HSBC Bank Middle East Motivation Models And Workers Performance Report A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction The driving force behind any employee’s increased performance is enthusiasm. Essentially, motivation is the ability to enable employees achieves the desired goal. Therefore, managers have a responsibility of finding the explanations that inspires their personnel to increase their productivity (Andrews and Rose 241).

Studies indicate a correlation that exist enthusiasm and employees’ increased efficiency. In other words, factors that negatively affect motivation of employees in the workplace have also been found to have detrimental impacts on the employees’ productivity.

Essentially, enthusiasm at the workplace plays a significant role in influencing individual output since it affects the physical and intellectual potentials of the personnel. Moreover, the maintenance of workers’ motivation enhances the ability of employees to perform the physical and mental responsibilities to the optimal levels.

Management relating factors such as compensation system of the organisation, management structure, leadership style as well as other related work processes increases motivation on the employees. The way these factors affect the employees’ productivity remains critical to the attainment of the goals of an organisation.

Therefore, understanding the relationship between the motivating factors and the productivity of employees as well as the way related variables affect this relationship is significant to the organisations’ success. As a result, diverse observations have been developed to find out what motivates human resources in the workplace.

The paper tends to examine how organisations utilise various motivational models to increases job satisfaction and performance. In particular, the paper tends to evaluate how HSBC bank Middle East is applying motivational theories to motivate its workers in order to attain increased productivity and desired performance. In fact, various factors affect motivation of workers within an organisation. The factors can be understood through the application of various motivational models.

Essentially, the report provides an analysis of how various motivation models has been applied by HSBC bank Middle East to achieve the desired workers job satisfaction, increased productivity and performance within the workplace. Besides, the paper hypothesise that HSBC bank Middle East is utilising various motivational theories to achieve the desired workers job satisfaction, increased productivity and performance within the workforce.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Review As indicated, appreciation forms the deepest principle of human nature. In essence, recognising the efforts of employees, the provision of succession prospects to the personnel and enhancing job commitment and dedication among employees are ways through which employees can be motivated.

Further, the depths of individual human beings as well as their devotion to deliver tremendous output in the operation of an organisation contribute immensely in the competitive ability of the firm (Andrews and Rose 241). In fact, the performance levels of personnel play very significant roles in increasing the firm’s competitive advantage. Several factors affect employees’ job performance. For instance, motivation is considered to influence employee performance.

Firms often apply different concepts and models to explain the methods of motivation to increase the employees’ performance. In fact, employees are highly motivated when their interests are taken into consideration. In essence, the driving force behind any employee’s performance is enthusiasm.

Therefore, any organisation must adopt practices that inspire personnel to increase their productivity. Various organisation models of motivation are explained through a range of suppositions including the process theories of motivation, expectancy and equity theories, human needs and goal setting. Organisations can use the combination of these theories to establish models of motivation.

Motivational models Content theories of motivation or the theories of human needs

Essentially, the content theories tend to examine the human factors that are likely to motivate employees. Factors such as the human instincts, satisfaction and job characteristics are identified by the theories. Generally, the theory of human needs centers on the workers’ emotional desires. Maslows’ hierarchy of needs, management assumption or the (Theory X and Theory Y), Alderfers’s ERG theory, McClelland’s needs theory and Herzberg’s two-factor theory advance content or theories of human needs.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow put forward the theory centering on the workers’ emotional needs. As a result, there are five levels of needs required by the employees in order to fulfill their wants (Locke 37). The idea proposed a hierarchy of needs varying from essential and physiological needs such as hunger, to the elevated ranked ones including self–esteem as well as self-actualisation. In fact, the recognition of such needs by employers leads to improved outcomes.

The benefits offered by the organisation provide essential as well as other needs of the employees. Most importantly, working in the organisation enables employees to achieve self-actualisation. In fact, self-actualisation is attained in various ways within an organisation including the ability to set personal goals and ways through which they can be achieved. The organisation must establish a set of programs that value workers together with their efforts.

We will write a custom Report on HSBC Bank Middle East Motivation Models and Workers Performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Herzberg’s two-factor theory

Herzberg presented two levels of needs that should be met in order to be satisfied. Herzberg categorised human needs into two factors that include hygiene needs and the motivators. The hygiene needs are the basic needs that have to be met by the organisation to increase workers satisfaction and motivation. On the other hand, motivators are set of needs that are needed to be met in order to increase the employees’ satisfaction.

According to Herzberg, the hygiene needs are the dissatisfying or extrinsic factors that should be taken into greater consideration by the organisation in order to satisfy the workers. The extrinsic factors directly relate to motivation and job satisfaction. The extrinsic or dissatisfying factors include administrative policies, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations salary, status, job security and personal life. Conversely, satisfying or intrinsic factors enhances individual fulfillment. Satisfying or intrinsic factors include achievements, recognition, work processes, responsibility, advancements and growth.

Alderfers’s ERG theory

ERG motivation theory as advanced by Clayton Alderfer is a simplification of the Maslow’s theory of motivation into three wide-ranging classes. The classes of needs include the existence needs, relatedness needs and growth needs. The existence needs are those wants that are necessary for the existence of the individual.

The existence needs ranges from psychological to needs required for physical purposes. The relatedness needs are the aspirations that workers require to sustain important interpersonal interactions. The growth needs are the requirements for individual growth and development.

McClelland’s needs theory

The theory of acquired needs as advanced by McClelland asserts that the desires of an individual determine their motivating factors. In other words, employees are motivated differently depending on their needs.

According to the theory, employees whose aims are high should be assigned challenging tasks with attainable objectives. Such employees are also supposed to be rewarded for the performance of hard tasks. In support of the changes in the management of employees in the firm, the theory suggests that employees with good relation abilities are high performers in an environment that encourage cooperation.

Process theories of motivation

Apart from content motivational models or theories of human needs, process theories of motivation look into the processes that influence the employees’ motivation. The processes theories classify internal factors and cognition that influence an individual towards attaining the desired outcome. Process theories have been advanced by Adams equity theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory and the theory of goal setting.

Vroom’s expectancy theory

The expectancy theory as advanced by Vroom asserts that a person become motivated when personal preferences are met. In fact, Vroom asserts that that the expectations of an individual are arranged in order of preferences. The perceived expectation with higher value or outcome should be met in order to enhance personal commitment and productivity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on HSBC Bank Middle East Motivation Models and Workers Performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In other words, an employee motivation is determined by personal perception and preference. The theory argues that individuals have diverse personal preferences for various outcomes. Individuals place value on the desired outcome or rewards. Personal preference is the emphasis of receiving the reward. The major weakness of the theory is that the value attached to a goal or reward is subjective since it varies with an individual.

Locke’s goal-setting theory

Goal setting theory as advanced by Edwin Locke argues that clear goals and appropriate feedback is a powerful motivating factor foe the employees. In other words, the theory is about setting clear goals and the manner in which the goals can help create task and strategies in order to attain the outcome.

The model argues that the attainment of the objectives of assigned tasks depends largely on the task performance. According to the model, employees will always pursue challenging and specific tasks with clear feedback. In essence, the set goals define individual employees’ efforts required to perform the given task (Locke 37). The model works well in an environment where employees set their own goals and ways through which such objectives can be attained.

Allowing employees to perform own job evaluation also indicate the application of the model. Further, the employees are left to suggest the best ways they can achieve their own objectives. Through the practice, employees are encouraged to be their own leaders and in effect motivate them towards attaining individual as well as the firm’s goals.

Other elements of motivation Even though various models have been advanced to explain how workers can be motivated to achieve the expected outcome through rewards, other factors including monetary and non-monetary also contributes towards enhancing motivation and improved performance. Besides, various models argue that reward systems and methods are critical in determining the workers performance. However, direct compensation in terms of monetary rewards is a significant motivating factor.

Compensation system of the firm should be geared towards enhancing the employees’ performance. Forms of monetary compensation such as commissions, piece rate and overtime contribute hugely towards enhancing the workers performance. In other words, the importance of monetary rewards cannot be undermined. Monetary rewards help employees meet the basic and desired needs. Essentially, monetary rewards can be used to induce employees in order to continue working for the organisation.

Conversely, non-monetary rewards are also applied by organisations to motivate workers towards attaining the desired goal. Non-monetary rewards such as empowerment, teamwork and participation have been found to have greater influence on the employees’ outcome.

Empowerment involves allowing workers a greater autonomy on their work processes. In other words, workers should be allowed to have greater freedom and power to control their own working processes. Team working is organising the workers into groups, setting goals and providing rewards for attaining the set goals or targets. Participation involves allowing employees to participate in organisational decision-making process.

The non-monetary rewards in employees’ motivation are in line with the Mayo’s theory of human relations. Human relations concept stresses on the importance of society’s requirements to employees’ motivation. In other words, the theory argues that the personnel are not only inspired by the remunerations but also by social needs during the execution of responsibilities.

The concept concentrates on the bosses’ role of recognising employees as people with valuable views as well as their pleasure in relations with one another (Beck 208). In addition, managers are supposed to put more consideration on employees’ social needs. In reality, employees should be given opportunity to provide suggestions on how they can achieve the objectives of the assigned tasks.

The allusion that employees are allowed to set own goals and targets as well as the firm’s responsibility helps workers achieve own set of goals. Further, in a firm, the management teams are supposed to inspire and empower the employees towards the attainment of the set objectives.

Analysis The effectiveness of the firm’s motivating practices can be assessed by the conduct and the views of the employees. The employees’ motivating practices enable firms to attain the set objectives. Additionally, the provision of incentives by the firm attracts as well as retains highly skilled and talented employees. Organisations should continue using motivating practices to attract talented employees and enhance their performance.

Moreover, the firms should enhance teamwork approach to challenging tasks in order to motivate employees. Embracing teamwork and increased involvement of managers in looking after the interests of workers greatly boost trust and interpersonal skills among the personnel (Beck 208).

Concerning the development of trust and interpersonal skills among employees, the organisation should ensure affirmative fairness. In essence, the leader should communicate evaluation standards as well as assessment points to the workforce for fairness and trust among employees. Finally, the firm’s human resources manager should embrace diversity in workplace in order to enhance the motivational effectiveness.

The changes that normally occur in the management of employees can be explained by Maslow and Herzberg theories of motivation. Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg put forward the theory centering on the workers’ emotional needs.

As a result, Maslow introduced five levels of needs required by the employees to have their job complete. The idea proposed a hierarchy of needs varying from essential, physiological such as hunger, to the elevated ranked ones such as the needs of self–esteem as well as those of self-actualisation. Recognition of such needs by employers leads to improved outcomes.

In fact, organisations such as HSBC bank Middle East management of employees can be evaluated through the application of the theories. Essentially, whether HSBC bank Middle East has met the needs of the employees can be evaluated from the employees’ perspective. However, HSBC bank Middle East has achieved the prospect of maintaining the employees and increased productivity in the recent past.

Just like the other motivation theories, Maslow’s theory is equally vital in explaining the trust the HSBC bank Middle East has build on its employees as well as in rewarding system. Identifying employees’ individual places in the ladder of needs ensures the creation of terms that make it possible for the employees to acquire such needs through their endeavors (Andrews and Rose 291).

The firm’s management achieves this through identifying that not all employees move up the hierarchy at the same rate. As a result, the firm is able to offer different set of pay from worker to worker. Assigning power to the workers in making their decisions plays a significant role in developing a sense of trust among them and the company.

Maslow’s theory is equally critical in the understanding of the workers needs, which is vital in building trust between the organisation and employees as well as in developing the compensation system. Essentially, identifying employees’ individual places in the ladder of needs enables the organisation to create terms that make it possible for the employees to acquire such needs through their endeavors (Beck 208).

In fact, the understanding of the individual employees’ places in the hierarchy of needs enables the management to create motivating terms and increases satisfaction within the workplace. While ensuring that the needs of employees are met, the management should recognise the fact that not all employees can achieve the same needs at the same time. In other words, the organisation should take into consideration each individual employees needs.

Motivation-hygiene theory can also be applied to better understand the changes in the employees’ impetus and attitude at HSBC bank Middle East. However, unlike Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the motivation-hygiene theory advanced by Fredrick Herzberg categorises the needs of employees into two major factors that either increases the workers fulfillment or causes redundancy.

As indicated, motivation-hygiene theory as advanced by Fredrick Herzberg tends to determine factors that contribute to the fulfillment and frustrations of employees within the workplace (Andrews and Rose 291).

Before, organisation such as HSBC bank Middle East pursued human resources management policies that ensured adherence to the firm’s strategies, close supervision, tense relationships between workers and their seniors, tight controls in work processes, low remunerations or compensations based on output as well as poor relations with other workers.

However, new changes were implementation that encouraged participatory management in which the firm managed its workforce. In fact, the management considered factors such as the employees’ pursuit for individual achievements, recognition of the workers achievements, employees’ responsibility as well as individual advancement and growth. Essentially, the firm implemented the motivation-hygiene theory as suggested by Fredrick Herzberg.

In addition, HSBC bank Middle East also brought changes that were supported by McClelland’s acquired needs theory. In fact, the firm encouraged employees with high aims. Moreover, HSBC bank Middle East recognised employees with increased need for affiliation. Besides, the firm provided top leadership positions to the employees who sought such positions. All these policies are in accordance with the theory of acquired needs as suggested by McClelland.

The theory of acquired needs assert that the desires of an individual determine their motivating factors. In other words, employees are motivated differently depending on their needs (Andrews and Rose 291). According to the theory, employees whose aims are high should be assigned challenging tasks with attainable objectives.

Such employees are also supposed to be rewarded for the performance of hard tasks. In support of the changes in the management of employees in the firm, the theory suggests that employees with good relation abilities are high performers in an environment that encourage cooperation.

Another important theory that can be used to explain the management of workforce is the ERG theory advanced by Alderfer. Clayton Alderfer simplifies the Maslow’s theory of motivation into three wide-ranging classes. The classes of needs include the existence needs, relatedness needs and growth needs.

The existence needs are those wants that are necessary for the existence of the individual. The existence needs ranges from psychological to needs required for physical purposes (Andrews and Rose 291). The relatedness needs are the aspirations that workers require to sustain important interpersonal interactions. The growth needs are the requirements for individual growth and development. Meeting both the relatedness and growth needs ensures increased satisfaction, which leads to increased productivity.

In fact, the HSBC bank Middle East should understand the various desires of its employees and put in place the rewarding systems that ensured satisfaction of the needs. The implementations of these measures are in line with the ERG theory.

Moreover, the ERG theory implies that managers should not concentrate on one type of need rather they should be considered as whole for workers to be motivated. Managers at HSBC bank Middle East should ensure that employees’ needs are considered and the remuneration system satisfies the needs of employees. The firm should also provide a work environment where employees’ growth and development are to be enhanced.

Through the application of Elton Mayo’s theory of human relations, the organisation should study the productivity levels of different groups of employees. For example, increased employee recognition, consultations as well as offering them an opportunity to give response leads to easy decisions concerning remuneration (Beck 201).

In addition, embracing teamwork and increased involvement of managers in looking after the interests of workers greatly increase trust and interpersonal skills among the personnel. Therefore, a firm should restructure itself taking into consideration the significance of recognising workers’ interests.

According to various models, the workplace environment plays significant roles in motivating employees (Grant and Gino 949). In other words, workplace environment contributes significantly in increasing the level of motivation. Considering other factors of motivation, the type of relationship workers have with their superiors contributes hugely to their motivation and productivity (Grant and Gino 949).

Essentially, the type of relationship workers have with their immediate supervisors determines the level of performance and productivity derived from motivation towards the work processes. The relationship between workers and the managers is a critical determining factor affecting employees’ motivation within the workplace. Besides, the relationships within the workforce also play a significant role in ensuring that the desired outcome is achieved.

Besides the relationship workers develop with fellow workers also determine the level of motivation. In other words, relationships developed within the workforce affect their motivation levels. The findings underscore the assertion that relationships generated within the organisation have greater influence on the general performance of employees as well as the organisation. Essentially, the relations between the employees and management as well as between the employees play a critical role in motivating the workforce.

Another important factor that has come out clearly to be affecting employees’ motivation is compensation. Compensation remains critical in determining the employees’ performance and productivity (Ismail 927). In fact, increased productivity result from the enthusiasm workers have on the assigned task. Compensation and motivation of workers have a direct relationship. In other words, compensation directly influences workers motivation, which in turn affects performance and productivity.

Other related factors such as promotions, annual vacations as well as security have been found to be motivating. Regarding job promotions, maintaining fairness in the distribution of promotion as well as other benefits is motivating. Unfairness results in reduced motivation and performance (Ismail 927).

Most of the studies indicate that over employees greatly consider fairness in the distribution of promotion as well as other compensation benefits practiced by the organisation. Actually, fairness is a critical attribute of compensation practices that ensure job satisfaction among employees.

In other words, in order to achieve the motivational objective, the compensation method as well as related factors such promotions must be perceived as being fair by the employees.

In this case, fairness implies that employees perceive the overall policy of the organisation regarding compensation benefits and promotions as reasonably representing their contributions to the goals of the organisation (Ismail 927). Essentially, job satisfaction is a perception among employees particularly where the general organisation practices are perceived to be fair.

The findings on other related compensation practices such as annual vacations, job security and the manner in which employees are remunerated such as paychecks indicate the importance of compensation practices to employees’ motivation. In fact, the practices increase the job satisfaction among employees (Schoeffler 349). As indicated, job satisfaction is primarily derived from the motivation.

Further, the study indicates that highly motivated workers are more satisfied on their jobs than employees who are not motivated. As such, annual vacations, job security and the manner in which employees are compensated remain critical factors influencing employees’ motivation.

The appreciations of workers’ contributions to the attainment of the organisation goals have significant and direct influence on workers performance (Schoeffler 349). In fact, studies on employees motivation indicate that appreciation of employees’ contribution to the organisation greatly influence their motivation. Managers and immediate supervisors should acknowledge the contributions of workers in order to motivate them towards the attainment of desired outcomes.

Moreover, training and being acquainted with the work processes was also cited as important motivating factor. Appropriate training on how to undertake the assigned tasks motivate employees and increase their performance. Appropriate training enables employees be knowledgeable about the assigned tasks and increases their efficiency as well as effectiveness in attaining the desired results (Grant and Gino 951). Ensuring that employees get the required technical skills is critical in increasing their motivation and performance.

Conclusion Many factors affect motivation among employees within the organisation. However, workplace environment, compensation and the relationship between employees and management remain critical factors that influence motivation. The relationship between motivation and work performance is direct. The likelihood of attaining increased performance on motivated employees is very high. In other words, there is greater possibility of attaining increased performance on highly motivated employees.

On the other hand, compensation increases job commitment and satisfaction, which are critical in determining the performance of employees. Moreover, management structure, practices and leadership styles culminate all the organisation’s work processes that motivate, increase satisfaction and job commitment leading to increased performance.

Works Cited Andrews, Abbye and John L. Rose. “A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in.” Journal of Policy and Practice, 7.4 (2010): 239-244. Print.

Beck, Robert C. Motivation: Theories and Principles. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2000. Print.

Grant, Adam and Francesca Gino. “A Little Thanks Goes a Long Way: Explaining Why Gratitude Expressions Motivate Prosocial Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98.6 (2010): 946–955. Print.

Ismail, Azman. “Relationship between Performances features and job satisfaction: Does interactional justice act as a mediating role?” Academy of Management Journal, 35.5 (2007): 921-955. Print.

Locke, Edwin A. “Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives.” Organisational behavior and human performance, 3.2 (2008): 30-76. Print.

Schoeffler, Bill. “Employee incentive plans: Make them worthwhile.” Insurance Journal, 4.2 (2005): 345-357. Print.


Addressing Aggression in Children Research Paper writing essay help

The reasons for Carla’s aggression towards her peers and a fast and efficient strategy developed to address Carla’s issues were learned quickly. This can be considered the greatest and the most important achievements of the therapy. The use of the MOAS was clearly crucial to the research results. The test allowed for assessing the scale of the problem that the healthcare specialist had to deal with. In addition, it also provided the measurement of Carla’s progress and the efficiency of the intervention.

The study has proven the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. The therapy is crucial for dealing with the issues that have been triggered by early childhood memories. Carla had very painful memories about her father’s death. As a result, she was unable to build relationships with her peers. Thus, Carla had to recognize the possibilities of communicating with people. In addition, she had to learn that social interactions were not going to hurt her. Therefore, the intervention was designed to help the patient learn to socialize.

The fact that the patient underwent the therapy sessions together with the family is clearly a major positive aspect of the suggested treatment. According to the facts listed in the patient’s medical record, Carla was initially isolated from the rest of the people surrounding her, mostly from children.

As the research has shown, the restriction in the number of social contacts was obviously a mistake. Indeed, the instances of aggression only multiplied and became more intense after the aunt of the patient isolated the girl from her friends. Carla clearly needed communication with her friends.

It should be noted, though, that the progress made by Carla is rather uncertain. Therefore, an instance of recidivism may occur. Thus, Carla should be under her teacher’s and nursing specialist’s observation for a couple of weeks more. After she is supervised, one can make sure that she has completed her therapy sessions successfully.

Thus, such activities as creative writing, drawing, linking objects, and other tasks included into creative counseling sessions allowed Carla to express her deepest fears. Still, a sudden shock may reverse the progress, and, therefore, the need for Carla to undergo an intervention will rise again.

Speaking about the external validity of the given research, the provided scenario has a number of elements that make it unique. For example, the patient was under the influence of such factors as the overprotection of her aunt. As a result, the patient was nearly isolated from her social contacts. The given fact alone is enough to single Carla’s case out. In addition, the article mentions the childhood trauma that Carla acquired, thus, making her case even more specific.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That being said, the problem of aggression among children who have suffered parent’ death, abuse or other traumatizing experiences is still a major issue in the modern society. The case of Carla’s problem, in its turn, can be used as a means to understand the mechanics of aggression that such children develop towards the rest of the world.

Hence, this study can be used in order to help these children. The internal validity of the research in question is also quite high, since it helps analyze the relationship between MOAS and the reduction of aggression in children. Again, seeing how the case is quite specific, it would be wrong to claim that it offers universal results. Nevertheless, the links between the interventions the improvement of Carla’s communication skills is evident.


Motivation, Work Performance, Job Satisfaction Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Most of the successful companies have unique strategies to motivate and empower their employees. According to Caulton (2012), a company should establish the best relationship with its stakeholders and employees. Every motivated employee is an asset in an organization.

Some of the factors affecting employees’ satisfaction and performance include “the leadership style, workplace, and availability of resources and remunerations” (Caulton, 2012, p. 5). Organizational leaders should also promote their employees’ motivations. This approach will ensure the company is successful. Every motivated employee tackles every challenge in order to achieve the targeted goals. This discussion explains the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on work performance.

Motivation, Work Performance, and Job Satisfaction The terms motivation, job satisfaction, and performance are critical in every business organization. Business organizations should increase the level of motivation in order to mentor their employees. Motivation also results in job satisfaction and fulfillment. A satisfied employee will improve his or her work performance.

Motivation in an organization determines the level of job satisfaction (Baack, 1999). This will help the business realize its goals and objectives. I have worked in different companies. My experience explains why the relationship between job satisfaction and performance is a priority in every business organization. The leadership style, work environment, job design, motivational strategies, and resources affect the level of performance. This determines the employees’ job satisfaction and performance.

I have experienced various motivational problems in my life as an employee. The first motivational problem began when a new chief executive officer (CEO) took office. The CEO did not communicate effectively to the employees. The manager introduced sudden changes without discussing with the employees. The CEO changed the existing organizational culture by creating new departments and work practices.

The HR department was no longer willing to address the issues affecting the employees. The new leader also slashed the employees’ salaries without giving explanations. The CEO fired every employee who presented their complaints about the issues affecting them. The situation worsened because the performance began to dwindle. This behavior explains why the rate of employee turnover will always increase before (Vries, Bakker-Pieper


Presidential and Congressional Decision Making Evaluation Essay college essay help online

Introduction Democracy gives individuals and institutions the power to make decisions for the public. There is no way the views of all citizens can be addressed in national forums unless they have representatives. Most nations have three powerful arms of government that include the executive, congress and judiciary (Shulman 2006). This essay presents an evaluation of the presidential and congressional decision making processes and addresses their differences, effectiveness and current and future plans to make them work properly.

Similarities and Differences Characteristics

The presidential form of decision making is characterized by various factors that include the following. First, this decision is made by an individual and the views presented to the public are perceived to be from the president. This makes it easy for people to evaluate the attitude, perception and reaction of their presidents towards issues of national importance (Spillane 2014). Therefore, it is necessary to explain that people will perceive their presidents to be good or bad depending on how they make decisions.

The source of their decisions is deemed to be their personality or stand on various issues. This means that if a president makes a wrong decision the public will judge him or her and not any other person or body. The congressional decision making process is made by a group of elected and nominated political leaders (Tan 2011). These members may be parliamentarians or senators and both groups have the right of making decisions for the public.

No individual is responsible for making decisions because there is the need for most members to be present to pass a resolution (Pomeranz 1998). Therefore, when a bad decision is passed in parliament the public will not blame one person for making it. The responsibility of blame will be on all the members of parliament that were present or absent during the passing of a bill. The decisions of this house are perceived to be the positions taken by most members of parliament and senators.

Secondly, the congress is a representation of various political parties and thus the decision and votes of every member is deemed to be the standpoint of a political party or constituency. There is the need to understand that congress members are elected by their people and others nominated by political parties. Therefore, they represent their constituents or political parties and this means that their decisions must reflect the needs of these two entities (Subhash 2009).

The congress constitutes members from different regions and political parties and the decisions made are usually in favor of the needs of a political party or constituents of a member of parliament. It is necessary to explain that sometimes members of parliament may be forced to support decisions that do not reflect the interests of their constituents or political parties. These situations may lead to reprimands or protests from political parties and the public respectively.

A president is a leader of a country and thus the decisions this individual makes must be for the benefit of all citizens irrespective of their political affiliations (Shulman 2006). The president should make decisions that do not reflect political inclinations and instead address the needs of the whole population to ensure the interests of all groups are given reasonable attention.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that presidents must shed off their political inclinations once they assume office and this is reflected in how they make key decisions. Most presidents do not participate in the activities of political parties that propelled them to power to avoid being subjective when making national decisions. It is necessary to explain that the decisions made by a president should portray neutrality to enable the public to distinguish between the political and national aspects of the presidency.

Moreover, presidents have advisory teams that ensure they do not make decisions that may be misinterpreted by the public and political parties.

Presidential advisory teams are important in guiding presidents when making key decisions. These teams are made of professionals from different fields to ensure presidents make informed decisions. Therefore, the decisions made by presidents are usually as a result of long consultation and guidance from advisors that have practical experience, academic and research knowledge on various issues (Tan 2011).

The president is in charge of hiring members of these bodies and thus nobody can influence their decisions pony this matter. These teams are responsible for advising presidents, but the final decision lies on the office holder. This means that the teams do not play crucial roles in determining what decisions presidents make during their terms in office.

However, they ensure they give proper guidance to presidents and advise them on the best ways to manage issues of national importance. Therefore, presidents have the right of making decisions they deem appropriate in their countries and nobody can stop them from doing this. Congressional decision making is determined by the positions taken by political parties or constituents.

Congressmen cannot make their own independent decisions because they are supposed to represent their political parties and constituents (Norburn 2007). This means that even if they have personal preferences and opinions regarding issues of national importance they cannot make decisions that do not tally with what their constituents or political parties expect from them.

Therefore, their hands are usually tied to other people who think that they their interests should be properly represented by congressmen. The need for congressmen to consult constituents and political parties before making decisions shows they do not have powers to determine the choices of their actions (Tan 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Presidential and Congressional Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, a presidential decision making is determined by national issues that affect people from different political backgrounds. Presidents are obliged to listen to their citizens, regardless of their political affiliations and make sure their decisions reflect the needs of all citizens.

The positions taken by presidents in international forums represent the stands of their citizens. Therefore, presidents are mandated to address issues that affect the lives of all citizens in all corners of their countries and not just a handful of those that belong to their political parties (Tan 2011).

Presidents are elected by political parties, but this does not give them the power to address issues that affect their members only. A president is a national figure and thus must look at things from a non political perspective to ensure the needs of their citizens are addressed. There is the need for presidential advisory teams to ensure their presidents avoid issues that portray political interests.

This will help presidents to make non-partisan decisions that will improve the lives of all citizens. Congressional decision making is to the needs of their members. There is no independency in congressional decision making. In addition, members of the congress make decisions that are limited to their areas of jurisdiction and this includes constituencies and political parties (Tan 2011).

Members of parliament represent individuals of specific regions and thus they may not have the power to make decisions that do not affect their people. This means that the power of a member of parliament is limited to the areas an individual represents. This explains why not all members of parliament are usually present when making some decisions.

They do not see the need to attend sessions that are of insignificant value to their constituents. In addition, the decision made by a congress may not affect all regions. However, presidential decisions affect the lives of all citizens irrespective of their locations. Therefore, congressional decisions are limited in scope and do not affect the entire country like how the presidential one does.


Presidential decision making faces serious challenges due to the nature of this position. First, most people perceive the decisions of this office to represent the interest of political parties that won presidential elections (Norburn 2007).

Therefore, there are criticisms that face this office because people do not understand that presidents are national figures and do not represent their political parties while in office. Political parties that win presidential elections face criticism when their presidents make decisions that may be perceived to have vested interests (Tan 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Presidential and Congressional Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, congressional decisions do not face a lot of criticisms because people understand that they represent the interests of different groups like political parties and constituencies. Members of parliament do not make independent decisions and this means that there are no chances of criticisms from their political parties or constituents. Therefore, they do not expect negative responses from those they represent.

In addition, presidential decision making is influenced by opinion polls and interest groups. This means that presidents may make decisions that do not reflect their thoughts, but address the needs of the public.

Opinion polls and interest groups are very influential in determining the decisions that presidents make and thus they rely on the mind of their citizens to make resolutions. Therefore, the decisions made by presidents cannot be said to be totally independent from any external forces; in fact the public determines and shapes the thoughts of its presidents (Tan 2011). A president who makes unpopular decisions may face demonstrators supported by interest groups.

Presidential and congressional decision making determines the future of office bearers in different positions. People judge the performance of presidents and members of parliament, depending on the importance and nature of the decisions they make. Those willing to retain their seats in future elections must make decisions that make their constituents happy even if they do not have any economic or social value.

It is necessary to explain that political decision makers have an uncertain future because they are judged depending on their contributions in formulating policies (Stone 2013). Therefore, they are sometimes forced to make decisions that make no sense provided their constituents and political parties are happy.

It is necessary to explain that the electorate has the power of influencing both presidential and congressional decisions. However, presidents serving their second terms and congressmen that do not wish to be reelected ignore the demands of their people because they are of no value to them. Therefore, they do not mind what their people will think about them and this motivates these members to make decisions that they think are suitable or represent their interests (Stone 2013).

Presidents face serious challenges when they make decisions that may affect their political parties. Political parties that produce presidents expect them to favor their members or interests regardless of their consequences on the public. Therefore, they think that presidents will listen and follow their advice even if they are wrong; however, this is usually not the case as most presidents ignore the political aspects when making decisions (Tan 2011).

Most congressmen and presidents are usually accused of dictatorship and betrayal when they fail to obey the orders issued by their political parties. Some issues presented by political parties aim at frustrating opponents and promoting their interests and presidents usually ignore such moves and this makes them to be perceived to be dictators.

Lastly, both the presidential and congressional decision making processes face the risk of rejection due to political interference (Reuer 2011). Politics play significant roles in determining the fate of bills and other policies. The concept and application of democratic rights of political parties and individuals have been misused to interfere with the processes of making decisions by institutions or people. People think that their opinions should be given preference to those of others because democracy dictates so.

Political parties misuse their constitutional right and force ruling parties to experience serious challenges that interfere with the implementation of their manifestos (Spillane 2014). Presidents face serious challenges from opposition parties that rarely approve of their decisions.

They think that they must oppose all decisions and actions of the ruling party and this slows down the process of decision making. There are chances that nations that think they are democratic rarely make decisions on time due to interference from political parties and individuals aligned to the opposition.


The effectiveness of the presidential decision making process is determined by various factors. First, presidents or heads of states have constitutional rights of making some decisions including appointment of public office bearers and commanding key military bodies to undertake operations. The congress has no power over this issue and this makes the president to have control over other decision making organs in a country.

Presidents have the right to ensure that there is security in their countries and that people enjoy their lives (Reuer 2011). Therefore, he can make decisions that affect the lives of citizens in all regions regardless of what congressmen think about them. However, some decisions cannot be made by presidents without consultation or approval from other bodies like the houses of representatives.

For instance, the American president cannot command the military to attack other nations or conduct their operations there if he does not have the approval from the upper and lower houses of representatives (Shulman 2006). This means that in this case the president has no power of making independent decisions. Therefore, there are some decisions that the president cannot make without the approval of these houses while others do not require their consent.

The congress has a constitutional right of discussing important issues that affect a country and making decisions that ensure citizens live secure, healthy and affordable life. This body has the responsibility of passing bills and making sure that necessary amendments are made to make laws appropriate for the promotion of human life and development (Reuer 2011).

The congress does not need the support of a president when making laws and this means that it is independent from his or her influence. However, the president must approve all bills passed by members of parliament before they become laws. The bills will be returned to the house for further debate and amendments if the president refuses to approve it.

The above discussions show that the presidential and congressional decision making processes are not independent and each body relies on the support of the other to function properly. However, it is necessary to understand that not all issues require the approval of the other department to survive (Tan 2011).

The congress may have more power over the president when it comes to issues of impeachment when a president makes repeated mistakes. Therefore, there are instances where these parties have equal influence over others, but sometimes they function independently.


Presidential and congressional decision making produces both bad and good outcomes. The presidential decision making process aims at establishing appropriate ways of ensuring citizens get access to quality public service. This includes unrestricted access to justice, security, education and proper medical services.

There is the need to explain that presidents are in charge of their countries and thus anything that happens to their citizens (regardless of their political inclinations) falls on their shoulders (Subhash 2009). Therefore, they make decisions that do not portray political inclinations because they are supposed to be national representatives.

Presidential advisors help presidents to make decisions that will attract approval from members of public and civil groups. This means that they ensure presidents are not influenced by personal or political interests when making national decisions. This makes their decisions to be effective in ensuring people have access to quality services from civil servants and public offices (Reuer 2011). Therefore, the presidential decision making process is effective if it addresses national issues without political interference.

On the other hand, it is likely that a presidential decision making process may not be effective. First, this process centers power to an individual and thus there are possibilities that the person may not make appropriate decisions due to lack of consultation and debates (Subhash 2009).

The process may be influenced by limited knowledge and experience on various issues and this may make a president to make decisions that lack professional understanding. In addition, some presidents do not like following advises from other people or institutions because they think that they know better than others. Therefore, they make irrational decisions that expose their countries to ridicule and lower the ratings of their performance.

Congressional decision making is a complicated process because it requires consultation and debates. There are higher chances that congressional decision making processes can produce good outcomes because they involve debates and consultations.

Therefore, appropriate measures are taken before decisions are made and this helps the public to get quality services (Reuer 2011). In addition, this process takes a lot of time before decisions are made. This gives decision makers the time to revise their presentation and evaluate the effectiveness of their policies.

However, this process may not be suitable in producing good outcomes because members present the interests of their political parties and constituents. The interests of any of these may not be appropriate in promoting national development.

Congress men have used this process to express their political interests and frustrate their opponents. In addition, the success of any decisions determined by the support it gets from the members of various bodies; therefore, it is not a democratic way of making decisions and its outcomes may have negative impacts on citizens (Stone 2013).

The congressional decision making process is more effective than the presidential one since it has higher chances of producing the expected outcomes. In addition, it represents the views of ordinary citizens and political parties and not individuals.

Current Measures The congressional decision making process is expected to improve due to the introduction of civil and social awareness in parliaments. It is necessary to explain that traditionally most parliamentarians did not know their roles and how to execute various policies to ensure the interests of their people are addressed (Pomeranz 1998).

The need to ensure congressmen pass appropriate bills and make good decisions will improve because of the introduction of training programs that will help these members to understand the impacts of their actions on ordinary citizens. This has helped them to differentiate political and national issues and minimized irrelevant debate and bills in parliament. Nations are struggling to equip their parliaments with modern technology to ensure communication between the public and congressmen is improved.

The presidential decision making process is undergoing tremendous changes to ensure the president makes rational decisions. Most presidents listen to their advisory bodies and consult relevant departments before making decisions (Shulman 2006).

This ensures the interest of the public is given the first priority over that of an individual or political party. In addition, presidents have realized that their positions as public figures means that they must ensure their citizens live better lives and have access to what they need. This means that they have ignored their personal and political party’s influences when making decisions.

Recommendations There is the need for a congressional decision making process to take a shorter time than what is happening in most parliaments. Bills should be discussed and approved within a short and reasonable time to avoid piling pressure on members of parliament.

In addition, congressional decision making processes should be independent of any political interests to ensure there is objectivity in discussions. Moreover, the veto power of the president should be minimized to ensure the congress is not arm-twisted to make irrational decisions. Lastly, there should be guidelines to guide the contribution of members in the congress to ensure all members are allowed to present their views.

There is the need for the presidential decision making process to involve other stakeholders before making conclusions. Presidents should not be allowed to make independent decisions without consulting stakeholders. The time for issuing presidential decrees and resolutions should be increased to ensure there is proper consolation and evaluation of the decisions made before the public is informed about them.

Conclusion Presidential decision refers to the decrees, actions, orders, suggestions and recommendations made by a head of state. Presidents are allowed to make independent decisions that affect the lives of their citizens provided they abide by the regulations of their constitutions. A congressional decision refers to the resolutions passed in either the lower or upper house of representatives.

These decisions are made after members of these houses conduct debates to evaluate the impacts and importance of issues that affect the lives of ordinary citizens. The presidential and congressional decisions affect the lives of ordinary citizens and thus the people responsible for them must ensure they put the interests of the public before self.

References Norburn, D 2007, ‘A Four Nation of the Relationship between Presidential and Congressional decision making processes’, Journal of International Politics, 21(4), pp. 451-468.

Pomeranz, F 1998, ‘Corporate Governance: Opportunity for Institutions and individuals’, The Journal of Political Management, 7(3), pp. 25-29.

Reuer, J 2011, ‘Managing in the Turbulent Political World: Presidential and Congressional decision making’, Journal of International Politics, 30, pp. 219-222.

Shulman, R 2006, ‘Corporate Treatment of Political Decisions, Journal of International Politics, 14(2), pp. 83-88.

Spillane, C 2014, ‘The challenges of political decision making processes in America’, Businessweek, 6(12), pp. 5-13.

Stone, B 2013, ‘An introduction to decision making in modern political governance’, Journal of International Politics, 11(21), pp. 11-12.

Subhash, K 2009, ‘Political economy and decision making processes’, Journal of International Politics, 12(2), pp. 113-129.

Tan, W 2011, ‘Politics and Corporate Governance, Investment and Firm Valuation in Asian Emerging Markets’, Journal of International Management and Accounting, 22 (3), pp. 246-273.


Causes of Noise-induced Hearing Loss Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Hearing loss may be classified differently. The most common classification is based on the pathology where the disease may be conductive or sensorineural. Another classification is based on the cause of the hearing loss, which may be age-related (presbycusis) or in noise-induced cases as discussed below. In conductive hearing loss, the transmission of sound to the cochlea is ineffective, despite the nervous system being intact.

The ear is divided into the external, middle, and inner ear. Obstruction to the transmission of sound along the pathway results in conductive hearing loss. The causes of conductive hearing loss may be congenital such as the meatal atresia, or acquired such as the case of accumulation of wax (Gradwell,


Analysis: “Professionalism at Work: The Kids Are Not Alright” by Silverman Report essay help free: essay help free

Silverman (2013) is critical of entry level workers describing them as “entitled, unprofessional bunch.” The author notes that entry level workers lack professionalism and commitment to their employers which makes them incompetent at work. They do not take their work responsibilities seriously which makes them incompetent and unprofessional. This harsh assertion reveals organizations need to readjust their expectations when hiring college graduates to fill up vacant positions.

The article shows that business organizations need to adopt stringent measures to ensure new and inexperienced employees perform their duties well. It is notable that this decline in performance has been going on for the last five years. It is disappointing to see that many entry level employees have a poor work ethic due to their negative attitudes to work (Silverman, 2013). The article confirms that the current crop of entry level employees in many firms do not have desired qualities to perform assigned duties effectively.

Employees need to have respect for authority for them to perform their duties well. Therefore, managers of different firms need to use discipline and respect for authority as some of the criteria used to assess employee performance. Silverman (2013) notes that some new candidates even show their arrogance while still being interviewed.

This portrays poor social etiquette on the part of the interviewee which shows that he or she does not value being associated with the interviewing firm. Managers should not tolerate any negative behavior by new employees as this sends a wrong signal to other employees in the firm. Cases of poor performance and insubordination by employees must be dealt with firmly. This will make workers more diligent to achieve organizational objectives.

This article confirms that performance based appraisals are effective in evaluating the contribution of each individual employee to the organization. Entry level workers must be taken through a firm’s organizational culture and practices to make them understand their roles and responsibilities. This will make them understand that any form of incompetence and insubordination at the work place will not be tolerated.

Performance appraisals can be used as benchmarks to reward employees who perform well in their duties. Likewise, appraisals can also be used to encourage employees who do not perform well to improve their performance in the future. Organizations need to put in place strict measures to ensure each individual worker produces quality output (Schrage, 2011). Employees who are not able to achieve positive productivity levels due to their incompetence should be replaced.

Effective time management is a good way to assess if an employee is committed to an organization. All employees must be made aware of the need to keep time to enable the organization achieve positive output. Employees should not be allowed to report to work late as this slows down internal operations and other crucial work processes. Organizations should put in place disciplinary measures to reduce lateness by employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will ensure all employees take their duties at work more seriously. Technology is a useful tool at the work place though it has some disadvantages. Some workers waste a lot of time chatting on various social media platforms. This behavior affects their productivity because their attention is diverted from crucial work duties to other unnecessary activities (Schrage, 2011).

It is necessary to supervise employees more to ensure that they perform their duties as expected. Time should be treated as a valuable resource which needs to be managed properly to ensure organizational objectives are achieved.

Entry level employees should be given mentors to make them adapt quickly to the transition between college and work. Effective mentors help young employees to understand the culture and practices observed by all stakeholders in a firm. Employees should be given mentors who are more experienced and knowledgeable in different work procedures.

Young employees need to be encouraged to enable them improve their attitudes and commitment at work (Baldoni, 2011). A good mentor helps a young and inexperienced novice learn the importance of setting goals and the way they are to be achieved. Mentors make it possible for an organization to get the best results out of talented employees who do not have a strong motivation to work. This helps a firm to nurture inexperienced employees who are talented.

Business organizations must have clear communication protocols which all employees must follow whenever they communicate with each other. This should be made part of the organization’s culture to make all employees appreciate its importance. Verbal communication, e-mails, letters and telephone calls should be the main forms of communication used by employees to send and receive messages.

Entry-level employees need to be discouraged from using smart phones and computers inappropriately. This will ensure they follow laid down communication policies and other rules (Baldoni, 2011). Therefore, they will be able to focus more on their duties at work. It is important for Business organizations to change the manner in which they treat their entry level employees. This will enable them achieve positive results in their operations.

References Baldoni, J. (2011, Feb. 17). Help employees listen when they don’t want to hear. Harvard Business Review. Web.

We will write a custom Report on Analysis: “Professionalism at Work: The Kids Are Not Alright” by Silverman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schrage, M. (2011, May 26). The new trust vs. due diligence dilemma. Harvard Business Review. Web.

Silverman, R.E. (2013, March 12). Professionalism at work: The kids are not alright. Wall Street Journal. Web.


Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act scholarship essay help

Introduction Known as one of the world’s greatest bloodbath, the World War II is also notorious for the first use of an atomic bomb as a weapon of mass destruction. As a matter of fact, restricting the amount of choices concerning the reasons that made the United States government attack Japan would be an insult to the history of the world in general and the history of the relationships between Japan and the United States in particular.

Therefore, to evaluate the reasons that guided the American government in their successful attempt at mass genocide of the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, one must consider not only the political implications behind the actions of the U.S. government, but also the specifics of the relationships between the two states, the influence of the U.S. and Japan in the WWII, the peculiarities of the American and especially the Japanese culture, as well as the numerous details concerning the outbreak of the Cold War.1

Despite the ace that every single piece of the existing evidence points at the fact that the United States were either intending to stress their participation I the WWII or to display their military power to the USSR, it can be assumed that the reasons behind the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack was an attempt to eliminate the slightest possibility of having the WWII going any longer, which would have necessarily appeared in Japan due to the peculiarities of the Japanese culture unless a sudden attack would have distracted them.

The Use of the Atomic Bomb as the Sign of the Cold War Considering the arguments “pro”: the plausibility

There is no secret that there always was an element of competition in the relationships between the USSR and the USA2. According to what Crockatt says, the fact that the U.S. dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to prove their economic and political world dominance is clear-cut. As Crockatt explains, the means that the U.S. chose to prove their point were predetermined by the differences in which the two states fought for their dominance.

According to Crockatt, the differences in the way that the two states envisioned their concept of power defined the specifics of the approaches that the two states undertook in order to seize the power over the economic space. While the USSR preferred to adopt a more localized approach, the USA tended to encompass the opportunities provided by the entire world, and the situation with Japan was one of these opportunities.

Because of the differences in the attitudes towards Japan, the bellicose one of the United States and the peaceful one of the Soviet Union, the attack of Hiroshima and Nagasaki triggered the start of the Cold War between the USA and the USSR, as Crockatt explains: “The Soviet Union remained neutral towards Japan and declared war only after the dropping of the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945.”3

Indeed, there are a number of facts that indicate the willingness of the USA to demonstrate its power to the USSR. There could not be a better moment for showing the military strength of the United States, since the Soviet union was clearly in the process of healing its wounds after taking part in one of the greatest bloodsheds in the world history; America, meanwhile, was not harmed in the twists and turns of war, since, first, the USA only entered the war in 1945, as the war ended, and, second, was separated from Europe by the Atlantic Ocean and, therefore, could not become another battlefield.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With that being said, the USA clearly had an opportunity to defeat the Soviet Union in their chase for the world economic dominance. The fact that the USA possessed the weapon of such power of destruction meant that the U.S. became the superior state whom the USSR would not be able to compete with: “The Soviets did not have the atom bomb, but the Americans did, and that caused insecurity.”4

According to the given point of view, the mere fact that the USA showed its martial potential was enough to start the Cold War5.

The above-mentioned viewpoint has all rights to exist; moreover, seeing how the tension in the relationships between the United States and the Soviet Union escalated after the given incident,6 the version of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the pretext for starting the Cold war becomes especially plausible.7

It can be assumed that the USA failed to show their entire military strength in the course of the WWII, as they managed to enter the process only as the WWII was getting to an end – in contrast to the Soviet Union, which displayed its military potential to the full, and, needless to say, made a great impression on the rest of the world.

Therefore, by dropping the atomic bombs on the Japanese cities, the United States technically showed that their military power was just as huge and threatening as the one of the USSR: “Sherwin demonstrates how the US decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan frew out of the Anglo-American thinking about its use as a diplomatic tool in peacetime as well as a winning weapon in wartime.”8

Concerning the arguments “counter”: the doubt

To address the hypothesis concerning the assassination of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dwellers as an attempt to introduce the dominance of the USA into the USA–USSR relationships., it is necessary to consider the latter in detail. According to Boyle, the fight for the title of the superior nation has been lasting since both empires became powerful enough9.

With all due respect to Boyle’s research, however, it must be admitted that his account of the specifics of the USSR policies leaves much to be desired in terms of accuracy. It seem that Boyle makes a typical mistake by considering each action of the U.S. government as the response towards the ones of the USSR.

We will write a custom Essay on Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act of WW2 or the Signal That the Cold War Was about to Begin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Boyle’s interpretation can be easily questioned, which picks the question whether the Little Boy and the Fat Man were a response to the USSR policies. Nogee’s work, on the contrary, offers much more introspective into the way in which the Soviet Union operated. Even though Nogee’s focus is on the USSR instead of its relationships with the USA, and, moreover, on the USSR of the post-WWII period, Nogee manages to capture the specifics of the state’s policy quite well.

According to Nogee, the USSR leader of the WWII era, Stalin never actually considered the United States’ demonstration of what an atomic explosion was capable of as an actual threat to the safety of Russia and the allied states.10 Moreover. Nogee makes it clear that starting a direct confrontation was more than undesirable for both states, since both the UA and the USSR were devastated after the WWII.

When considering the numerous signals that showed the start of the Cold War, one has to mention that the attack of the Japanese cities as another attempt to re-state the obvious would have been rather useless.11 According to what the existing sources say, by the end of the WWII, it was clear that the Cold War was brewing and that the U.S. and the USSR were going to divide the world into their spheres of influence.12

The Use of the Atomic Bomb as the Signal of the End of the WWII

The idea that the USA used atomic bomb as the means to bring the WWII to an end is another common interpretation of the incident.

What speaks in favor of the hypothesis: Truman’s policy

Despite the fact that at present, the interpretations of the USA assassination of the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gears towards the idea that the given action can be interpreted as the attempt of the United States to declare the end of the World War II.

When talking about the reasons for the United States to attack Japan, one must specify that on the given time slot, the reins of power were quickly passed over from Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Harry S. Truman, who had no other choice but to follow the track blazed by his predecessor. Meanwhile, in accordance with to the score of the Yalta Conference, the U.S. was waiting for the USSR to enter the Pacific War.

In addition, a number of German cities were incinerated prior to the attacks of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in a vengeful attempt to make Germany feel the power of the Allies.

To make the matters worse, the testing of the A-bombs in the USA has just ended by that point, which must have brought Truman to the conclusion that threatening Japan by wiping Hiroshima and Nagasaki off the face of the earth would be a logical ending to the WWII. Dukes states in a very straightforward manner that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki helped bring the victory day closer:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act of WW2 or the Signal That the Cold War Was about to Begin by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The dropping of A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August brought VJ Day more quickly than had been previously hoped and feared. There was just time for the Soviet Union to fulfil its promise of declaring war against Japan three months after VE Day.13

What speaks against it: the end of the War

However, there is also enough evidence that shows the opposite to the aforementioned ideas. Indeed, the link between the fact of genocide in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the end of the WWII can seem somewhat farfetched.

Another interpretation of the hypothesis The traditional idea of seeing the USA assassination of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dwellers as an attempt to draw the line in the WWII can also be viewed in a different light. While it can be considered that the act of dropping atomic bombs on the cities can be interpreted as the way of showing the power and influence of the USA as the state that ended the World War II, there is also a different way of interpreting the given step.

The latter, however, requires an introspective into the peculiarities of the Japanese culture. According to the existing sources, even as the outcome of a battle becomes clearly unfavorable for the Japanese, the bushido code of conduct does not allow the Japanese warriors to cease the fire and give up; on the contrary, according to the bushido principles, fighting until the last soldier falls dead is the most appropriate tactics.

Therefore, it is logical to suppose that even after Hitler’s suicide, the war would have been going on as the code of bushido dictates. While the rest of the states that the Tripartite Alliance consisted of surrendered with the leader of the Alliance having been killed, the Japanese soldiers would have been fighting until the very last of them would have fallen breathless. Therefore, the World War would have been even longer and bloodier than it was, which the rest of the world, including the USSR and the Allies, would have hardly take14n.

As history shows, culture plays great role in developing and solving international conflicts. For instance, as Kegley and Wittkopf show, cultural specifics predetermine largely the economic relationships between such states as, say, USA and China.15 The same can be applied to the conflicts between the states.

In the given case, the fact that the Japanese government would have not ceased their attempts at fighting the enemy so easily is brought to people’s attention. Indeed, according to bushido, the Japanese code of a warrior’s conduct, a soldier is supposed to fight till the end even when the opponent seems to be superior.

Therefore, it can be assumed that, unless the USA had demoralized the Japanese, the WWII would have been continuing for quite long after the surrender of Germany. As a result, the consequences of the WWII would have been even more deplorable for the Allies, as well as for Germany, Japan and Italy. While Japan would have suffered most, the rest of the states would have also driven their economical and financial resources to an absolute zero.

The U.S. and the Soviet Union: Sworn Friends or Sworn Enemies? While the two states have been maintaining moderately friendly relationship, there has always been some kind of tension between them, as if the two were constantly trying to win over the other one. Indeed, if considering the way in which the specifics of one culture is portrayed in the other state, it becomes obvious that each of the two countries have always been trying to take over the opponent. For instance, according to English, even in mass media of each of the states, the portrayal of the other one was rather negative.16

For instance, in Russian media, the portrayal of the Capitalist USA world was far from being positive.17 The given attitude, however, had not grown into anything spectacular until the Cold War; it seemed that the two states realized that, once they clash, they might get harmed greatly; in the process.

Therefore, it can hardly be considered that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was a deliberate attempt at starting the Cold War; the U.S. should have known that, even after the WWII, the USSR would have still be able to rebuff the attack efficiently enough18.

In fact, at certain point, the development of the notorious atomic bomb was planned as a joint attempt of the USA and the USSR to enhance their influence in the world, as McCauley explains.19 The given supposition can be supported by the fact that, according to some sources, the Soviet Union was the first to come up with an idea of a hydrogen bomb.20

Conclusion: In Search for the Truth Truly, it would be wrong to believe that nowadays, more than sixty years after the WWII was ended, it is possible to reconstruct the implications behind the actions of each of the states that took part in the WWII.

However, by analyzing the factors that influenced these actions, as well as learning about the position that the U.S. took in the World War, one can possibly figure out if the action of dropping atomic bombs on Japan was the sign of the triumph of the Allies or the beginning of the Cold War. While some of the sources contradict each other, it is possible to learn the truth about the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack.

Even though the connection between Hiroshima, Nagasaki and the Cold War might seem rather loose, it is necessary to admit that by dropping the bomb on these Japanese cities, the United States have shown their military strength, which was very timely in the light of the beginning of the Cold War.

Even though there is little to no evidence showing the effect that the given action had on the U.S. reputation in the Eastern Europe, one has to admit that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki incident was rather well-timed. Indeed, considering the consequences, one has to acknowledge the fact that the U.S. has shown its military potential, therefore, making it clear to the Soviet Union that the United States were able to fend for themselves.

Meanwhile, the act of brushing millions of the Japanese off the face of the Earth could be viewed as the attempt of the American government to draw the line in the WWII and make it clear that the Allies won.21 Indeed, the given action can be translated as a manifestation of the end of the WWII and the fact that fascism was finally defeated.

The reasons for the American government to undertake the given measure, on the other hand, are rather obscure; since it was not Japan, but Germany who was at the helm of the Tripartite Alliance, it would have been much more logical to use Germany as the venue of their vengeful act.

The role of Japan in the WWII could not be described as the definitive one; Italy had practically similar share of influence in the Axis Pact. The choice of the location for the Little Boy and the Fat Man was sporadic, which meant that the United States was going to draw the final line in the WWII.

With that being said, it is reasonable to suggest that, even though the attack of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with an atomic bomb triggered an increase in the U.S. authority, the given effect was sporadic rather than planned; by attacking Japan, the U.S. clearly intended to show that it also had its share of the triumph that the victory triggered.

Considering the policy of the American government at the time, one must admit that the idea of bombing Japan as the means to threaten the government of the Soviet Union seems much like a last-minute choice, which would have been rather untypical of the U.S. government.

As the existing evidence says, making Japan surrender was crucial to the outcome of the WWII mostly because of the specifics of the Japanese culture; with its specific code of honor, the residents of the latter would have not seized their actions until they had lost each of their soldier. Demoralization seemed a viable strategy to adopt, which the USA did by using an atomic bomb.

Bibliography Bell, PMH, The world since 1945, London, Hodder Arnold, 2001.

Boyle, PG, American-Soviet relations, London, Routledge, 1993.

Carlton, D and HM Levine, The Cold War debated, New York, McGraw Hill, 1988.

Crockatt, R The fifty years war: the United States and the Soviet Union in world politics, 1941-1991, London, Routledge, 2002.

Dobson, AP and S Marsh, US foreign policy since 1945, 2nd edn, London, Routledge, 2006.

Dockrill, S Advances in Cold War history (ed.), London, Palgrave, 2006.

Dockrill, S and G Hughes, Advances in Cold War history, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Dukes, P, The superpowers. A short history, London, Routledge, 2000.

English R D, Russia and the idea of the West, New York, Columbia University Press, 2000.

Gaddis, JL, The Cold War, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 2007.

Kegley, C and ER Wittkopf, World politics: trend and transformation, 9th edn, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 2003.

Kennedy-Pipe, C, Russia and the world, 1917-1991, London: Arnold, 1998.

Leffler, MP and DS Painter, The origins of the Cold War (ed.), London, Routledge, 2002.

Light, M, The Soviet theory of international relations, Brighton, Wheatsheaf Books, 1988.

Lightbody, B, The Cold War, London, Routledge, 1999.

McCauley, M, The origins of the Cold War, London, Longman, 1995.

McCauley, M, Russia, America


Cause of crime Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help

Man and crime have coexisted throughout history. Nonetheless, traditional patterns guiding the transition from childhood to adulthood have changed. Moreover, there are limited opportunities for young people to explore. For instance, unemployment rates have skyrocketed.

As a result, many youths are unable to cater for their basic needs. Poverty is, thus, one of the major causes of violent crimes. The proliferation of criminal gangs in my area of jurisdiction, as director of the county juvenile court, represents a nationwide problem. Therefore, all parties involved must redouble their efforts in dealing with juvenile deliquesces and other gang-related problems. This paper provides background information on the gang problem.

In the 1990s, the rate of crime rose in most parts of the world (World Youth Report, 2003). Most of these crimes were related to youths. In Western Europe alone, the rate of juvenile delinquency increased by 50%. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) (n.d.), about 33,000 gangs operate across the US today.

In addition, 48% of violent crimes are committed by gangs (FBI, n.d.). In some areas, the percentage is as high as 90%. It is also estimated that these gangs have 1.4 million members. Most of the groupings are well organized and use sophisticated strategies to run their illegal activities and control neighborhoods. Some of their ways of generating money include gun and drug trafficking, kidnapping and robbery.

Before preventive programs are designed, reasons behind involvement of juveniles in crime must be understood (World Youth Report, 2003). One cannot effectively deal with a problem without knowing its root causes. According to the World Youth Report (2003), sociologists believe that juvenile delinquents commit minor to serious offences. Therefore, criminal gangs differ in their modes of operation.

Consequently, gang problems must be solved by more than one strategy. For instance, some gangs commit status crimes. A status crime is a criminal offenses related to the age of a person (World Youth Report, 2003). Peer pressure is the main driver of status crime. Sociologists use such issues to connect youth behaviors with their surroundings in an attempt to explain their actions.

African American neighborhoods have the highest number of criminal gangs. This trend is associated with institutional discrimination. For instance, about one third of African Americans are born in poor neighborhoods. Furthermore, these neighborhoods are faced with innumerable social-economic hardships.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The number of African Americans who can be categorized as middle class by either income levels or education is low compared to other ethnic groups. Although their social-economic status is improving, African Americans sit at the bottom of the ethnic hierarchy (pear, 2013). Structural discrimination and lack of opportunities lead to disruptive internal behavioral patterns among African Americans. Some of these behaviors include prostitution and crime. On top, these behaviors have negative impacts on their socio-economic mobility.

Proliferation of criminal gangs is brought about by socio-economic problems. According to pear (2013), in the last two years, ethnic groups with low incomes experienced a steeper drop in their incomes than those with high incomes. Undoubtedly, African Americans were the most affected.

Accordingly, most gang members are African Americans. Nonetheless, criminal gangs traverse across ethnic barriers and their activities are diverse and complicated. Dismantling these gangs requires joint efforts from the community, law enforcers, courts and other stakeholders. In fact, everybody has a role to play if this problem is to be eradicated.

References Federal Bureau of Investigations (n.d.). Gangs: They poison our streets with drugs, violence, and all manner of crime. Web.

Pear, R. (2013, August 21). Median income rises, but is still 6% below level at start of recession in ’07. The New York Times. Web.

World Youth Report (2003). Juvenile delinquency. Web.


Examining Acceptable Use Policies Report (Assessment) essay help online free

It does not matter whether a company has the access to the new technologies and services or not, if the stuff does not follow the proper procedures, this access can be ineffective. In order to have steady development the companies should take into consideration the security of information (Easttom, p.281).

Thought, examining and developing the security policies should be the major step in companies success. Four different acceptable use policies have been examined: Level3 acceptable use policy, Earthlink acceptable use policy, Sans Institute policies, and Information Security World Policy.

Level 3 use policy is applied to all users of the mentioned service. After accepting the rules of the policy, the user is acknowledged about the responsibility for compliance with them. The main aim of the policy is to protect the User, the Level 3 Network, and the Service from illegal manipulations over the Internet.

Among the Level 3 rights are: the right to terminate or suspend the service, the right to cooperate with investigators, the right to modify the policy, the right to filter the information. Level 3 policy prohibits illegal activities, unauthorized access, spamming and mobile bombing, fraud and spoofing.

In order to control the rules enforcement, Level 3 use policy anticipates the possibility to complaint. Thus, every User, or some other party can complaint about the above mentioned amusements (Level 3, 2012). Another important thing is that “Level 3 has no obligation to forward the complaint to the User or to identify the complaining parties.”(Level 3, 2012, line 126-127).

In addition, Level 3 use policy forbids transmitting the files which include corrupted data or viruses; altering or circumventing the procedures or processes to bandwidth utilization, measure time and other similar methods; using those activities, which (Level 3, 2012).

EarthLink acceptable use policy is quite similar to Level 3 acceptable use policy. As well as Level 3 policy, EarthLink policy is oriented on stopping the violations. This policy forbids any kind of illegal use: uploading, transmitting, receiving, storing, posting, data or material. It includes the information about illegal terrorism, drugs or weapon, services, goods or substances, and many others. EarthLink acceptable use policy includes fraudulent activities connected to finances: different suspicious financial schemes and pyramids.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, EarthLink acceptable use policy does not allow gambling, spamming, and phishing. Much attention is devoted to the copyright and trademark infringement. According to it, uploading, transmitting, receiving, and posting any material that infringes any copyright is forbidden.

One of differences to Level 3 policy is the rule about network probing, which was not mentioned in the first policy. According to EarthLink acceptable use policy, any kind of detective network activity is prohibited. EarthLink policy requests everyone who considers some actions to be violation can inform about it. EarthLink in its turn can give the verbal or written warning, suspend the person or service for some period of time, block the internet access to the service, terminate the service, or bring some legal actions (EarthLink, 2012).

Sans Institutes Policy is divided into several sub policies. Thus, Sans Institutes Policy includes such security policies as Computer, Desktop, Email. HIPAA, Internet, Mobile, Audit, Network, Physical, Server, Wireless, and Whitepapers Policy. There is no similar to Audit Security Policy in Level 3 and EarthLink acceptable policies.

This policy defines different requirements, provides the authority information to the team which conducts the audits and deals with the information security and risk assessments in order to ensure the resources and information integrity and investigate incidents. Another unique security policy is HIPPA policy. This policy was creates especially to protect confidential information, which is connected to the health issues.

The policy includes 18 standards, which are summarized in the three major themes: Physical, Technical, and Administrative Safeguards. Furthermore, different to other use acceptable policies is Visitor or Physic policy, which demands penalties for information disclosure and the camera usage. The mentioned policy requires check-in system. Thus, each visitor should go through the special check-in entrance, present his or her photo identification card, and only after will have the opportunity to visit their employee sponsor (SANS, 2012).

Another researched policy is Information Security Policy. This policy addresses such issues as integrity, disclosure, availability concerns and others which concerns the information security.

The policy is intended to influence the actions or decisions and create general way of behavior, as it sets the rules, the laws, and to prevent their violations. This policy is very similar to the previous policies. However, in this one the major focus is made on the technical aspect. The main point of the policy is connected to the risk analysis (The Information Security Policies, 2012).

We will write a custom Assessment on Examining Acceptable Use Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Eastons book is devoted to the examining of the acceptable policies. The main focus of the examined chapter is devoted to researching the most effective user, access, system administration, and developmental policies. As well as the previous policies, those that are described in the book are focused on the technologies.

However, according to the author, the good technologies should be supported with people factor, to be precise, with professionals, who can use the technologies in order to provide the best service. The author gives many tips how to be sure in the security of the information in the internet. First of all, Easttom advices never have a copy of the password in the accessible places. Secondly, the author advices never share the password.

Finally, in any case of suspension the violation, the person should inform about it the IT department. The book gives the overview of those activities that are appropriate in the network of the company, and those that are not. Among not appropriate are: the search for the job, the photographic use, the violations of the laws.

This list may include online shopping, reading news, or watching funny videos. In addition, the author gives the recommendations how to use the e-mail service. One of those recommendations is not to open the emails from unknown author or, which is even worth, not to answer that suspicious emails (Easttom, 2006).

Many different types of policies have been examined. However, each of them claims that nevertheless the powerful software and technological equipment, the person should be very careful him or herself. To my mind, the best recommendation how to be safe was written in the Easttoms book: “Passwords must never be shared with any person for any reasons”(Easttom, 2006, p.283).

The reason is that the person near you can be your worst enemy. When we are talking about the security of the important things, you are yourself the only person you can trust. The scheme is very simple: the responsibility equals the security.

References EarthLink Policies