in enhancing the pace at which capping is done. This includes the presence of a working oil detection system. Early detection of the oil spill is a milestone as it can help early taming of what would have becomes an environmental disaster. The spill size is greatly minimized as quick response is in place (BTC Project, para. 2-10).
A normal detection process to such a project could take a relatively shorter time if all the proper preparedness measurers are in place. This can be summarized as shown below:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Activity 5mm hole 50 mm hole Full bore rapture Time taken in detecting the and confirming the leak A maximum of 2 days or 48 hours One hour One minute Time taken in shutting down the pumps Ten minutes Ten minutes Ten minutes Time taken in blocking the affected valves Ten minutes Ten minutes Ten minutes Total time for detection to the shutdown of the system Total of 48 hours Total of 80 minutes Total of 21 minutes Time taken in mobilizing the spill response or controlling the leak 24 hours 24 hours 24 to 72 hours taken in mobilizing equipment and the team that will deal with major oil spill. Figure 1.0 Oil leak detection and estimate of time to be taken in responding to different magnitude events.
Source: BTC Project
The detection is done with the help of system patrols by the design engineers For the BP case, the spill continued for long before the company could establish a response emergency team for sealing the leaks. The team encountered challenges to seal the leak because of unpreparedness. Therefore, as they continued to make efforts to cap the leaking points within the underground storage tanks, the oil continued to leak and increased the devastating consequences (Stephen, Gold and King, Jr., para. 1-5).
The population in the Gulf of Mexico had requested to be allowed to respond by putting a barrier to prevent the polluted water from reaching other regions. However, they were denied permission to do so by the authorities in the region. The authorities were waiting for a structured response from the responsible bodies. Therefore, it took long before an active response was initiated on the ground. The team that was deployed to contain the leak ascertained that it had to employ unique features of engineering to contain the leak.
The oil was gushing from underneath the water. This was more than one mile underneath the ocean waters. Therefore, experts warned about the situation taking too long before being contained. It required the deployment of massive skills to stop the leak. It was estimated that about five thousand barrels of oil were being gushed into the ocean during the entire time that the leak continued (Farrell, p. 43).
The first response to the oil spill was aimed at containing the short-term impacts. The first response involved the use of underground vehicles that were remotely operated. The vehicles were aimed at closing the blow out preventer valves. This attempt did not attain success. They failed at their initial stages. The second response entailed the use of the use of 125–tone for containing the dome. This had some level of success.
However, its success was limited as it was only effective to contain leakages in the shallow waters. It could not work for deep water spills because of the leakage from gas pipes. When the gas combined with water, it formed methane hydrate leading to the blockage of the dome.
We will write a custom Essay on British Petroleum Company Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill – Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other attempt was made and it involved the pumping of heavy fluids into the preventer helping to restrict oil flow temporarily before permanent sealing of the leaking points was done. This also failed to materialize. It was evident that the response team was practicing trial and error responses not being sure about the best method (Farrell, p. 43).
The most successful response action employed high level system engineering. The team positioned a riser insertion tube into a wide burst pipe. The tube had a stopper like a washer around it which helped in diverting the flow into the tube. The collected gas was then flared, and the oil was stored on the Drillship discoverer enterprise. A voluminous amount of oil was collected before the removal of the tube. A total of 924 gallons of oil were collected.
However, this was not as more oil was still escaping. Therefore, another oil containment system was installed. This system was directly connected to the “blow out preventer”. This system became more effective in carrying gas to the servicing vessels (Amina, para. 3). However, the amount of oil collected was still less compared to projections.
The containment cap was later replaced with a fitting cap. The new cap had a Flange Transition Spool as well as a 3 Ram Stack. This enabled the team to pump cement and mud into the gushing points of the well. This was a temporary solution that required more actions to stop the possibilities of leakages (Mason, para 2-6).
This emergency response team was prepared and dispatched to the site after the calls for response from various bodies including the media, the public and environmental organizations. The team could only manage to come into the weeks after the leak has begun. By this time, the oil had spread to a relatively larger area and caused wider damage to marine life (Mason, para 2-3).
This response was not done timely, and this is the reason why it took the team and the capping project a longer period than the perceived time. It took approximately one hundred days before the team stopped the oil from leaking. This was contrary to what the company had termed as an easy exercise before they began undertaking it (Mason, para 4-6).
The project succeeded. However, alt of damage had already been done leaving behind major devastations to the marine life and the population. It was evident that the company was not ready to handle a disaster of such a huge magnitude. For instance, they tried to make use of equipment that are used is shallow spills to this case. The equipment that is being referred to here is the steel containment dome that goes for only forty feet. Moreover, this equipment was to be shipped from far (Farrell, p. 43).
Containing the spilt oil The Deep-water horizon oil spill was characterized by two major response projects. These were the detection and buffing or sealing of the leaking wells. The second response was cleaning up the ocean. The first response projects were crucial and were deemed to involve a lot of technology.
Not sure if you can write a paper on British Petroleum Company Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill – Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, systems engineering was a critical part of this response. The second response was going to employ three sub-responses that included containing the water surface, diluting and dispersing the contaminants in areas that were deemed to be less sensitive. The third sub-response was to remove the contaminants from the water (Gelsi, para 2-5).
After the company had managed to stop the leaking oil, it was faced with another hurdle, which was dealing with the oil that had spilt in the ocean. Many oceanographers were warning of the rate at which the spilt oil was spreading to other parts of the ocean thus spreading the impacts across a larger area. This was being aggravated by the ocean loop currents that were directing the slick to Florida and the Atlantic Ocean (Gelsi, para 2-5).
The coast of Louisiana had a large coverage of the oil spill and the more the oil would remain uncontained, the more it would impact negatively on the marine life. Most of the slick was being directed to the Gulf of Mexico where the impact was very severe. At this point in time, many bodies were assessing the effects of the oil spill. Some bodies were struggling to establish the contents of the oil and the effects that these pollutants had on the marine life.
It took long to discover that the explosion at the oil exploration site had resulted in the bursting of oil tanks and that oil was leaking into the sea. This is because the oil was leaking from underground. The leakage was discovered days after the explosion. The amount of oil leaking in the sea could not be easily established.
However, from several reports including the assessment done by the US, it was evident that voluminous amounts of oil were spilling into the sea. The BP estimates were critiqued for being biased and favoring the interests of the company (Cullen, para 1-6).
By the time the oil leak had been stopped, the oil has been sighted in areas far as more than 16 miles away with the entire Gulf of Mexico Island covered with the polluted water. All the surrounding areas like Louisiana had also been affected up to Texas and Mississippi. The scale of the spill was enormous, and this meant it was going to take much time to deal with the situation. The cleanup of the water involved detoxification of the water using chemicals that would help in leaking the carbonic toxicants of oil (Gelsi, para 2-5).
The British Petroleum Company launched the oil containment project. This response project entailed the deployment of containment boom to wide areas. The purpose of the project was to prevent the spilt oil from mashing into the sensitive areas or corralling the oil. The booms were to extend into the deep water horizons.
The amount of booms was extended as the exercise progressed. The boom needed experienced operators who would ensure that the right amount of booms was being discharged. It emerged that the people who were used in conducting this exercise had less expertize and experience that hindered them from effectively discharging the duty (Sidlow, p. 341).
The dispersion of oils dispersants in the sea was launched. The objective of this exercise was to detoxify the water by deactivating the lethal components of oil in the water. The de-toxicants would help in dispersing the chemical pollutants in the ocean thereby minimizing their effects.
The major dispersant chemicals used in the exercise were EC95237A and EC9500A. These dispersal chemicals contained 2-butoxyethanol, propylene glycol and dicotyl Sodium sulfosuccinate. All these elements have chemicals with side effects on the people who get exposed to them while they are still in their active forms. They also have long term effects resulting from exposure to them such as causing cancer (Sidlow, p. 336).
AC-130 Hercules was also used in spreading the dispersants in the Gulf of Mexico which had high deposits of the leaked oil. This was somehow successful, but because of the toxic chemicals that were used in the exercise, the project was termed as unsatisfactorily. The efforts to clean-up the water are still ongoing, and they are expected to continue for a longer time (Sidlow, p. 336).
Lessons learned from the case Several lessons were learnt by the company regarding this response. Fist is that the organization must have a detailed plan for pipeline leaks. Therefore, the organization should have clearly outlined procedures including training of the response staffs and equipping these staffs with the required equipment. The emergency or disaster preparedness plans must always be active (BTC Project, para. 2-10).
Conclusion The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was an accident that resulted from an exploration mission of BP and other companies. BP had a lot of shares in this mission. The accident occurred resulting in oil leaks under the ocean. Two major responses were critical in averting the effects of the oil spill.
This was the stoppage of the spill and the cleaning up of the water. All these responses needed a lot of technical expertise approach with systems engineering being the major driver of the responses. Both short and long-term response programs were used with each having its success pints and flaws. The company had to derive a lot of preparedness lessons from this disaster.
Works Cited Amina, Khan. Gulf oil spill: Effects of dispersants remain a mystery. 2010. Web.
BTC Project. Oil Spill Response Strategy. Web.
Cullen, Elaine. Problems with BP Oil Spill Response Plan Outsourcing. 2010. Web.
Farrell, Courtney. The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub, 2011. Print.
Gelsi, Steve. Gulf Coast expands oil spill emergency defenses. 2010. Web.
Hagerty, Curry L. and J.L. Ramseur. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Selected Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2010. Print.
Landau, Elaine. Oil Spill! Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook Press, 2011. Print.
Mason, Rowena. BP attempts to ‘dam’ Gulf of Mexico oil spill. 2010. Web.
Sidlow, Edward. Govt3. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Stephen, Power, R. Gold and N. King, Jr. Staffing Levels on Deep-water Horizon Are Questioned. 2010. Web.
Problems associated with cultural differences faced by the German GAM Company in South Africa Essay best essay help: best essay help
Competent human staffs are essential in effective management of the human resource, which is a crucial aspect in a firm. Human resource management becomes more essential in managing cross-cultural barriers that are common in multinational corporations, which has ventures in foreign markets.
Failure for multinational corporations in manage cross-cultural challenges effectively may result to reduced performances or collapsing of foreign ventures. Thus, multinational companies should recruit highly competent human resource staffs to incorporate effective human resource strategies that will enhance cross-cultural communications (Bucher
An analysis of the global warming phenomenon based on the first law of thermodynamics. Report college essay help
Global warming is among most discussed topics globally. According to the Oracle Think Quest, global warming is caused by the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect tries to explain that gases such as carbon dioxide trap energy from the sun. As a result, the earth’s atmosphere behaves like a closed system. However, opponents of this notion claim that relating greenhouse gases to global warming is a violation of the first law of thermodynamics.
Energy can only be transformed in to different forms, according to this law, but cannot be generated or destroyed (Fong). For that reason, any energy entering the earth’s atmosphere must come from a foreign source. In addition, this energy must be equal in magnitude to that leaving the earth’s atmosphere since the earth is an open system. This paper gives an analysis of the global warming phenomenon based on the first law of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics, as a branch of science, studies how energy flow behaves in natural systems (physicalgeography.net). Therefore, studying laws of thermodynamics gives us an insight of some of the happenings observed in the universe. According to the first law of thermodynamics, it is only possible to transform energy in to different forms (Fong). However, it is not possible to generate or destroy it (Fong).
This means that the overall energy in the universe is constant. For that reason, this law is also referred to as the law of conservation of energy (physicalgeography.net). A summary of this law is given in the formula Esy Esu =Eun (The First law of Thermodynamics). The subscripts sy, su and Eun signify the system, the surroundings and the universe respectively. Additionally, the letter E denotes the energy.
Therefore, the overall energy in the universe must be equal to the energy in a system and the surroundings. Furthermore, the change in energy for any given process can be represented by the formula
Euniv= Esys Esurr=0 (The First law of Thermodynamics).
Where △Euniv, △Esys and△ Esurr denotes energy changes in the universe, system and the surroundings respectively. Consequently, if a change in energy occurs in a given system, the surroundings must undergo an energy change too. However, this energy change must be equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to that of the source (The First law of Thermodynamics). This is because energy gained in a given place must have been lost from another place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the energy lost by a system can be gained in a different form by another system. For instance, in a power plant, the energy lost in burning oil is enjoyed as electrical energy in our homes. Accordingly, energy and matter can be interchanged (physicalgeography.net). This phenomenon was initially suggested by Einstein and serves to reaffirm that the amount of energy on earth remains the same.
According to the Oracle Think Quest, global warming is a phenomenon in which the earth is gradually heating up. Consequently, the earth’s temperature is slowly increasing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ascertains that the world is becoming warmer due to the increase of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere. The trapping of heat and light from the sun brings about the green house effect (Oracle Think Quest).
Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, among others (Oracle Think Quest). Vishal adds that these gases result from the burning of fossil fuels. In addition, deforestation also results in the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Vishal). This is because there are few trees left to absorb the excess carbon dioxide.
Furthermore, the effects of the warmer temperatures, on the earth, are devastating. For instance, the earth is experiencing a rise in sea level, stronger storms, melting ice caps and changes in climatic conditions (Vishal). On the other hand, global warming has also made the world a better place to live in. Without it, most places on the earth would be freezing or extremely hot and, therefore, unsuitable for human settlement (Oracle Think Quest).
Global warming is a topic that has elicited a heated debate for a long time. To date, this debate is not showing any signs of cooling up. Consequently, there are people who support its relationship with greenhouse effect while others do not.
Proponents of the green house effect argue that the increase in average global temperature is a strong indication that there is more heat entering the earth than leaving it. The argument, here, is that heat and light from the sun are only able to get into the earth’s atmosphere but cannot leave it. This is because heat and light from the sun are trapped by greenhouse gases. The earth, hence, behaves like a closed system.
Man is increasing the number of greenhouse gases at an alarming rate. This is worrying because too many gases will make the earth unusually warmer as more heat will be trapped (Oracle Think Quest). According to the first law of thermodynamics, systems in distress move towards equilibrium or normalcy (Fong).
We will write a custom Report on An analysis of the global warming phenomenon based on the first law of thermodynamics. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conversely, greenhouse gases prevent infrared energy from rapidly escaping into the space. This makes it difficult for the earth to maintain its previous energy balance quickly (Fong). Eventually, a balance is created within the earth’s atmosphere at a higher temperature. This is what makes the earth warmer.
The opponents, on the other hand, argue that the green house effect is not only unverifiable but also violates the basic laws of physics. Particularly, tying the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide with global warming violates the first law of thermodynamics (O’Sullivan). O’Sullivan further reiterates that the way a greenhouse warms differs from how the atmosphere warms.
Quoting Gerlich’s and Tscheuschner’s, O’Sullivan states that a greenhouse operates as a closed system while the earth’s atmosphere is an open system. Therefore, heat gained by the earth should be of equal magnitude to the heat lost. For that reason, there is no way the earth can receive more heat than it is losing. Claiming otherwise would violate physics and, especially, thermodynamics.
In conclusion, it is agreeable that global warming is one of the most discussed topics globally. Some scholars believe that it is caused by accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, but others do not. Additionally, there are arguments that the greenhouse effect notion is a violation of physics and, particularly, the first law of thermodynamics (O’Sullivan).
This is because heat gained by the earth should be equal to the heat lost. Despite this argument, some maintain that there is sufficient evidence supporting the notion that the earth is gaining more heat than it is losing. Finally, this topic should have more collaborating than opposing factions since global warming is real. Its impacts are visible, whether the greenhouse effect infringes on the laws of thermodynamics or not.
Works Cited Fong, Jocelyn. A Fox News Science Lesson. 2011. Web.
Oracle think quest. Global Warming. n.d. Web.
O’Sullivan, John. German Physicists Trash Global Warming “Theory”. 2009. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on An analysis of the global warming phenomenon based on the first law of thermodynamics. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Physicalgeography.net. Chapter 6: Energy and Matter. Laws of Thermodynamics. n.d. Web.
The First Law of Thermodynamics n.d. PDF file. Web.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. The Earth’s Climate is changing and People’s Activities are the Main Cause. n.d. Web.
Vishal. Words Essay on Global Warming: Causes, Effects and Remedies. 2011. Web.
Marketing Plan of Private Country Club Report custom essay help
Introduction The purpose of this report is to prepare a marketing plan for the Private Country Club in Saudi Arabia and this club has different facilities including gym, pool, spa, ballrooms, sport center, food courts, and so on.
Marketing Plan SWOT Analysis of the Private Country Club
Figure 1: SWOT analysis of the Private Country Club
Source: Self generated
This club would have a number of strong points, such as –
Wide range of products and services would help the club to attract target customers within very short period;
It will recruit well-trained and efficient employees;
The environment of this club would be outstanding;
The management of this club would try to provide services at reasonable price;
Innovative ideas, location of this club, strong supply chain management, efficient human resources, business structure, and integrity of the management would also be potential strengths of this club.
This club would face some internal problems –
It would be difficult to start business in KSA due to high operating cost for rent of the shop, remuneration of employees, taxes, legal costs, and so on;
Lack of experience of some employees and top management;
High price of the products and services would reduce customer base;
Technological problems, and lack of budget for promotional activities are other weakness for this club;
This club would experience enormous opportunities –
The marketers of this club would consider different marketing strategy for different services to gain competitive advantages by drawing attention of both local and foreign customers;
This club has the opportunity to open new outlet in new area to expand its business;
This private club would include a small sports zone and food courts, then many parents would be interested to come here for refreshment;
This club has also many external threats besides potential scopes –
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It would be difficult for this club to develop strong brand image and loyal customer base because a number of competitors offer similar products and services in this market;
The purchasing power of the customers has decreased due to global financial crisis; as a result, it would be difficult for the entrepreneurs to carry on business in such economic condition.
Marketing Mix Product
The country club business will mainly offer services though it will also include different products; however, the key services will include facilities like gym, pool, spa, cigar lounge, business areas, ballrooms, food courts, and sport activities.
The country club business will set the prices of the products and services by keeping the idea about the quality and production costs of its offerings in mind; however, it will also consider the income levels of its target customers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, that is, their purchasing power parity.
At first, the placement of this club will be made at a busy city center in the capital of Saudi Arabia, that is, Riyadh; however, the owners have plan that after it turns into a profitable business, they would expand the business all over the country by placing new club buildings in different places.
The business will promote itself through different media, for instance, it has plans to offer promotional packages depending on Eids, new year festivals, Christmas Eve, mother’s day, father’s day, etc. for attracting more and more customers.
PESTEL analysis Figure 2: PESTEL Analysis of private country club
The current political condition of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is quite stable and ideal for setting up a new business; in addition, the taxation policy of the government of Saudi Arabia is quite liberal for the corporate world.
We will write a custom Report on Marketing Plan of Private Country Club specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is important to bear in mind that the political factors of the country are greatly related to religious and other ethical issues; as a result, it is important for this private country club business not only to comply with the rules and regulations of the country, but also to comply with its political customs and conventions.
The economic factors of Saudi Arabia is encouraging for the new private country club as the people of this area are wealthy enough to spend money for their fitness, and for other services like gym, pool, spa, cigar lounge, business areas, ball rooms, food courts, and sport activities.
The Saudi economy has based on highly expensive oil resources and so Saudi people experienced huge economic growth in recent times (for example, the people of KSA benefited from the highest oil price of $47 per barrel even during the recession); therefore, most customers have strong purchasing power; additionally, other indicators like the national GDP are impressive as well
It is important to note that Saudi Arabia is a highly conservative country that follows strict Muslim rules and regulations in the social life; however, this means that although the country club business will try to obey the Islamic traditions, it is doubtful to what extent the people of this country will take its facilities like pool, spa, ballrooms, etc. positively.
It is notable that Saudi Arabia has improved greatly in terms of technological advancements – as the success of the club highly depends on the integration of modern technologies, the entrepreneurs of this business will use advance technologies to execute promotional and other marketing strategies; moreover, introduction of IT will develop its supply-chain, quality of services, and customer-relationship management.
The club will focus on environmentally friendly services and its owners will highly comply with their corporate social responsibilities to ensure environmental sustainability; at the same time, the club will efficiently dispose waste materials, and control draining and carbon emission.
The legal system of Saudi Arabia has developed in accordance with the Islamic law and all citizens and businesses are bound to follow the rules; at the same time, the entrepreneurs of the club also need to follow the law strictly to form the business and carry out the function in accordance with it.
BCG matrix of The Private Country Club: –
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan of Private Country Club by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The following figure shows the position of the Private Country Club in BCG matrix-
Figure 3: BCG matrix of The Private Country Club
Source – Self generated
Stars: Many competitors in Riyadh occupy this segment due to high growth rate and high-relative market share;
Question marks: The above figure demonstrates that Private Country Club occupies this segment as a new business; however, the management of this club would try to change its position to stars;
Cash cows: this position has not matched with the position of this club;
Dogs: According to the figure 2, the position of Dog indicates that it experiences both low market share and market growth; so, it should require huge investment to recover market position
Porter five forces of Private Country Club The competitive position of the Private Country Club in accordance with Porter’s five forces has presented below –
Figure 4: – Porter’s five forces for The Private Country Club
Source: Self generated
Bargaining power of buyer
This power is high for the Private Country Club as customers can select different companies for different services, for instance, there are some food courts and sports zone in KSA, so, the demand of this club depends on so many external factors like brand image, quality, rapid services, product price, and so on.
Threats of new entrants
The threats from new entrants are moderate in the industry because setting up requires a large amount of fund, while newcomers lack sufficient knowledge and expertise; however, the government is business friendly, which means the newcomers get some benefits overall.
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
Suppliers of the company play vital role to establish and develop a business because operating costs and service quality mostly rely on this issue; however, the supplier’s power is moderate because supplying of the product particularly machinery and other necessary equipment for gym, spa, sport activities, and food courts are available all over the world.
Rivalry among competitors
This power is too high for this club;
Threats of substitute product
This power is moderate for this club because there are many clubs in KSA, but most of the clubs provide gym and sport facilities while this Private Country Club would offer more services to attract customers like food courts, business areas and ballrooms would serve multi purposes.
Projected customers maintaining strategies in banking industry Case Study college essay help: college essay help
The world of business is facing increasing competition due to the rising numbers of new entrants who share existing customers with present firms. It is therefore necessary that, firms that are currently in the market should constantly improve in response to the changing market and customer needs.
This competition is also observed in the banking industry due to the emerging technologies and innovations like mobile phone and internet banking. These are the major threats in the industry and to get by, well formulated plans have to be put in place by existing banks1.
Firstly, the bank should improve its public relations and customer service to be able to maintain existing clients. This can be accomplished by the provision of suitable and timely customer care solutions; in addition to that, necessary efforts should be taken to reach out to unwilling clients. The customer care departments should be highly efficient in service delivery to ensure customer satisfaction and loyalty. This builds a unique form of link between the bank and the clients thus the firm is able to create a strong customer loyalty2.
Secondly, in order for the firm to maintain the existing clientele, the bank should be more active. For example, it should adjust the available bank loans and accounts, by adding more benefits on the holders like increasing interest rates on savings and bank deposits. Besides, launching a promotion based on every day deposits of cash in personal accounts, will keep the existing customers through the offer of attractive prizes and free samples.
Additional products should be supplied to the market to raise extra capital, while those shares bought by the old clients should be sold to them at a discount to promote loyalty3.
The bank should make sure that it carries out a complete over howl of its inside and outside environment to sustain its position in the industry. The over howl should involve Internal transformation and use of benchmarking as well as the involvement of independent system auditors to implement modifications.
They perform an audit of the bank’s internal control system, and grade the firm in accordance to industrial standards like the ISO 900. These evaluations aid the firm in identifying its position in the industry in comparison to other similar firms. Furthermore, to exploit its strengths in the market promotes retaining the existing customers through providing unique products like mortgages with convenient repayment plans4.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The customer needs should be the priority of management during planning and resources allocation. The management should also take up professional advice to improve service delivery to the clients and hire new professionals where necessary.
Moreover, they may use risk managers who will advice the management during projects of any impending risks and how to manage and avoid them. The bank should put in place a plan to ensure specific needs of main customers are met, by offering them multy city cheques to facilitate service accessibility from anywhere.
It can be better if the firm will consider the alternative of doing what other banks in the industry are doing. Nearly all the services provided in the banking industry are identical in nature.
Consequently, the bank should consider giving its clients somewhat customized services but analogous to those offered by the competitor banks to avoid losing clients and being out dated for lacking modern services. The firm should put in place guidelines for giving appreciation to older clients like the use of bonus and giving loyal customers redeemable points. Through a continuous and consistent effort, the bank will be able to develop and establish a strong customer allegiance5.
To avoid the loss of customers, the bank has to consider an immediate solution of offering customers their requests as a special case only to distinguished clientele. Nonetheless, the company should carry out pertinent research activity on the possibility of providing similar services through other means that are less costly.
These services may be used instead of the cheques for example embracing of mobile phone and internet banking; here, the bank amalgamates with mobile phone service providers’ corporations to provide customers with banking services through their handsets.
In order to build a competitive advantage the firm may consider using the direct opinion of the clients themselves. An establishment of a consistent and proactive research group may be able to ensure that the firm has consistent and up to date market needs.
We will write a custom Case Study on Projected customers maintaining strategies in banking industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Understanding the perspective of the client on his choices and the reasons for the choices may be an avenue for the development of new products. This can help in keeping the customer from seeking the services of the other service providers. It also improves customer devotion through consistent appropriate and honest communication with agents of the company.
Through consistent audits and evaluations done on the system of the company, the level of efficiency may be determined as well as the ability of the bank to achieve set goals. Other departments of the company are scrutinized to establish their proficiency in goals achievement. Excellent strategies facilitate smooth operations beside the competent service delivery to the client; all these benefits aid in client contentment and loyalty.
Bibliography DiJulius, John. Secret Service: Hidden Systems That Deliver Unforgettable Customer Service. California: New Harbinger Publications, 2003.
Faulkner, William. Satisfying your Customers. New York: Vintage Books, 2002.
Gitomer, Jeffrey. Customer Satisfaction is Worthless, Customer Loyalty is Priceless. Chicago: William
The mission statements of Toyota Corporation and General Motors Essay writing essay help
Introduction The aim of this paper is to analyze the mission statements of Toyota Corporation and General Motors, compare the quality of each mission statement, discuss whether the mission statements could define the firms and help make strategic decisions, evaluate whether there is any need for improvement, and analyze the vision statements of the two companies.
Mission Statements of the Two Companies Mission Statement of Toyota Corporation
Although Toyota Corporation is one of the most successful vehicle producers in the world, the mission statement of this company seems to be quite straightforward than many other multinational corporations; to specify, according to Toyota Corporation (2012), the mission of Toyota is to attract and reach consumers with high- valued products and services and the most pleasing ownership-experience in America.
Mission Statement of GM
It is essential to note that GM possesses an extensive and intricate mission statement, and General Motors (2012) stated that its mission is an outline of the business’s key feature with basic business description and core values; particularly, the mission states that General Motor is a multinational-corporation involved in socially responsible operations globally.
Additionally, General Motor has also focused on organizing a mission statement that would reflect the principles and ethical factors of the business; as a result, a part of its statement also suggests that it is devoted to offer vehicles of such quality that consumers will obtain better-value, workers and associates will share success, and shareholder will get sustained and greater-return.
Comparisons on the Quality of Each Mission Statement
It is notable that the mission statement of Toyota Motor is quite simple and it is a brief glance of what Toyota thinks about conducting a customer- oriented business. It helps a reader to catch the key idea behind its operations quite quickly and provides a plain, but crucial business outlook very efficiently.
On the other hand, the mission statement of General Motor is quite comprehensive and elaborate and it is a succinct illustration of GM’s central characteristics, fundamental corporate issues and central standards and policies. It is important to suggest that GM has tried to design a mission statement that would help a customer to identify and learn about the company very clearly and broadly.
Mission Statements in Defining the Firms and Making Strategic Decisions
It is clear from the mission statements of the two companies that GM has better defined its business and its approach towards running the operations based on the mission. In making its strategic decisions while operating, GM emphasizes and ensures that it is socially responsible internationally, aligned with its principles and ethics, and devoted for ensuring better quality and higher consumer value, as suggested by the mission statement.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, in case of Toyota Corporation, lack of elaboration in the mission statement means that it has some deficits in defining such a large business; however, its highly customer- oriented operations indicate that it follows its mission of attracting and reaching consumers with high-valued products in strategic decision-making.
Need For Improvement
For reaching customers of all ages, it is necessary for General Motor to improve its mission statement in terms of simplifying and shortening it so that it can save customers’ time value; however, the key idea of the statement could remain the same. On the other hand, Toyota should try to extend the description about the company to some extent and allow people to know about it a bit more elaborately.
Vision Statements of the Two Companies Vision Statement of GM
The vision statement of General Motor is very straightforward – according to General Motors (2012), its vision statement states that the company is focused in only one global-vision, which is to design, construct, and trade the best automobiles available in the earth; the following figure shows an illustration of its core visions:
Figure 1: Core visions of GM
Source: General Motors (2012)
Vision Statement of Toyota Corporation
Toyota Corporation (2012) suggested that the vision statement of the business is to be the most victorious and esteemed automobile business in America; however, the corporation’s visions include a major focus on CSR and environmental issues; however, the following figure shows its visions regarding social responsibility-
Figure 2: Visions of Toyota
We will write a custom Essay on The mission statements of Toyota Corporation and General Motors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Source: Toyota Corporation (2012)
Whether the Companies are Heading in the Same Direction As the strong players in the global automobile industry, both companies possess some common goals, which are expressed through their mission and vision statements; however, when it comes to operational management, it appears they are heading towards diverging directions.
SWOT Analysis of GM Strengths
GM has business operation in 157 countries and it has strong position in North America, for example, WSJ reported that GM is in the highest position considering the number of car sales in the US market because GM sold 232,538 cars in 2010/11 while Toyota sold 159,540 cars in this zone. However, the subsequent diagram compares more details-
Figure 3: Comparison of GM and Toyota
Source: WSJ (2011)
This company still has a significant market share in the global car industry and it has above 209,000 competent employees to operate the business in adverse economic condition.
The market share of GM has decreased dramatically from 1990 to 2004 and it lost a significant percentage of the US market share, for instance, its market share fell about 35.50% to 18.80% in this zone; therefore, the performance of GM in Stock market is not satisfactory and the following diagram demonstrates the position of this company in Stock market-
Figure 4: – Basic chart of GM
Not sure if you can write a paper on The mission statements of Toyota Corporation and General Motors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Source: Yahoo Finance (2012)
Most of the car manufacturing companies change the model of the car regularly, but GM is not focus on this matter even if it has not change its strategy to introduce new products like environmental friendly products.
Joint venture with local companies or large multinational companies can bring fruitful result for GM, for example, to increase profit margin and market share in global market, it has opportunity to develop hybrid technology and introduce new vehicle styles and models for the target customers using this strategy.
The purchasing power of the people is one of the most important factors to decide about the car model; therefore, GM has scope to change its position and increase financial performance by introducing low cost products to operate business in highly populated zone like India and China.
Intense competition among the market players of car industry is one of the main threats for GM because competitors like Toyota, Honda, Ford and Nissan rapidly captured large market share in the global car market; however, the next diagram compares the position of GM with other direct competitors –
Figure 5: Direct Competitor Comparison
Source: Yahoo Finance (2012)
High operating costs due to volatility of the price of raw materials, decrease the demand of GM cars for high consumption rate of fuel, increase legal litigation costs and adverse recessionary impact create serious problem to operate business in this market.
The Way GM Responds to the Issue of Social Responsibility From the very beginning of operation, GM has concentrated on the issue of corporate social responsibility and taken many initiatives for the product development and protect the environment, for example, it introduced first diversity program in 1968, and it adopted Sullivan Principles in 1997. However, the prime intention of this company was to reduce carbon emission, provide road safety, increase values, and increase profits upholding CSR policy; as a result, the management of GM has selected many projects those many focused on risk mitigation, development of social awareness, and protection of public health (General Motors, 2011).
Kinds of Activities
GM has promoted the use of E85 ethanol, reduced water used by 35%, introduced new brands like E85 FlexFuel and LaCrosse with eAssist, contributed about $68 million to charitable purpose (General Motors, 2011).
Whether GM’s Activities are Appropriate or Not
GM has also taken a number of specific initiatives, for instance, it introduced largest brand “Chevrolet” and invested $40 million in various carbon offsetting projects, which demonstrate that it has corporate social responsibility since this company is committed to ensure the best quality products in terms of green technology, safety and health issue.
Godelnik (2011) reported that carbon offsetting projects was bad investment for this company considering the position of the shareholders and economic position of this company, but this report supports the activities of the GM as profit maximization should not only one motto of the company.
Reference List General Motors (2011). Annual Report 2011 of General Motors Company). Web.
General Motors (2012). Investors: Corporate Strategy. Web.
Godelnik, R. (2011). The Case of GM’s CSR Initiative: Why Good Intentions Are Not Enough. Web.
Toyota Corporation (2012). CSR Policy. Web.
Toyota Corporation (2012). What are Toyota’s Mission and Vision Statements? Web.
WSJ. (2011). Sales and Share of Total Market by Manufacturer. Wall Street Journal. Web.
Yahoo Finance (2012). Direct Competitor Comparison of General Motors Company (GM). Web.
Yahoo Finance (2012). Basic Charts of General Motors Company (GM). Web.
The Dimensions of Total Quality Management in Business Firms Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Total quality management (TQM) is a philosophical framework that involves constant control and improvement of the quality of products, services, and processes. Quality improvement concerns each person engaged into the development and consumption of products and services that a business firm offers.
TQM is premised on four major pillars – management, suppliers, workforce, suppliers, and customers. All these premises take control of supply and demand level, as well as customer satisfaction with products and services. The main task of an organization is either to meet or exceed consumer expectations.
TQM involves nine major practices. These are cross-functional product design, information and feedback, process management, customer and employee involvement, supplier quality management, committed leadership, cross-functional planning, and strategic planning.
All these dimensions are confined to proper human resource management, organizational learning and development, and readiness to introduce constant innovation and technological advancement. In addition, TQM is also connected with Six Sigma, a new concept that also involves both quantitative and qualitative dimensions of carrying steps of quality management.
Thesis Statement Total quality management is a complex notion covering human, product, and technological process as the basic dimensions leading to constant improvement of the quality of services and products.
Main discussion Human Dimension of Total Quality Management
Quality management practices are applied in many business organizations because it contributes to the success and organizational performance. However, inappropriate implementation of strategies and resources can lead to failures in improving the quality of products and services because of a number of factors. The failures can be result of improper top management and leadership commitment, lack of employee involvement and underestimation of customer capacity in improving the quality.
Every top leadership and management will deal with implementing quality management strategies because it brings in greater benefits and profits. What is more important is that leaders of business organizations should express their full commitment and loyalty to each member of the employed environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The importance of leadership in an organization is especially emphasized because it influences the actual process of constant improvement and development. Samuel (2004) writes, “leadership is influencing the people so that all of them do the right things, the right way at the right time, willingly…so that the organization grows and the purpose is fulfilled” (p. 220).
In contrast, the role of managers is to follow the procedures in a right way and adhere to the established standards. Their responsibilities do not go beyond the accepted norms. Hence, effective leadership should be influential for employees to adhere to behavioral patterns that leaders use. Leaders, therefore, should have specific moral values and extreme feeling of accountability, particularly during the time of changes and crises.
Leadership commitment of top managers is revealed through their highly responsible attitude to the welfare of their subordinates who also influence greatly the quality of delivered products and services. In addition, top management should also be responsible for defining the vision, mission and value system of a company, as well as for formulating the strategic plan. Operating resources and personnel effectively is also among the main goals that leaders should undertake.
Employee involvement is a part of a business organizations strategy of total involvement of all departments and spheres. Along with supplier management and customer engagement, employee involvement also contributes to the organizational growth, as well as to maintaining favorable relations among employees, customers, and suppliers.
Total employee involvement lies in both top management and the way managers copes with its employees. The main concept of total quality management should bind both top management and subordinates to a single objective in order to create “a united force totally involved in achieving organizational goals and objectives” (Mukherjee, 2006, p. 173). An advanced form of employee engagement is employees’ empowerment.
In this respect, employee engagement is possible in case of total employee empowerment that permits employees to take measures and react to customer needs and expectation. Quality of products and services is also the main concern of employees (Mukherjee, 2006). In this respect, employees should strive to align their objectives with higher organizational goals; they should also have an authority to increase their contribution by maximizing the available opportunities and taking proper measures to meet the organizational purpose.
A business organization having no objective and missions will not succeed in producing quality goods and achieving high rates of performance and profitability. In fact, organization should realize the importance of introducing customer focus. Exploring consumer needs and concerns is the first step toward the production optimization. In order to create customer orientation, it is, first of all, necessary to consider the organizational structure.
We will write a custom Essay on The Dimensions of Total Quality Management in Business Firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Absence of quality objective, the department goals will come to the forth and, as a result, the organization will not be able to follow common goals. Change to a vertical structure will blur the boundaries between the departments and unite them in their attempts to achieve common goals. Specific attention should be given to the link between the marketing department and the production department that should establish fruitful cooperation and interaction.
Customer focus creation should proceed with the introduction of the idea of ‘internal customer’ (Mukherjee, 2006). The concept is confined to the idea of introducing process as relations between product and customer. For instance, “marketing becomes internal customer for the production department, which in turn becomes the internal customer for the materials, human resources and maintenance department” (Mukherjee, 2006, 2005).
Hence, the shift in evaluation the production process permits the managements to achieve customer satisfaction. In this respect, to meet customer needs, it is necessary to produce goods and services “…that are of right quality, in right quantity and made available at the right time, right place, and at the right price” (Mukherjee, 2006, p. 150).
Within this context, the idea of internal customer becomes beneficial for the business organization because it successfully meets two objectives – fulfills the marketing functions and provides necessary customer orientation.
Supplier Quality Management
As soon as the product has been manufactured, the question of distribution comes to the forth. Supplier quality management, therefore, is the next step in improving quality of produced goods and services. Managers and employees should give especial attention to this production link because suppliers can provide them with valuable knowledge and experience concerning place and terms of deliver.
The role of supplier should not be underestimated as it influences the competing position of a firm in a business environment. Supplier is also involved into the deliver of the materials that will be used in manufacturing goods and, therefore, the choice of suppliers is indispensible for ensuring the highest quality. The significance of including supplier in a production chain is enormous because this entity is endowed with a great number of responsibilities.
For instance, supplier is liable for tracking the material costs that are implemented at various stages of production. Much responsibility is also imposed on suppliers in terms of information exchange between customer and organization. The quality of information flow, therefore, depends largely on the suppliers’ awareness.
Product Dimension of Total Quality Management Process Management
Process is an inherent component of successful organization’s functioning, along with people, structure, and control mechanisms. In this respect, process management is another important dimension of total quality management that consists in fulfilling activities leading to desired outcomes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Dimensions of Total Quality Management in Business Firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Process management also involves means and techniques assisting to the accomplishment of organization’s goals. Finally, process management allows organization to deliver and create value for a customer (Madison, 2005, p. 2). Workflow and information exchange are regarded as the basic processes taking place at an organization.
Control mechanism also shape the part of process management. They involve mechanical, electrical, and statistical procedures that allow the employees to measure and enhance the quality of products. The importance of control mechanism in process management lies in the necessity of introducing changes to the production process, as well as to the control mechanism itself. Finally, process analysis is an effective way to diagnose the performance and define the gaps in the production process.
Cross-Functional Product Design
The development of a new product design is also a part of total quality management. This process is accomplished through gathering cross-functional team working on single product development. Cooperative work performance, therefore, positively contributes to the development of new product design (Sorli
Memo regarding the current salary of the CEO Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The main issue presented within the memo involves the current salary of the present CEO (James) and whether it is in line with standard salaries for CEOs within companies of the same size and within the same market as PDQ.
The author of the memo contends that based on the performance of the company, the current average salary rate for CEOs within the industry which is $300,000 and the “supposed” fact that workers at the company dislike James that replacing the current CEO is a matter of great urgency given that his lackluster performance and high salary are detrimental towards the growth and performance of the company.
Reasons given The CEO’s salary is too high
During his tenure the company has experience significant drops in performance
Workers at the company supposedly do not like him
He is rich, thus he would not feel the need to work hard
He has a low level of performance
In order to make the company better a new CEO would be needed
Ambiguous Phrases There are several ambiguous phrases that piqued my interest within the memo. The first emphasized the current wealth of the CEO as detrimental towards his performance. The second emphasized on the need to replace him despite the lack of sufficient evidence and third involved an argument involving incentivized performance and compensation which was highly ambiguous given that various studies state otherwise.
Descriptive Assumptions The memo explains that it is usually the case that the average salary for a CEO within a company of PDQ’s size is $300,000 and that due to the financial crisis most companies have actually frozen or cut back on CEO salaries due to lower profits.
While this particular aspect of the memo is valid, the memo takes a strange turn stating that James must be fired on the basis of his supposedly lackluster performance (which the memo does not present sufficient evidence on), the fact that he is wealthy and would supposedly not work for the best interests of the company (similarly has no basis), the fact that the workers at the company supposedly dislike him (has not been confirmed with verifiable facts from the union) and on the fact that he has a high salary which is not commensurate with industry standards (considering the fact that it was based on a contract it should not be an issue).
Fallacies in Reasoning While the memo was quite extensive in its use of a variety of statistics in order to properly frame its arguments, it made several assumptions that lacked sufficient evidence to actually prove to be accurate. First off, towards the end of the memo the author makes the following assumption regarding salaries and compensation: “everyone in the Human Resources field knows that “pay for performance” is the most effective compensation method”.
The creation of this particular statement is versed in such a way so as to connote a certain degree of factual appropriateness to what was stated. This means that it was created to make people assume that “pay for performance” is the most effective method by stating that it was a well known practice within the field of human resources.
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The Social Web Divided by Race Research Paper college admissions essay help
The advent of the internet as a communication tool brought with it promises of equality and fairness as far as racial, religious and ethnic boundaries are concerned. Many considered it as a platform that will guarantee equality by enabling strangers and people of diverse cultural, religious and racial backgrounds to interact together in a rather harmonious manner. However, the recent developments, as portrayed by some social sites, have indicated otherwise.
It is increasingly being observed that individuals belonging to the same race are clustering on certain social media websites. A case in point is the racial distribution of the micro blogging website Twitter. Although this social website seems to encompass users from all races, a closer look shows that the Hispanic and the African American audiences form the majority of the users.
These groups are also equally on the rise with regards to their commitment to the site. Another social site, the Pinterest.com, boasts of more than ninety per cent of white users from the United States. On the other hand, the Tumbir.com has witnessed a steady rise of the Asian Americans in the recent times. Even though the social media has become a crucial communication tool, it is highly divided on racial grounds.
All these said and done, there is an interesting twist to this. The claim that the social media is divided by race could be farfetched and also lacks the truth in it. This is owed to the fact that very few individuals commit themselves to creating these divisions. Up to now, there is yet to be a social media site that is created by the sole intention of representing a particular division within the society.
The truth of the matter is that the divisions that exist within humans are as a result of their own creations but they rarely pin down to the color of the skin. Some of these social media sites that have been victims to condemnations of racial divisions are actually serving other purposes.
For instance, the Pinterest.com is composed of mostly females and mothers who benefit from the online site as a platform of putting up images of the things that they consider most favorite. It is worthwhile to note that it is normal to find busy mothers attracted to Pinterest.com because of its easier pin as compared to Tumblog or blog. This worked in favor of the Pinterest.com, which grew through invitations. Mothers therefore found out new members on whose mindset they shared.
The dominance of the membership of the Pinterest.com by the white race could only be attributed to the consequence of the place of birth and growth of the social media site. A more credible argument concerning the Pinterest.com should be the sexuality of the dominant gender of the users and not the race.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apparently, more than seventy per cent of the users are females. The contents of this blogging site are feminist in nature and the audiences being centered on are females. Based on these scenarios, it is therefore apt to argue that the social media site, Pinterest.com, is more divided along the gender lines with sexist themes than the alleged racial boundaries.
The growth of Twitter among the African Americans and the US Hispanics is also not a deliberate thing. It can be attributed to several factors and it should first be noted that most smart phones and cell phones that are possessed by residents of these areas contain Twitter as one of the applications. This makes their handsets reliable for tweeting at any given time. It is also important to note that Twitter does not disclose the race of the user.
This makes the claim that the blacks and the Hispanics to be the dominant race on twitter invalid. Nobody chooses to join a social media site because other members of his or her race belong to it. Therefore, social media sites are not platforms of racial divisiveness. Similarly, the social media site, Tumblor, which is synonymous with the Asians is only so because they use it to discuss pertinent issues, which affects them like culture.
This therefore makes it a cultural issue, not a racial one. The social media has contributed in positioning some races in certain strategic prejudicial locations in the global society. During the 1950s and 1960s, black people were astoundingly positioned as the social problems, because of the development of some documentaries during those times. The problem was orchestrated by the need to offer the black immigrants to Britain housing, jobs and the social ills that came with their arrival such as crime, prostitution and congestions.
On the contrary, the social media sites have helped suppress some social barriers. Thanks to these sites, there have been more frequent interactions across various races. Unlike in the past, where only a cliché of the elite were allowed to own and use the digital media devices, today the devices are relatively cheaper and accessible.
Moreover, frequent mobilizations and empowerment have ensured that even the minority and marginalized groups of people access the devices. The impact of this is that information has been able to travel into all corners of the world within split of seconds thereby increasing the interactions.
The media has also come with a new mode of representation that is exhibited by people of different ethnicities. The adoption of communication technology by different ethnic groups in the world has a number of variations. These variations cause differences that emanate from a number of factors. To begin with, it is important to understand ethnicity to include such diversifications as cultural practices, racial orientations, the national originality and the socioeconomic variables.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Social Web Divided by Race specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also worthwhile to note that the adoption of technology has very little to do with formal education because of the dynamics that therein. Conversely, the possession of income plays an important role in the adoption of technology. This is attributed to the empowerment to purchase such technological equipments as computers, satellite dishes, VCRs and the cable televisions (Dupagne and Salwen 25).
The representation of news and ideas in the social media has helped portray the social lives of groups of people across the globe. Their mindsets and opinions are formed and shaped by what they receive from the social media. This catapults the importance of the ethnical or racial representation of the news and ideas from the social media since it has the potential of affecting the manner in which certain ethical groupings distinguish things or are perceived.
Different ethnic groups represent themselves in different ways in the media. On the other hand, different media firms have unique and predetermined ways of representing various ethnic groups especially those ethnicities from the minority cultures. Normally, these representations are characterized by cultural dominance undermining. In addition, the kinds of the representations exhibited by the media lack equality and knowledge of their identities (Mainsah 183).
When left on their own, different ethnicities would use the social media to not only represent themselves but also to articulate their ideologies with regard to the perceptions within their context. These ideologies, in most cases, are the natural motivations within which a given ethnic group finds a common sense of purpose that pertains to the political and social leanings. Their representations within these contexts enable them to be classified into appropriate categories of race and culture.
By the very fact that the media has the ability of controlling and shaping the beliefs and attitudes of a population, some ethnic groups are notorious in intimidating other ethnic groups through the use of the media. A case in point is the use of televisions to represent some ethnic minorities such as the non whites in America.
For instance, the conservative cultures that inhabit the Amazon forests have always been represented by the media as being backward and primitive. In essence the attitudes and beliefs of the whites towards these minority group of people have been mostly so. They too believe that indeed these are primitive ethnic groups as opposed to them, who are civilized. By this, the media has contributed to the formation of the attitude of looking down upon an ethnic civilization by a selected mass through ideological motivation (Arora 87).
Some ethnic groups have also adopted some rare but chilling forms of representation in the media. For instance, the black people, who are Afro-Caribbean, often portray themselves as gangsters and criminals. These acts of violence and crimes are hugely demonstrated in the videos and songs that are composed and sang by this culture. This has impacted on the stereotyping against them by the whites who consider them as reckless, irresponsible and violent.
Apparently, the media has the power to determine and dictate the kind of representation a particular ethnic group wants to disseminate to the public. While it can be true that some black neighborhoods are full of criminal and violent activities, it is also true that most black people are in pursuit of moral uprightness and are committed to the transformation of the society into a more prosperous destination. It is needless to say that the president of the United States of America is black.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Social Web Divided by Race by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the media will rarely report any progressive news about this minority ethnic group because of the stereotype that has always described the group. It is important to note that more of these stereotyping is orchestrated by the ethnic group themselves. For reason best known to them, this ethnic group has found it wise to identify themselves with negative attributes.
Actually, all these attributes are depicted in the media for all to see and judge. Stereotyping has contributed to the subordination of certain ethnic groups in accordance with the white ideological hegemony. In yet another focus, the black people have always identified themselves or rather their underdeveloped nature to be closeness with nature. In retro respect, the whites were associated with civilization through the media.
This further promotes the kind of stereotypical representation, which characterizes boils down to racial discourses. The television media is also known to have adopted and perpetuated some seemingly cultural way of life of the blacks from the earlier films which portrayed them as contented slaves, entertainers and the noble savage.
Through the actions of the television media, the white viewers have been fed to the preconceptions of the way of life expected of the blacks. This kind of subjugation is what makes the media an important tool in the perpetuation of stereotypical actions (Ryan 201).
Another important minority group consists of the disabled people. Apparently, these individuals have had to undergo untold forms of discrimination and sufferings due to their physical state. In order to reverse this trend, some of the people who belong to this minority group have made efforts to come together and use the media to articulate their issues and concerns in a bid to communicate to the public their issues. One such media destination is the internet.
The internet has provided a platform for the disabled people to participate in online discussions with themselves and the non disabled internet users. In such media, they do realize that their physical constraints are made more flexible in addition to establishing their own identities. In addition, the internet also boosts their chances of accessing the most useful information concerning the appropriate care that is required of them.
This is a shot in the arm to this minority group since they are mostly limited and restricted to move in search of such pieces of information from physical locations. The internet also allows the disabled people to connect online and this necessitates the flourishing of their culture online because they are able to connect with one another no matter where the other comes from and the level of impairment and mobility that characterizes them. However, not all this is a bed or roses.
The internet, on the other hand, has exposed some disabled people to more abuse and harassment from either fellow or non disabled internet users. Worse still, a good number of digital technology systems tend to legitimize the oppression of the disabled people by offering discriminatory services to the non disabled users only.
Further the media being highly commercialized tend to apt for the mainstream voices who boasts of more cash compared to the disabled minorities. In the same breath, most of the websites meant for disabled are normally characterized by the pleas for charity.
This in a way makes them less attractive as compared to the mainstream internet websites. One other shortcoming of the internet lies in its diversification into relaying messages and information in the form of graphics, animation, text, video and audio. This has the potential of leaving out the disabled people who have the hearing, visual and mobility impairments (Mcgonagle 287).
The Asian people as an ethnic group have also used the media to perpetuate portions of their values and norms. Apparently, some of these values and norms defy the normal ways of family interactions. Subsequently they have subjected themselves to immense prejudices from the mainstream media.
The media, in essence, have always conveyed the Asian families as being so insensitive and overbearing thereby forcing their daughters to participate in predetermined marriages deprived of love. They are also portrayed as wealthy billionaires whose occupancy of the western world is because of their wealth and nothing else, not brains.
This is indeed a subjugation of an ethnic group by the media. Still, in Asia, some terrorist groups have used the media and the internet to offer threats or claim responsibilities from the terrorist activities that have been conducted in a given part of the world. The impact of this is that the rest of the
World has always associated terrorist activities with the Muslim world. This, in turn, does a lot of reputational damages to the non terrorist Asian citizens.
Other regions of the world where reports of biased representation of the minority groups have immensely been witnessed include France, Finland, Netherland and Germany. The United Kingdom, on the other hand, is said to be awash with enough policies to help curb this vice. Speculations are, however, rife that this is just in paper. In France, for instance, the citizens who hail from North America are required to submit their representation with the French audiovisual media that belongs to the French majority.
This is a gesture aimed at alleviating the prevailing discrimination that arises from the media industry. Such efforts include encouraging the minorities to seek efforts within the media industry in a bid to enhance fairness and representation equitably (Mcgonagle 290).
Online discussion board participation and identity and multiculturalism have also been exhibited in the media in various forms. Online discussion, normally, consists of various rubrics upon which conversations are held as the fresh discussion topics or new threads are added. A user must first register to become a member after which he or she can post reactions to threads or even initiate new threads.
The online discussion boards serve an important purpose of integrating different cultures amongst the participants in addition to preserving their identities. They provide an opportunity to the participants to share and discuss things that could otherwise be difficult to talk about on face to face value. Besides, they are avenues of showcasing the identity of the users which they explicitly portray with regards to the discussion of an important context (Stokes and Reading 219).
The participation in the online discussion board brings forth the cross cultural exchanges amongst the participants in various aspects. When they take part in such discussions, they get to combine their religions with ethnicity in an expression of differentiation. By posting their photos in such forums the participants are able to tell their identities and that of their countries. For instance, a participating Muslim female student might want to post a photo of her wearing a headscarf. This is in itself an indication that the participant is from an Islamic background of which she is proud of. This could be helpful in informing fellow participants at a glance, some of whom might be interested in learning some Islamic teachings or sharing the same with her.
The online discussion forums are also instrumental in the exploration of divergent personal trajectories by the participants. Users have the opportunity to infuse what they learn outside the internet and share it with the online friends. People of diverse backgrounds such as race, class and gender can participate in a flat discussion and interaction through sharing of ideas. Offline power relations are normally propelled online. This has also helped some users to locate and find life partners in marriages.
It also helps participants to work together on projects and in essence maximizes learning process. In addition, it ensures that the participants assume responsibility and participate in active learning in conformity with the expectation of the regular learning in the online discussion. For students, it ensures that all of them participate by not only interacting with their lecturers but also engaging their peers in content exchange and negotiations (Reitz, Breton and Dion 23).
The cultural identities were reproduced or contested in the process of self-presentation in various ways through civilizations. The reproduction of cultural identities can be attributed to a variety of events ranging from the historical background of a community to the community’s way of life. Some cultural identities were reproduced through the activities of the colonialists such the colonial expansion and the economic imperatives on their subjects of colony.
Yet, some other cultural identities were imposed by use of force by other established cultures that considered themselves civilized. In essence, they suppressed the local cultures and values together with the norms of life. The cultural identity of any society can further be understood through the examination of the political economy and the institutions.
The conceptualization of culture in anthropological ways provides the means through which the cultural practices offer meanings. Apparently culture is by description an act of giving meaning to life and its ways. These meanings are not theoretical but rather practically demonstrated by people. Hence, the cultural practices of a given group of people. This meaning makes culture to be a thing, not of possession but something that is practiced.
Another important cultural identity practice is nationalism; the national and cultural identity is a sure means of uniting the citizens of a given nation and culture within the boundaries of a given territory. However, this political status quo that is hence formed can in turn be challenged by cultural institutions.
When dissident voices such as the civil society, marginalized women and other minority groups within a given cultural and national territory participate in challenging the national status quo, they are contributing to the development of the culture of the given nation. Apparently, these opposing groups will always oppose the culture adopted by the nation, which they feel does not serve the common good of the country (Stuart 108).
The digital media can be used as a vehicle for identity formation in some unique ways. The use of the digital media has been on the increase over the past few decades. This could be attributed to reasons such as efficiency, reliability and in some cases easier portability. According to the Deloitte
Competitive Methodologies in Social and Political Research Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Case Study The primary purpose of doing research is to broaden our understanding about different issues that inform our understanding of specific topics. With this aim in mind, researchers have used different methodologies for achieving this goal. Among these methodologies is a case study. Case studies normally involve an in-depth analysis of different scientific phenomenon.
However, case studies are not as common today as during the onset of the modern science period. Indeed, early researchers such as Austrian-born anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski heavily relied on case study information to come up with their findings (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Since then, quantitative research methods have commanded a hegemonic position in modern-day research. However, recently, case study research has realized a new lease of life because researchers are slowly starting to embrace it again as an effort among researchers to align epistemology to ontology.
Aside from its rejuvenation, there have been many views held by naturalists and constructivists regarding case studies but more importantly, these views highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the research methodology. Some of them are discussed below.
One way that this paper highlights the advantages of case studies is comparing it with other methodological approaches. When case studies are analyzed viz-a-viz other methodologies, there is a clear consensus that it is superior to other research approaches because it is critical (for example, when analyzing individual perceptions or hegemonic discourses) (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
The ‘critical’ nature of case studies hails from the fact that case studies invest heavily in in-depth interviews and discourse analyses (Della-Porta and Keating 2008, p. 227).
Moreover, case studies tend to be more concerned with the pathways defining the cause and effect relationship between different mechanisms as opposed to assessing the strength of all the variables involved. Positivist methodologies also agree that case studies have a stronger insight into the depth of an analysis but this should be understood to mean the empirical completeness and natural wholeness of an analysis.
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The validity of case studies is guaranteed through its internal mechanisms. For example, the construct of case studies contributes to the validity of its internal mechanisms through the use of a range of indicators for analyzing the theoretical intrigues of a research analysis.
In retrospect, case studies have contributed immensely to the growth and development of theories (although Large-N studies determine the empirical scope of these theories with a lot of emphasis on causal factors as opposed to descriptive factors, like case studies do) (Della-Porta and Keating 2008).
Lack of Generalization
Since case studies are often dynamic in the number of participants, it is often difficult to generalize the findings if only a few subjects are used. For example, there are many case studies that have been done involving one participant or a group of participants, thereby making it difficult to generalize the findings among populations that do not fit the criteria of the subjects used (Della-Porta and Keating 2008).
Throughout the history of case studies, there have been several concerns expressed by researchers regarding the lack of rigor that case studies tend to have (Moses and Knutsen 2007). In this regard, some researchers pursuing the case study approach have been sloppy and their findings dismissed as a result. Their sloppiness has often led to the introduction of bias or errors in the data generation process, thereby compromising the reliability of case study findings.
Naturalist View on Case Studies
The naturalist view of case studies often advocates for social diffusion and learning through natural generalization; however, even though researchers often do not go beyond the case analyzed, other researchers can still use the findings according to their suitability (in their studies).
Naturalists usually rank case studies to be among the lowest preferences for scientists doing research because of their affinity to historic information (Moses and Knutsen 2007). The main reason for having a low accreditation for case studies is that historic information has often been linked with fiction. In other words, here, the relationship between history and science is tenuous because science does not rely on myths or unfounded information (but history does).
The general perception of case studies among naturalists is therefore founded on the principle that cases are unitary observations that constitute part of a larger understanding of the same complex. Naturalists also believe that case studies constitute a great part of theoretical developments and even though they have a strong empirical dimension, they are still not very useful in themselves (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
We will write a custom Essay on Competitive Methodologies in Social and Political Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the strength of case studies in empirical analysis stems from the fact that case studies have a strong criterion for establishing their sources and a strong utilization of data for the realization of historical objectives. In addition, naturalists often believe that in case studies, there is only one objective reality that is independent of human influences (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
This ontological assumption has also been shared by positivists. This analysis is however unsurprising because naturalists often try to deduce the natural elements of an analysis by analyzing different issues closely. Empathy and participatory explanations are therefore highly condoned by the naturalist view.
Constructivist View on Case Studies
As opposed to naturalists, constructivists often believe that empirical reality and theories are usually mutually constitutive because in their understanding, bridging is the narrowing of the divide between concrete understandings and their abstract meanings (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Usually, interpretive techniques are used to understand this divide. Constructivists also prefer to use multiple theories to understand a given phenomenon because using interpretive techniques to analyze a given issue may lose the real meaning of the analysis in the first place (if such conclusions were mirrored against quantitative techniques).
Experimental Method The experimental method has been part of modern day science for a long time. Respectable scientists and researchers such as Aristotle and Galileo have used experiments to come up with different findings (Moses and Knutsen 2007). Since the 1990s, many researchers have greatly relied on experiments to undertake different studies. The use of experiments in past decades has even been more dramatic. Especially, the use of experimentation in modern day science is starting to be more profound on the issue of theory testing.
Even though science has greatly relied on experimental research methods to build its body of knowledge, some fields still do not have a very mutually fulfilling relationship with this research methodology. For example, experimental methods are rarely used in political science because politics is more of an observational discipline as opposed to an experimental discipline (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
However, the recent advancement in technology is quickly changing this paradigm to make political science an experimental discipline. Nonetheless, it should be understood that the advancement in technology only encourages a specific trend as opposed to mirroring the situation as it is.
From the nature of conducting experiments, the biggest weakness for experimentation is the ability of the researcher to influence the experiment. In other words, the intervention of the researcher is critical to the structure of experiments, thereby creating a possibility of data bias (Della-Porta and Keating 2008, p. 200). In non-experimental research, the data generation process is usually independent of the researcher.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Competitive Methodologies in Social and Political Research by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the role of the researcher is to observe the intricacies of the study as opposed to intervening. However, there is a thin line between interventions and observations because even though observations are perceived to be non-intrusive, the Hawthorne experiments of the 1920s showed that observations can also be intrusive (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
In detail, these experiments were aimed at investigating ways to improve worker productivity by establishing two worker groups which were distinguished by the presence of a change stimuli and the lack of it.
In both groups, it was established that productivity improved. However, it was interesting for the researchers to witness productivity even among workers who operated without a change stimulus. Nonetheless, it was later observed that the workers knew they were being watched and therefore, they improved their productivity (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
The main lesson learned from these experiments was that even observations can be intrusive. This analysis therefore exposes another weakness of the experimental research method because data generation can be biased since subjects may produce the ‘expected’ results as opposed to the ‘real’ results.
Another criticism leveled against experimental research (usually by constructivists) is the fact that experimentation can be fanciful. In other words, experimentation can be perceived to be a pigment of the researchers’ imagination and therefore, they may be designed to be fanciful (according to the researcher’s thoughts). To some people, this weakness is the epitome of anti-science (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
To explain this weakness, it is crucial to highlight the fact that most experiments started in the researchers’ minds as “what ifs?” Since such ideas were rooted in the imagery of experimentation, these researchers went out of their way to find proof of their imageries. Most of the researchers who used such steps therefore found bits of empirical evidence to support their ideas and therefore, their conclusions were convincing.
Some of these researchers include Darwin (in Darwin’s discovery of evolution), Lyell (in the determination of the age of the earth), Wegener (in tectonic plate theory) and Hubble (in the big bang theory). Since most of such experiments started as intuition, experimentation has often been perceived by some critics as ‘unscientific’. Other researchers who have conducted ‘though-out’ experiments include Plato, Hobbes and Rousseau (Della-Porta and Keating 2008).
Experiments work on a three-tiered philosophy which is constituted of interventions, controls and random selections. Interventions are normally understood within the confines of manipulations to create variations. The aspect of ‘control’ is usually understood to be the limitation of variations so that two groups (divided by controlling factors) can be established.
One group is normally known as the experimental group while the other is known as the control group. The ‘control’ aspect normally establishes the pre-testing and post-testing of findings for both groups (Moses and Knutsen 2007). The third foundation for experimentation is the random allocation of research objects among both groups of research so that it is simpler to control any external factors in the experiment. The three-tiered philosophy improves the reliability of experimental data.
When trying to understand the strengths and weaknesses of experimental studies (viz-a-viz other research approaches), we see that, in experiments, the researcher can control factors of influence in the experiment while other methodologies are independent of this fact. This ability improves the relevance of information obtained.
Constructivist View on Experimentation
Constructivists do not usually prefer to use experimentation (even though they still rely on the research methods for their studies) (Moses and Knutsen 2007). The relationship between experimentation and constructivism is that experimentation could be perceived to be thinking which is immersed in context while context forms an important part of constructivism.
Comprehensively, constructivists think of experiments as distorting the context that gives meaning (Moses and Knutsen 2007). However, this understanding is only true for ‘real’ and not thought-out experiments. The aspect of control is also criticized for de-contextualizing the meaning and for naturalist, this analysis amounts to denaturalization.
Naturalist View on Experimentation
Naturalists often perceive experimental research to be at the center of ground breaking natural science because experimental research usually observes phenomena in their natural elements. For example, a ground-breaking experiment of 1939 was designed to test a reigning orthodoxy about the main influences of behavior where rats were studied to investigate how human behavior is categorized (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
In the experiment, it was concluded that behavior can be categorized into two contexts: fixation seizures and goal-oriented behaviors. To naturalists, this type of experimentation is not extraneous. The relevance of experimentation in politics is seen through the study of electoral behavior, measuring public policy impacts, and in investigating political psychology.
Small-N Designs From Moses and Knutsen’s understanding of small-N designs, they tend to be pre-experimental and qualitative. One unique feature of small-N designs is that there is a careful analysis of the observations present in a given research. The incorporation of several data collection tools such as observations and interviews is usually a predominant feature of this research design.
J.S Mill is often perceived to be the main source of knowledge for information on small-N designs and he explains that five logical designs are considered realistic approaches for small-N designs. These designs are: the method of difference, the method of agreement, the indirect method of difference, the concomitant variation and the method of residues (Moses and Knutsen 2007). The method of residues is however considered to be inappropriate for doing social science research because it eliminates the effects of all causes except one.
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of small-N designs which are to be discussed in later sections of this paper will encompass the characteristics of the five designs discussed above. However, it is important to point out that the ‘method of difference approach’ seeks to control most variables by identifying similar cases (Moses and Knutsen 2007). This approach has been largely used in the comparison and analysis of the governance structure of different countries such as intra-state analysis (especially, federal state comparisons).
The ‘method of selection’ is different from the method of difference because it selects cases to be analyzed as a strategy for reducing variables. For example, this method has been used to investigate why there are some social and political revolutions which have seen a widespread participation of peasants while there are others that do not involve the peasant population (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
When we analyze the method of agreement, its preliminary analysis dictates that different cases may be chosen while only one similarity may explain the difference in outcomes. The indirect method of difference is however the most reliable method used in small-N designs because it is easy to apply and it equally has a high validity rate. Nonetheless, the concomitant variation is more sophisticated because it measures quantitative variations.
Notably, Durkheim has emphasized its application in small-N methodologies (Della-Porta and Keating 2008, p. 170). Concomitant variations have been known to produce non-dichotomous data and they have also been used to conduct not less than 5000 interviews in the US, UK, Mexico, Italy and Germany (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
These interviews were used to create the body of knowledge found in the 1960 book written by Almond and Verba – Establishing the civic culture: Political Attitudes and democracy in Five Nations. Based on the application of small-N designs, several advantages and disadvantages have been associated with it.
Unlike other research methods such as the Large-N design, small-N designs have a better control of extraneous factors because it ensures these factors remain constant. This strength is founded on the premise that small-N designs tend to prefer using fewer variables hence establishing more control over the study (Della-Porta and Keating 2008).
When compared to the other research methods analyzed in this paper, small-N designs tend to have a higher validity. This validity stems from its ability to better record the performance of the subjects involved in the study. Moreover, the performance of such subjects is also better assessed using the small-N design.
A closely related advantage to this understanding is the ability of the small-N design to be particular about the variables being investigated in the study (thereby providing more accurate and specific findings regarding the research topic) (Della-Porta and Keating 2008). Comparatively, the Large-N technique uses pooled data to examine research variables. Through the high validity preferred to small-N designs, the data generation process may equally not be subjected to time-consuming statistical testing.
Among the greatest advantages pointed out by naturalists (about the small-N technique) is its ability to be replicated. This advantage shows that the small_N design can be used in different contexts.
Another advantage pointed out by naturalists is the use of authoritative data as a reliable data source for the small-N technique. To naturalists, this advantage improves the reliability of the data technique (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
The small-N research methodology has a weakness in selection bias where non-observable variances are often made to be the cause of variation. Ordinarily, a random sampling technique would be perceived to have no selection bias, but this is often not the case with the small-N research methodology because it uses a non-random sampling technique (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Another weakness of the small-N sampling technique is its tendency to be over-determined. Here, there are several variables that can be hardly controlled throughout the research process. The numerous variables that are uncontrollable make it difficult to establish which variables are causal.
In this regard, it is difficult to determine if self-generalization is even possible but to reduce the number of variables to a manageable estimate (preferably one), it is crucial to provide explanations. Naturalists would prefer to increase the number of cases to reduce variables because according to their understanding, this is the best way to make an experiment controllable (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Constructivist View on Small-N Design
Regarding the nature of data used, naturalists and constructivists often have different ideologies about the small-N technique. For example, since the small-N technique uses de-contextualized data, constructivists often explain that de-contextualized data may have the capability of distorting the intended meaning of the research (and in some cases, it may make it more difficult to point out the meaning altogether) (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Furthermore, considering the small-N technique uses authoritative data, constructivists point out that this strategy may introduce bias to the research process. Their argument also stems from the fact that such data is almost always interpreted anyway and therefore bias is still unavoidable. Regarding the argument that studies done using the small-N technique can be replicated; constructivists point out that its ability to replicate is often unnecessary (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Naturalist View on Small-N Design
Naturalists differ from constructivists in the way they view the research designs for small-N techniques. Naturalists view cases analyzed within the Small-N framework as anonymous and independent as opposed to complex and systematic. Their perception of concepts is also operationalized and predetermined (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
This view is contrary to the perception held by constructivists because the latter perceives cases to be constructed through the course of the study. Naturalists assumes that the number of cases that can be handled by the small-N design are many, although this is often contrary to the constructivist view that only a few cases can be handled using this research design.
Naturalists also believe that case selection should be variable and the diversity created in the research should be controlled through parameterization. The number of variables is also preferably reduced under the naturalist approach although constructivists prefer them to be increased for thick description (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Large-N Designs The main difference between Large-N and Small-N designs is often understood through the number observations in a research. Large-N designs are normally used when there is a strong lack of uniformity within specific variables of a research (Della-Porta and Keating 2008, p. 210). Large-N designs are also used to draw inferences by explaining what is not ordinarily seen by the naked eye.
The explanation by J.S Mill regarding the development of inferences closely resembles the naturalist view of science because he explained that nature has a range of regularities which can be easily inferred (Della-Porta and Keating 2008). For example, J.S Mill would ordinarily try to draw a link between two things that would occur at the same time. The main lesson learned here is that if there is the presence of co-variation, a researcher should explore it to its depth.
Investigating Complex Relations
Large-N designs are often beneficial when investigating complex relationships (or studies that involve many variables). Its efficiency in measuring variables is often the main point of departure with small-N samples. Its efficiency in doing so is undisputed because different techniques used in large-N research designs have a high efficacy.
For example, Bayenesian techniques have been used in military expeditions with a high degree of success. For instance, the identification of a damaged U.S submarine in the 60s was done using the Bayenesian technique (Moses and Knutsen 2007). This technique worked by investigating which possible areas that the submarine accident could have occurred and therefore triangulating such a zone for more search.
Large-N methodologies differ with other research methodologies because they have a broader understanding of different variables as opposed to the understanding of their depth. Abstractly, the broader understanding of the variables in large-N methodologies can be mirrored in the understanding of co-efficient variables that are present in published research.
In this analysis, the use of regression analysis surfaces because it is normally used in the triangulation of research co-efficients. The ability to undertake regression analysis helps people to be more critical about the research findings and by extension; such skills will assist them to understand different encounters in the world of quantitative research (Della-Porta and Keating 2008).
Large-N studies are also advantageous in the sense that their external validity is more secure because of the use of statistical controls. The external validity of the large-N methodology can equally be extrapolated to include counterfactual depictions where variables (other than the ones) investigated are used to understand a research problem (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Weak Internal Validity
Among the greatest disadvantages of large-N designs is their weak internal validity. Indeed, as opposed to experimental research designs, large-N research designs do not have a high level of control (Della-Porta and Keating 2008).
Another great weakness for large-N studies as explained by naturalists is their failure to account for time because people are ordinarily dynamic (not static) and therefore accounting for time is very important. Large-N studies fail in this regard (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Naturalist View on Large-N Designs
The concept of naturalism indicates that knowledge is often generated through direct experiences from sensory perceptions and albeit it is crucial to be logical and reasonable in the creation of knowledge, these two concepts are not sufficient to the true generation of knowledge. In the analysis of Large-N designs, three main contemporary issues emerge: falsification, prediction, and the formulation of frameworks to analyze the knowledge created (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Through the understanding of the naturalism concept, we can point out a few key features of the Large-N design. First, among the most notable explanations of naturalism is its explanation that within the world we live in, observable patterns exist.
Another strong characteristic exhibited by the naturalism concept is that statements based on these observable patterns can be easily tested (Moses and Knutsen 2007). A similar characteristic of the naturalism concept is that, facts are often very different from values and the aim of science is normally generalized (nomothetic) as opposed to individualistic (ideographic).
Constructivist Approach to Large-N Designs
Contrary to the concept of naturalism, the concept of constructivism argues that the patterns exhibited in Large-N designs (such as regression analysis, graphs and the likes) are not usually rooted in nature because they are ephemeral, and contingent upon human agency (Moses and Knutsen 2007).
Regarding the apparent differences in observer perceptions for social research in Large-N designs, the constructivism concept states that age and gender differentials, which are also entangled within social characteristics such as era, culture and language, are responsible for differences in observer perceptions. However, some of these social factors are ordinarily important in explaining our everyday lives including the progress made with science.
References Della-Porta, D
Indian Mascot Controversy Essay college essay help near me
The American society’s treatment of Native Indians has been under sharp criticism from the American Indians and other minority groups for a long time. According to Spindel (25), a group of Americans perceives the American Indians’ culture as warlike and marked by traditional events such as dancing. However, others perceive the Natives as domicile and peace loving with a knack for been domineered.
This paper categorically depicts the manner in which the American culture uses Indian mascots to enhance the image of colonialism starkly imprinted on Indian American minds. They see them as derogatory, and demeaning to them, their culture, and tradition. The Indians perceive the widespread mascot usage and its general representation as a reminder of the oppression that had been visited upon them and a continuation of an attack on their ideologies and beliefs.
Many organizations that use the American Indian mascot defend this by claiming that they do not want to depict a negative stereotype. However, they claim to emblem the universality and team spirit demonstrated by the Indians across generations. The media uses this to generate heated debates that make organizations to continue using these mascots to ride on the inherent euphoria. There have been concerted attempts by the American Indian society in the United States to curtail usage of the mascots.
For example, most Americans are made to believe that use of the mascots depicts an American society free of racial prejudices. However, scholars of the Indian history and representatives of the Indian culture oppose this strongly. They depict it as dehumanizing and strongly skewed to project a culture marred in retrogressive ideals.
Popularity of the usage of Indian mascots in the 20th century was widespread. Though some organizations have stopped using them, some still hung on to their mascots and do not show any signs that they will stop. Additionally, widespread usage of perceivably derogative words such as ‘redskins’ still exists in many American places.
A case study of Cleveland Baseball Franchise shows the depth of this discussion. The team uses a popular Native American chief’s image as a mascot. This was a highly respected figure in Native American’s history. Though the team claims to honor Louis Sockalexis, the native Indians incessantly see it as a misrepresentation, disrespectful, racially stereotypical, and a dishonor to their traditional chief. Earlier attempts at withdrawal of the use of this mage have yielded no success.
These attempts have been marked by protests and sensationalized media coverage, which Cleveland Baseball has rode on to enhance their economic gains. The University of North Dakota’s Fighting Sioux’ team logo has attracted similar controversy. Through media, the logo has made the team a popular conglomerate. The opponents of its use have tried to engage legal backing all along history with no avail. Notably, the Supreme Court of the US ruled that this was an image like any other and could be used by any organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The use the Indian mascot is a controversy that just fails to fade away. The media, philosophers, and historians give varied views on this topic. This generates further discussion and the organizations at the center of all these register immense economic gains. Recently, the Native Americans have tried to get a piece of the profits arguing that without usage of their images this would not be case. Otherwise, as they have done for a long time, they insist that these organizations stop using the images.
Is the question of racial and derogatory representation as popularly contested by Native Americans real? The discussions generate different and varied philosophical views. Supporters argue that the use of such imagery honors them and the people in those images. Some organizations say that they depict bravery, team spirit, and endurance in these images. Hence, Native Americans should derive pride from this.
Following many unsuccessful attempts at redacting usage of these images, some organizations have returned to using the images after stopping because natives had convinced them. This is because of the media coverage whose popularity they want to benefit. On the other hand, there is a group that feels deeply hurt and racially discriminated against by use of these images. They say that the domineering American culture has constantly projected them as a weaker race.
The constant revival of previous injustices visited upon them is the Achilles heel in trying to find a solution. The general implication of this emotional discussion and subsequent exhaustion of the highest legal avenues towards finding common ground is not a good thing. The possibility of hatred that spawns warlike tendencies and conflict is imminent especially in places like Dakota where the population of Indians is high (Spindel, 38).
Generally, other Americans not at the center of this discussion take this as a case of ideological differences. Lack of concern makes the natives to see this as a mass massacre on its culture. They insist that even the judges do not put much attention in cases involving this issue.
However, it important to note that even among the Native American society, there is no best way to approach this subject. Some say that the continued use of the mascots should be patented and benefits given to the community. Others argue that this is demeaning, derogative and a sign of just how the natives have been at the receiving end historically when it comes to various decisions. Lastly, a group of Native Americans feels that the use of mascots honors them in various ways.
They believe that these organizations do not mean harm. Conclusively, the nature of this discussion is a philosophical gridlock even from the Native American society. The early treaties meant to eradicate conflicts between the two tribes still hold emotive concerns within the general society (Spindel, 39).
We will write a custom Essay on Indian Mascot Controversy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From an organizational look, the usage of a mascot is an identity in itself. The idea is that it brings luck and success. This contrasts the history of native Indians who complain about historical injustices. If the organizations were to use different mascots, they would lose identity and media coverage, which comes with economic gains. The American government should devise ways to arrive at an amicable solution to this festering debacle.
Hardliners within the community may get restless and spark conflicts. Because the judicial avenue has not arrived at a solution, the government should take a hands-on look at the issue. The American society should look at ways to reassure Native Americans. Lastly, an amicable solution may go a long way in creating better racial relations across America. As it currently stands, many minority groups perceive the US government as making historical decisions that are marred in favoritism.
Works Cited Spindel, Carol. Dancing at Halftime: Sports and the Controversy over American Indian Mascots. New York: New York University Press, 2000. Print.
Analysis of a memo that was presented to the Board of Directors regarding compensation of the directors. Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help
Executive summary Remuneration the executives of a company is an issue that sometimes raises a lot of controversy. This is because, sometimes, what the top executives are paid could be considered too high for the company to bear. Whenever the board of directors feels that what the Directors are paid is exorbitant, they are usually faced with a difficult task of investigating whether the executives are really over paid, and whether they should replaced or not.
This paper presents an analysis of a memo that was presented to the Board of Directors regarding compensation of the directors. The committee had requested research using a benchmarking study of peer competitor firms, as well as a review of best practices in the industry. The conclusion was that the director was highly overpaid, and hence should be replaced.
Introduction This paper seeks to undertake a critical analysis on the memo that was presented to the Board of Directors by Mark Headlee, the Senior Vice President of Human Resources. The analysis will follow Browne and Keenley (2007) format of asking the right question.
Are the Issue and the Conclusion?
In his memo, Mark Headlee (Senior Vice President of Human Resources) has written to the Board of Directors Executive Compensation Committee, requiring them to consider whether the compensation level for PDQ’s CEO is appropriate to the position with respect to current industry standards. In his memo, Healee claims that the committee has requested research using a benchmarking study of peer competitor firms, as well as a review of best practices in the industry.
Ideally, the issues raised in this article demands answers as to whether the remuneration paid to the PDQ’s CEO is reasonable based on the performance of the company, and in comparison with what is paid to other CEO’s in the industry holding similar positions.
According to Browne and Keenley (2007), the nature of such a question, which seeks whether what is done is the right thing, is an ethical or moral issue and hence often referred to as a prescriptive issue. Certainly, deciding whether the pay that the CEO gets is right is difficult and hence requires critical evaluations. The author has reached a conclusion that the CEO is getting a remuneration that is over and above what he ought to have received.
What Are the Reasons?
The purpose of finding out the reasons is to seek whether the conclusion that has been made by the author is of any worth. The fact that the author makes us believe that the CEO does not disserve the amount of salary he is getting draws our curiosity to know why that opinion is held.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author does not only express his opinion, but has also attempted to make some backing on it, so that the readers can be influenced to believe what he says. In reaching his conclusions, the author cites several reasons to back up his view, including the fact that CEO’s of the same level are getting less pay, that he has accumulated a lot of wealth and hence does not disserve this pay, and because his pay does not commensurate the performance of the company. The question we are now left asking ourselves is whether these conclusions make sense.
What Words or Phrases Are Ambiguous?
In deciding whether the author’s opinion is sensible, it is important to identify the exact meaning of the key phrases or words in the memo. This is in the realization that, failure to do that; we may be tempted to react to the author’s views in a manner that he did not intend – it is, therefore, very important to identify ambiguous phrases and words in the memo.
“A term or phrase is ambiguous when its meaning is so uncertain in the context of the argument we are examining that we need further clarification before we can judge the adequacy of the reasoning” (Browne
“Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia.” by Suri Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help
This review seeks to examine the article by Suri et al. (2010) titled “Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia.” The purpose of this review is to investigate some of new insights that the article brings into the field of medical surgery.
Additionally, the review examines the findings of the study and how it can help to improve or change the practice in health institutions, especially among medical professionals dealing with surgery. There are intriguing debated about the advantages of using regional anesthesia during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. In evaluating the extent to which general and regional anesthesia succeed as a method of conducting surgery, Suri et al. (2010) assessed the postoperative recovery advantages in these two techniques.
Previous studies have established that carrying out parathyroidectomy under local or regional anesthesia using sedation has significant advantages, including less postoperative nausea, pain, vomiting, and opioid analgesic requirements. Although these studies have found inextricable evidence suggesting the benefits of general anesthesia, recent studies indicate that it is possible to undergo these surgeries without inducement of general anesthesia.
Suri et al. (2010) purposed to discover some of advantages of regional versus general anesthesia. From the research article, the researchers found that patients undergoing parathyroid surgery under superficial cervical plexus block are more advantageous compared to when undergoing general anesthetic procedures.
The study brings on board new insights to the theory and practice of medical surgery. The study suggests that patients undergoing regional anesthetic procedures usually experience a fast rate of recovery after parathyroid surgery. The study’s findings confirm the results of prior researches, which have found that patients are undergoing the general anesthesia experience quick recovery and get back to healthy life faster compared to the ones undergoing general anesthesia.
While some studies have suggested that patients were satisfied with both general and regional anesthesia with sedation, Suri et al. (2010) found that the pain reduction was eminent in procedures where patients are undergoing parathyroid surgery under regional anesthesia.
The article shows that they consulted other existing literature, which has investigated the advantages of applying general and regional anesthesia procedures. This is seen from a number of referral studies, which undertook to examine various anesthetic procedures during surgery. The sound and precise background developed by the researches gives a formidable platform to understand the subject under review.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although it is arguable that the article used previous studies to ground its theory, a review of the article shows that the researchers did not give the study a full scope of coverage. It is critical for a researcher to set off a study from an extensive an extensive background, which forms the momentum for the study.
According to the study, Suri et al. (2010) found no significant difference between the general and the regional anesthesia procedures in terms of some of postoperative advantages, including the timing of pain, narcotic pain medication, and incidence of nausea, voice hoarseness, vomiting, or swallowing problems.
The study reveals that although both anesthesia procedures involved in general and regional techniques had far-reaching postoperative advantages, the Suri et al. (2010) found that patients undergoing bilateral superficial cervical plexus block recorded incidents of sharp pains.
In conclusion, the research article by Suri et al. (2010) utilized a relatively large sample that allows for generalization of the results. The confirmation of previous studies’ findings serves to show that the study remains in conformity with the research standards.
Reference Suri, K. B., Hunter, C. W., Davidov, T., Anderson, M. B., Dombrovskiy, V.,
Education and Saudi females Thesis essay help online free
Literature Review It is apparent that acquiring education has become more of a basic need than just a stage that one has to pass through while growing. The value of education can never be underestimated since it influences all aspects of a person’s life. Basic definitions of education need to be examined carefully so that this important element may be incorporated. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, education is known to have a varying contextual meaning.
Education can be described as “the action or process of educating or being educated; also: a stage of such a process” (Merriam Webster dictionary, 2011 p. 87). In order to be to make a sound discussion, education has been treated as a transformational process which equips people in life.
This paper is a review of literature on education among Saudi females. It is a comprehensive review which illustrates how education is viewed differently in various parts of the world. This has been done by examining Saudi females and the processes of acquiring and using education.
Education affects all areas of life. It can be argued out to be a tool which equips people’s minds to face the real world (Sedgwick, 2001). It is quite easier for educated folk to face the reality of life than those who are not educated (Hamdan, 2005). Hence, knowledge and information empower people by making them more resourceful in their respective communities. Besides, information is more enriching than any other achievable treasure (Elliott, 2008).
This literature review makes a concerted effort to explore all significant factors of education in Saudi Arabia. It expounds on the influence of backgrounds, current and future state of education in Saudi Arabia. It also elaborates several aspects which impact girls’ education in the region. It is worth mentioning that this paper examines the history to female education and the challenges that females encounter in their pursuit of education.
Context of education in Saudi Arabia An examination of the history of females’ educational activities in the competitive system in Saudi Arabia is pivotal. It is an informative approach which explains the current status of the education system. Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932. The ministry of education in Saudi Arabia was established in 1952 (Wilson
Chad vale ICT Workforce Professional Development Plan Coursework essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Professional development is very important in workforce. It enables co-workers to gain crucial skills paramount for success in their places of work (Balducchi et al, 2004). On top of this, professional development plans helps co-workers to grow professionally and execute the activities within their area of duty effectively. In addition, professional development motivates and changes the attitudes of co-workers (Mathews, et al, 2010).
This is because workers are competent to perform their roles without difficulties. This ensures that companies achieve a faster growth within a short period. This report is a one-year professional development plan in the automobile industry. The plan targets co-workers to increase awareness of local employers and partnership.
Awareness Strategies for Co-workers
The challenges that come with unprecedented technological advancement in the working environment require competent co-workers. Rapid changes call for knowledgeable and skilled labor force (Beers, 2007). Employees should have a strong partnership with their local employers.
On top of this, the workers should be flexible, adoptive, and focused on the goals of the enterprise or company in which they work. Employers should be in the forefront to ensure that their employees get the necessary training and encouragement for their development (Bissell and Dolan, 2012). Some of strategies to achieve partnership between employees and local employers are in the outline below.
Employee Development and Training
This is an initiative of employers for employees to access skills, interests, and enables workers to develop prowess in order to achieve employers’ set goal (Bissell and Dolan, 2012). Most of development plans should entail management development, supervisory skills, technical training, career development, basic, and professional skills as well as equipping them with computer literacy.
This will improve their competitiveness and update them to the very competitive ICT world. The table below shows the professional development plan for the Chad vale ICT which, is an international company in UK
Retrieved from http://chadvaleictmark.blogspot.com/2010/02/updated-action-plan-030210-impact-on.html 23 July 2012
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This plan will enable the local employers to equip and upgrade the skills of employees to work to their full potential. On top of this, employees will be in a position to deal with changing demands of the job.
Moreover, workers will have high morale, motivation, creativity, and career satisfaction (Farrell, and Fenwick, 2007). Further, training of co-workers will increase productivity and responsiveness in fulfilling objectives of companies.
Orientation This entails preparing co-workers for their jobs after recruitment team selects them. The co-workers are able to get basic information of their employers (Hughes
Comparison of Two Papers: Garfinkel, Alan P and Emery, Kitty F Term Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Types of Animals that are likely to be killed off by Humans
Conditions for Human Caused Extinction to Take Place
Human Caused Extinction or Climate Change
Introduction In this paper what will be examined is the work of Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007) in terms of their individual findings regarding the impact of intrusive human populations within particular environments and their subsequent contribution towards the depletion and at times extinction of certain animal species. The study of Emery (2007) focused primarily on Mayan society between the years 2000 BC and AD 1697.
Emery (2007) utilized zooarcheological studies and findings as the primary method of evaluation regarding the impact of human civilization on animal species during this specific period of time with a particular emphasis on big game animals such as Odocoileus virginianus and their correlation with the foraging of smaller animal species (Emery 2007: 1-10).
Garfinkel et al. (2010) on the other hand focused on the Numic and Pre-Numic cultures that existed within the Coso Range in eastern California prior to 1500 B.C. The Pre-Numic culture evidently vanished as a result of depletion of the game species within the immediate area, particularly the big horned sheep, which Garfinkel et al. (2010) connects with intense competition for land and resources from the Numic culture that migrated into the valley several hundred years prior ((Garfinkel, et al 2010: 1-12).
Unlike Emery (2007), Garfinkel et al. (2010) utilizes the various examples of rock art within the Coso valley which depicts various animal species and rituals as the studies primary method of examination regarding the impact of the Numic and Pre-Numic civilization on the indegenous animal population.
Differences The main difference between Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007) (aside from the cultures they examined) is the method in which they each arrived at their individual conclusions.
Garfinkel et al. (2010) examined the ages of the of animal rock art within the Coso valley and connected their increased proliferation over the years leading up to 1500 B.C. with the subsequent decrease of the big horned sheep population (as well as other key prey species) resulting in the disappearance of the Pre-Numic culture ((Garfinkel, et al 2010: 1-12).
Emery (2007) examined zooarcheological indicating a shift from large animal species towards smaller prey species within the diet of the Mayan civilization as indicative of overharvesting of key species such as Odocoileus virginianus.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarities The main similarity between the work of Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007) is that both works emphasize on how societal culture played an important role in the decimation of local animal species. As Garfinkel et al. (2010) explains, the increasing proliferation of animal representations prior to 1500 B.C. when the Pre-Numic civilization vanished was an indication of the greater cultural significance of rare kills due to harder to find prey animals.
Despite their inherent cultural tradition of respect for animals, the aboriginal people at the time actually made no systematic efforts whatsoever to conserve the game species that were important aspects of their culture (Garfinkel, et al 2010: 1-2). As certain key species such as the big horned sheep got rarer, the greater the prestige and acclaim given to hunters for such kills due to the communal method of sharing the results of a hunt.
This heightened the subsequent power and leadership roles given to hunters that were successful and as a result dissuaded the subsequent shift towards hunting a different type of prey species that were more plentiful but gave less societal acclaim. This is evidence of the subsequent impact that societal culture had on the decimation of animal species since it shows how the desire for social positions dissuaded hunters from conserving certain species.
Emery (2007) presents an almost similar viewpoint in her study when she points out that as the Mayan civilization grew in size and complexity this led to the development of a form of social stratification with the “elites” on the top and the normal citizens below. Just as the present day “elitist” half of society favors particular types of “rich food” (i.e. lobster, Blue fin tuna, Kobe Beef, caviar etc.) so too did the elite of Mayan civilization prefer particular types of prey species.
This led to hunters concentrating on particular types of large game instead of smaller prey species due to the higher perceived value such species had within their culture at the time. Inevitably this led to the decimation of large prey species such as Odocoileus virginianus (Emery 2007: 1-10).
Types of Animals that are likely to be killed off by Humans Based off the work of Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007) it can be seen that animal species that have a distinct socio-cultural significance within a particular society (especially for the elite), such as the big horned sheep in Pre-Numic culture, are more likely to be killed off as compared to other types of species.
This is due to the greater degree of demand, prestige and societal acclaim that hunting these particular types of species brings. This can actually still be seen in the present wherein the Japanese have continued to harvest Blue Fin tuna despite the continued warning of various marine biologists and various countries that Japan is hunting the fish to extinction.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Comparison of Two Papers: Garfinkel, Alan P and Emery, Kitty F specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their justification behind such actions is supposedly due to the cultural significance Blue Fin tuna has within their society and that it constitutes a major part of their diet. In reality the price of Blue Fin tuna is so exorbitant that it is usually the elite that consume it which is quite similar to what occurred in the ancient Mayan civilization and their consumption of Odocoileus virginianus.
Conditions for Human Caused Extinction to Take Place From the combined perspective of Garfinkel et al. (2010) and Emery (2007), it can be stated that the conditions by which human caused extinction takes place for particular animal species is based on the following factors occurring:
The continued expansion of a particular society to the point that increasing amounts of land and animal resources are needed to sustain it.
Lack of sufficient societal will to conserve a species by switching to an alternative prey sources despite the obvious depletion of the species.
The development of social stratification within particular societies wherein the hunting/consumption of particular prey species is associated with being in such positions.
Lastly, competition by various societies over one species which can lead to its overconsumption and subsequent extinction.
Human Caused Extinction or Climate Change The best way in order to tell whether a particular species was depleted as a result of human activity or climate change is to examine the zooarcheological findings when examining the various sites of certain societies and correlating it with the importance of a particular species within a culture. The more in demand it was and the greater the number of bones within the sites, the more likely that species was hunted into extinction.
Reference List Emery, Kitty F. 2007 Assessing the impact of ancient Maya animal use. Journal for Nature Conservation 15: 184-195.
Garfinkel, Alan P., et al. 2010 Bighorn hunting, resource depression, and rock art in the Coso
Range, eastern California: a computer simulation model. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 42-51.
Multicultural Supervision for School Counselors Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
School Counselors and Cultural Competence
Abstract The general performance of culturally diverse students is usually low. In this context, school counselors are required to address this phenomenon with precision and articulacy required. However, triumph in the use of counselors to address this issue depends on their cultural competence.
This paper is based on a study that focused on the effects of advanced intervention sessions on schools composed of students from diverse cultures. The results that the study found revealed partiality on the part of counselors. It also provided a way of engaging counselors in discussions addressing viable intervention strategies. Concurrently, this paper includes areas that need more studies. This incorporates intervention methods that counselors employ.
Background Information US society has become more culturally diverse and this has influenced the cultural diversity of most schools. Thus, training and involvement of supervisors is necessary. These counselors must be culturally competent (Sue, 2010). It has been noted that culturally diverse students perform poorly compared to others.
In this regard, school counselors must address this problem (underachievement of the culturally diverse students in academics) with precision and due competence (Erford, 2004). However, a considerable challenge is that many school counselors are not competent enough to effectively tackle the problem.
The belief is that these counselors may simply act as gate keepers thus prevent the culturally diverse students from attaining the best academically. It is crucial to execute multicultural supervision for school counselors in order to enhance their competence in handling culturally diverse students. This is a critical provision when considered critically in the context of cultural diversity.
However, due to the increasing cultural diversity in schools, teachers must be ready for confrontation with culturally diverse classrooms. In the last 10 years, the number of colored children in the public schools has increased. They currently constitute one third of the total number of students in the public schools.
It is estimated that the number of the colored children in the public schools will constitute 40% of the total number of children in the public schools by 2020. Due to these observations and projections, teachers must be thoroughly prepared and trained on how to handle culturally diverse classrooms. This provision will enhance their competency as indicated earlier.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evidently, diversity hardly entails racial implications alone. Composition of families, social and economic statuses of the students, religion and ethnicity of communities, and other considerable factors contribute to the diversity and alleged racial composition. These also influence the expectations of the society and the competence required among teachers.
The other observation is that teachers still reflect majority culture even though students continue to be culturally diverse (Marín
Education policy in America Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Abstract
Policies determining the placement of a child
State Special Education Finance Issues
The Special Education Process
Abstract One of the similarities between the education policy in England and that in America is their focus on the students who are in the most need of educational assistance, children with disabilities. The United States has distinct policies and legislation that target children with disabilities.
Special education legislation has been a vital part of education policy in the United States since the early 1970s. These policies will be described in this paper, which seeks to explore the first American legislation specifically designed to protect American disabled children in school, namely the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA). This legislation mandated a federal right to a free and appropriate public education (FAPE).
To obtain federal funding, states had to comply with the EAHCA. The EAHCA included specific eligibility criteria for special education services. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) built on the illegal to discriminate against persons because of their disabilities.
Although a civil rights act, “Section 504 is also used to develop education plans for students who meet the section 504 definition of a disability, rather than an IDEA definition.” Section 504 not only prohibits state departments of education and local school districts from developing policies that limit disabled children from participating in assessments, it also prohibits denying these students the benefits accrued from participating in these assessments, namely promotion to the next grade, and ultimately graduation.
Acronyms ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act
EAHCA: Education for All Handicapped Children Act
FAPE: free and appropriate public education
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IEE: Independent Educational Evaluation
IEP: Individualized Education Program
LRE: least restrictive environment
NRC: National Research Council
Introduction With the passage in 1975 of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which is now referred to as the Individual with Disabilities Education Act or IDEA, what was previously a collage of programs for students with disabilities began transformation into an actual national system of services.
In the period between 1993 and 1994, there were enrolments of 5.37 million students and an estimated national expenditure in excess of $32 billion for the development and full implementation of special education programs and related services for students with disabilities. This marked the biggest undertaking by K-12 education in over 20 years, since about 40% of the education budget was directed to special education from 1967 to 1991.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Education policy in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although protection for students with disabilities continues to be enhanced through the passage of such legislation as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, the substantial student growth and new investments in special education programs have also led to heightened levels of public scrutiny (Parrish, 1996).
The current era of competitive budget slashing whereby governors, federal legislators, and presidential candidates continuously engage in declaration battles of proposed cuts in various programs in the public sector is not new to the fiscal policies in relation to special education were facing increased public attention.
Concerns with the costs and financing of special education have received extensive national publicity over the past several years through prominent outlets such as well known blogs and newspaper columnists.
In addition to issues related to special education costs, other policy issues, such as increased emphasis on placing special education students in general education classrooms and the need for greater fiscal flexibility in relation to local program design, have resulted in exceptional fiscal reform activity in special education. This paper aims at providing a brief overview of the special education programs, with particular interest in the effect of IDEA on children with autism (Chaikind, Danielson,
Critique and Instructional Design Model Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Instruction design model is a systematic goal based mode of instruction delivery. It is systematic since the system follows specific steps to achieve the intended goals. The design involves activities, objectives, presentations, materials, feedback, and guidance. The goal of each and every design is to ensure effective, efficient and quality delivery of instructions to the intended groups.
There are numerous instruction design models, consequently, their uses depends on the course needs. Despite their differences, instruction designs goal are to maximize development of learners knowledge. This paper analyses ADDIE instruction design model.
The increasing demand of information in all the fields including learning and entertainment has brought with it the need of content. The value of information content has been identified as vital tool in instruction delivery in any setting.
The mode of instruction delivery is vital for societal and economic development. As a result, selection of any mode of instruction delivery hence needs to be critically considered to meet the intended function (Elizabeth
Policy, Team, and Information Technology Differences Essay college application essay help
Research carried out shows that internet use contributes greatly to the success of an organization. It connects employees hence enhancing the success of an organization, for instance, survey carried on the department of labor showed that use of internet contributed 65% of the annual hires. However, with availability of the internet, majority of the employees alongside with numerous contractors need appropriate controls over the use of the internet to prevent cases of improper use of the internet in the department or an organization.
Internet guidelines The internet use guidelines at the departmental level need to have some similarity with the guidelines used at the organizational level. This is because; departments as well as organizations have one goal in common, success. Therefore, application of organizational guidelines in the running of a department will enhance its success, this is because many organizations’ success is entitled to the following of their set guidelines.
Employee’s responsibility However, it is the responsibility of the employees and other staff members within the department to ensure that they have followed the internet guidelines to the latter. This is because; they are the ones who get access to the daily occurrences within the department that dictate for accuracy and validity.
In addition to employees and the staff members contributing to the success of the department, their right decisions enhance accuracy of the exchanges that take place within the department. On the other hand, failure of the employees and the staff members in complying with the set guidelines may lead to regrettable disciplinary action.
Factors to consider when forecasting the value of a new-networked system In order for an effective implementation of a networking system in a department to be accomplished within a two-year budget, four key factors have to be given priority, and they include having careful planning, effectual configuration of the network, regular maintenance of computers, and installing impenetrable security.
In carrying out careful planning, a competitive individual will ensure that all requirements for networking are available and in effective conditions to enhance the success of departmental networking. (McLaughlin, 2008).
It is also essential for an individual to employ effective configuration when linking computers to avoid communication problems among computers, this because incorrect configuration of the routers and hubs in connecting the computers cause communication problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regular maintenance of the networking system is also appropriate in order to have the computers run effectively and for long. Implementation of maintenance tools, for instance antivirus and back up apparatus, aid keep the computers in good condition. In addition, carrying regular maintenance on the computers aid in solving the issue of loses of money on networking failures.
Importance of networking installation Computers running under networking are prone to a variety of attacks. The attacks may invade the computers in the form of worms or viruses and spread to all computers through the network connecting the computers. Occasionally, the attacks lead to loss of data and time spent in preparing the computers. Therefore, it is essential to install security measures to help keep the computers free from attacks.
However, the cost of installing the networking system varies greatly as per the materials used in the installation; it may be higher than the value of the networking process. For instance, the cost of hardware, software and other telecommunication tools is very high, and this contributes to the increase of the cost of the installation of the networking system. In addition, continuous business management consultations also digs dip in the capital required for networking installation. (Laudon, K. C.,
Southwest AirLine Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Southwest Air Line is an American company with its head quarters in San Diego, California. The company was established by Herb Kelleher and Rollin King in 1971.
Questions Determine how Southwest Airlines’ corporate culture differs from other airlines
Corporate culture refers to an organization’s standards, values and ideology. It is reflected through manager’s style of leadership, ways of communication and the pattern of work. In many organizations, the corporate culture is usually introduced and maintained by founders of the organization and those who take over from them.
Southwest Airline has a unique culture which is shaped by its founding leaders. The company has a reputation of suitable schedules, affordable fare, true concern for its passengers and joyful service. Unlike other companies who take every opportunity to increase there fares even when economic circumstances do demand such increments, Southwest Airline never executes unnecessary fare increments.
For example, it refused to charge customers who travelled with their checkered baggage. Instead they encouraged their clients to come with them by sarcastically having a poster in their premise which read, “We love your checkered baggage”.
These standards, values and ideology of South West Airline trickle out to its clients. This is because the company endeavors to make its customers happy. By motivating their workers, employees develop a feeling of belonging. Employee happiness is converted to customer happiness.
The driving principle for South West Air Line states that, happy workers leads to satisfied customers. One of the ways the company uses to motivate a team of over 32,000 employees is by involving them in decision making. When employees are involved in decision making, they easily implement solutions reached at in decision making forums (Boone
The role of young people in Stieg Larsson’s novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction While analyzing the role of young people in Stieg Larsson’s novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, some basic ideas of the book must be revealed. First of all, it is necessary to point out that the novel belongs to the postmodern crime story. Larsson’s novel covers a variety of themes, which most important are serial murder, contemporary Swedish society, feminism, right-wing extremism, and the darkest sides of human nature. Generally, the role of young people is mostly associated with the last listed theme.
Family upbringing in Larsson’s novel As far as abuse of young girls and women is considered to be one of the key events the author highlights, one can probably conclude that family upbringing is the burning problem of the society Larsson depicts in his work. The author gives readers an opportunity to trace back how sexual assault spoils people’s mind and distorts the way they accept the reality.
Thus, the protagonist of the story Lisbeth Salander is one of the young girls who has been subjected to violence by a man. When reading the novel, it becomes evident that there was not only the protagonist who experienced sexual assault, but almost every woman described in the novel. In order to prevent future abuse, Lisbeth neglects certain “societal norms and rules for politeness” (“Book Review – The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo” par. 5).
The importance of the equality One is to keep in mind that Lisbeth is not depicted as a fighter for justice. When describing abuses of young girls, Larsson shows the importance of the equality between genders. However, it should be noted that the term equality goes beyond its original meaning.
Therefore, the issue of equality should not be regarded in its common sense; equality does not mean seeking for social, economic or any other parity. Lisbeth’s case proves that equality must be regarded as a condition, when a person has no need to look round the corner before he or she takes a step.
Lisbeth Salander and other victims in Larsson’s work Lisbeth Salander is considered to be the character of promise and redemption. Keeping in mind that most of women cannot defend themselves against sexual crime, Salander seems to represent a new response to violence. Of course, the girl’s bitter experience impacted on her mode of life.
Thus, Lisbeth Salander is a girl of spirit: she lacks femininity and some kind of vulnerability. It is no accident that most of women in Larsson’s story were raped and killed. The author wanted to show readers the level of social injustice. Larsson clarifies that sexual abuse is recognized to be the global problem.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, the victims depicted in the novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo have a symbolical meaning. “Larsson paints Swedish society as a place where financial reporters treated mediocre financial whelps like rock stars and violent crimes against women frequently go almost completely unnoticed and unpunished” (Kyzer par. 5). In other words, one can conclude that there are two major problems Larsson is deeply concerned about: white collar corruption and violence against females.
The issue of morality The issue of morality is also one of the major themes of the novel, which is to be discussed in detail. Thus, it is necessary to notice that sex education plays an important role in people’s life. Most of the young girls and women who were raped in Larsson’s novel were morally deprived. For this reason, their immoral behavior was associated with some biblical quotations.
Violence as one of people’s future determinants
Most of critics agree that the protagonist of the story Lisbeth Salander is mostly associated with a feminist avenger. Thus, the author gives us an opportunity to trace back what other characters of the novel think about Salander: “Armansky wondered whether he might be mistaken or whether Salander really was unsure how to continue.
The Salander he knew was never unsure or hesitant” (Larsson 42). When analyzing the plot of the novel, it becomes obvious that her prickly personality was probably formed on the basis of constant abasement she experienced when was younger. However, it should be noted that most of victims cannot resist violence and make no attempts to stop offenders.
If one divides victims into two categories (those who can resist offenders and those who are ready to suffer), he or she will notice how violence frustrates people’s future. Stronger people will probably start to lead a secluded life, in order to avoid future abuse; the perspectives for those who have been cracked because of violence are of wide range: some victims can ruin themselves with alcohol, drugs, etc.; others can go off their heat.
Larsson gives his readers an opportunity to understand how violence changes people’s values, expectations and beliefs. Moreover, he shows the way people’s bright hopes are replaced by certain worthless expectations.
The author reflects how violence impacts on the young girls’ worldview; he gives us a chance to compare two personalities of those who have been abused– the so-called personalities before and after: on the one hand, he describes the girls who believe in future, who have a lot of opportunities, who enjoy life; on the other hand, he shows the way sexual abuse transforms people’s desires: he depicts how violence destroys people’s faith, and outlines people’s existence.
We will write a custom Essay on The role of young people in Stieg Larsson’s novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stieg Larsson’s novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo reveals the importance of gender and social justice. Nobody will deny the fact that there are new generations who determine a country’s future. It depends upon young people whether the society will be civilized or no. However, grown-ups are to think about security of their children.
The society is to take security measures, in order to protect individuals from domestic violence, rape and other sexual assault. Lisbeth Salander as one of the young girls who experienced violence is considered to be a powerful person who shows readers the roots of feminism. “Haunted, resilient, savvy, dark, unpredictable, and endlessly resourceful, she delivers ingeniously planned and colorful acts of vigilante justice to the irredeemable criminals who have the misfortune or poor judgment to cross her path” (Lyubansky and Shpungin 1).
Despite the fact that Lisbeth withstood sexual abuse, one can notice that her life is gloomy and she is alone. Lisbeth has no friends, she is unhappy and morose. Such traits in her character can be regarded as the so-called consequences of violence she faced. The protagonist of the novel is considered to be the author’s personal angel of justice. Keeping in mind certain symbolical interpretations of Larsson’s work, one can state that the main character is the only appropriate tool of doing fairness.
Conclusion Finally, it should be pointed out that the young people in Larsson’s novel symbolize the most important problems the modern society faces. Showing violence the young girls and women have been subjected to, the author highlights the importance of equality and social justice.
Works Cited: “Book Review – The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo.” Seattle Pacific University. Web.
Kyzer, Larissa. “Three Percent Review.” Rochester.edu. n.d. Web.
Larsson, Stieg. The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2008. Print.
Lyubansky, Mikhail and Elaine, Shpungin. “The Cost of Justice.” Illinois.edu. 2011. Web.
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Social Criticism Work in the Scandinavian Crime Fiction Novels Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Social criticism refers to a situation where malicious conditions are revisited with reference on how they have been entrenched in the social structures. Social criticism is geared towards getting practical solutions by applying certain measures to reform the society. Social criticism has permeated the academic arena, specifically in literature. Fictional literature has been used widely to expose social vices in societies. The Scandinavian fiction has been used largely in the crime novel to portray social criticism (Stieg, 6).
Notably, when Scandinavian crime fiction is mentioned, novels like “The Girl with a Dragon Tattoo” and “Silence of the Grave” come into play. The fiction novels have been rated, and their content has achieved a widespread acknowledgement. The novel “The Girl with the dragon Tattoo” uses a woman as the leading character whereby all events in the novel are centered on her. The novel opens with the introduction of Mikael Blomkivist who has lost a defamation case under doubtful circumstances.
Mikael is set to start investigations of his niece who disappeared forty years ago. As the story unfolds, and Henrik, who has hired Blomkvist to carry out the investigation, is convinced that the disappearance of Harriet was engineered by family members. The investigations take a different turn when Blomkvist meets Lisbeth who proves to have a good memory, bad temper and intimacy issues (Stieg, 24).The two team up to unfold the mystery behind Harriet’s disappearance (Stieg, 7).
During the investigations progress, it is discovered that Harriet’s death forms part of a series of murders that took place in 1950s and 1960s. The novel depicts men as violent among the Swedish society. This is evidenced by the fact that, with the exception of Blomkvist, every male character in the novel is violent. In the process of the investigation, Blomkvist’s relationship with the daughter and a co-worker deteriorates considerably (Stieg, 8).
The novel presents a morally questionable cycle where a rape revenge fantasy is presented. The empowered woman in the novel stops at nothing to revenge. The nature of the violence that she goes through depicts a crime dominated society. The novel builds a society based on violence against violence.
The society is not represented as depending on the due process of the law. The leaning towards reactionary violence stems from lack of trust in the established institutions. The issue of revenge being a better option in the Swedish society is evident when, at the end of the novel, Blomkvists makes efforts to bring down the executive who worn the lawsuit mentioned at the beginning of the novel (Stieg, 12).
The violence on Lisbeth in the novel portrays the society as working against a woman since rape is the norm of the day. Lisbeth turned into a hacker and planned to take revenge on her abusers by letting out all the dirty secrets about the wealthy. Her revenge is not confined to what has been done against her, but she takes revenge on behalf of women in general. The novel presents a situation whereby women are viewed as sex objects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, raping cannot be ruled out from such a society. A reader is shocked by the treatment that Swedish men give to their women. In addition, the book presents other crimes such as murder and suicide. The novel has a slight criticism on the Swedish welfare state. Bureaucracy is evidenced by the police investigations and the role of such bureaucracies in showing how investigations are obstructed.
The tradition of employing the use of technicalities to deny people justice is what Lisbeth and Mikael are aiming to eliminate. A different way of carrying out investigation based on learning and knowing that seems immune to obstruction is introduced by Lisbeth. This method of investigation mainly centers on investigation through hacking that cannot be obstructed (Stieg, 26).
The novel introduces the reader to the vengeance and violence in the Scandinavian society. The novel portrays the Swedish society as that which is not ready to depart from the Norse legal system that advocated for personal revenge. The parallelism between the ancient justice system and the modern legal system is clearly depicted in the novel when Lisbeth decides to take revenge.
The writer tries to cast blame on the failure of institutions such as the police to offer excellent investigations. He also considers the weaknesses of the justice system to awaken an alarming desire to take personal revenge. The renewed nationalism and contemporary violence are evident in Sweden at a time when justice is left in the hands of individuals. In the culture of violence, the writer strives to differentiate between men and female violence. The novelist shows that women are greatly affected by violence (Stieg, 22).
Genders comparison of violence in the novel shows that men are more violent than women. Cultural setting shows that many men are violent, and they consider women as objects upon which they can perpetuate their violence. The rape scene shows the state of crime in the Swedish society. The writer further paints justice as influenced and not free to everyone.
Though the story opens as pro-feminist, many believe that the writer departs from this notion when he portrays Lisbeth as subordinate to men. The complexity of her character and skills in her hacking, which are mainly meant to achieve revenge, leaves many unanswered questions regarding the pain of the women in the society and the determination to take revenge. The writer builds on the character of the woman as strong when she opts to take revenge.
This shows celebration rather than sympathy in revenge. A reader can possibly avoid the temptation of celebrating Lisbeth’s actions when she is taking revenge. At the end of the novel, the reader wonders whether the writer wanted to portray revenge as necessary or was trying to show how revenge has consumed the community.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Criticism Work in the Scandinavian Crime Fiction Novels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, the writer seems to agree with the notion that revenge is unavoidable in Swedish society, and only a strong woman takes revenge. In the societal context, the writer used the stereotypical male impulse to build the character of Lisbeth (Stieg, 32).
In the novel, “Silence of the grave”, the author applies the crime epic story telling with a unique sociological complexity. The author opens the story with a thrilling narration of discovery of a skeleton on the estate located at the outskirts of Reykjavik. The excavation of the place leads to a discovery of red bushes surrounding the place.
Therefore, the reader is introduced to a twist of suspense in making a guess on who may have planted the bushes on the hillside. The archeologists were left to undertake their work, but the detective ordered the place to be investigated. The investigation on the area around the hillside points to the small farms where there was a military base. This base was manned by the British army at the time of the World War II. The detective makes interviews on the residents of the district, and the history becomes clear to him (Stieg, 24).
The place is surrounded by mysterious stories. The shocking part of the author is employing thrill in his work evidenced when he invites a voice from the grave to have a conversation. The story is sad, and it is narrated by an abused wife who lived in the hill before. The narration takes a portrayal of the society as being violent to women and purely patriarchal.
The connection between the story and the buried skeleton is left as food for thought on the parts of the reader. The writer does not make the skeleton voice mean that the woman and children were killed by the sadistic laborer who worked on the hillside. However, evidence points to the notion that the two are related.
The use of the parallel narrative leaves many questions that the reader gets answers as the story continues. The writer unveils the history and makes and exposes the history of Swedish community that has reached the new age. The attachment of the society to the historical past has gradually affected today’s Swedish, living styles (Arnaldur, 12).
There is breakdown of social values. The narration shows a situation whereby the society’s social values have completely broken down. The discovery of the skeleton was accompanied by a parallel voice of an abused woman and neglected children. The author portrays the society as being very ignorant about the weak. According to Elrendur’s work, there are cases of spousal abandonment and neglected children.
There is despair that surrounds the society, which does not seem to care. The detective experiences cases of neglect in his day to day duties. He encounters the worst experiences of a society that has lost touch with the observance of moral and social obligations. The introduction of the book is closely related to the conclusion whereby the detective becomes very compassionate after meeting gloomy men in his line of duty.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Criticism Work in the Scandinavian Crime Fiction Novels by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While the detective is taking an interest in investigating the presence of the bones, he is faced with a strange encounter that makes him leave immediately. His daughter is taken to hospital. It is discovered that she has comatose. He is instructed by the doctor to talk to her (Arnaldur, 13).
The novels “The Girl with A tattoo,” “Silence Of The grave” and “Blind Goddess” has been viewed like a mirror hence helping readers to have a glimpse of the Scandinavian society. The mentioned novels carry themes of violence, revenge and crime. It has been established that the vengeance justice is still rooted in the living styles of the Swedish people.
In the novel, a woman is treated like a sex object and violence is more pronounced amongst men than women. The second novel centers on neglect and abuse of spouse. It becomes hard for a situation to go unnoticed since the community’s social values are greatly ignored. The detective investigating the human bones experiences similar social breakdown in his family. This makes it easy to get a real picture of the entire society (Holt
Sara Lee in 2011: Retrenchment Strategy Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Background information
Strategy identification for Sara Lee
Analysis of performance of the retrenchment strategy of Sara Lee
Recommendations for future decisions for the company
Background information Business companies operate in a very volatile and competitive environment. In such an environment, there are many forces that may work for or against the business company. More often, the forces generated from the environment have a negative effect on the business firm (Thompson, 2011).
Therefore, firms have to respond and mitigate these forces so that they can continue to thrive in the market. Firms adopt different strategies that seem suitable to the situation. This depends on the nature of effect that the changes have on the internal and external business environment. These strategies are referred to as competitive strategies (Katz, 2010).
Firms can either opt to focus on a single strategy or choose to employ different strategies in what is referred to as integration and differentiation of strategies. The firm has to be very sensitive when choosing a strategy. This is because the strategy chosen can have long term implications on the operation of the firm.
Strategic choices are made depending on what other firms have adopted. This is because the activities of other firms often have an impact on the performance hence contributing to the competitive advantage of the firm. Strategies aim to raise the competitiveness of a given firm in a certain industry (Katz, 2010).
Sara Lee is a fairly old company that has been in operation since the year 1939. It began as a small business and kept creating opportunities for growth. The company underwent a transformation with different strategies including the change of business name on several occasions.
The changes also included merger and acquisitions as part of the divestitures. Divestitures, as adopted by the management, were aimed at sharpening the business focus of the company. It was aimed at putting the company in a significantly strategic position within the market (Thompson, 2012).
Sara Lee Corporation, which is a company that is dealing in food, beverage and household products, got a new management in the year 2005. This indicated that changes were needed to transform the corporation. The Corporation appointed a new president, Brenda Barnes, who came up with a strategic plan that was ambitious. The plan was aimed at transforming the Corporation into a focused firm dealing in beverage, food and household products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new president noted that the firm was running many units of product categories that were not strong enough for the collective performance outcome of the company. Therefore, the firm had to reduce the number of units. Though the strategy would result in the reduction of revenues to the company by about $7 billion, it was seen as the best option.
Strategic plans will in most cases result to the disruption of the normal activities and functioning of a company. However, this is supposed to have a short-term effect, owing to the vision and objectives of the strategies used in effecting the plan. The retrenchment plan was expected to result into an increase in the after sales tax proceeds (Thompson, 2012).
The strategic plan aimed at positioning the selected segments that would strengthen the financial outcomes from the segments and the financial performance of the company. The company was to venture into market segments that were brighter and promising for the products of the company.
The retrenchment initiatives rolled out by the company were to be implemented in a systemic manner. This would see the company improve its sales activities, market share, and growth in profits resulting from the selected brands. The company selected brands that showed prospective signs of improvement in marketing for each of the product units (Daft, Murphy
Andragogy Reflection Research Paper online essay help
Introduction Andragogy has gained a lot of relevance in the last two centuries. Traditionally, education was perceived as a general process of imparting knowledge to student irrespective of their ages. Later, researcher came to realize that adult education had some differences from that of children. An adult who is undertaking education would be motivated by different factors from those that would a child. An adult can be self-motivated, unlike a child who would have the feeling that they are being forced to learn.
A child may not understand the consequences of education. It would go to school because it has been told to do so. As Neary (2002) says, an adult appreciates practicality in education. They want to be taught what can be applied in a practical context. On the other hand, most children fear practical subjects. They want theories that they can easily memorize. This has lead researchers in this field to believe that there is a difference between adult education and that of children.
Although many scholars have come to appreciate this difference, there are those who still believe that there are some similarities between adult education and that of children. There are those children who are self-motivated, just like the adults. Some children also like practical learning that can be applied in the real life context. On the other hand, some adults go to school in order achieve some set goals and as a result, they would want things that are easy to memorize and pass easily.
Therefore, there has been a belief that the concepts of Andragogy, though they are dominantly applicable to adults are also applicable to children. It is important for a teacher to understand andragogy in order to be in a position to know how to handle students. A learner should also be in a position to understand the concepts of andragogy in order to appreciate the importance of the learning process.
This study seeks to analyze the concepts of andragogy, how it is applicable in a learning set-up and its relevance to educators and the learners of all ages.
Traditional Learning Context Traditional learning context has always been based on a set up where the teacher is an adult and the learner is a child. In such set ups, the teacher would have the supreme powers as the age difference makes him or her take both the role of a teacher and a parent.
Tannehill (2011) notes that this may not be the case in adult learning where in some cases, the teacher might be younger that the learner. As such, the teacher must be in a position to assume the role of a teacher and not a parent. The learning process should be more of a dialogue than an instructive kind of learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I remember being part of a class in a conference that was organized by the company. The topic chosen was good and very interesting, but the type of lecture was very boring. The lecturer took the approach of traditional education. We as adults, who had experience in life as we had been in the job market, expected a consultative forum where we would be allowed to share our experience and the lecturer would try to fit them into the existing theories and explain them to us to expand the knowledge we had gained through experience.
The purpose of the lecturer was to bring to perspective, the effects of environmental degradation to the changing weather patterns. Instead of the lecturer taking the practical approach, the lecturer took the traditional concept of learning where he completely dominated the process, bringing theories related to environmental degradation and the consequences of the same. Most of the participants, I included, got extremely bored with the process.
Andragogy Reflection The recent researches have revealed that adult education has a completely different approach from that of children. The lifelong education where an adult takes education (at whichever level) to enhance his or her knowledge has a different approach from that where a child goes to school because the parent demands so or the circumstances that are prevailing forces one to be in school. Most of the traditional learning contexts do not consider adults.
Knowles argued that classroom climate should be a reflection of conditions that are amenable to the qualities of an adult. As stated in the section above, the lecture got boring because the concerned teacher failed to appreciate the fact that the involved learners were adults who had a lot of experience in matters of the environment. Instead of taking a consultative approach, the lecturer based the learning process on existing theories, making the process so plain for the participants.
Adult education demands that when learning, the educator should try as much as possible to ensure that the process is based on the experience of the participants. It is important to make the process a solution to the daily problems they face. This would demand that the process be explorative and consultative.
As Vodde (2009) notes, the educator should ensure that learning is student focused, trying to make practical some of the commonly held beliefs and theories. The lesson should not be meant to be memorized and it should not be exam centric. In order to bring more understanding to the concepts of andragogy, the following six assumptions of Knowles are very important.
One of the most defining characteristic of adult learners is that they have the ability to direct themselves without the guidance of the teacher. They know what they want from school.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Andragogy Reflection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, would not wait for the teacher to come and give them the direction. They would arrange their work accordingly and conduct further reading as might be necessary without any instructions. In the above, case, the teacher forgot to appreciate this fact and dealt with his students as people who need total direction and guidance in every step of leaning. Instead of bringing satisfaction, it led to student dissatisfaction.
Experience is another very important factor in adult learning. An adult learner always has the experience gained from various workplaces or life in general.
As such, when learning, it is very critical that this experience is taken into consideration. Knowles says that unlike children who have very little knowledge in life, adults have amassed a lot of experience, which an educator should always make an effort to turn into classroom knowledge (Knowles, Elwood,
Necessity of Understanding the Historical Roots of Psychological testing Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction It is quite interesting to note that methods of psychological testing have evolved over the years to incorporate a variety of new practices, methods of evaluation and even treatment in regards to mental illness (Matarazzo, 1992). For example, what is known today as post traumatic stress disorder was largely undiagnosed in the past and had been primarily thought of us as being isolated to individuals who went to war.
Today, it is generally attributed to instances involving a sufficiently traumatic event that can result in a “mental scar” so to speak that would require successive methods of psychological testing and evaluation to diagnose and treat. By understanding the historical underpinnings of psychological testing, we are able to come to the realization that as a field of medicine, psychology has experienced a considerable degree of trial and error due to complexities of the human mind (Yanovski,
Concepts and practices in local government finance Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Local governments have various policies that they establish and implement to manage their areas of jurisdiction. Public policies addressing the environmental aspects are among the common local government policies. They seek to minimize environmental impacts. Concurrently, they promote life quality in the concerned areas. Precisely, environmental policies enhance management of activities executed by residents.
The general aims of environmental policies incorporate monitoring the environment, creation of environmental awareness, and controlling human activities (Anderson, 2011). The environmental policies usually touch on environmental issues such as air, water, management of waste, and ecosystem preservation among others. Once the local government develops a policy, it has to find ways of funding and sustaining the implementation of the policy for the benefit of the community.
This paper focuses on a public policy regarding waste management and environmental protection, sources of the local authority’s revenues, and the funding options for the implementation of the policy.
In addition to this, it discusses the effects of public policy on revenue collection, the economic conditions that affect the revenue projections and the ways of formulating public policies that are in agreement with community’s values. The overall objective of the paper is to display the operations of the local governments in relation to policy and revenue collection and use.
Sources of Revenue Usually, local governments have to fund the establishment and implementation of public policies. Thus, it is necessary to understand sources of their revenues. Expenditures of the local government are divided into two categories (capital and current expenditures). The capital expenditures are mainly financed by the central government. The current expenditure is that which involve the daily operations of the authority and is financed from various sources.
The charges that local governments make for goods and services that they provide is one source of their revenue. The local governments usually provide a variety of services such as waste collection, water provision, housing and parking space for vehicles. They have powers to levy charges for these goods and services even though the national government may at times set the price (Ebel
Type of performance appraisals Essay essay help online free
Introduction The function of performance appraisal is to provide feedback on performance of employees during evaluation. Feedback is valuable to both the employees being appraised as well as the management of the company. Some of the most critical resolutions of an organization, including transfers, salary reviews, firing of employees and promotions, depend on the way the employees perform in their jobs. Organizational resources allocations are also based on performance appraisal.
As such, an ideal assessment format enhances organizational development, analysis and flow of communication. This report discusses three performance appraisal formats, including, self-assessment, 360-degree feedback and management by objective. Also, discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of these performance appraisal formats.
The 360-degree feedback method The 360-degree feedback provides a very ideal way of assessing the employee’s strengths and weaknesses. Its main aim is to help the employees improve on their performance. According to Edwards and Ewin, feedback from multiple and respected sources such as superiors, peers and subordinates tend to have more impact on people than a single source (215).
Many employees view performance information, from this approach, as fair, credible, accurate and motivating. Employees are likely to be motivated to change their habits to reach the standards of their co-workers than comply with what is imposed by their seniors (Edwards and Ewin 216).
In industrial psychology and Human Resources, 360-degree feedback is a feedback system that originates from the employee’s closest workmates. It is sometimes referred to as multisource assessment, multisource feedback or multi-rater feedback. This feedback relies on superiors, peers and subordinates, who help in issuing direct information regarding the employees’ performance.
In some situations, this can be concerned with feedback from vendors, customer and other parties that are involved in an organization. A 360-degree response is different from an upward response, which involves strict use of reports, or the conventional performance assessment where only the managers and supervisors are charged with assessment of employees’ performance.
The supervisor-only performance appraisal relies on the supervisor’s judgment and, therefore, it is subjective. They consume a lot of time, and they are disliked by those giving and receiving them. They are done once a year and they assess the employee’s performance and give the management the information it needs when promoting or increasing payment for the hardworking employees (Edwards and Ewen 253).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 360-degree Feedback system also helps improve the quality of employees and performance measures by using multi-raters, hence providing a more comprehensive and balanced view. According to Edwards and Ewen, the information provided is more credible, valid and reliable since the sources interact frequently with the employee while at work (213).
Single source appraisals do not give accurate information; they tend to give inflated evaluations that give every employer a high performance rating. This results into an environment where employees feel that they are entitled for promotions or salary increase without giving them the much-needed information for growth and development. This creates a tense atmosphere, between managers and the employees, since the managers find it hard to provide critical and specific feedback.
The 360-degree appraisal (or multisource assessment or full circle feedback) collects information from close workmates of the employee under evaluation, regardless of the position. The intelligence that these people disclose helps in determining the strengths of the employee and areas that need improvement (Edwards and Ewen 250).
Different researches (Rao 125) reveal that the 360-degree feedback system helps in the development and improvement of employees since it helps them know the perspective of their performance.
According to a five-year study (Walker and Smith 26), it was found that there was no improvement in the ratings between the first and second years, but higher scores were realized between the second, third and fourth years. According to Edwards and Ewen, the employee performance increased between the first and the second year and administrators kept this improvement two years later (215).
Advantages of 360-degree appraisal
The main advantage of a 360-degree feedback is that it provides a comprehensive view of an employee’s performance. In addition to providing feedback from various viewpoints, it helps minimize the biases inherent in evaluations. Many appraisers are likely to cancel out the various biases of different raters, and their different perspectives combines to give a more accurate, complete and honest picture.
The feedback that cuts across multiple aspects individually assists the employees decide whether their performance appraisal is done consistently. Individuals are able to acquire information on how other workmates thinks of them.
We will write a custom Essay on Type of performance appraisals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research shows that some employees do not like managers who analyze them when they do not directly interact with them. The employees can also be helped to agree to information through acquisition of direct information from colleagues and customers – this should be done anonymously to make sure no one is victimized.
Disadvantage of 360-degree appraisal
One notable disadvantage of 360-degree feedback system is that employees find it difficult and uncomfortable to offer honest feedback to their managers. This can also happen between employee-employee evaluations. To avoid criticism and retaliations, the system should not reveal the names of the contributors – this will also encourage employees to provide information without fear of victimization.
However, a question comes to mind. Since different raters observe different behaviors, what is the basis upon which these ratings are observed? It has been found that subordinate can easily witness various characters of their seniors, as opposed to the colleagues at the same level with them. In addition, various clients are able to understand the employees that serve them. It is, however, difficult to give consistent, positive and negative information on an employee despite the gain of the insights of the perceptions of the employee.
Management by Objectives (MBO) MBO is a modern method of performance appraisal. This method requires an agreement between the employees and managers on specific objectives within a deadline. For instance, a company may instruct a sales manager to increase his taxes by 25 percent within a period of 3 months. Once the goal is set, it is now up to the sales manager to plan how to achieve the objective. This technique helps identify success or failure much easier.
Management by objectives (MBO) system helps the management set achievable goals. It also helps the management achieve the best results from the available resources. MBO aligns objectives and subordinates objectives to the firm; therefore, it helps enhance the organizational performance.
According to Ducker, MOB operates if the objectives are known for 90% of the period not known. However, many critics argue that Peter Ducker’s MBO concepts are hard to implement. Nevertheless, when every employee understands and comprehends the aims of an organization, then their development and effectiveness will be helpful in attaining the goals that the management seeks.
Advantages of MBO
If the employees can be able to meet the set goals or even exceed them, then they are considered to have performed acceptably well (Rao 125). Management by objective format provides that the performance of an employee is noticeable; however, the behavior of those employees can only be deduced.
This observation result from the fact that this approach assumes that it is extremely difficult to break down the components that shape the employees’ performance. This method provides that the aspects of employees’ performance should not be differentiated. Alternatively, harmonization of the different aspects is recommended, so that the behaviors of the employees can be observed more effectively and directly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Type of performance appraisals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MBO principle involves all the personnel at all levels in framing the objectives of the organization. They are delegated with certain powers and freedom, and then made to involve themselves toward achieving the objectives of the company. Ducker points out that involvement towards a common goal as an enterprise is build by true and committed team that wields individual’s efforts towards a common effort.
Their contributions may differ, but they should all be pointing to one direction; achieving the goal of the organization (Dannemiller 214). The efforts of the employees should all be directed towards one direction and their contribution must come together to produce a complete goal, without gaps, fiction or unnecessary duplication of efforts.
According to Peter Ducker, the possibility of managers to control their performance is one of the greatest advantages of an MBO approach (Dannemiller 214). Self-control helps motivate the employees, hence making them desire to do the best. This helps widen the vision and paves way for high performance objectives.
Self-control motivates the managers to act, not because somebody demands or talks into doing it, but because the objectives of the organization demands it. The manager acts, not because somebody demands or requires him to, but because he decides to act, as a free man.
Disadvantages of MBO
Since there is an assumption that the behaviors and performance of the employees can be successfully measured by management by objective format, there are some challenges that arise. Management by objective performance appraisal motivates the employees since they are accorded some autonomy, and they feel that they have contributed towards achievement of the organizational goals. Nonetheless, this scenario could cause unworkable prospects regarding what is achievable.
The employees together with the managers should be able to check practicability of different situations when applying management by objective. Nonetheless, this is a source of flaw because it is clear that, currently, firms should uphold high level of flexibility so they can endure their challenges. However, flexibility leads to loss of clarity. Failure of performance can also be experienced when flexible objectives are circumvented.
Employee Self-Assessment In employee self-assessment approach, employees are given the opportunity to evaluate themselves. In this system, both employees and the managers receive forms that contain the performance standards. The performance standards in question are the levels of training, job proficiency, written communication, development efforts and other interpersonal skills.
Since both the evaluation forms are similar, both the manager and the employee address them line by line. In case a substantial difference appears between the employee’s self-assessment and the manager’s assessment, they both discuss the reason for the difference. The employer and manager eventually agree on a common overall evaluation, which is used to determine salary or wage increase.
Self-assessment helps the employees think and give critical considerations about their performance in meeting their performance expectations. Supervisors and managers have recently shunned away from providing employees the opportunity to conduct their self-assessment for the PAMP (Performance Assessment and Management Process).
These individual assessment methods allow employees to give important feedback and involve them actively in the final performance review session. Whether the manager and the employee agree or not, regarding the performance, self-assessment opens channels of communication that lead to a successful PAMP outcome.
Advantages of self-assessment
Self-assessment ensures that the employees are actively involved in the assessment process – this also means that they have an active role to play in the course of assessing their performance. As such, employees are able to monitor their own performance as opposed to merely receiving feedbacks from their seniors.
This kind of empowerment gives them an opportunity to become more engaged in both the review process and their performance generally. This approach gives the mangers an opportunity to understand their employees in a wider view, hence having a better position to improve their perception and performance.
However, depending on how close managers are to the employees, it is always challenging to comprehend the factors that affect the employee’s performance. Self-assessment helps managers to view performance in their own perspectives and get the employees’ side of assessment. It also helps the manager realize the strengths and weaknesses of different employees and their respective training needs.
Since managers and employees cannot have the same impression on the employee’s performance, employee self-assessment helps to avoid differences in perceptions before the review meeting is convened. There is a lot of information that the managers do not know, and it will be damaging if the employees speak out the differences in a performance review meeting.
At times, managers have very different information that affects employee ratings and; therefore, it will be unfair to judge them using that information only. Furthermore, this method helps in pointing out the variations that are not easily observable, therefore, according the managers an opportunity to plan for their review congregations. It also ensures fair performance ratings and fruitful discussion.
Self-assessment appraisal also promotes more effective discussions about priorities, performance, challenges and other factors affecting the employees. Research shows that when a subject touches or affects people, they tend to provide their side of the bargain and then listen to opinions from others (Dannemiller 250). With this technique, the employees can assess their own back ground information and performance, and then sit back and wait to hear the opinion of their managers.
One tool, which determines the effectiveness of management, is the way the employees and the managers conduct their discussions. A two-way communication; that is, between the employees and their managers is an evidence that issues such as performance, challenges and priorities can be discussed and resolved amicably.
The two-way discussion can be enhanced by a performance management plan, which tries to evade domination by the mangers during the evaluations – this could put off the employees. It also inculcates a culture of a two-way communication in the entire organization, hence making it more successful.
Disadvantages of Self-assessment
Self-assessment appraisal is subjective and hence limited. Although the method helps the employees to assess their own performance, usually, the accuracy and effectiveness of this assessment is hampered by personal bias, communication breakdown, and self-perception. Employee self-assessment also tends to bring the aspect of non-accountability to employees. After the assessment is over, employees often find limited motivation for change.
Nevertheless, involvement of other parties in this process could inculcate accountability because the employees will be compelled to act in a certain manner. Although the extrinsic motivational methods influence the employees’ performance, they cannot be relied upon to produce long-term goals.
This is partly because they are bound to transform with the adjustments in the operating environment. Also, they do not provide an environment of sharing ideas through teamwork as each person competes to be the best individually rather than as an organization.
Conclusion Some of the most important resolutions of an organization, such as transfers, salary reviews, firing of employees and promotions, depend on the way the employees perform in their jobs. MBO method requires an agreement between the employees and managers on specific objectives within a deadline.
The 360-degree feedback provides a very ideal way of assessing the employee’s strengths and weaknesses. In employee self-assessment approach, employees are given the opportunity to evaluate themselves. Organizational resources allocations are also based on performance appraisal.
As such, an ideal assessment format enhances organizational development, analysis and flow of communication. The three methods of performance appraisal discussed in this report have been found to be very essential, not only to help managers execute their duties, but also for employees’ assessment and motivation
Works Cited Dannemiller, Kathleen. Management by objectives (MBO) in student services. Michigan: University of Michigan, 1960. Print.
Edwards, Borman and Jade Ewen. 360-Degree Feedback: The Powerful New model For Assessment And Performance Improvement. New York: AMACOM, 1996. Print.
Rao, Raju. 360 Degree Feedback and Performance Management System. New York: Excel Books, 2009. Print.
Walker, Dimmock and John Smither. “A five-year study of upward feedback”, what managers do with their results matters? Personnel Psychology 52.2 (1999): 393–423.Print.
Hershey’s Sweet Mission Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Redesigning Hershey’s performance administration method
Mentoring and integrating values
Introduction The purpose of this paper will be that of determining the stages Hershey has to implement in revamping its performance administration framework to appeal to its more and more varied workers. The paper will also establish how a worker will interpret Hershey’s culture and value based on his or her function.
This paper will utilize established trends in Human Resources Management and explain which one may influence Hershey the most. Finally, the paper will explain the impacts that mentoring could have on adopting virtues into the Hershey way of doing business.
Redesigning Hershey’s performance administration method Hershey’s firm focuses chiefly on confectionary goods. Hershey’s goods comprise chiefly of candies and the chocolates. The company has remained in the marketplace since 1900’s.
It markets its goods globally. My suggestion to the revamp of the company’s performance administration would be in keeping its existing performance administration model. The company has a redesign model that provides for diverse age groups and more precise to two. Such age groups may comprise the younger and the baby boomer age group (Noe et al., 2011, p. 55).
Based on these models, they encompass an event where the baby boomers coach or mentor the fresh hires to the organization. The principal purpose of training or mentoring is to establish an everlasting heritage with advancement of the entire universe. This specific model has been understood to be specifically passionate to mentor the younger workmates with a view of coping with Hershey’s guidelines (Noe et al., 2011).
The company gains from the baby boomer as the reference model, trainer and in addition to its promoter in the corporate and business world.
As far as younger recruits are concerned, the organization has developed their management systems with a view of attracting the younger recruits. This is presumed to provide the newly recruited employees with loads of enthusiasm for challenge, self-independent, and attain results in the business world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Hershey’s revamp assumes the bottom-up concept. Individuals throughout the organization were permitted to identify a goal and monitor the likely growth on programs. The implementation of the management method is assumed to be successful to measure business outcomes. This system is in addition applied in checking whether the outcomes are attained in accordance to the company’s major values (Noe et al., 2011, p. 56).
Interpreting values Hershey strives to offer an active and challenging work station that gives an individual the chance of developing his or her knowledge and talents. The company’s sustained performance depends on engaged employees that are capable of meeting the challenges of a quickly expanding international market.
Hershey’s special legacy, established key values and heritage to live up to the possible acceptable levels enable the company to engage and retain greatly talented individuals (Bowen
The Genocide of East Timor Essay best essay help
Introduction While analysing genocide in East Timor, it is necessary to consider some fundamentals concerning the issue of discussion. First of all, it should be pointed out that genocide is recognised to be one of the most terrible crimes a government can commit in relation to its people. As far as genocide was proclaimed an international crime, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (UHCG) was established.
Generally, there is a wide range of definitions genocide involves. Social definitions are of particular importance, as they reveal the type of government a country is controlled by. Thus, on the one hand, genocide can be regarded as government’s intentions to commit crime against its citizens on the basis of their group membership.
On the other hand, genocide can be regarded as government’s intentions to abolish population on the basis of any reasons. One is to keep in mind that genocide is mostly associated with certain internal disruptions, war, etc.; so, one can conclude that if government is in danger, democide commitment provides excuse for the worst moral crime1.
East Timor’s genocidal grounds Some of the historians are of the opinion that genocidal grounds were basically pre-planned. In the 17th century, the territory of East Timor was colonised by the Portuguese; in times of the Second World War, there were the Japanese, who controlled the territory.
In the early seventies, the Portuguese decided to reestablish their control over the country, and the Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor (Fretilin) took a decision to form an independent community. In the mid of the seventies, Fretilin political force got the majority of voices in the local elections; so, the Indonesian government started its military actions and soon declared East Timor’s annexation2.
Keeping in mind a brief overview, one can probably conclude that the Indonesian government’s intentions to murder East Timor’s population involved political reasons; although a deep analysis of further actions the Indonesians followed give us an opportunity to suppose that both social definitions of genocide can be applied to the current case study.
The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide (CPPCG) and its relation to the case study According to the CPPCG, genocide is considered to be any act, which main purpose is to destroy certain groups. Such events in the case study as a) killing representatives of a national group (the population of East Timor), b) causing bodily and mental harm to representatives of a national group, c) “deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part”3, d) imposing certain procedures to stop births within a national group (gendercidal massacres of men), and e) transferring children to another groups can be all applied to genocide according to the Convention.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A critical overview of the Article II of the CPPCG Some alternative definitions, however, cannot be neglected too. Thus, taking into account the acts of genocide the Convention includes, it becomes evident that the acts can be divided into two major groups. The points of the Convention from a) to c) belong to the so-called physical genocide. As far as Timorese population experienced starvation and suffered a severe lack of any medical services, one can state that the kind of genocide goes beyond descriptions that are pointed out in the CPPCG.
Therefore, killing representatives of a certain national group can be regarded whether as a simplified definition or as a definition that cannot fit for genocide atrocities, which occurred in East Timor. In other words, the Article II of The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide involves some general definitions of one of the worst moral crimes a government commits against humanity.
The points of the Convention from d) to e) belong to the biological genocide. So, preventing births seems to be an exhaustive definition; although the original Convention contained no data on violence targeting women4. Gendercide in East Timor, in its turn, covered horrible spectacles with the execution of females. In our days, the execution of women is recognized to be one of the legal definitions of genocide.
Other acts not covered by The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide involve cultural genocide and political genocide. Lawrence Davidson is of the opinion that when people are unfamiliar with the culture outside of their national group, “they are unable to accurately assess the alleged threat of others around them. Throughout history, dominant populations have often dealt with these fears through mass murder”5. East Timorese population was forced to study a new Indonesian language, which was formed on the basis of the Malayan language. Keeping in mind that the Indonesian government wanted to impose linguistic restrictions on the population of East Timor, one can probably notice that the Timorese also experienced cultural genocide.
Of course, political genocide in East Timor cannot be ignored. It was mentioned that the reasons of the conflict between the Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor and the Indonesian party Apodeti were of political origin. Thus, Apodeti was mostly interested in East Timor’s annexation by Indonesia. Therefore, political genocide was unavoidable6.
Conclusion It seems to be obvious that the Article II of The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide does not depict the issue of genocide in detail. For this reason, one can state that the general definitions the Convention involves are to be expanded. The most generic definition of genocide was given by Israel W. Charny. He pointed out that the worst international crime in its common sense is considered to be the mass annihilation of human beings7.
As far as genocide is regarded rather ambiguously, some important points on an international crime are to be clarified. So, it must be noted that not only a government, but also various military and international organisations can be also considered as the perpetrators of genocide.
We will write a custom Essay on The Genocide of East Timor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most widespread motives of genocide include:
the annihilation of those, who are hated,
the destruction of those, who are regarded as the threat to a political regime,
the desire to establish a new order,
Bibliography Charny, I. Encyclopedia of Genocide, Santa Barbara, California, 1999.
Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Hrweb.org, 1997. Web.
Cribb, R. The Indonesian Killings, Clayton, Australia: Monash Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990. Print.
Davidson, L. Cultural Genocide, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2012. Print.
Jones, A. Case Study: East Timor (1975-99). Gendercide.org, 2002. Web.
Kiernan, B. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
Melson, R. Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Genocide of East Timor by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rummel, R. Genocide. Hawaii.edu, n.d. Web.
Footnotes 1 R Rummel, Genocide. Hawaii.edu, n.d.
2 A Jones, Case Study: East Timor (1975-99). Gendercide.org, 2002.
3 Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Hrweb.org, January 1997.
4 B Kiernan, Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
5 L Davidson, Cultural Genocide. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2012. Print.
6 R Cribb, The Indonesian Killings. Clayton, Australia: Monash Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990. Print.
7 I Charny, Encyclopedia of Genocide. Santa Barbara, California, 1999.
8 R Melson, Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide. UK: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Internal and external analysis of Apple Company Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Company Description Apple organization was established by Steve Jobs and Steve Wojniak in the year 1976 and integrated in February 1977. The company’s head office is located at Cupertino. The present CEO is Tim Cook. Apple Company chiefly engaged in sector associated with computer accessories and consumer electronic appliances. Apple Inc.
Chiefly develops, fabricates and promotes products that vary from handy digital entertainment systems, mobile communication gadgets, personal computers and diverse associated software, service, secondary, and social network systems. The major distribution avenues are the Apple’s electronic shops, direct selling, and others. In addition, the clients vary from users, organizations, small and medium enterprise, trade, education, government and innovative consumers.
The company presently has more than 35,000 workers and expansion of approximately 63%. Based on financial period ending report of August 2011, the organization had generated total income of $32.5 million, gross income of $11.1 million, net profit of $4.8 million, total asset amount of $41 million and indicates expansion of about 35% for 12 month expansion and approximately 38% of revenue increase (Hunger
Coca Cola Company Marketing Report online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Coca Cola Company is the leading beverage firm in the world. Started in 1886, this firm has managed to become one of the America’s most profitable companies. Its trademark was officially registered in the United States in 1944. Kline (2010) reports that the firm has experienced a consistent growth in its market share in the local market. The firm is currently operational in over 200 countries across the world.
The brand ‘Coca Cola’ has been rated as one of the best brand in the world. In the year 2008, it was rated the most valuable brand in America and the world at large, beating some of the renowned brands like Apple, General Electric and Amazon.com.
The firm has been experiencing consistent growth even in the face of the economic slowdown in the United States and other major world markets. According to Biswas (2011), it has been in a position to withstand some of the external challenges posed by various factors in the environment. In order to bring to focus the environmental factors that have influenced this firm, a SWOT analysis will be used.
SWOT Analysis The strength of this company lies in various factors. One of the major strengths of this firm is its brand name (Grossman, 2011). As Stated above, the brand Coca Cola is one of the strongest brands in the world. This has made it be able to maintain its market share in the face of an increasingly competitive market.
This firm also has financial strength. It has been in operation for over 100 years, amassing huge wealth in the process. As such, this firm is in a position to implement its projects, including those of research and extension. The firm also operates in various countries outside the home market. As such, it has been able to balance its production when one section of its market is experiencing economic growth while the other has recession.
Despite the above strengths of this firm, Lippman (2004) says that there are some weaknesses that it has, a fact that has seen some of its competitors like Pepsi Cola eat up a section of its market share. One of the weaknesses that many environmentalists have repeatedly talked about is environmental degradation.
The plastic bottles that this firm uses in packing its drinks are causing havoc to the environment. It is apparent that this firm is yet to develop solution to this problem because as Tanke (2000) notes, Coca Cola Company is yet to replace the plastic bottles with better alternatives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the environment that this firm operates are some opportunities that have made it experience massive growth in its market share. According to Panagariya (2008), Coca Cola Company has exploited vacuum that existed in many countries in the world, especially in the developing countries. Weiss (2011) says that there was no competition for this firm in the overseas markets and this Company was able to make the most out of it.
Technological advancements have also enabled the firm to conduct trade much easily due to improved means of communication and transport means. The economic boom that America experienced soon after the Second World War was another opportunity that helped this firm to expand its market.
The threats that this firm has had to deal with include competition. The market has gotten increasingly competitive. Charantimath (2006) notes that many firms like Pepsi Cola have come up with products, which are close substitutes of those that are offered by Coca Cola. They have eaten into the markets of Coca Cola.
Political instability in some countries is another threat that this firm has had to deal with. When there is an internal strife, like the one experienced in Egypt and Libya in the recent past, this firm would lose millions of dollars due to the destruction of its assert in those countries. During such periods, the firm would also lose the profits they get from the country, while yet they will have to pay the employees. This would hurt the firm financially.
Competitor Analysis Although there many competitors of Coca Cola in this industry, the main competitor that has been able to keep it at close watch is Pepsi Cola. Just like Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola is also an American firm. According to Clinton (2011), it has a considerably huge market share in the American market and other countries overseas.
This firm has been in a position to understand the emerging market trends and respond to them as appropriate, making it develop a niche in the market. As a result of this, it has been in a position to emerge as the main competitor of Coca Cola Company. The firm has diversified its production lines as a way of ensuring that it is not affected by the failure in one of the lines.
The brand of this firm is also strong. Pepsi Cola is known in various countries beyond America. It has managed to outsmart Coca Cola in South Africa, one of the most promising emerging markets in the third world countries (Clement
Steve Jobs biography Essay essay help
Introduction The phrase “a failure is a man who blundered, but is not able to cash in on the experience” by Elbert Hubbard lingers in many minds as far as finding its implication is concerned. Just like many other quotes associated with Hubbard, it remains immortal due to its relevance over time, beyond many generations in the past and even in the future. This quote in particular, has become synonymous with lives of people.
The essence of the above phrase lies on the fact that a failure is not a failure until one learns from it to avoid failure in the future. It, therefore, implies that we should learn from our mistakes and strive to look at past inefficiencies so that we are able to mitigate any repeat in the future. The author acknowledges that it is in human nature to ‘fall’ but be caution, to learn from the past mistakes and to benefit in building a formidable future as a result of the experience gained from the past.
In this regard, this essay seeks to link between the phrase by this great American philosopher and the life and times of the great entrepreneur, Steve Jobs. Spector (1985) interrogates the inadequacies that Jobs faced in his life and how he took them positively trying to improve his lifestyle and his commitment towards making a positive contribution to the society. (Stross, 1993)
Throughout his life he was able to face hurdles which were some kind of a stepping stone towards success, manifested through the empire and legacy that he built with the aim of improving the life standard of this generation and the generations to come. The adoption of the above phrase enabled Steve Jobs to be immortal even with his passing on.
Steve Jobs was born in an ordinary family and led an ordinary life, nonetheless, he managed to climb the ladder of life by doing ordinary things in an ordinary way. In such a simple way he became one of the most celebrated people of all times in the electronics field. (Young, 1988)
He lived with his parents (adopted) and was frequently engaged in working on electronics with his father who taught him determination and resilience, requisite virtues for success. He practiced diligence and innovative approach in his work as far as creativity was concerned. His elementary school life was not flowery as he had difficulty to communicate with his peers and occasionally had to bribed his elementary school teacher because of his studying (Butcher,1987).
In spite the challenges Steve Jobs encountered in elementary school, he was able to forge ahead not loosing focus in life and not giving up his interests. The quote by Hubbard applied in his life to the latter. His life in high school entailed spending free time at computer related work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He would go to Hewlett-Packard, where he encountered a valuable friendship with Steve Wozniak, a computer wizard. They blended well and had mutual friendship that was close to admiration. Time after high school was full of intrigues as he dropped from Reed College after attending for only half a year.
The rest of the year he inconsistently attended creative lessons only to find something interesting in typography. Determination was a virtue he would not have identified both his interests and his talent with. He did not look at the challenges he was facing at school but fought hard for a place in life. Being in constant search for spiritual fulfillment, he visited India where he used psychedelic drugs and later rejoined his friend Wozniak to cofound what is today a brand name Apple (Alison, 1996).
They started it on a humble background by selling Jobs’ vehicle (Volkswagen bus), while a friend of his patted with his calculator. Challenges and hardships they experienced couldn’t stop their desire to succeed in life. In spite of the turbulent tides, they fought and did their best to remain focused building a worldwide venture. Notwithstanding his unique school life, Jobs offered a complementary hand to his friend and they became business partners.
The two friends, Wozniak and Jobs, introduced a new edge to the computer world by diverging a new approach in the industry. They used a different technological approach that was focused on production of relatively smaller components that were affordable and competitive in the market (Levy, 1994). Their models were easy to use in comparison with the products the market offered at that moment. There initial model was Apple1.
It made a fortune and brought a lot of rewards. Within three-year-time they were working harder to introduce another product Apple11. Their income increased by over seven hundred percent. Within one decade of their existence in the market, they had made a brand name that was the best in the world of computers.
The phrase, “a failure is a man who blundered, but is not able to cash in on the experience” by Hubbard is applicable here. They have used their chance and improved the first Apple model rather than neglected it. In a spun of three years they had used their previous experience to make Apple11. This enabled Steve Jobs and his colleague to bank seven hundred folds much.
Apple as a company had misdoings especially on the subsequent models. That resulted in reducing sale rates of the product. Some of them were even recalled due to the consumer complaints. Other brands like IBM gave them a run for their money. In middle 80s they introduced the Macintosh approach that did little to edge out IBM, a key competitor, from the market. Then the board developed squabbles with Steve Jobs forcing his resignation in the year 1985.
We will write a custom Essay on Steve Jobs biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Just like our guiding quote has it, he did not tire, he started another firm by the name NeXT, Inc instead. That followed with acquisition of an Imation company with a subsequent great deal of resilience and determination putting forth focus to excel (Wozniak, Jobs, 2006). He renamed it Pixar Studios.
Steve Jobs did not major on the challenges that had become of his former work place. He came back and managed to make a formidable force to reckon with the animation world. His new venture was successful but could not permeate the American market forcing it to merge with Apple where Steve Jobs got back his leadership role (CEO) back (Duncan, 2004).
Banking on lessons of the past failures, Steve Jobs reinvented Apple by use of innovative ways bringing some changes to the management. They were able to meet the customer demands by working different models that came with a stylish touch. Today Apple is a brand name that has cut a niche in the American market and the world at large.
This has seen its competitors struggling to match its revolutionary products that are hard to match especially due to customer loyalty (Bently, 2011). They have created i-Phones that cannot be matched in the market, this is not to forget the i-Pods and programs like i-Tunes that is amongst the leading American music gadgets. The success attributed to the Founder and CEO, Steve Jobs has made the company earn an accolade as the most respected company in the world.
This is fundamental because of the shape focus that Steve Jobs managed to put not being discouraged by past failures but forging on with an attempt geared towards improving those failures so that success was reached. The company became so successful to the point of having no debt liability, something not very easy to attain in the business world. (Linzmayer, 2004)
Steve Jobs’ personal life is also a manifestation of improvement of the past mistakes. Starting with his days at the elementary school where he had difficulties coping with the school system to the extent of taking bribes so as to read. (O’Grady, 2008) That reflected on the challenges he experienced.
And looking at his days at high school, it’s seen that his weakness in following school curriculum was evident. (Harper, 2011) He struggled to remain successful in the school setup and he struggled to be successful in life. His health life especially on his last days depicts him as a person who did not want to face reality because he postponed a surgery to remove cancer. He instead opted for other types of medication. He later accepted to undergo the surgery and that was another success. (Simon, 2005)
Conclusion It is self evident that the quote, “a failure is a man who blundered, but is not able to cash in on the experience” is relevant and applicable in analysis of the life and times of Steve Jobs. His path was a life of ups and downs and he did very little to make history and touch the lives of many people.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Steve Jobs biography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He was born and adopted, the fact he learned when he was 27 years old. He became positive in life and lived peacefully and happily with his foster parents. He went to school and had some challenges in schooling starting with elementary level where he had problems coping with curriculum and making friends.
This followed high school years where he frequently dropped on and off from school until such a time that he identified an area, typography, his interests were concentrated at. In starting the Apple Company, he encountered financial challenges that made him sell his valuable vehicle. To him attaining his dream overshadowed all other challenges. This was followed with being locked out of Apple as the CEO (Bilton, 2011).
He did not take the challenges negatively, instead of that he went and built another company that excelled in all respects to an extent of merging with the Disney and later becoming the greatest share holder. (Bob, 2007) His successful venture enabled him return to Apple and continue being the CEO on a position he held until his demise. Truly his path was a life well lived, he rectified his mistakes to improve his future life.
References Alison, M. 1996. Building a Bulging War chest, The New York Times. 26August 2011
Bently, P. 2011. Steve Job’s biological mother doesn’t know he is dead. London daily
Bilton, N., 2011.Apple is the most valuable company. New York times.9 August 2011
Bob, E, 2007.Appeal court says Jobs can’t raze Woodside mansion. San Francisco Chronicles10 January 2007. Retrieved
Butcher, L, 1987. Accidental Millionaire: The rise and fall of Steve Jobs at Apple. Paragon House.
Duncan, C, 2004. The guardian profile: Steve Jobs. The Guardian (UK). 31 March2006
Harper, C, Q 2011.Steve jobs: a relentless rise in graphs and charts
Levy, S., 1994. Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything. Penguin Books.
Linzmayer, O, W., 2004. Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World’s Most Colorful Company. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-59327-01
O’Grady, J. (2008). Apple Inc. Greenwood Press.
Simon, W, L, Young, J, S, 2005. Icon: Steve Jobs, The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. John Wiley
Western Casualty Case analysis Essay best essay help: best essay help
Problem Identification The major problem in this case is that the recovery attained by the company (presently $55 million) should be equal to the total casual activity recovery in the market (presently $550-$600 million).
This includes 20,000 unresolved recovery cases with values averaging $7500 each; this meant that Western Casualty was behind in its recovery process and that it was supposed to increase its speed in order to hit the target. There was also a concern of Casualty’s legal department and lawyers about bring MCG onboard. In the beginning of the contracting phase, MCG planned to remain onsite for 18 months, to see more on organization culture and know day-to-day operations.
Beginning the restructuring, the consultant selected the method of collaborate role with the clients. Collaborative relationship promises maximum people resources – both the consultants and the clients. They stated cleared that the consultants are not there for helping downsizing of OPL but they are helping to apply their technical skill to make it more productive in the future.
Discovery phase begins; they started of layer of analysis on initial problem
They found fear of employees over workload in the capacity of current workforce and downsizing of OPL. There is no benchmarking in the department. This reduces the morale that would have otherwise. Employees felt that they had to do everything and they don’t have time to do anything well.
Identify the Causes of the Problem Western Casualty specialized in processing of casualty and properties. Western Casualty was in the early 1980’s the dominant company in the western region. By early 1990’s casualty’s market share dropped significantly to below 20% from above 65%. This was as national property/ casualty insurers threatened to take over.
Perhaps the greatest test for western casualty was during the catastrophe that rocked California which rendered business in the state unattainable to most of the insurance companies. However, western casualty viewed this as an opportunity to advance itself in the market by being more aggressive and taking over the market in a bid to increase revenue and therefore widen the profit margin. This sat well for the company as it was viewed as the remaining reliable insurance company in the region.
However that was until national property/ casualty insurers came into the picture and technological advancement or lack of it almost brought western casualty to its knees. The early 1990’s was characterized with technological development and sprouting of insurance companies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Western casualty didn’t embrace technology in processing of claims as fast as its competitors had. During this paradigm shift, western casualty sat comfortably without interest in the developing means. This was until the figures began dwindling prompting a restructuring program.
Alternative Solutions An alternative solution is important in the ensuring of a well analyzed case. For this, the department will need to be divided. Four task-base teams: Negotiation, Telephone, Written Correspondence and Recovery.
Employees will no longer be doing dozen of things; they will focus on certain parts of the process an idea which leads to specialization and development of acute skills in the respective area in which the employee is responsible for. The employee tends to be faster and more effective at their responsibilities. They can then focus more time on each department: the more time focused on the department is got from the specialized activity on the departments activities.
More time to improve managerial skills. The employees are left with more time to work on their managerial skills. These managerial skills are essential in helping the employees to hold themselves responsible and do all in their powers to getting things done.
Developing skills “Think outside the box.” The employees are left to do whatever they have to in helping the department achieve its goals. This in turn horns the employees skills in such a manner that they tend to be responsible in their own respective areas and develop a sense of ownership of the company.
The MCG shifted away for their individual functions to the department’s ultimate objectives as a team. The pre-organization structure meant that one would follow the same case until it ends while the new structured required the employees to only focus on particular parts of the whole process. This meant that employees could no longer be gauged by the number of cases they solved but rather by the achievement of the departmental overall goals.
Foster projects by newsletter, social events and others that motivate within human capital. This is to motivate both the clients and the employees making their work easier.
We will write a custom Essay on Western Casualty Case analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technology, the embracement of technology meant faster and more efficient means and ways of achieving departmental goals. Having technology ensures that time is on your side and efficiency too.
Best Alternative Communication strategy within organization, the organization’s communication with its clients should be improved and should enable convenience in communication. Clients should not feel as though reaching the company to process claims is more difficult than getting them to compensate you in case of a claim of any other consultations.
The telephone and the written units were not very impressed with their new responsibilities in the company. They felt as though the company had reduced their responsibilities and hence their morale for the jobs. Those in the telephone unit preferred the older structure where they were to follow a single case to the point where they could determine or get to know the progress of the cases they were handling.
This is contrary to the new structure where they just handle phone calls for all the cases without knowing the eventuality of any of the cases. The employees in the two units also felt that their departments tend to receive more problems than other units in the organization.
The management and the consultants should emphasize that however much personal pride and accomplishment are important; they should not be put before the departments’ goals. The employees should be reminded of the department’s goals and that the same should form their primary objective in the company’s activities. However, employees’ views on how this could be changed to make it better should be welcomed.
Implementation Steps Four task-base teams: Negotiation, Telephone, Written Correspondence and Recovery. The restructuring of the department ensures that time is saved as employees of the different departments concentrate on specific aspects of the whole process.
Selecting team leaders responsible for the different units and ensuring that the teams adhere to the set departmental goals.
Improvement of the communication between departments and between the employees and their supervisors improves the effectiveness of the employees. They tend to have similar agendas and goals that are propagated by the department heads thus ensuring a common goal.
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Strategic Change Management KPMG Company Case Study college admission essay help
Executive Summary Strategic Change Management has become a strategic role of the management. Various business organizations have come to appreciate the need for change and have designed various methods and approaches of managing change. KPMG is one such organization. It has downed on the management that the market competition requires one to embrace change and ensure that it is creative in order to be in a position to manage market competition.
The firm has brought in all the stakeholders into one community and each given its role to play in the process of change management and implementation strategies. The model that this firm would use in implementing change is Kurt Lewin Model of unfreeze, change and then freeze. Value based organization is the approach to monitor the implementation of change. The strategies must be implemented within appropriate time to yield good results.
Introduction Change is one of the most important factors that an organization must take into consideration when drawing their strategic goals and objectives. Daft (2009, p. 37) simply says that Change is constant. This statement is intriguing yet it is the best definition of change from a philosophical point of view.
Change and constant are two extremes under a normal dictionary definition. However, from an analytical perspective, change is constant. This scholar argues that change brings nothing new. It only enhances what is already in existence. McCarthy and Eastman (2010, p. 23) say, “The overarching purpose of change management is to accelerate the speed at which people move successfully through the change process so that anticipated benefits are achieved faster.”
As such, change should not be viewed as a shift from what is the norm. The only issue is that it brings new methodologies of handing the daily activities. In his book, The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning, Henry Mintzberg (1994), the former leader of the Strategic Management Society, reprimanded himself and others for their sightless adherence to the strategic forecast practice.
His disputation rests with the exploration of the authoritative, scientific explanation to the future. He demonstrates how planning can asphyxiate obligation, constrict an organization’s dream, make change unfeasible, and lead to the politicization of an organization.
His point is based on the principle that “… analysis is not synthesis [and therefore], strategic planning is not strategy formulation” (p. 321). According to this scholar, many managers would agree that change is one of the defining external factors that have huge impact on the organization. The management is always faced with various factors that would demand change in the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a starting point, Griffin (2000) classifies the word management as: “A set of activities (including planning and decision-making, organizing, leading, and controlling) directed at an organization’s resources (human, financial, physical, and informational) with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner” (p. 6).
In the definition, several key concepts are used. Foremost, it is comprehended that management applies “uniformly to public, private, nonprofit, and religious organizations.” Murphy (2002) was of the view that “… management is an organizational phenomenon and not exclusive to the world of profit organizations” (p. 7).
KPMG is one of the leading consulting firms in the world. This American firm has grown and it currently covers several countries in North and South America, Asia, Europe and Africa. The recent entry into Africa, which is considered as the emerging markets, and some parts of Asia, was motivated by the increasing need for consulting firms as many of the businesses in these regions required guidance in a market that has increasingly gotten competitive.
Change is one of the major reasons that are making firms in the corporate world seek guidance. KPMG as a firm has change as one of the factors it has to deal with in order to ensure that it remains relevant in this industry. It must be in a position to demonstrate to the corporate world that it is the master of what it teaches.
Strategic change management to KPMG is not just important to demonstrate to others its prowess, but also to help it beat the market competition and increase its market share both at home and international markets. The need for strategic change management at KPMG has been fanned by the unpredictability of the market.
The market is so unpredictably and change is the agent for this. Because of this, the management of KPMG has come to realize that it may not be in a position to survive in this market if it fails to adopt changes that are brought about by the environmental forces.
Stakeholders of KPMG who are Involved in Change Management DeAnne, Gary, Hyde, and Tipping, (2004, p. 1) note, “Any transformation of significance will create people issues.” KPMG is an American firm that was a culmination of a merger of different consulting firms in 1987. These firms merged upon the realization of the fact that they had a common goal, which could best be achieved by coming together as a unit. Stakeholders of this firm are the agents of change.
We will write a custom Case Study on Strategic Change Management KPMG Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their positions in the firm would define their role in the strategic change management within this firm. In a given firm such as KPMG, there are always three categories of people when it comes to change management. The first category is the initiators of change. These individuals would come up with creative ideas of how to approach some issues within the firm that would result in change. The second group is the implementers of change.
They take instruction on the change strategies as defined by the initiators. This scholar defines the last group in as “the recipients of change.” This group has no role in the initiation or implementation of change. However, they feel the effect of change, either positively or negatively depending on the prevailing circumstances. KPMG has all the three categories of people among its stakeholders. The stakeholders of this firm in the above-mentioned groups can be analyzed as followers.
Initiators of Change
These people are the agents of change. They come up with creative ideas that can be transformed into new strategies. Some of the initiators of change at KPMG are the following categories of office holders.
The Top Management
The top management of KPMG has the biggest role to play in the strategic change management. Goolnik (2006, p. 10) observes that, “a clear vision should be in place at the most senior level(s) so that staff can gain understanding of why change is important and necessary.” They are the most important individuals in the firm in as far as policy generation and implementation is concerned. They are expected to understand the prevailing market forces and determine when change may be needed in the organization.
They are in a better position to understand some of the changing policies in the external business environment of this firm and initiate the same within the firm. As Wilson (1992, p. 14) notes, it is not necessary that every change that a firm implements must be original to it. A firm may borrow some changes from other firms that have successfully implemented them. The top management of this firm therefore has the role of identifying these new strategies and initiating their implementation within the firm.
They are therefore the first initiators of change. The Human Resource Management has the greatest role to play in this regard. Modern Human Resource Management (HRM) is radically different from the human relations movement in the 1920s or from the personnel management practiced decades ago (Carell, Elbert, Hatfield, 1995, p. 12). Today HRM is used to refer to the philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices related to the management of people within an organization (French, 1998). French continues by stating that:
It is now generally accepted that human resources management encompasses a dynamic, organization-wide perspective that is action oriented and based on theory and research from many disciplines and is necessarily interrelated with strategic planning. More and more it is recognized that HRM must be an integral part of the strategic planning of the top executive team of the organization (p. 5).
Research and Development Unit
This is the most important unit when it comes to creativity and innovativeness of the firm. They have the responsibility of scanning the business environment and understanding the forces that are prevailing in the market. They then would determine which of the strategies would best suite the firm in managing market competition.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Change Management KPMG Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They are expected to come up with creative ideas of how KPMG as a consulting firm can reach out to its customers with better services in the increasingly competitive business environment. They would advise the top management accordingly on how the firm should approach strategic change management issues.
General employees of KPMG are also important agents of change. KPMG has been keen to allow all the team members, irrespective of the position they hold, to contribute to factors that affect the organization. The firm recognizes their role in the normal running of this firm and therefore appreciates the need to incorporate them on strategic management plans of the firm.
They can therefore make their contribution on how they feel some issue should be addressed within the firm, which may pass as a change strategy. The shift of the office from the farm to the industrial unit floor can be appreciated in the model of Toffler’s, The Third Wave (Toffler, 1991).
In The Third Wave, Toffler notes if you stride back and look at the main activities of the global societies, there are three major classes or effects in the proceedings of societies. “… flexible manufacturing, niche markets, the spread of part-time work, and the degasification of the media” (Toffler, 1990) Fayol’s points that “all organizations, regardless of mission or culture, are joined to one another by the universal process that is designed to focus the energy of an organization in order to accomplish a common purpose”.
The government plays a very important role in strategic change management of any firm within the country. According to Taborda (2011, p. 78), although the government may not be seen to be playing direct roles in the process of defining the path taken by the firm, it always has a great impact on the same.
A firm like KPMG cannot operate in a vacuum. It operates within a country with a government, which has its policies of how such firms should operate. These government policies change with the changing environmental factors. When the government changes its policies and such changes have effect on KPMG, then this firm would have very little but to implement the changes as specified by the government.
For a long time, customers have always been on the receiving end of change. They would always wait to be presented with products, some of which were not suiting their needs. However, the current marketplace is very different. Customers are more knowledgeable and more demanding.
Marketing has moved from the traditional inward out approach to outward in. firm must therefore develop products that have the capacity to meet the changing needs of customers. Customers have therefore moved from the recipients of change to initiators of the same.
Implementers of Change These individuals would affect the changes as suggested by the initiators of change. As Anderson (2011, p. 16) says, in most companies, KPMG included, the initiators of change are always part of the implementers of the same.
McGregor (1957) in his typical book, The Human Side of Enterprise, stated:
“Management is severely hampered today in its attempts to innovate with respect to the human side of enterprise by the inadequacy of conventional organization theory (p. 245). The management plays a very important role in the implementation of change within the organization.
Given their role of co-coordinating and controlling, this unit has the duty of explaining change to the employees and directing them on how these change strategies should be addressed. As such, they have the responsibility of understanding the strategies before explaining them to the employees. They are also the financiers of the policies of the organization. They have a role of ensuring that proper finance is allocated to the implementation of the strategies.
Sharma (2008, p. 26) says that the employees have the greatest role to play in the implementation of change strategies. They are the implementers of the firm’s strategies.
They have a duty to ensure that they understand the organizational objectives. They should therefore know how to intertwine the change strategies and the general goals and objectives of the firm. They would receive the policies from the management and implement them in a manner that would generate maximum benefits to the firm’s customers and shareholders.
The Recipient of Change
As explained above, these individuals are neither the initiators nor implementers of change. Recipients of change may not necessarily involve those individuals that have no role in the initiation or implementation of change. According to this scholar, both the initiators and implementers of change may also pass as the recipients of the same if they are affected by this change, which is always the case. As such, all the above stakeholders may be considered as recipients of change under different contexts.
The management would be the recipient of change if the same affects the general growth of the firm either positively or negatively. The employees would be recipients if the process would result in benefit increment or change of position held in the firm. Customers would definitely be the recipients through the benefits they would receive from the changed strategies of the firm.
The competitors would be recipients if the change would also force them to redefine their own strategies. The government would be the recipient if the change would result in a downward or upward adjustment of the tax they receive from the firm. The organization as a whole would also be considered a recipient of change. This is because the organization would be subject to change in the production levels and styles and the general new product proposition it would assume in the market.
The structures would also feel the effect of change. In every organization, there are various structures that are always put in place to serve various tasks, for instance, the structures put in place at the sales unit. The structures may need to be restricted to reflect new picture of the firm. Generally, the entire system would have to be restructured. The new design would have to redefine the relationship of the stakeholders in the organization and the new roles that they would play.
In the implementation process however, care should be taken to avoid chaos at all the stages. Chaos can be the most destructive factor in change management. Chaos as defined in an older dictionary is “A condition of utter disorder and confusion, as the unformed primal state of the universe” (Funk and Wagnalls, 1940, p. 208).
In a more recent attempt to define the concept, Coveney and Highfield term it as “Unpredictable and apparently random behavior in dynamic systems” (1995, p. 425). In the latter definition, we can see a loosening of the fixed order of the world that was embedded in the first definition. Such scientists laid the foundation as Newton who accepted a fixed-order world as the ideal of objective knowledge (Prigogine, 1996, p.2).
A tenet of the Industrial Age was that some grand design of the universe that needed to be discovered existed. However, current writers and thinkers in the area of systems thinking and Chaos Theory argue that no such fixed design exists.
In fact, writers like Prigogine (1996) now define chaos as “the behavior of systems in which close trajectories separate exponentially in time” (p. 201). It is therefore the roles of everyone to understand the need for change, and cooperate in the process of its implementation. This would ensure smooth process of implementation.
Strategies Available for Change Management
Government Office for the South West (2004, p. 43) states, “It is worth recalling what we are trying to achieve.” It should be clear to the team why change is important and what the same would achieve.
There are giant American companies that were brought to their feet either due to the failure to adopt changes that were needed, or implemented the same, but in a wrong way. Whichever the case, the underlying fact is that change is fixed factor in any organization whose implementation should be done in a conscious manner that would make the firm remain competitive in the market. Rogers Adopters Theory provides the best available strategies that are available for change management. The categories are as follows:
This strategy requires individuals who have great desires for new ideas. It requires audacity and the willingness to pay for the consequences of the change. When implemented, the firm would implement changes as soon as they are availed in the business environment. This strategy would be the best for KPMG, but the consequences may outweigh the benefits. As such, many firms shy away from it because of the possible negative consequences. The popularity of this strategy is rated at 2.5 percent.
Early adoption theory would involve embracing change early enough to be able to reap maximally from it, but after analyzing the consequences that are involved. Early adoption is good, but as innovators, a firm may not have reference to other firms which had implemented the strategy before. As such, many firms would shy away from it for the fear of the unknown. However, given the nature of KPMG, this would be the best strategy that should be employed by this firm in the process of managing change.
The early majority would adopt change before the average members have, but will take precautions by keenly monitoring how the innovators and early adapters were affected by the change. Although very popular, this strategy is dangerous to an innovative company like KPMG because by the time it would be implementing the change, it might be too late to be competitive in the market.
Late majority are individuals who appreciate that change is necessary, but would want to evade any negative consequences of the same. They would therefore wait for others to implement change and confirm that the consequences are positive. They prefer going through the trodden path. This strategy may not work for KPMG because this industry is very dynamic and by taking this approach, it would always be several steps behind market standards.
Kratschmer (2011, p. 19) describe this category of individuals as tradition keepers. They would want to maintain status quo, and because of this, they would fight any change in the organization. This may not be considered a strategy for change management, but passes as one because it seeks to fight the same. Those who hold this strategy would always be suspicious of change and all the change agents. This is the worst of the strategies of change management.
Stakeholders Role in the Implementation of Change Management Strategy Sirkin, Keenan, and Jackson (2005 p. 2) say, “Managing change is tough, but part of the problem is that there is little agreement on what factors most influence transformation initiatives.” As stated above, the best strategy would be the early adoption. Various stakeholders would have different roles in this strategy. The management has the duty to understand the concept put forth in the specific change item in order to create awareness of the same among employees.
The management is also responsible for funding the entire process of the implementation of the change. The employees should be flexible enough to adjust to issues concerning change management. They have the responsibility of positively responding to change and ensuring that the policies of change are well taken and are appropriately implemented. The government, though may not have direct responsibility to the firm, should ensure that the business environment is kept safe.
System of Involving the Stakeholders in Planning of Strategic Change A system refers to a collection of different units or subsystems, which work as a unit to accomplish a given objective. KPMG as an organization is a system made up of different stakeholders each with different duties all aimed at ensuring the firm’s strategic goals and objectives are achieved. The diagram below shows the stakeholders in this system, as well as how they are related.
As shown in the above diagram, the system involves all the members of the organization in their various capacities. In this system, change would be effected from the top management, and the lower cadre employees would be doing the implementation activities. The system should be well coordinated in a way that no unit will clash with the other in the process of implementation of change strategies. The management of KPMG must clearly set the overall goals and objectives of the firm.
This should be made known to all members of the organization. The overall objective would be to create a positive differential change to customers. The management would therefore create a system that would act as a wheel.
The management (both top and mid level management) would form systems, while the junior employees would form subsystems. In this wheel, the management should transfer a desirable rotation to the employees that would make them (the employees) rotate the customers in favor of the organization. This is demonstrated in the diagram below.
All members would share the new objectives, which would redefine the mission of the firm, in the firm. As seen in the case study, the last and very important part is the implementation of the shared mission. The management should identify various teams and assign them different roles that would help accomplish the objective of the organization.
The management should consider developing units within the firm, with each unit having their own specific duties. The stakeholders should fit into the units, with each unit having specified role to play in the overall policy implementation process. The management can also consider having each specific stakeholder assigned his or her own role within the firm to be achieved within a specified period.
Resistance to Change In many occasions, change would meet a lot of resistance from those who want to maintain status quo. They would ensure that all efforts are directed towards derailing change. Change can be resisted in a number of ways. The first type of resistance to change may involve adoption of the laggard approach to change. Such an individual would try to cling to the traditional ways of operation as much as is possible.
Another approach may involve refusal to cooperate in the process of working as a system to implement change. The management can also resist change by failing to advocate for the same to the employees. They can also resist change by failing to allocate enough finance for the same.
The best way to manage any form of resistance is to make every member of the organization understand the need for, and the urgency with which change is needed. The management should ensure that all stakeholders are brought on board in the process of implementing change. They should be allowed to share their views and fears about change so that the concerned authorities may address it.
Plans for Implementation of Change Management Strategies Appropriate Model for Change
A number of models for change that are used by various organizations, given different scenarios exist. Some of the most popular models of change include ADKAR Model for change, Stephen Covey Seven Habits Model, Kubler Ross Stages of Change and Kurt Lewin’s Strategy of Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze.
These strategies are suitable in different scenario. They have their own advantages and disadvantages that makes each most suitable in different applications. Given the scenario of KPM, the best model would be Kurt Lewin’s three staged Model of Change Management of Unfreeze, Change, and then Freeze.
Unfreeze is the first stage where the firm would need to appreciate that given the current market forces, there is need for change. As such, every member of the organization prepares psychologically for a possible change. After unfreezing, the next step is change. The members, having accepted the need for change, would embrace the same and adopt new strategies brought about by change.
The freezing stage, also known as refreezing, involves establishing stability after the adoption of change.
Plan for the Implementation of the Model
KPMG has a healthy business environment. It must choose the best strategy that would best suit all the stakeholders in the implementation of the above-mentioned model of change. Value Based organization would be the best strategy for this firm. The first principle in this strategy is to embrace community spirit.
All the stakeholders should view themselves as members of a larger community. The community should embrace open and honest communication and there should be agreement in the values of the organization. The organizational structure should be flexible to allow for adjustments in the process of implementation.
Measures for the Implementation of Change Model
There are measures that should be put in place to ensure that the implementation of change model is successful. The first measure is that there should be a clear procedure of monitoring change. Baekdal, Hansen, Todbjerg and Mikkelsen (2006, p. 7) say, “All models are guidelines.
You should always evaluate the relevance of each individual step vs. your situation and your project. Large projects often demands detailed analysis and documentation, while small projects can be finished with much lesser work.” The concerned individuals should know the basis of objectives and goals of the organization. With this, they should assess the effect of change against what was expected.
The second measure is that the implementing parties should have a clear timeline set for the achievement of various objectives. There should be regular meetings to review the success of the organization. Another measure is that the management should set short-term manageable objectives to be achieved within a given timeline.
A mechanism through which objectives would be measured should exist. This way, it would be easy for the management to determine if the implementation process is effective, or if some changes might be necessary. Above all, the stakeholders should all be made to appreciate the need for change and the potential benefits that may accrue from the same.
Conclusion In a business set up, the top management is always under a constant challenge of planning how to manage change. Strategic change management has become one of the strategic duties of a firm. It is considered strategic because it affects the entire firm from the top management to the junior most employees, and all the departments of the firm.
Change management is considered as strategic because, just like strategic goals and objectives, change should be initiated by the top management of the organization and channeled to other employees of the organization. Older members of the society, especially those that have already gotten used to a certain way of doing things may not find it easy to shed their normal ways of approaching their duties.
They are used to the normal methods and fear that they may not be in a position to adapt to these changes fast enough and as such would be seen as incompetent. KPMG has the duty to implement change management strategies that would help it manage market competition. Change must involve all the stakeholders in the organization for success to be achieved. KPMG must incorporate all its stakeholders and assign them different roles in the process of implementing change.
Kurt Lewin’s three staged Model of Change Management of Unfreeze, Change, and then Freeze is the best strategy of implementing change in this organization. With a positive attitude towards change management among the stakeholders, KPMG will always be a step ahead of competition in the market.
List of References Anderson, M 2011, Bottom-Line Organization Development: Implementing and Evaluating Strategic Change for Lasting Value, Elsevier, Burlington.
Baekdal, T, Hansen, K, Todbjerg L
Capital budgeting projects Essay college application essay help
Introduction Capital budgeting is the process assumed by a firm to make long-term decisions, which have a direct effect on the investment of the company or business for that matter. It determines whether an organization’s long-term objectives are worth pursuing and budgets on the substantial capital investment of a business and the expenditures.
Capital budgeting projects generate the cash flows for years. Any capital budgeting project can be accepted or rejected depending on its effect on the net value and internal rate of return method (Good pasture, 2004). Some characteristics of capital budgeting projects may cause the net present value and the rate of return method to the ranking of the projects to be extremely differently.
Characteristics of mutually exclusive capital budgeting projects In mutually exclusive budgeting projects, only one of the projects is chosen. The selection is in accordance to the effect on Net Present value and internal rate of return. However, these characteristics do not consider the future cash flows of the business in the future. As a result, the flow of cash, if discounted comparing with the cost of capital, is not effective. This event is extraordinarily dangerous because the project may not last for a long time (Brigham
Fiscal Policy in an Economic Downturn Since 2008 Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Economic Stimulus Plan
Classical and Keynesian Approaches
Economic Stimulus Plan The world has been experiencing an economic recession since 2008. As a result, the economies of many countries around the world were affected in a negative way. To respond to this recession, the United States government came up with an economic stimulus plan that aimed at controlling inflation.
However, the expectations of this fiscal policy were not realized since the level of unemployment and inflation are relatively high. To resolve this problem, the government in conjunction with the congress has proposed a new stimulus plan worth $200 billion. Just like the predecessor, this fiscal policy will aim at reducing the unemployment rate and maintaining an affordable price level for the goods and services offered within the country.
The 2008 recession was characterized by massive employee lay-offs especially in the private sector (Patil, 2012). Firms within the private sector sought to lay-off their employees as a means of cutting down operating costs. Some of these companies filed for bankruptcy due to massive debts.
This left millions of US citizens unemployed. Thus, to stabilize this situation, the government should make direct investment to rejuvenate the operations of these companies. This would increase the level of employment and the economic situation as a whole. This plan should also focus on cutting down bank lending rates. Increment of bank lending rates is one of the monetary measures that is use to curb inflation (Patil, 2012).
However, this reduces the disposable income available for investments. Thus, by reducing the lending rates, individuals can take loans to start small and medium sized enterprises. This will not only reduce the level of unemployment but it will also improve the status of the economy.
Finally, a fair proportion of the money should be used to reduce taxation rates and on tax rebates. This should mainly focus on loans and mortgages offered by public institutions. This will increase the disposable income of individuals encouraging investments and savings.
With this economic stimulus plan in operation, the government shall be able to increase the aggregate demand of the US economy. Increase in the employment rates shall be one of the results of this plan. Additionally, the government shall be able to stabilize the prices of goods and services within the nation. This will encourage expenditure thus increasing the amount of money in circulation. In the long run, the economic growth rate shall increase and stabilize at an optimum level.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Classical and Keynesian Approaches According to the classical theory, economic imbalance is the main cause of recession. The theory further states that the economy is a self-sustaining unit and in case of an imbalance, it will automatically adjust itself to an equilibrium (Patil, 2012). Thus, according to classical economists, the current high unemployment rate is as a result of a low number of people who are willing to work at the current price level.
Thus, to reduce this rate, the government should increase the wage rate that will in turn increase the number of people who are willing to work. This will in turn increase the demand for employees hence reducing unemployment. Keynesian theory on the other hand is slightly different. According to this theory, the best way a government can control inflation is by increasing the level of spending and reducing tax levels (Patil, 2012). This will increase the disposable income of individuals hence increasing the aggregate demand.
Conclusion Given the Classical and Keynesian approaches, it is evident that the Keynesian approach is more practical. This is because the price levels of an economy are rigid unlike the Classical approach assumptions of flexibility. Thus, to control the recession, the government needs to come up with measures and policies that will have impact on the entire economy and not specific sectors only. Therefore, this stimulus plan should focus on reducing taxes and encourage of spending.
Reference Patil, S. (2012). Classical Economics vs. Keynesian Economics. Retrieved from https://wealthhow.com/classical-economics-vs-keynesian-economics
Telecommunication and Computer Networking in Healthcare Research Paper essay help
Overview of the healthcare and security systems Information security as well as well as privacy in the health sector is an issue whose prominence has been swelling day by day. Healthcare sectors have been called to adopt information technology systems to aid in speeding activities and securing records. Efforts to adopt information technology in healthcare have been practiced for a long time. Several developments point to the need for better security systems in healthcare.
These developments include the use of patient records that are digitalized, the consolidation of healthcare providers and the rise in healthcare regulation. Also, there has been an increasing need for the exchange of healthcare information between healthcare providers, patients and healthcare institutions. All these developments are strongly bonded on security thus making security a paramount issue in healthcare (Symantec, 2009).
Information systems are seen as the available and efficient options of improving the quality of services and security of information transfer and exchange in the healthcare sector. Many countries, including the United States, have created strategies to adopt automated systems in healthcare. Therefore, a lot of research has been done about how best information systems can be incorporated to improve information exchange and security (Appari
Business layout for manufacturing organizations Essay college essay help: college essay help
Layout is important to a number of manufacturing organizations as every business yearns to reduce duration in the flow of materials and staff. Layout decisions are critical to management as it dictates production environment, capacity, material handling and information flow within the organization. Some of the layout methods include; fixed position, office, retail, process oriented, warehouse and product oriented layout. To reach optimality within organizations, it is important to have proper communications within the facility.
Wheeled coach ambulance applies a combination of assembly line and work layout supported by skilled personnel and tools. The assembly begins with the identification of the clients and every relevant department ensures that the vehicle is given work orders in time.
The aluminum manufacturing department ensures that it avails the necessary materials within five days, and subsequently passes it to paint department which takes approximately three days. During this time the upholstery department begins stitching process as the Plexiglas department makes the interior cabinet, doors and metal frames.
The carpentry department prepares the timber and the countertop material besides building the cabinet that goes into the vehicle. The electrical department assembles the wire harness with the connection of medical, electrical and ventilators. After all the installation is done in a sequential manner, a thorough check follows to ensure that the right product is presented to the client.
As Palmer hospital was approaching almost 90,000 deliverables per year, there was a need for expansion of the premises to accommodate their clients and minimizing the distances covered by the staff. The management therefore designed a radical work cell that organizes people into small groupings to ensure that effort is concentrated.
The designed pod which incorporates strong patient centered service gate has computerized systems and elevators used in service delivery. Though it was perceived as a radical project and staffs were skeptical about it, they later appreciated the efficiency it brought.
Aero maintenance is small aircraft Maintenance Company in Wichita. The company uses layout method which entails, summing up all the trips between the departments. Aero maintenance has 8 departments which include; entrance, receiving, parts, metallurgy, break down, assembly, inspection and test. It also has 8 work areas with each department assigned to each work area, characterized by high materials flow.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a great need to minimize the material flow in all these departments and get an optimum flow. To achieve optimality, the company can establish aero current layout flow, and then compute the material movement using the flow within the departments. The aero flow distance can be reduced by switching departments without interfering with quality which will give a better solution to the company.
People working in assembly line includes; those making athletic shoes in China, hamburgers in New York city and those making Boeing Aircraft planes in Seattle. When producing any product it is necessary to recognize time constraints before balancing. The solution adopted here involves dividing the overall time taken with the duration required to complete production so as to get the required number of work stations.
This should be done without violating the work relationships. The solution proposes that all the designed stations must be situated in such a way that they categorically follow another. The method ensures efficiency which is obtained by dividing total task time by the number of work stations multiplied by the largest time taken during production.
An Exploration of Structural Changes in the Economy And Labour Market Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Anthias (2007) and Griffith (1998) argue that, post-industrialization marks the transition where service sector offers more revenue than the manufacturing sector in specific nations. In the 19th century during the industrial age, Britain was the leading nation in industrialization. Britain had founded its empire on the mercantilism era where it emphasized on in-side trading and suppressed any rival empires.
The mercantile economic theory was founded on the principle of ensuring collaboration between the merchants and the Britain in order to enhance private wealth and political power by segregation of other empires. In order to enforce the mercantile theory, the British government sheltered its merchants and segregated others through regulations, trade barriers, and subsidiaries of local industries. These measures favoured local industries and suppressed foreign industries.
However, as time elapsed there was a need to collaborate in trading. The emergence and propagation of globalization favoured other nations that were more recipient to the changing economic evolvement. Nations such as Germany, United States and Japan overtook Britain in the international trading.
This happened during the Fordism period where many industries evolved from large static organisations with stable markets to small dynamic firms with specialized markets. The shift-attracted mass production and economy of scale became the competing factor.
According to Held (1999) and Herman (1999), the continuous proliferations of globalization lead to an increased competition because of consumers’ access of many varieties of products/services. Of late, there has been a great evolvement of the trade policy pursued by the EU.
The EU has continuous loosened their tight regulations by tariffs and quotas to embrace non-tariffs barriers to trade, as well as single market. The EU trading policy are known for being committed towards specific policy issues that entail gender relations, social policy, labour protection and environmental sustainability that greatly curtail free trade international.
The demand for high quality, low costs and shorter period for production because of globalization and market liberalization has called for outsourcing of some services as well as high participation of women in the labour market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whereas Herman (1997) associate American firms in opting for outsourcing most of their services in response to the current stiff global competition, Hurrell (2000) argue that firms in Europe and particularly the UK respond by attracting young and educated personnel from foreign countries to come and boost their slow economy.
The Europe economy is slow because of low birth rate associated with high level of older working population, which is too slow to support the inactive group. Nonetheless, there has been great trade integration worldwide despite the EU reluctant participation (See appendix 15)
Identifying and discussing features of UK economy and how structural changes have affected the labour market and HR policies
According to Boeri
Emirates Airline: The Secrets of the Legends Success Proposal best essay help
Executive Summary This proposal outlines the secret of the Emirates Airlines’ success. The first part provides information on how the airline has managed to reach out to six continents using global integration and local responsiveness strategies. The paper also points out how the global strategy has poised the Dubai based airline for international success.
Finally, the proposal paints the success picture of Emirates Airlines with respect to several factors. These factors include profitability, environmental and social responsibility, and the “Hello Tomorrow” marketing initiative. The latter is considered to be one of the most creative promotion campaigns in the market.
Introduction Emirates Airlines is one of the fastest growing corporations in the world today (Roberts 2012). The airline is part of the larger Dubai based Emirates Group of companies. The group is composed of four companies which include Emirates SkyCargo and Emirates Airlines (Datamonitor 2012).
The other two companies are Dnata and Emirates Holiday (Datamonitor 2012). The Emirates Group was started in 1985 and has expanded over the years. It is noted that today, Emirates Airlines flies to over 120 destinations in six continents (Datamonitor 2012).
On May 2011, one of the largest airlines in the world (Air France- KLM) announced losses that have never been recorded in the aviation industry before. At the same time, Emirates Airlines had just placed an order for 32 Airbus 380 jumbo jets in addition to 2,000 new crew members to support the operations and growth of the company in the same year.
Between March 2010 and May 2011, Emirates had increased its total number of planes from 146 to 165. These are some of the indications of the successful performance of the company in a market that is very unpredictable. The company has some of the youngest planes operating in the industry today. It has received more than 310 awards for its exemplary performance in the industry.
This proposal aims at outlining the secrets of this success. In the proposed study, the researcher will analyse the factors behind the success of the company. This is especially so given the fact that the aviation industry is one of the most unpredictable and volatile industries in the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of these challenges, the company has continued to record positive growth in profits. It is also one of the most competitive industries in the world. The proposed study will also try to analyse the factors that differentiates the company from the competitors in such a competitive environment.
Local Responsiveness and Global Integration Large companies like Emirates Airlines are charged with the responsibility of striking a balance between local responsiveness and global integration in order to attain the kind of success that has been witnessed in the company. Local responsiveness is the ability of a global corporation to efficiently respond to certain needs in host countries it is operating from.
At the same time, the corporation should have global subsidiaries that are differentiated to confront the different business practices, markets and cultures abroad. Globalization has created both opportunities and tensions for global corporations. Emirates Airlines has taken full advantage of the opportunities while managing the tensions effectively (Underhill
Future of Low Cost Carriers in the Gulf Cooperation Council Region Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Abstract It is axiomatic to argue that the future of Low Cost Carriers (LCC) in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) has been a concern to the business community in the recent past. The need to deregulate the air transport within the cooperation is one of the major steps towards improving the operations of LCCs.
Being one of the market leaders; GCC has in the past adopted all the possible mechanisms to liberate the market to enhance quality and affordable services. Through this research, some of the questions which come up when discussing low cost carriers are tackled and they include; the probability of deregulation of air industry coming to GCC and how long it will take.
The impact of integration and how it will change competition between airlines, Role of International community particularly AACO in deregulating the GCC, The development plans of airports in the region and how it supports the growth of LCC, competition strategy, product strategy, marketing and network amongst leading LCCs within GCC carriers, just to mention a few.
These areas of scrutiny lead to a number of findings which are discussed in the discussion area in relation to literature. The paper also presents a number of recommendations in relation to the findings of the research.
Introduction Low cost carriers are considered by many investors as a key variable in improving economic growth and subsequent development in the development. (Jan
Toby diagnosed: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Issues faced by the student
Strategies to be used to assist the child
Summary and conclusion
Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that occurs during the early development of children. It is whereby an individual has both attentional issues and experiences hyperactivity. Both of these behaviours occur separately and infrequently. They may start to occur earlier than seven years of age.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most studied psychiatric disorders in children. It is believed to affect approximately five percent of children around the world. This disorder may be chronic as it extends to the victim’s adulthood.
The symptoms of the disorder are usually similar to those of other disorder and this increases the risks of misdiagnosing it or missing it all together. The treatment of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder requires proper training. Many clinicians have not received formal training for treating the adults suffering from the disorder and this is one of the drawbacks.
Adults and adolescents suffering from this disorder normally develop compensation mechanisms (accommodations) for their problems. A large number of populations around the world live successfully with the disorder. Some studies suggested that boys are more frequently diagnosed with the disorder than girls are.
However, it is disputable that this irregularity is caused by the subjective biasness of the teachers. ADHD may be managed using a combination of interventions. They range from medicine administration, lifestyle changes, counselling and behavioural modifications.
Toby has been diagnosed with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, behaviour disorder and lack of decoding skills. This has caused him to have disruptive behaviour in class. He also has problems learning and does not complete assignments. Some of the other social problems that Toby experiences include being teased for being a short boy and wearing large glasses.
He is also over active and this makes students laugh at him and tease him even more. It is important that he receives help from the teachers and parents so that some of his behaviours (disruptive and inappropriate behaviour) can be minimized. This would also be important in order to ensure that he is able to learn and complete the assigned class work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issues faced by the student Toby has been determined to have issues with decoding (lack of decoding skills). This is common in people suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This is because the disorder is associated with major deficits in executive functions. The student lacks the ability to perform cognitive functions that are necessary to perform problem solving.
Research suggests that children suffering from the disorder are slow and experience more varied response speeds when it comes to performing tasks that require reasoning (decoding skills) (Shanahan, Yerys,