Executive Summary On 19th July 2007, the Victorian government made a formal announcement that it intended to develop a 150-gigalitre desalination project. After feasibility studies were conducted, the project was declared feasible. The government made its final decision to commit its financial resources to develop the project scheduled for completion by December 2011.
Although the project lagged behind time so that it was not yet commissioned by 2012, Victorian desalination project can be deployed as an important case example for analysis of the roles of human resources, communication, and integration management in a successful execution of a project.
Through the discussion of the case of Victorian desalination project, this paper reveals that consideration of the importance of managing stakeholders who have vested interests in the implementation of any project is a critical aspect for the success of a project. Additionally, this paper investigates the organisational structure of the management of the Victorian desalination project by providing criticisms on its appropriateness.
This structure is identified as hierarchical since it promotes the flow of information from top to bottom. The paper recommends alteration of such an approach in management to give a room for the bottom-up flow of information. Finally, consideration of the importance of organisation and proper management of work teams are given some attention.
Through discussion of the case of the Victorian desalination project, the paper applauds and associates success of the project to the creation of a teamwork culture amid the varying diversity differences of all personnel charged with the execution of the mega project.
Introduction Every project is executed with the help of several people from various professional backgrounds. For these people to function effectively to achieve the goals and objectives of projects, it is necessary to have an effective force of human resource management in place to ensure that all concerns of employees are integrated with the anticipated functions of the project and processes.
Without the cognition of the functions of human resource management in enhancing effective organisational communication, even potentially viable projects may fail at the design or the implementation phase. With these arguments in mind, this paper intends to conduct an analysis of the Victorian desalination project from the context of human resources, communication, and integration management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Project background The Victorian government announced it intended to construct a desalination plant with a capacity of 150-gigalitres of water. This announcement brought into being the Victorian desalination project on 19 July 2007 (Norimitsu 2010, p.12).
The major objective of the plant was to enhance the augmentation of water supplies within Geelong and Melbourne areas and their surroundings. The project was to be implemented in a manner that would make sure that the aims, goals, and objectives of its creation would be precisely achieved within time and resources constraints. This implied that the Victorian desalination project was a temporary endeavour.
Project context The announcement of the intention to construct an Australian largest desalination plant on 19 July 2007 marked the scope initiation phase. The definition of the capacity of the project (150-billion litre expandable to 200 billion litres) (Kjorstad 2010, p.7) marked the beginning of the scope planning phase. The essence of the scope planning is that all activities that would be undertaken would be geared towards the achievement of this stipulated capacity.
For the Victorian desalination, project’s scope planning facilitated the process of allocation of time and monetary resources to the project. More importantly, the definition of the project’s scope facilitated the allocation of the appropriate human resource to various facets of the project.
Stakeholders Proper management of stakeholders’ relations is central to the success of any project. Scholarly studies done by Jiang and Klein (1999), Lemon, Bowitz, Burn, and Hackney (2002), Meredith and Mantel (2000), and Turner and Muller (2003) provide evidence that the failure of many projects is related to the conceived roles and purpose of a project by stakeholders together with various project teams.
Cognition of this evidence makes Mitchell, Agle, and Wood (2009) argue, “The key to forming successful project relationships is the understanding that different stakeholders have different expectations of the project and different definitions of project success” (p.856).
The main argument here is that there is scholarly the contention that failure or success of any project is directly dependent on the perceptions and anticipations of the project’s value by stakeholders. Satisfaction of these anticipations or perceptions is directly influenced by the capacity of the managerial arm of an organisation to subtly handle issues such as organisational politics and/or engage all stakeholders appropriately to orient them to the desired project outcomes.
We will write a custom Report on HR, Communication, and Integration Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Victorian desalination project attracted immense obstacles related to the perception of environmental degradations and misplacement of communities from their native land. This prompted the project management team to hold stakeholders’ joint meetings in the effort to ensure that every one who is affected by the project felt that he or she was incorporated into the project’s decision-making processes.
In the effort to engage all stakeholders who perceived themselves as heavily influenced by the Victorian desalination project, various stakeholders’ risks were defined, with a task force being put forward to look into how such challenges could be addressed. According to Fletcher et al. (2003), stakeholders are all persons who have stakes in the process of implementation of a given project.
All such interests were considered viable risks that would influence the realisation of the goals, objectives, and aims of the Victorian desalination project. Consequently, the project management team decided to deploy the knowledge of risk management to help in harnessing possible risks associated with stakeholders that would impair the success of the project.
Project risk management is the identification, responding, and analysing of risks that would be encountered in a project (Alexander
Texas Religious Music Company Business Plan Proposal essay help site:edu
Executive Summary Texas Religious Music Company is a non-profit making company that shall market and promote gospel music genres and Christian activities and festivals. The Company will also offer free consultancy services on logistics. It is a sole proprietorship company.
The Company will open its main office in a suburb location within Texas City, Corpus Christi Texas.
The Company will target individual musicians and institutions. These include religious organizations and renowned personalities in Christian faith like T.D Jakes.
Texas Religious Music Company will use market research to leverage all elements of marketing mix in order to achieve its marketing and sales objectives.
The Company’s key success factors include nationwide consumer awareness, affordable services, consumer education, free consultancy services, and professional services and customer experience.
Texas Religious Music Company’s short-term goals include creating awareness and acquiring at least ten clients every week. The Company intends to spread to other states within three years after inception.
Texas Religious Music Company will recruit professionals and train them on their respective jobs. This would ensure that employees provide the best services to customers. The Company will provide adequate resources and leverage on modern technologies in order to deliver superior services to the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Texas Religious Music Company has different sources of funds, which include bank loans and overdrafts, share capital, contributions from families, friends, and other associates, who may opt for shares in the Company.
The Company’s financial projection indicates that it would be able to sustain itself over the years.
Income statement. As at 30 July 2014
Amount ($) Net sales 353,717 Cost of sales 239,083 Gross profit 114,634 Net profit 114,634 The Company shall ensure smooth management and operations. It shall recruit only qualified employees and reward them based on their performances. Texas Religious Music Company will create a supportive work environment that minimizes employees’ stress and turnover. All employees will adhere to the Company’s code of conduct and ethics. The Company strongly advises its employees to avoid conflict of interests and consult when in doubt.
Texas Religious Music Company will operate within the state and federal laws. The Company will protect itself against unscrupulous businessmen. It will avoid risks associated with pirated music and other illegal activities within the music industry.
General Company Description Texas Religious Music Company (The Company) is a non- profit marketing company located in Texas City, Corpus Christi Texas. The Company’s mission is to provide the best professional marketing services to the gospel music industry and religious institutions. Its goal is to be a successful company with leading professional services.
The Company would market gospel music, related services and products for institutions like Christian churches, conferences, and gospel singers. It targets renowned personalities and groups like the Women of Faith and T.D Jakes MegaFest. Other potential clients would also include major Christian festivals and Theme Parks.
We will write a custom Proposal on Texas Religious Music Company Business Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Company will aim to market such products and services to the Freedom Festival, Cornerstone, and the Spirit West Coast festivals. Texas Religious Music Company decided to pursue both individual artists and institutions because of an increasing demand for gospel products in its target markets.
Texas Religious Music Company would be located in Texas, but it will spread to other states after three years in operations. It shall achieve this through promotion of music in both private and public events. The Company’s short-term aim is to acquire ten clients per week for the first six months.
The Company believes that gospel music and Christian services require professional marketing in order to reach many potential consumers and audience.
In the recent past, the gospel music industry and other related Christian services have grown significantly with a large fan base and followers. The number of gospel artists has increased. These musicians and other evangelists require professional marketing services for their products and services. The Company would take advantage of emerging technologies in order to promote its services in Texas and other regions.
Texas Religious Music Company believes that excellent customer service and professionalism in provisions of services would be the key to its success in a competitive music industry of the US. Moreover, the Company will work with professionals in order to create best and unique customer experiences.
Texas Religious Music Company is a non-profit sole proprietorship business. Therefore, it will not plan music events and offer logistic supports to private events within Texas City with the aim of maximizing returns on investments.
Products and Services Texas Religious Music Promotion will provide services and products related to planning and promoting public and private music events. In addition, the Company would also offer logistic services to its customers. In particular, Texas Religious Music Promotion would provide free consultancy services on issues related to events planning and executing.
Promoting gospel music genres could also form a part of marketing services that the Company could provide. Music composition would be classical jazz and contemporary popular Christian music.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Texas Religious Music Company Business Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to acquire a large market share, Texas Religious Music Promotion shall promote gospel music from several artists with different types of music genres. This is a strategy of providing services to a large number of potential customers. Texas Religious Music Promotion aims to grow its market share through mixed approaches in services and products.
Texas Religious Music Promotion will have competitive prices for its products and services.
Marketing Plan Texas Religious Music Promotion will engage in effective marketing activities in order to ensure that it succeeds. Therefore, it would conduct a careful, systematic market research in order to understand prevailing conditions in the gospel music industry, events, and concerts. Market research would allow the Company to understand its position within the industry (Cheverton, 2004).
The gospel music industry has grown steadily since 1970s. In fact, there are big firms like Word Records, CBS, ABC, Priority Records, and MCA. Analysts note that the market has grown steadily since 2005 by 30 percent (Price, 2003). However, the overall sales of albums have declined due to effects of recession (Geil, 2009). A lack of huge profits has driven away profit-focused organizations. This is favorable for Texas Religious Music Promotion because it is not profit-driven venture.
The Target Market Share
Texas Religious Music Promotion aims to control 20 percent of the market share within the next three years. The Company believes that its professional services and excellent customer services would make it a major player in the gospel music industry and other Christian services.
Current demand in target market
The demand for gospel music genre has grown steadily due to the use of popular lyrical techniques. Analysts have recognized a boom in the industry (Feinberg, 2000). Consumer preferences and trends have facilitated the growth in the industry. In fact, many marketing firms have targeted youths with gospel music, concerts, and other Christian events.
Texas Religious Music Promotion marketing objectives are:
Increase services and product awareness among the target clients by 20 percent in the next three years.
Create awareness about its competitive services and products, and free logistic services for music events, concerts, and other religious activities with the aim of improving sales by 10 percent every quarter.
Marketing Strategies Target markets
Texas Religious Music Promotion would target the fastest growing markets. In this case, the Company shall target individual musicians and institutions. These are segments with a wide fan base across the US. Institutions would include churches, Christian institutions and annual conferences. Texas Religious Music Promotion Company aims to target institutions of renowned personalities and institutions like the Women of Faith and T.D Jakes MegaFest.
The Company would also concentrate on major Christian events, festivals, and Theme Parks. These events and festivals attract thousands of potential consumers (Gonzales, 2004). Specifically, Texas Religious Music Promotion will target the Freedom Festival, Cornerstone, and the Spirit West Coast festivals.
These events attract a large number of gospel music fans annually. The Company decided to pursue both institutional clients and individuals because of the increased demand for gospel music genres in the US. These segments of the market would ensure fair returns on investments.
Target marking would provide a clear approach to marketing activities of the Company (Abramson, 2009). The Company will strengthen its target market segments in Texas before focusing to other states.
Texas Religious Music Promotion would position itself as the best professional marketing company for gospel music and religious events in the US.
The Company would ensure that it offers superior and unique services and products to its customers. It will also promote high standards of professionalism and customer service. Hence, employees shall receive adequate training to ensure that this positioning strategy is successful.
Texas Religious Music Promotion aims to create high rates of customer retention and recruitment.
Positioning strategy is a fundamental aspect of marketing that all firms must consider in their strategies (Russell, 2009). This is a method of developing Texas Religious Music Promotion brand in a competitive music industry of the US.
Texas Religious Music Promotion will promote and plan both public and private music, events, and festivals.
The Company shall also offer free consultancy services with regard to logistic supports in organizing events and festivals.
Texas Religious Music Promotion will promote all genres of gospel music, such as jazz, classical, and latest music on the billboards. This combination would include music from different artists. It would appeal to fans of all ages in the US.
Texas Religious Music Promotion is a non-profit making organization. The focus of the firm is not to maximize profits. Nevertheless, the Company would set favorable prices for all its target markets. The Company would consider different tiers and other factors that could influence its prices.
In most cases, many consumers consider a price factor before making a decision to purchase any product or service (Bartlett, 2008).
Texas Religious Music Promotion targets many customers in the US. The Company shall use different communication channels in order to reach these customers. These would include:
It will also use traditional media, such as:
Texas Religious Music Promotion would advertise regularly on newspapers and other entertainment magazines.
The Company shall use new communication media and technologies in its promotional activities. It shall have a Web site with links to social media networks, such as:
Texas Religious Music Promotion must use large distribution channels in order to reach all its target clients across the US. In this regard, the Company plans to open several offices across all states and provide optional call centers for customer convenience.
It will also work closely with religious bodies in order to reach many potential customers.
Texas Religious Music Promotion focuses on the largest and fastest growing gospel music consumers in the US. These are mainly youths. The Company shall ensure customer loyalty and retention. It will train its sales team and customer care about professional best practices within the industry.
All contact channels with the customer would guarantee positive customer experiences.
Texas Religious Music Promotion will have to compete with well-established firms in the US gospel music industry. These include Word Records, CBS, ABC, Priority Records, and MCA among others.
Texas Religious Music Promotion intends to grow its total sales every month. The Company targets an increment of 20 percent in sales per annum. Sales team must keep records of all their activities and generate reports for total sales volumes and trends.
Sales strategies shall include:
Direct (mail order, Web, catalog)
Key Success Factors
Nationwide consumer awareness
Free consultancy services
Professional services and customer experience
Income statement. As at 31 December 2014
Amount ($) Net sales 353,717 Cost of sales 239,083 Gross profit 114,634 Net profit 114,634 After three months, stable earnings and efficiency ratio will imply that the Company is financially stable (Kennedy
“Sprinkler Systems Have Had a Long, Strange Trip” Critical Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
A Brief Introduction of the Article
Statement of Research Problem
A Description of the Research Procedures
Flaws in the Procedural Design
Analysis of the Data
Limited and Justifiable Conclusions
Introduction The aim of the paper is to critique the article “Sprinkler Systems Have Had a Long, Strange Trip” by Ronny Coleman. Contrary to the popular belief that the risk of a fire outbreak is highest in hotels, schools, and other public facilities, residential homes have the highest probability of catching fire.
Although the plan to have fire protection devices installed in residential homes in the country has been existent for a long time, it is yet to be implemented. The delayed implementation of sprinkler technology in residential premises is the main issue Coleman talks about in the article.
This paper critiques Coleman’s article by looking at the various aspects of a good research study. Firstly, the paper gives a brief introduction of the article, followed by a statement of the research problem. The paper also describes the research procedures used in the study and explains the flaws present in the design and procedure of the study. Lastly, the paper critiques the methods of data analysis used and the conclusion obtained from the research findings.
A Brief Introduction of the Article The article talks about the fire protection system, especially the residential built-in fire fighting structure used to protect people from the risks of fire outbreaks in their residential dwellings. The article explains why the plan to have residential fire protection systems is yet to be implemented after such a long time. The author compares having the plan implemented to a religious pilgrimage: a trip that believers engage in to fulfill their spiritual quest.
The article explains that the plan to have residential fire protection systems installed in residential premises has been postponed for long enough (Coleman, 2008, p. 34).
The main fire protection technology discussed in the article is the sprinkler system. A fire protection sprinkler system works by being implanted into the ceiling of the house. The sprinkler is bound to a fusible link, which melts when the temperature goes beyond a certain mark, allowing the sprinkler to open up and start pouring the water onto the fire (Coleman, 2008, p. 35).
The introduction of the article is well written; it has been done so well that it strongly catches the reader’s attention. The author uses humor to impress the reader; for example, he compares the delay in implementing the sprinkler technology in residential dwellings to the long journey that believers engage in to reach certain holy places. The plan to implement the sprinkler technology remains unsuccessful despite the National Fire Protection Association’s fight to have the plan implemented.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Statement of Research Problem Research is normally regarded as a systematic investigation that enables people to carry out a study on a certain topic using specific materials and sources to establish facts about a given phenomenon. A problem statement is a description of the aspects that lack in a certain research field, which need to be solved by conducting a study.
In some cases, the description is just meant to establish if a solution to a given phenomenon can be found. The problem statement is regarded as a gap that exists between the real fact and the desired truth about a certain phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010).
In Coleman’s article, the problem statement concerns establishing the fact behind the delay in the implementation of sprinkler systems in residential premises. Although the problem statement is not clearly stated in the article, it can be easily deduced from the thesis. The problem statement in the article should be “the installation of sprinkler systems in residential buildings has suffered serious delays; to correct the situation, the government needs to set aside more funds to implement the project.”
A Description of the Research Procedures Although it is not clearly stated which methods were used to collect data in the article, the information given in it shows that the data could have been collected through two methods: observation and survey. The observation method is a natural way of collecting data and is known to provide first hand information about the phenomenon being investigated.
The research study used observation to collect data on how the sprinkler technology works. The study also relied on the method to find out the distribution network of the sprinkler technology; Coleman insists that the technology is only common in business premises.
The second method, which involves holding surveys, was used to help the researcher find out why the sprinkler technology is yet to be installed in residential premises. The researcher established that the main reason why the technology is yet to be implemented is due to its high cost. The cost incurred in the installation of the technology is so high that very few private residents can afford it. The survey method of data collection is also reliable, as it is able to obtain first hand information.
Flaws in the Procedural Design Although the study was conducted in a controlled environment, it still has a few flaws. The main shortcoming is that the data obtained was collected from a small geographical region, probably a single county; consequently, the conclusion may not be representative of the whole country as originally intended (Denscombe, 2010).
We will write a custom Article on “Sprinkler Systems Have Had a Long, Strange Trip” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The conclusion was supposed to represent the delay in installation of the sprinkler technology in residential houses across the whole country and not a single province. Since the data collection was not done evenly across the entire country, the findings cannot be used to make conclusions that are representative of the entire population.
Analysis of the Data The author managed to collect some data explaining why there was still a delay in the installation of sprinkler systems in residential premises. The author claims that the sprinkler technology was invented a long time ago, but is yet to be implemented in residential buildings to enhance the safety of residents by preparing them against fire incidents in their homes. Although not enough, the data provided is valid and reliable.
The data is valid in the sense that it was collected through observation and survey methods, which are able to retrieve first hand information (Denscombe, 2010). The fact that the information was obtained directly implies that it was not distorted to fit the expected findings. The study also used current information; information is more reliable and relevant when it is up to date.
Limited and Justifiable Conclusions The author of the article draws a comprehensive conclusion that summarizes everything he has talked about in the body of the article. He says that it is just a matter of time before the sprinkler system is installed in every single-family dwelling. He says that there are proposals to expand the building code to ensure that the plan to install the sprinkler systems in residential buildings is implemented in the construction plan.
He emphasizes that the implementation of the plan will take place soon, despite the existing divisions on the issue, in the fire protection department (Coleman, 2008, p. 36). The conclusion is also effective and all-inclusive, as it highlights all the key points addressed in the article.
References Coleman, R. J. (2008). Sprinkler systems have had a long, strange trip. Chief’s Clipboard, 1(1), 34-37.
Denscombe, M. (2010). The good research guide: For small-scale social research projects. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Critical review of the articles by James Rosenau’s and Amitav Acharya’s Compare and Contrast Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The issue of governance in the international system is of great concern o many actors since states are mainly concerned with their national interests. Scholars of foreign observe that actors at the global level cooperate mainly because of selfish interests. This implies that states do not combine forces to achieve collective goals as many would thing.
It is noted that the international system is anarchic, as well as brutal since powerful states determine global affairs, especially in matters related to politics and economics. The perceived weak states are known to fight for their survival through economic and political influence in the third world, but scholars still question their achievements.
James Rosenau and Amitav Acharya are some of the scholars who have conducted extensive studies to establish whether the perceived weak states, particular those in Asia, have any role to play as far as leadership and global governance are concerned. This article conducts a comparative study to establish the views of the two scholars.
The global system is currently facing a number of challenges, including political problems, environmental issues, security challenges, globalization, developmental issues, and terrorism. Amitav Acharya questions whether Asia can be trusted with leadership and governance. The scholar analyzes power ambitions and global governance in the twenty-first century. On his part, James Rosenau looks at the governance in the twenty-first century from a different perspective.
In his view, governance in the modern international system is characterized by potent tension, reflective incongruity, and mystifying paradoxes. In this regard, Rosenau notes that actors in the international system try to pursue unity in the highly uncontrollable society in order to realize consistency and ensure stability.
Comparative Analysis The two scholars agree that the international system is anarchic meaning that powerful states control major societal affairs, such as politics and economics. Even though Asia is trying to influence the lives of people in the global society, Acharya observes that the world is yet to recognize its contributions. In this regard, Asian states are doing everything under their control to ensure that their power is felt globally.
The scholar observes further that major Asian powers, such as Japan, China, and India, are demanding recognition not only in the region, but also in the global arena. Since time in memorial, the Asian states are concerned with ending colonialism and diminishing the power of the western states.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Modern Asian states are preoccupied with the idea of complaining about western governance, affirming their autonomy and egalitarianism, and in some cases, demanding for compromise and financial aid from the western countries1. Unfortunately, Acharya suggests that China is the only country concerned with its image globally owing to the fact that the global community doubts its role, even though it has been registering spectacular economic growth rates.
The views of many Chinese are that the international system is multi-polar as opposed to unipolar since many states control economic and political affairs. China has risen to the status quo power position, as well as social state.
Unfortunately, Acharya believes that the rise of China to global power has not offered any alternative leadership and governance. This is attributable to inexperience and the fear of backlash from other leading world powers. The view of Acharya on the rise of China is that the world is economically multi-polar, but politically unipolar.
Rosenau discusses the issue of anarchy and conflict in a similar way as Acharya. However, Rosenau’s definition of governance and leadership is a bit different from that of Acharya. Based on his definition, governance is more than the formal institutions and organizations that are often utilized in the running of global affairs2. Overall, the role of the internationally established institutions, such as the United Nations, is critical to governance and conflict resolution.
Rosenau suggests that there is no universal authority that is concerned with managing the global affairs, which means that the international system is anarchic and full of tension. States exist according to the Hobbestian state of nature where life is brutal, short-lived, and nasty. In other words, states play a zero-sum game where one’s lose is the other’s gain. The international system does not have a legitimate government (a leviathan) that can oversee the management of global affairs.
He talks about the emergence and evolution of states whereby global powers resurface and develop with time based on the prevailing state of affairs. Just as Acharya, Rosenau is of the view that the creation of the new world order is a myth that politicians and pundits only talk about to satisfy their interests. In many cases, the idea of the emergence of the new world order is simply meant to prevent large-scale war and violence.
The concept can never be used to suggest that economic development could result to improved governance. Based on this, the two scholars concur that the emergence of China as one of the world’s economic powerhouses does not suggest anything as far as global governance and leadership is concerned.
We will write a custom Essay on Critical review of the articles by James Rosenau’s and Amitav Acharya’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rosenau and Acharya vary greatly concerning the history of states as far as governance is concerned. Acharya’s historical analysis of the Asian states reveals that Japan conformed to the developmental aspects of the west while China tried to revise the existing structure unsuccessfully. On its part, India has little to do, but simply to adapt to the new ways of doing things. Just after the Second World War, Japan came up with a policy that helped it develop by imitating the western countries.
Even though Japan was opposed to the activities of the western countries as far as the control of the Asian region was concerned, it had nothing to do, but to comply with the policies of the superpower. China saw it wise to revise the global social structure by resorting to communism as an alternative economic development ideology of the Asian region. India, as well as other South-East Asian states, was willing to cooperate with the west in order to preserve its independence and spur economic development.
Since the region was divided into various sections with different philosophies, it was very difficult for a new governance system to be created. In the modern international system, Acharya suggests that the development of regionalism has ended conflicts in the Asian region3. The three major antagonists in the Asian politics seem to be adopting the Japanese ideology of conformism. Therefore, a new global governance system cannot be established.
Rosenau attributes lack of an alternative global governance structure to interdependence and proliferation4. Globalization affects the way states relate in the sense that it sustains a system that is universal. Unlike Acharya, Rosenau talks about the forced relationships among states whereby an individual cannot exist in isolation. Based on this, member of the United Nations is ever increasing, with new states joining the organization on yearly basis owing to the benefits associated with it.
Bibliography Acharya, Amitav. “Can Asia lead? Power ambitions and global governance in the twenty-first century”. International Affairs, 87.4 (2011): 851–869
Rosenau, James. “Governance in the Twenty-first Century”. Global Governance, 1.1 (1995):13-43.
Footnotes 1Amitav Acharya, “Can Asia lead? Power ambitions and global governance in the twenty-first century,” International Affairs, 87.4 (2011), 857.
2James Rosenau, “Governance in the Twenty-first Century,” Global Governance, 1.1 (1995), 23.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical review of the articles by James Rosenau’s and Amitav Acharya’s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 3Amitav Acharya, “Can Asia lead? Power ambitions and global governance in the twenty-first century”, International Affairs, 87.4 (2011): 869.
4James Rosenau, “Governance in the Twenty-first Century,” Global Governance, 1.1 (1995), 27.
Employee Surveys: Challenges Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Achievements of the Employee Survey
Challenges Encountered when Conducting Employee Surveys
Costs, Risks, and Potential Difficulties of Using a Survey
Benefits of the Survey
Ethical and Professional Issues in Conducting Employee Surveys
Introduction Managers in the modern organizations have come to the realization that the use of surveys in evaluating employee satisfaction, performance, development, and improvement is inevitable (Nankervis, Compton, Baird,
Thinking skills used in a lesson Analytical Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Objective of studying the unit
Application of thinking skills
Analysis of the lesson in terms of the thinking skills
Students in first grade are young children who are still developing especially brain wise. They need their teachers to be patient and understanding because different children have different rate of grasping information (Greenfield, 67). An educator dealing with a first grade student will use different techniques to teach them unlike high school or college students who are mature enough. This essay will discuss the thinking skills that students use in lessons.
Objective of studying the unit The unit in this discussion is germs a topic in science. There are five objectives in this lesson. They include
Students will manage to learn more about germs,
Students will get to know how germs develop,
Students will learn how to avoid germs,
Students learn how to clean off germs,
Students will be able to educate others about germs.
The students know about dirt, but they do not know more about germs. This lesson would help them achieve the above objectives in order to keep them safe but most of all healthy. The first rule of cleanliness is to wash hands after visiting the toilet, before meals and after coming into contact with any dirty substance (Santoro, 396).
This ensures that a person is clean and healthy all the time. In order to enable students to understand, the teacher would ask some questions to the students about the places they thought they would get germs. This participation would help children to understand the areas they should avoid or the areas they should be careful in if they want to remain healthy.
The teacher’s main objective was to demonstrate to the children how they got germs. She took them for a field trip around the school. They made several stops at the washrooms, the garbage, and the playing ground. These are the main areas where the children get germs from most of the time (Santoro, 397). The teacher would show them how they get germs from the three areas then show them how to wash their hands using soaps in order to keep them germ free.
After the discussion, the teacher took them to the science laboratory to enable them to see the clean student’s hands and the dirty ones. Two students, one with clean hands, and the other dirty hands would look through a microscope to check on the germs. Students found it rather disturbing as to how many germs they handle in a day.
Application of thinking skills The teacher would pose a question to the whole class in order to make sure that they would think and answer the questions wisely. Of course, not all students would know the answers, but through discussion and participation, they would learn from the answers that their classmates are giving to the class. This enables the teacher to understand the knowledge that the students’ have on germs and what they do not know (Greenfield, 69).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The teacher will emphasize on the areas that students need to understand most in the topic. The slow students can always lag behind in order to get clarification from the teacher. However, this does not mean that the teacher should focus only on the bright students, she should move at a pace in which all students will grasp information as fast as possible.
After giving answers, the teacher would clarify by giving more details on the answers and explain how and where to the class in order for the rest of the class to understand. This would enable students to comprehend more about the topic and to add more knowledge to the information they had on the topic. This is significant for the successful impact of the lesson on students.
In terms of the application of knowledge about the topic, the teacher took the students to the field in order to apply the knowledge and get firsthand experience (Santoro, 399).
This enhances the students’ ability to understand because it is something they do every day. This enables the information to stick. This is because young children are growing and they have a lot in their mind. They easily forget, and that is why teachers should look for a way to enable students to keep any knowledge for long so, they do not forget.
In terms of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of the lesson, the teacher took the students to the laboratory in order to analyze the experience they have and the reality of it. This enables students to ask questions they have after comparing the information they have versus their experience in the laboratory.
Through doing so, they evaluate the importance of knowledge and how it applies in real life situation (Greenfield, 70). This helps them realize that they do not just come to school to play with toys but to get the knowledge that will help them in their life. This draws their attention into more schoolwork than games while they are in school.
Analysis of the lesson in terms of the thinking skills The lesson conduction was good bearing in mind that they are first grader students. The tour in the school compound and the visit to the lab is a demonstration of a teacher trying to help young children learn from experience, and, as they say, experience is the best teacher. At the end of the lesson, the teacher will meet her objectives, and the students will go home with new knowledge.
We will write a custom Essay on Thinking skills used in a lesson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This lesson was developmental in that at the end of the lesson the students know how to keep of germs if they are able to avoid them. They will learn how to clean themselves well in order to keep off germs. This is in a way developing their hygiene knowledge and so is their behavior.
They become more students that are responsible because they get to know the effects of germs in their health and course, they do not want that for themselves (Santoro, 401). The demonstration of this is that students now wash their hands every time they come from the washrooms, the playing grounds and from throwing the garbage. This shows how effective the lesson was.
In conclusion, the thinking skills application in class is highly useful especially to young students. They need to make their minds active by participating in class discussions, which are extremely healthy but most of all enhances the thinking capacity of the young students. They say, an empty mind is the devil’s workshop. Therefore, it is the duty of the educator to ensure that the students are active by ensuring that they use their thinking skills all the time during lessons.
Works cited Greenfield, Patricia M. “Technology and informal education: What is taught, what is learned.” Science 323.5910 (2009): 69-71.Print.
Santoro, Lana Edwards, et al. “Making the Very Most of Classroom Read‐Alouds to Promote Comprehension and Vocabulary.” The Reading Teacher 61.5 (2008): 396-408. Print.
Lean Manufacturing: processes Term Paper a level english language essay help
Brief history of Lean Henry Ford started to use the Lean Manufacturing idea in his automobile factory designed to produce a Model T automobile. His reference to the Lean System was a system where the processing does not wait for components from other stages. He thought of it as a continuous flow of value addition.
Stages that were related were linked together (Lean Manufacturing: Working more efficiently, par. 8). The Lean theory was “first mentioned in the James Womack’s 1990 book, The Machine that changed the World” (Lean Manufacturing: Working more efficiently, par. 6).
Ford’s process was inflexible. It produced the same product repeatedly, and the end product could not be modified (Duque and Cadavid 71). There was a lot of inventory which resulted in wasteful use of space. Production did not depend on consumer demand (Lean Manufacturing: Working more efficiently, par. 9).
Taiichi Ohno of Toyota came up with the Just-In-Time (JIT) production system that eliminated the large inventories that Ford design had failed to address (Lean Manufacturing: Working more efficiently, par. 10).
Stages in Lean Manufacturing The first stage in Lean Manufacturing is the identification of waste. In this stage, it is recognized wastes cannot be eliminated but they can be reduced. There will always be a more efficient method of production and running business. As a result of this, continuous improvement (Kaizen) is essential (Lean Manufacturing: Working more efficiently, par. 18). A value stream map (VSM) is used to identify processes that do not add value to the end product.
The second stage is analyzing the waste and finding out its source. It involves finding where the waste originated.
The third stage is developing a solution to reducing waste. Some of practices used to reduce waste are JIT, Kanban system, zero defects, Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED), and 5S principles (Duque and Cadavid 78). After eliminating the perceived waste, the process goes back to the first stage of seeking to identify waste.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Toyota Production System (TPS) The TPS has been used by many organizations across the globe as the reference point when it comes to Lean Manufacturing. The TPS evolves within Toyota. It is learnt through participating in the development process (Liker and Morgan 6).
Just-in-Time (JIT) in the TPS involves using Kanban to control the level of production. The Kanban displays the quantity needed in writing. Materials are moved from one task to another without interruption. The process ensures “the right parts to the right place and at the right time” (Liker and Morgan 7). The Kanban system relies on what is needed in the stores.
The TPS also uses a Jidoka system where machines are programmed to stop producing if they detect deviation from the standard size. It is also applied by employees who are required to pull a cord that lights a signal requesting for help. Assistance from a team leader is also expected to with less waiting in between, probably within seconds (Liker and Morgan 7). The Jidoka system is used to eliminate defects.
The Heijunka (leveling) makes the production process smooth and continuous. Heijunka is also applied in new product development (Nepal, Yadav and Solanki 62).
The TPS uses the Kaizen as a term for continuous improvement. It integrates maintenance into the normal process (Liker and Morgan 8). Kaizen is continuous improvement without causing delays. Kaizen also ensures that workers are involved in the improvement of their workstation.
Mehri (23) elaborates that workers in the TPS are nurtured like in a family. Duque and Cadavid (74) explain that there are no “lean” layoffs.
Criticism on the TPS The TPS system has been criticized for overlooking workers’ welfare. Mehri (24) claims that TPS has less concern about improving the lives of employees. It is more concerned about producing vehicles in the fastest way and at the lowest cost. Mehri (24) claims that utilization of minimal space is implemented at the expense of worker safety.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Lean Manufacturing: processes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are very many workers in a small space (Mehri 38). The system is also criticized for its operations being too quick for workers. Mehri claims that workers have to “work every second of every minute without break” (24). The Japanese TPS uses a system which disallows employee disagreement and confrontation known as Taternae.
Mehri (24) criticizes TPS for relying on purchasing designs from outside the organization. The TPS designers are known to compare designs to emerge with a superior one instead of modifying an existing design to reach desired level of performance. It leads to higher costs because multiple designs are purchased.
The TPS engineers have accumulated deep knowledge on TPS but narrowed their view on what happens outside their system. The TPS practices a form of secretiveness about its technical knowledge (Mehri 28).
Some of the Companies that have applied the Lean System General Electric (GE)
In 2008, GE abandoned the concept of outsourcing to reduce costs. It is now focused on the Lean System. The company started by investment in human capital. Immelt claims that GE hired “more than 300 industrial designers, engineers, and salaried team members with new skills and expertise” (45).
Recruiting and training workers are part of the Lean System. Continuous improvement requires companies to retain a certain level of technical skills. Successful application of the Lean System requires inspiration from the CEO (Sim and Chiang 97).
The GE factory in Louisville has been applauded for reducing the time needed to manufacture a refrigerator by 68% and the working space by about 80% (Immelt 45). The refrigerator takes 9 hours to build in some factories. The main aim of the Lean System is to reduce costs while maintaining product quality. Overall labor efficiency has improved by 30%, and inventory has been reduced by more than 60%.
GE has emerged as the largest producer of jet engines through managing efficiency. It services over 50,000 jet engines (Immelt 46). GE also managed to design a GeoSpring Hybrid water heater with lower energy consumption. It is retailing at a lower cost. It is expected to create more than 1,300 new jobs through the GeoSpring Hybrid water heater project (Roulo 54).
In Louisville, GE has also applied cooperation between trade unions and the company. Cooperation is part of the Lean System. Immelt (45) reports that the workers’ union accepted a lower wage rate for new employees. Following the new agreement, GE was seeking 450 employees but received 6,000 applications within an hour. It shows attractiveness of the Lean System which promises continuous improvement and job security to workers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Lean Manufacturing: processes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wiremold
In the 1990s, Wiremold CEO used the Lean System to reduce machine setup time from 14 hours to 6 minutes (Katz 38). Machine setup time is the time needed to alter a machine to start producing a different product or part. At first, employees thought that Art Byrne (former CEO) idea of reducing the setup time from 14 hours to less than 10 minutes was unachievable.
They used the Kaizen concept (continuous improvement) and machine alteration to achieve the change (Katz 38). Byrne had knowledge about the Lean System and engineering which he used to assist the workers.
Ariens Company has adopted a pull production system. Katz explains that the “company’s plants now produce kits of components based on the next production line process” (40). Lean System emphasizes producing what the next stage actually needs. The company has reduced its inventory.
It has reduced cycle times from a month to an hour. Sim and Chiang (106) acknowledge the adoption of Lean System into organizational culture for results. The CEO, Dan Ariens, started by incorporating Lean System into the organization’s culture.
In 2005, Toyota challenged the leading global automotive makers by promising to be the next largest car producer worldwide. It had profit that exceeded $10 billion. It reported a 15% annual growth rate. Its market capitalization exceeded the combination of GM, Ford, and DCX (Liker and Morgan 5).
In the supply chain industry, Alcoa is reported to have saved $1.1 billion between 1998 and 2000 by applying the Lean System (Lee et al. 974). Nabisco/Wegman Foods implementation of Lean System yielded an improvement in sales from 36% to 50% (Lee et al. 977). Supply chains have applied the customer-pull replenishment system among other Lean System principles.
Jefferson Pilot that offers life insurance policy to its customers was able to reduce the time taken to be issued with an insurance cover by 50%. Labor costs declined by 26%, and redoing tasks reduced by 40%. Premium receipts indicated an increment of 60% (Lee et al. 979).
The direction taken by Lean System
The Lean System is headed towards a stage where organizations seek measurable attributes that indicate that the Lean System is actually productive.
Productivity is enhanced by through the JIT system. It involves reducing order flow time, order lead time, and using pulling process to manage levels of production. The annual value that is channeled through customer-pull mechanism is analyzed (Duque and Cadavid 76).
Communication is concentrated across the team than upwards towards the management. Frequencies of information updates are used to measure the use of information systems (Duque and Cadavid 76).
The Lean System has been applied in the service sector such hospitals, and supply chains. Maslaton (16) identifies single piece flow, Kanban, Value Stream Mapping, JIT, overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) and 5S as some of Lean System tools that are applicable in the pharmaceutical industry.
Conclusion Customer feedback is emerging as the most useful information in the Lean System. The TPS relies on consumer views to carry out its continuous improvement programs. GE developed a low cost and power efficient Geospring water heater.
Roulo (54) reports that GE collected views from about 2,000 users between 2010 and 2011. Blank (68) discusses that there is no perfect plan, and continuous improvement relies on consumer expectations.
Gregory (21) explains that Six Sigma is very effective in eliminating variations in production. On the other hand, the Lean System is very effective in enhancing productivity. Organizations around the world are trying to combine both models to get their desired result.
Works Cited Blank, Steve. “Why the Lean Start-up Changes Everything.” Harvard Business Review May. 2013: 63-72. Print.
Duque, Diego, and Leonardo Cadavid. “Lean Manufacturing Measurement: The Relationship between Lean Activities and Lean Metrics.” Estudios Gerenciales 23.105 (2007): 69-83. Print.
Gregory, Annie. “A Lean Marriage.” Works Management Magazine Jun. 2008: 18-21. Print.
Immelt, Jeffrey. “The CEO of General Electric on Sparkling an American manufacturing Renewal.” Harvard Business Review Mar. 2012: 43-46. Print.
Katz, Jonathan. “The Lean CEO Effect: There’s a Difference between CEOs Who Engage in Lean and Those Who Simply Encourage It.” Industry Week Oct. 2012: 38-43. Print.
Lean Manufacturing: working more efficiently 2013. Web. .
Lee, Sang, David Olson, Sang-Heui Lee, Taewon Hwang, and Matt Shin. “Entrepreneurial Applications of the Lean System Approach to Service Industries.” The Service Industries Journal 28.7 (2008): 973-987. Print.
Liker, Jeffrey, and James Morgan. “The Toyota Way in Services: The Case of Lean Product Development,” Academy of Management Perspectives 2006: 5-20. Print.
Maslaton, Rafi. “Lean Manufacturing: Which Lean Approaches and Tools are Best Suited for the Pharmaceutical Industry.” Pharmaceutical Processing 2012: 16- 19. Print.
Mehri, Darius. “The Darker Side of Lean: An Insider’s Perspective on the realities of the Toyota Production System.” Academy of Management Perspectives (2006): 21- 42. Print.
Nepal, Bimal, Om Yadav, and Rajesh Solanki. “Improving the NPD Process by Applying Lean Principles: A Case Study.” Engineering Management Journal 23.1 (2011): 52-68. Print.
Roulo, Candace. “GE Uses Lean Principles, Plumbers’ Input to Design, Build GeoSpring.” Contractor Magazine Mar. 2012: 53-54. Print.
Sim, Khim, and Bea Chiang. “Lean Production Systems: Resistance, Success and Plateauing.” Review of Business n.d.: 97-110. Print.
Strategic learning, training and development at work Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction The business environment has become very volatile over the past two decades. Customers are increasingly becoming very selective in their consumption process. To satisfy their demand, it is paramount for organisations to incorporate new knowledge and solutions.
This can be achieved by enhancing the employees’ level of knowledge and skills. The need for more skills and knowledge arises from the fact that the gap between organisational needs and the knowledge acquired from learning institutions is increasing (Vemic, 2007).
The intensity of competition also presents a myriad of challenges that require organisations to increase their productivity as well as improve their managerial methods and product mix strategy. Other challenges that organisations are facing are a result of a high rate of globalisation, emergence of a market economy and increased technological innovation.
The aforementioned challenges underscore the importance of integrating effective strategic measures in order to succeed in the long term. Some of the measures that organisations can integrate in their strategic management processes include training and employee development.
To understand how learning, training and development are strategic in organisations’ operation, it is paramount for one to develop a comprehensive understanding of the meaning of the three concepts. This paper outlines the various definitions of the terms “strategic”, “learning”, “training” and “development”. It also illustrates how training, learning and development are strategic in the operation of organisations.
Definitions of key terms
There are various definitions of the term “strategic” that have been formulated by scholars and practitioners. According to Sullivan (2004), the word “strategic” refers to plans or actions that are formulated with the objective of enhancing an organisation’s ability to achieve its desired goal.
Learning, training and development
There are varied definitions of the three concepts that have been formulated.
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Scott and Spouse (2013) claim that “learning concerns the acquisition or modification of knowledge, skills and behaviours” (p.70). On the other hand, Isenberg (2007) is of the opinion that “learning refers to a permanent change in behaviour (content) due to experience and, learning is a relatively permanent change in mental associations (process) due to experience” (p. 165). Sloman (2005) defines learning as “a work-based and self-directed process that culminates in increased adaptive capacity. Thus, learning is a lifelong process that may either be planned or unplanned” (p.2).
According to Aswathappa (2005), training refers to the process of imparting knowledge, influencing the employees’ attitudes and skills in order to enhance their ability to undertake job-related tasks. Alternatively, Saad (2013) claims that training entails the process of transferring measurable and defined skills and knowledge to individuals to enable them to do their job. Deckop (2006) further asserts that training has to be enhanced with practical experience in order to be effective. This emanates from the fact that people tend to develop better understanding on things that they perform practically than what they hear.
This refers to the long-term process that is undertaken by individuals or institutions with the objective of improving their respective potential and effectiveness (Njuguna, 2009). On the other hand, Coetzee (2007) defines development as the process of attaining one’s ability via planned experience and study. Coetzee (2007) defines development to include “various activities such as coaching, formal educational commitments and experiences” (p. 91). Consequently, development is wide in scope compared to training and learning. Moreover, the elements of training and learning can be integrated in the development process.
The following definitions will be taken into account for the purpose of this paper. According to Smit (2007), training refers to the organised acquisition of attitudes, rules and regulations, knowledge and concepts that lead to higher performance in dynamic environments.
Decision to adopt this definition arises from the fact that it recognises the need to improve the employees’ understanding of their duties. This will increase the likelihood of organisations surviving in an environment that is increasingly becoming dynamic.
On the other hand, the definition of development as outlined by Wilson (2005) will be taken into account. Wilson (2005) defines development as the process of growth of an individual’s ability via conscious or unconscious learning. Moreover, development is usually supported by various programmes such as counselling and coaching (Wilson, 2005).
Decision to adopt this definition arises from the fact that it underscores the importance of integrating experience and the employees’ conceptual understanding, hence culminating in increased confidence to deal with various actions. Subsequently, development culminates in an improved situation amongst individuals, which leads to achievement of their potential.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic learning, training and development at work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wilson’s definition of learning is further adopted in the paper. Wilson (2005) considers learning to include the natural response on how to deal with change. Learning can either be incidental or intentional. Additionally, its value is only realised if what is learnt is practised.
Meaning of the term “strategic” within the organisational context Within the business context, the word “strategic” refers to focused aspects that are undertaken by organisations with the objective of impacting the set corporate goals and objectives.
In the course of executing their duties, managers are required to incorporate strategic aspects that will influence their organisations’ long-term goals and competitive advantage positively. Sullivan (2004) outlines the criteria that a particular element must satisfy in order to be truly regarded as being strategic. Some of the elements include;
Competitive advantage and impact on revenue
The programme must enhance an organisation’s ability to develop sustainable competitive advantage. Moreover, the programme must enhance the organisation’s profitability or revenue with a margin of one percent.
Future organisational needs
Sullivan (2004) asserts that the programme must be focused on improving the organisation’s future performance. Consequently, it must improve its capacity to deal with problems and other needs that might be experienced in the future.
In addition to influencing the level of revenue generated by an organisation, a strategic programme must influence the predetermined long-term goals and objectives.
For a particular aspect to be regarded as strategic at the organisational level, it must have the capacity to impact diverse business units. This means that its impact must be felt within the entire organisation.
Analysis on whether learning, training and development are strategic at work A particular concept is considered to be strategic if it has the capacity to influence an organisation’s competitive advantage with regard to employee productivity and people management. Various HRD theories have been formulated in an effort to illustrate how learning, training and development are strategic. One of these theories includes the learning theory. According to Jehanzeb and Alkelabi (2012), human resource is one of the key components in the success of organisations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic learning, training and development at work by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the organisations’ ability to survive in the volatile business environment is influenced by the management principles and systems that are integrated in the firms’ operation. Learning theories further postulate that organisations’ capacity to develop high competitive advantage is determined by the skills, level of motivation and the employees’ capacity to learn.
According to Jehanzeb and Alkelabi (2012), the strength of organisations in different economic sectors is dependent on the employees’ level of skills and knowledge. Considering the fact that the level of knowledge and skills amongst employees vary, it is paramount for organisational managers to enhance their competence.
Organisations are investing a substantial amount of money in employee training and development programmes in an effort to improve their efficiency. In 2007, it is estimated that organisations in the USA invested $58.5 billion for training (Jehanzeb
Robotic pharmacy system implementation Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Brief description of the topic
Positive impacts of Robotic pharmacy systems
The change process
Obstacles in implementing the process
Before and after the process
Brief description of the topic The new technological improvements have brought a number of changes in every aspect of the human existence. Among the areas of humanity that have been greatly impacted by technology is the health sector, which has registered tremendous growth in the use of IT (Coleman, 2004).
One of the major technological improvements in the health sector is the robotic pharmacy system, which is rapidly gaining popularity around the world. Research shows that a good number of health facilities in the middle and upper class have engaged this technology. The technology uses robotic machines to perform pharmaceutical functions.
Positive impacts of Robotic pharmacy systems Robotic pharmacy systems have numerous benefits especially to the health providers. Different people have raised divergent concerns with regard to the implementation of this technology in hospitals but a good percentage seems to love the idea. The system definitely has an impact on the workers and the general performance of the organization.
Citing some of the key benefits of the robotic pharmacy system, one of the most important is that it reduces the need for technical labor significantly. With such technology, health providers do not require pharmacists to give prescriptions manually.
This reduces the expense of hiring pharmacy labor and at the same time, it increases efficiency. In the medical practice, there is a need for a deliberate action to reduce the chances of errors. Robotic pharmacy systems have proven to be most effective in eradicating errors as they operate with a 99.9% medication filling accuracy.
The system continuously checks itself for expired drugs and gives a restocking report from time to time (Coleman, 2004). This reduces the chances of patients getting expired medication hence improving health services. This also lowers the cost of expired medication by 54% making it very effective in the health profession (Coleman, 2004).
The change process Robotic systems have a self-check mechanism to identify when the system is running out of stock. Through periodic reports, the machine is able to notify the management when the stock needs to be refilled hence chances of patients missing their medications are lowered (Shack
History of DONG Energy A/S Evaluation Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Established in the year 1972, DONG Energy is the largest of all energy production companies in the country of Denmark. Its headquarters are also situated here, with a significant amount of its work going into the production of energy both on and off land.
The company was started as a company to provide energy to the state, with the original title of Dansk Naturgas A/S being changed at the beginning of the last decade to its current name DONG, which stands for Dansk Olie org Naturgas A/S. In this case study, research and analysis of the company over a period of ten years or will be done.
The case study will make use of the company’s annual reports for 10 years including both primary and secondary sources together with other publicly available sources.
Literature Review There is scanty literature detailing the performance of DONG Energy in the Danish and international markets. The secret to the performance of a company is based on the implementation of the recommendations in most of the case studies done in time. In history, most of the companies that triumphed can be studied to indicate the necessary steps towards profitability (McCraw 1998). Companies should have clear strategies on how they will meet their objectives.
This helps in the consolidation of profits in the various operations. According to Micklethwait and Wooldridge (2003), the average performance of a company can be gauged from the financial returns that it posts every year.
Methodology The case study will utilise primary and secondary sources to derive the statistical performance of the company through a period of ten years beginning 2002. The use of secondary sources will be significant as it provides information that is not widely available in the literature.
Some gaps in the literature concerning the performance of the company will be analysed using the sources, with the data being quoted in the case study. Qualitative and quantitative research methods will also be utilised in the study, with the different sources being analysed in this form. The information from the literature review and sources will then be presented in a logical and meaningful manner.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Company Analysis The performance of DONG Energy Company over the past decade can be effectively evaluated using the annual reports that the company posts. These have the necessary financial and technical performance indices necessary for the company.
In the 2012 annual report, for example, the company prided itself as being among the leaders in the energy business, with the main roles being the procuring production and distribution of energy in the region including energy trade (DONG Energy A/S Annual Report 2012, p. 2). The company also reported having 7000 employees, with the headquarters still in Denmark.
The 7000 employees are an increase from 1,043 it employed in 2004 who were also more than the 996 that were employed in the year 2005 (DONG Energy A/S Annual Report 2005, p. 17).
The company reported shareholding as 79.96% for the Danish State, 10.88% for the SEAS-NVE Holding with the rest 9.16% being held by the other shareholders (DONG Energy A/S Annual Report 2012, p. 2). The core activities as indicated for the same year included “oil and gas exploration and production, construction of wind farms located offshore, generation of electricity from power stations, wholesale activities in the power sector, and distribution of the same” (DONG Energy A/S Annual Report 2012).
The company has also seen significant growth in the financial and operation magnitudes, thus ranking among the best performing companies in the industry in the world.
In 2012, the components of power company contributed to a share capital of DKK 2,144 million, with the Equity being 14, 655 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2002). The profit after tax for the same year was DKK 1476 with which represented a poor performance as compared to the previous two years (DONG Energy A/S Annual Report 2002, p. 6). The revenue from the different activities was also not even for activities.
Natural gas exploration and mining constituted the largest proportion at 70.2%. This was followed by the exploration and production of energy in general, with this making up 26.7%. The rest of the proportions were made up of oil transportation and renewable energy production among other activities (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2002, p. 7).
We will write a custom Essay on History of DONG Energy A/S specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the same year of 2002, the total net interest bearing debt was DKK 6,919 million, which indicates what the financial year closed at (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2002, p. 23). In terms of liquidity, the company had a total of DKK 3,655 million, with this mainly being the fixed term deposits that the company had made with banks and a part of it being mortgage bonds (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2002, p. 23).
The company also made a few policies based on the risks that it faces in the industry, and these were to be implemented in the years that followed.
In the year 2003, the performance was better in terms of profits, with the company making a net profit of DKK 1,941million, which was better compared to the year that followed where the same company reported a net profit of DKK 1,881 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual Report 2004, p. 5). The year 2004 was however an improvement, with the non-recurring income being as high as DKK 647 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual Report 2004, p. 5).
This can be attributed to the profits that were gotten from the revaluation of one of the companies that was a major shareholder, which improved to a share value of DKK 562 million with an observed reversal of some of the previous write-downs (DONG Energy A/S Annual Report 2004, p. 5). As stated above, there was a drop in the net profit for the year 20004 compared to the previous year.
Some of the reasons for the observation include loss of the company’s market share in its home country of Denmark, the hedging of oil, and the USD exchange rate exposure. The charge in exploration also depreciated for the year compared to the previous year (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2004, p. 5).
The year 2004 had some of the significant mergers that the company has engaged in, with Elsam and DONG embarking on working together in electricity generation and distribution. The company thus enjoyed large shareholdings in Elsam. This contributed to the rapid expansion seen in the year.
As a result of the merger and other activities that the company undertook in the year 2004, profits improved, with the year 2005 having an observed profit after tax of DKK 2, 818 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2005, p. 5). The non-recurring income was also a departure from the one reported in the year 2004, which stood at DKK 360 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2005, p. 5).
This was a reduction from the previous year’s value of DKK 889 million. The better performance of the company could be attributed to several factors, with one of the most significant being the better performance of the price of oil on the international front for the same year. There were also significant reductions in the exploration costs in the same year, which prompted a record profit margin for the company (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2005, p. 5).
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of DONG Energy A/S by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company continued its expansion into the electricity sector, with its partnership with Elsam continuing together with the introduction of new partnerships with companies such as Energi E2 and Nesa (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2005, p. 5). The transition from the year 2005 to 2006 had some of the greatest of changes in the company, with the same being reflected on the performance at the end of the year 2006. As indicated above, the company had 1,018 employees in its payroll.
This figure changed significantly to 4,585 employees for the year 2006 (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2006, p. 3). The revenue rose from that recorded in the year 2005 in the exploration and production as well as other activities that the company performed.
In 2006, the exploration and production revenue stood at DKK 5,556 million, which was a marked improvement from the DKK 4, 346 million that was reported for the previous year as stated above (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2006, p. 3). The revenue from energy generation also improved from DKK 114 million in 2005 to a total of DKK 7,620 million for the year 2006 (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2006, p. 3).
The other observed change in the year 2006 was in the size of assets, with these totalling to DKK 105 billion, which was an improvement from the previous DKK 47 billion in 2005 (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2006. p. 4).
Distribution revenue that the company gets from distributing power and gas across the continent grew from DKK 857 million to DKK 2,560 million for the year 2006, with the market revenue growing to DKK 24,114 from the previous 13, 885 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2006, p. 4). In general, the company grew in 2006 to reach the current heights. This was attributed to the relative profitability in the industry at the time, networking, and expansion that the company enjoyed during this period.
The year 2007 was also a continuous improvement year for the company, with the generation part raising about DKK 12,335 million in revenue, which was an improvement from the DKK 7,682 million that was reported the previous year of 2006 (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2007, p. 4).
The exploration and generation part also had improved profits, with revenue of DKK 4,869 million being reported as an improvement from DKK 5,556 million in the year 2006 (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2007, p. 4). The distribution revenue rose from DKK 2,560 million in 2006 to DKK 4,520 million that was almost double in 2007 (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2007, p. 4).
The market revenue, however, remained constant at DKK 24,583 million, with only about DKK 277 million improvements from the previous value of DKK 24,306 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2007, p. 4). The year 2007 was also marked by various trade agreements with some of the related companies.
The milestones in the year include the agreements with Wingas GmbH and other companies such as Wintershall Holding AG and the acquisition of Conoco Philips company (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2007, p. 3). The company increased its offshore wind farms, increased its revenue by selling some of its activities in Portugal and Spain, and started production of gas from the Ormen Lange gas fields that it owned a significant proportion in shareholding (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2007, p. 3).
The marked growth continued in the year 2008, with growth in revenue in all the sections that the company prides itself as owning. In the exploration and production sector, for example, the revenue grew from the DKK 4,409 million recorded in the year 2007 to a record DKK 7,114 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2008, p. 2; ‘DONG Energy A/, 2008).
The generation part of the company also grew from DKK 12,358 million to DKK 15,298 million, with the energy markets growing from the DKK 20,262 for the year 2007 to the 2008 value of DKK 38,087 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2008, p. 2). The same growth was seen in the sales and distribution sector, with this reporting a record DKK 15,595 million from the previous DKK14, 552 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2008, p. 2).
The revenues by proportion included 50% from the energy and production part, 21% from the sales and distribution section, 20% from the generation and the remainder 9% being contributed by the exploration and production part (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2008, p. 5)
In the year 2009, some of the important highlights of the company include the discovery of gas in the Glenlivet, with a license being obtained for the same (2009, p. 39). The company also signed one of the most important agreements in the energy production sector, with an agreement between it and Siemens constituting the largest offshore wind turbine agreement ever (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2009, p. 44).
It also sold its shares in the Walney wind project to the SSE, thus ending its minority stake in the same project (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2009, p. 44). With the sale of the stake in this project, the company further acquired 25%shares in another offshore wind project dubbed Lincs (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2009, p. 44; DONG Energy AS Wind Energy Market Analysis, 2009).
Some of the other developments include the creation of more offshore wind farms, selling of its fibrotic network, and selling of shares in the Swedegas Company (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2009). The company however scored poorly financially, with a reduction in revenue generated in all sectors that constitute its operations.
In the following year of 2010, the company improved and recovered from its previous underperformance. This was marked by a revenue improvement in all sectors that the company operates, with the exploration and production recording a revenue of DKK 8,224 million up from the previous low of 6,579 (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2010, p. 2).
Generation revenue grew from the levels experience in 2009 of DKK 10,818 million to the experienced revenue of DKK 11,330 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2010, p. 2). The energy markets revenue grew from the previous DKK 28,201 million to DKK 31,764 million, with the sales and distribution growing from DKK 13,386 to DKK 14,185 million for the year 2010 DONG Energy A/S Annual report (2010, p. 2).
The company continued with its upward growth for the year 2011, with the revenues improving and surpassing all sectors and operations. The company also had some remarkable performance on the international front by engaging in bilateral agreements and making trade agreements. In the exploration and production sector, the company got DKK 10,469 million in revenue, which was an improvement from the previous year (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2011, p. 4).
The energy markets also stabilised, with the revenue significantly improving to DKK 33,689.million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2011, p. 4). In the sales and distribution sector, the company got DKK 13,009 million in revenue as an improvement from the previous years of DKK 14,185 million, with other activities being additive to the total revenues (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2011, p. 4).
The year 2012 was marked by improvement in some of the quarters although with marked losses for the year (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2012, p. 2; DONG Energy A/S SWOT Analysis, 2012). The company reported losses in the year. These amounted to DKK 4,021 million (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2012, p. 2).
For the year 2013, the financial estimates favour the positive performance of the company, with the first quarter performing better than the previous year’s quarter (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2013, p. 2). The performance for the year also indicates that the company will perform better that the previous years. The enhanced performance is also indicated by the figures in the pricing of the main commodity that is oil.
Industrial Competition The company has grown in various areas. In the past decade, it has managed to overcome competition both locally and internationally. The industry is competitive on the global. Several companies are well established in the field. The performance of DONG Energy has maintained a steady rise in profitability and size despite the international competition. It has maintained its position as the largest company in Denmark in the same industry.
The performance for the year 2007 was particularly affected by the industrial competition at the time, with the continuous improvement over the years being cut short (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2007, p. 4). The same trend was experienced for the year 2011, with the company recording some poor performance because of the advancing competition (DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2011; Energy Companies, 2012).
Conclusion In conclusion, DONG Energy is one of the best performing energy exploration and production companies in the world. It is the largest in Denmark. The company has performed positively over the last decade as analysed in the review. This may indicate a working strategy adopted by the management.
The trend is an upward one for the better part of the decade, only being interrupted by a single slowing in development in 2007. The analysis proves that the company is ready to be the best in the world within the energy production and distribution.
References DONG Energy A/S 2008, DONG Energy A/S SWOT Analysis, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2002, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2004, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2005, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2006, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2007, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2008, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2009, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2010, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report’ 2011, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Annual report 2012, Company Report, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S SWOT Analysis 2012, DONG Energy A/S SWOT Analysis, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Energy A/S Wind Energy Market Analysis 2009, M2presswire, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
DONG Financials for 2013, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
Energy Companies 2012, Global Energy Market Research: Denmark, The Danish Wind Energy Industry, Denmark.
McCraw, T 1998, Creating Modern Capitalism: How Entrepreneurs, Companies, and Countries Triumphed in Three Industrial Revolutions Cambridge, Harvard University Press, Mass.
World Health Organisation and Globalisation Evaluation Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Globalisation and Health
Brief Historical Aspect
Effects of WHO on Globalisation
Effects of globalisation on WHO
Evaluation of the WHO Roles
Introduction The world has turned into a global village that is characterised by the evident globalisation of aspects of daily living such as trade, disease, communication, transport, and travel. Global health has also matured, with health being a key factor in the globalisation arena. The health sector has also become pleural, with many sectors and individuals being involved directly and indirectly in the same.
One of the organisations that play a major role in the development of global health policies and their implementation is the World Health Organisation. The organisation has an extensive role in the monitoring of health and diseases together with their governance. It also enacts norms in the health sector internationally besides acting as a coordinator for the various local and international actors to uphold the expected norms.
The World Health Organisation therefore has a special role in globalisation by ensuring worldwide harmonisation of health services and standards. It remains the single largest health body in the world with branches in almost all the world nations and operations on various health fields. It also works in consent with other global bodies such as the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation and other UN bodies to facilitate health delivery.
The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the role of the World Health Organisation in globalisation. Does the organisation have a role in the facilitation of globalisation? If so, what role does it have? The question is one of the issues that the essay will target to investigate. The WHO has been in existence for decades now. The essay will also evaluate the major developments in the health sector in relation to globalisation since the inception of the WHO.
The essay is divided into four main sections. An evaluation of globalisation and health will be presented in the first section. The second section will address the historical aspects of the WHO. The third section will then follow with an evaluation of the roles of the WHO. The fourth section will address the challenges that the organisation faces together with the global aspect of the WHO.
Globalisation and Health Health is no longer a confine for a single organisation or nation, but rather a global responsibility. Globalisation has changed the way people view and manage heath issues. It has offered new challenges and opportunities for health (Alemanno 2011). Various aspects of globalisation such as improved transport and communication have led to the rapid spread of diseases and conditions that would traditionally be restricted to certain areas.
The same aspects have facilitated the improvement of health, with the transfer of personnel and medical supplies being easier and faster. It emerges that globalisation has affected health and its provision both positively and negatively (Brassett et al. 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the other ways in which globalisation has affected health include the sharing of the best practices across the globe, the provision of a specialised medical treatment that is widely accessible to most of the patients, and the sharing of scientific knowledge.
Several bodies have dominated the health sector in the provision of services, with the universal bodies setting the pace for the many organisations. The existence of global bodies such as the WHO has also been significant in the standardisation of medical therapies, with the same bodies stating the global norms in the industry.
Some of the infections that have been able to spread rapidly as an attribute of globalisation include the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). This infection was able to spread within days to a number of countries and cause deaths. The advent of globalisation has created inequalities.
It has also exposed the existing ones, which social, financial, and economic aspects (Bailey et al., 2008). With the outbreak of SARS, for example, well-equipped countries were able to adequately screen and identify the possible areas for prevention of morbidity. The poor countries were not adequately prepared. They only benefited from the global effort to fight the disease.
The delivery of healthcare for all humanity requires international collaboration. Globalisation of health services is one ways to ensure that this collaboration happens. Some of the challenges in the health sector are too grave and big to be handled by individual nations.
The required resources may not be locally available. The bridging of the services requires the existence of an international body, which is exemplified by the WHO. The World Health Organisation has created several norms in the health sector. Various members have adopted them.
Examples of the components of global health that are linked to globalisation include disease surveillance, global disease advocacy, and human rights information transfer (Thompson 2008). Several international bodies have been linked with healthcare, either directly or indirectly.
We will write a custom Essay on World Health Organisation and Globalisation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These were mainly active before the creation of the WHO, with others working in concert with the organisation (Beck, 1999; Beck, 2000). Some of the organisations mentioned to have a special role in the global health include the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Rockefeller Foundation (Scholte 1997).The other institutions that are important to both globalisation and health include the World Bank (Scholte 1997).
Brief Historical Aspect One of the major breakthroughs in globalisation was the creation of the United Nations (UN), with the body coming into existence in 1945 (Hay 2000). One of the subsidiaries that were suggested during the meeting to form this international body is the World Health Organisation.
The development led to the establishment of WHO in1948, with the exact date of inception being the seventh of April of 1948 (Scholte 1997). This day has been celebrated over time as the World Health Day that marks the establishment of the WHO and plotting the future of health.
In June of the year that the health body was established, delegates had an assembly that prioritised the health problems that existed at the time (Scholte 1997). These were mainly nutritional health concerns and the environmental sanitation and child health. The organisation has since grown from the original 55-member countries to constitute almost all nations in the world. The priorities have also been more global, with a focus on the global pandemics in health (Scholte 1997).
The globalisation of disease required the classification of the major causes of death and morbidity. There had been a list since mid-19th century with these diseases. With the inception of the WHO, the mandate of classifying diseases was left to it, with this measure being effectively referred to as the International Classification of Disease (ICD).
This strategy is among the first measure of globalisation that the UN body undertook, with the nations being required to standardise their disease classification. Globalisation is a means of achieving universal standards, and requires global participation (Giddens 1999).
In 1952, the WHO was able to develop one of the vaccines that are regarded as a major success: the polio vaccine. This vaccine is currently in use in many countries around the world. It acts as a measure of health globalisation (Taylor 2000).The developer, Dr Jonas Salk, developed the vaccine amidst a global health crisis that was precipitated by the polio virus.
The virus was a significant cause of morbidity, with millions of children being handicapped after the infection. With the development of the vaccine, the number of children with the same ailment has significantly reduced, with most countries clearing the infection (Taylor 2000).
Not sure if you can write a paper on World Health Organisation and Globalisation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the other developments in the history of the organisation that have contributed to globalisation include the eradication of yaws (Scheytt et al. 1998, p. 1333). The current heart transplant programme that goes on in many countries around the world was a result of globalisation efforts of the WHO, with the first heart transplant being carried out in 1967 by a surgeon in South Africa (Goldblatt 2010).
The other successful globalisation of health services that the World Health Organisation has embarked on and managed successfully is the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (Goldblatt 2010). In 1974, the WHO established the programme that has provided vaccines against some of the global health programs to children. In many countries around the world, the expanded programme on Immunisation has set up bases to provide free and cheap vaccines.
The WHO coordinates them, with the main suppliers being the companies contracted by the organisation. The vaccination of children has led to the eradication of the common diseases that afflicted children before the creation of the WHO, with these being eradicated altogether.
Effects of WHO on Globalisation The World health organisation has had significant effects on globalisation. As indicated above, the global nature of disease proved to be a bother to the international community, especially with the advent of global trade and travel. Diseases could be transmitted easily from one place to the other at different parts of the world, and populations could be wiped in a matter of days. With the entry of WHO, there was the development of policies to guard against the spread of these diseases (Mythen 2008).
The standardisation of medical practices, training, and disease control made possible internationally through the WHO means people can no longer worry about diseases or healthcare in general in the different parts of the world. As a result, one could conclude that the establishment of WHO has contributed positively towards globalisation.
Health has also been regarded as one of the major contributors of globalisation. Through the WHO, the globalisation has easily been realised. Health professionals are able to work in different parts of the word, with labour in the health sector being universally distributed and sought (Giddens 1990).
Effects of globalisation on WHO Globalisation has long been recognised as a major factor influencing the distribution and provision of medical services. As a major player in global health, WHO has experienced the effects of the globalisation in total. These have been both beneficial and adverse to the operation of the international institution as stated above.
Among the major influence that globalisation has had on the WHO include the easy distribution of labour globally, allowing it to attain the much needed health services (Scott 2000; Butler 2008). Globalisation has also meant that WHO formulates global policies with consideration of all the health players in the world (Brown
3 Leadership Aspects for Successful Organizational Collaboration Research Paper college essay help near me
Abstract Organizations across the globe make strategic alliances in the form of collaborative relationships. These alliances hinge on the fact that that organizational collaboration is synergistic in nature and thus participating organizations benefit tremendously. This research paper sought to elaborate three key aspects of leadership that are essential for success in organizational collaboration.
It was established that success in organizational collaboration calls for leadership that exhibits authentic self-awareness, espouses effective communication, and involves partners in consultative decision-making.
By so doing, the leadership can gain the trust of the other partners and understand them well, thus avoiding unnecessary conflicts in the course of the collaboration process. Successful collaboration is measurable through mutual respect, understanding and trust, and open and frequent communication among partners. Organizational collaboration is thus a good concept due to its beneficial nature to organizations.
Introduction In the face of stiff competition, decentralization of operations, and increasingly scarce resources, organizations across the world find it imperative to form strategic alliances. The principal focus of these alliances is to combine the strengths of different organizations so that the resultant synergy can benefit all the participants. The alliances can take many forms, but this research paper focuses on collaborative alliances.
Thomson et al. (2007) define collaboration as the formal or informal interaction between autonomous or semi-autonomous entities, which lead to the joint creation of rules and structures to reign on their interaction. Vangen and Huxham (2003) posit that when two organizations form a collaborative arrangement, the resultant synergistic outcome transcends what was individually achievable by the organizations.
With many organizations incorporating collaborative approaches in their operations, it is pertinent for them to understand all aspects of this relationship. This research paper thus seeks to assess the concept of organizational collaboration with the intent of elaborating on three key aspects of leadership that underpin success in organizational collaboration.
A Synopsis of the Concept of Organizational Collaboration A careful consideration of the lifestyle of ancient populace reveals that they engaged in collaborative relationships both at individual and societal levels. It is not clear whether the ancient people consciously made collaborative efforts, or they were compelled by circumstances to engage in collaborative arrangements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The origin of the concept notwithstanding, today the concept is widely used in virtually all industries. Art, education, business, and science industries, among others, exhibit elements of collaboration, albeit at varying levels in their operations.
The widespread use of collaboration is attributable to its beneficial nature. Competitive pressures compel organizations to want to achieve so much, but at the same time, keep operational costs low. Since collaboration is possible both at inter-organizational and intra-organizational levels, it allows firms to draw from the knowledge of experienced and all-round employees at all levels of operation (Van Wijk et al., 2008).
Intra-organizational collaboration leads to building of social connections, which greatly minimize conflicts within the organization with the benefit of allowing employees to share knowledge and varying viewpoints and eventually choose the best among the several possible approaches.
Concisely, collaboration within organizations or beyond grants the actors a competitive advantage that cannot be rivaled. Organizational collaboration thus has to be systematically guided through particular steps, as shown in the figure below, for it to succeed.
A prime example of the milestones organizations can achieve through collaboration is the creation of Whitestrips, which is an innovative product that came into being through collaborative efforts of Proctor and Gamble (P
Impacts of China’s Economy on the Global Trade Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction In spite of the global improvement of financial markets together with the reduction in the risks encountered by many economies after the global financial crisis of the 2008, the world economy is still expanding at a slow rate. However, United Nations (2013) anticipates, “after a marked down-turn over the past two years, global economic activity is expected to slowly gain momentum in the second half of 2013 and 2014” (p.1).
Throughout the recession, China managed to remain stable economically through subsidisation and deleveraging of its products. The effects were to make the Chinese products competitive in the international markets since subsidisation had the impact of lowering the prices of the products in the international markets (Heshmati 2012).
The Chinese GDP per capita is low compared to the income per capita for European nations and the USA. Amadeo (2012) puts the Chinese GDP per capita at $9,100 while GDP per capita for the US is $49, 800.
This means that China is able to have access to cheaper labour compared to the US. With these arguments in mind, this paper focuses on determining the impact on global trade in 2013 if China’s economy continues to exhibit slow or no growth in its GDP. It also investigates how Global Multi-National enterprises should prepare for such a scenario.
Impacts of China’s Economy on the Global Trade Over the past two decades, China has undergone intense growth in GDP. This growth has relied principally on the boom in construction and manufacturing sector. However, as Halverson (2010) notes, this growth has been “fuelled by the surging real estate prices, and exhibiting all the classic signs of bubble” (p.93). China has experienced a rapid rise in credit through the government’s efforts to boost the production capacity while still maintaining China’s currency afloat.
Thach (2012) argues that the growth of credit in China takes “place not through traditional banking but rather through unregulated “shadow banking” neither subject to government supervision nor backed by government guarantee” (p.34). From an economic perspective, this means that an economic burble is almost bursting in China especially by noting that the GDP growth has become stagnant as from 2012, which is expected to remain at this state through 2014.
This situation poses an immense fear since it has provided all possible reasons for indication of economic and financial crises. China has emerged as a major global economic hub. Indeed, if the crisis is to occur, there is no doubt that the global trade will be affected as it happened in Japan in 1980 or America in 2007.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More China’s economic crisis effects on the global trade are magnificent as evidenced by the striking growth of house consumption for China over the past two decades. Although it has been on the rise, it has lagged well behind the overall growth in the GDP. Currently, as Busakorn, Fung, and Hitomi (2009) reveal, “consumer spending is only about 35 percent of G.D.P., about half the level in the United States” (p.30).
The question that arises is, ‘who purchases goods and services which are produced in China at low cost?’ China depends overwhelmingly on the rising trade surpluses in the effort to ensure that her manufacturing sector remains live and afloat. To keep its manufacturing sector afloat calls for heavy investment spending. This strategy has cost the country’s half of its GDP at the exchange of rapid growth of China’s export market as shown in fig.1 below.
Fig.1: China’s share in the Japan, the US, and the EU Export Market
Source (Starmass International 2013)
As argued before, consumer demand is becoming relatively weak in China. Thus, the motivation behind large government spending in investments is questionable. Such spending is driven by a real-estate burble that is ever increasing. This provides a parallel scenario with the US’ economy in which, “as credit boomed, much of it came not from banks but from an unsupervised, unprotected shadow banking system” (Halverson 2010, p.95).
Hence, similar to the case of America in the past few years, financial systems are more vulnerable to risks than implied by conventional banking data in China. This vulnerability has obvious ramification on the global trade especially on the raw material in Europe and the finished products from the U.S.
China has had an immense demand for raw material to drive its production capacity. For instance, the demand of steel in China grew by 20 percent every year from 2005. In 2013, FT Reporters (2013) put this growth at 2 to 4 percent. This slowed growth means a lot to nations such as Australia, which ships most of its iron ore to China.
We will write a custom Essay on Impacts of China’s Economy on the Global Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reduced growth in demand for raw material means that nations from where China sources its raw material will have to look for alternative export markets. Hard economic times due to depreciation of the Chinese currency in comparison with the dollar could have the impacts of destabilising the global trade equation already established by China.
Despite the fact that China is experiencing slowdown in economic growth as measured by GDP index, in case of infrastructure coupled with investment spending hikes, demand for various capital goods and machineries will be affected. Since Germany is better in this field, it may gain an immense competitive advantage in the global market for these products. However, consumer oriented products such as electronics coupled with luxury goods are proving being more resilient.
Nevertheless, weaker brands will be anticipated to suffer some loss. This may create a situation in which the American-produced finished products will peak up in the global market again. As shown in fig.2, China’s share in imports in comparison to Japan has been in inverse proportion since imports from the US have been on the rise in case of China.
Fig.2: Japan and China’s share in total US’ Imports
Source (Starmass International 2013)
Based on the above graph, it is evident that China surpassed the capacity of Japan to import from the US. In fact, China has been pursuing the low-cost strategy to drive the success of its manufacturing sector. China has also emerged as the biggest single importer from the EU.
This situation creates an immense uncertainty on how changes in economic status of China will play into shaping the import and export markets for both the EU and the US, which are already experiencing problems associated with high costs of labour often resorting to outsourcing manufacturing in China.
In support of this argument Heshmati (2012) informs, “China does a lot of manufacturing for businesses, including the US companies” (p.27). Most of the imports shipped into China comprised raw materials that are used by the Chinese-based manufacturing companies to make final products on behalf of the foreign-based firms, which are often global companies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impacts of China’s Economy on the Global Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most of the products exported to the US by China are essentially finished goods that are destined for American consumers via American contracting companies. These exports include “electrical equipments and computing and data processing gadgets while not negating the optical instruments” (Quélin
Explosion Suppression Systems Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction: Explosion Suppression
Discussion: The Potential Threats and the Means to Avoid Them
Conclusion: Caution and Efficiency
Introduction: Explosion Suppression Explosion protection is one of the most complicated areas of safety provision, partially because of the numerous sources that can lead to an explosion, and partially due to the massive effects that an explosion leads to, especially in a building. Therefore, the use of explosion suppression systems is essential for ensuring that specific premises are completely safe and ready for use.
However, ensuring that the latest technology should be used for explosion suppression is not enough; since human factor plays a major role in most of the accidents related to explosion, it is important that the staff should be properly instructed on the issues concerning the mechanism and use of explosion suppression systems.
Discussion: The Potential Threats and the Means to Avoid Them The given issue is especially peculiar when taking a closer look at the way in which the staff uses the diagrams and schemes displayed in the SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering (2002). As the existing rules say, it is crucial to locate the diagram that displays the required data. For instance, a flammability diagram can show the regions that are relatively hazardous and can possibly lead to combustion and the further explosion.
Thus, it can be assumed that in case of an explosion compression system being under consideration, the employees should consider the areas that are the most flammable, i.e., the areas where combustible or flammable material is stored, or the ones composed of such material.
Another obvious solution that can possibly help is the improvement the personnel’s knowledge of the explosion suppression system. For instance, it is essential that the staff should know about the sequence of the suppressed explosion. As long as the personnel has the entire procedure from the ignition of the combustible mixture to the halt of the suppression system (Gagnon, 2007, 223), in their memory, the process of preventing the possible explosion can be driven to perfection.
Finally, it must be assured that the agent of the explosion suppression used by the personnel should be fully compatible with the environment in which the device is being used. Otherwise, the explosion suppression system used can easily backfire and lead to even more destruction. The given issue is especially important if there are flammable or combustible materials in the vicinity of the area in question.
Speaking of the explosion suppression system agent, it should be chosen wisely not only because of its potential danger when reacts with the environment in which it is being used, but also because the personnel should be instructed on the specifics of the given agent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Gagnon states, “The position of personnel in proximity to a vessel that could undergo rupture could be the determining factor in selecting an explosion suppression system” (Gagnon, 2007, 222). Therefore, the personnel must be instructed on the means to handle the provided agent, while the latter must be chosen based on the specifics of the area under discussion.
Conclusion: Caution and Efficiency With that being said, it can be considered that instructing the staff concerning not only the current version of the explosion suppression agent, but also on every possible variation of the latter is the only way to provide complete safety and the key to avoiding the possibility of explosion suppression system failure.
As long as the actions of the staff are going to be polished to perfection and the employees learn how to operate every possible variation of the explosive suppression system and its agents, accidents can be avoided.
Reference List Gagnon, R. M. (2007). Design of special hazard and fire alarm systems (2nd ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar Learning.
SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering (2002). Web.
The use of Torture in Information Extraction Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction In various parts of the world, state security agencies employ torture as one of the methods of information extraction from criminals, even though it is considered illegal given the fact that it inflicts pain on suspects who are not proven guilty. The Convention against Torture has a specific definition of torture, which is applicable even in the United States. Torture is defined as any action that inflicts severe pain or suffering to an individual for the purposes of obtaining critical information.
The pain can be physical or mental, depending on the kind of information needed. However, inflicting pain on an innocent individual owing to his or her skin color, race, ethnicity, or gender for purposes of punishing is also considered torture.
The validity or justification of torture is highly contested with some scholars and analysts approving it while others are opposed to the act1. After the December bombing of the two US buildings, the state resumed to an ambitious program of eradicating terrorism in the world, with the Middle East states being the prime targets.
The president declared war on Afghanistan and Iraq mainly to flush out members of the illegal terrorist group referred to as Al Qaeda, as well as its affiliated terrorist government termed as Taliban. As some scholars observe, information serves a great purpose of designing winning strategies in any war2.
The US needed enough information to deal effectively with the illegal terrorist groups in the Middle East, particularly in Afghanistan and Iraq. In this regard, torture was viewed as one of the information extraction techniques, even though its legitimacy and use is highly contested even in the modern global system.
The major aim of this paper is to conduct a study to establish whether the US has achieved its security objectives using torture as an information extraction technique. The American state security agencies have struggled a lot to introduce torture as one of the legal techniques of obtaining information from suspects. The military and the intelligence changed their strategy in 2009 when it was factual that the public was unwilling to approve any bill touching on the privacy of the individual.
The election of Barrack Obama brought many changes since he promised the citizenry to end torture and affiliated inhuman acts. Upon taking office in 2009, the president ordered the security agencies to follow the law in Article 3, which is closely related to the Geneva Convention and the Army Field Manual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on this, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was ordered to shut down all the torture camps. This article traces all the major constitutional orders, as well as executive orders that talk about torture in the United States.
Research Question and Hypothesis
Why is torture considered an efficient and accurate means for extracting information, which is vital to U.S. national security? If torture is legalized and is adopted as a judicially sanctioned practice then torture maybe appropriate under certain well-defined circumstances to save innocent lives and ensure national security in the United States.
Literature Review Theoretical review
A number of theories have been formulated to explain the efficiency of torture in extracting information from suspects, criminals, and the minorities. The theories are mostly ethical since they pose the question “can the use of torture be justified in obtaining information from suspects?” Through a critical analysis, Emmanuel Kant suggested that reason is the final authority for morality meaning that the use of torture can only be validated in case it is logical.
An act is considered moral in case it is carried out for the benefit of the majority in society. In other words, Kant suggested that any action taken should satisfy all groups in the society. This means that torture is not justifiable since it violates the rights of other people in the society. The Kantian theory is related to the principles of the major world religions, such as Christianity and Islam. The Bible states categorically that an individual should do to others as he or she would wish them to do to him or her3.
Deontological theory suggests that human actions are either intrinsically right or wrong. In this regard, torture is largely viewed as being unacceptable under all circumstances. Torture is effective in extracting information from a suspect, but deontologists are of the view that it cannot be applied even though its outcome is ethically desired.
An article by Edmund Burke talks about the geographical morality. The scholar suggested that even those who support torture in their jurisdictions, but condemn it using strongest words possible in other authorities.
For instance, the British government seemed to support torture against those individuals who failed to comply with their rule in the third world, but the same government opposed the use of torture in foreign countries. Many western governments suffer from geographical morality in the sense that they oppose the use of torture in developing countries, but they apply it in extracting information from criminals in their jurisdictions.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The use of Torture in Information Extraction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some theories support the use of torture since it enables effective collection of intelligence. John Stuart Mill formulated the utilitarian theory, which suggests that each individual should work hard to bring the promising equilibrium of good over evil for each person involved. Consequently, torture is legal since its outcomes are desirable in the sense that it saves lives. The use of torture facilitates critical information that can be used in preventing the loss of lives of property.
Based on the Stuart Mill’s theory, the end will always justify the means since lives will be saved at last. Terrorism is one of the problems affecting development in the modern international system hence the use of torture to extract information, which might be used in designing strategies, is justifiable. Consequentialism is another theory that supports the use of torture. The theory posits that validity of an act is determined by its potential effect.
The main effect of torture on security is reduced rates of terrorism and criminality among citizens. Since torture is a product of war, some scholars pose the question “can war ever be justified”. Based on this, Just War Theory is often applied in justifying the use of torture in information extraction and intelligence collection.
Thomas Aquinas came up with a number of principles that should be considered before justifying any war or torture. One of the principles is that war or a legitimate authority should declare torture. Based this view, the use of torture in the United States is justified since it was sanctioned by the presidency.
The second principle suggests that the conditions forcing the state or any legitimate authority to engage in war or torture should be rational. In other words, the actions of the aggressor should be a threat to the national security or the state interests. Since terrorism posed serious challenges to the United States and other actors in the International system, the US is allowed to engage in war and consequently apply torture as an information extraction and intelligence collection technique.
Theories talking about torture suggest that intentions and ideologies play critical roles as far as its use is concerned. The acts of a torturer make a big difference regarding the moral value of the torture action. Kant suggests that the intention of torture establishes whether the act is morally wrong or right.
The ideology of the group might force the security agency to apply torture implying that the religious beliefs and cultural beliefs have a role to play as far as the use of torture is concerned. The philosophy of the extremists is often believed to be erroneous and only torture is considered the best technique of ending the dogma hence its application is permissible.
Among several theories talking about justification and opposition of torture as one of the advanced interrogation techniques, deontological theories are best suited to explain why the US government should reject the use of forceful extraction of information from suspected criminals. The theory is considered a normative theory in the sense that it judges the morality of any action using some of the established rules and laws.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The use of Torture in Information Extraction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Te theory is sometimes termed as the rule-based ethics mainly because it calls on all people to play their rules dutifully. The theory is different from consequentialism and virtue ethics in a number of ways. Emmanuel Kant is among theorists who subscribe to the deontological theory.
Kant was of the view that every person ought to act based on the rules governing his or her duty. In this regard, it is noted that the consequences of any act does not make such an act wrong or right. What matters most is the motive or the reason behind any action. In this case, Kant noted that the use of force in extracting information is unjustified in the sense that the motive is wrong.
The main aim of state security agencies is to force an individual to avail information, which is a violation of nationally and internationally recognized laws and regulations. All state security agencies are expected to act based purely on their duty, which is to protect lives and reduce human suffering.
Exposing a section of the population to torture with an aim of extracting critical information and collecting intelligence is uncalled for, as it violates human rights. Kant supported the idea that any action ought to be good in without any qualification. An action is considered good when it does not bring any form of suffering to another person.
Kant noted that some of the concepts considered good, such as intelligence, perseverance, and pleasure, are not usually good. The state security agencies might take pleasure seeing someone suffering, as he or she is taken through a torturous situation. This makes the act worse and ethically wrong.
The theorist suggested that only one thing is good, which include good will. Therefore, state security agencies charged with the responsibility of information extraction should ensure that they act out of good will instead of victimizing innocent citizens. The use of torture might be good to an extent that it allows extensive collection of information. This means that the goodness of something might arise accidently even though the action was intended to harm another person.
In some situations, an individual might bring about suffering to another person, even though the aim was to bring satisfaction. Kant advised that people should abide by the provisions of the moral law to ensure that human suffering is prevented. Every person has a duty to act within the provisions of the moral law. Based on the, the scholar instructs people to act according to the maxim, which can be conceived as a universal law.
Whenever an individual engages in any form of behavior, he or she has to respect humanity and treat human beings in a compassionately. In this regard, the use of torture should be conceived as a means, as well as an end. Supporters of torture argue that its usage is simply a means of achieving the main objective related to maintenance of national security.
Some supporters of deontological theories subscribe to moral absolutism meaning that some actions are right while others are wrong. For such scholars, the intention or the reason of action does not matter at all. Kant is believed to be an absolute deontologist since he believed that the consequences of an action do not make it right or wrong. Some scholars, such as W.D Ross, are non-absolutists. Such theorists hold that the consequences of an action might make it right or wrong.
Based on this, the use of torture in extraction information from criminals and enhancing intelligence is valid. Even though the action is wrong, its results are admirable in the sense that it enables maintenance of peace and national security in the United States. Contemporary deontologists support the use of torture, as one of the advanced interrogation techniques in the world. Such scholars argue that a harmful technique can perhaps be employed in saving more lives.
For instance, a driver carrying over twenty passengers is allowed to ram into a salon car carrying only one person if that will save the lives of the majority. Similarly, a suspected Al Qaeda operative should be forced to give information if only it will save the lives of several Americans who are always threatened.
However, contemporary deontologists allow the use of force in saving lives under special circumstances. For instance, one person cannot be killed for his organs to be used in saving five lives. Divine deontological theorists are of the view that people should do those things that God permits only. For instance, killing to safe other lives is not allowed whatsoever. Based on this reality, the use of torture is not acceptable since it might lead to death.
A scholar by the name Moher conducted a study, which concluded that the continued use of force in extracting information among suspects in the United States is a gross violation of the international law, which provides that an individual should never be forced to offer information against his or her wish4.
The establishment of the Guantanamo Bay detention camps and their persistent upgrading suggests that the world’s remaining superpower is determined to employ force as far as information extraction is concerned. Moher is critical about the international law on torture since it does not provide mechanisms for prevention of torture.
In fact, many states, such as the United States, take advantage of the weaknesses of the international law to apply unscrupulous techniques in collecting intelligence from suspects. The above scholar claims there is adequate evidence showing that the United States has consistently applied torture in extracting information. Kim engaged in extensive research to establish whether the United States has ever applied torture to collect critical information from suspects5.
The study revealed that torture has always been applied in information extraction among the American state security agencies. For instance, reports from the FBI, the CIA, the Red Cross, and the military observers prove that the government has always employed torture when engaging with terrorists or suspects of serious crimes.
Methodology Research Method
This chapter focuses on various aspects of research development. It includes methods of data collection, analysis, and presentation. Every research project applies a certain research method to achieve its objectives depending on its goals. The methods used to conduct research in this project compared closely with the methods anticipated in the project proposal.
In research, design deals primarily with aims, uses, purposes, intentions, and plans within the practical constraints of time, location, money, and availability of staff. In this study, respondents were briefed in advance.
The study population was also amicably informed in order to get prepared for the study. Briefing was important because it enhances the reliability of the study. It is also ethical to inform people before researching on them. The findings would be made public to the researched as one way of ensuring morality in the study.
The study utilized deductive scaffold because some theories were used to give a certain picture of the study. Deductive reasoning starts by analyzing some concepts before moving to the field to confirm the claims. The researcher analyzed some theories related to the use of torture before moving to the field to collect data. The technique is constructive because it equips the researcher with relevant information.
In other words, deductive reasoning moves from generalizations to the specific idea. A number of theories talking about the effectiveness of torture as an information collection technique were first analyzed before moving to the field. The most applicable sampling method for this exercise was random sampling. Considering that the targeted population consisted of staff in two major security agencies, there was no much risk of having biased data.
If the survey needed to cover the entire staff the CIA and the military, systematic sampling, coupled with stratified sampling would be ideal to ensure cross-departmental representation. However, this survey targeted the security staff hence random sampling proved sufficient to collect required data.
Findings and Analysis There were several interesting observations made in the process of data collection. The observations include those made from the literature review and those made from analysis of data collected through the questionnaire. In this section, the two sources of data present the categories used for disseminating the findings.
In the first case, the information covers the data retrieved from various academic sources such as journals, reports, and books on issues of torture and intelligence collection. In the second section, the attitudes and thoughts of the CIA and military staff at the state security organs form the basis of the report as covered by the questionnaire.
There were four major observation made from the literature reviewed
Why agencies use torture as a means to obtain intelligence
Chances that torture could result in negative backlash.
Torture verses other forms of intelligence gathering
Enhanced interrogation techniques
Why agencies use torture as a means to obtain intelligence
The search for literature to uncover issues related torture revealed that the use of torture is growing in popularity not just in the national security agencies, but also local security organs. Governments in Europe started applying torture in the eighteenth century to force opponents to support their non-inclusive programs6.
The US prefers the use of torture in terrorism detection, prevention, and management. The views of Blakeley suggest that torture is an effective information extraction technique, which has the potential of preserving the national interests of the United States. The scholar borrowed the views of psychologists, which suggest that a human being can perhaps give information if some pain is inflicted on him or her7.
In the United States, thorough beating, electric shock, rape, and suffocation are widely employed as some of the techniques of torture. In some occasions, an individual is forced to give information in case he or she witnesses the torture of the loved ones. Torture is considered effective mainly because of its consequences on the victim. Many individuals would prefer cooperating with the state agencies rather than go through inhuman processes, such as rape and suffocation.
Torture instills fear on other people who might be planning to commit serious crimes that are considered transnational, such as terrorism and drug trafficking. The views of Blakeley on the effectiveness of torture conclude that it minimizes cases of insecurity owing to the fact that an individual would not attempt to destabilize peace knowing the consequences.
Chances that torture could result in negative backlash
One of the interesting findings from literature review is the role of torture in information extraction. It was interesting to discover that torture on its own may not provide much information, but security agencies apply other techniques as well. In fact, torture no longer provides enough information for security agencies8.The findings show that information obtained through torture is inaccurate compared as other sources of information that are mostly voluntary.
Justification of the use of torture is a miscalculation that has always resulted to negative consequences in the United States. The government has always justified application of force in extracting critical information with claims of maintaining national security. Many individuals consider this type of technique immoral, as well as illegal since it does not give the accused the freedom to volunteer information.
In 2001, the US government claimed to have extracted adequate information from a Libyan born terrorist who offered training to the Al-Qaeda. However, evidence was provided the US state security officials applied force when the suspect, al-Libi, was transferred to Libya. Based this, the US national interests, particularly in terms security, has deteriorated over the years.
Torture versus other forms of intelligence gathering
State security agencies believe that torture is the most efficient information extraction and intelligence collection technique, even though its usage is highly contested9. However, studies show that other effective and widely accepted techniques exist, but they are costly to apply. Compared to other forms of intelligence collection, torture is the most controversial of all the techniques.
In the fight of terrorism, torture is considered effective, but its application is widely contested given the fact that it violates the rights of an individual.
The US government came up with several methods of combating terrorism following the bombing of the twin towers and the world trade center. The review of literature and the analysis of the gathered information through the questionnaire suggest that torture is the most effective technique, but it is illegal and unacceptable under the international and national law.
Enhanced interrogation techniques
Torture is perceived as one of the enhanced interrogation techniques in the United States owing to its effectiveness. Studies show that the changing techniques applied by terrorists and other transnational criminals call for the application of enhanced interrogation techniques.
Conclusion Torture is preferred in dealing with terrorism mainly because the adversaries do not wear uniforms and neither do they carry weapons openly. Under the provisions of the international law, torture is unjustifiable and should never be applied to an individual as far as information extraction is concerned. Under the Geneva conventions, the UN Conventions against Torture and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, torture is a serious crime that is comparable to genocide.
Based on this, torture is unacceptable because it is inhuman and degrades human dignity. The US state officials are always aware the use of force to extract information from an individual is not allowed, but torture was widely used in obtaining critical information just after 9/11 incident, which resulted to the loss of life and destruction of property.
The American Attorneys under the Bush-Cheney administration drafted policies that allowed systematic torture of individuals suspected to be engaged or supporting terrorism. The Bush administration adopted the findings of scientists in the field of medicine who suggested that torture is innocuous, legitimate, and an operational method of information extraction.
The government defended its actions by suggesting that it could only safe lives in case information was provided, irrespective of the technique employed. However, the use of force has continuously threatened the security and the peace efforts in the United States citizens internationally since many feel unsecure.
The US government under the Bush administration applied torture under a new name. The government officials believed torture is an enhanced interrogation technique, as compared to forceful extraction of information as many would thing. The CIA report recommended that torture had been applied effectively in revealing the hideout of the world known terrorist in the name of Osama Bin Laden.
The culture of many Islamic extremists does not allow them to volunteer information that would lead to the capture of one of their own. In this regard, the government had to advance the interrogation techniques to maintain the security of the nation. A number of the enemy combatants being held at the Guantanamo Bay at the time had to be forced to give information. Torture was viewed as the only viable technique given the fact that the government lacked other reliable techniques.
Records obtained from the Department of Defense show that detainees volunteered critical information that revealed the managerial structures of Al Qaeda, its operatives, sources of finances, the means of communication, recruitment processes, training methods, and the major programs of the terrorist organization10. Moreover, the use of torture proved critical in revealing the infrastructure of the terrorist hub, the major plans, as well as the principles of the illegal group.
Bibliography Blakeley, Ruth. “Why torture?” Review of International Studies, 33.3 (2007): 373-397.
Bravin, Jess. “Pentagon report set framework for use of torture; security or legal factors could trump restrictions, memo to Rumsfeld argued”. Wall Street Journal, 6.7 (2004): 1-25.
Crawford, Robert. “Torture and the ideology of national security”.Global Dialogue, 12.1 (2010): 1-15.
Iacopino, Vincent. 2011. US torture and national security: The imperative of accountability. Journal of Psychology 219.3 (2011): 190-192, search.proquest.com/docview/899158668?accountid=8289.
International: Is torture ever justified? Terrorism and civil liberty. 2007. The Economist, Sep 22, 76. search.proquest.com/docview/224005756?accountid=8289.
Kim, Lane. Evidence from torture: dilemmas for international and domestic law.Washington, DC: American Society of International Law, 2005.
Kleinman, Steven. National Security Interrogations: Myth v. Reality.The National Security Program, 1.1 (2011), 1-23.
Marsella, Anthony. “Psychology, the CIA, and torture: A hidden history…no longer!” PsycCRITIQUES, 51.30 (2006), 1-32.
Miller, Peter. “Torture Approval in Comparative Perspective.”Human Rights Review, 12.4 (2011): 441-463.
Moher, Andrew. The lesser of two evils? An argument for judicially sanctioned torture in A Post-9/11 World. Thomas Jefferson Law Review, 26.2 (2004): 469-489.
Our opposition to torture must be non-negotiable. 2009. New Statesman, Aug 10, 4.search.proquest.com/docview/224347646?accountid=8289
Terrorism; terrorist detainee documents demonstrate value of “enhanced interrogation techniques” that led to Osama bin laden capture. 2011. Bioterrorism Week: 32, search.proquest.com/docview/865812831?accountid=8289.
Footnotes 1Steven Kleinman, National Security Interrogations: Myth v. Reality, the National Security Program, 1.1, 2011, 14.
2Terrorism; terrorist detainee documents demonstrate value of “enhanced interrogation techniques” that led to Osama bin laden capture. 2011. Bioterrorism Week: 32, search.proquest.com/docview/865812831?accountid=8289
3Jess Bravin, “Pentagon report set framework for use of torture; security or legal factors could trump restrictions, memo to Rumsfeld argued”. Wall Street Journal, 6.7, 2004, 4.
4Andrew Moher, The lesser of two evils? An argument for judicially sanctioned torture in A Post-9/11 World, Thomas Jefferson Law Review, 26.2, 2004, 469.
5Lane Kim, Evidence from torture: dilemmas for international and domestic law (Washington, DC: American Society of International Law, 2005), 15.
6 International: Is torture ever justified? terrorism and civil liberty. 2007. The Economist, Sep 22, 76. search.proquest.com/docview/224005756?accountid=8289.
7Ruth Blakeley,“Why torture?”Review of International Studies, 33.3, 2007, 373.
8Iacopino, Vincent. “US torture and national security: The imperative of accountability”. Journal of Psychology 219.3 (2011): 190-192
9Our opposition to torture must be non-negotiable. 2009. New Statesman, Aug 10, 4.search.proquest.com/docview/224347646?accountid=8289
10Robert Crawford, Torture and the ideology of national security, Global Dialogue, 12.1 2010, 13.
Brand Marketing and Communication Challenges for Mercedes-Benz Evaluation Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Fundamentals of Branding
Fundamentals of Communication
Fundamentals of Marketing
Priority Areas for Action
Branding, marketing and communications are critical aspects of any business. These elements carry the message that a company hopes to send to its potential and existing clients. These three aspects of business are vital for successful relationships with clients.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the fundamentals of branding, marketing and communications in an effort to identify the challenges businesses face in their implementation. Based on this examination, the paper will investigate how Mercedes-Benz handles the associated challenges, and the lessons that other businesses can learn from Mercedes-Benz.
Fundamentals of Branding Branding refers to the effort an organization puts towards differentiating itself and its products from its competitors. On the other hand, a brand is a specific product, organization, or item. Any misconception about these two concepts can lead to strategic blunders. Building a brand is not necessarily the same as branding, but it involves branding.
Effective branding requires the use of several elements. These elements include a logo, sounds, colors, and a slogan of a brand. Branding is about using these elements, alongside others to create a unique set of attributes for a product. Collectively, the brand elements can help a product to achieve brand personality.
One of the important issues to consider during the branding process is developing the brand definition. A brand definition is a succinct expression of what constitutes the brand. It is important to develop a brand definition early in the branding process because it helps the team dealing with the process to choose the elements they need to emphasize.
The final concept for consideration in the branding process is brand focus. Many branding efforts fail because of lack of focus. Brands with a high level of focus tend to have greater success in the market. Whenever organizations use a single brand to represent a wide range of products, the brand fails to form a lasting impression in the minds of consumers. In other words, it lacks focus.
The challenges associated with branding vary from business to business. In the context of the analysis presented above, these challenges fall into four categories. The first category of challenges relates to the challenge of distinguishing between brands and branding. Essentially, all products are brands.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, not all products have undergone branding. In the first case, firms spend money on R
Similarities between Marketing Research and Design Approaches Exploratory Essay cheap essay help
Introduction The definition of design usually depends on the field that the definition applies. This is not very strange given the differences in opinion regarding the fundamental components of design. Design as a function applies to the fashion industry as well as to the manufacturing industry. This function is also vital in the software industry as well as architecture. This explains why it is almost impossible to find a single definition for use across different fields.
On the other hand, design thinking is becoming the uniting thread that ties all the design approaches found in different fields. This refers to the approach, rather than the specific methods that designers use to develop design options. This paper explores the implications of design thinking to businesses.
The fundamental inquiry that this paper deals with is whether marketers can benefit from design thinking. To achieve this, the paper examines design approaches and methods in order demonstrate their relevance to business.
Design Approaches and Methods Design thinking is the overall philosophy that guides designers regardless of their fields. The first element of design thinking is that it focuses on people. The goal of design is to provide solution to various problems that people face. This means that any item that comes from a designer’s desk must meet the functional requirements needed to meet consumer needs.
However, the designer must also think about how people will interact with the product. This aspect is called “emotional design”. Engineers use ergonomics to ensure that final designs are pleasant and suitable to use, while software designers use concept like intuitive design to make software products easy to use.
The second element that governs design thinking is message. This concept arises from the realization that people interact with products, not just as functional items, but also as extensions of themselves. In this sense, people want products that feel right. People interact with products as an intimate part of their lives.
The products send out a message about them to the wider community. For instance, the clothes people wear determine how people look at them. Designers must ensure that whatever they design sends out the message that the customers want. Lawyers want suits that project power and self-confidence, while musicians want attires that demand attention and brand them as musicians.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third element of design thinking is achieving balance between the art of design, and the science of design. The art of design refers to the freedom of thought, and the evaluation of possibilities in relation to a specific design process. The science of design ensures that the design options meet the constraints of a design project.
Design thinking requires setting aside considerable time to explore the possibilities, and then subjecting these possibilities to extensive analysis to determine whether it is possible to turn them into real products.
Design thinking is a disciplined process that has multiple manifestations. On one hand, engineering designers use linear thinking and iterated processes to develop products, while fashion designers tend to be free spirited. The level of linear thinking associated with design depends on the constraints associated with a design project. In engineering, the level of constraints is higher.
Successful production of a design depends on the availability of materials that can meet the design specifications, and the existence of manufacturing processes for production. In other fields such as fashion design and fine art, constraints are fewer. This means that the designers in these fields have more liberty to pursue intuitive designs.
Design thinking, regardless of the field, required designers to posses both intuitive design skills, and linear design skills because they complement each other. An engineering designer with intuitive skills will produce use friendly products. For instance, the design of a gamepad requires a high level of intuitive thinking as well as linear thinking to ensure that the pad is easy to handle, and is functional.
Implications of Design Approaches to Organizations, Managers, and Entrepreneurs Managers and entrepreneurs can learn a number of lessons from design thinking. Essentially, managers and entrepreneurs solve problems on a daily basis. Some of the problems require novel solutions because of their uniqueness. Other problems need innovative solutions because of their impact on the business.
Entrepreneurs handle these situations more often because they usually have to develop the processes required to establish their businesses. Organizations also deal with various challenges that require attention. Design thinking can help them to deal with these problems.
We will write a custom Essay on Similarities between Marketing Research and Design Approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizations, managers, and entrepreneurs can benefit from design thinking by making people their primary focus. Organizations exist to solve problems. These problems affect people. In this sense, a people centered approach to the development of solutions can help an organization to arrive at better solutions. In the case of managers, most of the problems they deal with concern their subordinates, and their customers.
The design thinking implications for managers is that all solutions they arrive at should take into account the fact that they are dealing with people. For instance, solving problems associated with lateness for work requires managers to find out whether employees who report late have other challenges such as small children, or unpredictable traffic, before creating rules.
Similarly, entrepreneurs should always bear in mind that while their primary objective is to make profit, they must meet all the people-needs in their businesses to guarantee long-term success.
The element of message in design thinking is very applicable to organizations, managers, and entrepreneurs. Organizations must ensure that everything they do communicate a consistent message to all stakeholders. The reason for this is that if an organization does not communicate a consistent message, stakeholders lose faith in the purpose of the organization.
On the other hand, managers must also ensure that all the efforts they put in the management of their employees communicate the correct message to the employees. The message the manager should communicate is not the sloppiness of employees, if the problem lateness. This can damage the working environment. Any measures adopted to curb lateness should communicate the exact problem. In the case of entrepreneurs, the challenge is even greater because of the variety of stakeholders.
The balance between the art of design and the science thereof is also very vital for organizations, managers, and entrepreneurs. With growth, organizations tend to drift towards rigid processes that result in bureaucratic tendencies. This often stifles innovation and slows down decision-making. In other words, too much reliance on linear thinking can results in a monolithic structure that is unresponsive to environmental stimuli.
Organizations must allow a healthy coexistence of structured processes, and unstructured initiatives especially in segments that have high growth potential. For managers, the difference between the science and the art of design is the degree of reliance on proven theories and operating procedures checked against the need for flexibility in decision-making.
The willingness to institute flextime policies to help curb lateness is a good example of this balance if some employees can have manageable schedules by either reporting later or earlier for work. Entrepreneurs on the other hand tend to be intuitive. Many of them will thrive on the art side of design, at the cost of the science side.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Similarities between Marketing Research and Design Approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is need to institute systems necessary for running the business. For instance, entrepreneurs should have predictable financial systems that allow them to receive payments and pay suppliers with ease. Successful businesses are contingent on strong financial management.
Shaping Personal Approach to Learning, Knowledge and Design The discussion presented above illustrates how design thinking can help to strengthen other areas of business. While the second section deals with the possibilities presented by design thinking to the running of the organizations, they equally apply to marketing. In short, marketing deals with people just like the design process.
All marketing efforts must focus on the people who are likely to buy a product. This fact demonstrates the need to look at design as a possible source of learning for marketing students. In particular, every marketing student needs to learn about people.
On the issue of message, the relationship between design and marketing is very close. Marketers are very keen on the message that they put across to potential clients. In fact, marketers frame the language that an organization uses to market its products. This is a very intimate connection with design thinking because message is also a fundamental part of design thinking.
The implication for marketing student and learners is that it is beneficial to understand the message the designers of a product or process intended to communicate when they designed the product. This can help a marketer to market the product more effectively. It also means that marketing practitioners need to pay attention to designers because designers infuse messages into products that marketers send to consumers. Collaboration can only improve the efficiency of marketing.
Design thinking abhors constraints and promotes possibilities. The use of design thinking relegates the evaluation of ideas based on constraints to a later stage. In current marketing practice, the development of marketing strategies starts with the consideration of constraints. Marketing managers start by looking at the marketing budget, and the size of the marketing team.
The application of design thinking to marketing means that marketers should evaluate the actual marketing needs, and consider how best to meet these needs, before considering the constraints. The reality is that many companies have very strict budgets. Budgets are however justified by the results. If a higher marketing budget results in a more effective marketing campaign, then it is naïve to limit marketing efforts to constraints.
Conclusion It is clear that marketers can benefit from design thinking. In fact, design thinking is a welcome dimension in the operations of organizations as well as the work of managers and entrepreneurs. The main benefits that marketers can get from design thinking include the opportunity to focus on opportunities rather than constraints.
Secondly, design thinking can help to improve the process of developing a marketing message. The third benefit is that design thinking can help marketers to perpetuate people-centered marketing.
Reference List Brown, T 2009, Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation, Harper Collins, New York, NY.
Mathematics Methodology Classroom Effect on Efficacy of Elementary Teachers Analytical Essay online essay help
Background of the Study The theoretical concept of this research is teacher efficacy and belief, which originated from Bandura’s self-efficacy in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986). It has two elements, which include “efficacy expectations and outcome expectancies” (Bandura, 1986). The author is also quite categorical that efficacy among individuals has been demonstrated in various ways. For example, individuals can undertake self reflection in order to boost their levels of self efficacy.
In addition, they are excellent self-regulators especially if they are allowed to monitor themselves. Other similar characteristics of self efficacy include being proactive, and self-organizing. Bandura notes that human beings usually contribute to the circumstances facing their lives besides the fact that they are products of the same circumstances.
Kazempour also shares a similar sentiment about the relationship between the ideas of self-efficacy and teacher efficacy by asserting that they relate to each other (Kazempour, 2008). He noted that teachers who demonstrated confidence in mathematics teaching strategies had the ability to influence their students. In this context, the teacher’s belief has a direct influence on potential student outcomes in mathematics.
It is also imperative to mention that teachers can use various strategies to enhance student outcomes and provide appropriate feedback that encourages positive results. As a matter of fact, teachers with high levels of efficacy have the ability to put in place and utilize various types of strategies. It is not possible to deliver the best results and claim efficacies if myriad types of strategies are not sourced and utilized.
The role of an elementary teacher should be to improve student outcomes through different teaching strategies. Based on this observation, Kazempour (2008) concluded that learners’ performances in mathematics depended on their teacher’s efficacy, because teacher efficacy as dictated by the use of various strategies had a significant influence on the outcome of students. When multiple and efficient strategies are used, learners are easily motivated and therefore are expected to perform exceptionally well.
On the same note, Bursal (2007 also noted that the use of self-efficacy in improving mathematics literacy allowed teachers to enhance student outcomes regardless of their social backgrounds or other challenges (Bursal, 2007).
Teachers who were aware of self-efficacy stressed the importance of learners in the teaching and learning process. Such teachers made students believe they were a part of the learning process. In this model, learners may feel that their contributions are also important to the class and develop interest in the subject (Bursal, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With reference to Bandura’s theoretical framework and other studies on personal efficacy and teacher self-efficacy, teacher efficacy may be defined as the teacher’s “judgment of his or her capabilities to bring about desired outcomes of student engagement and learning, even among those students who may be difficult or unmotivated” (Bandura, 1986; Ashton, Webb,
Three Abbreviated Research Plans Proposal essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Quantitative, qualitative and mixed research methods have been used in various studies by different scholars. Therefore, this paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of each of the research methods. Besides, this paper provides an abbreviation for each of the research approach. Finally, it includes an introduction, a purpose statement, research questions and a research plan.
Quantitative Research Methods: Strengths and Limitations Quantitative research methods have been used in different types of research studies by different researchers (McLaren, 2012; Symonds
The Progressivity of Health Care Finance Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help
The Progressivity of Health Care Finance One of the main objectives of millennium development goals was to have universal healthcare services to everyone in the world at a cost that is affordable. This responsibility was laid on governments of various countries for implementation. This noble idea was to ensure that cases where people die not because of the complexity of the diseases they suffer from but because of their inability to pay for the hospital services are eliminated.
Various governments around the world have tried to come up with policies to help ensure that this goal is realized. However, Wagstaff, Yip and Hsiao (2009, p. S27) say that realization of this goal has remained a challenge to many governments. The costs of healthcare services are very high, especially due to the instruments and type of medication that some ailments require. Efforts have been made to ensure that most of the diseases can be treated at costs that are affordable to the poor.
The policy is always meant to protect the poor from being unable to access healthcare services because of the increased costs. The government of the United Kingdom is one of the many governments that have tried to achieve this millennium development goal by ensuring that healthcare services are affordable to every citizen of this country.
Progressive health care finance has been considered as the most appropriate way through which this goal can be achieved. Wagstaff, Yip and Hsiao (2009, p. S56) say that healthcare services have remained very expensive, and someone must bear the cost. For the poor to be in a position to access hospital services without paying the exorbitant fee that these services cost there must be a way that the cost will be paid by others who are in better position to pay for these services.
This must happen in order to avoid a scenario where the government is forced to foot these bills. It is upon this that the progressive health care finance has been introduced in this country and many other countries around the world. As the name suggests, this health care finance is progressive in nature based on the earnings of the individuals. Those who earn higher salaries would be expected to pay more, while those with lower pay always pay a lesser amount towards this fund.
The fund is always collected by the organ assigned by the government specifically for this purpose. Many countries have established National Health Insurance to be responsible for this task. This body acts as an insurance scheme where people are allowed to pull together towards financing the health of every citizen of the country.
The rationale in this case is that not everyone will fall sick at the same time. For this reason, those who are of good health, which is always the majority, will health in contributing towards payment of the few who are hospitalized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The policy has worked in many countries around the world. However, it has also met a number of challenges in its implementation. Some people have complained why they are forced to pay more simply because they are earning more while when they go for these services they get the same treatment. They consider their effort not to be commensurate to what they get when they visit these facilities for healthcare services.
Critics have also faulted this policy as being communist in nature and that it encourages laziness. One group of the society are forced to work very hard in order to pay for health services of another group who may be paying either too little amount of money or none at all. This is seen as transferring the burden of one group to another group. Others have criticized this program as not being all inclusive.
They say that people can easily avoid contributing to this scheme because there are no mechanisms set in place to help monitor the informal sector. Those working in the informal sector and without a set wage rate can easily abuse this scheme by paying lesser fee or not paying at all, claiming that there were no earnings in that particular period.
Despite these challenges, this idea has massively helped improve health of the citizens of this country. The United Kingdom is one of the few countries in the world that has come closest to achieving this millennium development goal with the help of this scheme. This scheme has been an umbrella that covers the cost of every citizen of this country irrespective of their financial status.
This has seen most of the killer disease which were common in this country about two decades ago completely eliminated. These services has helped offer standard healthcare to all. Although the rich may consider going for private hospitals where the services could be a little better than those offered by government at subsidized fee, the poor can now get treatment from government hospitals without worrying the amount of fee they will have to pay for the service.
It is the wish of the government to improve its health services to all the citizens, and for this to be realized, there must be an increased amount of money to cater for the improved services. It is on this basis that the government developed this progressive health care finance. Those who earn more money would help improve the services of the hospitals by paying more to this scheme.
The society has come to appreciate the importance of this policy, and the resistance it received when it was first introduced has gradually disappeared. As Wagstaff, Yip and Hsiao (2009, p. S87) say, the policy has seen the country develop excellent healthcare facilities for the nationals of this country. In other countries such as the United States, this policy has been very helpful in ensuring that the health care service offered to the people is affordable.
We will write a custom Essay on The Progressivity of Health Care Finance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How Can the Government Influence Health Behavior Decisions According to Wagstaff, Yip and Hsiao (2009, p. S87), most of the health complications are always borne out of the behavior of people and the decisions they make in line. This scholar says that the kind of health one has is always directly related to the kind of lifestyle one leads. For instance, smoking or excessive taking of alcohol is a lifestyle that is common in this country, especially among the youth. No one is always born a drunkard. It is a behavior one picks up as one grows.
Similarly, smoking is always a decision made by individual, and in most cases, people start smoking when they are past adolescent stage. This means that the behavior is acquired when one is an adult which is an age where one is trusted to be able to make decisions that are rational.
At early stages of life, these people are subjected to various forms of education which point out to them the fact that smoking or excessive drinking of alcohol is harmful to their health. They know that some ingredients in a cigarette are dangerous to their health, but they ignore all these and engage in chain smoking that has direct impact to their health.
Currently, HIV/AIDS is a pandemic all over the world. Although the problem is not as serious in the United Kingdom as it is in other countries, there has been a worrying trend in this country within the past one year where the rate of infection has been considered to be on the rise. The government statistics do not come out clearly to demonstrate this because some of the victims would prefer their identity to be unknown and therefore, go to private hospitals where their demands would be respected.
Obesity is also becoming an issue to worry about. As Wagstaff, Yip and Hsiao (2009, p. S116) note, there has been an increasing cases of obesity in this country over the past few years. Obesity comes with various health complications, and if not well addressed, an individual can develop a series of diseases that can have serious negative effect to their health.
The decision to embrace a certain behavior is always made by an individual. For instance, it would be the decision of an individual to engage in irresponsible sexual behavior that may expose him or her to infectious decisions. It is also the decision of an individual to become obese due to irresponsible diets and lack of exercise. However, after acquiring diseases related to their irresponsible behavior, it ceases to be their personal problem. It now becomes a family and a societal problem.
Such an individual may not be able to work, and he or she would need the health care services offered by the government. They will need support from the society to overcome their health complication, and the government will be expected to play a role in elevating their status. It is therefore, a fact that no decision can be said to affect the maker.
It is true that the maker may bear the greatest impact, but this impact will spread to other members of the society and finally to the government. For this reason, government has all the right to influence this behavior because it is one of the stakeholders who may be negatively affected by some of the consequences of this behavior.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Progressivity of Health Care Finance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government plays are very important role in ensuring that the health behavior decisions of its citizens are influenced in a way that would put them into lesser risk. The following graph shows some of the behavior that may put an individual into health risks.
Some of the Behavioral Factors that Puts an Individual at Health Risk
Source: (Wagstaff, Yip and Hsiao 2009, p. S72)
It is clear from the graph above that there are some behavioral factors that put an individual at risk, and therefore, must be regulated by the government. Smoking is one of the leading causes of lung cancer among other health complications. In order to deter or discourage this behavior, the government has been increasing tax on this commodity. This has seen its price go up.
The government has also introduced a law that prohibits sale and consumption of cigarettes and alcohol to individual below the majority age. In order to curb reckless driving which is also listed as one of the factors leading to health complication, the government has developed strict traffic laws, and the enforcement agency has been very swift in ensuring that this law is not violated.
However, as Wagstaff, Yip and Hsiao (2009, p. S132) say, these laws are very important in deterring individual from engaging in these behavior, but this may not change their thinking towards their habits. These scholars say that the best approach to deal with this issue is to make the society believe that these decisions they make, and the kind of behavior they engage in have direct impact on their health, the social well-being of their loved ones and to the government.
They must appreciate the importance of desisting from these behavioral factors. Their main reason of avoiding this behavior should not be because of the law, but should be because of their own conscience. The law will always remain on paper, and once it is not appreciated by people, it implementation can be a big challenge.
However, when people appreciate it, they will defend it, a fact that will help enhance positive behavior. The government should therefore, engage in civic education. It should make the society appreciate the need to avoid some behavior. This education should be started in schools and colleges before it is rolled out to their entire public using the media.
Grossman Model of Demand for Health (Increasing Food Prices and Wages) Grossman model of demand for health is based upon the premise that health is always determined by various factors and medical care is just one of them. Some of these factors include the work environment, the social class, and employment status, housing conditions, income, heating, diet, education and lifestyle.
These factors have varying weight and in order to determine their importance, there should be an understanding of possible links that exist between the resources, the behavioral factors and health. Grossman model holds that individuals value health and they are always willing to allocate their resources in order to produce health (Wagstaff, Yip and Hsiao 2009, p. S97). This model gives a detailed analysis of health economics, and how different factors play off in the production of health.
According to this model, although people value health so much, it has not been given top priority by the populace. This explains the reason why people still drive recklessly, smoke, have poor diets and drink excessive alcohol despite the knowledge that they are dangerous to their health. In this section, the focus will be on two factors which are the increase in prices and wages as discussed in this model.
Changes in Wage Rates According to this model, changes in the wage rates have direct impact on production of health. This model considers health as a product that is produced at a cost. This cost will be incurred by people through their contributions. The contribution can be in the form of the National Health Insurance Fund or a direct contribution made through the private health institutions.
The amount of resources that people will be willing to commit towards this production process is always dependent on the wage rate of the people. If people earn more, they will be able to pay more towards this production because of their increased disposable income. The graph below helps in demonstrating this fact.
Source: (Wagstaff, Yip,
The Operations Plan: Non-Profit Religious Music Promotion Evaluation Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Efficiency is very critical in the spheres of quality assurance as part of the company’s operations management strategy. Customers across the globe are keen on efficiency and quality of services they receive from companies and would quickly change preferences on the basis of perceived quality.
It is necessary that businesses ensure that efficiency and quality in service delivery is the baseline of their operations. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the concepts of the organizational chart, operations management, supply chain, business laws, and efficiency in the running of the nonprofit Texas Religious Music Promotion Company.
Management Team Operations management deals with management of a production process of goods and services in an organization. Operations function is central to any business because it deals with merchandise (Janus, 2008). As a whole, operations management contributes to the organizational strategy through cost reduction, customer satisfaction, and reduction of risks resulting from operation failures, reduction of the amount of investment, and providing a basis for future innovation.
The main determinants of success matrix in business production activities are the production strategies and the aspect of human input. As a matter of fact, the labor output will eventually determine the productivity of a business activity at micro and macro levels of business operations. The chart below summarizes the organizational chart for the nonprofit Texas Religious Music Promotion Company.
The business manager will be tasked with the duty of ensuring that the business guidelines are met within efficient utilization of resources. The business coordinator will form the primary link between the general manager and other units of the business. The head of logistics and the marketing manager will ensure a smooth flow of the business activities in the company through constant coordination with the sales team.
Plan for Hiring Employees
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Type of resource Source Period of engagement (in hours) Calculated rate of delivery in ($/hr) Cost aspects in ($) Management Within 226 218 5,487 Marketing Within 218 119 5,429 Logistics Within 159 119 4,298 Direct sales Within 150 115 7,320 Total costs 22,432 The company will consider providing a job compensation structure that supports the organizations as well as individuals’ growth and development perspectives. At the end of every six months, performance reviews will be carried out at the company for all the employees (Longenecker et al. 2009).
Through the compensation model, the business will be in a position to survive market swings and competition as a result of employee dissatisfaction. The performance reviews will minimize instances of employee redundancy and add value to skills required in the production strategy.
Employee Policies and Work Ethics Policies
The company has designed a staffing review strategy that captures the actual performance of its human resources within specified duration.
The preferred approaches to personnel selection are employee personal traits, learning ability, engagement skills, and attitude towards an assignment. This ensures that efficiency is the building block of salary determination and promotion program.
When selecting a potential employee, the company offers a job opening opportunity to its current employees.
The internal or external characteristics and traits that will suggest qualified personnel are incorporated in the selection procedure.
The interview process is carried out by several interviewers, each tasked with testing a specific dimension or job performance indicator. This strategy provides a more precise behavioral and job related evaluation of personnel candidates in terms of cognitive, knowledge, and personality test in line with the goal of optimal employee performance in the company.
The work ethics for this company encompass company’s moral values and social ethics in employee engagements at intra and inter personal communication parameters.
Personal foresight determines reaction to situations and structured responses to workplace ethical dilemmas. For every ethical dilemma identified, the company has a response strategy and rules to govern the decision making process.
Employees are motivated to adopt a positive attitude and self esteem to effortlessly function within the code of ethics and culture within the company’s organization culture.
Workplace stresses often occur as a result of disorganization, dissatisfaction, and unhealthy work environment as perceived by the employees. As a result of workplace stress, the performance of each employee will fall below the minimal expectation. To avoid occurrence of this, the business is located in the stress free environment of the city of Texas. The business is located in the ultra modern and environmentally friendly structure with adequate work space.
The Supply Chain
The supply chain determines the success of a company’s marketing strategy and ease of business sustainability. An organised supply chain is a prerequisite for confidence and trusts without and without a company’s market catchment. This company will adopt the pseudo marketing strategy to further penetrate the market and sustain its captured market.
Accessibility and transition in the marketing plan will ensure efficiency and proactive response analysis to further improve on the demands of prospective clients. To increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the market entry plan will encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate healthy and lifetime relationships between the business and its clients.
Among the new development elements that will be incorporated to build trust are establishment of a strong distribution, fair retribution process, and passing accurate information to target audience to restore confidence within the new networks.
Customer retention is therefore achievable through the creation of reliable and affordable marketing channel that is essential in monitoring a matrix that maps out potential competitors and identifies weaknesses and strengths of the clients. Moreover, the reporting criteria will reflect the success of the marketing calendar and set targets generated from time to time.
We will write a custom Essay on The Operations Plan: Non-Profit Religious Music Promotion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quality Assurance Strategies
Production efficiency is critical in the production line since it is characterized by optimal utilization of allocated factors of production within the least possible cost. Quality improvement will be used to measure, assess, and improve client service delivery outcomes.
The success for quality improvement and organizational change management is dependent on alignment of the production soft skills and sustainability strategy. If well organised, the strategy will complete the response projections for the company which shall be addressed in the proposed quality service delivery system.
Laws Impacting the Business
In the ‘equitable doctrine of promissory estoppels’ law, a business entity is protected from false promises made in bad faith and the court of law has powers to protect parties involved. Thus, the Texas Religious Music business will be protected from bad contacts. An example of this would be a trader who had material information that was not known to other individuals.
If this individual undertakes a business deal with this information, the court will have the right to declare the deal as a prime facie (Harrison
The performance management concept Coursework writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction The performance management is the prescribed course of actions that contains the expectations of the organization and the manner in which employees will be evaluated on how they have performed against the expectations of the organization. Managing workers’ performances are meant to enhance the attainment of the organization objectives. Organizations have various techniques through which the performance of the workers can be managed.
However, the plans, systems or criteria must meet certain conditions to make the management of the employees’ performances be more effective. Managers utilize performances assessment plans to manage the way employees carry out their obligations and how they align those achievements with the organization goals.
The management of employees’ performances also includes the elucidation of the responsibilities as well as roles of employees within the organization (Martocchio, 2011). In addition, performance management also set priorities and goals to be achieved by the employees. The goal setting enables employees to increase efforts in their undertakings particularly on the assigned tasks in order to attain the set objectives.
Employees’ growth and skills development is also one of the areas that performance management emphasizes. The employees’ growth in terms of enhanced skills is attained through training and long-term experience. The relationship between increased performance among employees and their improved skills as well as development is direct.
The other important area in which performance management centers its attention is the improved communication between the employees and the top management. Through efficient communication, all issues that might hold back effective operations can be resolved.
The most prominent performance management plans The major aim of performance management plan is to align the employees’ activities with the operations of the company, channel them towards attaining the company objectives, and make the company be more competitive (Gruman
Transformational Leadership at Virgin Group Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction Leadership is an important aspect of an organisation that will always have a direct impact on the success in achieving its objectives. The world is very competitive and for firms to manage this competition there is a need to have a leadership structure that is conscious of the dynamic factors of the environment. It is through proper leadership that a firm can embrace the changing environmental factors and is able to meet the changing market demands.
Firms that are successful in the market today owe their success to adequate leadership. Richard Branson is one of the leaders in the contemporary world that has come out strongly as a transformational leader with the capacity to inspire the employees to achieve the best results. The Virgin Group of companies under the Virgin Foundation is one of the largest companies in the world.
According to Fey (2012, p. 72), this company has grown from a small firm that was selling articles to a college, to a multinational company trading in various countries around the world. This firm has been able to venture into various industries with a lot of success. This is attributed to the leadership style of Richard Branson and his team of management. Sir Richard Branson has worked closely with his team of employees to ensure that this firm increases its scope of market and its profitability.
The Virgin Group is one of the best brands in the world. According to Cutcher (2007, p. 241), Virgin Group has been used in many case studies as a success story around the world. It is one of the firms that have experienced consistent rise, from a small firm that did not get attention of members of the society, to a large firm that plays a very important role in boosting the economy of the United Kingdom.
The success of this firm, as Budhwar (2006, p. 510) says, is attributed to the management style that the leader applies in managing operations of the business. This research will focus on how transformational leadership is used in Virgin Group and how it has helped the firm to become successful in the market.
Management Style Used by Richard Branson Sir Richard Branson is a strong supporter of individualized attention to every employee. According to Baruch (2008, p. 430), transformational leadership encourages the approach of management where the manager gives direct attention to each employee within the firm. This means that the manager would avoid cases where a decision is made on a generalised term. Every employee has unique qualities that make him or her different from others.
This uniqueness of the individuals makes it necessary for the management to ensure that every employee is understood perfectly within the organisation. All the employees of this firm who are in the managerial positions have at one moment or another met Richard Branson in person (Guesa 2010, p. 510). In such meetings, he would engage the employee in a dialogue with the sole purpose of gathering any information that may be relevant in understanding that person.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He would then ensure that such an individual is given attention based on his or her unique characters. This is what he would insist should be transferred to all the junior employees whom he cannot reach directly. This is part of total quality management technique used by this management. The diagram below explains this.
Figure 1: Total Quality Management Used at Virgin Group
Source: Baruch (2008, p. 430)
Transformational Leadership in Organisations Pielstick (2005, p. 75) defines leadership as a process where an individual (a leader) offers guidance to a group of individuals (followers) in an organisational structure. Leadership is one of the most important factors in any organisation. Leadership and management share a number of attributes, but they differ in various fronts. Transformational leadership is defined by Yukl (2010, p. 117) as a type of leadership that uses motivation to enhance the performance of employees.
Transformational leadership, as the name suggests, provides a completely new path to approaching various issues in an organisation. It provides the employees with an insight. One of the main aims of a transformational leader is to create a completely new approach in managing various issues within the organisation.
This is what the current world demands of a firm. Emerging technologies are changing various approaches of management. The emerging trends need new approaches that can be used to provide a way in which they can be managed differently. This is what the management of the Virgin Group has been practising.
Transformational leadership attempts to make employees discover themselves. According to Hacker and Tammy (2004, p. 46), a transformational leader will always make followers realise that they have untapped capacity which they can exploit to get better results in every activity they are doing. Unlike management, leadership takes the front line in bringing a change that is needed. It involves making the followers realise that they are a part of the change. It makes employees own the whole process.
We will write a custom Essay on Transformational Leadership at Virgin Group specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They feel that some changes that are proposed are a part of them and are meant to make their work easier. This way, they develop the responsibility to ensure that these changes are accomplished successfully and within the specified time. Such leadership will evoke desires on the followers to see to it that specific desires are achieved within the specified time. It is an art of tying the objectives of a firm to those of employees.
Nature and Relevance of Transformational Leadership in Organisations Transformational leadership has some characteristics that make it unique among other forms of leadership. Transformational leadership cherishes authenticity. It encourages followers to act as natural as possible. People who act naturally always tend to give their best. Passion is another major characteristic of transformational leadership. Transformational leaders must be passionate about every action they take.
This way, it becomes possible for the followers to take this characteristic from the leaders. Followers will develop passion when they realise that their leader has passion in his or her actions. Transformational leadership should also embrace creativity. Creativity is crucial in the contemporary world.
Leaders must be able to solve problems in a creative manner (Pardey 2007, p. 78). They have to encourage the culture of creativity in their employees. This way, their organisation will be able to be creative in the market. Richard Branson has always cherished these factors in his leadership.
Transformational leaders always have self-awareness. They understand what they stand for and are able to express this feeling to the followers. This way, it would be easy to avoid cases where a leader issues instruction which he or she can change abruptly without a clear explanation for the same.
Transformational leaders always have interpersonal intelligence. This is important to help bring people of different social backgrounds together. Organisation brings together individuals from different backgrounds. It would require interpersonal intelligence to make these people reason in the same line and work as a unit towards achieving specific objectives.
In managing organisations today, Conger (2006, p. 39) says that integrity is also of utmost importance. A transformational leader always has integrity. It is important to note that transformational leadership aims at bringing a completely new approach of doing various activities in a better way. Integrity will be one of the main ingredients in that leadership. It will be possible to tell others to maintain integrity only if the leaders show the same in their actions.
A transformational leader must also develop clarity of purpose. The leader must be sure of what he or she wants from the followers and from the leaders. According to Biswas (2011, p. 27), having a clear sense of purpose on what one does makes it possible to measure the level of success of an individual. This way, it becomes easy for such a leader to determine the rate at which objectives of the firm are being achieved.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Transformational Leadership at Virgin Group by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, such a leader always has global awareness of various factors in the environment. When the leader is managing a large multinational organisation, understanding factors in the immediate environment may not make one formulate policies that can benefit all the branches of the firm.
Such a leader must have global awareness of various environmental factors in order to transform employees and the firm in general towards desired direction. Besides the above characteristics, transformational leadership has four main elements that help in making it unique in the market. The four are discussed below.
Evaluation of the Behaviour of Leaders in the Selected Organisation Richard Branson has demonstrated capacity of a leader in his Virgin Foundation. Being a brilliant entrepreneur, Branson has managed to grow the Virgin Empire to capture various industries around the world. He has demonstrated leadership capacity that is beyond reproach.
According to Bustin (2004, p. 67), Branson believes that the strength of the firm is bestowed in the employees. He has therefore maintained a cordial relationship with the employees, always making them feel that they are appreciated within the organisation. One of the most important cultures he has developed within the organisation is trust in peers.
Employees spend much of their time with fellow employees. They interact with their peers when doing different activities geared towards achieving specific goals for the firm. Employees should therefore develop positive attitude towards their peers in order to ensure that the internal working environment is peaceful. They should share innovative ideas amongst themselves and develop a working environment where each team member is a protector of others.
Trust in peers refers to the extent to which workers in similar job positions would be willing to cooperate amongst themselves to accomplish certain tasks. In the organisation, it is understood that peers interact with their workmates as far as accomplishment of tasks is concerned.
An employee would be tempted to work hard after realising that his colleague is committed to realising certain goals (Kouzes
Managing gender diversity in ASOS plc Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction ASOS plc is a fashion and beauty-retailing corporation that operates and sells its products online. The company has its headquarters in the United Kingdom. In addition, the corporation transacts its business in many countries outside Europe. In fact, the firm has over fifty thousand branded and labeled products to the clients spread across one hundred and ninety countries.
Further, the firm, from its delivery centers in the United Kingdom distributes the products to diverse destinations around the globe (ASOS, 2011). The bulk of ASOS plc customers are derived from the young people within their twenties since the group consumes most of the corporation’s fashion products. As a result, the corporation boasts of a customer base of over seventeen million clients across the world.
The aims of the company
The establishment of the company was based on the aim of achieving the status of a world leader in online fashion and beauty retail industry. Therefore, the company’s philosophy and smaller goals are critical in the attainment of the broader objectives. The organisation’s philosophy calls for the integrating both the interests of the shareholders and the executive level through fairness in the division of rewards, perils as well as participation in the company’s state of affairs (ASOS, 2011).
In addition, profitability remains one of the major aims of ASOS plc to be achieved through organic growth and capital investment. Increase in productivity of the company will be a recipe for the delivery of returns to the shareholders. Moreover, taking into account the interests of the stakeholders including the personnel, shareholders, and suppliers, the communities in which they function and other stakeholders remain critical in the operations of the operations of ASOS plc.
Of great importance, the firm aspires to sustain its global expansion through opening specific websites that are able to attract large masses in the countries where the organisation conducts its businesses. Further, ASOS plc’s promotional techniques have proved invaluable in aiding the organisation to position over the rival retail online businesses in the world markets.
In addition, the organisation intends to expand its labels and set up its independent credentials as the global fashion trademark (ASOS, 2011). The firm also aims to deliver gross margin efficiency that will be reinvested in the pricing and prepositioning of the clients.
In essence, ASOS has a dedication of ensuring that it achieves the status of a worldwide head in the online retail industry through targeting the younger generation. As such, the firm constantly modifies its pricing techniques as well as the products to acquire large number of clients (ASOS, 2011). The company products provide extra worth to its clients and are in line with the market demands.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The strategic policies
To attain its goals and objectives, the company must have strategic plans that take into consideration its core competencies. One of the areas that company emphasizes is the management of its human resources. Being a global company requires competent expertise to enable the organisation expand and remain competitive into the international market. Diversity within the workforce remains critical within the international corporations (ASOS, 2011).
ASOS plc employees remain diversified not only in terms of other factors but also in terms of gender. Managing diversity within the workforce is one of the strategic plans the company undertakes to attain its international expansion goals.
Diversified workforce remains significant for the attainment of the objectives of the company within the international marketplace. The human resources strategic plans includes policies that will ensure the company hires and promote men in executive positions but also women with high achievements and academic qualifications.
Managing gender diversity within an organisation The operations of an organisation’s personnel can be diversified in various ways including gender. Considering the gender attributes in the workplace among many business organisations, women have always received the least representation especially at the top levels of corporate management (Badgett, 2005). However, the company has increasingly recognised the importance of incorporating educated women at the influential levels of governance.
For instance, over the past years, several women encountered a number of bottlenecks in their aspirations to develop their careers and reach higher levels of management in most of the UK as well as other leading global companies. Just to begin with, the foremost obstacle faced was the discrimination based on gender where women were not allowed to gain top positions in management (Bielby
Managing for the Future: The Coca-Cola Company Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Corporate Social Responsibility
Crisis and Catastrophe Management
Introduction Every institution in the world needs to manage its resources and capacity to ensure its success in the future. The current business scenario is characterised by increased business turbulence, speedy changes in the environment, market changes, unpredictability of employees, competition, and new worldviews. It is therefore clear that investors in the business world do not know what will happen in the future. Consequently, there is the need to predict and prepare for what is not known.
There is a call also to make the future appear like the already known past by assuming that people know what will happen in a bid to tailor what they do not know to suit their business interests. With proper planning, businesses are able to minimise instances of guesswork.
Every sensible business wants a future that is characterised by increased adoption and commitment to technology, decreased command-and-control leadership style, increased teamwork, enhanced flexibility and efficiency, and increased common interest among employees, investors, and other stakeholders. According to Dibben, Klerck and Wood (2011, p.12), companies will therefore organise to have their management teams developing shared goals and vision.
They will need to have their activities around their competencies and a common order of operations where they work in tandem with their value chain. They will also have speedy information processing and hence faster action and reaction where they delegate from bottom upwards.
Based on this foundation, this paper discusses management for the future in the light of the following parameters: corporate social responsibility, crisis and catastrophe management, and environmental issues. The company that forms the basis of this study will be the Coca Cola Company.
The Coca Cola Company is a beverage company, which has been a world-market leader in beverage and soft drinks production and sale for many years. The company was formed in 1892. According to Gail (2001, p.74), Coca Cola is a multinational company producing various brands of soft drinks, for example Coca Cola, Tab, Fanta, Sprite, Mello Yello, Minute Maid, PowerAde, Nestea, and Fresca among others.
The company has over 500 brands, which also comprise fruit juice and non-soda beverages. According to Candler (1995, p.81), the central office of this company is in Atlanta, Georgia. The company adopts a bureaucratic management model with a central point of leadership. Major operations of the company are controlled from the headquarters to the main divisions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Corporate Social Responsibility Madhavan (2012, p.94) observes that the corporate social responsibility program of the Coca Cola Company has been centred around water stewardship, energy and climate, product portfolio, community, active health living, sustainable packaging, and recycling. Harwood (2009, p.24) observes that the Coca Cola Company has sponsored great sport events such as the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics games.
Since Coca Cola is a large multinational company making about 80% of its profits from international sales, it has a huge responsibility towards the community. According to Haggind and Smith (2000, p.304), consumers in the current world of business have graduated from rating a company based on how sensitive and ethical it is to how such a company demonstrates its commitment to the society.
Customers also want companies that promote economic, social, and political message in the promotion of ethical brands, locally harvested resources, and promotion of organic food. Thomas (2008, p.3) observes that, in its effort to fulfil this premise, the Coca Cola Company has included the manufacture of non-carbon drinks to substitute its main brand in various countries. For example, in the early 60s, the company acquired Minute Maid, which is a non-carbon drink.
The company has also engaged small local distributors to carry out trade with its products in various parts of the world. The company has also divided its distributors by the regions in which it operates. Bottling of the soda company is therefore done in those regions. Candler (1995, p.81) asserts that the company manufactures the main product in Atlanta and then exports it to the bottlers. The bottlers make the finished products besides distributing it to customers in their specific regions.
This strategy is a method of fulfilling the company’s corporate social responsibility. Madhavan (2012, p.94) argues that, since corporate social responsibility is a continuous program, the company ensures the continuation of its relations with the community. In its pursuit of reaching out to the local communities in these regions, the Coca Cola Company also draws its employees from its markets.
Walsh and Dowding (2012, p.106) observe that the company has also been involved in water conservation activities across the world. The premise of the company is that, since it is concerned with the use of water in the manufacture of its beverage and non-beverage products, it has a responsibility in water conservation. The company has been using its regional marketers to draw information on the most appropriate corporate social responsibility activities to be carried out in certain regions.
Through corporate social responsibility, the Coca Cola Company has been the market leader in the soft drink industry for many years. The company has used its corporate social responsibility advances to bridge its community relations fabric. Raman (2007, p.103) argues that, through commitment to the community and its wellbeing, the Coca Cola Company has made itself a unique brand in the market.
We will write a custom Essay on Managing for the Future: The Coca-Cola Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, Thomas (2004, p.8) reveals that, although the company has been involved in corporate social responsibility for many years, there has been repeated complains and speculations about the ingredients of its main product: Coca Cola drink. The feeling in the market over the years has been that the company has been hiding some crucial information from consumers. The big argument is that consumers should know the actual chemical composition of the drinks that they consume.
Moreover, Thomas (2004, p.8) confirms that the Coca Cola Company was highly involved in financing the opposition to the campaign on labelling the calorie content of food and drinks. Out of this involvement, many Americans have questioned the good will of the Coca Cola Company in promoting healthy living in the society. The inference is that the corporate social responsibility committee in the company has not done enough in enhancing brand acceptance in the market.
Thurman and Vest (2010 p.235) affirm that discretionary corporate social responsibility program should ensure cost reduction, economic benefits to the company, and development of intangible benefits such as brand image and its differentiation. However, although the Coca Cola soda is widely accepted in the world except in the Middle East, the challenge of its chemical composition remains a big threat.
Ignatius (2011, p.94) asserts that, for future success, the Coca Cola Company needs to develop scenarios to guide its CSR plans. Scenarios enable a company to view its future in a more realistic manner rather than predicting it. As the company manages for the future, various scenarios need to be developed. The years between 2018 and 2020 will be very competitive years for beverage companies.
Thurman and Vest (2010 p.235) observe that the current trends indicate that there has been a rapid increase in beverage producing companies in the world. Many companies have also involved themselves in CSR. It becomes almost impossible to stand out as a company in CSR activities. The scenario planning for the Coke Company will be tailored for 2018 to 2020.
The area of interest for the scenario will be in CSR to make the ‘Coca Cola’ brand widely accepted in the market to increase economic gains to the company. Raman (2007, p.103) argues that the current status of the Coca Cola soda as a brand is that it is widely accepted but highly suspected of having unhealthy chemical ingredients.
In America, the brand has been widely accepted. However, some consumers question the involvement of the company in the fight against food product calorie labelling. In the Middle East, consumers prefer other products such a Pepsi to Coca Cola products. On the other hand, there are complains about the content of this beverage in Africa.
With the negative publicity that the brand has received, other beverage companies have began taking over huge shares of the Coca Cola soda and Dasani water market. Consumers should understand the ingredients of the brand and its impact on bodily health. This can be done through CSR activities planned to promote healthy living by consumption of clean, healthy, and hygienically made beverages.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing for the Future: The Coca-Cola Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Walsh and Dowding (2012, p.106) project that people will be educated on healthy lifestyles such as the boiling of drinking water, washing hands, and carrying Coca Cola beverages while travelling to avoid drinking contaminated drinks. This effort will result in better understanding of the brand and hence its acceptance. However, failure to understand the brand will lead to increased unfounded information about it and hence decreased acceptance.
To avoid misconceptions, proper communication will be ensured. If consumers become disinterested in the CSR activity, the company will use famous artists to draw their attention. To avoid language barrier, the company will hire people from the community to monitor the campaign. In terms of marshal support, the company will use opinion leaders from the region as product ambassadors.
The world is moving into a more liberalised age. By 2018, customers will identify themselves with organisations that will closely identify with them and their activities. Such will be companies that adopt neo-human relation models of administration. Bratton and Gold (2003, p.22) foresee that companies will be more concerned about the wellbeing of their employees and customers in the future.
Consequently, CSR activities will also be tailored to make human beings and their environment more comfortable. The Coca Cola Company will be able to manage the scenario since it already has a well-established market share. The company also boasts of well-organised distribution lines by regions. Hence, it will be able to reach out to its customers with ease. The history of the company is also an asset.
Crisis and Catastrophe Management According to Runde and Flanagan (2010, p. 4), catastrophe can be defined as a serious disruption of the normal working of an organisation or a community, which results in losses. Such losses include human, material, environmental, and economic losses. In most cases, organisations are not prepared for the crisis or the disasters that leave the company in crisis. Various crises can face a company.
According to Lixin (2010, p.171), organisational crisis may range from brand, image, financial, legal, and operational crisis. The major stages of crisis are pre-crisis, crisis, and post crisis. The Coca Cola Company has not performed badly in crisis management. However, the development ladder of Coca Cola, which has been existence for one hundred and eleven years, has not been a smooth ride. At various points, the company has faced crises.
According to Tsang (2000, p.65), its bureaucratic management model has somewhat caused delays in establishing solutions to the crises. For example, in 1985, the company faced one of its worst crises. Huber, Vogel, and Meyer (2009, p.131) assert that, in 1985, the Coca Cola Company decided to introduce another product to fill in the increased demand for the Coca Cola brand. The company introduced another brand, diet coke, which marked the beginning of the crisis.
According to Huber, Vogel, and Meyer (2009, p.131), the brand had a new taste to the extent that consumers expressed dislike of the product. During this time, consumers abandoned the product and went for Pepsi, a competitor in the beverage market.
The Coca Cola Company had to manage the destroyed image and low sales. George (2008, p.50) observes that the crisis management personnel in the Coca Cola Company had to accept and adjust within three months. The company reverted to its old ‘Coke.’ Sales went up almost immediately.
Lixin (2010, p. 172) argues that the most essential resources in crisis management are leadership, information, and organisation. The Coca Cola Company was not able to perceive the crisis that would result after the introduction of a new brand (the diet coke). Perceived crisis is clear for a biased and more dedicated observer in the management sector. However, the company was able to realise the crisis at its intrinsic stage. At this stage, neutral observers could realise it.
According to George (2008, p.50), the impact of the crisis was already manifested by the decrease in sales of the new brand. A person who is not biased in any way to the consumer can realise the crisis from outside.
The company was able to react maturely to counter the situation by restoring the old coke brand to sustain its image. However, crises need anticipation and planning. Wardlaw (2009, p. 57) asserts that the tag of war on the ingredients of the brand is likely to draw the company in crises in the future.
The Coca Cola Company needs a scenario development to survive the competitive and critical business world between the year 1918 and 1920. The scenario development will cover crisis and catastrophe management. This move will be important to end the crisis of low acceptance in the Middle East and the competition crisis that is likely to be posed by other beverage companies.
Wardlaw (2009, p.57) observes that the current situation indicates a high competition between the company’s products and other beverage manufacturing companies such as Pepsi. For example, in the Middle East, the Coca Cola Company records the lowest sales since most of the customers prefer Pepsi products. The current trends in most parts of the world indicate that Coke is leading in the market even with the evident crisis in the Middle East.
Proper crisis management will enable the company to get out of the current scenario in the period between 1918 and 1920. However, Polk (2009, p.61) affirms that the company is still uncertain about its marker in the Middle East owing to the large market share by its competitor, Pepsi. If the crisis is not managed, Coca Cola may be forced to close business in the region by the year 2018.
The management will assess the likely risks in the company, for example soiling of company’s name by competitors, accidents, earthquakes, terrorism, tsunamis, and the emergence of highly competitive brands. The management will also plan for beverage business drivers, for example weather changes, events, and festivals. What if the competitor realised our secret to success and use it against our success? There is a need to develop strategies of addressing the above question.
For instance, the company should rehearse on what it should do during a fire outbreak. According to Dibben, Klerck, and Wood (2011, p.12), employees should be trained through crisis management drills. It is important for the management to understand the environment, social activities of the people, and their culture.
This will enable them have a well-planned response in case of a crisis. Bratton and Gold (2003, p.22) assert that crisis management plan will also involve a single point of communication, management of the crisis condition, and management of the crisis aftermath. In the Middle East, for instance, the company should be aware of the common religious beliefs and culture of the people.
The company will be able to implement crisis and catastrophe management plans through its regional distribution channels. Acts of terror are common in this environment. They are likely to increase by 2018. Polk (2009, p.61) affirms that preventative and reactive methods should be developed, rehearsed, and financed. According to Runde and Flanagan (2010, p.4), companies also need to adopt a more humanistic approach in managing crises.
The use of classical models of management may end up delaying crucial information delivery during crises. It is worth noting that the most important step in crisis management is to issue right, timely, and correct information. With bureaucracy in place, subordinates at the regional levels have to wait for directives from the headquarters before communicating during crisis. By 2020, most of the companies will have adopted more humanistic management approaches.
Many institutions will adopt such management models such as the Maslow’s plan of needs. According to Smaiziene and Orzekauskas (2009, p.522), companies will not only seek to make profits and good reputation. They will also work to engage customers in a bid to ensure that they satisfy their needs.
Companies will seek to solve crises that affect the lives of their customers. For example, if the company disposes its by-products to the environment and that the community complains about it, the crisis will have to be managed quickly. Institutional managements will therefore need to be more proactive as opposed to being reactive. The management at regional levels will also be empowered to take a quick action in solving crises.
For example, in case of sewer breakage, the management at that level should be able to solve the problem even without directions from the headquarters. According to Blaga (2013, p.5), management styles will move to a more devolved model. Such models will lessen conflicts in the institutions and outside the institutions. Companies will seek to satisfy human needs through enhancing accessibility of food, shelter, and security. Such acts will reduce intrapersonal, interpersonal, and inter-group conflicts.
Environmental Issues The Coca Cola Company has had a great environmental concern history in the last decade. However, the company has also had a bad encounter with environmental activists. For example, Zegler (2011, p.14) asserts that the Coca Cola Company privatised water supply in a place called Chiapas in Mexico. Most organisations opposed this move by the Coca Cola Company.
Sebastian (2012, p.1) observes that, instead of the company’s management enhancing the accessibility of water by its customers and employees in Central America, it made it hard for them to access the commodity. This raised criticism in both central and South America. The bureaucratic management model that the company adopts requires that the regional marketers and distributors heed to directives from the headquarters.
In such models, there is dissonance between people and management since the central office is not in direct contact with the reality on the ground. Environmental management requires a direct contact with the situation on the ground. This management model has hindered the success of environmental management efforts by the Coca Cola Company.
The company has also had an indecent history in India for a similar cause. Hills and Welford (2005, p.168) observe that the Coca Cola Company privatised water supply in India, thus facing a wide opposition from citizens. All these faults have been blamed on poor environmental concern by the management of the Coca Cola Company across the globe.
In the past decade, most of the companies especially those that deal with food and drinks have been highly involved in environmental conservation efforts. The company failed to understand the environment of its operation and the need of its consumers. Harish and Gopal (2008, p.42) assert that it was out of the water incidence that the company suffered reduced sales in South America and in India.
Surprisingly, the Coca Cola Company has developed environmental programs to make out for its past dissonance. The management has realised the negative impact of its environmental relations, thus reverting to environmental preservation methods. For example, in India, the company has cut back on water use. This comes after the incidence of water privatisation.
Zegler (2011, p.14) confirms that production of beverages in India is therefore being done with lesser amount of water hence saving on water use to conserve the environment. According to Steele (2008, p.2), Coke Company has also developed a recycling plant that will recycle its waste products into useful products. In addition, it has committed itself to zero Air pollution (ZAP). Such a move will ensure that the company has very low carbon emission from its production plants.
It will also reduce its fuel consumption, and in turn fuel consumption. Sebastian (2012, p.1) also reveals that the company has opened a water plant in Florida to provide water to the residents. This has countered the previous image of the company. The water plant will enhance a greener city and/or provide water for both domestic and commercial use.
According to Steele (2008, p.2), the company is also involved in tree planting in its effort to promote environmental conservation. In Brazil (where the company enjoys a large market share in the soft drink industry), it has developed Brazil rainforest water program. This program endeavours to restore watershed points in Brazil and to ensure that it replants the lost riparian forests.
The Coca Cola Company requires a scenario development for the future. In the years between 1918 and 1920, the company will require a well-developed environmental preservation plan. Currently, the company has been accused of the use of huge volumes of water in the production of its beverages and non-beverage products.
Hernández (2009, p.34) observes that the relevance of environmental programs for Coca Cola will be aimed at mending its lost image on environmental preservation in the United States, India, and Brazil. Currently, the company has engaged in environmental preservation programmes in Brazil where it is restoring forest through tree planting. The relationship between the company and the residents of various parts of the world differs.
For example, after the privatisation of water in Central America, the relationship of Coca Cola and its customers grew bad. Most of the residents suffered high costs of water, thus accusing the company of using too much water at their disadvantage. Hills and Welford (2005, p.168) observe that a similar relation existed in India after the company privatised water supply in the country. However, the company has embarked on building water plants to provide water for the residents.
It is projected that there will be more needs for environmental preservation by 2018. Global warming continues to hit the world as the forest percentage decreases and rivers run dry. The society in which Coca Cola markets its products is also becoming more environmental conscious. Moreover, Cioletti (2008, p. 32) affirms that there has been an increase in environmental management and preservation companies over the last decade.
Such companies in collaboration with the international environmental organisations such as the United Nations Environmental program (UNEP) will watch over such companies closely for environmental laws violation. Increased environmental surveillance will mean that organisations such as Coca Cola will be required to have special departments to ensure that such companies are compliant with the environmental laws of the country of investment.
According to Theodore (2008, p.4), environmental campaigns will go a long way in ensuring that the company’s name is well positioned in environmental preservation. However, these challenges will be converted to springboards of the program. According to Gail (2001, p.74), the company will also ensure that there is proper communication with the members of the community in which it intends to implement its environmental programs.
Creation of rapport with the members of the society will enable the company pull the community to supporting its activities and programs. This strategy will see the company have a double score in sales and in image development. If the society does not allow strangers to engage in environmental developments, the company will make use of local opinion leaders to plant trees and to conserve water sources. Some cultures do not allow women to plant trees.
The company will therefore educate such a community on the benefits of environmental preservation and promotion by both men and women. Given the wide area of distribution and market for the company, it will be able to reach a huge area in environmental conservation.
Cioletti (2008, p. 32) affirms that the company has begun recycling programs in its bottling plants and the use of plastic bottles, which can be recycled after use. This has reduced the increased damage caused by glass bottles especially when they break. The peaces cannot decompose. They end up causing injuries to human and animal life.
Seabright (2007, p.38) argues that development of good environmental plans will call for a dedicated environmental conservation department in the company. Since the company has already begun its journey to restore its image on environmental conservation in India, South America, and Brazil, it will be easier to implement the plan.
Ignatius (2011, p.94) predicts that an environmental conservation program will be important especially in areas where the company has had poor engagement with the community on matters of environment. The company will also ensure that it uses less water in its production plant and in its bottling plants.
Seabright (2007, p.38) confirms that recycling of water and other materials that are used in the process of making beverage and non-beverage products will also enable the company hype on its reputation on matters of environment. By 2018, most of the multinational companies will be operating in very competitive environments. Organisations will have adopted system theories of management.
System theories will enable the organisation to combine the systems of the organisation with the humanistic systems. Haggind and Smith (2000, p.304) argue that an open system of management will enable the organisation to gather information from its publics to be in close ties with them.
With the extensive channels of distribution in various continents, the Coca Cola Company will therefore reach out to consumers through environmental conservation programs. The image of the company will be enhancing at the regional levels.
References Blaga, S 2013, ‘Rethinking Business Sustainability’, Review of Economic Studies
Learning Theories: Comparative Perspective Research Paper essay help online
Educators have offered different explanations of how learning takes place. The lack of consensus on the ideal learning method has led to emergence of many learning theories. Leonard (2002) defines learning theories as the “conceptual frameworks that describe how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning” (23). Some educators argue that learning is simply a change of behavior.
Others feel that change of behavior is too simplistic to encompass all that learning entails. To them, learning is complex and thus employs high mental faculties. Several factors influence how human beings acquire knowledge. The cognitive and emotional state of the learner plays a major role in determining people’s worldview (Lefrançois, 2012).
Additionally, the physical environment has a profound effect on people’s absorption and retention of new knowledge. This paper will extrapolate three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitive, and constructivism. It will further put the theories side by side and explain their differences.
Behaviorism theorists argue that learning takes place through conditioning (Skinner, 1976). To them, learning does not involve mental activities. To measure whether learning has taken place, what one needs to do is to establish whether there has been a change in behavior. Operant and classic conditioning underpins the theory. Pavlov, a psychologist, developed and popularized Classic conditioning.
By carrying out experiments with dogs, he established that human beings and animals respond in a specific way to certain stimulus. B.F Skinner reinforced this school of thought through operant conditioning. He taught a pigeon to dance and concluded that a response follows every stimulus (Turner, 2007).
If this response attracts a reward, it becomes more frequent. The implication for learning is that to encourage or discourage a behavior, teachers can use positive or negative reinforcement. This is the basis on which educators advocate for the use of rewards and punishment in learning.
Cognitive theory explains that a child’s cognitive ability develops with age. Jean Piaget developed and popularized the theory. Piaget and Roberts (1976) aver that children “build cognitive structures and mental maps for understanding and responding to physical experiences within their environment” (56). Educators must therefore desist from “suffocating” learners with complex knowledge that is not in tandem with their cognitive levels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An infant’s capacities are limited to simple reflexes but they develop and become more complex as the child’s grow. In the early life of a child, abstract learning is difficult to conceptualize. Teachers should focus on concrete things especially those that the child can manipulate using motor skills.
The complexity of learning materials should increase commensurate with the child’s cognitive structures. The child’s mental map accommodates new learning and creates equilibrium between what the child is capable of absorbing and the experiences emanating from the environment.
Constructivism theory is more philosophically grounded than the two theories discussed above. It argues that human beings understand the world through reflection on current and past experiences. Leonard (2002) avers that each human being generates “his own rules and mental models which he uses to make sense of his experiences” (34). In learning, therefore, people create space for new experiences by simply making a change to their mental models.
People search for meaning through reflection. Learning is not a mere regurgitation of knowledge but a deep search for meaning in every thing human beings do. Before teaching, a teacher should establish the perception of the learner in the particular discipline or subject. The teaching should not just focus on the whole but also on the parts (Lefrançois, 2012).
The theory discounts the use of tests for assessment. According to constructivists, learning is a product of individual’s reflection as he or she interacts with new knowledge. As such, examinations cannot be effective in establishing whether learning has taken place.
Comparative Perspective Educators consider behaviorism theory the traditional approach in teaching and learning. The teacher is the source of knowledge and the learner is the recipient. The teacher delivers the knowledge directly to the learner. If the information is complex, the teacher has the discretion to provide it to the learner through contingencies that incorporate rewards and reinforcement.
Ritzer and Sage Publications (2005) aver that in behaviorism, “students learn without teaching, in their natural environments, but teachers arrange special contingencies which expedite learning, hastening the appearance of behavior which would otherwise be acquired slowly” (64). Examinations are an indispensable item in learning for behaviorist theorists.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Learning Theories: Comparative Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their aim is to measure whether there have been any changes in the behavior of the learner. Educators motivate learners through rewards and reinforcement. If a learner errs, punishment comes in handy to bring about behavioral change.
The learners task in this approach is acquire facts and master skills. An educator must praise and reward learners who make small accomplishments. Behaviorist theorists employ progress charts to monitor learners’ improvement. The educator can apply his authority to punish learners who show little or no behavioral change.
In constructivism, learning takes place through problem solving and discovery. It is not structured. It instead unfolds in a natural and uninhibited manner. Human beings have an innate curiosity. If given the liberty, they are capable of discovering things by themselves as long as there is motivation. Learning is neither teacher-centered nor at the direction of a teacher or an authority. The approach, in the eyes of behaviorist theorists, lacks “meaningful learning” (Turner, 2007).
There are not structured examinations but rather direct tests that correspond to the learners’ skills. The role of the teacher is to reduce threats in the learning environment and make it challenging. This way, learners will become critical thinkers and problem-solvers.
The teacher merely facilitates the learning process as learners work in groups. He asks thoughtful and provoking questions that stimulate discussions. Learners brainstorm and arrive at original solutions and present them in a way of their choosing.
In cognitive theory of learning, learning is a product of well-formulated strategies. The learners’ aim is to acquire facts and master concepts. They observe the teacher as he demonstrates and explains facts. The teacher employs his own strategies to capture and retain the attention of the learners.
Visual aids are very important in the learning process. The learners observe graphics and use them to derive meaning through analysis and synthesis. To enhance retention of information, learners can use mnemonics and other retrieval cues. Schunk (1991) propounds that the approach applies learning strategies such as “review, examine, ask, do, and summarize” (34).
According to behaviorist theorists, the major factor that influences learning is the environment. Brain affects learning because it involves internal emotions that cannot be measured. Conditioning is the main way through which to understand learning.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Learning Theories: Comparative Perspective by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Inevitably, therefore, rewards and punishment influence learning. If educators motivate learners for their small accomplishments, learners will achieve more behavioral change. An ideal teacher will transfer facts and skills to the learners and assess their understanding through examinations.
Constructivist theories believe that learning motivation influences learning. The role of a teacher is to motivate the learner to develop solutions rather than memorize documented solutions. Apart from motivation, experience also influences learning. The theory propounds that learners come into the learning process with their own experiences; they are not blank.
The task of the teacher therefore is not to deposit knowledge on the learners but provoke and elicit discovery of new knowledge. Schunk (1991) further asserts that teacher is an influence “that performs a minimalist role geared towards most learning for least teaching” (45). The major influence in this approach is experience and motivation.
Cognitive theorists hold that cognitive structures and mental maps influence learning (Piaget
Fundamental principles of corporate finance Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction In corporate and business finance, there are three fundamental principles that have been studied and utilized over years. The principles take into account the capital flows intended to offer support to various business ventures. In fact, from global corporations to the small and medium sized enterprises, it is apparent that each commercial venture ought to make two distinct decisions.
First, as investment matures, a corporation should make the preeminent decision concerning how capital must be restored to corporate financiers or business owners. Second, decisions ought to be made concerning how finance can be used to discover, utilize and allocate the available resources.
The organization should control places where the resource support originates and the manner through which they recuperate to be utilized (Berman and Knight, 2008). These require the application of various interrelated and fundamental principles.
This paper describes the fundamental principles constituting the basis of corporate finance including the dividend, financing, and investment principles. The paper also interprets the objectives of firm value maximization and assesses how low cost strategy can benefit a company’s financial goals.
Investment Principle According to Aaker (2001), the investment principle of economics specifies where an organization should commit its resources. An organization might generate supplies and offers supplies, which bring revenue and realize processes that assist in the lowering of costs. However, the management of an organization must classify ventures that must bring income at a superior level compared to what the venture utilizes in terms of resources.
The symmetry point also referred to as the hurdle rate significantly depends on the degree of risk involved. The hurdle rate also depends on the manner in which it will be financed and the projected speed at which the income will be generated to cover the expenses and generate significant turnover.
Financing Principle According to Knon and Barnes (2010), organizations should be able to recognize how resources should be supported in the best way possible. In this regard, it is imperative to finance projects that are viable and likely to have return on investment (ROI). There are two types of financing. These entail debt or amount overdue and equity. The amount overdue that is a mode corporate funding consists of government securities such as bonds and depository credit.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Equity is composed of cash and stock. The issues that should be considered under this principle include the duration for carrying the debt such as short or long term. The amount of money the organization is willing to budget for financing is also an important aspect to consider.
To finance a project effectively, the company must consider the amount of equity that should be tied up on the project. The number of shares to be sold so that the project can be fully financed should also be considered. This will ensure that the project is financed sufficiently.
Dividend Principle This principle entails the channels where any additional income is created from successful projects. The revenues need to be ploughed back to the business in terms of new property. Alternatively, it can be given back to the financiers of the project. The amount to be given back or ploughed back is dependent on the quantity and kind of new property available.
The extent of financial risks the shareholders could be prepared to undertake might as well be considered. Additionally, the arrangement of the financing used is also given significant consideration. A small company may pay a loan early. On the other hand, a large organization may opt to distribute the revenue to the shareholders through bonuses.
The interpretation of the objectives of firm value maximization The principles namely the investment, financing and dividend principles collaborate to influence the value of the company. The efficiency of an organization in utilizing the assets to meet the contemporary competitive market and create income defines the degree of risk in specific ventures. The symmetry point stipulates the cost of financing.
These include loan interest rates and the value of stock. The amount of cash put into financing influences the amount of capital accessible for a property to function. Subsequently, the income generated by the property is limited. The aspect facilitates the determination of the general worth of the organization.
Assessing how low cost strategy can benefit a company’s financial goals Aaker (2001) asserts that it is imperative for the management to ensure the integration of the three principles for the organization to benefit optimally. Appropriate consideration of the investment principle drives the decision makers to consider the most inexpensive methods of producing goods and offering services (Aaker, 2001).
We will write a custom Essay on Fundamental principles of corporate finance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the costs attached to the delivery of service and goods are lower, the organization will have the capacity to offer its customers the services and goods at a low price. Low costs translate to lower risks involved in the delivery of service and sale of goods. In this regard, the return on investment may not be as high as when the risk is high (Kono and Barnes, 2010).
Conclusion From the discussions, it is important for companies to consider the three principles of finance as they significantly impacts the profitability of a company. Companies should be keen when deliberating investment as it affects directly on the revenue generated that in turn determines the amount of financing required.
Consequently, the financing determines the revenue generated hence the surplus that will be available for sharing among the shareholders. The integration of the three principles is important as it determines the competitiveness of the company. Effective collaboration of the principles results in the acquisition of more assets and the ability of the company to give dividends to the investors.
References Aaker, D. (2001). Developing business strategies. New York, NY: John Wiley
The importance of HRM within the insurance industry Term Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Job Design, Recruitment, and Selection Approaches
Training, Placement, and Performance Appraisal
Abstract Human resource management plays a significant role in ensuring that a firm realized its mission, goals, and objectives. To determine the importance of HRM within the insurance industry, this paper specifically focused on the WellPoint, one of the leading health insurance companies in the United States of America.
After critically analyzing the operations of the firm and supporting the findings with the arguments from the literature that was covered, it emerged that the WellPoint group takes into consideration several measures to ensure that its recruitment and selection process is effective and efficient.
First, the company undertakes a rigorous procedure to ensure that the jobs that have been designed specifically meet the needs and requirements of the firm and its clientele and most importantly, the job description attracts only qualified candidates to apply for the posts.
More stringent measures are also taken to ensure that the interviewing, selection, training, placement, and supervisory processes are conducted in a manner that is considered fair, transparent, and consistent with the values, rules, and regulations of the organization.
These considerations not only ensure that WellPoint comprises of the most qualified personnel who make up its workforce but also increases their level of motivation and productivity hence ensuring that the firm stands at a competitive edge over its rivals in the short run and in the long run.
Introduction In the contemporary world, the level of competition among firms has increased as a result of globalization and easily availability of resources that are required to sustain normal operations. Due to this fact, firms are under constant pressure of operating in a more effective and efficient manner to respond to market demands, changes in legislation and so on. In the health care industry, firms usually strive to provide demand driven care services (Dessler, 2003).
It is the dream of every organization to achieve this goal. However, this can only be possible if the human resource management of a given organization is effective and efficient.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Dessler (2003), the manner in which employees are managed, motivated, and rewarded plays a significant role in determining whether the services of an organization will be of a high quality or a low quality. Thus, human resource management (HRM) is an essential factor within the service industry where the experience of the clients is highly dependent on the experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of the employees.
Human resource management is one of the key areas that most organizations, particularly health insurance companies focus on in the process of enhancing the quality of services that they offer to their clients. This paper will therefore focus on WellPoint which is one of the leading health insurance companies in the United States of America.
This paper will specifically focus on how various aspect of the HRM system of the organization are linked to one another to enhance productivity, boost employee morale, increase the operation efficiency of the firm and most importantly, to maintain a balance between the work and personal life of its employees.
Company Overview WellPoint is the one of the leading health insurance companies in the USA. The WellPoint group provides health cover to over 34 million registered members within the major states of the USA (Ball, 2011). According to a survey that was conducted by (Ball, 2011), the WellPoint group had a market share of approximately 9.75% by the end of 2012.
To achieve this success and to maintain its consistency, the operations within the WellPoint group are guided by the set mission and goals. From a critical analysis of the company’s operations and organization culture, it is evident that this mission has specifically been designed to describe the values and aspirations of this organization. Furthermore, this mission statement has been designed based on the following core values (Ball, 2011):
Putting the consumer first
Personal accountability for excellence
Continuous improvement of service quality
Thus, this mission statement gives the employees at the higher levels of management a sense of direction that will enable the WellPoint group to achieve its goals and objectives. These goals are usually designed to sustain short term operations and strategies that play a significant role in achieving the overall mission of the organization by middle and lower level employees.
These goals are usually designed by critically analyzing the internal environment of the organization to determine its strengths and weaknesses as well as exploring the external environment to determine the opportunities and threats that the organization is facing.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The importance of HRM within the insurance industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this analysis, effective policies and strategies are usually developed to ensure that the operations at WellPoint are effective and efficient hence meeting the needs of its clients as well as ensuring that the group stands at a competitive edge over its rivals.
By critically analyzing the internal strengths and weaknesses of this firm and the external opportunities and threats that it is facing, it is evident that the operations at WellPoint highly rely on its employees. As Kundu and Vora (2004), an organization is as good as its workforce.
With this recognition, the WellPoint group has strived over the years to have a workforce that is highly qualified and dedicated towards achieving the mission and goals of the organization as well as achieving their career goals. Through its human resources, the WellPoint group has developed effective systems and strategies with regards to job design, selection approaches, recruitment, training of staff, performance appraisal, promotions, and supervisory techniques.
These systems and strategies are highly interlinked with one another to enhance the performance of the firm as well as boosting the morale of WellPoint employees. Consequently, the operations and strategies of the human resources at WellPoint are usually in accordance with the law especially with regards to OHSA, ERISA, EEOA, and so on.
Job Design, Recruitment, and Selection Approaches The aim of any entity is to ensure that it provides its clients with high quality services to meet their needs. This is an essential process in the process of retaining existing clients and attracting new ones (Kundu and Vora, 2004). In an insurance company setting, the recruiting and selection process in any organization plays a significant role in achieving this goal.
At WellPoint, the recruitment process is consistent with the company’s rules and regulations especially with regards to its equal opportunity policy. In this respect, the recruitment and selection process at WellPoint aim at:
Ensuring that the process is carried out systematically in accordance to the agreed criteria as a means of eliminating bias that may affect the decision making process.
Ensuring the recording of all decision points to increase the transparency, accountability, and monitoring of the process.
Ensuring that the process is open especially to the clients as a means making them to understand the decisions that have been made and if necessary, the manner in which they can obtain feedback.
The recruitment and selection process is usually a challenging and tedious exercise especially in the course of designing favorable interview questions and finally deciding on which individual(s) to hire from the candidates that were involved in the process. However, as (Bartel, 2004) asserted, the selection process is critical since an organization requires to have qualified personnel who can put forth its positive image by conducting their rules and duties in an effective and efficient manner.
The study that was conducted by Bartel (2004) revealed that to review the background of employees, personalities, and professional ethics are essential considerations in deciding whether or not they fit the job descriptions and resultant operations. These considerations thus increase the amount of time and money that is required to ensure that the recruitment process is effective and efficient.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The importance of HRM within the insurance industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, it is always advised that an organization takes considerable measures to ensure that the recruitment and selection process is effective since it will reduce the overall operational costs in the long run and will ultimately ensure that a firm avoids hiring individuals who will jeopardize its operations hence making it difficult to achieve the set goals and objectives. At WellPoint, the hiring process comprises of the following steps:
Posting of a job advertisement in the media. This includes the internet, newspaper, specific magazines and so on.
Evaluation of the information that has been received from the job applicants.
Screening the applicants to determine which ones qualified for the interview.
Verification of the details by contacting the referees.
Conducting the actual interviews on the shortlisted candidates
Deciding which candidates will be awarded the vacant position(s).
From a critical point of view, it is evident that the overall goal of this process is to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are selected to fill the positions that are present within the organization. Therefore, WellPoint takes immense measures in the job design process to ensure that the specific personnel needs of the organization are met.
This ensures that a job description contains a summary of the duties that are to be performed by the candidates that will be successful as well as the specific requirements and qualifications for the vacant post.
A job description is thus an effective tool in the recruitment and selection process regardless of whether the process will be internal or external since a job description not only alerts individuals that an organization has an opening but further elaborates on the specific skills and expertise (Bartel, 2004).
This consideration thus ensures that only the individuals who meet the set qualifications apply for the job and discourages the individuals who might not have met them qualifications that are required for the job from applying.
As it has been asserted in this paper, a lot of time is consumed in sorting out the applications that have been received for a given job opening. Therefore, by setting specific requirements for the job limits the number of applicants and ultimately, the time that is required to sort the applications. Furthermore, a job description acts as a guideline for the interviewing and selection process to ensure that the right candidate is selected for the task at hand.
These descriptions also give the candidate an idea of what the job entails, the duties that they are to perform, what is expected of him/her once hired and the goals and objectives that are to be accomplished.
The information that is contained in the job description is also used to design the training process that will be used to initiate the newly appointed candidates into the firm hence providing a benchmark to evaluate the progress that an employee will make with regards to career growth and development.
The duties and requirements that have been stipulated in the job description are useful especially on legal ground with regards to any grievances, lawsuits, or claims that might arise between the organization and its employees hence protecting their rights.
Well trained personnel who possess high levels of skills and experience are usually considered as valuable assets within any organization (Ball, 2011). After developing a detailed job description and advertising the vacant position, WellPoint usually uses a mix of approaches in selecting the correct candidates to occupy the respective posts that had been advertised. After the candidates apply for a job that has been advertised by the WellPoint group, a rigorous selection process is usually carried out.
To reduce the costs involved in the selection process, only the candidates who meet the requirements are invited for an interview. There are instances where the number of qualified candidates exceeds the expected number of individuals who are to be interviewed. In such an event, slots for the interviewed are usually awarded on a competitive basis where the candidates who were highly qualified with regards to the job description are selected.
WellPoint regards the interviewing process as an avenue of having an in-depth understanding of the qualifications, personality, and characters of the applicants. While conducting a strategic human resource management study in India Armstrong (2005) asserted that interviews are effective tools in the recruitment and selection process since it enables an employer to understand certain aspects of a candidate that cannot be detected even after critically analyzing the application forms and letters.
In this respect, the WellPoint group utilizes several interviewing strategies to ensure that the candidates that are selected in the course of a recruitment process are capable of handling the advertised posts with high levels of professionalism, diligence, effectiveness, and efficiency. Thus, to achieve this goal, the following interview approaches are used at WellPoint:
One on one interviews
Depending on the job requirements, a telephone interview might be conducted.
This strategy is used at WellPoint as a screening exercise to determine several factors. First, it is used to determine whether a candidate has a genuine interest on the job that had been advertised or he/she requires the job to meet specific obligations such as paying their bills. To ensure that the firm has a dedicated workforce, the individuals who might be successful at this point of recruitment are usually the ones who show their passion in the posts that they have applied for.
Consequently, this strategy is considered as a quick but convenient way of determining whether a candidate has what it takes to effectively perfume the duties of the posts that they have applied for hence reducing the effort and time that would have been otherwise used for this process in a one-on-one interview. Most importantly, telephone interviews are considered to be one of the most effective means of interviewing a candidate over a long distance.
The WellPoint group is operational in almost every state in the United States of America. There have been situations whereby an applicant from California has been shortlisted for a position that is in New York. In such a situation, a phone interview is usually handy to save time and money for both the candidate and the organization.
One-on-one interviews are also used at WellPoint in the course of the selection process. This approach is mainly used to conduct interviews for entry level positions (Armstrong, 2005). A lot of candidates are usually under a lot of pressure when they are about to be interviewed. To averse this situation, the WellPoint group usually conducts one-on-one interviews to get the best from their candidates.
According to the survey that was conducted by Armstrong (2005), most individuals who apply for entry level jobs usually graduates from colleges and universities who do not have prior work experience. Such individuals usually have been in very few interviews before hence they stand a high chance of panicking and losing their confidence if they are interviewed by a group of individuals.
Therefore, a one-on-one interview will enable the interviewer to understand the character and personality of the interviewee and most importantly, the kind of employee he/she could be.
However, a one-on-one interview only considers the thoughts and perceptions of one interviewer. In some situations, the interviewer may fail to have the experience or expertise regarding the post that the candidate is being interviewed on. In such a case, the interviewer may fail to capture all the information that might be useful in deciding whether to hire the candidate or not (Armstrong, 2005). To averse such issues, panel interviews are always conducted.
Here, the candidate is interviewed by several people who hold various positions within an organization. At WellPoint, panel interviews comprise of the immediate manager of the vacant post, the director of the department/division, a representative from the human resources department, and in some instances, a manager from another department.
This composition ensures that almost all the aspects of the candidate are gathered with respect to the duties and responsibilities of the advertised post, performance of the candidate, the role that the candidate will play in ensuring the mission, goals, and objectives of the organization are achieved, and most importantly, the possibility of hiring the candidate.
The number of interviews that will be conducted usually depends on the technicality of the vacant position. At WellPoint, approximately two interviews are conducted for entry level positions. These interviews usually last for approximately 45 minutes. To ensure that the most qualified candidate is selected with regards to the job descriptions, all the candidates are usually asked similar questions. This makes it easy to compare their responses to determine which candidate is well suited for the job.
These responses are also effective indicators of the level of education of the candidates, their skill level, and the amount of training that they should be subjected to if they are selected. There have been instances where it has been difficult to select between two or more candidates for the job. In such a situation, WellPoint usually invites the candidates for an additional interview where the candidates battle out for the position.
However, more than three interviews can be conducted on more technical positions as one rises up the organization structure. The first interview is conducted to reduce the number of candidates based on their performance. Subsequent interviews are thus organized until the best candidates are arrived upon. It is from the results of these interviews that the decision of whether to hire a candidate or not is arrived at.
Training, Placement, and Performance Appraisal In the contemporary world, organizations across the globe are facing challenges that originate from globalization. Initially, firms only competed with firms that were located within the same geographical region (Bartel, 2004). In the modern days however, firms are facing extensive competition even from rivals that are located overseas.
This fact has forced firms to come up with strategies that are effective and efficient as a means of responding to the market demands to ensure that they offer their clientele with high quality goods and services. One of the areas that WellPoint has strived to modify over the years to achieve this goal is the modification of its training and personnel management programs.
Through this strategy, WellPoint has been successful in developing a consumer-oriented workforce whose aim is to meet the needs and desires of its clientele. Studies that have been conducted reveal that training is an important aspect of ensuring that the workforce of a given organization performs the duties and roles that have been assigned to them in an effective and efficient manner.
Consequently, rigorous training is usually considered as a critical investment in ensuring the success of an organization in the long run (Ball, 2011). Through training, the gap between the employees of a given organization and the clients it serves.
Candidates usually undergo a vigorous training exercise once they have been selected to hold various positions within the WellPoint group. Responding on the annual associate survey findings that were conducted in 2003 and utilizing the company’s learning and management system, LearnPoint, WellPoint developed the Associate Career Development Program in 2004 (Ball, 2011).
Through this program, WellPoint has been training its personnel, especially new recruits to meet the goals and objectives of the firm as well as achieving their personal and career goals. This program specifically targeted associates who work in the customer service, membership and billing, and claims departments to ensure that they have a clear understanding of their demands of their positions and expectations of the firm.
Consequently, this program has been influential in enhancing the performance of employees as well as boosting their morale especially through various reward systems and balancing their work and personal lives hence increasing employee retention rates.
This training program uses job specific training models to ensure that employees develop and implement personal learning plans that will boost their performance.
As a result, the training program has been successful in meeting the responsibilities and specific competencies of every job description within the organization by offering the employees with opportunities such as internal instructor-led training and activities that enable an individual to gather the skills and experience of a given posts while working on that position.
Consequently, this training model offers shadowing and mentoring opportunities that greatly enhance the morale of the employees which plays a significant role in developing an organization culture that aims at meeting the needs and demands of its clients. Finally, this program is run by the DRIVE methodology that aims at:
Developing a learning plan
Reviewing the plan with a training supervisor to ensure it meets the requirements, goals, and objectives of the job
Implementation of new knowledge and skills
Validation of what has been learned in the training exercise
Evaluation of the employee’s development over time
Ball (2011) defined performance appraisal as a system that is used to evaluate the performance and career development of an employee. At WellPoint, performance appraisal system is used to measure the productivity and development of an individual employee with regards to the roles and duties that are required by the post he/she is holding within the organization.
To increase its efficiency, the appraisal system should be designed using pre-determined criteria as well as the mission and objectives of an organization. Some of the issues that are usually taken into consideration include:
Adherence to the organization culture
Future potential of the employee
Strengths and weaknesses
The above data can be collected either through objective production approach or the judgmental evaluation approach. WellPoint considers performance appraisal as an essential strategy of aligning the resources that it has to increase its operation efficiency hence boosting its overall performance. From practice, the WellPoint group has realized that the manner in which an organization is managed plays a significant role in determining its long term success.
As a result, it has been a priority of the firm to monitor and evaluate the performance of its employees. Other than focusing on enhancing the performance of its employees, performance appraisals are also effective tools that facilitate communication among the employees and between the employees and the management. Communication plays a significant role in increasing the level of motivation within an employee.
The study that was conducted by Bartel (2004) revealed that enhanced communication played a significant role in eliminating job uncertainty in an employee. Consequently, the feedback that an employer receives from his employees in the course of communication can be influential in enhancing the overall performance of the organization.
Communication also creates trust and promotes the development of positive behaviors that aim at developing a strong organization culture that is goal oriented. Through performance appraisals, the strengths and weaknesses of the employees are usually determined hence playing a significant role in the design and development of an effective training program.
The recruitment and selection process has to be conducted in accordance to the set rules and regulations of a given state. This consideration ensures that the rights of the employer and the employee are respected. For instance, WellPoint strives to maintain the privacy of its employees. To avoid any dispute, the firm has expressly alerted its employees of its monitoring activities. For instance, the firm usually monitors the internet usage of its employees.
Therefore, employees are not expected to use the internet for personal reasons (e.g. storing personal files on the company’s email address). Consequently, WellPoint uses video and photographic surveillance equipments to monitor the performance of its employees. However, the surveillance technique is only applied for business purposes since the employees might sue the firm if they are used for other purposes.
Consequently, WellPoint is in compliance with the Occupation Health and Safety Act (OHSA). In this respect, the firm has strived to provide a conducive working environment to its employees. In this respect, employees work in properly ventilated environments that have ample lighting and free from toxic or any other hazardous substance that might affect their health.
Conclusion Human resource management has become an essential aspect in the management of organizations in the contemporary world. From the literature that has been covered in this paper, it is evident that the WellPoint group has taken into consideration the importance of having a workforce that is effective and efficient in the provision of services to meet the needs and requirements of its clients as well as ensuring the long term sustainability of the firm.
In this respect, the firm has developed a rigorous recruitment and selection process in ensuring that the most qualified individuals become part of the workforce. Consequently, the firm has come up with measures that aim at retaining its employees as well as enhancing their performance. To achieve this goal, I would recommend that the firm should modify its recruitment process by liaising with institutions of higher education such as universities and colleges and independent recruitment agencies.
This partnership will ensure that the individuals who are considered for various posts within the firm are highly qualified. Consequently, liaising with recruitment agencies will greatly reduce the cost and time that is consumed in the recruitment and selection process.
Furthermore, the firm can also increase the frequency for conducting its performance appraisal. Despite the fact that this process can be tedious and expensive, it will ultimately enhance the overall performance of its employees hence ensuring that the firm realizes its mission, goals, and objectives.
References Armstrong, M. A. (2005). Handbook of human resource management practice. New Delhi: Kogan Page India.
Ball, K. S. (2011). ‘The use of human resource information systems: A survey.’ Personnel Review, 30 (6): 677–93.
Bartel, A. P. (1994). ‘Productivity gains from the implementation of employee training programs.’ Industrial Relations, 33 (4): 441–5.
Dessler, G. 2003. Human resource management. Delhi: Pearson Education Asia.
Kundu, S. C., and Vora, J. A. (2004). ‘Creating a talented workforce for delivering service quality.’ Human Resource Planning, 27 (2): 40–51.
Major Training Techniques in Education Exploratory Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
This paper dwells upon major training techniques. Central characteristics are pointed out. Main advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are also identified. The brief analysis of the major training methods helps come to a very valuable conclusion.
Thus, each training technique is aimed at specific goals and each of the methods should be used in particular settings. More importantly, human resource professionals should combine several (or all of the) training techniques to help employees develop and properly function within the organization.
Training is one of the major constituent parts of human resource management. HR professionals are equipped with a variety of training methods which help employees adjust to a specific environment. These methods are used in different settings and they are also aimed at different goals.
One of the most widespread techniques is on the job training. Employees are exposed to the particular working settings (Ivancevich
Cognitive Psychology and Application to Learning Instruction Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Gestalt Theory
Information Processing Theory
Multi-store Model of Memory
Reducing Prejudice Using Cognitive Principles
Reducing Stereotyping Using Cognitive Principles
A number of cognitive learning theories exist including Gestalt theory, schema theory, multi-store theory, and informational processing theory. All these theories are often invoked when giving instructions to students at various levels. In the late 1950s, some psychology scholars came up with what is popularly referred to as cognitive sciences, which is often considered a cognitive revolution in the field of education.
Based on this, scholars underscore the fact that educationists should combine psychological knowledge, anthropological research, and the major principle of linguistics in disseminating knowledge to students. Consequently, the major concepts derived in the fields of artificial brainpower, computer science, and neurosciences are seen as the most critical in designing instructional materials (Hewstone, Rubin,
Summary: “Social networking v. the employment-at-will doctrine” by Catherine Crane Evaluation Essay essay help online
The article “Social networking v. the employment-at-will doctrine: a potential defense for employees fired for facebooking, terminated for twittering, booted for blogging, and sacked for social networking” evaluates the legal challenge that the pervasive nature of social networking activity by employees into workplaces pose.
The key issue in the controversy social networking between employer and employee lies in the differing perceptions that each holds with regard to the privacy of the information present in social networking communications of employees.
Employers believe they possess the right to have access to all the information present in social networking messages of their employees and take necessary action, while employees take the stand that employers do not have the right to intrude into the content of their non-work social networking activities (Crane, 2012).
Employees in the private sector have seldom succeeded, so far, in upsetting any disciplinary action with regard to their Internet postings on the grounds of discrimination and invasion of privacy. Courts have shown a leaning towards employers and the employment-at-will-doctrine. As such, there is limited scope for the freedom that employees seek for their social networking activities (Crane, 2012).
There are several possible legal solutions to this controversy, but none really meet the full complex needs of the issue. The first possible solution is using the life style discrimination statutes as a model for the solution. Using this model it is possible for a life style discrimination statute to give protection to employees for their off-duty social networking communications.
The use of disclaimers, anonymity, and the introduction of blogging guidelines in the workplace is another possible solution to the problem of social networking communications faced by employees.
In place of life style discrimination statutes to offer protection for employees off work social networking communications, employers can use this discrete form of protection. A third solution lies in legislative action to reduce employee liability for any harmful comments in their personal Internet communications (Crane, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Stored Communications Act of 1986 (SCA) prevents the unauthorized access of communications stored by an electronic communications service provider and offers scope as a solution.
The SCA as a solution for offering relief to employees can be used, when it can be proven that the employee intentionally placed privacy settings on the personal electronic communications, there was no grant of access to the employer, and that the employer gained access to the information in the personal electronic communication without authorization (Crane, 2012).
The services of employees can be terminated at the will of employers for actions perceived to be harmful by employers (Ivancevich, p.425, 2010). Employees cannot take cover under the intrusion of privacy, since social networking sites are in the public domain and information in these electronic communications are their own (Dasgupta, p.2047, 2010).
The explosive growth of personal electronics communication of employees has heightened employee aspirations for the right of privacy in their personal electronic communications (Griffin
How to Do Business in China? Evaluation Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction China is a third world country whose market is growing at a very high rate. China has the fastest growing economy among the third world countries. It has a large population that favors the market growth. Small firms in the United States of America market most of their products in China. China has a culture that is different from that of western countries, thus their way of doing business is also different (Shen, 2004).
This article will discuss the ways of doing business in China and how culture affects the same. It will also discuss the businesses that are likely to be viable in China, the risks and challenges involved, as well as the methods that can be used to address these problems.
How people do business in China It is important to first understand the way people in a given business location do business for any business organization to succeed. In China, business persons are known to rely a lot on subjective feelings. They also rely on personal experiences to understand customer needs and level of satisfaction.
On the other hand, people in China are known to love colors. In addition, they like figures and numbers that are impressive. Another thing that is important to note about Chinese business is that meetings can be arranged in a short notice and cancelled fast as well (Chee, West
The Recruiting Process Exploratory Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Reviewing Resumes and Application Forms
Testing of the Skills
The Cognitive Test
Introduction Human resource is very important in achieving objectives of a firm. According to Dattilio (2010), for any project to succeed, there must be a carefully selected workforce that will carry out various duties within the project.
This scholar further emphasizes on the importance of selecting a workforce that understands the project properly as a way of making work easier, and cutting costs that would be incurred when the workforce has to undergo some form of training in order to understand the requirements of a project. Grace Cornett must realize these facts in order to succeed in this massive project that has been availed to her.
In order to have the desired employees within this organization, there is need to apply the right recruitment techniques. Grace Cornett should use successive hurdle technique to select the most qualified candidate for the task ahead. This is a stage by stage process of eliminating recruits with the least desirable skills till the most qualified candidate is selected. The following are the stages in this process.
Reviewing Resumes and Application Forms The selection panel will review the resumes of all the applicants for various positions to determine the levels of education and their experience in the various positions applied for within this project. Resumes always help employers understand an employee from the employee’s perspective. This is because it is in the resume that an employee will try to explain self in the best approach possible.
Testing of the Skills Wit (2010) says that it is always important to test the skills of applicants whenever this is possible. In this selection plan, Grace Cornett will test the skills of the applicants based on the job described. At this stage, the most important thing will be to detect special skills that an applicant may be having.
The Cognitive Test Cognitive test refers to the process of testing the strength of the mind. Einsiedel (2009) describes this process as a test of the mind. Cognitive test is always important in determining the capacity of an individual to perform a given duty within a specified time. This test is very important for managerial positions.
This is because these positions would always demand that an individual makes a decision that will affect other employees and the firm in general. Grace Cornett will have to ensure that the general manager has academic qualification in leadership and experience of at least three years in a managerial position.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Personality Testing According to Einsiedel (2009), testing the personality of an applicant is always important in determining how effective an employee would be within a firm. This scholar says that personality testing helps determine how an employee would manage himself or herself within the firm when faced with varying situations. This will help Grace identify candidates with the capacity to control their emotions and attitude even when faced with difficult situations.
Interviews Interviews have the highest validity of all the selection methods if done correctly. This makes it the most common tool for selecting the right candidates. The candidates will be subjected to interviews to increase validity and reliability of the selection process. This will improve chances of coming up with the right candidates for the identified positions. The interview will take the structured format which will be guided by a series of questions.
References Dattilio, F. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy with couples and families: A comprehensive guide for clinicians. New York: Guilford Press.
Einsiedel, E. (2009). Emerging technologies: From hindsight to foresight. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Wit, B. (2010). Strategy synthesis: Resolving strategy paradoxes to create competitive advantage: text and readings. Andover: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Strategic analysis of merger: Skype and Microsoft Evaluation Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Why did the acquirer buy and why did the acquired sell?
What are the strategic rationales?
Are they industry- and/or firm-specific?
How was the merger/acquisition financed?
When a merger takes place, two or more firms usually combine their operations and run as a single business entity. In other words, one firm ceases to exist while another one survives. On the other hand, when one business organization assumes the controlling interest of another organization, it is referred to as an acquisition.
Why did the acquirer buy and why did the acquired sell? Skype was sold to Microsoft in 2011 because it had not reached an attractive profitability level. Microsoft bought the VoIP Company because it had better prospects of growth. Secondly, Microsoft acquired Skype so that it could be in a position to avoid taxation in the United States ([email protected] 2013, p.1). When multinationals earn profit outside the United States, they are not obliged to pay taxes. However, they are liable to taxation if such profits are repatriated back to the country.
What are the strategic rationales? Increasing the users of Skype to one billion daily was one of the strategic rationales of Microsoft when it acquired Skype. This would boost the profitability of the new business division. Secondly and as already mentioned, the acquisition of Skype would enable Microsoft to legally evade tax in the domestic market. Microsoft is also planning to incorporate Kinect into Lync (DePamphilis 2008, p.1).
This will boost the experience of users in the virtual world and therefore increase the profitability of the new acquisition. In addition, over 8 million Skype users are charged for the services by the service. Hence, it is a more profitable platform than windows live messenger at Microsoft.
Are they industry- and/or firm-specific? The acquisition of Skype by Microsoft is largely firm-specific because it involves one company buying the assets and liabilities of another one.
How was the merger/acquisition financed? The acquisition was completely financed by Microsoft from the foreign profits reserves. Since foreign profits are not taxed (unless repatriated back to the country) according to the US taxation laws, it was easy for Microsoft to use this reserve to finance the $8.5 billion budget (Jilani 2013, p.1)
References DePamphilis, D 2008, Mergers, Acquisitions, and Other Restructuring Activities, ElsevieAcademic Press, New York.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jilani, Z 2013, Microsoft Structured Acquisition Of Skype To Avoid U.S. Taxes. Web.
[email protected] 2013, What’s Behind Microsoft’s $8.5 Billion Takeover of Skype? Web.
Knowledge Management: Maroochy Water Services Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Executive Summary This report starts by defining knowledge and addressing how knowledge is managed. The report also notes that knowledge management (KM) requires one to possess knowledge; since only then can the information assets that a firm or an individual owns be identified, captured, evaluated, retrieved and shared.
Applied to Maroochy Water Services, a knowledge audit reveals that the water and sewerage service provider purchased the SCADA system without understanding the risks and threats of such a system. In the conclusion, the report notes that the lack of knowledge on Maroochy Water Services part, and the inadequate knowledge management by Hunter Watertech created gaps in knowledge that enabled for an attacker to hack into the SCADA system, causing it to malfunction.
Introduction This report examines knowledge management in the case of Maroochy Water Services, Australia. The report explores the concept of knowledge and its management, and the application of knowledge management in the subject organisation. The report has a knowledge audit section, which reveals knowledge gaps that led to a successful cyber attack on Maroochy Water Services.
Knowledge and how its managed Among the simplest definitions of knowledge in literature is offered by Wilson (2002) who states that the term simply refers to what one knows.
This report will however adopt Firestone’s (2013, p.9) definition, which describes knowledge as “the tested, evaluated and surviving structure of information… that is developed by a living system to help itself solve problems and which may help itself to adapt”. From the foregoing definition, it is obvious that knowledge is structured information, which has undergone and survived tests and evaluation, and is hence deemed befitting to help people solve their problems and adapt.
Some analysts argue that knowledge cannot be managed, specifically because, knowledge they claim, is a mindset and not an object (e.g. Wilson 2002). Those who support the idea that knowledge can be managed do so based on the view that knowledge can be manipulated or stored (Zack 1999). However, the ability of a person or an organisation to manipulate or store knowledge, hence manage it, depends on its type.
Tacit knowledge for example is a type of knowledge that is understood and applied subconsciously. As such, it is hard to articulate, store or manipulate it. Explicit knowledge on the other hand is a form of knowledge that is abstract, easily articulated, codified, shared, and documented; hence easily manageable (Zack 1999).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managing knowledge also depends on its availability and ease of use. Zack (1999) observes that general knowledge for example is publicly available and hence easy to manage, while specific knowledge is context-specific, and as such, it requires more specific management.
Knowledge Management Knowledge Management (KM) is defined as a concept and a discipline. Davenport (1994 cited by Koenig 2012, p.2) for example defines knowledge management as “the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using knowledge”. On his part, Duhon (1998 cited by Koenig 2012, p. 4) defines KM as “a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, capturing, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing all of an enterprise’s information assets”.
The assets mentioned in the foregoing quotation includes such things as documents, procedures, policies, databases, experience and the un-captured expertise of individual employees. This report will adopt Duhon’s (1998 cited by Koenig 2012) definition since it appears to me more inclusive.
The fixation that organisations and scholars have with KM in the past decade is arguably informed by the valuable and strategic nature attached to organisational knowledge. Zack (1999, p. 45) for example observes that “organisations are being advised that to remain competitive, they must efficiently and effectively create, locate, capture, and share their organisation’s knowledge and expertise, and have the ability to bring that knowledge to bear on problems and opportunities”.
Taking such advise into consideration, firms are implementing KM processes, but as Zack (1999) notes, few firms have successfully managed to have foolproof KM architectures. Perhaps the fragmented nature of knowledge – i.e. into tacit, explicit and implicit knowledge – makes it hard for organisations to avoid all the risks posed by KM. The case of Maroochy Water Service is one illustration of the foregoing observation.
Maroochy Water Services The case study of Maroochy Water Services (hereunder MWS) as indicated by Abrams and Weiss (2000) will be used in this report’s knowledge audit. As its name suggests, MWS is a water service firm, which serves the people of Maroochy Shire Council in Australia through sewage management and the provision of clean water. In 2000, MWS came under attack from a knowledgeable person by the name of Vitek Boden.
Boden had worked for Hunter Watertech-the firm that MWS had contracted to install the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. Boden had apparently quit his job at Hunter Watertech and sought a new job, which he did not get, at Maroochy Shire Council.
We will write a custom Report on Knowledge Management: Maroochy Water Services Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In what Abrams and Weiss (2000, p. 1) describe as a decision to “get even with both the Council and his employer”, Boden launched a malicious cyber attack, which caused the sewerage system at MWS to malfunction causing great losses to marine life and a great discomfort to residents.
Boden’s abilities to launch the cyber attack on MWS was pegged on the specific knowledge he had acquired about SCADA while he was still working at Hunter Watertech, and the physical assets – i.e. the radio and computer, which he had stolen from the premises.
The SCADA system is used in monitoring and controlling operation in water distribution systems, sewage treatment plants, gas and oil pipelines and power distribution plants (Slay
Social Psychology: Cognitive dissonance Research Paper college essay help online
The theory of cognitive dissonance states that in an effort to maintain cognitive consistency within our respective minds, this often results in the creation of irrational or even maladaptive behavioral constructs (Antoniou et al., 2013). When it comes to boredom and effort, cognitive dissonance is often put into play into justifying a particularly boring exercise as being worthwhile resulting in a greater degree of effort put into it.
For example, most people tend to be bored at their jobs due to their nature and, as such, question why they continue to work at something that is apparently boring. Through the application of cognitive dissonance people in effect interpret the continued activity as interest resulting in them interpreting that they actually like their work resulting in more effort being put into it since they have fooled themselves into liking it (Ask et al., 2011).
Through the work of Roth (2010), it can be seen that the concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy is based on internal self-predilections regarding particular points of view or ideas. One example Roth (2010) points to is the current predilection within the U.S. to associate minority populations such as Latinos, Hispanics and African Americans with crime.
Racial profiling does exist in the case of many states within the U.S. wherein there is a disproportionate level of suspicion placed on people from minorities as there are on Caucasians. As a result of such a viewpoint, people from minorities are often cast with a significant level of suspicion which limits their capacity to be employed in some areas due to the manner in which they are associated with crime.
The end result is that such individuals have no choice but to turn to crime due to the limited number of opportunities they have. In the case of people from African American decent, Lee
Marketing Report: Starbucks Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Product Description
Justification of Product Choice
Justification of Market Choice
Recommendation for Expansion
Suggested Marketing Plan
Product Description Starbucks is one of the leading coffee companies in America. The company has more than 11,000 stores in more than 50 countries. The company’s flagship product is coffee. It sells a number of popular coffee flavors in markets across the world.
The company does not have a single store in Italy despite the fact that Starbucks is a leading coffee retailer in the world. This is paradoxical because the CEO of the company conceptualized the company’s business model while on a business trip in Italy in 1983. Italian coffee bars inspired him to develop a coffee chain in America.
Justification of Product Choice Starbucks coffee products have a history of strong performance in the retail market. In addition, the company is known for its innovative marketing approach. Its coffee is famous in many international markets. While the company’s main product is coffee, it also sells other products that accompany coffee. The good reception of the company’s coffee in the international market demonstrates its potential in Italy. This means that the company can expect to succeed if it enters the Italian market.
Justification of Market Choice The choice of the Italian market as the focus for this project comes from three issues. First, Starbucks has an emotional bond with the Italian market. Italian coffee bars inspired the company’s CEO to develop a similar business model in America. Intuitively, Starbucks needs to give something back to Italy for providing the inspiration for its existence. Secondly, Starbucks is very experienced in international trade.
This means that it has the experience needed to succeed in the Italian market. The third reason for Starbucks to enter the Italian market is that the country has a rich coffee culture. While there is stiff competition in the coffee market, Starbucks can cut a niche based on its coffee retail model.
PESTLE Analysis Italy is a politically stable country with strong institutions. In addition, the country has good relations with the United States. Italy’s economy is in recession alongside other EU countries. Socially, coffee forms part of Italian culture. The main social barrier that Starbucks will face is a language barrier. It may limit deployment of key personnel. In addition, Italians may resist American approaches to coffee marketing.
Italy’s technological infrastructure can support Starbucks’ operations. Italy, being part of the EU, operates under European environmental laws. The legal environment in Italy is stable and compatible with American laws.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In summary, Starbucks should enter the Italian coffee market because of Italy’s relative stability in the political, legal, and social spheres. Italy’s rich coffee culture is also a good reason for entering this market.
Recommendation for Expansion Starbucks should expand into Italy to increase its international presence. However, this move will attract stiff competition from Italian coffee retailers. This means that the company needs to identify a market entry strategy that will reduce the impact of local competition. A successful entry into the Italian market will add value to the Starbucks brand.
Suggested Marketing Plan The table of contents for the proposed marketing plan that should guide Starbucks’ entry into the Italian market is given below.
Identification of the target market
Market entry strategy
Reference List Dalic, T 2007, Globalisation of Marketing Strategies in Light of Segmentation and Cultural Diversity, GRIN Verlag, Norderstedt.
Organizational diagnosis for Whole Foods Market Case Study college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
An Overview of the Models
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Models
Issues That Whole Foods Market Is Facing
Recommending the Best Model to Use
Introduction The world market has become very competitive, and it is important for any business unit to ensure that the strategy it applies has the capacity to meet market demands. One of the best strategies that firms are currently using to increase their size and competitiveness is through mergers and takeovers. It is only those firms that are successful in the market that should be acquired. ABC Company has confirmed that Whole Foods Market is a competitive firm with a good brand name in the market.
It has confirmed that Whole Foods Market has been successful in the local market and its attempts to capture the overseas market have also been successful. It is now upon the management of ABC Company to ensure that after this acquisition, this firm will remain as successful as it is in order to benefit from this acquisition. There must be a diagnosis of the firm to determine its success capacity in the market.
Organizational diagnosis is one of the most important factors that firms in the current market have to conduct when planning acquisitions. Organizational diagnosis refers to a detailed analysis of a firm in order to have full knowledge on various factors about the firm.
Organizational diagnosis is important in analyzing the firm and determining its ability to operate in the market successfully despite various forces that exist. A number of models have been proposed by various theorists to help in organizational analysis. It is important to understand these models in order to choose the one which is the most appropriate for the diagnosis of a firm.
An Overview of the Models Organizational diagnosis models are important in enabling management make a decision on the capacity of a firm in cases of mergers and takeovers. It helps management in making a decision on the most appropriate model to chose when deciding on the new management approach to take after the acquisition. According to Daft (2009), these models are useful in helping the management understand how the new firm will be integrated into the existing firm successfully.
As was mentioned previously, each model is appropriate for analyzing specific firm or situation. It can be futile for a firm to choose a model that is inappropriate for a given firm or a given circumstance. The best way through which a firm can manage to operate an acquired firm successfully is by selecting an appropriate model and applying it in accordance with the set requirements.
The Congruence Model is one of the most popular organizational diagnosis model used in the current society. This model strives to align all the high performance drivers within an organization. This model was developed by Nadler and Tushman to help organizations that were under-performing due to non-aligned performance drivers. These four elements must be aligned in order to achieve the desired result.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This model holds that the failure of most of organizations is always caused by lack of congruency among these four elements. When any of the four elements is not compatible with others, then it may be impossible to achieve the desired result. For instance, when the organization has a good organizational culture, excellent workforce and properly designed tasks, but lack appropriate structures, the desired success cannot be achieved.
This model holds that none of the four elements can be considered to be superior to others, although the workforce is always given more weight. This is because every organization can only achieve the best result. For instance, when the workforce lacks proper organizational culture to guide their practice within the firm, chances are high that they will not deliver output as per their capacity.
The negative organizational culture will influence their practice within the firm negatively, and this will turn them into poor performers. When all the four elements are appropriately aligned, achieving success would be much easier. This tool may be appropriate for the management of ABC when conducting a diagnosis of Whole Foods Market.
The McKinsey 7S Framework is another model that various contemporary firms have been using in the current competitive market. Developed by Robert Waterman and Tom Peters in 1980s, this model is based on the premise that there seven internal aspects of an organization which must be assigned in order to achieve the expected results (Hooley, 2008).
This model has remained popular in helping firms improve their performance in the market, in determination of the possible impacts of future changes, aligning various processes and departments upon acquisitions or mergers, and determination of how best a proposed strategy can be implemented. This has seen this model become very popular when firms are planning mergers or acquisitions. These seven elements are always categorized as soft or hard elements. The table below shows these elements.
McKinsey Seven Elements
Soft Elements Hard Elements Staff Strategy Style Structure Skills Systems Shared values The hard elements are factors that are for the management to identify, define and influence. They include the strategy that is developed by the top management to run the firm, the structures put in place by this top management to help in running the firm, and the systems developed by the management within the firm. These three factors are always determined by the management of the firm. On the other hand, soft elements are factors that less tangible and more difficult to define.
We will write a custom Case Study on Organizational diagnosis for Whole Foods Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, they are very important to the organization’s success. They include factors such as the staff working within an organization, their style at work and skills making them useful, and the shared values they have within the organization. As Coulter (2009) puts it, the soft elements involve the organizational culture that defines how employees behave within a firm, and how this behavior may influence the general performance of the firm. These seven elements of this model are intertwined.
They are directly related, and success will always be determined by the ability of the management to ensure that they are aligned and are optimal. Aligning of the seven elements helps in ensuring that success is achieved symmetrically within the firm. The management would need to ensure that all the elements fit into a system where it can deliver the best success within the firm.
Burke-Litwin’s Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change Model has also gained a lot of fame in the contemporary world as Spulber (2007) notes. This model is built on the premise that success can only be achieved when the internal and external factors are managed optimally. The performance of a firm and its ability to manage change can only be achieved if the management ensures that the internal factors are aligned to the external factors in the business environment.
This model has been useful when diagnosing a firm on the basis of cause and effect. This model is based on the following organizational dimensions.
The external environment, the mission and strategy, leadership, organizational culture, organizational structure, management practices, the systems, the work unit climate, tasks and individual skills, needs and values, the motivation, and organizational and individual performance. This model helps in understanding how each of the above factors has direct influence on the performance of a firm.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Models Each of the above models has its own strengths and weaknesses. The congruency model is very appropriate in analyzing the internal factors of a firm and determining their congruency in achieving the set goals. However, it lacks details on how the external factors may affect this effectiveness of the internal factors.
Burke-Litwin’s Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change Model give detailed analysis of how performance of organization may be influenced by various causative agents. It is advantageous in analyzing and some of the possible causes of success and failures of a firm. However, its main disadvantage is that it is not an appropriate tool in diagnosing a firm during mergers or acquisitions.
This means that the most appropriate tool would be McKinsey 7S Framework. It is widely used in case of mergers and takeovers, although it does not have a detailed internal analysis of a firm as the other two models. However, it still remains the most appropriate model that this firm can use in the diagnosis of Whole Foods Market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational diagnosis for Whole Foods Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Issues That Whole Foods Market Is Facing Whole Foods Market has been successful in the American markets and other overseas markets. The management of this firm has ensured that this firm acquires the global market, but in a way that is sensitive to the environment. This has seen it be considered as one of the firms that is very conscious of the environment. However, the firm has not been able to expand its market beyond the United States and Europe.
This means that the firm has not been able to perform optimally in the market. This is what management of ABC must achieve when it takes management roles. The management of ABC Company must find ways of dealing with threats and weaknesses that Whole Foods Market has, while maximizing its strengths and opportunities. This will ensure that the acquisition results into success.
Recommending the Best Model to Use It is important to determine the best model to use among those that are discussed above. When choosing the appropriate model, it is important to understand the current situation in which a firm is. In the current state, the most pressing issue is how best Whole Foods Market will be integrated into ABC Company successfully in order to increase its productivity and the overall profitability of ABC Company.
The most appropriate tool would therefore, be the McKinsey 7S model. This model is recommended because it starts by analyzing the hard elements that can be manipulated by the management, and the soft elements that cannot easily be manipulated, and coming up with an appropriate strategy that would realize the desired success. It is also appropriate because it has created a precedent where firms that have used it have realized success in their mergers or acquisitions.
References Coulter, M. (2009). Strategic Management in Action. New York: Pearson Higher Education.
Daft, R. (2009). Organization Theory and Design. New York: Cengage Learning.
Hooley, G. (2008). Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.
Spulber, D. (2007). Global Competitive Strategy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Analyzing the consumer Market: NETFLIX Research Paper writing essay help
Netflix is an American company, which uses technology to enhance film distribution. The company started its operations in 1997, in California, headed by three social entrepreneurs Randolph, Reed, and Mitch. It started as an online-based film-rental company where consumers could rent an item and have it posted to their destination. During this time, Netflix charged its customers for postage and late return of borrowed items.
Later on, the company introduced a flat fee for unlimited rentals without imposing extra fees such as shipping and late fees. The company has continued to grow its customer base and distribution network. By 2007, Netflix distributed over 35,000 different films sending over a million DVDS a day. Netflix has expanded into Canada, Mexico, Europe, the Caribbean, and South America. Netflix continues to experience phenomenal growth in all the markets that it has expanded to (Keller
Netflix Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Background Netflix is a United States’ based company that provides internet streaming media to a wide range of customers in over 40 countries across the world. The company provides on-demand internet television programs to its customers. The company was established out of the increase in the digitalization of technology and the press towards quality broadcast of television.
The company has majored in the delivery of original television shows and movies to its customers. Internet-enabled television enables the customers of the company to be in total control of the services that they receive depending on the package that they have subscribed to (Netflix, 2013).
The company has operated for 13 years. The headquarters of the company are in California where the company first staged its business. It took the company two years to begin the digital distribution of television and movies based on the subscription packages that had been established. The two years were used by Netflix to strategize and develop a firm operational ground on which its services are founded.
The company has grown through the gradual expansion of its products and services in different countries. The customer base of the company had grown to approximately 30 million subscribers as at the end of 2012, with the total revenue of the company expanding to 945 million dollars. The company has also managed to expand its market to forty countries (Netflix, 2013).
Marketing Mix Netflix has greatly enhanced the way in which people watch movies and television shows. The company developed its product and services range through the demand for revolutionizing entertainment through the use of information and communication technology.
The other critical thing that has helped Netflix is its ability to stream original series of television programs and movies, thereby attracting a wide range of customers. The company has kept tailoring its products to an extent that its services can now be received on portable technology products like the iPhones and iPads. This is part of widening the market and taking full advantage of the diversity of digital technology to enhance business.
The company has been expanding its operations in different countries. The United States still forms part of the most productive markets for the company because of the advanced capacity of technology availability and adoption in the US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the pace at which technology is adopted in other countries, patterned with the increasing demand for the products are the main enabling factors in the successful thriving of the company in the forty countries in which it has managed to stage its operations (Netflix, 2013).
Pricing is one of the main differentiating factors for the products that are offered by the company. It should be noted that the company uses low pricing as a factor for market entry. The company offers a wide range of services for its customers for a single low priced subscription that is done once per month by the customers (Netflix Website, 2013).
The company also caters for the income abilities of customers by availing contents at different prices. This is a marketing strategy that is deployed by most firms in the information technology industry (Kannan, 2013).
Netflix promotes its products through teaming with a number of well established companies that deal in the production and distribution of technology products. These companies include Samsung and Apple (Bedigian, 2013).
The main reason for utilizing such companies is that they are known in the market and their products are used as a platform on which Netflix’s products can be purchased and consumed. This backs the fact that Netflix’s products can be consumed with a wide range of digital technology products (Netflix, 2013).
References Bedigian, L. (2013, May 5). Apple and Netflix team up for unofficial product placement. Forbes. Web.
Kannan, P. K. (2013). Designing and pricing digital content products and services: a research review. Review of Marketing Research, 10, 97-114.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Netflix specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Netflix Website (2013). Netflix revolutionizes the way people watch TV shows and movies. Web.
Netflix. (2013). Company timeline. Web.
Marketing and Sales Plan for Zeek’s Music Shop Coursework college essay help
Summary Zeek’s Music Shop seeks to provide music customers with an alternative source of affordable and easy-to-get products from all genres of music. To reach its the customers, Zeek’s Music Shop will prove to be the best provider of all types of music, ranging from the oldest to the latest music in CDS, DVDs, and all forms of modern digital storage materials. The business will use these technologies to provi9de music products for all the people who are interested in music.
This means that there is no limit based on age, gender, age and race. However, the business will be focused on attracting people aged between 14 and 45 years because they are fond to music and more interested in music, especially modern genres, than older generations (Krasilovsky, Shemel and Gross 12).
Purpose This plan aims at describing the detailed plan that will be used for marketing Zekk’s Music shop and its products to the target customers. It will provide an in-depth analysis of the intended market niche, strategy for reaching the target customers and a financial plan.
The target market Zeek’s Music Shop, being a unique business of its kind in the area, will attempt to attract music shoppers from all races, generations and social divides. The business will therefore aim at providing the public with a unique source of music products, ranging from the old to new generation pieces.
The shop will seek to know the what members of the public need in music. As such, the business will interact with people aged between 14 and 60 years, but will specifically focus on targeting the people aged between 14 and 45 years. Nevertheless, the business will serve all customers, regardless of their age, sex and ethnicity.
Market Niche Zeek’s Music shop provide a unique source of music products in that it will not just deal with recorded music, but will also include musical instruments, books, technologies, training equipment and music production equipment.
Most of the local music shops specialize on providing music products in recorded format such as DVDs, CDs and other digital or electronic formats. This means that Zeek’s music shop will provide a wide range of products that will satisfy the needs of the special and unique customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How to reach the customers Zeek’s music shop is a one-stop shop that will allow customers to choose between traditional shopping and online shopping. In the modern context, generations tend to determine the procedure through which a customer makes purchases (Tschmuck 29). In music industry, customer behaviour is marked by generational differences (Dolata 23).
For instance, young people, aged between 14 and 35 years, will prefer online shopping, while those people beyond this range prefer to visit music shops in order to determine the presence of the products they need. Therefore, Zeek’s music shop will provide all forms of products, including online and physical stocks.
Pricing plan Product Price range ($) Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Recorded music (1 price) 120-480 124-482 126-492 130-490 142-502 Music recording products 600-1600 618-1612 624-1618 627-1622 632-1632 Technologies 482-568 502-598 512-604 526-632 534-654 Rentals 85-92 88-97 94-104 102-116 112-124 Financial plan Zeek seeks to expand its growth on a yearly basis. In the first year, the business targets 1200 sales followed by 1800 in the second financial year. In the third year, the company will increase its sales by 14%, followed by 21% in the fourth year. The company expects to have increased its annual sales by more than 27% in the fourth year. This means that the company will strive to market its presence and products beyond its home city, in addition to using online and digital technologies to target its customers.
Sensitivity analysis Zeek’s Music Shop seeks to ensure that its prices for all products do not vary significantly to changes in factors of affecting demand and supply. As such, the company will ensure that its prices for all products fall within the client’s expected range of prices. To do this, the company will consider all the forces of demand and supply at a given time and project any changes in future, which will allow the finance department to set prices based on the expectations.
Risk assessment Tha major risk affecting Zeek’ Music shop is based in change in the forces of demand and supply. For instance, it is difficult to determine whether the national and international economic statuses will experience major or minor recessions. Moreover, it is difficult to determine the trend of national and industrial economic changes (Rachlin 19). These factors affect the company’s ability to set and determine future prices and expectations.
Capital estimates The company will start as a partnership, but will give room for external investment in the third year of operation. Therefore, the company will seek to raise additional 55% of its initial capital in the third year in order to improve its performance and expansion in the market.
Propose plan for funding growth As mentioned above, Zeek’s music shop will develop strategies that will invite and attract external investors. However, investors will only take 24% of the company’s annual revenue after tax in terms of bonds, shares and equities.
We will write a custom Coursework on Marketing and Sales Plan for Zeek’s Music Shop specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works cited Dolata, Ulrich.The Music Industry and the Internet. A Decade of Disruptive and Uncontrolled Sectoral Change. Mason, OH: Cengage, 2011. Print.
Krasilovsky, William, Sidney Shemel and John Gross. This Business of Music. New York: Billboard Books, 2010. Print.
Rachlin, Harvey. The Encyclopedia of the Music Business. New York: Harper
Comparison of Leadership and Management Essay essay help
Leadership and management are two of the most important processes for achieving set goals and objectives when working through people. The two processes ensure that an individual is able to effectively and efficiently utilize human resources in various contexts to achieve increased productivity. A person possessing good leadership and management Abilities is able to increase the likelihood of success in the tasks being carried out in the organization. This paper will set out to highlight the similarities and differences between leadership and management.
There are a number of notable similarities between leadership and management. A major similarity is that both processes utilize human resources to accomplish set objectives. In leadership, the leader uses his charisma and influence to elicit the help and support of the followers to achieve goals. In management, the manager marshals the human resources of the organization to complete tasks. In addition to this, both management and leadership aim to produce the best results in the task being undertaken.
By using of management functions such as controlling, the manager takes care to ensure that all activities go according to plan and the best results for the organization are achieved. The leader promotes innovation and looks for better ways to deliver the best outcomes in any task undertaken. He motivates and inspires the followers to produce the best results in the activities engaged in.
In spite of these similarities, some major differences are evident between leadership and management. A significant difference is in the primary focus of the two processes. The primary focus of management is the administrative aspects of the organization as can be seen from the core functions of management, which include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The focus of leadership is to influence the team members in order to motivate them to achieve the set goals of the organization.
Another difference is in the manner in which leaders and managers derive their power. The manager’s power comes from the position of authority given to him by the organization. The human resources that work for the manager are his subordinates and they have to follow the manager’s instructions. On the other hand, the leader’s power comes from his charisma and the influence he has over the people he is guiding. The leader has followers as opposed to subordinates and they generally willingly follow him since he inspires their trust.
The approach to risk differs significantly between management and leadership. In leadership, risk taking is prevalent since the leader seeks to promote innovation and initiate change in the organization. Management seeks to minimize risk since the desire is to maintain the status quo and keep utilizing methods that have been proven efficient in the past.
This paper set out to provide a concise description of the differences and similarities between leadership and management. It began by highlighting the importance of both processes when making use of people to accomplish tasks. It then discussed the major similarities, including the use of people to accomplish tasks and the aim to achieve good results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paper noted major differences, including the manner in which leaders and managers derive their power and the approaches to risk. From the discussions provided in this paper, it is evident that leadership and management each play an important role in the organization. The two processes should therefore be used in a complimentary fashion to ensure that the organization benefits optimally.
The Generation X Leadership Style Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The Generation Xers are the people born after the 1980 and before 2000 They are the generation that enters into leadership position, succeeding their predecessors, the “Baby boomers”. The generation Xers have already entered into the leadership position, especially in the middle level and the some in higher-level of management. Hence, it is important to understand the value system that this generation holds and how this affects their leadership style.
Value system of two people from two different age groups – one in twenties and the other in forties – differs greatly. The Generation Xers are more independent, self-sufficient, and self-motivated people as compared to their predecessors, the Baby Boomers, who were assiduous and favored steady work atmosphere. One of the most important aspects of the Generation Xers is their lifestyle, which is significantly different from that of the Baby boomers.
Generation Xers, unlike their precursors, are in search of work satisfaction than simply working hard. In order to attain greater satisfaction with their jobs, they often tend to look for better opportunities. For this reason, generation Xers are loyal to their job rather than their company. Further, Generation Xers require a high degree of autonomy in the work they do, and micromanagement is no longer an option for managing this generation of people.
Further, they enjoy flexibility in their job and lifestyle and are self-driven; hence, strong leadership is not always a requirement for this generation. This generation is also tech-savvy and is good at adapting to the changing needs of the technology. Further, this generation grew up with technology and information age, hence, are more open to adapt to the ever-changing technological world of today.
Generation Xers are the ones who have broken the Maslow hierarchy and tend to strive for efficiency in order to achieve highly at work without sacrificing their quality of life. This is the reason they are often less involved with their jobs. For this generation of people, job satisfaction has more impact than simply promotions. They are also concerned greatly with personal space, where family, leisure, and lifestyle have a great importance.
As work life balance is an important element in the value system of the Generation Xers, it is important that the leadership style should be considerate of this aspect. This importance of work life balance arises from their parent’s decision to be immersed in work, which has created a new generation of people who feel quality of life is to be better.
Further, the Generation Xers are self-reliant. Though they are open to discussion, they prefer to work alone, without being micromanaged. The present day leadership style should be attuned to this process. Hence, the works are to be done based on deadlines and outcomes rather than micro monitoring of the work and constant vigilance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new emerging leadership will create team based work environments and will ensure open communication among members. They will encourage independence in work and will not tend to micromanage. They will not try to press their authority due to their position and will not expect to be followed just because they are the bosses.
However, the new generation leaders will value the importance of action and will stress on efficient work and productivity. They will inculcate a culture that would defy workaholics and will ensure that office as well as private life is given utmost importance. Retention will be a problem for the new generation, as it will be based on job satisfaction rather than loyalty of the workers towards their employers.
The Movie “Into the Storm” Critical Essay writing essay help
This paper seeks to explain the historical background, character development, and the overall value of the movie, Into the Storm. The paper begins by a short movie summary followed by the film’s character development. It then gives a detailed historical background of the film by comparing and contrasting historical accuracy if the movie. The paper concludes by giving a summary and stating whether the film is entertaining and if it can be used as a teaching tool.
The movie, Into the Storm, takes the audience through the life of Winston Churchill, a former prime minister of Britain and it runs for about 99 minutes. Winston Churchill is elected the prime minister of the country at a time when the Nazis had started to attack the lower European countries and France. Churchill refuses to engage in dialogue with Germany despite numerous persuasions from various leaders. Instead, he reaches out to the American president, Theodore Roosevelt, for a close personal friendship.
The movie depicts Churchill as a self-centered leader who is determined to win the war without much assistance from other countries. In addition, Churchill comes out as an impulsive leader whose focus is only on the war without realizing the consequences on his political career. After the war, Churchill loses in a general election.
The movie analyses Churchill’s life both as a prime minister and as a common citizen after he loses the presidency. It paints a clear picture of the events that unfolded during the Second World War with Churchill as the prime minister and the effects of the war on his political and marriage life thereafter. It expresses the Churchill’s determination towards winning the Second World War with the assistance of only a few friends.
The movie, Into the storm, is written by Hugh Whitmore, directed by Thaddeus O’Sullivan, and produced by Frank Doelger. The main characters include Brendan Gleeson playing the role of Churchill, Iain Glen who plays the role of King George, Janet McTeer playing the role of Clemmie Churchill, James D’Arcy playing the role of Jock Collville, and Len Cariou playing the role of Roosevelt.
Brendan Gleeson emerges as the protagonist in the movie. His voice together with his comic actions and firm stand on issues make him fit to play the role of Churchill who espoused such traits. At times, he uses his speech unintelligibly and when in private places, his face is full of sorrow and confusion, and Churchill equally exhibited such traits during his time.
Churchill’s strong stand comes out in Gleeson when persuaded by some leaders to accept talks with Germany and he strongly disagrees with them saying that peace can only be found through violence. In another realistic scene, Gleason (Churchill) tells Iain Glen (King George VI) that a Germany will soon invade Britain. These occurrences happened during Churchill’s time and thus the characters contribute significantly towards the development of the movie plot.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The movie, Into the Storm, shows the lives of Churchill and his wife in the period between 1940 and 1945 when Churchill was the Britain’s Prime Minister. The movie then takes the audience through the period after 1945 as Churchill is removed from office in a general election. His wife comes out as a strong woman who endures her husband’s undesirable acts. In 1940, Churchill rises to power as the Prime Minister of Britain and serves until 1945. In this period, the country is engaged in a brutal warfare under his leadership with his sole aim being to emerge victorious in the war.
Though the movie is limited to 99 minutes, it manages to cover most of Churchill’s life. With Gleeson representing the prime minister and Mc Teer representing his wife, the movie is entertaining and humorous. The two bring the real personalities to the real people, viz. Winston and his wife. At one point, Mc Teer tries to convince Gleeson that he must win the election, which is derived from the real occurrences that surrounded Winston’s bid to win an election in 1945. Even though the movie is brief and superficial, it manages to serve both the entertainment and training role.
Historically, Churchill suffered a major blow in 1945 immediately after the end of the Second World War, as the country revolted and voted him out of office after all his efforts to defend Britain against invasion (Gilbert 1991, 76). His ambitions to lead the country for another term were cut short though he later secured the seat in early 1950s. As the election results are being tallied, Clementine tries to comfort her husband in a French coastal town where both are waiting for the election results to be announced.
This scene is a true reflection of what happened as after the election, Churchill and his wife toured France as they waited for the results. The results took one month before official declaration and during this period, Churchill visited France probably to absorb the reality of losing the election. In the movie, Churchill blames his wife for almost everything including the resounding defeat during the elections, which again reflects the historical happenings surrounding Winston at the time.
Reynolds notes, “For her part, Clementine was highly strung and needed frequent rests from her husband’s emotional and practical demands” (48). The correlation in these events is strong and thus the movie’s historical reflections are very true and real.
Churchill was a great Englishman of the time and Britain believed in him as the leader that the people deserved. However, despite the peoples’ trust in him, his real character is seen in the movie as he introduced odd ideas in a bid to win the Second World War. Janet Mc Teer also comes out as the real wife to Churchill in the movie as she demonstrates her long-suffering in the hands of Gleeson in the movie. This movie is a great piece of art as it outlines all the odds and mistakes that Churchill, as a leader, did thus giving way to his fall.
The movie is thus recommended for learners as it captures the relevant history surrounding Churchill’s life story during the Second World War in only about 99 minutes, which is a convenient duration for class work. However, in some cases, for example where detailed examination is required, the movie may not be recommended as it avoids details of the Second World War and only focuses on Churchill’s life as if he were the only participant in the war.
We will write a custom Essay on The Movie “Into the Storm” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The film does not run continuously as the director uses flashback at times to show the earlier history on the life of Churchill. This style is a bit confusing even though in this case it is used in a manner that does not divert the viewer’s attention. A good example of the style comes out clearly, as the director takes the audience through the history of Churchill before 1940. According to the movie, Churchill was the most powerful in 1940 and at this period, he was the key player in the World War II.
However, after the United States joined the war in 1941, Churchill’s role diminished. Churchill’s ideas in the war conflicted with those of Roosevelt, the then American head of state. For instance, Churchill’s tactic was to attack the Mediterranean even though this move did not seem as the best way to handle the situation and at times, the American approaches were more plausible as compared to those of Churchill.
Although Churchill is seen as a rude, impulsive, self-centered, and inconsiderate person, he was a great leader as he foresaw the danger that was brewing in Germany under the leadership of Hitler, who ordered massive firearms with the intention of expanding his territories. Churchill is one of the few leaders of the 1930s who managed to foresee the danger of the Nazi. In the movie, Churchill states categorically that Hitler is a time bomb waiting to explode anytime courtesy of his desire and greed to control Poland and other places.
Unfortunately, the United States did not heed to these calls, which deepened Churchill’s differences with Roosevelt. However, Churchill was vindicated when Hitler finally turned against Jews and massacred millions of them during the infamous Holocaust. Throughout the film, there remains a balance between Churchill’s sleepless nights and the ongoing debate on his suitability in the Buckingham palace.
On one side (debate around the Buckingham palace), the leader is described as unreliable and quick of anger, which is evidenced later in the movie as Churchill quarrels one of his servants for misplacing some bottles of paint. In the movie, Churchill comes out as strange character, when he demands an hour of uninterrupted nap every day.
As the war continued and the ground floors of the building where he was living were attacked, he ordered his workers to take him to the top floor of the building. This move was considered as the most dangerous place, but he insisted on being there by asserting that it provided a good position to see the incoming enemies before they could make attacks.
The movie portrays the legendary Winston Churchill as the real man on the ground. The characters chosen to represent various persons in the movie are charming and entertaining. However, the movie balances the two aspects of delivering the intended message as well as entertainment. The characters’ creative and innovative way of presenting events that rather happened a long time ago was a great achievement that must be acknowledged.
The movie is entertaining and at some point, Churchill is seen in the bathing basin engaging in a friendly talk with Franklin Roosevelt, who sits not far away, then coming out of the bathtub and by accident drops the towel that he has tied on his waist. At this time, Gleason defenselessly picks the towel and quickly ties it in the waist. Even though the director chose to include some seemingly inaccurate elements for purposes of entertainment, he did not alter (even though he left out some contents) the historical content of the movie in terms of presenting Churchill’s life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Movie “Into the Storm” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the movie bypasses huge stretches of history that would be of great significance to the viewer if included. Some history especially that on the Atlantic Charter is overlooked and never reflected anywhere in the movie. In addition, the director left out the events that led to the general election that saw Churchill thrown out of office, which are only given a walkover approach. Lack of incorporation of these important historical events renders the movie incomplete and vague to some extent.
The movie also fails to focus on the long history surrounding the Second World War. Instead, it focuses heavily on Churchill’s life and disregards other participants of the war. Therefore, it is incomplete since it leaves out crucial details concerning the war, which if included would make it more reliable for use in class. The choice of words is yet another concern. Churchill used strong words whenever he was angry (Catherwood 2009, 92), which is not reflected in the movie as Gleason has less command on the same.
In addition, some words used in the movie are age-sensitive and not suitable for the young generation. Lack of a woven theme is another shortfall the movie experiences. The film is made up of short episodes that are not well interconnected. Although it has a perfect message, the flow of the message is below average.
The movie is set against a background of the former British Prime Minister and his role during the Second World War. However, the movie leaves much history uncovered as it only runs for about 99 minutes, which is not adequate to cover all the events that characterized the period between 1940 and1945 when the Prime Minister was in charge.
The movie is thus too shallow; however, Gleeson and Janet McTeer’s personalities in the movie compel the viewer to overlook the shortcomings of the movie as the two perform their roles innovatively and professionally. Overall, despite its shortcomings, the movie highlights important historical events, and thus I can use it in conjunction with other movies as teaching tools in my class.
Reference List Catherwood, Christopher. 2009. Winston Churchill: The Flawed Genius of World War II. New York: Penguin.
Gilbert, Martin. 1991. Churchill: A life. New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.
Reynolds, David. 2005. “In command of History.” The New York Times, November 13.
Transient Advantage Essay online essay help: online essay help
Central theme of the article and critical analysis of its importance The article focuses on transient advantage, a crucial factor in business organizations (McGrath 62). Emerging businesses aim to gain competitive advantage so that they would outdo their competitors. This is crucial because business environments are characterized by a considerable level of competition (Gürerk, Irlenbusch, and Rockenbach 110). On the other hand, established firms that have sustained growth are no longer interested in gaining competitive advantage, but transient advantage. At this stage, they need to establish new strategic initiatives periodically.
The initiatives should reflect changes in the concerned business industries (Barney 3). For example, this would entail adoption of innovative ideas and/or technologies that would help a firm to be an excellent performer for some time. This results in the creation of portfolio advantages that could be established and abandoned quickly. Thus, success of a firm that aims to gain transient advantage would require the realization and utilization of new operational capabilities.
The article affirms that strategy is still important in turbulent industries like publishing and photography. Although leaders in these industries can compete effectively, they cannot use traditional approaches to outdo their competitors (McGrath 65). If a firm uses the same approaches that it used to gain competitive advantage a decade ago, then it would not achieve much with regard to gaining market share. On the other hand, visionary business managers and leaders are required to commence new strategic initiatives. Also, they need to exploit several transient competitive advantages.
The author argues that modern business leaders have abandoned the norm of valuing stability in successful firms. Thus, they perceive strategy differently, i.e. less bound by industry, but more customer-centered. They use different methods to evaluate new business opportunities and approaches to utilizing innovative ideas. Thus, the central theme of the article is based on the adoption of transient advantage by the modern business organizations. Firms should visualize business environments in a different way and abandon the traditional competitive advantage as a way of outdoing business rivals (Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson 20; McGrath 67).
This article has a lot of importance to the business community across the world. The study author introduces a new concept in business, which many companies have not yet adopted. A comparison is done on competitive advantage and transient advantage, and research-based evidence is provided to support the new concept (McGrath 64). The article would provide important information to both new and experienced business managers with regard to remaining relevant in terms of financial performance.
Although the author supports transient advantage, there is limited evidence to support its significance to companies because it is relatively new. The concept requires to be changed frequently, and this would result in increased financial expenditure. It might be a powerful approach to businesses. However, it might not be applicable to small and medium firms that are struggling financially. Managers in such companies should stick to the old competitive advantage approaches that are easy to analyze and adopt. However, the concept might be quite useful in the future when it is popularized and produces sustained excellent performances and growth in companies.
Applications in the hospitality industry The hospitality industry is a collection of many fields that offer services to customers, for example, cruise line, lodging, and entertainment joints, among others. Performances of businesses within the hospitality industry are determined by the amount of disposable income and how leisure time is used (Hallin and Marnburg 370). The industry is marked by competition among different firms (Rimmington, Williams and Morrison 34).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The information provided in the article would go a long way in ensuring sustained growth and performances of companies within the hospitality industry by adopting strategic decisions. Firms should be willing to assess whether current advantages are at risk. For example, a firm specializing in restaurants would aim to increase sales by adopting many promotional and/or advertisement approaches. It would need to ask the following questions to determine its current state with regard to transient advantage:
Who is our constant customer?
Who should be our frequent customer?
Are we selling products at competitive prices?
Do we satisfy needs of customers?
Are customers still interested in what we offer?
What do our loyal customers like most about our services?
Where is competition emerging?
Had we anticipated this competition?
Do we value our workers? How is the employee rate of turnover?
What does our financial performance indicate?
These questions would help the management to understand crucial parameters that would either impact the restaurant positively or negatively. They concentrate on four major areas. First, the questions would enable the management to understand customer dynamics. The dynamics would help to establish whether the firm relies on loyal customers or new customers who go to the restaurant unexpectedly. Second, matters with regard to product prices would be known, and the information would be utilized by the management to adopt pricing strategies that would increase market share and sales. Third, competition dynamics would be analyzed to aid the firm to establish measures that would outdo business competitors.
If the competition had been anticipated, then it would imply that the firm did not adopt effective approaches to outperform its rivals. However, if the competition is identified to emerge from new and unanticipated business organizations, then the firm would need to analyze the factors that would be making the new business outdo it. Fourth, employees would be analyzed to decipher whether they are comfortable working for the business establishment. The information in the article would be utilized by firms in the hospitality industry to develop and manage initiatives, which would be short-lived.
Business managers would need to view business as arenas, but not industries. Traditionally, businesses were analyzed in relation to the industries in which they operated. However, this would be misleading in the contemporary world because industry lines are blurring. It would be important for managers in the hospitality industry to set many themes, which workers would experiment. The advantage of setting broad themes is that many of the themes might yield positive results. Also, workers would feel motivated if they are offered opportunities to experiment important themes for their organizations.
The hospitality industry leaders need to use the information in the article to develop and utilize metrics that form a platform for entrepreneurial growth. The platform would also help firms to concentrate on experiences and solutions to identified problems that impact them negatively. In addition, business organizations within the hospitality industry would need to establish strong relationships and networks (Groysberg and Slind 77). This would result in an industry that would be characterized by sustained growth because firms would aim to achieve common goals. The approaches would ensure that decision makers in the hospitality industry move their firms forward.
Development of the strategic management theory The strategic management theory focuses on initiatives adopted by a firm’s top management with regard to utilization of resources in order to achieve improved performance (Chrisman, Chua and Sharma 556; Frigo and Anderson 34; Kapferer 15; McGrath 68). Strategic managers need to analyze external issues like customers’ needs and respond to forces that bring about competition. The information in the article would aid in development by providing crucial facts regarding the following issues that are often misunderstood:
The first-mover trap
The superiority trap
The quality trap
The hostage-resources trap
The white-space trap
The empire-building trap
The sporadic-innovation trap
The explanation offered about the traps would help strategic managers to develop the strategic management theory that is clear and that could be applied broadly across the world because it would provide sufficient background. The information would also be essential in developing the strategic management theory that would adopt the following shifts:
We will write a custom Essay on Transient Advantage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Think about arenas, but not business industries
Establish broad objectives and empower workers to think critically to achieve them
Learn healthy disengagement, but avoid unplanned restructuring
Always ensure that innovations are systematically adopted and supported
Form alliances and work as team
The shifts in business thinking would result in the development of the strategic management theory that is cognisant with modern approaches to business critical thinking. In conclusion, the information would ensure that the strategic management theory would be used to gain transient advantages by business organizations.
Works Cited Barney, Jay B. “Purchasing, Supply Chain Management and Sustained Competitive Advantage: The Relevance of Resource‐based Theory.” Journal of Supply Chain Management 48.2 (2012): 3-6. Print.
Chrisman, James J., Jess H. Chua, and Pramodita Sharma. “Trends and directions in the development of a strategic management theory of the family firm.” Entrepreneurship theory and practice 29.5 (2005): 555-576.
Frigo, Mark, and Richard J. Anderson. Strategic Risk Mangement: The New Core Competency. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley
The Future of Professional Psychology Presentation Report essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Future of Professional Psychology
Introduction The future of professional psychology is clouded by challenges despite many efforts to reduce them. In particular, special social groups such as elderly and Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT) community pose a myriad of future challenges due to various factors.
The Future of Professional Psychology At the outset, the number of people above 65 years in the United States is likely to double by the year 2030 according to Census Bureau (Nelson, 2005). Moreover, American Psychological Association estimates that over fifty percent of elderly people who suffer from mental disorders do not either access or afford mental health services (Nelson, 2005).
Therefore, the field of psychology does not only face the current challenge of enhancing accessibility of services but also the high number of elderly it will have to contend with in future.
Second, it is important to highlight that elderly face insurmountable barriers to mental health services that range from financial costs of treatment to shortage of practitioners and professionals (Nelson, 2005). It is therefore critical for the entire field of psychology to nurture new professionals in order to address the challenge.
Money and banking: David S. Ashby’s perspective Critical Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Distinction between currency and money
The U.S Treasury
The Federal Reserve System
The banking system
The first chapter in Ashby‘s book, Money Mechanics, is the introductory chapter and it is fairly brief in comparison with other chapters in the book. In this chapter, the author introduces some of the basic concepts that the book entails and builds on these concepts in subsequent chapters as the book progresses. One of the main topics in the chapter is money.
On this topic, Ashby defines what money is, both as an item that serves as a medium of exchange (as most non-economists understand it), and conceptually as most economists view the term. He starts by giving a brief history on the necessity of money and the evolution of currency from the barter trade system to its current form.
He explains that in the barter trade system whereby people would exchange goods and services for other goods and services was hectic and time consuming with one of the reasons being that the buyer had to look for a seller who had the commodity or service that the buyer was looking for.
The buyer also had to make determinations on whether the seller was willing to exchange his or her goods or services with the buyer and whether their terms of exchange would be compatible. Ashby explains that having a general item or items that would be commonly acceptable as a medium of exchange, which is the basic definition of money in trade, makes trade more manageable.
Distinction between currency and money The author also makes a distinction between currency and money and explains that currency is not always money. According to this concept, three widely acceptable objects qualify as money including coins, paper currency, and checking accounts.
Ashby explains that although non-economists find trouble making the distinction, it is important for economists to understand the difference between the two. He elaborates this theory by stating that whether cash (in the form of paper currency or coins) qualifies as money depends on a few factors with the most important of them being whether the cash is in the U.S money supply.
The U.S money supply involves cash that is in circulation and in use by consumers as opposed to cash under the authority of money creating institutions such as banks. This is the cash in people’s pockets and the cash that they use for their every day needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, if such cash goes into a savings account at a bank and thus its ownership goes to the bank, the cash is no longer in the U.S money supply system and the term money ceases to apply to it. Another important aspect that Ashby discusses in this chapter is the velocity of money. He explains it as the number of times that consumers use a dollar over a specific period, usually a year.
Under this concept, he gives a simple example that helps in the explanation of the theory. He illustrates the concept by using an inference of a dollar passing from one user to another through the purchase of goods and services. That specific dollar facilitates the acquisition of various goods and services by different consumers over a specific period while in circulation.
He notes that velocity is a consumer-controlled concept as it depends on the speed at which consumers apply money in the purchase of goods and services. He gives an example of the length of time it takes an individual to pay bills.
In his second chapter, Ashby discusses different aspects regarding the U.S Treasury Department, the Federal Reserve System, and the banking system. He explains the operations of these institutions coupled with their functions agencies that control them in terms of regulation and supervision.
The U.S Treasury Ashby explains that the U.S Treasury Department is part of the executive branch of the federal government, which is the level of government that controls the various states in the US independently.
The treasury’s main tasks as set out in Ashby’s discussion include tax collection through the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), sale of treasury securities to supplement the tax revenue, and the production of currency through the operation of the U.S Mint and the U.S Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
Ashby clarifies that although the treasury institution produces currency, it is not responsible for creating money as most of the currency produced goes to the Federal Reserve banks. The treasury does not inject the currency directly into the U.S money supply for circulation and thus it does not become money until such as a point when it is accessible to consumers for use in the purchase of goods and services.
We will write a custom Book Review on Money and banking: David S. Ashby’s perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve System (FRS) is the second link in the chain towards the creation of money as it involves the remit of currency by the treasury department to the Federal Reserve banks.
In addition, the author makes it clear that the currency deposited to the Federal Reserve banks does not attain money status at this level as these banks serve the purpose of holding money that the treasury department sends and transmitting it to banks, which are the institutions responsible for money creation.
Some of the functions that Federal Reserve banks perform include serving as banks for the federal governments, serving as banks for foreign governments and other foreign institutions, and serving as banks for other banks in the federation.
Although the treasury and the FRS do not create money, they play a big role in regulating the amount of money available for circulation. This regulation is a very important role as it establishes the value of currency in use through regulating conditions such as inflation and deflation.
The author elaborates that making too much currency for circulation causes inflation, thus reducing the value of each dollar as in most cases prices rise to compensate for the increase in supply forcing consumers to use more dollars in the purchase of goods and services.
The value of money is in its scarcity and thus the two institutions have to ensure that the money becomes scarce enough to have value and regulate the same to retain such value
The banking system Ashby explains that banks are the points at which the creation of money occurs because they are the points of access for currency for consumers as well as the points where consumers deposit currency and end the circuit of the money supply.
A dollar travels from the Treasury to the Federal Reserve Bank then the banks and becomes money when people withdraw it from their various accounts for everyday use thus entering the money supply system. Due to the crucial role that banks play in the creation of money, federal governments have established various agencies that ensure the supervision and regulation of their operations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Money and banking: David S. Ashby’s perspective by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The agencies mainly operate through depositor protection by ensuring there is stability in the monetary system, thus making sure that there is healthy competition in the banking industry and creating consumer protection mechanisms.
In the third chapter of his book, Ashby talks about the effects of the treasury department’s operations on money supply in a state. The author looks at the effects activities such as tax collection, sale of securities, and creation of currency may have on the money supply system. In the book, the author notes that one of the main aspects behind the concept of money is the ownership of currency.
Once the ownership transfers from the consumer to commercial institutions such as banks, it ceases to be money as it is no longer in the money supply system. The treasury department has the mandate to collect taxes through the IRS. Once individuals pay their taxes through the agency, the IRS deposits the money in various specific banks within the localities in tax and loans accounts belonging to the treasury department.
The same case also applies to the money that people use to buy treasury securities such as bonds and shares. In essence, treasury securities reflect as loans from the public to the treasury department as payment for such securities usually occur on dates. However, Ashby explains that Federal Reserve banks are the ones that bear the burden of these loans.
In explaining this concept, the author states that the treasury department usually withdraws the money in the tax and loans accounts at the various banks including money paid for the purchase of treasury securities. The treasury uses the money to pay the government’s operational bills and some of its debts to other countries.
Periodically, the treasury department is supposed to pay back a fraction of the treasury securities with interest, which it does through issuing checks to the individuals, who in turn present them at the various banks in exchange for currency.
The banks immediately credit the checking accounts of these people and loose a matching amount in their reserves. They demand compensation for the treasury securities from the Federal Reserve banks, and thus banks experience no losses in their reserves.
In essence, the amount of treasury securities that people buy from the treasury department form the amount that the public loans to the government through their reserves at banks, which transfers to the Federal Reserve banks. Therefore, the treasury department’s spending has no substantial effect on the money supply or bank reserves.
However, the author states that it is noteworthy that the treasury department collects the amounts in tax and loans accounts just before it applies them in various ways. The logic behind this move is that the amount collected is a lump sum and its application takes some time.
Therefore, collecting the amount before it is applicable would cause deficits in bank reserves and a consequent reduction in the lending ability of most banks leading to a credit crunch, a situation that most federal governments do their best to avoid.
The author is of the view that the creation of currency also has no net effect on money supply. He explains the process of currency supply up to the point where the currency reaches the hands of consumers and becomes money.
The essential point worth noting in this process is that when consumers withdraw currency from their checking accounts, they reduce the balance in the checking accounts by exactly the same amount of cash they hold. Therefore, as both the checking accounts and cash are forms of money, the two remain at equilibrium as an increase in one creates a decrease in the other.
In this chapter, the author discusses how the money creation ability of banks affects money supply. In his discussion, Ashby mentions the different kinds of money that reserve banks have and the effect that lending money has on the various reserves and in turn the money supply system.
The primary reserve is the first reserve that the author explains by elaborating that it lays its basis on a reserve requirement whose calculation is done through the application of a percentage set by the regulatory agencies against the total bank deposits customers make.
The essence of this requirement is the prevention of a scenario where a bank is unable to remit withdrawals at given times due to lack of adequate funding. The banks keep the reserve amounts either in vaults at the banks or in their Federal Reserve accounts.
The second reserve that the author elaborates on is the working reserve, which he explains as an amount in excess of the primary reserve that banks keep at hand to ensure there is a sufficient operational amount for withdrawal by customers.
Although the law does not require banks to keep this additional sum in hand, some banks experience more traffic than others do in terms of customer, and thus they keep the additional sum in hand for convenience. At times, banks also experience net withdrawals. Ashby defines these withdrawals as withdrawals above the amount a customer has in his or her checking account.
Since the law forbids the banks from using deposits from other customers to facilitate a customer’s net withdrawal, banks use their working reserves instead. He notes that working reserves do not prevent the likelihood of net withdrawals, but they prepare bank for the eventualities so that the bank still has sufficient reserves on which to operate.
The third type of reserve that the author discusses is the secondary reserve. He describes this as a reserve in excess of both the primary and working reserves. The main use of this reserve is to generate revenue for the bank, as a bank is a business institution that aims at the generation of profits.
After banks establish their primary and working reserves, they apply the rest of the reserves in revenue generating projects and investments. However, there are restrictions to the types of investments and projects that banks can get involved in with regard to the risks that such investments involve.
The author gives an example of such investments as treasury securities by stating that they are safe, generate interest on the reserve, and are easy to liquidate when the need arises. The securities in this case are a form of secondary reserve.
The main point that the author makes with regard to money supply and bank lending activities is that when banks lend to customers, they increase the amount of money in supply as they provide the customer with more money than s/he has in his/her checking account.
Therefore, although checking accounts and cash ordinarily cancel each other out in bank transactions, in this case the cash is in excess of what the customer has in the real sense and thus creating an increase in money supply. Banks thus have to exercise caution and due diligence in their lending habits.
This chapter of the book is mainly about the Federal Resource System (FRS) and its influence on money supply. Ashby lays out three main tools that the FRS uses to influence money supply, by giving a concise description of each of the tools and their role with regard to money supply.
One of the tools that Ashby mentions in the chapter is open-market operations. He explains that they involve the purchase and sale of outstanding treasury securities, although in this case, the treasury leaves the function of transacting the securities to the Federal Reserve.
The FRS sells and buys such securities directly from the security owners without involving banks, although it applies the use of intermediaries such as brokers who conduct door-to-door transactions. The effect that such transactions have on the money supply is that they affect the flow of cash in the money supply system without the involvement of checking accounts thus causing a direct increase or decrease in the money supply.
Whether the money supply increases or decreases depends on whether the transactions by the FRS are sales or purchases, with sales injecting money in the money supply system and purchases resulting in the inverse effect.
The second tool that the FRS utilizes is its mandate to adjust the level of reserve requirements thereby affecting bank reserves. This tool aims at regulating bank reserves and ensuring that banks do not create too much money because of excesses in bank reserves.
Ashby explains that the FRS has the mandate to set the percentages that banks have to meet in terms of primary reserves against the amounts they receive on checking accounts.
By reducing the required percentage on primary reserves, the FRS facilitates an increase in the ability that banks have in giving loans to customers. As earlier mentioned, loans create an increase in money supply thus the FRS utilizes this tool to increase or decrease the amount that banks can give in loans as appropriate.
In order to ensure the cushioning of banks against negative effects that come with redistribution of reserves due to various reasons, the FRS offers temporarily borrowed reserves appropriately according to the circumstances. The author gives an example of a bank in an area where the main economic activity is farming.
He explains that in such an area, the likelihood that cash deposits increase during harvest seasons and reduce during planting seasons is high.
Therefore, the FRS provides temporary loans to banks to enable them have sufficient revenue during the planting season, which they then pay back during the harvesting season when deposits increase thus creating an increase in reserves. In this way, banks in the area can have a steady supply of reserves regardless of the season and without inconveniencing the customer.
The author also adds that the regulation of monetary policy in banking institutions facilitates the creation and depletion of reserves, thus controlling the amount available to a bank for distribution to customers. He mentions the federal funds market and explains that the policies that banks set on the amount of federal funds rates that other banks can pay influences the amount of reserves that banks keep.
The federal funds markets operate through interbank borrowing, where banks with fewer reserves can borrow from those with an excess in the same. The disadvantage of this method is that the minimum amount a bank can borrow is usually high, thus smaller banks are unable to use such facilities. Therefore, smaller banks would want to ensure that they reduce on lending to avoid such situations.
Business Plan for Zeek’s Music Shop Coursework essay help: essay help
Business concept Vision statement
The company’s vision is “to be a dynamic national brand that will focus on providing the public with a permanent escape from the expensive services offered by our competitors”. This will be done through the provision of timely and interactive services for music shoppers in order to allow them save on time and money.
The business will seek to promote local population’s interest in music services through an expansion of the public’s exposure to music via the one-stop shops as well as the internet. This shall also include introducing this area to the market segments that are yet to be fully utilised. Therefore, it presents an excellent business opportunity.
Music of all types will be available in the store as well as on its website. Popular music will be one of the main products at the store. It will also seek to ensure that music is provided in all forms- DVDs, CDs and downloadable pieces.
However, the company will primarily deal with music products that are popular among the young people. In addition, the company will obtain these products and services from a wide range of sources in order to meet the demands of the clients.
Zeek’s Music Store targets a wide range of customers but will place an emphasis on young people aged between 14 and 35 years. In fact, this group of people make the largest group of people looking for the latest music, but few businesses have been able to satisfy their needs.
Benefits for unique proposition of the company
The company will achieve a positive reputation among the young people because it has chosen to venture in an area that few organizations have considered as a business opportunity. In addition, music recording and marketing companies have been looking for convenient partners in order to enhance their marketing beyond their shops, especially in targeting neighbourhoods.
Zeek’s Music Shop will specialize in providing the population with a one-stop shopping for musical equipment sales, pro audio sales, music lessons, rentals and repairs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Industry analysis It is estimated that music and film industry have one of the largest income in the economy, exceeding 50 million dollars per year. In addition, the industry is estimated to have an annual growth of more than 12% (Vogel 46). Statistics also indicate that music contributes to 6% of the national economy. Moreover, the industry employs more than 2 million people either directly on indirectly (Burnett 21).
Market analysis It is estimated that young people aged between 15 and 25 years spend more than 35 million dollars on entertainment every year. Currently, these people have to walk or drive long hours to obtain these services.
Target customer profile Zeek’s Music Store will target university and college students as well as working youths. In particular, this group of people seeks to obtain music product from their neighbourhoods or downloading on their computers.
Young people spend much of their time listening to music from their iPods’, computers and iPads. They need a constant and dedicated provider of these services because the music industry is highly dynamic, with new products coming daily to the market.
Competitor analysis Currently, there the business faces competition from two main companies-Netflix and Blockbuster. These companies are international corporations that have dominated the market over the last ten years (Stickler 91) Since Zeek’s will be a local business, we expect to venture into the business currently dominated by smaller organizations in town.
Some of these organizations are small. Others deal with music rentals only while others only seek to sell pro audio products only. With the wide range of products and services at Zeek’s shop, we expect to conquer the market within the first three months of operation.
Distribution Channels Since the company is a small and start-up organization, it will first embark on providing its services and products on the site. Customers are expected to present themselves physically at the store.
We will write a custom Coursework on Business Plan for Zeek’s Music Shop specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, in order to compete with other businesses, the company will also allow customers to register on its website, pay via available online methods such as Paypal and download music and videos. For products like equipments and rentals, services such as music lessons and repairs, the company will ensure that it attracts customers to the store.
Growth plan The company expects to achieve a 12% growth in revenue within the next five years as shown below:
Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Revenue ($) 200,000 260,000 273,000 294,840 330,220.80 Profitability (%) 4 (%) 6.5 (%) 8.9 (%) 10.6 (%) 12 (%) Growth strategy In the first year of operation, Zeek’s Music Store will concentrate on rentals and pro audio sales. However, in the second year of operation, music lessons and repairs will be included while sale of equipment will start in the third year.
Operation plan In addition, expansion of the company’s stores from one to four in the city will be done in the fourth year. In particular, the company will establish new stores near colleges and universities in order to target a large group of customers.
Works Cited Burnett, Robert. The Global Jukebox: The International Music Industry. New York: Routlegde Taylor and Francis, 2012. Print.
Stickler, Verana. Music Industry Management: Case Study Analysis. New York: Grin Verlag, 2012. Print.
Vogel, Harold. Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.
Intelligence Operations Research: the US Evaluation Essay college essay help online
Covert Action in US intelligence missions According to Cumming (2009, 1), the United States counterintelligence deals in covert missions. Covert missions entail missions that are commissioned by the state, but the state distances itself from such missions when it is mentioned if by any event the mission is exposed.
As the leading country in terms of political power and the prowess in intelligence matters, the United States has been adversely mentioned in security developments in diverse regions of the world. However, in most cases the bodies responsible for the management of national security in the country have often come out to distance themselves from the missions.
While other people argue that this response is a form of strategy that is used to protect and safeguard the national security interests of the US, other people question the participation of the United States in such missions and the resultant reactions to the aftermath of engaging in such actions. This is often depicted in denial (Johnson 2007, 1).
It should be understood that the discharge of security operations is a complex exercise that entails direct and indirect security missions (Hitz 2005, 2). While the direct missions are established out of the seemingly direct dangers of any given development to the security of the United States, indirect security missions are planned and executed in order to do away with indirect dangers of a given situation or development to national security.
Security missions that are conducted by the intelligence bodies of the United States, like the CIA, in foreign countries involve operations that are aimed at undermining the security or intelligence structures in other countries or regions. This is one of the reasons why such security missions are covered.
When it comes to the secret intelligence missions, the United States Department of Defense is always ready and can endure any cost to defend and deny the responsibility of the United States security in the activities (Hulnick 2002, 1).
One thing that has been discovered in the underground security operations and form part of the covert missions is that they pose a lot of threats to the national security of the United States. The rationale behind this argument is that the underground security missions can result in the erosion of trust between the United States and other countries if uncovered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can further loosen the level at which foreign countries cooperate with the US security services in attaining the security goals, thereby exposing the country to international security threats. Most of the missions undermine the principles of democracy, as well as the charter on human rights.
The most critical thing in covert action is the covering of secret information by the US Department of Defense since such pieces of information can trigger aggression, thereby jeopardizing the security situation. This means that it is important to cover the United States even if its participation in a given security actions seem eminent because this in itself serves the course of maintaining national security.
The other reason for protecting the covert action is that a number of illegal agents may be used to uncover the information and use the information to expose the security situation of the United States (Johnson 2007, 2).
The fact that counterintelligence and covert missions are likened to espionage means that the executers and the security bodies that are used in such missions have to be covered. Covering the people and security bodies that are used in such missions is an issue that is given priority as far as national security and information security are concerned (Johnson 2007 4).
Changing the policy neutralizes the essence and drives away the security bodies from meeting their objectives. However, it has been noted that the modern security environment in the international scene has broadened. This means that the United States is refraining more from enhancing covert missions and is, instead, engaging in direct actions when pursuing matters of national security.
Examples that can be given are the US invasion of Iraq, Afghanistan, and the recent backing of the Libyan protest by the US forces. Nonetheless, this does not mean that spy missions are being abolished in the security system of the United States. Spy missions remain critical in as far as the protection of the US intelligence and national security information is concerned.
What can be changed are the modalities on which the covert actions are enforced by the intelligence bodies, like ensuring that there is reduction in the level of breach to the intelligence of other states (Hulnick 2002, 1-3).
We will write a custom Essay on Intelligence Operations Research: the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Comparison of the CIA assassination plot in the Congo and Iran-Contra Case Objectives and policy imperatives in the missions
More often than not, intelligence operations are mounted with the aim of meeting a number of objectives. The main goal of mounting an intelligence operation by a country is to enhance the security of the country by executing a number of security missions that are entailed in a security operation.
Each intelligence operation has its key objectives that can be used to differentiate one operation from the other even when they are authorized by the same body. Most of the intelligence operations that are mounted in foreign countries by the US Central Intelligence Agency form part of the counterintelligence missions (Johnson 2007, 1).
The CIA assassination plot in the Democratic Republic of Congo was triggered by the security issues that revolved around the battle for supremacy between the United States and the Soviet Union. Lumumba, who was the Chief of Staff of Congo’s armed forces, was the main target in the mission.
The reason why he was targeted is that he was pushing for support from the Soviet Union forces, an issue that could imply the provision of a stronger ground for the Soviet Union in Congo and the entire region (Johnson 2007, 1-3).
The United Nations Security Council that was charged with making key decisions concerning the pacification of conflict in the region intervened in the Congo conflict with the Belgians. As expected, the intervention by the Security Council was supposed to aid in eliminating the active mission of other states in the region. However, this did not prevent the CIA from advancing its mission (Johnson 2007, 40-45).
One the other hand, the Iran Contra Case is one of the investigations that were launched into a policy of transferring arms to Iran by the United States, which later turned to be sour owing to the nature of the elaborate consequences of the policy.
The mission had two main objectives, which were: gaining strategic grounds in Iran by opening into the country and the freeing of the US citizens who had been held hostage in Lebanon. According to Cuming (2009, 1), the case denoted one of the parallel policies that were pursued by the NSC.
It was against the policy of anti-terrorism. Both the sale of arms to Iran and the backing of the Contras by the NSC implied covert missions (Hulnick 2002, 2).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Intelligence Operations Research: the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main organizations involved in the development and enforcement of security policies in the United States, CIA and the Department of State and Defense, were kept out of the developments. National security and intelligence procedures were highly ignored (Johnson 2007, 1-6).
Oversight or legal review occurred that occurred during the planning of the missions
In the Iran-Contra case, there were a lot of breaches that were later identified through the inquiry that was commissioned by the then President Ronald Reagan. The report that was prepared by the panel brought about a lot of inconsistencies and evident breach of protocols that could not have been identified if the mission had not strayed (Johnson 2007, 2-3).
Therefore, it is evident that the legal process was not enshrined in the preparation and execution of this security mission. This was meant to be a silent mission as was depicted by the restriction of information and planning to the NSC. This was against the national security laws of the US. However, the objectives of NSC were not attained since they could not silence the events that erupted out of the mission (Johnson 2007, 25-26).
The CIA assassination plot in Congo was a fully backed mission. However, the United Nations had intervened in the developments, meaning that the involvement of the United States as an individual state with an interest was supposed to be neutralized. However, the CIA went ahead with the plot to illegally remove Lumumba from the custody of the United Nations under the leadership of Mulroney (Johnson 2007, 32-40).
Accountable organizations and issues arising
In the Congo assassination plot, the CIA was the main security body that was charged with the responsibility of executing Lumumba. The main issue that transpired during the operation was the involvement of the United Nations in the case, which made it difficult for the CIA to conduct their cover missions in Congo ((Johnson 2007, 32-35).
On the other hand, the Iran-Contra mission was marked by a lot of secrets that later culminated into overboard issues that exposed the entire mission by tarnishing the seeming image of the US and its laws on countering terrorism.
The Nations Security Council went overboard, resulting in the exposure of the US national security situation. This forced the president to react to the events in order to restore the security situation (Johnson 2007, 52).
Necessary resources for the missions
The CIA assassination plot in Congo was more of an active mission that required a high level of intelligence in order to ensure the death of Lumumba. The requirement in the mission was the utilization of high skills in the assassination and the subsequent covering of information in order not to expose the United States or CIA for that matter (Johnson 2007, 36-37).
The Iran-Contra case was an intense mission that had more indirect objectives. These objectives not only required the supply of the weapons in Iran, but also adequate intelligence backup to ensure that the arms were utilized for the intended purpose (Johnson 2007, 8-11).
The cost/benefit analysis of each operation
To begin with the CIA assassination mission in Congo, the United States wanted to neutralize the influence of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was a major threat to the national security of the US then (Johnson 2007, 2).
Therefore, it can be argued that the mission attained its goals since the Soviet Union did not find a supportive ground for deploying its forces in Congo (Johnson 2007, 2). The risky part of the mission was the discovery about the direct involvement of the US in the assassin. This could have raised questions, resulting in the involvement of other countries including the Soviet Union (Johnson 2007, 37).
The Iran-Contra case exposes a mission that had broad goals, yet the manner in which it was planned and executed depicted a lot of risks to the US national security. The breach of the security policies and legislations weakened the basis on which the mission could have been sustained by the NSC.
The establishment of the US grounds in Iran could improve the US intelligence in the region and help the US to pursue its security interests in the region (Johnson 2007, 1-2).
However, this was not attained as the manner in which the mission was planned and executed prevented it from attaining its mission. However, this case provided a basis on which reforms on the discharge of contra missions by the US Intelligence bodies (Cumming 2009, 5).
Evaluation: objectives and unintended outcomes
It can be argued that no direct objective of the missions was achieved in the Iran-contra case. However, the consequences of the mission provided grounds on which the structure of the security missions was improved, especially contra missions in order to eliminate clandestine and parallel operations in security missions (Cumming 2009, 2).
In the CIA assassination mission in Congo, the direct objective of the security mission was attained, thereby preventing the Soviet Union from entering and establishing operations grounds in Congo. However, several questions were later raised implicating the interest of the US in the matter (Johnson 2007, 37).
Review of the Hypothesis According to Long and Luers (2012, 11), the nuclear development program in Iran has formed a major security stalemate between the United States and Iran, with Iran showing its focus to keep pursuing the program and the United States arguing that such a program presents a security threat to the global citizens.
Thorough security assessments on the impact of any mission in the contemporary security and intelligence environment should be done before the choice of an action.
Among the issues that are assessed is the possible impact of the security situation on the citizenry of a given state and the general global environment that harbors all citizens. The United States intelligence has been involved in ensuring the safety of the program, with Iran insisting that the nuclear program is meant to enhance economic prosperity and that it does not pose security threats.
According to Long and Luers (2012, 5-6), the United States has conducted several inspections of the nuclear plant in Iran to ensure that the plant is safe and that it is only being used for the intended purpose. The security operations that have been implemented concerning the nuclear program in Iran depict the hardship of implementing covert action by the United States.
The most critical security question concerning the program is whether the program can be stopped without the consent of Iran. The case presented here denotes the deployment of a form of covert action by the United States intelligence in their bid to stop the program.
Covert action can hardly work in this situation as it is bound to result in impacts, which can further stretch the relationship of the US with the world. This predisposes the country to security threats.
The use of covert action by the United States in the case of the nuclear program in Iran can aggravate the poor relationship that prevails between the two countries. The fact that the issue of the Iran nuclear program has been the security subject for some time means that both sides have explored the possibilities of any course of actions that can be taken by any side.
Bombing the plant as claimed by the CIA intelligence is an action that is ruled out by a substantial number of analysts. This is because the explosion of the plant has a high probability of emitting nuclear substances in the atmosphere, thereby putting the lives of a large population at risk. The United States is charged with the responsibility of assuring the citizens of Iran about their security if at all it has to destroy the plant.
The only way through which the plant can be successfully demolished is the utilization of systematic actions to prevent the leakage of radioactive substances in the environment (Long and Luers (2012, 8-9).
The implementation of such a security action can reinvigorate the memories of the nuclear attacks by the United States in Japan during the Second World War. The United States intelligence has to think beyond the direct threats since there are a lot of indirect risks that are involved if the covert action is taken as reflected in the hypothetical situation (Long and Luers 2012, 16-18).
It should be noted that Iran is not the only country that is battling with the United States over the issue of security and nuclear plants. There is also North Korea that is battling with the United States over the pursuance of a nuclear program.
The forceful shutting of the nuclear program in the nuclear program in Iran can result in intuitive actions from North Korea and other rogue states in Asia and the Arab world, thereby compounding the security situation in the United States.
The United States must be careful since any course of action that it takes against Iran since the action may be used as a basis of uniting the rogue states in their quest to deteriorate the security situation in the United States as they seek to mount revenge.
As the situation is presently, the United States has to maintain its intelligence and only ensure that Iran does not diversify the nuclear program and start using it for security and not economic purposes (Long and Luers (2012, 13).
Such information can be categorized as classified information due to its sensitivity. However, the status of security as exhibited by the Iran nuclear program is an issue that has already been debated and attracted a lot of international attention.
According to Best Jr. (2011, 2), the Congress is one of the main bodies that are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that policies of national security are designed and affected to assure the citizenry of their national security. Being one of the main bodies that ratify national bodies, it is important for the US President to seek for advice and consent from the Congress before taking any course of action.
The case presented in the hypothesis cannot be taken as a mere security operation since it involves more players from across the globe. Restricting the mission to the intelligence bodies can result in the lack of intense rationalization on the possible risks of the mission (Long and Luers 18-20).
Bibliography Best, Jr., Richard A. Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions. Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2011.
Cumming, Alfred. Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions. Washington: Congressional Research Service, 2009.
Hitz, Frederick. 2005. “Counterintelligence.” In The Great Game, by Rattigan Tony Chapter 4. New York: Knopf Publishers, 2005.
Hulnick, Arthur S. Fixing the Spy Machine: Preparing American Intelligence for the Twenty-First Century. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2002.
Johnson, Loch K. “CIA Counterintelligence: An Excerpt from the Church Committee Report.” In Strategic Intelligence – 4, by Johnson K. Lock. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2007.
Johnson, Loch K. “The CIA Assassination Plot in the Congo, 1960-1.” In Strategic Intelligence – 3, by Johnson K. Lock. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2007.
Johnson, Loch K. “When Covert Action Subverts U.S. Law: The Iran-Contra Case.” In Strategic Intelligence – 3, by Johnson K. Lock. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2007.
Long, Austin and Luers, William. Weighing Benefits and Costs of Military Action Against Iran, 2007. Web.
Grip Golf Glove – Pricing an Innovative Product Case Study essay help online
Table of Contents Characteristic of the target market
Key points of difference when compared with competitors’
3M’s Three Criteria for New Products
Characteristic of the target market Competent company executives always strive to provide leadership that enables the marketing staff to clearly identify the characteristic of the target market and enable them to provide tailor made products and services that are suitably aligned to the needs of the current and prospective buyers.
In Target Market’s (2004, p.2) argument, the case with 3M Greptile Grip golf glove is that the market is defined by a huge baby boomer population, which has matured with time to a prime earning potential.
According to Afuah’s (2003, p.356) business model, the market is defined by people with different demographic characteristics who belong to different age groups, ethnic backgrounds, and female golfers who account for 25% of the entire golfer population in the United Sates. The estimated value of the market which has been growing dynamically is valued at US $ 300 million.
The demographic characteristics which are defined by income levels, occupation, family lifecycle, and years of business, education, market trends, market size, geographic distributions, lifestyle, social classes, and consumer behavior are evident in the above case study.
The case study shows people with different income levels, a dynamic trend in market growth and size, and a number of new entrants into the market. The case shows new entrants into the market to include Bionic’s Classic brand designed with the educated class of orthopedic surgeons in mind.
Key points of difference when compared with competitors’ Company executives know very well how to differentiate the characteristics of rival firms to survive in a market with rivals who operate using creative techniques and competitive strategies in the innovation and production of company products and services. The company uses technology to create high quality products with unique attributes to meet the unique needs of the target market.
In context of studies by Afuah (2003, p.3), it is demonstrated in the case study that 3M Greptile Grip golf glove uses technology, innovation, pricing, and a creative and highly skilled product development team with a strong reputation and image for innovation and quality to produce tailor made products for the market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has a sports unit managed by a highly skilled marketing staff with an innovative approach to doing business. Other firms in the case study do not demonstrate their reliance on an innovative and highly skilled marketing staff with the dynamics of innovation and creativity.
Another key difference with competing products includes gloves with improved gripping capabilities provided by the company. The case study provides one example of the Premium Greptile golf glove which is designed with the highest quality Gabretta leather in the market. When the product was produced in 2005, according to the case study, the suggested price varied between $ 16.95 and $19.95.
Here, quality and prices are combined to make the product competitive in the market. Another trend that crystallized other differences between 3M and competitors was the introduction of another Greptile Grip golf glove that was suitable for the European and Japanese markets. The Japanese and European markets took the second and third position after the US market for the gloves.
In comparison, a competitor, “marketer Bionic” introduced into the market gloves designed for orthopedic surgeons to compete with the 3 M firm’s early gloves for orthopedic surgeons. A significant difference in the he pricing strategy used by Bionic and footJoy is that the competitors’ product prices are significantly higher than the prices of 3M’s products.
In this case, Bionic produces Classic which goes at $ 24.95 $ and Pro which goes for $ 39.95. On the other hand, FootJoy’s Pure Touch Limited which goes for $ 28 as a precision fit product and SciFlex which goes for $ 18. In comparison, 3M products go for $16.95 and $ 19.95 respectively.
It is critical to note that that 3 M’s approach to product pricing is that of keeping the price as low as possible, below the competitors’ product prices. In addition, the competing firms attempt to produce products that are of high quality using artificial materials such as the SciFlex glove produced by FootJoy to ensure quality. Contrary, it is evident 3M uses leather to manufacture its high quality gloves for the market.
According to the case study, competing firms are quite sensitive to the market dynamics. The changes include a drop in income levels of many households because of recession which is the direct reason many people have reduced their purchasing capabilities.
We will write a custom Case Study on Grip Golf Glove – Pricing an Innovative Product specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to note that existing firms or new entrants can introduce substitute products into the market in an attempt to clinch a market share.
The changes in price and income levels have been shown to have a direct impact on the demand of a product, making a shift in demand in one direction depending on the prevailing conditions. The specific needs of the users of gloves can certainly be satisfied with substitute products which are produced and offered in the market in 3 packs, 2 packs or in single packs at low prices.
3M’s Three Criteria for New Products Greptile Grip golf glove strives to meet the 3 M’s three criteria for new products by setting prices for its products that are created with technology, durability, and comfort as the core elements in the production of the gloves. Here, the company takes a critical evaluation of the market to determine the global market demand for the products and the trend in the sports world that could stimulate demand for the gloves.
That is in addition to the quality of the gloves in terms of gripping capabilities. Here, the company focuses on a replication technology which incorporates different ideas from different organizational employees to give a try of new innovative ideas which are transformed into a new technology that enable the production of gloves of high quality and gripping capabilities (Afuah 2003, p.24).
A critical analysis and study of the case study shows that the problems associated with the promotion and distribution of its products include developing a sustainable and effective global supply chain system, conducting marketing campaigns in a multicultural environment that is characterized the differences in a global environment, ethical questions that arise because of the environment, personal selling problems, the ability to take a customer oriented approach, geographic concentration of customers, pricing because of substitute products, political problems because of marketing across different countries, and new competitors (Target Market 2004, p.3).
That brings about channel distribution problems, lost opportunities which include late deliveries, the need for a large investment capital, the reaction by the old players in the industry against the new entrant, and the economies of scale.
References Afuah, A N 2003, Business Models: A Strategic Management Approach, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York.
Target Market 2004. Web.
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Barbata Electronics – the Knock Your Socks Off project Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
In this case, the most appropriate project management structure for the ‘Barbata Electronics’ company is undertaking the KYSO project is the “dedicated team management structure”.
The rationale for selecting the type of management structure based on the description provided in the question is the need for the company to invest in research and development of the most appropriate technology that could be used to produce superior to MP3 with a double-file format and audio capacity. The “dedicated team management structure” has been proposed as the most appropriate because of the cost advantage it provides.
In addition, the “dedicated team management structure” is dedicated to optimising development time by ensuring that development activities are always within schedule besides the new features that have been invented, which allow the organization to develop good quality products within their existing framework.
The outstanding features of the “dedicated team management structure” is that it provides a framework for people with different skill sets to collaborate and contribute in executing project tasks with the project manager who provides strong leadership and direction.
The proposed structure provides the team manager with power to lead and enable the creation of a dedicated team, which is an advantage when compared with other management structures such as the functional or matrix structure.
Under the leadership of the project manager, the approach leads to a dedicated, cohesive, responsible, well-skilled, team synergy, a “projectized organization” with functional departmental supports, and goal-oriented team.
The “dedicated team management structure” provides a framework for conflict resolution which arises from a diverse technical skills gap and knowledge within the team members. Here, a dedicated and focused team under strong leadership by the project manager at Barbata Electronics’ underlies the driving force to develop new technology for the KYSO project.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The distinctive purpose for using the ‘projectized organization’ feature by the company is to successfully develop the KYSO project, which is distinctly defined by the dominant business purpose where each functional department plays a critical role in the development strategy.
Towards achieving the stated company goal of developing superior quality MP3s with higher capacity ad capability reinforces the rationale for advocating the use of the “dedicated team management structure” under the prevailing operational environment. Here, the focus is to develop quality without regard to the associated costs and budgetary allocations.
It is clear from the above discussion that the “dedicated team management structure” provides a cost advantage in the development of the new technology and is the most appropriate structure recommended for the ‘Barbata Electronics’.
The cost advantage, the synergy derived from a focused group, the knowledge, skills and experience, an able and experienced project manager with strong leadership skills and knowledge, a cohesive team, a learning team with a common purpose is the key to the development of new technology that provides superior MP3 products developed by Barbata Electronics’.
Logistics of Vestas Energy Wind Turbines: Europe to USA Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Logistics of Vestas Energy Wind Turbines from Europe to USA
Methods of Transport
Innovative Ways to Ship Oversized Blades
Introduction Vestas Wind Systems transports wind turbines from Aarhus, the manufacturing location, to different markets including South Africa, Philippines, and United States. This massive logistical work requires high-level expertise and huge financial obligations.
Logistics refers to the processes of ensuring that a given product is taken from one location to another in order to bridge the gap between the suppliers and the firm, and that of the firm and the market. Murphy (2010) defines logistics as “A business planning framework for the management of material, service, information, and capital flows.
It includes the increasingly complex information, communication, and control systems required in today’s business environment”. The definition highlights a process involving management of resources, service, and communication. Additionally, it emphasizes the fact that logistics goes beyond the physical delivery of a product or raw material from one point to another. It also entails management of information.
Kreowski (2011), on the other hand, defines logistics as “The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient and effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements”.
This definition compares closely to that of Dyckhoff (2004), who defines logistics as, “The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient and cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of meeting customer requirements”.
These definitions clearly elaborate what should take place in a logistical process. This research paper focuses on the strategy that Vestas adopts to transport wind turbines from their place of manufacture in Aarhus, Denmark, to the market in United States of America.
Logistics of Vestas Energy Wind Turbines from Europe to USA Understanding logistics is paramount in the current competitive global market. Vestas is the largest manufacturer and distributor of wind turbines in the world. The company is known for its creative production of wind turbines that help in production of energy used for domestic and commercial purposes. The company has been very active in the European market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Europe was its primary market during its early days of expansion. However, the firm has expanded to other continents that look more lucrative. Currently, the main markets for this firm are the Chinese, the EU, and the United States.
These three regions have increased their dependency on the wind energy as a way of boosting usage of renewable energy in a sector that has received a lot of controversy, especially with environmental conservationists. The markets in the United States and China have been growing consistently.
In China, the main consumers have been organizational buyers such as the government and some large energy organizations. In the United States, however, the consumers are individual buyers who are interested in developing renewable energy in their homes or places of work as a way of protecting the environment from the effect of petroleum products.
The company ships turbines to USA. Once in the shoreline, the turbines are transported by road in a time-consuming and highly taxing adventure. Vestas has been planning to establish its own production units in its main markets in order to eliminate the complex and costly process of moving the turbines from Europe to the United States.
However, the firm has not developed its plants in the United States, and for this reason, it is forced to find a way of taking its products from the manufacturing plants in Aarhus, Denmark, to the American markets.
In this case, this firm has the responsibility of organizing its logistical processes that will ensure that its oversized wind turbines reach the American market safely and on time to meet the demand of customers.
The logistics unit must develop clear mechanisms through which the product can be delivered overseas on time and in the right shape. The company can achieve this as explained below.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Logistics of Vestas Energy Wind Turbines: Europe to USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Planning Process The first stage in logistics process is the planning process. Planning is very important when the management of Vestas is moving the large wind turbines from Aarhus to the United States. Planning process will involve a detailed definition of every activity that will be carried by relevant authorities in the process of delivering the product to the market.
Defining these activities helps in knowing how the whole process will be made a success. It also helps in identifying the costs involved, and the specific individuals that would be assigned various duties. When planning the logistics process, the team must understand the nature of the products that should be transported.
The management of this firm in the logistics department should understand that the shape and size of the turbines might not make it possible to use some of the normal equipments used in transporting other smaller turbines.
Containerization has become very crucial for any commodity that is to be transported to the oversea markets using ships. This is because of the ease of packaging them into the ship, security of the cargo while in the sea, and the ease of identification and offloading at the destination. The smaller turbines can be arranged into the containers with a lot of ease.
However, the larger turbines may require a new approach of packaging before they can be loaded into the ship for the purpose of transportation. This is what the logistics management should clearly plan for before the products can be released to the market.
The management should then decide on the right shipping company that would help in delivering the product from the manufacturing plant to the desired market. When making this decision, some of the factors that should be considered are the price charged by the logistics company, its record of accomplishment in delivering products on time and in good shape, and the ability to deliver the current cargo.
Vestas energy contracts the services of DHL as its fits the bill perfectly and the company has used its services for a long time and built some trust. This is because its services in transporting large turbines have been proven. This company has ships with Custom-designed barges, which have the capacity of transporting 100 complete 250-foot-tall turbines. This makes it the best solution for Vestas large wind turbines.
Documentation At Vestas, documentation plays a very important role in ensuring that cargo is transported and delivered timely in a desirable manner. The documentation would start at the planning stage. During the planning stage, the Vestas management documents all the agreed issues relating to the transportation of the products. One of the most imperative documents that Vestas prepares at the planning stage is the budget.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Logistics of Vestas Energy Wind Turbines: Europe to USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The budget clearly states the amount of money that the management is allocating to the transportation of the cargo. Vestas files the budget and factors it in when the firm sets the price of their products in the market. Upon choosing the right logistics company, Vestas management signs an agreement with this firm and documents the agreement.
The management should then have a document of the cargo that will be given to this logistics firm. The top management of DHL will sign the document, and Vestas will retain a copy. When the products reach the destination safely, both the relevant officials of Vestas and the shipping company signs a confirmation that the product has been delivered safely.
Vestas’ logistics department keeps these documents for filing the cost of shipping these products, and the effectiveness of the shipping company for possible future referrals.
Copies of these documents are availed to the finance and accounting departments to help in developing various books of accounts and for payment to the shipping company. This helps in improving accountability at every stage of product development until it is delivered to the consumers in the market.
Methods of Transport For a long time, transportation of wind turbines was easy because the turbines were smaller. However, this is not the case currently. The turbines are currently larger, demanding better transport methods. Selecting the best method of transport can be one of the biggest challenges for the management of Vestas, especially when the turbines are large. These turbines are not only bulky, but also heavy.
Hence, the only means of transport available is by sea. Vestas transports the using special ships from Aarhus in Denmark to the United States and other overseas destinations such as South Africa. The turbines are packed in special ships that are able to transport them from the manufacturing plant to the destination.
Vestas cannot transport these unusually large turbines using containers. For a long time, DHL has been the preferred logistics partner for Vestas in transporting the wind turbines to the American market. Despite the increased demand for turbines, Vestas partnership with DHL has been greatly symbiotic.
Vestas’ management organizes with DHL the packaging of its turbines in the ship and delivery plans. The ship also has a relatively high speed, which ensures that Vestas meets its time-bound demands. Therefore, the journey from Aarhus in Denmark to various destinations (including USA) takes a relatively short time than if the ordinary ships were used.
Additionally, DHL assumes the safety of the turbines’ because the custom-designed barges are specifically designed for this job. DHL ensures that the blades are safe from any possible damage that may be caused by constant physical handling.
The agreement that DHL enters into with Vestas transfers all handling of shipping logistics to the shipping company. The transfer of the responsibility of the products (in this case, wind turbines) can take place at different stages and with differing costs. For instance, the management of Vestas has the option to transfer the responsibility of shipping and all logistics to DHL while the wind turbines are within the premise of Vestas.
Another alternative for Vestas is to transport the wind turbines to the harbor and transfer all responsibility to the logistics firm. When the wind turbines reach the oversea destination, the management of Vestas decides to receive the products at the harbor or wait for the merchandise to be delivered to the premises of this firm overseas.
Vestas chooses between these two options for its global logistics network. Under normal circumstances, the best approach would be to transfer the responsibility of the products while they are still at the premise of the firm, and wait for the delivery in the premises of Vestas in the oversea market. However, this method is very costly, though it also helps in reducing the number of workforce that this firm would require.
In the USA case, Vestas employs the latter option. All the risks involved in the transportation of the turbines are also transferred to DHL. Given the fact that these logistics firms (including DHL) are always insured, any cases of destruction, loss due to accidents or criminal attacks would be fully compensated. This eliminates any possible loss that Vestas might incur if it were to bear such costs.
Innovative Ways to Ship Oversized Blades Large wind turbines present great complexity in transportation to the relevant market. Vestas develops innovative ways of shipping these oversized blades. There is ongoing research that seeks to come up with a sleek airship to help in the transportation of the oversized wind turbines. The airship has smooth curves of river stone that helps it glide easily in the air.
The airship is expected to sustain up to one thousand tons of the wind turbines in air. This would eliminate the need to use large trucks and ships to transport these turbines. This new strategy does not only reduce time and cost of transportation, but also reduces the carbon blue print that is always left when large trucks are used. These large turbines can be transported through other innovative ways.
Given the oversized blades of some of the newly developed turbines, the firm must come up with innovative ways of shipping them. This innovativeness can either be implemented during the manufacturing stage or when packaging the product. For instance, the firm currently develops blades that can be dismantled. The dismantled blades are easy to package in the containers and take lesser space.
Although the bolts bring extra costs, the structuring is helpful in eliminating the costs associated with wastage of space during shipment. It also eliminates the possible damage to the extra large blades. Alternatively, the innovation can be brought to the packaging stage. This requires specialized skills to ensure that the blades are packaged in a way that eliminates possible breakage and optimally uses the available space.
Ports Vestas enjoys a wide network across the globe. In UK, Denmark, and the whole of Europe, the Port of Sheerness and Esbjerg’s East Port handles the majority of the wind turbines. In USA, the turbines enter through the port of Vancouver.
The 2009 Census listed the port as leading in handling cargo related to wind energy. In Columbia and surrounding areas, Vestas uses Vancouver port exclusively as entry point. Vestas has leased Esbjerg’s East Port over a 25-year period for assembly and exit point for the turbines.
Conclusion Logistics is currently a crucial business function. To Vestas, it represents one of the costliest functions. Wind turbines, manufactured in Denmark and unusually large, present a complex logistical problem to the company. Through a sustained and beneficial partnership with DHL coupled with in-house innovativeness, Vestas has been able to overcome this hurdle and meet an ever-increasing global demand.
In USA, a production of turbines in Colorado has stalled leading to the need for shipping and subsequent road transport of wind turbines that takes months. The company is however, exploring new ways where the turbines will be transported via aircrafts specifically designed for the purpose.
Additionally, the company has already explored structural and design reconfiguration options where the turbines are assembled at destination after been manufactured in parts.
References Dyckhoff, H. (2004). Supply chain management and reverse logistics. Berlin: Springer.
Kreowski, H. (2011). Dynamics in Logistics: Second International Conference, LDIC 2009, Bremen, Germany, August 2009, Proceedings. Berlin: Springer.
Murphy, P. (2010). Contemporary logistics. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.
The Science of Behavior in Business Exploratory Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Performance Management
The Science of Behavior in Business
Introduction to Performance Feedback
Dealing with Unwanted Behavior
Training and Development in the Workplace
Performance Management Performance management refers to the process of ensuring that goals are met in a consistent, efficient and effective manner. It involves ensuring that the performance of a firm, a department, employees or the processes within the organization is running as efficient as would be expected. The world is increasingly getting competitive.
There are various competitive advantages that firms are trying to come up with to ensure that they are able to sustain the market competition. The only way that a firm can manage to be competitive in the market is to come up with performance management system. In managing employees, organizations have embraced performance contract.
The performance contract allows the management to ensure that the performance of employees is well managed. It allows the employer and the employee to agree on what should be achieved within a specific period, and how success will be measured.
The department can also sign a performance contract where they commit to complete a given task within a specific period. When an individual employee performs optimally, the entire department will be successful, and this success will be transferred to the entire firm.
Performance management has gained popularity in the current competitive market. Consumers are demanding for a consistent quality delivery for every item they purchase. This makes the firm feel the pressure to deliver this quality in a manner that will be satisfactory to these customers. For this reason, the management must have a system that would closely manage this performance in a manner that will give the desired result.
It is only through this that a firm can be sure to retain its customers. It is through this customer retention that a firm can be sure to maintain a competitive advantage in the market. This will help in assuring the firm of sustainability in the market.
The Science of Behavior in Business The science of behavior can be defined as a process of understanding the impact of behavior on the performance of a business, and how this behavior can be manipulated by a leader to help in achieving specific objectives. In the current dynamic world, leaders are under great pressure to achieve specific results through themselves and other employees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A leader will only be effective when he or she has the capacity to make others act in a manner that would help achieve specific results. A leader must be in a position to make employees feel that there is a strong urge to deliver in a manner that will not only be satisfactory to the management, but also other relevant stakeholders of the organization.
Actions of an individual will always be shaped by the behavior. An individual will approach an assigned task based on the behavioral pattern. For this reason, the only way through which a leader can ensure that employees work as expected is to influence their behavior. In a more practical term, such behavior can be influenced through developing a positive organizational culture within the organization.
By developing an organizational culture, a leader would be defining a universal behavioral approach that every individual within the organization must follow while working within the organization.
This will be a culture where everyone would feel obliged to follow despite some uniqueness the individual may have in his or her personality. This will help a leader manipulate the behavior of the followers in a way that would help achieve the desired result. This would be a recipe for success for the organization.
ABC Model ABC model is a behavioral strategy or technique used in understanding and managing of the behavior of followers. Emotions play an important part in defining the behavioral pattern of an individual. However, it is important to note that emotions may not be very helpful within an organization, especially when approaching some of the key activities within an organization.
It is a fact that emotion is not universal. What one feels emotionally, may not be the same as what the other may feel because of the difference in factors that motivate such emotions.
If left unchecked, emotion may make the behavioral pattern of employees within an organization as varied as their number. This may not yield the expected outcome because this behavior should always be predictable and focused on achieving specific result within a specified timeframe.
We will write a custom Essay on The Science of Behavior in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This model proposes a three-staged process of managing behavior of employees in a manner that will help yield the expected returns. It is always based on the premise that for every action there will be a process, and this will have some consequences. This tries to explain the cognitive process that takes place in the mind and ends up defining the behavior of a person.
The process starts in the mind when one starts by thinking that an individual, an organization or process is good or bad. The mind will then take a positive or negative approach. If a negative approach is taken, the mind will develop withdrawal mechanism. This will make the person hate the individual, the organization or process.
When a positive approach is taken, the person will develop corrective measures if the mind considered the process or organization is bad. If the mind consideration was good, there will be an encouragement.
The ultimate result of this positive approach is that there will be a closer and better relationship than before. In an organization, a leader should always strive to ensure that every individual takes a positive approach in managing the emotions within an organization.
Antecedents Antecedents refer to events which takes place prior to the behavior. These are the triggers that will influence the behavioral pattern of an individual. It is a common fact that behavior is always shaped by the events which takes place within the immediate environment. Human being by nature is reactive. Whenever something happens, it is natural that one would react.
The trigger will always make an individual react in a positive manner or otherwise. These trigger factors may include things that others say or do, the emotional state of mind, or the environmental factors.
These trigger factors should always be managed in order to ensure that they do not derail the focus of an individual. Many scholars have noted that the behavior of an individual can massively be affected by these triggers to the level where the behavior goes beyond control.
As a way of ensuring that employees work without the emotional stress, it is important to ensure that triggers are well managed before they can negatively affect the individual. One way of achieving this is to eliminate or minimize the triggers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Science of Behavior in Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another way may be to divert the attention of the individual from the triggers. If the person is already exposed to the trigger, then one should consider managing the impact of the trigger by ensuring that its impact are not massively felt by the individual.
Introduction to Performance Feedback Performance feedback refers to the process of communicating to the employees or junior officers on their performance. Performance feedback is the process of ultimately ensuring that the performance of employees is improved.
For every leader, there is a benchmark used to determine whether an employee is performing within the expectation. Employees will always perform above or below the benchmark. The leader must have a clear and conscious way of communicating with these employees. There must be a way of informing them that they are either underperforming or that their performance is within the expectations.
The leader should ensure that in both cases, the ultimate aim is to improve the performance of the employees, and not to discourage them. For the performers, the message should be congratulation as a way of motivating them. For the underperformers, the message should be clear that their performance is below the expectation, and must be improved if they wish to remain relevant to the organization.
Attaining Goals Attaining goals can be defined as the process of achieving specific objectives within a specified period of time. In every organization, there are specific goals that are always expected of every individual, department and the entire firm. These goals are set in a manner that will ensure that the organization’s overall success is achieved.
Attainment of the set goals is a complex process that requires leader’s commitment. An employee may not appreciate the need to achieve specific objectives within a specific time. However, the management knows how much these objectives means for the sustainability of the organization.
Attaining of goals will require the direct commitment of all the stakeholders within the organization to ensuring that success is achieved. Success is a process that involves consistent achievement of the set goals within an organization.
The management must be able to motivate employees towards achieving specific goals within a specified time, and in a manner that is within the expectation of the market served, and all the stakeholders of the organization. Goals will only be attained if the firm will be assured of sustainability in all its operations.
Dealing with Unwanted Behavior Unwanted behavior refers to some of the acts or attitudes of an individual that may be considered undesirable before the public. Dealing with unwanted behavior involves eliminating any negative attitude or behavioral pattern that may derail the expected success of a firm. Several researchers have reported that behavior may be acquired once one is exposed to it.
This means that when an individual has a behavior considered as unwanted, if the behavior is not dealt with appropriately, then it would be spread to other employees of the firm. A bad behavior is easy to spread, especially if it involves issues to do with corruption at work, laziness or total noncommittal to work. It takes a single corrupt deal to make other employees become corrupt within the firm.
It is therefore, very important to eliminate all the unwanted behavior within an organization as soon as it is identified. When the management realizes that an employee or a group of employees are engaged in unwanted behavior, action should be taken immediately to arrest the situation. The relevant authorities should approach the individuals with such behavior and inform them that their behavior is undesirable.
The management should define corrective measures that should be followed by everyone involved without any compromise. It should be clear to everyone that organizational culture should be adhered to strictly. It is through this that the management can eliminate the possible negative consequences that may arise from unwanted behavior.
Training and Development in the Workplace According to Biswas (2011), employees are the most important asset that any organization can always have. Employees will always determine success or failure of an organization. Working with well trained employees will always result into success for the firm. The world has become very dynamic. The emerging technologies are redefining various approaches of undertaking activities within the workplace.
As a result of this, the workplace has been experiencing a shift in the manner in which various activities are undertaken. For this reason, it has become very important for the employees to be trained while in the workplace. Training and development of the employees in the workplace is the ultimate way for a firm to achieve the desired success in the current competitive market.
Training employees at the workplace may be undertaken using various approaches. One of the most common approaches of training employees is through organized workshops. In these workshops are always organized by the management as a way of allowing employees to present to the management and to other employees the skills they have acquired for a specific period.
This can be done on a single employee basis, or on the basis of the departments involved. Other departments or employees will be expected to learn new better ways of approaching different activities that should be carried out within the firm. Another common way of training employees at the workplace is through the on-job training.
On-job training takes place when the management hires experts to undertake training on employees, especially when there is a new approach that should be learnt by the employees or when a new tool is delivered to a firm. The training would involve the trainers working alongside the trainees (Kezar
Corporate Governance Characteristics and Firm Performance Report essay help: essay help
The process of good management in an organization is called corporate governance. Corporate governance is the live wire of an organization (Acemoglu 1995). With the growing pressure on a firm’s competence, the director’s quest for the right approach to governance involves transparency, organizational culture and an effective governance scheme.
To balance investment strategies, with the aspirations of the entire stakeholder’s of the organization, the rules, procedures and processes must be managed and controlled. The management of these processes and controls are called corporate governance.
Previous literatures examined the processes of business organizations and their objectiveness in running daily transactions. This report will focus on variables that enhance performance in the organization. The fundamental variables are the owners and managers. Owners of industries hire capable managers to conduct the affairs on their behalf.
Each theoretical framework of corporate governance provides a platform for measurement. The cost of management increases when the owners employ quality hands to manage their investments. Sometimes, a clash of interests reduces the growth of the organization (Adams 2002). When managers tailor a firm’s investment strategy to his or her interest, it will encourage friction between the owners and the managers.
However, corporate governance can reduce the friction in corporate organizations thus, monitoring the performance of the organization (Roche 2005). This report x-rays the relationship between corporate governance characteristics and the firm’s performance. The relationship can be shown with a diagram:
This report correlates the impact of good governance on the firm’s stock value and the cost of auditing and management. The sample size was reduced to 20 UK firms thus, removing firms not documented in UK, firms without valid annual reports and financial firms in the UK. 20 firms were selected from the FSTE100 between 2004 and 2008. The variables of analysis were divided into dependent and independent variables.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The dependent variables include: Return of Equity (ROE), return on assets and the profit margin of the listed firms (Agrawal
Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents Creating and Developing Opportunities
Behaving as an Entrepreneurial Organization
Starbucks holds an enviable position among innovative companies. The coffee chain has an insatiable appetite for innovation. The company is willing to suffer some losses in the near-term to develop superior products in the long-term via incremental innovation. However, the willingness to suffer losses is not what makes the company outstanding.
The company’s wish to pay a high price in pursuit of innovation is what reflects its remarkable feature. This paper uses management tools and frameworks to explore the role that management practices play to support innovation.
Specifically, the paper evaluates how Starbucks creates and develops opportunities and how it manages innovation. In addition, the paper explores how this company behaves as an entrepreneurial organisation.
Creating and Developing Opportunities A number of studies that explore the capacity of entrepreneurs to create and develop opportunities exist. Ardichvili, Cardozo and Ray (2003) contend that entrepreneurs do not create opportunities but rather recognize the presence and emergence of opportunities.
In this sense, the authors propose that the main issue to investigate when studying the dynamics of business opportunities is the entrepreneurial capacity to develop, recognize, and evaluate them. In recent times, sustainability has become a major issue in entrepreneurship because of the concerns associated with the deteriorating global environment.
Research shows that entrepreneurs who are aware of environmental issues tend to identify and pursue business opportunities in ways that promote sustainable operations. They do not just look at the financial rewards that the opportunity will bring, but also the sustainable features of the business opportunity.
The five main factors that drive the process of recognizing and developing business opportunities are “entrepreneurial alertness, information asymmetry and prior knowledge, social networks, personality traits, and the nature of the business opportunity”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Entrepreneurial alertness refers to the ability of an entrepreneur to maintain a high level of awareness in regard to emerging opportunities. If an entrepreneur lacks entrepreneurial alertness, it is difficult for him/her to identify emergent opportunities. Information asymmetry and prior knowledge refer to the knowledgebase of an entrepreneur.
At organizational level, this quality is the basis for the emergence of concept of learning organizations. Knowledge makes it possible for entrepreneurs to recognize opportunities when they are still undefined. In addition, it spurs the capacity of the entrepreneur to make the decisions needed to transform a business opportunity into a business venture.
Social networks play a vital role in the process of recognizing and developing business opportunities because entrepreneurs often need information and resources not currently under their control to pursue business opportunities. It is normal for entrepreneurs to identify opportunities that they cannot develop unless they get assistance from their social network.
The personality traits of entrepreneurs also determine how they pursue business opportunities. While all entrepreneurs are risk takers, they have different degrees of risk tolerance. Companies like Starbucks have a greater appetite for risk compared to most of their competitors. This comes from the personalities of the leaders of the firm.
One personality issue that may influence the way an entrepreneur handles business opportunities is whether the given entrepreneur is an introvert or an extrovert. In this case, an extroverted entrepreneur has a larger social network to draw support from while an introverted entrepreneur has a smaller list of trusted allies.
It could be estimated that Starbucks loves risk as the company believes in the rapid deployment of ideas followed by careful analysis and improvement of the original idea over time. Companies such as Apple ensure that they have fully developed a product before they release it to the market. In fact, Apple takes a lot of care to keep its product development processes secret, until the release of specific products.
Starbucks sustains entrepreneurial alertness by maintaining a data collection system that gathers information from its employees and customers. Employees are asked to write to the company’s executives each time they feel that a given decision goes against the mission of the company.
We will write a custom Report on Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This also allows the company to attain information asymmetry because at any time, the company has more information regarding a specific issue affecting its business compared to its competitors. This enables the company to take advantage of the opportunities that arise in its favor.
Managing Innovation In the context of organisational innovation, the word that represents the activities of entrepreneurs is “intrapreneurship”. “Intrapreneurship” refers to the activities undertaken by individuals within organisations that promote innovation. These activities focus on internal opportunities or circumstances that demand changes in the operations of a given organization.
In this sense, innovation is not limited to the activities of individuals, but rather innovation can be the result of the activities of teams in an organisation. In cases where teams promote innovation, intrapreneurship refers to their collective activities that improve the services and products offered by the organisation. Innovation can take place at the “micro level, the meso level, and the macro level”.
At the micro level it refers to activities undertaken by the organisation internally to ensure that it improves its products and services. Innovation at the meso level refers to the industry specific elements of innovation covering the organisation’s supply chain and its immediate operating environment.
Macro level innovation results from opportunities that arise because of things that take place at a higher level, such as changes in legislative frameworks and the legal environment of the business.
Starbucks is adept at the management of innovation. The company has a strong culture of innovation, which is the backbone of its entrepreneurial model. Starbucks is using all available means to expand its footprint beyond the coffee sector. In fact, some people question whether coffee is just a Trojan horse in the Starbucks business model.
This question is valid, especially considering the portfolio of products that Starbucks is already offering, and the products that it is planning to launch. Starbucks is aware that innovation in the current business climate must go beyond the traditional aspects of innovation, which were quality control, cost cutting, and operational efficiency.
The first area of focus in the current paradigm of innovation is the reinvention of business processes. The second one is collaboration and integration within the firm, and the third one is the creation of new markets by meeting the emerging needs of customers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovation, Creativity, and Enterprise Management at Starbucks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The drivers of innovation at the macro level include the growth of e-commerce, and globalisation. One of the consequences of innovation using these new approaches is that companies find themselves with new competitors. When Starbucks started selling music, it found itself in direct competition with Apple. Apple, on the other hand, is not primarily a music retailer but a technology firm.
The Apple iTunes store was an innovative offshoot to support Apple’s iPod business. Starbucks, which is a coffee firm, finds itself in direct competition with Apple, which is a technology company, for a share of the music market.
Another illustration of the new philosophies of innovation at play in the Starbucks business model is the collaboration between Starbucks and PepsiCo to sell hot-on-demand coffee through vending machines. Starbucks specialises in selling different types of coffee products to its clients. On the other hand, PepsiCo has a large network of vending machines and has a lot of experience with vending technology.
Therefore, the innovative collaboration between these two firms led to the introduction of hot-on-demand coffee. PepsiCo owns the technology while Starbucks supplies the network with coffee. This way, the two companies are able to expand their footprint in the beverages market.
Behaving as an Entrepreneurial Organization Entrepreneurial organisations refer to firms that have an active philosophy, which encourages entrepreneurial behaviour in the firm. This dimension is very important in the current business climate because of the competitive nature of international trade. Organisational structures can be entrepreneurial or administrative. Entrepreneurial organisations are said to practice corporate entrepreneurship.
The difference between administrative and entrepreneurial organsations is the attitude of their top leadership to risk. Administrative organisations favour the pursuit of low risk opportunities for lower rewards. Entrepreneurial organisations, on the other hand, favour the pursuit of higher risk opportunities for higher rewards.
One of the key indicators of an entrepreneurial organisation is the ability to develop and deploy new products ahead of the competition. This calls for intense innovation and a solid risk philosophy. A company such as Apple thrives on the capacity to develop and release new products ahead of its competition.
It is very difficult to sustain this ability without having an entrepreneurial mindset across the organisation. In other words, a company that wants to use innovation as its source of competitive advantage must have an entrepreneurial culture.
An important aspect in the development of entrepreneurial organisations is that the top management of the firms must be entrepreneurial. It is impossible to develop an entrepreneurial organisation where the top managers are averse to risk, or have no entrepreneurial commitment.
At the same time, the organisation must be able to give middle level managers the ability to experiment with new systems, and to learn. Middle level managers represent the future of the organisation. If the entrepreneurial mindset exists only at the top, then the organisation cannot survive in the long-term.
Starbucks CEO, Howard Schultz is well known for his entrepreneurial traits. Schultz worked with Starbucks when it was a very small retail chain. He was on a visit to Italy where Italian coffee bars inspired him to develop a national coffee retail chain in America. When the management of Starbucks refused to buy into Schultz idea, he went on to open new coffee retail stores named “Il Giornale”, on his own.
Afterwards, Schultz entered into an agreement with Starbucks to buy the coffee company. He chose to retain the Starbucks as the name for his expanded company. This story illustrates that Starbucks has always been in the hands of a very entrepreneurial leader. As such, the company has retained its knack for creativity and innovation.
Starbucks behaves as an entrepreneurial organisation because it has a very innovative and risk tolerant CEO. The company is not always successful in all its endeavours. However, no effort goes to waste because the company usually builds on the lessons it learns from its entrepreneurial ventures.
The company is aggressive in seeking feedback. It seeks the opinion of its staff, and monitors the comments made online by its clients and competitors, which gives the company an advantage.
Risk Profile The activities of the company illustrate that it has a highly established entrepreneurial culture as well as a high level of risk tolerance. The organisation prefers to launch new products quickly before competitors can respond in contrast to many multinationals that prefer to refine new products before releasing them to the market.
In conclusion, Starbucks is adept at creating and developing business opportunities. It does this by maintaining a high appetite for risk. The company has developed a culture that tolerates its aggressive risk behavior and is also active in the pursuit of innovation in its operations.
Its model for managing innovation takes into account the modern approaches to innovation, which include collaboration with other businesses to create new markets. Finally, the organisation demonstrates tendencies of corporate entrepreneurship in its activities. The most compelling evidence of this is the personal profile of its CEO, Howard Schultz who supports corporate entrepreneurship as a serial innovator and entrepreneur.
Reference List Ardichvili, A, Cardozo, R
Training and Skills Development Programs vs. the Global Financial Crisis Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Unemployment is an occurrence witnessed when active individuals cannot find job opportunities. Conversely, prevalence of unemployment is accrued through poor economic development and high unskilled labour.
Unemployment is an acute problem especially during the recession periods when world economy collapsed however, there is a notable improvement through numerous interventions specifically, minimum wage laws, formation of personnel unions, and tax regimes. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the amount of income citizens of a country can amass in a financial year.
Economic growth is attributed to the increase and decline of gross domestic product. Expansion of the output of an economy influences economic growth under full employment of the population, which in return boosts employment rate.
Changes in business cycles cannot be used as determinants of economic growth. Business cycles, for instance, flourish and decline thus, does not determine the rate of economic growth rather, it affects aggregate demand (Schomburg and Ulrich 8).
The Level of education influences the rate of unemployment in an economy. Education bestows individuals with technical skills and expertise to engage in production activities. Employees are classified into skilled, non-skilled, and semi-skilled and one is remunerated according to experience and ability to produce goods and services with efficiency.
Employment categories are, for example, classical unemployment, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, and frictional unemployment. Most unemployed individuals fall in frictional and involuntary unemployment section whereby low wages and economic frictions obstruct them from engaging in productive labour force (Schomburg and Ulrich 21).
Sourced from the Bureau of labour statistics, Current population survey The graph shows the relationship between employment rate and level of education attained by individuals ranging from less than a high diploma to Doctorate qualification. Most educated employees accrue higher wages compared to individuals less educated. Lucrative job opportunities favour high educated persons because of experience and skill they bestow in service delivery.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Institutions of higher learning are prerequisite for the expansion of economy because high employment leads to reduction of poverty levels and dependence. The increase in gross domestic products is attributed to levels of education and employment.
Developed economies depend on educated individuals for invention and innovation in the economy. Education bestows individuals with skills and experience to manage and run businesses. Businesses are mainly geared towards profit maximization, therefore; education enables individuals adopt better ways of decision making.
Government relies on professionals in policy formulation that regulates economic growth, for instance, tax systems, labour remuneration, and equitable distribution of resources. In a stable economy, people with higher education have better paying jobs than those with poor education. Less than high school individuals have high levels of unemployment compared to individuals who studied above collage.
With high unemployment rates, gross domestic product declines due to high dependence on the economy. Most jobless people depend on the employed individuals to get basic human needs and this sacrifices the economic prosperity.
Government on the other hand, balance unemployment and economic growth through encouraging investment in the local economy and repatriating resources from the urban centers to rural areas to avoid rural-urban migrations that lead to an influx of idle population thus compromising security.
Chart 3 Unemployment rates of ages, by educational attainment level (2008- 2010)
Conclusion The chart in table 1-3 reveals the correlation in percentages between education, unemployment and economic growth. The analysis suggests a significant impact of educational attainment on the economic growth.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Training and Skills Development Programs vs. the Global Financial Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The investment in the educational sector influences the increase in educational attainment, consequently, affects the GDP of a country. Thus, there is a significant impact between education, employment rate and economic growth of a country.
Works Cited Schomburg, Harald, and Ulrich Teichler. Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Europe: Results of Graduate Surveys from Twelve Countries. Dordretcht: Springer, 2006. Print.
Apple case: company’s performance Case Study college admissions essay help
iPhones Apple has been among the leading companies in the sale of iPhones and smartphones. The company recorded the highest income by hitting a historic high of $705 following the late entry of the Steve Jobs into Apple Inc. as the chief executive officer. Apple has been leading in terms of innovation and technological development.
However, the company has registered low incomes over the recent past, causing alarm to the shareholders due to the decrease in profit margins. The price per earnings ratio has decreased drastically, thus prompting the management to start strategizing new business options to increase profitability.
One of the strategies that the company is planning to adopt is the manufacture of low cost iPhones. Currently, the net sales per iPhone unit sold are about $644.
There is a possibility that most people are not likely to afford the device, considering the recent economic recession. It is important to note that most of the people who buy these products are the young people, most of who do not have a stable income. Therefore, lowering the cost of iPhones would be a good step toward reviving the company’s business. The target net sales for an iPhone should be set at around $400.
The target price for a 16GB iPhone 3G should be at around $400. This will be affordable to most people. The amount of units sold will increase and revenue is likely to increase. Manufacturing target cost should be about $200, and the target gross profit will be $200.
The iPhone will have made a good profit that can increase the price per earnings ratio after the deduction of other expenses. People are not likely to afford expensive products with the economic environment today. In this regard, producing lower cost iPhones will boost the company’s performance.
Wearable Computers The use of wearable computers has increased over the last couple of years. Very many people today use these devices for various reasons. The wearable computers have a number of purposes that they can be used for. This makes the demand for them even higher.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The computers are mainly used by the media personnel and organizations that deal with the collection of intelligence information. These devices are, therefore, used in information technology as well as in the development of the media.
Apple Inc. has not been in the business of wearable computers despite the increasing demand for these devices. The company’s main business has been iPhones and other smartphones. There is the need for Apple to explore any market that has the ability to increase the company’s income in a bid to counter its decreasing performance. Wearable computers present this opportunity.
In fact, wearable computers are seen as the likely long term replacement for iPhones. It is important to be price sensitive in manufacturing the wearable computers. The current price of wearable computers is in the range of about $1,700. This is a cost that not many people are likely to afford, thus sales from the device are likely to be down.
Therefore, Apple Inc. should target a price that is much lower, like $1000- $1300, when producing wearable computers. Despite the fact that this is still a high cost, it will be much cheaper compared to the prices in the market at the moment.
The manufacturing cost of the device will be targeted at about $600- $800. The gross profit will, therefore, be about $400- $500. It will be assumed that the market for wearable computers will increase in the foreseeable future. The total revenue will, therefore, grow significantly in the next 10 years.
Current products and Technology to Drive Sales and Profits Sales for Apple’s current products have decreased, thus profitability has gone down in a manner that is worrying to the company’s stakeholders. Competition has increased as several other companies have come up and are capable of producing similar products and sell them at a lower cost.
Therefore, it is high time for the company to notice that the current technology might not be relied upon to generate revenue in the future. There is a need for more innovations and advancement of the current technology in order for the company to regain its competitive advantage.
We will write a custom Case Study on Apple case: company’s performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, reducing the price for current products and sticking with the current technology can be effective in increasing the level of sales in the recent future. For instance, it has been estimated that the production cost for iPhone will be about $200. Assuming that the same number of units produced last year will be produced this year, the total manufacturing cost will be $25,009,200.
Similarly, the total profits will be $11,588,200 assuming that the total expenses for this year will be the same as those for last year (gross profits – total expenses). It is important to note that this strategy is likely to be effective in the short run only. In this regard, there is the need to come up with a strategy that can increase the company’s profits in the long run. Wearable computers can be a viable plan for long term profitability.
Standards, models, and quality: Management Report a level english language essay help
Introduction Hinkle (2006, p. 6) describes a standard as a set of guidelines and best practices that can be used as a reference point in business management. The set of guidelines may be voluntary or mandatory.
A model is a set of components that helps users and developers to understand, analyze, improve or replace a process in a system. Models are sometimes integrated in an organization’s operation. It makes models to function in the same way as standards.
There are consensus, de jure, and de facto standards. Tatsumoto, Ogawa
Entrance and Expansion of KFC in China Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction The fast food industry has continuously posted growth for long, despite the various challenges that have bogged the global economy. Part of the growth has seen the industry players expand their markets and establish themselves as multinational companies. One such company that has registered growth and significant expansion is the Kentucky Fried Chicken, also known as KFC.
The American fast food store chain is ranked as the second largest globally in the industry after its main competitor, McDonald’s. KFC established its presence in different countries of the world in seeking to sustain further growth, including China. The Chinese market is considered as one of the fastest growing markets in the world.
The Chinese market boasts of a significant market size given that China is the most populated country in the world. This paper seeks to discuss the internationalization of KFC in general and make direct comparisons with its entry into China.
The paper will elaborate on the actual timing of the internationalization, the entry mode used by the company, as well as an exclusive evaluation of the company’s performance in both the Chinese and other international markets.
The Timing of KFC’s Internationalization According to Krug (419), the first international branch of KFC was opened in 1969 in Japan. The year 1969 was mainly chosen because the company was still in its early stages of growth and expansion.
In general, the fast food industry was less developed and there was limited thinking beyond national borders. Most players in the industry were concentrating on expanding to cover all the states in America in order to enhance their domestic market leadership.
It is prudent to point out that KFC became the first fast food chain of restaurants to go international by venturing outside the American market at the time. Any date earlier than 1969 would have proven to be less viable for KFC to internationalize because the company was yet to fully expand and cover the local American market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was need for all the players, including KFC, to concentrate more on building a stronger customer base in the domestic market given that the industry was also immature at the time. Additionally, by 1969 the American market was beginning to fully mature.
Most of the leading industry players, including McDonald’s, had established their presence in virtually all the parts of the USA as domestic competition stiffened. Time was rife for the companies to begin thinking of alternative markets other than the domestic market that was maturing.
Thus, KFC had to make an internationalization move in 1969 in order to take advantage of the foreign market before its American rivals could make the same move. There is an advantage that comes with firms exploiting new markets before their competitors do the same. It was obvious that the next move that the firms could make would be exploiting the international market since the domestic American market was maturing.
KFC’s move, therefore, was to act fast and open branches in foreign markets in order to capture the markets and seal them from possible competition from their domestic rivals in case they made similar moves and established branches in the same markets.
Other foreign markets that KFC entered immediately after its initial internationalization include England, Mexico, Hong Kong, and Australia among other countries. In the case of Australia, the market was rife at the time KFC ventured although it was largely untapped (ADU para 7). Only small-scale players, particularly Chinese restaurants, existed in the country towards the end of the 1960s (ADU para 3).
Thus, KFC’s decision to move into the market was aimed at filling the void that existed at the time. The company was hoping to introduce a variety of menus to provide the market with a richer alternative that lacked at the time of its entry.
The timing was perfect for KFC as the firm needed to act with haste in order to limit the chances of its domestic competitors, mainly McDonald’s, from venturing and establishing itself into the Australian market. Today, Australia serves as one of KFC’s biggest and profitable international markets.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Entrance and Expansion of KFC in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Mexican market, on the other hand, attracted KFC mainly because of its magnitude as well as the economic stance of the country. Mexico has a huge population that exceeds 90 million. This translates into a fairly lucrative market. Additionally, Mexico’s proximity to USA influenced the decision by the company to venture into the market and exploit its potential (Kelley para 30).
The Timing of KFC’s Entry into China KFC entered the Chinese market for the first time on November 12, 1987. KFC’s choice of 1987 as the appropriate date for entering China was influenced by the fact that China was undergoing political and economic reforms at the time. The Communist revolution began in China in the 1980s with the main objective of ensuring that the country created a convenient environment for economic growth.
China’s policy and system prior to the 1980’s did not allow for market competition, particularly from foreign firms. The economy was virtually closed and the government controlled a majority of companies and industries that existed then.
The communist revolution, however, succeeded to institute positive economic changes that have helped in putting China at its present position as one of the major economies in the world. The revolution came with the opening up of the economy to competition from outside. The Chinese government allowed privatization of most of the companies that it held and competition among various industries started showing.
The opening up of the economy to foreign firms saw some of the draconian rules that previously hindered foreign ownership of businesses being eliminated. The ruling political class promoted the idea of accessing overseas markets with the aim of borrowing technical know-how in order to spur growth.
Chinese authorities also allowed economic integration of their country, giving China a chance to seek membership in regional and global trade organizations.
Thus, the choice of 1987 by KFC to establish itself in the Chinese market was appropriate because it was at the opportune time when the reforms were taking place. There were hopes that it would eventually be possible for a foreign firm such as KFC to successfully operate in the market with the new reforms that were being undertaken.
The choice of the date was also most convenient for KFC because any delays would have seen its main competitors in the industry, particularly McDonald’s, take the opportunity to establish operations in the market ahead of KFC.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Entrance and Expansion of KFC in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is critical to note that while the Chinese authorities were undertaking the economic and industrial reforms, most American and other foreign firms from the developed world were waiting with a lot of optimism to launch into the market. The earlier these firms established themselves in the market the better the chances they created for themselves to lock out their competitors.
It was more difficult for the company to venture into this market compared to KFC’s entry into other international markets. While KFC succeeded to enter into other international markets earlier in the late 1960s, it was impossible for the firm to do the same in China.
The closed economic system that was pursued by China prior to the communist revolution of the 1980s made it difficult for any foreign firm to venture into the market. Even with the revolution and the eventual venture by KFC into the market in 1987, it was still difficult for the company to run its business in China with little interference from the authorities.
The Initial International Market for KFC KFC first launched its international business in Japan. It followed up its global expansion by establishing operations in other countries, including England, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Africa, as well as Australia and Mexico. These markets were specifically chosen because of various reasons as expounded below:
Sales Expansion Rapid growth in international tourism at the time of KFC’s expansion influenced the decision by the company to expand its operations and venture into international markets. Most countries had abolished trade and travel barriers and the global economy was flourishing at the time.
These conditions offered an opportunity for KFC to expand its operations into these countries. There was growing need for KFC to seek other markets in order to extend its business operations and growth as the domestic American market was maturing.
KFC’s main target as it expanded into the international arena was to serve the American citizens who either resided in these foreign countries or visited the countries for various reasons. Additionally, KFC was targeting the nationals of these countries to form a perfect market for its business.
These efforts were all aimed at expanding the company’s total sales. All these countries have stable economies that comprise of a significant middle class. KFC was targeting this growing middle class population because they are the leading consumers of fast foods (Yu 19).
Geographic Diversification KFC’s international expansion was to increase geographic diversification of the company (Yu 19). In particular, the choice of Japan, England, Australia, Mexico, and New Zealand, among the other countries was based on the economic upturn of these countries. This was strategically done to hedge the company against instances of economic downturn.
In other words, spreading its business in various countries helped KFC spread its investment risk and remain safer compared to a scenario where the company could have targeted a single country or two only. These countries offered KFC a better and safer business environment to sustain growth and expansion of the company with their steady economic stance.
Acquisition of Labor and Resource The American fast food industry, from where KFC originates, was much-advanced by the time the firm was executing its expansion program. In other words, the US fast food industry could not be compared to countries such as Japan, England, and Australia. Operations in the USA are relatively expensive because of its advanced status and high competition.
Operational costs such as wages, salaries, and rent rates for the fast food restaurants were higher in the US than in the other countries that KFC had identified for its expansion.
The internationalization move, thus, targeted to acquire cheaper labor as well as affordable resources in these countries (Yu 19). In turn, the reduced operation rates would enable KFC to improve its profit margin and enhance its competitive advantage over other rivals (Chu para 3).
Worldwide Brand Recognition There was need for KFC to internationalize in order to build a worldwide recognition of its brand (Yu 21). Firms were looking for opportunities to capture foreign markets in order to extend their dominance as competition intensified in the domestic American market.
In particular, countries such as Japan, England and Australia belong to the first world and are more likely to be visited by Americans and other people from across the world. Thus, these economies are critical in terms of launching global brand recognition.
China as the Choice of International Market The choice of China by KFC as the appropriate international market was because of various reasons, which include the following:
China has a lucrative market for fast foods owing to her large population size that currently exceeds the 1.34 billion mark. China is the world’s most populous country and its population size equally means that the market potential is lucrative. With a huge market, KFC’s main target of launching into the market was to make huge profits for the company and enabling the company to grow its global revenue base (Li-Yong 39).
China’s huge population also offers adequate cheap labor. There was cheap and readily available semi skilled labor in China that KFC was targeting to benefit from.
It is easier for the firm to make huge profits because its operation costs would significantly be reduced with the presence of cheap labor. Equally, this provides an opportunity for the company to enhance its competitive capabilities because it can afford to reduce its prices because of the low operation costs.
One evident feature about the Chinese market, and which mainly attracted the company to target its expansion towards the country, is the potential economic growth of the country (Li 1). It was only going to be a matter of time before China eventually stood out as one of the global economic superpowers with a massive market size and available labor.
KFC targeted to benefit from the anticipated economic boom that has seen a sharp increase in the country’s middle class society. It is prudent to point out that the middle class society has often turned out to be the greatest consumer of fast foods. Thus, as China continues to grow economically, its middle class population is also swelling in size. This phenomenon implies increasing demand for fast foods.
Western Culture Imitation
The Chinese people are notable for aping the western culture and the general way of life. This was among the main reasons that pushed KFC into developing interest in the Chinese market. KFC determined that it would be easier for the Chinese to adopt the practice because the young people in the western world find it fashionable to visit and dine in the fast food chain of restaurants.
KFC, therefore, focused its expansion program towards China knowing well that there would be little resistance on the part of the consumers. Often, food is a sensitive commodity to export internationally owing to variations in tastes and the general lifestyle of people. However, it was not going to be a challenge in the case of China to establish operations on the part of KFC because it would be an easy task to convert the consumers.
The country’s fast food market and industry was less developed at the time of KFC’s entrance into the Chinese market. Additionally, none of the leading American fast foods restaurants had established their operations in the country by 1987.
KFC, thus, targeted to utilize its experience and expertise in the industry to benefit from the market’s huge potential. The company was seeking to capitalize on the market such that it would be far ahead in the competition by the time its main competitors in the industry, mainly from the United States of America, thought of venturing into China.
The main reasons that attracted KFC into the Chinese market were the same common reasons that attracted the firm to other international markets. There are minimal differences between the main reasons for venturing into China and the reasons for venturing into England, Australia or Mexico.
International Market Entry Mode Japan
KFC launched its operations in Japan through a joint venture with Mitsuoishi Shoji Kaisha Ltd. Use of joint ventures was chosen in the case of the Japanese market because political considerations in the country only allowed such entry modes as the most feasible.
It was difficult for any foreign firms to get permission to operate in Japan if they attempted to enter the market on their own without collaborating with any local organization (Hill and Jones 269). It was, thus, only practicable for the company to adopt the joint venture mode of entry as it had no any other alternatives.
KFC used the franchising strategy to enter the English market. KFC issued up to 14 franchising licenses to launch its operations in the market. The choice of franchising in the case of England was influenced by the non-existent business barriers.
England created a free environment that allowed more investment from both local and foreign firms, unlike in the case of Japan where the government was limiting foreign firms from directly establishing their businesses. Franchising, in this case, became the best choice for KFC as it targeted to spread faster into the market.
It is also less costly to adopt a franchising mode of market entry because the company does not directly involve its capital in investing in assets, such as acquiring buildings for restaurants and hiring staff. Instead, the franchisees directly meet all the related costs (Alon and McKee 78).
KFC’s entry into the Hong Kong market took place in 1973 through a partnership deal. The partnership saw the firm open up 11 branches. However, business performance was poor and the company eventually closed shop in the market after two years (Phillips, Doole, and Lowe 263).
The choice of partnership as the appropriate market entry mode in Hong Kong was influenced by the social culture of the market. It was appropriate for KFC to use a local brand in Hong Kong to try to win the market effectively. A direct entry into the market by KFC would have most likely seen the market shun its services by considering it alien more than local food outlets.
KFC directly ventured into the market by building its own restaurants and managing them (Dixon 134). In essence, KFC established its wholly owned subsidiaries in Australia as opposed to using franchising or entering into joint ventures and partnerships.
This decision was chosen mainly because of the small cultural distance between Australia and the USA, which is KFC’s traditional home country. The fact that Australia did not have restrictive regulations against foreign business investments also influenced the choice of direct ownership over other alternatives.
KFC ventured into Mexico through direct ownership. This type of market entry mode was influenced by Mexico’s existing regulations at the time. The regulations did not protect patents, information, or technology that was transferred to franchises in Mexico. Additionally, Mexico did not allow royalties. This made it difficult for KFC to consider other alternatives of launching into the market.
China Entry Mode
KFC’s entry into the Chinese market was by way of joint ventures with local Chinese firms. The government of China chose its main joint partner in the initial instance of KFC’s entrance. KFC, therefore, entered China through a joint venture with the Government Poultry Department.
However, the joint venture faced challenges that eventually saw KFC adopt the Tourist Department as its main next partner in the venture. KFC also replicated the partnership with several other local firms to extend its grip on the local Chinese market.
The main reason for KFC’s choice of joint venture as the main entry mode into China was influenced by the strict government regulations that existed at the time.
The system that was in place required all foreign firms interested in operating in China to form joint ventures with the local firms before being allowed to operate in the market. In this regard, KFC’s choice of joint ventures was mandatory because the firm had no other alternatives from which to choose the entry mode.
Nonetheless, the ongoing economic reforms in China at the time eventually saw the government regulation requiring foreign firms to use joint ventures as an entry mode to the market removed. In the 1990s, it was no longer a mandatory requirement for foreign businesses to form joint ventures with local firms.
This prompted KFC to shift its entry mode. The firm bought out its partners and put to an end any further plans of entering into joint ventures. KFC settled on regular chain model as its perfect mode of entering China as it bought out the local partner firms.
This was mainly caused by the limited skills in management amongst the local population (Kogut 320). KFC also considered this option because it provided an avenue for the company to guard its secretive recipe closely.
The regular chain model was dropped in 1992 in favor of the franchise model. KFC had, however, to wait for about eight years before it could issue other franchising licenses. The initial franchising license failed to produce positive results and the company halted its franchising program until 2000 when it began issuing the licenses to franchisees.
Evaluation of the International Market Entry Modes Japan
The use of joint ventures to gain foothold of the Japanese market was the right option for KFC. A joint venture was the most appropriate entry mode to introduce KFC to the local market given the variations in cuisine types between the American and Japanese cultures.
Additionally, the existing government regulations would not have allowed for direct market entry for KFC. The initial joint venture plan eventually enabled KFC to gradually adopt the Japanese market and establish itself as one of the significant fast food chain of restaurants.
An alternative to the joint venture would have been the use of franchising. However, this would not have been very effective like the joint venture eventually turned out to be because it would have required the franchisees to adopt KFC’s standard menu.
This would have probably backfired given the difference in food tastes and choices between the Japanese and American cultures. Additionally, a franchise mode of market entry would have seen local Japanese restaurants rebrand into KFC colors. These colors would have been interpreted to mean foreign business.
The franchising mode of market entry that was applied in England was the most appropriate for this market. The American and English cultures are very close, including the language of use. Thus, franchising was the best model to apply in the case of England. It meant that there would be little resistance from the market in terms of viewing KFC restaurants as non-English and alien even as the franchisees adopted the KFC colors and logos.
A franchising mode of operation was the best choice for England because there were no regulatory restrictions in England barring foreign firms from exploring the domestic market as was the case in Japan. It allowed the firm to spread faster within the market by opening more branches. KFC gave out up to 14 franchise licenses in the initial instance, for example. This made KFC open 14 branches at a go.
A different entry mode, such as a joint venture, would not have been as effective as the use of franchising because it would not have necessarily allowed for the use of KFC brand and logo. The partner would probably have insisted on the continued use of the original brand colors and name. A joint venture would equally have been more expensive on the part of KFC compared to franchising.
Using a joint venture, depending on the agreement entered, would have forced KFC to make capital contributions towards its business operation in England. However, such costs are eliminated in the case of franchising because the franchisees take charge of some requirements, such as acquiring restaurant buildings, paying rents, as well as acquiring staff.
In other words, franchising mode of business enabled KFC to achieve faster results in the English market than would have been the case had the company opted for joint venture or direct market entry strategies. The main characteristics of the English market, including close cultural practices with America, and the lack of regulatory restrictions enhanced the overall performance of KFC in England further.
The strategy choice of using partnership as the entry mode for venturing into Hong Kong was the least appropriate option for KFC. It is worthy pointing out that the firm’s 11 branches that had opened up in the market for the first time in 1973 eventually shut down in 1975 after only two years in business. The companies failed to capture the Hong Kong market and continuously incurred losses, prompting the firm to shut down.
In particular, the use of partnership mainly failed to register the appropriate results because KFC never had the direct influence and decision power in the joint venture. Instead, the local partner took direct charge and controlled the joint venture. In other words, KFC did not have enough influence to determine the running of the business.
The best alternative that the company should have adopted in seeking to enter Hong Kong should have been use of franchising. This would have allowed the franchisees ample flexibility to adopt the KFC menu and other standard operations while integrating them with their own local practices and menu. A gradual introduction of KFC would have enabled the fast food chain of restaurants to establish itself strongly in the Hong Kong market.
This would have seen them promptly address any market challenges that could have arisen as a result of branding the KFC colors and logo because the franchising agreement allows the franchisees to run the business directly. Franchisees incur the overall loss in case the franchising venture collapses, and therefore they are more concerned about proper management as opposed to joint ventures.
The direct ownership entry mode that KFC applied as it launched into the Australian market was not the best choice. The best alternative should have involved franchising rather than direct investment given the minimal foreign investment restrictions on the part of the Australian authority.
With a franchising mode of entry, KFC would have spent less of its capital since it would not have required acquiring land and building up its own premises. Instead, the company would have relied on the input of its local franchisees to set up its market operations.
A direct venture also involves hiring workers and closely following on the management of the business to the ensure operations run accordingly. This is quite challenging given the business magnitude of KFC that straddles across all the continents in the world. A direct venture is also slower when it comes to expanding in order to cover the entire market. Australia is a large country that covers an expansive area of space.
It was impractical to expect the firm to cover a substantial area within a short time because direct investment involves spending a company’s own resources. However, using franchising would have seen the company establish more branches, thus covering a wider area of the market while spending less and requiring little time to achieve its objective.
The strategic choice of using direct business venture to launch into the Mexican market was the most appropriate for KFC. Mexico pursued a closed system of economy that basically did not offer protection to foreign firms at the time of KFC’s expansion into the country. There were no specific laws to protect royalties and such business agreements that would have made franchising or partnerships more viable.
Despite the fact that KFC’s only existing option for expanding into Mexico involved adopting the direct investment mode, this mode was less effective. This forced KFC to acquire its own assets, such as land, and build up its stores. KFC’s expansion into the market was definitely at a slow pace because of the expenses involved in buying land and setting up buildings.
The investment risks involved are also high given that the firm directly owns the assets it uses. The direct investment mode is also less appropriate because of the strong anti-Americanism sentiments that are largely common in Mexico (Kim 5). Most Mexicans do not feel attached to Americans, thus they are less likely to buy from KFC owned restaurants knowing very well that their revenues will go back to America.
Closely related to the anti-Americanism sentiments in Mexico is the fact that KFC owned restaurants stand a greater risk of being attacked by radical terror groups. This is a trend that has already been witnessed in the country, with an example being an incident in 1994 in which the radical anti-American groups attacked a McDonald’s restaurant (Kim 5).
Evaluation of the Entry Mode in China
The market entry mode of joint ventures was the most appropriate that KFC could use in its entry into the Chinese market. The Chinese feel proud about their local brands and do not easily embrace foreign brands. Thus, KFC was enjoying the advantage of integrating itself into the market by collaborating with a local firm (Chu para 4).
The joint venture was providing an appropriate cover to KFC, preventing it from being harshly received by the local market. Had KFC entered directly into the market, chances are that the market could have envisioned KFC as a purely foreign business and it could have easily been shunned in favor of the other local industry players.
The joint venture market entry mode was equally beneficial to KFC because it offered the right opportunity for KFC to study the market in advance. The local firms that entered into partnership with KFC had firsthand knowledge about the Chinese market and its characteristics. Their planning and operations were in line with what the local market preferred.
This was beneficial to KFC by virtue of the fact that the company would have been forced to spend significant resources and time studying the market and its characteristics had it entered directly into the market.
The joint ventures, therefore, helped KFC minimize its initial expenditure and, instead, use the funds in other important areas. KFC acquired strategic information and details about the main challenges of the market, the main competitors, and the general taste of the Chinese market when it comes to fast foods.
Joint ventures helped KFC deal with the aspect of hiring local employees with the right expertise to enable it launch its business successfully in the Chinese market. With the local partners that KFC collaborated with already having been players in the industry, KFC determined the appropriate labor force to employ in their business with ease.
These partners had already been existent in the business and they had a clear understanding of the right qualifications and skills that their workers needed before being employed. The local firm in the partnership already employed some of the workers. It was, therefore, easier to only convert them into becoming the employees of the venture.
It would not have been much easier for KFC being a foreign firm to easily acquire the right workers with the necessary expertise and experience had it ventured directly into the Chinese market. The aspect of language and culture would have posed the greatest challenge for KFC given that it is an American firm attempting to manage a Chinese workforce within the Chinese market.
The joint venture mode of entry into the Chinese market cushioned KFC against the high risk that comes with operating in a foreign market. Being a joint venture, both KFC and the local Chinese brand shared the business risk of their operations. In other words, KFC’s capital expenditure was halved, with its business partner meeting the other half.
Such an arrangement was less risky compared to one where KFC would have opted to launch its operations directly in the Chinese market. KFC would have been forced to acquire its own assets, such as strategically located buildings and renovating them to the needed standards of its restaurants. In some instances, it would have been forced to acquire land and put up its own business buildings that are more expensive and risky.
In the first instance when KFC initially entered into the Chinese market, it collaborated with the Government Poultry Department as its main partner in the local market. This was beneficial to KFC in terms of protecting the joint business from unfair regulations and business competition. It was more likely for foreign business firms to be treated unfairly by the government given the history of the Chinese government at the time.
The business conditions and environment that the foreign firms got into were not as favorable as was the case with the local firms. Joint ventures with local firms, therefore, allowed KFC to operate in a friendly business environment that provided the same conditions as other local businesses.
The joint operations involving KFC equally allowed the firm to make profits in the market because the government was interested in ensuring that the local firms became profitable.
Conclusion The Kentucky Fried Chicken, commonly referred to as KFC, first adopted internationalization of its business in 1969. The American fast food chain of restaurants launched its first international branch in Japan. It immediately followed the initial internationalization process by opening up other international branches in England, Australia, Hong Kong, New Zealand, as well as South Africa and Mexico.
The gradual pace at which the domestic American market was maturing mainly influenced the internationalization decision by KFC. Different international markets offered varying challenges to KFC’s operations
. The firm was restricted to partnering with a local brand in order to form a joint venture in Japan. This was occasioned by the government regulations that did not allow foreign firms to directly operate in the country.
KFC launched its operations through franchising in England. The regulations in England did not bar any such foreign firms from operating in the country. KFC ventured into China in 1987 through joint venture. The Chinese government strictly followed a closed economic system that barred foreign business enterprises from operating directly in the domestic market.
This strategy was the best for KFC, however, as it provided full protection of its business interests in the country. The company was forced to enter into a partnership with a government agency. This move directly limited business risks for KFC.
Works Cited ADU. Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) Comes to Australia. 2013. Web.
Alon, Ilan and McKee David. “Towards a Macro Environmental Model of International Franchising.” Multinational Business Review, 7.1 (1999): 76-82. Print.
Chu, Frank. Case Analysis: Kentucky Fried Chicken and the Global Fast-Food. 2003, March 3. Web.
Dixon, Jane. The Changing Chicken: Chooks, Cooks and Culinary Culture. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press Ltd, 2002. Print.
Hill, Charles and Jones Gareth. Strategic Management – Theory: An Integrated Approach. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Kelley, Keith. Kentucky Fried Chicken. n.d. Web.
Kogut, Bruce. “Joint Ventures: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives.” Strategic Management Journal, 9.4 (1998): 319-332. Print.
Li, Jonsson. Investing in China: The Emerging Venture Capital Industry. London: GMB Publishing, 2005. Print.
Li-Yong, Jonathan. Doing Business with China. London: GMB Publishing, 2005. Print.
Phillips, Chris, Doole Isobel and Lowe Robin. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development, and Implementation. Routledge. New York, NY. 1994. Print.
Yu, Lawrence. The International Hospitality Business: Management and Operations. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Hospitality Press, 1999. Print.
Analysis of experience: Clifford and Chance Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Motivation and organisational culture
Components of organizational culture
Employee motivation and its relation to culture
Introduction Organisations consist of different individuals that deal with disparate aspects that institutions require in order to increase profitability and ensure the smooth running of operations. In order to ensure there is order in the performance of every day tasks, most institutions set up an administrative hierarchy.
The essence of the hierarchy is to facilitate a concise flow of commands from the top management to the lowest ranking employees and accountability and responsibility by every individual. However, certain issues arise regarding the execution of commands and the effects they have on the organisation.
For instance, leaders have to ensure the fulfilment of a company’s goals through their actions at the work place and their formulae for decision-making and governance. Employees play their part in the productivity of a company by ensuring that their work is of high quality and that it is done in time and in accordance with the leaders’ instructions.
This essay looks at issues regarding organisational culture, motivation, and teamwork coupled with the importance that each of these aspects bears in an organisation in relation to success and fulfilment of company goals.
It explains some of the theories that contribute to these subjects and looks at the practical implications of these theories in relation to the every day operations of a company using Clifford Chance, a law firm based in London, as a case study.
Motivation and organisational culture According to Friedman (2002), it is the moral obligation of every business to make profits. Various individuals working at a company in their different capacities thus have to ensure that their roles contribute to the overall productivity of the company.
The task of ensuring that the company’s productivity remains high without compromising on the welfare of the employees and the organisation’s culture lies with the manager and at times this task may prove to be complex. One of the difficulties that the situation creates is the formulation of a form of balance between the three elements (Montana
Leadership and Political Behaviour in Organisations Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Integration of leadership within CCIF CPA Limited
Political behaviour in the organisation
Conclusion and recommendation
Introduction Organisational leadership is an essential component in the long term survival of firms. Leadership refers to the process of influencing other peoples’ behaviours (McColl-Kennedy
Concepts of Components Theory Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Conceptual components of theory
How the components are observed and measured in practice
How the theory has evolved based on the testing of the concepts
Introduction Concepts are important in any research study. They are utilized to develop nursing theories. In essence, nursing theories originate from concepts. To achieve theory development, concepts must be defined. Additionally, they must be refined to establish connection with the theory. This paper will explore conceptual components of theory.
Conceptual components of theory Components form the blocks for theory construction. Besides, concepts create hypothesis. Hypothesis is usually accepted through use of concepts. Any theory can only be understood if its concepts are clearly outlined or if those expected to understand it are well conversant with the concepts. In essence, there can be no theory without concepts. Concepts make the building blocks of nursing theories (Rushing, 2008, pp. 198-210).
How the components are observed and measured in practice Components of nursing theories can be observed and measured through research studies. Moreover, since most concepts are usually accepted, they are observed based on accepted rules for observation. They are also measured based on agreed procedures. In essence, assumptions are usually made on ways of observation and measurements.
Nursing theory has numerous concepts. Among which are four main ones namely health, patient, environment and nursing roles/goals and functions. Middle range theories such as Johnson’s theory of sensation have utilized a number of nursing concepts. This can be observed through the patient’s behavior, nursing goals, health and environment of nursing (Veo, 2010, pp.17-22).
For instance, the theory of sensation states that inconsistencies between what is experienced and expected in physical sensation usually result in distress. This can be observed through seeing, tasting, smelling and hearing. In essence, Johnson argues that when one is prepared to face surgery prior to the event, this reduces anxiety and thus increases his ability to cooperate fully throughout the procedure.
It is also necessary to note that concepts are usually defined by measuring operation utilized. For instance, health can be measured by body mass index. Secondly, nursing can be measured through functions or roles. It is necessary to note that some concepts can only be measured indirectly using indicators.
How the theory has evolved based on the testing of the concepts The theory of sensation has evolved over time. This has spanned through different theorists including psychologists. Scientific theories change whenever new findings come up. This usually happens when new findings faults old ideas. In the process, new interpretations are usually presented on old data. Sensation has evolved over time due to change in personality constructs/concepts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, interaction with the environment has also led to behavioral changes. Modernized technologies have also led to advanced ways of measuring sensation. This has led to significant changes in concepts of the theory of sensation. In essence, when methods of observation and measuring of concepts change, it is probable that concepts also change to give new interpretations.
Testing of concepts over time change with advent of new technologies and ideas. Validity of constructs is usually based on research and theory. Nursing theories are developed by defining and redefining concepts based on research. This evolves based on new constructs (Wills
International Monetary Fund Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The promotion of global monetary cooperation
Stability of the country’s financial standing
The increase in international trade
Advancing economic growth and high employment rate
Reduce the need and poverty around the world
Introduction The economies of most countries were affected badly and left in a struggling state after the World War II. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was initiated in the year 1944 and then formally established in the year 1945. Initially, the organization consisted of only 29 countries (De, 2011). The major objective of the IMF was to help in reconstructing the economies of the nations that were badly affected by the war.
Countries that had economic imbalances would borrow money from the fund and repay over an agreed period. It is normal that nations suffer in terms of economic, political, as well as social well-being after war. War is expensive to nations that participate in it.
A country that is not strong economically will suffer more compared to nations that are economically stable in the event of war. It becomes difficult for economically weak countries to finance their activities post-war due to the effects they suffer during war. To revive their economies, such nations depend on loans and grants from international organizations (De, 2011).
The International Monetary Fund not only assists countries that are affected by war, but it also gives loans to nations whose economic difficulties are as a result of any other reason. It is imperative to note that the number of member nations has grown from 29 in the year 1948 to about 188 countries today. All these member nations are also members of the United Nations, apart from the Republic of Kosovo.
The IMF has helped in increasing the stability of nations. The IMF has also been instrumental in the development of international trade. International trade has become of more importance since it facilitates globalization over the past couple of decades.
In addition, the IMF has helped in the reduction of poverty across the world, as well as reducing the rate of unemployment. This research paper will focus on the ways in which the International Monetary Fund helped in reviving the world economy following the 2nd World War.
The promotion of global monetary cooperation One of the reasons why the IMF was created was to promote the global monetary corporation. The IMF is an international body that helps nations that have trade imbalances. Promoting monetary cooperation with the IMF was to be done via an institution where countries would make consultation, as well as collaborations regarding the international monetary problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a forum where nations would bring their monetary problems to the set institutions. They would then explain the problems and later get advice on how to deal with them. Since the institutions were open to various countries who were members of the IMF, it provided the chance for countries to meet with other countries which they would collaborate with in order to find solutions to their problems (Lazarus, 2002).
It is important to note that there was no monetary cooperation between nations prior to the mid-20th century. In addition, there was no economic cooperation. This changed in the 1940s when the IMF was founded. When the organization was formed, it established a mechanism that would encourage cooperation between nations. The mechanism that it established was a permanent one.
The IMF believed that if nations worked in cooperation, they would increase their chances of succeeding both financially and economically. This was the philosophy behind the formation of these cooperation mechanisms. There were many restrictions that existed between countries before the organization was formed, thus making it difficult for them to trade among themselves and even cooperate in any economic activities.
Exchange of currencies was difficult, making it difficult for nations to make payments for goods and services within the required time. This was a barrier to economic development since it made trade difficult (Griesgraber, 2009). Encouraging cooperation between nations was effective in that it brought ‘economic miracles’ to nations. Member nations of the IMF were able to meet the problems that barred cooperation between them.
The developing nations and the developed nations were integrated into the global economy in order to help them deal with some of the problems that they were facing. For instance, when the nations were integrated into the global economy, they were able to deal with the debt crisis that existed in the 1980s. In addition, communist economies were encouraged and the economic crises in the 1990s were dealt with effectively.
This was one of the initiatives that led to the development of globalization. It is important to note that globalization started in the 20th century, around the same time when the IMF was formed and following the end of the 2nd World War.
It is, therefore, an indication that the efforts by the IMF to form cooperation mechanisms that eliminated barriers between nations was one factor that led to the development of globalization. Globalization is a major factor in the growth of the national economy in today’s economic world. Organizations such as multinationals are formed through globalization (Haynes, 2012).
We will write a custom Research Paper on International Monetary Fund specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These are organizations that generate a lot of revenue to the economy and they are effective in the economic development of nations. It is due to globalization that most technologies have developed today.
Innovations have also increased, making trade to develop and become of much significance in the growth of national, as well as global economies. Therefore the IMF helped in reconstructing the economy of the globe after the World War II through the promotion of global monetary cooperation.
Stability of the country’s financial standing The IMF was also instrumental in promoting the financial standing of nations. There were countries that were facing difficulties in terms of finance in the early 20th century, while others were financially stable. This created imbalances in the world economy, a factor that IMF was determined to address. One of the ways in which IMF addressed this issue is that it collected money from the nations.
This is where nations would contribute through a quota system to a pool of money. Countries that contributed to this pool of money were mainly those nations that had some stability in their economies. Countries that were facing payment imbalances would then borrow from this fund and were expected to repay it over an agreed period of time.
When a country borrowed the money, it would meet most of its financial obligations and improve the payment imbalances to increase its financial stability. In addition, lending countries money would help them establish corrective measures that would help them avoid any abnormal changes on external imbalances (Fritz-Krockow, Ramlogan
International Business – McDonald’s Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Executive Summary The study explores international business although it specifically deals with expansion. In fact, the research report focuses on the entry strategies and the success of franchising in spite of the stiff global competition particularly in the fast-food industry. The report examines McDonald’s international expansion and the concept of franchising.
However, the mode of entry into the international market and growth by the company examined in this study disagree with the idea that the company’s expansion was due to saturation in the existing markets. The study reveals that the expansion of the company was largely due to the desire to increase profitability as well as the emergence of opportunities to expand its market.
The study examines the hurdles faced by the company when trying to internationalize its operations and the strategies used to overcome such hurdles. The study concludes with recommendations for the company to increase its market presence and profitability internationally.
Introduction Different bodies of literature explore the international businesses in the context of company expansion beyond the domestic borders. The subject of timing and style of entry have also been at the center of these discussions. Theories suggest that companies ought to follow constructive and worthy projects wherever and whenever they arise (Lafontaine
Wal-Mart’s Challenges in Global Expansion Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Chances of Wal-Mart success in Asia
The state set of laws
Introduction Wal-Mart is the leading global retailer. It started its operations with nine nations in South America, Asia, and Europe. Currently, the company is conducting its global trade across 27 countries. In fact, its revenue was in excess of USD$400 billion for the fiscal 2012.
The expansion has prepared the company for entry into other new markets. However, globalization is continually attracting an array of investors into the retail market industry. Surprisingly, many renowned retailers have failed in particular global markets sighting varied reasons. Usually, the reasons include legal, regulatory, cultural and competition.
The company has been experiencing significant challenges in expanding its operations in Asia, specifically in China and India. This attributed to part of the many business and cultural challenges a global company can face when attempting to expand operations into a foreign country.
This study explores Wal-Mart global expansion and the challenges it faces in this endeavor. The research also examines whether the company is likely to succeed to penetrate the Asian market with the retail model it uses in the United States market.
Expansion Wal-Mart is the largest retail company in the United States. In fact, the financial endowment of the company is recognized globally. It is within the beliefs of the company that it will expand globally with revenues rising above that of the US market (Molin 2004, p.1). Armed with the belief, the company has been exploring different markets including the Asian retail market.
However, the company seems to have failed to appreciate that success in one country does not guarantee similar success in another. The reality forced the company to open the International Division within its organizational structure. The department was charged with managing the international growth opportunities.
Primarily, the division was founded to create a fallback position for the company in case the US market slowed down. The division has facilitated the global penetration by the company in the emerging and existing markets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The division has ensured that the company acquires a share in prime markets such as China. The stores the company operates are not all newly established. Some are attained through joint ventures as well as acquisitions.
In Asia, the company opened its first store in China in 1996 by establishing Sam’s Club and a supercenter in Shenzhen (Spulber 2007, p.14). At this time, the company boasted that it had entered the hub of retail market referring to Shenzhen as “the forerunner of the country’s financial reform and top growing coastal metropolis.” The company has ever since expanded to other Asian cities.
The increase in the number of outlets in the Asian countries has been in the company’s strategic plan. The company top management has consistently informed the world on the importance of the company’s expansion plans in the international market.
They indicate that in the future, more than a third of the company’s growth shall originate from outside the saturating US market (Jones 1998, p.1). The international expansion by Wal-Mart is hence a long-term goal for developing the dominance in the global retail market.
Expansion Problems There are many challenges that face the company in the expansion effort ranging from government regulations to culture and competition. The company faces external as well as internal problems. The external problems are amplified in the company’s expansion efforts. Internal problems entail the company viewing itself as unbeatable via competition hence ignore smaller competitors as was the case with Wal-Mart in India.
The company ignored small traders operating roadside stores. The management later realized that gaining market share held by the small traders was a huge challenge. The small traders enjoy the support of the local community who detest western companies.
Chances of Wal-Mart success in Asia Wal-Mart uses the growth short cut of joint ventures as well as acquisition in Asia. The approach is employed since most government authorities are aware of the problems the company is likely to present when given express autonomy to operate in their countries.
We will write a custom Essay on Wal-Mart’s Challenges in Global Expansion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has previously been accused of low wages, gender discrimination, being strict with suppliers, and destroying small local business due to its financial endowment. In this regard, countries such as India and South Korea ensure that they have strict regulations that discourage foreign investors such as Wal-Mart.
The perception regarding Wal-Mart is likely to affect its operations in Asia. The company is viewed as a representation of the western governments and ideologies seeking to modify the eastern culture. Unless the company reevaluates its international expansion strategy, it will not be easy for the company to succeed in the Asian market.
Cultural Differences The international business arena is always plagued by cultural difference challenges. This is one of Wal-Mart’s biggest hurdles in its attempt to globalize. In the Asian market, the local communities meet the company with resistance. To start with, the company is seen as encroaching and grabbing the business opportunities for the local smaller traders (Basker 2005a, p. 176).
In some cases, the local business communities pressurize the authorities to deny the company the permit to operate. The communities seek to protect their interests by dragging in the community. The difference in culture is also a factor that the company has to contend with when attempting to open new stores in the Asian retail market.
Wal-Mart’s International Division is responsible for conducting research in the prospective markets. It has been successful in this front. However, it has failed to establish the consumer preferences that are driven by culture in some markets such as a majority of the Asian countries.
The company has various conflicts with clients forcing it to approve amendments that will not see it shut down its stores. In the Asian context, Wal-Mart faced challenges upon its entry into China. Small-scale traders with the owner as the attendant typically sell retail items similar to those stocked by Wal-Mart. The locals are familiar with the owner and interact freely.
These stores are usually packed, noisy, and dirty. However, they are operating at low prices. When Wal-Mart attempted to introduce the concept of hypermarket, offering clean outlets, well spaced, and sales for the people to attend to the customers, the consumers felt uneasy.
They were accustomed to doing their shopping in absolute privacy where they only dealt with the owner one person at a time. Wal-Mart’s approach required the consumers to alter the shopping and purchasing habits and anticipations when buying goods from the stores.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wal-Mart’s Challenges in Global Expansion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In India, social relationships play a central role in financial deals (Padmanabhan 2012, p. 1). Even with globalization, this aspect still holds in the India communities. However, Wal-Mart has gradually changed the attitude of the community towards westernization. It has managed to capture a significant customer base. Amazingly, the small traditional shops that mark India’s waysides still exist (Kalhan 2007, p. 2065).
They continue to control the retail market. In fact, it has been suggested by researchers that these roadside stores will continue dominating and control 85 percent of the domestic market (The Economist 2008, p. 1). The roadside shops may be a little larger than a cabinet but the local consumers prefer them. It is suggested that this occurred due to the poverty that pushes the locals.
The locals establish personal relationships with the storeowners so that they may obtain goods on credit when they do not have cash. Since the disposable income levels may not grow in the near future, Hanna (2004) suggests that the large retail companies should abandon their contemporary strategies. The chains should target at becoming the neighborhood store (Hanna 2004, p. 1).
The state set of laws When conducting global trade, it becomes inevitable to take care of the state policies. In the US, Wal-Mart is a powerful investor. However, in other countries, it is just an overseas investor seeking to exploit the financial and human resources of the country. This challenge became apparent when the company entered China. The country is densely populated with a potentially large market with more than 170 metropolises.
The company sought to exploit the market (Jia 2008, p.1265). However, the stringent and restrictive regulations of the Communist government curtailed the company’s endeavors. The Chinese government boxed the company to certain counties to rein in competition. The company is yet to open an outlet in a thriving city (Groeber 2002, p.1).
The federal law of India prohibits global retailers from directly investing into the Indian economy. Wal-Mart has been a victim of the regulations forcing it to enter the huge market through joint ventures. The Indian government is relatively young in terms of policy infrastructure. The community norms are deeply embedded onto the society’s mindset.
The policymakers who are the investors possess substantial influence in the decision-making processes. They easily guide the creation of legislations. Since they are the owners of the small trade stores, they ensure that the perceived notion of encroachment on business by international companies seeps through the government structures.
Conclusion This study has explored the internationalization of business in the increasingly competitive global economy. In order to explore the success and challenges in the global business arena, this study has examined the operations of Wal-Mart in different countries to establish the challenges that companies are likely to face while going abroad.
It is apparent that companies willing to go global must be prepared to deal with governments in terms of regulations, as well as communities in terms of culture and other players such as competitors in the local business industry. Besides, it is evident that foreign countries aiming to invest in Asia face stiffer challenges than those faced by companies aiming to invest in other global locations.
References Basker, E 2005a, “Job creation or destruction? Labor market effects of Wal-Mart expansion”, Review of Economic Statistics, vol. 87 no. 1, pp. 174–183.
Groeber, J 2002, “A new frontier”, National Real Estate Investor, vol. 44 no. 11. Web.
Hanna, J 2004, Ground-floor opportunities for retail in India, Harvard Business School: Working Knowledge. Web.
Jia, P 2008, “What happens when Wal-Mart comes to town: an empirical analysis of the discount retailing industry”, Econometrica, vol.76 no.6, pp. 1263–1316.
Jones, Y 1998, “The biggest of the big”, Forbes 500s Annual Directory. Web.
Kalhan, A 2007, “Impact of malls on small shops and hawkers”, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 42 no. 22, pp. 2063–2066.
Molin, D 2004, A bullish Wal-Mart: targeting new countries, smaller formats. Web.
Padmanabhan, M 2012, Wal-Mart’s struggles in India: how institutional contexts can limit foreign entry. Web.
Spulber, D 2007, Global competitive strategy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
The Economist 2008, Unshackling the chain stores. Web.
Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China Exploratory Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Nigeria
Management in the global scene is usually a challenge due to the various cultures that are found around the world. It is for this reason that managers of global organizations find it difficult to manage since they have to understand each of the various cultures, beliefs, and leadership styles.
It is important to note that cultural differences affect communication. George, Owoyemi and Onakala (2012) indicate that an organization that has a poor communication system will always find it difficult to succeed.
Nigeria’s culture is different from that of America. In addition, the two countries have different cultures from that of China. As a result, the three nations have varying management and leadership styles. A manager of a multinational organization that has operations in any of the three nations is, therefore, supposed to have cross-national management knowledge and skills.
Hofstede explained that culture is a collective programming of the mind (Tang, 2012). Therefore, the programs of the mind affect the way people think, the way they feel, as well as the way they do things (Lijun, 2008). One is required to unlearn his or her programs before learning other cultures, a process that Hofstede says that it is more difficult than learning.
Hur, Strickland and Dragan (2010) opine that someone from a given culture will be required to unlearn their culture before learning a new culture.
In other words, a manager from Nigeria will be required to unlearn the Nigerian culture before learning the American culture or the Chinese culture to manage effectively in any of these two nations. It is the same case for an American manager or a Chinese manager aspiring to manage outside their mother country.
Nigeria Leaders of organizations have to work in an environment that is highly unpredictable in Nigeria. George, Owoyemi and Onakala (2012) indicate that the economic environment in Nigeria is unpredictable. This is the same with political, as well as social environments. According to Bayode (2008), organizational leaders in Nigeria especially in the private sector face a lot of challenges.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the challenges he has cited in his article are dilemmas, such as killings and unceremonious removal from office happening in various organizations. The market structure is said to be bad, just like the educational system is. The economic challenges make it difficult for parents to take their children to school.
These, among other challenges that the leaders of Nigerian organization face in their career, make it difficult for them to utilize their full potential (Epelle, 2011). Consequently, it makes it difficult for them to stir economic growth and development.
If people in a country are not well educated, then organizations might not have enough human resource that can help them in their development because human resource is one of the most important assets in an organization (George, Owoyemi and Onakala, 2012).
The most common factor that relates to the differences in leadership styles in America, Nigeria and China is cultural variations. For instance, Nigeria has a high score on power distance. Decision making is centralized and only the top managers have the authority to make decisions.
Orders are given by the top managers and executives, and the rest of the organization members are expected to follow. It is important to note that most of the African nations are said to have a high power distance, and Nigeria is not an exception (Ogbonna, 2010).
Considering the dimension of individualism and collectiveness, collectiveness is more accepted in Nigeria than individualism. The leader of an organization should view issues from a group perspective. According to Medugu, Majid and Choji (2008), interests of a group are prioritized in Nigeria, just like it is in China.
Further, Nigeria is considered to be a masculine society. People are expected to work and managers are expected to make assertive decisions. There is a lot of emphasis on equity as well as performance and competition in Nigeria.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Uncertainty avoidance is another factor that determines leadership in a country. Nigeria is a nation that has high uncertainty avoidance.
As Madichie, Nkamnebe and Idemobi (2008) say, Nigerians prefer to have stability and try as much as possible to avoid changes that are likely to have unknown effects on organizations or the economy. Finally, Nigeria scores high in terms of long term orientation, meaning that leadership is based on the national traditions (Ogbonna, 2010).
America Kolko, Neumark and Mejia (2013) indicate that the socio-economic environment in America is relatively stable compared to that of Nigeria. This makes it easier for a manager in an American organization since they do not face a lot of such challenges in their management. Most people in the US are educated since parents have money to take their children to school (Kolko, Neumark and Mejia, 2013).
This means that there is skilled human resource for organizations. In this regard, the potential of success for organizations is relatively high compared to the one in Nigeria (Elele and Fields, 2010). Therefore, leading organizations in the US is not as challenging as leading in Nigeria.
Considering power distance, American organizations have leadership that is more decentralized. Lijun (2008) indicates that power distance is low in that the distance between the employees and managers is small. Employees are given the chance to contribute in decision making. The level of equality between members of the organization is high. In addition, power is distributed equally among managers and the rest of the employees.
Another cultural factor that can be considered to have an effect on leadership in the three countries is individualism and collectivism. According to Lijun (2008), individualism is highly favoured in the United States. Despite the fact that team work is seen as important for the success of organizations, it is not considered to be very significant in the US organizations. Instead, individual interests are given priority.
A manager in the USA should be aware of masculinity and femininity differences in Nigeria and China in order to manage the subsidiaries effectively. As Usunier (2010) states, gender is not considered as a big issue in leadership in the United States. Ambitions and goals fostered by women are highly recognized in the US as opposed to China where it is hard to find a woman in a top position in an organization.
It is also important for a manager to consider long-term orientation of the nation in which they are managing. There are cultures whose investment focuses on long-term results, while others focus on short-term results. According to Dong and Liu (2010), America is considered to score highly on short-term orientation. This means that the US does not have a lot of value for traditions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership Styles in Nigeria, America and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, it is important for managers to consider the uncertainty avoidance of each of the countries in which their organization has subsidiaries. This will help the manager to make the right and relevant adjustments in order to manage effectively. America is one of those nations that have low uncertainty avoidance.
Dong and Liu (2010) opine that America is open to change and people do not worry much about the effects that change will have on them in the future. As a result, it is easier to manage change in America since people are least likely to oppose it. The culture in America is open to innovations and new ideas (Usunier, 2010). This has been a critical factor in the success of American organizations.
China China has an environment that is relatively predictable compared to Nigeria, despite being a third world country (Dong and Liu, 2010). Therefore, a manager of a Chinese organization operates in an economic environment that is stable and faces fewer challenges in management.
China is also an economically stable nation since it is one of the countries in the world that have the best economies. Leadership in this country is also not very challenging.
Considering the cultural dimensions by Hofstede, Chinese culture is different from that of the United States given that power distance is high in China. The distribution of power in Chinese organizations is not equal. Qin, Ramburuth and Wang (2008) indicate that the top level managers are viewed as the most powerful and they make most of the decisions.
The lower level managers and employees are not involved in the decision making process, or they make very little contribution. Managers give orders and employees are supposed to follow without questioning. In terms of individualism and collectiveness, China favours collectiveness to individualism. Workers in an organization are expected to work in a team. Wide consultation is highly appreciated.
It is not easy to find individual efforts being accepted and appreciated in Chinese organizations (Qin, Ramburuth and Wang, 2008). This is an issue that leaders and managers of Chinese organizations should appreciate in order to increase their chances of succeeding in the country. Group interests are prioritized ahead of individual interests.
Leadership style in China is also influenced by the issue of masculinity and femininity. Dong and Liu (2010) indicate that women are not considered for leadership positions in China, thus the gender gap difference is high. It is, therefore, difficult to find a woman manager in an organization. Moreover, China values long-term orientation. A leader should be aware of the traditions in the country.
Chinese people do not easily accept new things that are not within their traditions. China is regarded as a country that scores lowly on ‘uncertainty avoidance’. It is worth noting that the Chinese language itself is ambiguous and characterized by many signs that have uncertain meanings (Dong and Liu, 2010).
Ambiguity is, therefore, acceptable in China and uncertainty avoidance is also low. This has contributed to technological development in China.
From the above review, it is evident that managing in Nigeria, America and China would require unique set of skills and understanding of cultural dimensions due to the varying cultural orientations. The authors generally agree that Nigeria is a nation that has a hierarchical culture. It is the same case for China.
In these two nations, leaders are expected to make decisions without necessarily holding consultations before making their decisions. The review has also revealed that America is not a hierarchical nation, thus decision making is decentralized.
In this regard, the manager of an organization that has subsidiaries in any of these nations should be aware of the cultural differences in order to make the right changes and adjustments while managing in any of the three nations.
Reference List Bayode, B 2008, Analysis of organizational leadership: a phenomenological study of organizational leaders in the private sector in Nigeria, Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest.
Private Labels Competing Against the FMCG Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free
Private labels are those goods that are by produced by the retailers such as supermarkets. There are several reasons why this marketing strategy has become very popular. First of all, at the time of economic recession, the purchasing power of many clients has declined. This is why they search for less expensive goods (Lincoln 25).
Therefore, the marketing of private labels can increase the profitability of many retailers that try to become less dependent on manufacturers. Furthermore, consumers notice that in many cases, private labels are not inferior to branded goods in terms of quality. This is one of the main aspects that can be identified. To a great extent, one can speak about a significant shift in public attitude toward such these products.
They are no longer associated with poor quality (Lincoln 25). This is why this marketing strategy has been successfully implemented by many firms. Additionally, it is vital to remember that modern businesses can operate on the Internet. Information technologies enable buyers to compare different products in terms of price and quality. In many cases, these people prefer to purchase private labels.
These are the main reasons that can explain the popularity of these products among retailers as well as consumers in Europe or the United States. At present, one cannot say whether the situation will change in the future, especially at the time when the purchasing power of people increases.
Nevertheless, it is quite possible that these labels will not lose their competitive position. Much will depend on the marketing strategies adopted by various producers. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.
The manufacturers of branded fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) adopt various strategies in order to regain their competitive edge at the time when the economy recovers. First of all, they can launch their own stores (Kotler 128). In this way, they can increase the loyalty of consumers.
Furthermore, such an approach can distinguish a certain product among many private labels. This is one of the actions that can be taken. Nevertheless, such a policy has significant limitations because it is applicable only to companies that produce various brands. This is one of the main issues that should be considered by the managers of these companies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, these businesses can carry out marketing campaigns that stress the quality of branded goods. This strategy is also helpful for attracting clients. However, the main issue is that many consumers have changed their attitudes toward private labels and FMCG.
Many clients are no longer convinced that branded FMCGs are superior to private labels (Lincoln 25). Therefore, the producers of FMCGs should introduce innovative products that can be distinguished in terms of functionality, design, reliability, or other criteria. So, they will need to create additional value for customers. This is one of the ways in which they can strengthen their position in the market.
Finally, these companies may decide to cooperate with retailers. It should be kept in mind that some producers provide goods to retailers and later these products are sold as private labels (Lincoln 25). Such a strategy can help these businesses improve their sustainability. These are some of the policies that FMCG managers can adopt in order to improve their long-term performance.
Works Cited Kotler, Phillip. A Framework for Marketing Management, New York: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.
Lincoln, Keith. Private Label: Turning the Retail Brand Threat into Your Biggest Opportunity, New York: Kogan Page Publishers, 2009. Print.
Security in the information communication technology Analytical Essay argumentative essay help
Abstract Organizations must put control measures to protect their information systems from being accessed by unauthorized individuals. The top-level management of the organization must devise security mechanisms and policies.
This enhances the effectiveness of such policies since it enables the organization engrain such policies in the organizational culture. Organizations also use other security mechanisms, such as passwords, that are secretive and recognize single users only.
However, passwords are not fully effective in protecting systems from being hacked. Passwords can be guessed or tampered with to allow access by non-authorized persons. The best alternative for security is for organizations to adopt a combination of measures.
The measures include use of passwords and security questions to ascertain authenticity. Security measures must be revised constantly to provide full surety to the organization that its data is safe from any interference.
Introduction Information communication technology is increasingly becoming a critical aspect for integration in organizations and businesses. The technology increases reliability in performance and enhances the speed of communication within organizations. However, IT can turn out to be a big security risk for organizations.
Access of data and other sensitive information about the firm by unauthorized persons poses a great danger to the organization and the closely held business secrets and practices. Thus, the issue of security for IT is important for all organizations to take charge and responsibility. This paper seeks to discuss how firms can develop information systems security and the necessary resources for information security.
How to initiate information security policy Companies often employ a set of rules, practices, standards, as well as procedures to maintain security of their IT systems. This reflects an organization’s information security policy. An information system’s security policy requires proper drafting for it to be more credible. The development of a security policy on information acts as the initial step in preparing against internal and external attacks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Top-level management support is a critical factor in policy development. Administrators and users must receive education about the system to avoid bad judgments. An organization should incorporate its policy to be part of the organizational culture to get employees observe the information security policy.
There are two major issues for organizations to observe when developing their Enterprise Information System. These include adapting the users to the system and getting the involvement of users through soliciting their input on ways of advancing the system.
Developing employee awareness There is the risk of organizations losing their data and information to outside bodies. The first mechanism in averting such a crisis is by educating the workers1. Organizations can achieve this by using awareness-raising initiatives such as emails, mouse pads, pamphlets, discussion groups, and formal presentations. Employee awareness is the first step for organizations willing to secure their data.
Education of employees begins with information security training, as well as management support. Training increases security awareness and participation of the workers.
Employees who have enhanced understanding of likely consequences concerning security breaches will offer greater protection and understand clearly how to combat the breaches. The input of the top-level management is particularly important as it gives direction on the corporate decision.
Governing access control Employee access to information ought to be limited for security reasons. The process is undertaken by companies to only allow workers to gain access to information that is relevant to them. One mechanism used by companies to achieve this objective is referred to as Role Based Access Control (RBAC).
This system limits employees’ access by permissions, users, constraints, and roles. The organization arranges employees according to their roles and profiles in order to determine which employees can access specific information on the organization2.
We will write a custom Article on Security in the information communication technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Companies must take the critical step of monitoring user access and detect any unauthorized access to data that is categorized as high risk. Security mechanisms should not only dwell on the IT system alone, but also extend to other physical aspects such as proximity.
Employees sitting arrangement, for instance, may provide an opportunity for workers to read data being worked on by a colleague whom they share the same office. Organizations can address this concern by organizing sitting arrangements such that any chances of unauthorized personnel peeping through such details are contained.
Getting support from the upper echelon management The top-level management’s role is to ensure that information system security remains engrained within the corporate culture. This is important because support from top management enhances the preventive efforts made. Globalization is increasing the threat of organizations losing critical information through theft.
Information security decisions must squarely lie with the top-level management to manage the IT department properly. The management must handle aspects such as methods of implementing a security policy, where awareness-training programs for employees should take place, and how such trainings should be done.
The corporate governance of the information security ought to begin from the top to increase the chances of efficiency. A conceptual model for Enterprise Information System security (EIS) needs to protect the four critical pillars of security policy, access control, security awareness, as well as the top-level management support (TLMS).
Enterprise Information System Security
Security Policy – Set rules for behavior. – Define consequences of violations. – Authorize the company to monitor and investigate.
Security Awareness – Continued education. – Collective and individual activities. – Formal classes, emails, discussion groups, etc. Access Control – Limit information. – Access linked to job function. – Restrict information not relevant to position.
TLMS – Transparent support for policies and procedures – Engrain information security into company culture.
Corporate Governance Source: Chaudhry, Chaudhri and Reese3
The decisions made by the management of the company come from the base of the whole system, enabling it to dictate its stability. The pillars that rest on the foundation also support the roof.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Security in the information communication technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The four pillars represent the different processes that the management and other top decision-making organs of the organization choose from in order to implement and make the system secure. All the four pillars contribute towards making the enterprise information system more secure. Eliminating any of the columns is dangerous as it ends up affecting the security of the whole system4.
Information System Resources There are three major subsets of information systems resources, including information technology resources, abbreviated as ITR, relationship resources, abbreviated as RR, as well as IS infrastructure, which is abbreviated as IIS. The ITR reflect on the IS expertise that is possessed by the focal firm. Further, ITR has two distinct capability sets that include IT-business alignment capabilities, IBAC, and IT technical capabilities, ITTC5.
RR is the extent to which an information department establishes a sense of collaboration with various functional units, such as finance or production. It also refers to the extent of collaboration with business partners such as suppliers and customers. RR has two dimensions of internal and external relationship resources; that is, the INR and EXR.
IIS is the collection of assets that are based on IT on which different applications of business and services are developed. IIS is the management and technical architectures that support the focal organization development to offer information security.
Information Technology Resource (ITR) The IT department requires knowledge about different computer languages to apply them in order to develop systems that optimize the organization demands6. This offers the IT department greater capability to run the organization’s information systems effectively.
Systems are growing in complexity and functionality and, thus, organizations must in turn develop the skills to match these growing complexities in order to benefit fully from the advantages that come with the new systems.
As Kuo-chung and Chih-ping7 further point out, it is also critical to develop a capability in diagnosing systems problems. This capability provides the IS personnel with knowledge on analyzing the actual depth and scope of the specific problems that afflict the system. It, thus, offers an avenue of searching for appropriate solutions of the identified problems during system breakdowns.
IBAC refers to the knowledge on how to align the IT strategy with the existing business strategy. This can be done through the IT department outlining the IT strategies, plans, as well as technical investments, and implementing the IT technical architecture. Alternatively, IT department having high IBAC enjoys a deeper understanding of the processes of business together with the organizational goals8.
This business knowledge provides the IT department with the expertise to develop highly effective IS strategies, as well as provide information services that accurately fit the organizational needs.
IBAC equally signify the potential ability by firms to identify as well as employ information technologies that are emerging as a way of transforming the organization to achieve competitive advantages. It may also enable the change of industry structure where the focal firm is situated.
Relationship Resources (RR) RR comprises of the internal relationship resources (INR) and the external relationship resources (EXR). The former portrays the working relations that exist between the IT department and other departments in the same organization.
The EXR, on the other hand, portrays the working relation between the IT department of an organization and the organization’s existing business partners who are external, such as the suppliers and customers.
This structure provides an avenue for social exchanges that exist between the firm’s IT department, on the one hand, and its various clients on the other hand. This results in achieving closer ties and developing mutual trust together with respect. This relationship, in turn, creates stronger bonding that allows the parties to share a common view and work towards achieving the objective easily9.
Partnership between the IT and its clients also enhances the sharing of responsibilities between partners and contributing resources to achieve the common goal. Greater mutual coordination is easily achieved as a result of the good relationships, allowing adjustments that consider the counterparts’ needs to be undertaken.
One major benefit of the close interrelations is the containment of disputes. Even in instances where the disputes arise, it is easier for a resolution to be worked out between the parties because of the close ties in their working. Mechanisms for resolving any likely disputes have been developed well in advance.
IS Security Infrastructure Information system offers a different perspective other than the technical issues that affect an organization since it involves the aspect of management of an IS architecture in order to influence greater achievements. The IS technical architecture (ISTA) concerns various IT-based assets, including software and hardware, which offer protection to information systems from security-related breaches10.
The framework is made of seven components that include “information transmissions, access control, access rights authentication, encryption and decryption”. It also involves log analysis, malicious protection, storage and backup.
The IS management architecture (ISMA) concerns the rules, as well as the regulations that are established by the organization in order to manage and offer control to its information system as far as issues on security are concerned11. The management mechanisms offer various precepts that control individual behaviors so that they can be in tandem with the information security requirements of the organization.
In particular, they outline all the roles as well as the responsibilities that individual employees are required to follow in order to protect the information from being accessed by unauthorized personnel.
Security and Safety Measures: Students Familiarity and Actual Practice Password
Systems are often protected from unauthorized access using passwords. This system protection mechanism involves “must-remember sensible” or “non-sensible” combination of characters that make up the alphabet or numerals. Such characters or numerals must be entered in their exact appearance as originally done in order for a user to gain access to the system.
Passwords can be considered either as simple or sophisticated. Simple passwords are those that can be remembered easily and may be guessed without much difficulty. Such passwords are also ‘non-hacker proof’, meaning that hackers may easily temper with the system using such passwords12.
Sophisticated passwords, on the other hand, may not be easily hacked by malicious people. They comprise of both letters and numbers and sometimes may also include special characters.
Generally, passwords can be tampered with algorithmically in efforts to gain access to protected data. This concept is a self-certifying means that needs conscious efforts in order to recollect. In this regard, passwords are generally less perfect and can be strengthened by using human characteristics, instead, to help in identification purposes.
Organizations need to make a more complicated process of selecting a password to ensure that the passwords or their pre-registration questions are not easy to guess. This would make the passwords tamper-proof and enhance the confidence of clients. However, this system has a disadvantage in the sense that answers to some easy questions may also be easily guessed by other people with malicious intents.
Security problems and the related pervasiveness
Students do not keenly take the required precautions when it comes to protecting their passwords. In most cases, students are seen to take the risky step of showing others their passwords yet the passwords should be secret. Although such practices may not be as grave in social engineering circles, they are dangerous when it comes to computer systems.
Organizations are awake to the risks that privacy invasion brings. Surprisingly, firms still do not heed to the need to use technology to reinforce privacy. Computer Crime Security Survey (CSI/FBI) indicates that “there has been an increase in security incident reporting from 20% to 25%”13.
Some companies object to reporting of security breaches citing the likelihood of the public losing trust with the organization. The public may end up viewing the organization as an imperfect persona. It may also influence the clients into instituting legal action against the organization.
Clients may view this as negligence on the part of their organization to institute proper breach-control mechanisms, and use this as reason enough to incite other clients against trading with the company.
According to numerous studies conducted to ascertain the aspect of system security, simple passwords that are used by individuals for security purposes are preferred by up to 69% of the individuals. The users are extremely familiar with such passwords and actually use them on a daily basis as they access their computer systems. On the other hand, up to 64% of system users use such simple passwords more than half or 50 percent of the time.
From these findings, it is possible to deduce that knowing a simple password often translates into making use of it. Complex passwords are preferable to simple passwords in achieving effective protection against entry into computer networks and systems by malicious individuals14.
Findings on use of sophisticated passwords indicate that 87 percent of system users are not aware of such an existence. Thus, lack of knowledge about sophisticated passwords also means not using them.
Nevertheless, people get used to something before they start practicing it and becoming more experienced, thus it is understandable in this case. Computer system scans that occur on a daily basis each time a computer system is turned on are also critical security mechanisms that can be used to control access of unauthorized personnel.
Computer systems may also rely on anti-virus software to protect against viruses that are intentionally developed to harm stored information. Fifty-six percent of computer system users, however, are unaware about anti-virus software15. A very small percentage of users, about 15%, use such software for protecting their systems.
All the three articles have relied on surveys as well as statistical analytical tools in their researches. This has enabled the articles to provide reliable arguments.
The articles have also drawn their findings from wide testing samples used in the studies. This gives more accurate findings compared to when such testing samples are drawn from a narrow perspective.
All the articles include an extensive discussion at the end of the research seeking to expound on the research findings. This makes the researches more understandable.
Further research direction has been offered in at least two of the articles. This gives hope for more elaborate research on the same area in the future.
There are limited recommendations that are being offered by the authors of the articles. While the articles have offered an insight into these problems, they do not provide the reader with the perfect solution on the way forward.
Some of the authors do not cite any limitations encountered while undertaking their studies. This makes it difficult to evaluate the authenticity of their answers.
Could the Articles be better?
The researches undertaken by all the authors in these articles are comprehensive enough and help the reader to clearly determine the main issue of concern that is being raised. Failure to include the limitations of research in two of the articles, however, makes it difficult to ascertain the true extent of the research findings. It is important to include the limitations for the research articles to be complete and more relevant.
Threats and Opportunities
The three articles show how organizations are becoming increasingly exposed to IS attacks. The danger of IS invasion due to recklessness of employees or the management is still a threat to the organizations. In addition, hackers are continuously developing severer threats to invade the highly secured systems.
This is a great threat to firms that do not have the capacity to install highly secured systems and employ personnel who have the capability to avert such security breaches. Organizations have the opportunity to avert infiltration of their information systems by investing more in research and development.
Moreover, organizations have the opportunity to borrow IS technology from other organizations that already have enhanced security systems.
How Information System Security could be enhanced in the Future
Creating more awareness on the need to use anti-virus software is one of the biggest steps towards enhancing IS security. This comes from the realization that more than half of all computer users are not aware of the need to use anti-virus software. Organizations also need to develop a culture of upholding information security such that the current employees and those who join the organization later give priority to IS security.
Conducting regular system audits will also help organizations identify any loopholes in the system and devise ways of sealing the loopholes. Moreover, scheduled IS audit will help the IT personnel determine the effectiveness of the existing IS security measures.
Conclusion Advancements in the information communication technology have provided an avenue for virtually all organizations to incorporate IT systems in their operations. However, IT systems face a great challenge of security breach that may lead organizations to lose their sensitive data to unauthorized people. Security mechanisms must be established in order to guard against such intrusion.
The top-level management of organizations must take the leading role in developing a culture that emphasizes on security. Employees must also be trained and made aware of the benefits of utilizing IS security measures. Several mechanisms exist, including blocking individual workers from accessing information from other departments that may not be useful to them.
Bibliography Chaudhry, E Peggy, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald. “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security.” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 587–599.
Kuo-chung, Chang and Chih-ping Wang. “Information Systems Resources and Information Security.” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 579–593.
Lomo-David, Ewuuk and Shannon Li-Jen. “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice.” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 29-47.
Footnotes 1 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 591
2 Ibid 590
3 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 588.
4 Peggy, Chaudhry E, Chaudhri Sohail, and Reese Ronald, “Developing a Model for Enterprise Information Systems Security,” Economics, Management, and Financial Market 7 no. 4 (2012): 595
5 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 581.
6 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 581.
9 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 582
10 Chang, Kuo-chung, and Chih-ping Wang, “Information Systems Resources and Information Security,” Inf Syst Front 13 (2011): 582.
12 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 30.
13 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 31
14 Ibid. 34
15 Ewuuk, Lomo-David, and Shannon Li-Jen, “Information Systems Security and Safety Measures: The Dichotomy between Students’ Familiarity and Practice,” Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal 12, no. 1 (2009): 36
Nokia: Case Studies Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The three important issues the company should focus on in terms of expense control Employment at the company should be cut down to a manageable size. The company should only retain a sizeable number of workers that it can manage comfortably as the revenues continue to dwindle. The goal is to save a significant amount of revenues currently being paid out as salaries and wages.
Business acquisitions should only be limited to those that are viable and those that require less time to return profits. The financial goal of this move is to save funds from further non-profitable ventures.
Closing the extra regional offices and branches and instead maintaining the main ones only is the third strategy. This action will save a significant amount of revenue that is currently being spent on meeting rent and other related expenses.
Assessment of Nokia-Microsoft’s Windows Mobile The Window’s smartphone by Nokia has failed to recapture the market leadership in the sector. Instead, Nokia has continued to lose its market share while recording huge losses, especially in the smartphone sector. The Windows mobile platform has failed to achieve its intended purpose of spurring growth for the brand maker.
From the current market trend, it is possible to adjudge that the Windows mobile platform is inferior to its main competitors Android by Google and iOS by Apple.
The best alternative for Nokia should be using the licensed Android OS on its smartphone devices in order to boost its market share. This will see Nokia devices enjoy the same superiority as other leading Android devices such as Samsung, thus attracting a huge global market to recapture its market share.
Necessary steps to regain the North American Market Nokia should begin by carrying out an extensive study of the North American market in order to determine trends and preferences. Market needs for the smartphones, especially in North America, keep changing rapidly as users seek for new features and capabilities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A closer link to the market will enable the brand maker recapture the market. Additionally, Nokia should seriously consider introducing the Android OS in its devices because this platform is sought after by the North American market.
Realistic strategies for regaining market share Price competition
Nokia should shift its competition towards the aspect of price by targeting to avail high quality products at cheaper prices. Lowering prices will see more users acquiring its products, thus increasing the market share.
The costs will involve buying more materials and utilizing them on more products in order to achieve economies of scale advantage. However, this strategy is risky because the gadgets might be of an inferior quality to compromise on cost.
This strategy should focus on releasing new products with enhanced features and performance. This will provide the market with a high range of products capable of competing with the other brands. The costs involve intensive research and development, while the risk lies in spending too much on a technology that fails to pick up.
I prefer the price competition strategy because with its capacity, Nokia is able to achieve success through building economies of scale advantage. Nokia is also shifting production to Asia where it is likely to benefit from cheaper labor.
Evaluation of Stephen Elop Performance Stephen Elop has performed dismally in his leadership. The company has continuously lost market share and registered losses. I recommend that he should change his strategy by focusing more on changing market trends and incorporating them immediately, instead of taking time before acting. Nokia has been rigid in its operations, failing to read signs early and take the right steps to address challenges.
Thus, the CEO must consider flexibility while competing for business. Additionally, Elop should consider expanding Nokia’s business by venturing into new business areas, such as personal computers and laptops. This will see the firm cushion itself from harsh business conditions and performance affecting one area.
We will write a custom Essay on Nokia: Case Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Sprint La Conexion Familiar Case Study essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Problem facing Sprint
Action the management can take
Implications of Sprint’s response
Problem facing Sprint Trade unions aim at ensuring that employees get good working condition and remuneration (Bacon 752). Hence, they compel organizations to increase employees’ salary and improve working environment, which lead to increased operations cost. This underlines the reason why organizations strive to make sure that their employees are not unionized (Booth 34).
The basic problem facing Sprint in La Conexion Familiar is ensuring that its employees remain non-unionized as unionization will lead to increase in operations costs. Besides, the company will not be able to exploit its employees since they will be able to fight for their rights through the union. Initially, employees were not allowed to take bathroom breaks.
They were expected to be at their workstations at all times, and this added to the company’s output. Besides, the company controlled the amount of water that every employee consumed to make sure that they did not keep on leaving their workstations.
Trade union curtails the powers that employers have over their employees (Boxall and Haynes 570-573). Hence, Sprint will not be able to fire its employees at liberty once they join a trade union. Besides, the union will ensure that all workers are treated equally, which will mean increasing the wages of the non-English speaking workers.
Sprint has gone to the extent of establishing policies to help in making sure that its staff does not join a union. The main problem is to dissuade employees from joining the union. All employees have the right to join unions and employers are not allowed to intimidate them (Clawson and Clawson 100-104).
However, managers in Sprint are going against the labor laws by using intimidation to discourage employees from joining trade union. Despite the intimidation, the company cannot overcome staff’s determination to join a labor union. A majority of the staff is willing to join a labor union.
The company has remained non-unionized for many years. Hence, the management fears that allowing one section of Sprint’s operations to join trade union will prompt other sections to demand for the same. Hence, the company is not ready to allow workers in La Conexion Familiar to join a union.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the company knows that even if it does not allow employees to join a trade union, they will use other means to make sure that they are unionized. Thus, it is hard for the management to reach a consensus with employees. The management is trying to threaten the employees that it will close the plant if they join a union. However, no employee can yield to these threats.
The closure of the LCF plant will have negative impacts on other plants owned by Sprint. Hence, the management will be forced to comply with employee demands as a way to safeguard the image of its plants.
Action the management can take Labor laws prohibit organizations from using intimidation or coercion to discourage employees from joining trade unions (Brown 166). All employees are at liberty to join a trade union of their choice. Sprint has made sure that it factors in these provisions in its union policy. It discourages its managers from intimidating employees that wish to join trade union.
However, this does not happen during the negotiation process. The management goes to the extent of threatening employees that it finds participating in the unionization process. Besides, Sprint has tried to sell La Conexion Familiar as a way to preserve its non-unionized legacy. The main reason why employees seek to join a trade union is poor working condition and remuneration.
Hence, to address this problem, Sprint needs to sit down with its employees and look for ways to address their complaints (Kerr 42). Trade unions compel organizations to improve the working condition for their employees (Hyman 210).
Hence, Sprint does not require waiting until employees demand to join a trade union to improve its working condition. The company should talk with the employees to identify the challenges that force them to join a trade union and work on them. This will avoid cases of employees staging an organizing drive.
Apart from improving the working condition, Sprint should take the initiative to remunerate its employees in line with their performance or workload. Paying employees according to the workload or performance will lead to them not thinking of joining a trade union (Lucio and Weston 79-82). To deal with the looming organizing drive, Sprint management ought to meet with the employees and promise to address their complaints.
We will write a custom Case Study on Sprint La Conexion Familiar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will help to postpone the drive as employees wait to see if the management will keep its promises. Whenever organizational managers work closely with employees, it becomes hard for employees to revolt since the management responds to their complaints (Rynes, Gerhart and Minette 385-390).
Consequently, rather than considering the costs associated with labor unions, Sprint management needs to move swiftly and assure its employees that it will work towards improving their working conditions and remuneration. This will reduce the employees’ urge to join trade unions thus dealing with the looming organizing drive (Martin et al. 67).
Implications of Sprint’s response The future of long distance service market depends on how Sprint will respond to the looming labor crisis. If the company goes ahead with its endeavor to stop its employees from joining trade union, it will kill the long distance service market. Employees require being motivated to offer quality services.
Hence, denying the employees the right to join a union without solving their problem will demotivate them, and eventually kill the long distance service market. On the other hand, if Sprint agrees to allow employees to join trade union, it will enhance the quality of long distance service market. LCF focuses mainly on the long distance service market.
Therefore, allowing employees to join trade union and solve the looming problem amicably will lead to employees improving their services (Sheehan, Barker and Rayner 55). In return, this will help in expansion and growth of the long distance service market.
The action that the Communication Workers of America (CWA) takes will depend on the response that Sprint takes. If the company denies its employees the right to join a trade union, CWA will take the necessary measures and file a petition with the National Labor relations Board (NLRB). NLRB is the body responsible for solving disputes between employees and employers in case labor conflicts.
The board may take time before giving its judgment. However, based on the seriousness with which the CWA is treating this matter, it appears that it is ready to take all the necessary time to see that LCF’s staff gets justice. Hence, CWA is likely to mobilize all LCF’s staff to pressure Sprint to yield to their demand. In case this endeavor fails, CWA will seek for assistance from the National Labor Relations Board.
Works Cited Bacon, Nicolas. “Trade unions responses to workplace restructuring: exploring union orientations and actions.” Work Employment
Leadership Pipeline Case Study college essay help near me
Table of Contents Skills which future leaders require
How high potential leaders ought to be identified
Essential developmental experiences
Skills which future leaders require Future leaders of the organization will need to possess strategic management skills as this will be critical in top leadership situations. Instances of expansions through mergers or acquisition are becoming quite rampant. Alternatively, new opportunities to either change product design or introduce new ones are always lurking (Biggs 106). Therefore, one must know how to handle such scenarios through sound strategic decisions.
A leader should also be familiar with financial skills as management of stock prices is critical in maintaining peak performance. Large organizations like Mattel reported dismal performance under a new leader because it lacked skills on how to handle Wall Street (Conger
SG Cowen Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help
SG Cowen: Recruitment process The hiring process in any company should be marched with the objectives to be attained by the new employees (Taylor 6). In fact, the set goals should inform the required skills and competencies during the hiring process (Turban and Daniel 733). In essence, for the firm to attain its goals and remain competitive, it must maintain a stream of skilled and competent employees (Barber 136).
The key decision factors Cowen considers in making hiring decisions The hiring process in the company is based on the strategy of choosing the best candidate in the MBA class from the top business colleges. The candidates chosen are incorporated into the company’s associate programs.
Even though the company is looking for the best talent, the criteria used in selecting the recruits do not secure talented candidate. The recruitment and the hiring process are even challenging. The considerations to the key positions include the high academic performances and considerable job accomplishments. Besides, the candidates must have attributes that are oriented towards the organization goals.
An important area the company was considering includes exceptional academic achievement particularly in business. In addition, the candidate must show the right attitude and enthusiasm on the job to be provided. Other attributes the company was considering includes the interpersonal skills, social development skills, culture and communication skills.
About the criteria The criteria used by the company to hire the best candidate are challenging and do not secure the talented candidates required. The hiring process begins by visiting business schools providing the information regarding the company intentions and the hiring process to the potential candidates. The visiting and the information provision process is followed by the interview session, which is long and involve complex processes.
As the case indicates, the hiring criteria in the company have many problems. First, the banking professionals undertake the hiring processes instead of the human resources managers. Human resources professionals are presumed to be having hiring skills and competency in the hiring process (Avery 672). Therefore, employing the banking professionals was a great mistake.
Due to lack of formal training in the recruitment process, the SG Cowen employees ended up with recruitment criteria that stereotyped their candidates. The recruitment team considered factors such as the marital status, the type of English the candidate use, physical appearance as well as other personal attributes that does not add value to the firm (Agnvall 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, the candidates are chosen according to the interviewer individual belief. The process leads to biases through which the candidates are chosen. As indicated in the case, the prejudice of individual towards a particular candidate can sway the whole team not to select the best candidate.
The hiring criteria based on subjective measures compromises the attainment of the company objectives (Allen 77). The hiring process should not be based on long procedures. The hiring procedure should be specific to the competencies the company needs (Kiger 39). Since the hiring process in SG Cowen is long and based on subjectivity, the process can be described as being unfair.
The two Candidates to Choose Selecting the best two candidates among the remaining pool of four candidates proved to be challenging task. In fact, this was the most important decision to be made by the recruiting bankers. Serious considerations have to be made regarding the candidates as all have the required qualifications. For the right candidate to be selected, the bankers should look for the distinct attributes that differentiate the applicants (Billsberry 23).
The attributes should add value to the firm (Ployhart et al 47). The bankers are to make decisions that have two important consequences to the organization. The decision on the type of recruit will affect the success of the company. In other words, the recruits the bankers are going to select will either make the company succeed or fail.
Therefore, the candidates must have the right attitude towards the success of the organization goals (Overman 3). Generally, the success of the firm depends on the quality of its workforce. The quality of new hires must also imitate the quality needed in the workforce (Breaugh 103).
The decision also influences the quality of the workforce. The bankers must identify the person having the cultural fit for the organization.
Therefore, giving an approval for the right candidate who fit culturally within the organization is critical for the maintenance of the company reputation and credibility (Jattuso and Evans 139). In addition, making the right hiring decisions will increase the personal credentials as well as benefits that come with it.
We will write a custom Case Study on SG Cowen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on the above criteria, the first candidate that could have been chosen among the four is Natalya Godlewska. The candidate possesses strong academic credentials compared to other candidates. The candidate holds good grades in both her MBA and undergraduate studies.
In addition, the candidate has perfect referrals from her former employees. Among the distinct attributes the candidate possess include hardwork, determination, ambitious, and the right attitude towards work (Hansen 59). In addition, leaving its former jobs to join the firm indicates the enthusiasm and the right energy the candidate has towards the job.
Even though some of the members expressed reservations on her cultural fit in terms of language barriers, the candidate still outfit the others based on her competence and experience. The candidate’s background explains her poor English but that will not have greater impact of her job delivery.
Moreover, the candidate has successfully worked in other firms, which is a proof of success in her social skills. Further, the candidate has mastered her graduate courses in US graduate schools where English is used. Language does not determine the candidate social and cultural adaptability within the workplace (Backhaus 117)
The second candidate that could have been chosen is Ken Goldstein. According to the criteria set by the company, all members of the team commended the candidate. In addition, the former employer has put the candidate in high evaluation points.
Moreover, the former employer has recommended the candidate for high performance that the firm requires. Besides academic credentials and the company criteria, the candidate is a team player an attribute that is highly regarded by the firm.
The reservations being expressed by some members that the candidate cannot fit among the recruits due to family commitments are based on subjective recruitment critter. In essence, such an attribute is not important as being competent and able to deliver the results.
The most important attribute the new hire should express is the commitment towards the organization success (Pulley 89). The success of the candidate in Price Waterhouse Coopers expresses his commitment despite additional domestic responsibilities. Such commitment will be simulated in the firm.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SG Cowen by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Agnvall, Elizabeth. “Hiring at-home workers.” Staffing Management, 4.4 (2008): 2-5. Print.
Allen, David.Retaining talent: A guide to analyzing and managing employee turnover. Alexandria: VA SHRM Foundation, 2008. Print.
Avery, Dereck. “Reactions to diversity in recruitment advertising: Are differences black and white?” Journal of Applied Psychology, 88.4 (2003): 672-679.
Backhaus, Kristine. “An exploration of corporate recruitment descriptions on Monster.com.” Journal of Business Communication, 41.2 (2004): 115-136. Print.
Barber, Alison. The hiring challenge: Recruitment in small firms. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, 2005. Print.
Billsberry, James. Experiencing recruitment and selection. Chichester, UK: John Wiley
Merck scholarship essay help
Table of Contents The amount of success the change effort produced
Sustainability of the Changes
What Could Warner Have Done Better
The amount of success the change effort produced Change has become inevitable as the business environment keeps on changing. The main aim of introducing change in an organization is to improve the current way of doing things to secure better performance in the future that is likely to give the organization competitive advantage (Pato and James 15).
The one facilitating change in the organization should ensure that he or she does it in a meaningful manner to ensure that the change process succeeds. In most cases, change is led by the organizational managers and top executives. Merck
Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas Research Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Data and Method
Introduction The most significant twentieth-century trend is that suburbs became the dominant life style for Americans (Teaford, 2008). Whites experienced overwhelming suburbanization. In 1920, Whites and Blacks lived in suburbs almost equally: about one-third of each group’s residents. However, there was a dramatic increase in suburbanization after WWII.
By that time, the Whites suburbanization rate grew by nearly 70%, from a 1940 level of about 38% to a 1970 level of about 63% (U.S. Bureau of Census 1963). The change to suburban dominance in population is reflected in comprehensive statistics on economic activity (Gottdiener and Hutchison, 2011). In many cases, suburbs have outpaced their core central cities in economic importance since 1970.
According to the Bureau of Census, 46 percent of the 1990 population lived in suburbia, 40 percent in central cities, and 14 percent in rural areas. This study will examine the association between the level of Asian suburbanization and the segregation between Whites and Asians in 260 metropolitan areas (U.S. Bureau of Census, 1963).
Recently, Asians are the fastest growing minority group. According to the Bureau of Census, Asian population grew from 3.5 million in 1980 to 7.3 million in 1990 and to 8.8 million in 1995 (Palen, 1995). Currently, the Asian population consists of around 4% of the entire population (Bureau of Census).
There always has been debate as to whether higher level of minorities’ suburbanization yields lower segregation or higher segregation. Segregation is the distribution of racial and ethnic groups into separate and distinct residential areas of the city (Logan, 2011). The general trends in residential dissimilarity across 260 metropolitan areas from whites have declined since 1970.
Even though Blacks have experienced the most declines in residential segregation, they remain the most segregated in cities. The largest black population averages remains high. While the Asians remain the least segregated compared to other ethnical groups, the average level of Asian-Whites segregation has not changed much. So the question is why do we care about segregation and why does segregation matter?
According to previous social scientists, there are some serious social costs related to residential segregation. This compares to the researches on examining Black-White segregation or Hispanic-white segregation. However, there are not many studies only focusing on Asian-White segregation. Accordingly, a variety of factors affect segregation of Asians but this paper will only focus on the role of suburbanization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By using the data collected from the 260 major metropolitan areas across United States in 2009, the researcher will test the hypothesis that the level of suburbanization leads to the decline of Asian-White segregation based on spatial assimilation model.
Theoretical Arguments The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between the level of Asian suburbanization and the segregation between whites and Asians in metropolitan areas. The hypothesis of this research is based on the spatial assimilation model that physical mobility implies one’s upward social mobility. In other words, once Asians social status moving up, then they can get living closer with whites.
Therefore, Asians will have less social, economic, and cultural gaps with whites, which finally lead to the decreasing of Asian-Whites segregation. The researcher will put this hypothesis to the test. Additionally, the reputation of Asians towards Whites plays an important role concerning the point of Asian suburbanization increasing the Asian-Whites integration.
To restate my hypothesis: the concentration of Asians in the suburbs of the metropolitan area will help to alleviate the Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan area. My theoretical argument is to explain why suburbanization might lead to contact that is more residential with whites.
Moreover, the average incomes of Asians are the highest among other minority groups. According to the contact hypothesis, four conditions are especially important. That is urbanization, poverty levels, geographic location, and governments.
Some scholars who adapted the stratification perspective state that there is relatively weak correlation exist between the continuously Asian suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation in the unit of metropolitan area.
According to Logan and Stults’s (2011) report of the New Findings from the 2010 Census, they found that Asians are considerably less segregated than African Americans, and their segregation levels have remained steady since 1980. In addition, with the growth in Asian population, unique ethnic conglomerations tend to coagulate. Because of this, the groups live more sparsely now than in 2000, a trend that has grown since 1980.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite Asian isolation, another important factor is the stereotypes of Asians. Maria Krysan (2002) conducted an open-ended question survey in Los Angeles, and asked whites about their comfort with different levels of integration with Asians and then asked to explain.
Krysan (2002) found the major problem with Asians is based the stereotypes: the modal response was that Asians are not friendly, stick to themselves, or are uninterested in integration.
The problems with Asian neighborhoods, according to these whites, are “cultural differences” – particularly expressed as language concerns (Krysan, 2002). Thirdly, the rapid development of suburban Chinatown plays an important role in the controversial issue of continuing Asian-White segregation even in the suburbs.
Another study can be looked at is Monterey Park, a suburb outside Los Angeles that became a focal point for new Chinese immigration. In 1960, the population was 85 percent white in contrast to the population in 2000 was 43 percent Asian, 35.5 percent Hispanic, and only 21.6 percent Whites. For a time, the city was known as the “Chinese Beverly Hills”, and it was later referred to as the first suburban Chinatown.
Lastly, other sociologists have suspected that the presence of Asian neighbors provides a protection against white flight, or in the terminology of Farley and Frey (1994), a “buffer.” Buffering is shorthand for the argument that the movement of “more fully assimilated second and third generations of Asians to higher-status, more integrated communities” provides “a push that should lead to greater integration of blacks.
On the other hand, the spatial assimilation model has remained largely controversial issue in the previous studies, which are related to the possibility that Asians might remain segregated from whites even in the suburbs, from four aspects: Asian isolation, the emerging suburb Chinatown, Asian stereotypes, white flight, and multiethnic buffers.
According to Logan and Stults’s report of the 2010 Censes new findings, the rapidly growing Asian populations are as segregated today as they were thirty years ago, and their growth is creating more intense ethnic enclaves in many parts of the country (2011).
This paper will focus on the gateway city (this is the city that facilitates entry into the main city), because most of the new Asian immigrants live in suburban towns within the metropolitan region, not in the central city.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suburbanization and Asian-White Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, our focus on the special assimilation perspective will help us to understand the importance of moving beyond the city and looking at the metropolitan region more broadly when we study immigration and other demographic trends that affect our communities. (Gottdiener and Hutchison, 2011).
Hence, while this paper looks into this aspect, it will also delve into the effect of suburbanization on segregation of minority groups with special regard to Asians.
Literature Review Large bodies of past researches show the focal relationship between the concentration of Asians in the suburbs of the metropolitan area and the level of Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan area.
According to article “Trends in the Suburbanization of Racial/Ethnic Groups in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1970 to 2000 (2011:239)”, the authors found that nearly all the variance in 1970 to 2000 growth in White suburbanization (86 percent) is explained by changes in the supply of suburban housing. However, the percentage of variance explained is much lower for the other minority groups.
This suggests that the overwhelming cause of changes in White suburbanization over the past three decades was increases in the supply of suburban housing. Another study indicates that Whites have suburbanized faster and more completely than other groups.
Hwang and Murdock (1998) concluded that the suburbs possessing seven image indicators: suburb’s smaller population size; lower density; younger housing stock; lower percentage of minority residents; suburb’s old age; higher percentage of traditional family homes and higher percentage of owner-occupied homes did draw more white movers.
Massey and Denton’s (1987) cross-sectional analysis of segregation in 1980, reported that in metropolitan areas in which Hispanics or Asians had higher incomes and were more likely to speak English or to be U.S. born, these groups were significantly like to live in suburbs and thereby to experience lower levels of segregation.
Moreover, according to Logan et al.’s (2004) finding, they firstly concluded that among Asians, an increasing share of foreign-born persons were associated with greater decreases in segregation. Secondly, if Asian economic standing improves, it will have a great potential to further residential assimilation with whites.
Therefore, according to the assimilation model, scholars suggest that discrimination does not fundamentally drive the segregation between Asians and Whites, but the social status and culture differences seems more likely driving the segregation between Asians and Whites.
Based on the 2005-2009 American Community Survey (ACS) Logan (2011) found White incomes averaged over $60,000, which is about $25,000 more than blacks and $20,000 more than Hispanics. However, Asian incomes averaged just over $70,000. Thus, if we use the spatial assimilation model, which the economic status increases, it will finally lead to residential assimilation with whites.
Obviously, the dramatic increasing suburbanization rates of Whites, Asian prestige (based on statistics) and theoretical expectation based spatial assimilation will create the connection between the two testing variables that the increasing rates of suburbanization will finally lead to the decreasing level of Asian-Whites segregation.
Compared to other minority groups, Asians are the least segregated group with whites. Just like Krysan (2002) found, it seems more likely the biggest problem of segregation between Asians and Whites is not about discrimination, but cultural differences
. Thus, I assume that Whites hold positive attitudes toward Asian’s reputation, and this finally leads back to the model of assimilation – once we fill the culture gap, this will eventually leads to Asian-Whites integration.
The perspective of reputation of a minority group is critical. As long as the reputation stays stable, then if the social status increases and the cultural differences decreases, finally the spatial distance will relatively decreases. In addition, the spatial assimilation model denotes this meaning too.
Data and Method In this section, the researcher fast forwards to 2009 using the most recent population census data in 2010. This study tests the relationship between the level of suburbanization in the metropolitan area and the level of Asian-White segregation across 276 metropolitan areas in 2009. In analyzing this focal relationship, I am testing the hypothesis that the higher suburban concentration the lower Asian-White segregation.
In other words, there is a negative relationship between suburbanization and Asian-white segregation. The total number sample of metropolitan areas is 276.
First, in order to generate a new variable that indicates the percentage of the population living in the suburbs in each of the metropolitan areas, I used the variable of suburban population in 2009 divided by the total population in 2009, then converted into percentage measurement. However, in order to keep the consistency in the sources of data, the number of metropolitan areas changed from 276 to 260.
My analysis only includes one measure of a metropolitan-area characteristic, which is the percentage of suburbanization rate in 2009. In terms of the dependent variable, I use an “Index of Dissimilarity” to measure the level of Asian-White segregation; it indicates how evenly the members of Asians and Whites are distributed among the 260 metropolitan areas across the nation.
The “Index of Dissimilarity” refers to the percentage of Asians who would have to move in for all neighborhoods to reflect a certain percentage of Asian composition of the entire city (say 46.31 percent). There are five dimensions define geographic traits that social scientists think of when they consider segregation (Gottdiener and Hutchison 2011:213). They are Unevenness, Isolation, Clustered, Concentrated, and Centralized.
The percentage of a metropolitan-area population residing in the suburban ring of the metropolitan area is taken from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s State of the Cities Data System (2009). The researcher will use correlation analysis to test whether there is a negative association between the level of suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation in the metropolitan areas in 2009.
The bivariate regression utilizes the relationship between the independent and dependent variables to predict the score of the dependent variable from the independent variable. In other words, after testing the hypothesis by using bivariate regression model, we will be able to predict the level of Asian-white segregation from the level of suburbanization.
However, in this study, we are more focusing on the association or relationship between these two variables than prediction.
The most common is a Pearson correlation coefficient (r), which is the correlation between two interval variables, and it ranges from -1.00 to 1.00. If -0.3<r<0.3, then we consider it as weak relationship; if -0.7<4<-0.3 or 0.3<r<0.7, then it is considered as moderate relationship; if -1.00<r<-0.7 or 0.7<r<1.0, then we interpret it as strong relationship.
Results Results from model predicting the level of suburbanization has very weak positive association on Asian-White segregation in 2009 in 260 metropolitan areas across the United States. This is completely opposite to the hypothesis. The correlation coefficient arrived at from the regression model is 0.0121. This indicates a weak but positive relationship between the variables.
Therefore, the level of suburbanization almost has no effect on the level of Asian-white segregation in 2009 across 260 metropolitan areas (n=260). Obviously, the result does not support my hypothesis that there is a negative association between the level of suburbanization and the level of Asian-white segregation. This shows that other factors are also at play in affecting the segregation of Asians.
This may include poverty levels, demographic shapes, levels of immigration, social status, and state and federal policies. While suburbanization plays a role in segregation, the factors appear more pronounced as they form a larger chunk of the explanatory model (Timberlake et al. 2011).
Moreover, the bar graph interprets the level of Asian-white segregation are all under 50, which means modest segregation. An interesting finding in the bar graph shows that the modest level of suburbanization actually has higher Asian-whites segregation than the lowest and highest level of suburbanization. The result implies that segregation tends to categorize things into certain groups that look alike.
This actually supports my counter theoretical argument that Asians might remain segregated from whites even in the suburbs. For example, while Chinese are of Asian descent, suburban Chinatowns seem to be resided by Chinese only. This is despite the fact that there may be black population residing alone and whites alone in the same locality.
Discussion The United States has traditionally been referred to as a “melting pot”. Her history began with waves of immigrants; bring their own cultures, traditions and all hoping to find freedom, new opportunities, and a better way of life.
The racial segregation has a long history in the United States: from the Black Codes to Chinese Exclusion Act to Japanese American internment to Jim Crow Laws to Redlining to Separate but Equal to White flight. As we can see, the state of segregation has been changed from legally enforced separation to more voluntary or involuntary separation.
The result shows that the increasing suburbanization does not have big effects on Asian-white segregation. However, it has a slight influence on bringing up the segregation of Asian and Whites. Therefore, the question as to whether suburbanization created more opportunities for living the “American Dream,” lingers.
On the other hand, it is prudent to ask whether suburbanization led to the homogenization of American culture, which produces more segregation and isolation. As I already argued at the beginning, too many unmeasured variables affect segregation of Asians. For this study particularly, I only focus on the role of suburbanization (Lu, 2001).
The results explain my hypothesis that suburbanization might not be the only factor that cause the Asian segregation. Therefore, in spite of suburbanization, what are the other factors affect segregation of Asians? According to Park and Iceland’s (2011) findings of residential segregation from 1990 to 2000, Asian segregation levels are consistently lower in new destinations.
Moreover, the native-born are less segregated than the foreign born, which is consistent with immigrant spatial incorporation. Finally, socioeconomic indicators are generally consistent with predictions of spatial assimilation. This study posits several academic and procedural limitations. First, lack of independent variables causes spuriousness. Secondly, there lacks available data to support Asian segregation.
Thirdly, this study only observes one year (2009), which is too short for studying segregation. Usually, sociologists often study segregation for at least a decade or even longer periods, so they can gather more data and come up better patterns. Data availability has the capacity to bring studies that are more empirical. Additionally, it is possible to relate to different periods to study patterns.
References Gottdiener, M.
Social Network: Consequences Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Social network sites (SNSs) have drawn millions of users, many of whom have tailored them to their everyday needs. SNSs include Facebook, Bebo, 43 Things, BlackPlanet, and Athlinks, among others. Social network sites have made communication easy throughout the globe. In fact, they have spurred globalization across the world. In the process, SNSs have brought about many consequences.
While some consequences have been beneficial, others have been damaging. Moreover, some users have been addicted to SNSs. In essence, relationship between people and SNSs has been created. This paper will explore consequences of relationships formed between SNSs and individuals (Gomez-arias
Ethical Issues Surrounding Social Networking Sites Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The ways in which people communicate and interact with each other have changed greatly with the emergence of new technology. Cyberspace is fast becoming the new way through which people meet and interact with each other and even share details that are personal or otherwise. Over the last couple of years, social networks have become a source of information for most people.
However, there are a number of ethical issues that have become associated with social networks. Ethics have an important role to play in an individual, as well as in social media (Arnold, Beauchamp
Bureaucracy and post-bureaucracy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Over the past, different theories and ideas on management have continued to develop at high rate due to the increased regulatory restructuring as well as flexibility to meet the customer demands (Du Gay, 2000). In addition, to circumvent the problems of ambiguity in dealing with the customers, organizations are embracing different modes of management to achieve efficient output.
Further, the policies underlying the administration of organizations have increasingly become ambiguous and complicated. Therefore, organizations have a responsibility of either restructuring their organizational ideologies based on the structural design or focusing on the public administrators and the way they should function to maximize their output (Du Gay, 2000).
Bureaucracy The paradigm of bureaucracy is a theory of management that is centered on the organizational structure. Hierarchy is a significant element of a bureaucratic organization. The significance of bureaucracy is to ensure faster and free delivery as well as accountability in the performance of assignments.
Korczynski (2004) provided examples of bureaucratic organizations such as INSCO where team leaders are hierarchically appointed. Further, at the ADBK and CBK, the approval officers who check mortgage applications are to forward their findings to the supervisor for consent.
Bureaucratic organizations also emphasize on the delegation of tasks that every member has to fulfill in order to achieve the goals of the organization (Korczynski, 2002). For example, in the bureaucratic organizations, the abilities of the approval officers are expected to process a given number of application forms per days.
Another important issue emphasized by the bureaucratic organizations is the adherence to the written procedures in conducting their businesses. Such procedures ensure efficiency in their operations. There is evidence of record keeping as well as written communication protocol that every employee must follow.
The communication protocol must also be followed in communicating with the clients. In Korczynski (2004) study of several organizations indicates workers exposed to several memos directing them on how they should carry out correspondence with the clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In an attempt to operate efficiently, bureaucratic organizations do not operate smoothly and hence have their points of weaknesses (Korczynski, 2003). For instance, rules in a bureaucratic organization have to be adhered to the latter in the way they are written irrespective of any situation that might arise. As a result, many firms applying this paradigm are unable to operate efficiently (Alvesson
The New Employee in the Daniel Orozco’s Orientation Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
The new employee is the main character in Orozco’s story “Orientation.” Orozco only concentrates on relationships of other employees and makes the new employee a mere observer in the new setting.
The narrator refers to the main character using the second person voice. “You must pace your work” (Orozco 2).However, the narrator tells the story using the first person voice. “What do I mean? (Orozco 3).
The new employee does not speak in the story although we can see that there was dialogue. “I’m glad you asked that” (Orozco 3). We assume that the new employee asks a question but the narrator does not include it in the story. By so doing, the narrator demonstrates that the new employee who is the listener is completely insignificant.
Similarly, the job that the new employee is to partake is insignificant to the story. The story is set in a conventional office environment. “Those are the offices and these are the cubicles” (Orozco 1). The narrator uses this setting to make the lives and behaviors of employees appear more disgraceful.
The narrator shifts from orientating the new employee to the general office to revealing about personal lives of the employees. He tells us about Russell Nash and his lust for Amanda Pierce. Apparently, discussing such information in an office environment is absurd.
Assuming that the narrator and the new employee had never met before, the narrator ought to have restrained from discussing sexual relationships of other employees because he risked embarrassing the listener. Under normal circumstances, such discussions only happen between people who are close to each other.
The narrator maintains a professional stance by refusing to comment on different sexual aspects of the employees. He only narrates events without sharing his mind about the same. For instance, he describes what Amanda’s husband does but he refrains from offering further comments (Orozco 4). This adds value to how the new employee perceives the information that the narrator shares.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The narrator also tells the new employee about his job limitations. “There are no personal phone calls allowed” (Orozco 1). The narrator then explains to the new employee about what he can do when there is need for an emergency call. “If you must make an emergency phone call, ask your supervisors first” (Orozco 1).
The narrator uses a professional tone in these two communications and creates a professional mood, which contradicts the idea of unprofessionalism when discussing personal information about employees.
The objects in this piece of literature are the offices and the cubicles. “Those are the offices and these are the cubicles” (Orozco 1). The narrator uses these objects to indicate to the new employee that he must act professionally as he is an official environment. These objects also instill caution in the new employee and that is why he listens cautiously and asks questions where he does not understand.
The story ends with a climax, as the narrator tells the new employee about Kelvin Howard, who is a serial killer. “Kevin Howard sits in that cubicle over there. He is a serial killer” (Orozco 5). The narrator goes ahead and explains how Kelvin mutilates people in town. He, however, clarifies that Kelvin only kills strangers.
By doing so, the narrator intends to assure the new employee that he is safe because under normal circumstances, an employee would scare the idea of working with a prominent serial killer.
The narrator also portrays Kelvin as a hardworking man who does not let his non-professional activities interfere with his professional duties. Supposedly, the new employee feels secure because he will not be a stranger to Kelvin, but a professional colleague who Kelvin cannot attack. Therefore, this conclusion works because the aim of orientation is to make people comfortable in new settings..
Works Cited Orozco, Daniel. Orientation, New York: Faber
The Key Features and Objectives of an Incident Command System Report essay help site:edu
The Key Features Of An Incident Command System An incident command system is a model that is used in the command and control of emergencies. It is a system used to respond to incidents that involves disasters and provides a framework for responding to the occurrence of emergencies by coordinating and controlling relief efforts in an emergency. The common goal of an incident command system is to stabilize incidents leading to the preservation of life, the environment, and property.
A study by Rubin (1997) shows that the incident command system is used to ensure efficient and effective utilization of resources in responding to disasters.
Studies by different researchers have shown that the incident command systems have proved to be successful models widely used in responding to different types of emergencies, which include incidents that involve multiple casualties, handling of hazardous materials, sea accidents, and the widespread rescue missions (Cole, 2000).
One of the areas in which the model was applied successfully was when I was assigned the duty to command an incident command system in response to an incident that involved earthquake victims. The disaster involved earthquake victims in one of the local areas in the USA, southern California where I worked as an incident commander.
The incident command system involved the commander cooperating with group members working in the relief efforts (Cole, 2000). The commander was also required to be open minded to new ideas by the team members, participating actively in the incident response system, and ensuring that effective communication characterized the entire system (Cole, 2000).
The main components around which the system was build included a command structure that included entire resources and persons working in the relief efforts, the planning component, operations element, logistical elements, and finance and administration.
In context, each of the elements mentioned above contributed significantly to the success of the incident command system that I was to implement in the designate area. While the entire system elements have been mentioned, my part as an incident commander was to take on the responsibility of the command function of the incident command system (Cole, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In response to the disaster that occurred, the framework involved executing the activities that fell under the responsibilities of the incident commander, one of them being to establish the incident response program.
The incident response program involved putting in place measures to preserve the life of the people adversely impacted by the earthquake. In this case, the emergency program required an emergency movement of the people from the disaster zone by identifying and creating new areas that were safe from the effects of the earthquake.
In addition, the program under the commander included coordinating the relief efforts with the people involved in the disaster relief organizations who were working on the ground to provide emergency relief efforts for the people (Cole, 2000).
In addition, the program included making an inventory of the people and the property discovered during the search and rescue operation, which had not been destroyed by the earthquake. The standard procedures for responding to the disaster included coordinating security personnel to ensure the safety and protection of property and personnel actively involved in the rescue program (Rubin, 1997).
The core responsibilities under the commander included establishing a command structure with an effective coordination of the relief efforts. In addition, the use of resources that included provision of shelter, food, clothing, communication, fire, medicine, and other necessities were effectively administered on the victims of the earthquake.
In addition, the commander ensured that the safety of the earthquake responder was guaranteed in the disaster prone area. The commander had the responsibility of ensuring that the response to the incidents occurred according to priority (Cole, 2000).
Objectives That An Incident Commander Based on the article, What Is the Incident Command System (ICS)? (n.d), it was important to determine and prioritize operational objectives in responding to the earthquake incident. The operational objectives included warning the people who had been affected in the earthquake prone area, which were caused by the secondary hazards due to the earthquake.
We will write a custom Report on The Key Features and Objectives of an Incident Command System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That was in addition to providing the people with the capability to provide themselves and the relief agencies with public safety information which included information on boiled water, shelter, and the provision of sheltering areas. Information is constantly made available of the threats to public safety and health, status incident responses, damages, injury, and status of critical incidents.
The commander creates an incident response team to make the incident response plan effective and successful.
The commander used the team to assess and establish the nature and scope of the earthquake, to send information to each member of the team members, identify the roles and responsibilities of each team members, establish a framework for monitoring and progressing team activities, and to prove the chain of custody of the incident response activities.
Shelter management, search and rescue, public information, logistics management, and long term recovery were critical in creating the plan.
References Cole, D., (2000). The Incident Command System: A 25-Year Evaluation By California Practitioners. Retrieved from https://www.usfa.fema.gov/index.html
Rubin, D.L., (1997). The Incident Command System: Myths, rumors and unnatural acts. Fire Chief, 41, 63-68.
What Is the Incident Command System (ICS) ?. (n.d). Retrieved from https://www.selectagents.gov/
Kids Market Consulting: Marketing Attractivenes Report college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Marketing attractiveness and marketing research in Ukraine
Reasons for Success of Kids Market Consulting
Future potentials of the Kids Market Consulting
Introduction Marketing is an important function in an organization. It involves communicating to consumers with the aim of convincing them to buy a given product or service provided by the organization.
The major objective of marketing is to attract customers in the organization. It is important to note that marketing can be regarded to as a science since the marketer is required to carry out market analysis. In marketing, one has to choose market targets in order to carry out marketing segmentation.
In doing so, the marketer will have to carry out a number of analyse. Thus, marketing is regarded as a science. The reason why marketing is critical to a business organization is because it determines its performance or its profitability (Winer and Ravi 14).
The concept of marketing management has become more significant with the emergence of globalization. Multinational organizations are required to manage marketing beyond their home country boundaries, thereby making the process more complex and increasing its significance (Pride and Ferrell 24).
The marketing manager is required to analyze data in the various countries where the organization plans to establish operations in order to develop a marketing strategy that is going to give the organization competitive advantage in that country.
Marketing attractiveness is one of the issues that the marketing manager needs to address. He needs to focus on the right model to research on the marketing attractiveness. This report is related to a research on marketing attractiveness by a Ukrainian company known as the Kids Market Consulting.
Marketing attractiveness and marketing research in Ukraine Before an organization establishes itself in a market, it should first carry out a research about the market to establish if it is going to be profitable or not. Market attractiveness refers to the possibilities that the market structure in a given industry is going to be profitable (Saxena, 2009). A firm will always be attracted to invest in a market or in an industry that is profitable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of factors that should be considered when determining the attractiveness of the market. To begin with, what the firm should consider is the growth rate of the market, as well as the market size. A market that has a high growth rate is worth investing in because chances of viability are high compared to chances in a market that has a low growth rate.
In a market that is growing, there are chances that more customers will be coming to the market. As a consequence, the total sales and profitability are likely to be high. However, chances are that more competitors are likely to join a market that is growing, and the competition will be higher.
High competition has the potential of reducing the profitability of that organization. In addition, there is the possibility of government interventions, thereby affecting the activities in the market.
On the other hand, a large market has more customers and the possibility of more sales and more profits is high as opposed to a small market where there are less people (Dibb
Business Case of Company A and Costco Company Case Study cheap essay help
An invoice payment refers to a situation in which a business provides its services or conducts its transactions on credit. The seller mainly sells the goods but receives payment at a later date.
Whenever invoice payment guidelines are appropriately set, the customers make their payments on time and in accordance with the set guidelines. In a situation where a customer fails to stick to the required terms, essential measures are taken to ensure he or she checks on his or her payment discipline.
In this case study, we are taking a consideration of the business activities between company A and Costco Company. The major transactions made involve the selling of DVDs and games. However, it has been noted that the payment procedures are not appropriately followed by both the companies. In order to solve this problem, proper strategies need to be employed.
To begin with, company A will have to track the credit limit. This will involve an analysis of the outstanding credit before delivering the next sales. The findings will be presented to the company’s management staff who will take the necessary action.
A notification sent to the staff ensures a review of the procedures initially set and corrects any uncertainties that may arise. This will avoid future problems in invoice payment. Furthermore, this will enable a review of the invoice payments and correction on the outstanding credit.
Additionally, procedures that will provide a way forward on handling of delayed payment on invoices should be laid down. The staff should come up with procedures that will prevent customers from delaying delivery of payment on purchases made. This will enable the customer to prepare payment in advance in order to avoid consequences arising from late payments.
The company can also evaluate its partner’s financial condition. If institutions are facing challenges in implementing their mandates, it goes without question that they will have problems paying for their transactions. Evaluation of the financial situation of the partners will thus enable the company to establish the financial situation and set required measures to be undertaken in order to enable them honor their payments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Negotiations on new payment terms may be another strategy to be considered. By reviewing the payments made and comparing them with the conditions initially set, the company can know if there may be need to renegotiate for new terms. The customers may be finding it hard to bear with the existing terms as a result of financial crisis. To avoid losses, new terms of transacting business can be negotiated.
The new terms will enable both parties to enjoy a comfortable position. Company A may also consider strategies that enable the customer to deliver payment with ease. This may include an earlier preparation of the invoices. For example, the company may decide to be sending the invoices together with the goods on delivery.
Organizing a payment plan for the customer may also be another effective way of ensuring proper payment of the invoices. This will enable the customers to establish outlined ways of paying for the goods sold to them.
For example, a plan can be laid out whereby the other company pays for the goods in installments in cases of financial constraints. This will serve as a motivating factor due to the fact they will have a chance to re-establish their business while conducting a business transaction at the same time. The client will be encouraged to organize a proper payment procedure of the invoices in order to sustain the business relationship.