How The U.S. Can Combat The Terrorist Threat In Africa? Research Paper Argumentative Essay Help

Table of Contents Abstract

Reasons for the research

Outline of the research


Abstract This research will look into the emerging issues of terrorist threats in Africa. The paper will try to answer whether the U.S. can counter the emerging terrorist threats in Africa through military cooperation missions with aligned countries. Thus the research looks into how the U.S. can participate both militarily, and diplomatically to combat the emerging terrorist threat in Africa.

Additionally, the paper discusses the disposition of the threat and where it is going. Some of the issues the article looks at are:

increasing kidnapping cases for ransoms that fund terrorism;

the AQIM (Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb) and Al Qaeda relationship;

emergence of Al Shabab in the horn of Africa,

the transitional federation government in Somalia and its implication on the state of lawlessness;

the AQIM using Torgs as protection and logistical support;

the un-official truce between AQIM and the government;

the situation of the anti AQIM movement in Mauritania;

the research will also cover the U.S. involvement in Africa, the State Dept and DoD.

Other important issues that will be considered will include the foreign internal defense mission that the U.S. is conducting, military agencies like: -Special Operations Command Africa -Special Operations Command Europe -EUCOM -AFRICOM and all of their participating efforts (Davis 2010, 150).

Reasons for the research Africa for a long time has been a very focal point in the U.S’s policies and has been regarded as a friend. Major economical, political and social changes that are observable within the region have led to an upsurge of terrorist actions within the region (Rothchild and Keller 2006, 100-8).

Inclusion of African states in world issues and especially its focus from the UN and EU has opened up serious obligations concerning civil liberties protection arising from a number of ratified global pacts. To this point, the reaction from the UN has brought out various important weaknesses in the population strategies and legislation, predominantly relating to minorities’ matters.

The emerging trend of terrorist organizations in the Middle East recruiting and establishing cells in Africa, Al Qaeda in east Africa and so forth.

The issue has become the target of both, international and national interest, due to the recent events (for example: The AQIM and Al Qaeda relationship, emergence of Al Shabab in Somalia, rampant piracy in the Indian ocean off the shores of Kenya) which requires the world and United Nations and European Union and other world bodies, to reconsider and revise the whole population policy and human rights legislation.

Davis (2010, 16) notes “these aforementioned reasons and the overall need to put a stop on emerging terrorist activities and threats in Africa requires updated current legislation and a revision of national policies by the U.S and aligned countries.” This has offered me with motivation to discuss the emerging terrorist threats in Africa issues in my research paper.

Outline of the research The paper will gather resource from a huge array of reference materials such as: journals, books, policy papers, legislations, case studies, and so forth, that would help in shedding light on this grave issue.

Through this article I seek to answer the question whether the U.S. can counter the emerging terrorist threats in Africa through military cooperation missions with aligned countries. And how it can participate to the left of the line militarily, and diplomatically to combat this.

The first part of the paper, the background of terrorist threats in Africa shall be looked into and discussed. The research will give an overview of the historical background and the dynamics that affect of influence it (Rothchild and Keller 2006, 100-8).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second part of the research paper will analyze the main issues and difficulties with the situation increasing terrorist activities in northern Africa and the respective actions that countries are using to combat this (Davis 2010, 150).

The article will also look at the relationship between the AQIM and Al Qaeda and Al Shabab in northern horn of Africa (Somalia). One of the major difficulties of combating these emerging threats is the constant political upheavals within the region (Africa) (Rothchild and Keller 2006, 100-8).

The third part will seek to find solutions for countering terrorism and offer conclusions and recommendations to the question.Due to the above stated facts, there arises a necessity for the development and realization of stable and efficient polices that are tailored towards the protection of human rights.

These human rights policies or legislations should be applied equally whereby the will guarantee equality and fairness both in practiced law and the law on paper. Rothchild and Keller (2006, 100-8) notes “the northern African states and Africa as a region of post-modern democratic states are obliged under international treaties to guarantee human rights protection in their societies for the sake of international peace and security.”

References Davis, John. Terrorism in Africa: the evolving front in the War on Terror. Lexington: Lexington Books, 2010.

Rothchild, Donald, and Keller, Edmond. Africa-US relations: strategic encounters. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006.


Dietary Law Comparison: Kashrut vs. Halal Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The origin of Kashrut and Halal

Similarities between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism

Differences between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism


Works Cited

Introduction The religious aspect has greatly changed over the years and it has thus been proved that there is no single religion tradition in the 21st century that is an island. Islam and Judaism are among the religious traditions of the 21st century. The US terrorist attack on September 2001 has called for an understanding between the diverse traditional religions.

The following essay examines the relationship between Islam and Judaism. The essay specifically examines the similarities and differences between dietary laws of Islam and Judaism by comparing the Kashrut in the Judaism tradition vs. Halal in the Islam tradition.The essay also investigates the origin of Kashrut and Halal.The last section of the essay is comprised of a conclusion on the dietary laws of Islam and Judaism.

However, it is important to know the meaning of the words Kashrut and Halal.In Jewish. The term Kashrut means being fit i.e. foods that man is permitted to eat and if well prepared, the food is regarded as being Kosher. Usually, there are various reasons for observing the Kashrut law and the most popular reason is that it is unhealthy to take forbidden food.

Thus, holiness forms the basis of this law. According to Judaism, all things should be viewed from a spiritual perspective and therefore one must eat some foods and at the same time refrains form eating others. According to this law, it is important for people to have control over their appetites.On the other hand, Halal is an Arabic term that could be translated to mean something that is considered per4missible by law.

Haram, also an Arabic term could be translated to mean something not permitted by the law; it means opposite of Halal. These two words i.e. Halal and Haram are global terms that are used with regards to food products, food ingredients and meat products. The Halal dietary law is an aspect of Shari law.

In the Shari, Hall could be translated to mean that all foods are permissible with of exception of some foods like pork and related products among other (Cutis 165).

The origin of Kashrut and Halal The following is a brief history of the Judaism and Islam dietary laws; The Jewish dietary laws revolve around the prohibitions and regulations in the Torah i.e. the five books of Moses. The Judaic dietary law is thought to date back in the 1250 BC when Moses was given Kashrut law by God on Mount Sinai. The Jewish thus were obliged to follow the Kashrut law as a result of its divine source.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Kashrut law has over the years gained a huge symbolic significance to an extent that the Jews are prepared to offer their lives as a sacrifice rather than disobey God’s decree. The laws regarding the kind of animals, fish and birds that should be eaten is explained in the books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. According to the scripture, the Jews are supposed to eat animals which have split hooves and also those that chew the cud.

Such animals that have spilt hooves and also chew the cuds are domestic animals like sheep and cow. On the other hand there is no common formula that is stated with regards to the birds that may be eaten instead; there is a list of forbidden animals which includes the owl, the raven and the eagle.

Although there is no reason that explains the above choices, scholars have suggested that the birds that are forbidden are the birds of prey. Thus by refraining from eating birds of prey, man have been considered as cruel in that, he exploits the weak. With fish, the law of Kashrut states that man should only eat fish that has scales and fins. Also, there is no reason that is given in supporting this distinction.

The scholars have came up with various explanations regarding this law e.g. the argument that those fish that don’t have scales and fins are found in sea depths which is associated with such chaos and adultery( Lewis 30.

The Kashrut law also explains how animals should be killed for food. Despite the fact that this procedure is not explained in the Torah, it is believed that the procedure of killing animals has divine influence as God explained to Moses on how to go about it. This procedure is however explained by various laws and one is required to undergo training before he or she becomes a slaughter.

Studies by Maimonides in 12th century explained that, the main reason behind slaughtering procedure is to allow the animal to die a painless death. According to Judaism, animals should not be subjected to too much suffering during slaughter. Another aspect of slaughter law is that animals that has any kind of defect should not be eaten.Defect according to Kashrut is known as ‘terefah’ which means the state of being torn.

This provision of Kashrut law is contained in Exodus 22:31.Similarly, an animal that is found to have some defects after slaughter is usually taken to a religious leader in order to examine whether it is a kosher or not. Also, adequate salt should be added during meat preparation.

We will write a custom Essay on Dietary Law Comparison: Kashrut vs. Halal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This law is derived from the Bible. Kashrut law also restricts people from taking meat and milk together and this law is stipulated in Exodus 23:19. The Bible usually does not explain the source of Judaism dietary laws but it associates these laws with holiness i.e. in Exodus 22:31, Leviticus 11:44-45 and Deuteronomy 14:21 (Cohn-Sherbok 556).

On the other hand, religious leaders in their studies about Kashrut held the view that, the mere observance of dietary laws helps to promote self discipline among the Jewish community. Maimonides in his studies argued that, the Kashrut laws plays an important role of teaching discipline and appetites mastery.

Other scholars argued that the Kashrut laws were based on humanitarian grounds due to the fact that the law requires animals to be slaughtered painlessly. However, the Kashrut laws were universally practiced in the 19th century. The prescriptions of Kashrus laws have largely been ignored by the Jews reformists while the Judaism conservatives have been adhering to the Kashrus laws (Rachel 48).

On the other hand, Islamic dietary laws also known as Halal determine the kind of foods that are permitted or lawful for Muslims and are contained in the Sunni and in the Quran. The Halal laws are believed to have been in existence since 620 AD. The Quran documents the ritual procedures of slaughtering poultry and animals. The Quran requires that dead animals should not be slaughtered.

The Halal forbidden the carrion and requires the windpipe and carotid artery to be cut off by using a sharp knife so as to not to cause much pain. Additionally, one is required to mention the name of Allah before he or she begins the slaughtering and to completely drain the blood (Deutsch


The United Nations in Africa Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo

United Nations Operations in Mozambique

United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia

Works Cited

Introduction The United Nations (UN) is a worldwide institute who’s affirmed objectives are assisting collaboration in intercontinental law, global security, economic progress, societal development, individual liberties and attainment of global harmony. The body was set up in 1745 following the Second World War to substitute the League of Nations, to bring to a halt conflicts involving nations, and to offer a stage for discussion.

It entails several auxiliary bodies to put through its undertakings. There are presently 192 affiliate nations, with each autonomous country in the world other than the Vatican City (United Nations Cyberschoolbus Country at a Glance).

From its administrative centers around the world, the UN and its specific outfits settle on essential and organizational matters in normal conventions held right through the year. The body has six major organs and the Security Council is the organ tasked with fixing on given decisions for harmony and safety.

The UN has carried out several peaces restoration and observance missions in Africa since the 1950s to the present day. Following independence, several African nations have been involved in civil unrest and the UN has been the international body mostly involved in exercises to ensure warring factions stay in peace.

The progression from an armed clash to peace and tranquility is usually divided into four different exercises. These exercises are; conciliation, peacekeeping, peace implementation and peace building, in that order. The conciliation exercise is normally a diplomatic undertaking while the rest are enforced by armed forces (Anyidoho, 13).

United Nations peace exercises have been positive and gainful alternatives for dealing with some conflicts and humanitarian predicaments.

The greater part of the 35 mediation exercises carried out by the UN over the past five decades have been of great significance in ending regional conflicts, enhancing social equality, and keeping an eye on human rights. They have assisted stop expatriate flows and resulted in stability to areas of strategic and economic significance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo, truncated to ONUC, translates to The United Nations Organization in the Congo in English. This was a UN international relations military unit in Congo that was instituted following the United Nations Security Council Resolution 143 of July 14, 1963. From this period the name was changed to Opération des Nations Unies au Congo (Washington CRS Report for Congress 2001, 12).

Congo got independence on June 30 1960. However, the Belgian commander-in-chief declined to Africanize the administrators’ units of the armed forces. As a result of the there was disarray and uprisings broke out.

As the then head of state and the prime minister were engrossed in finding a middle ground with the radicals, the Belgian administration made a decision to get involved to safeguard Belgians that were still in the country. The Belgian administration was for the idea that Katanga Province, one of the most productive in the country be independent. This is where the majority of the Belgians stayed.

The Belgian administration sent its soldiers to Elisabethville, Katanga’s headquarters to safeguard Belgians on July 10, 1960. They claimed autonomy of the region. Two days later, Congo’s President and the Prime Minister requested for aid of the UN in resolving the matter (Anon).

The UN Secretary-General asked the concerned organ, the UN Security Council, to act on the issue as a matter of urgency in a meeting held on July 13th, 1960. The Security Council required the Belgian administration to take put its soldiers from Congo’s land.

The decision allowed the UN Secretary General to go ahead, in discussion with the Congolese administration, to offer that regime with the required forces aid until it felt that, by way of its labors with the technological help of the UN, the countrywide defense forces were in a position to achieve their responsibilities completely.

After the Security Council actions, the United Nations Force in the Congo (MONUC) was instituted. To perform these duties, the Secretary General put together a UN Force, which at its climax force added up to 20,000. The military unit was in Congo from 1960 to 1964, and remained a mediation force, not a war machine.

We will write a custom Essay on The United Nations in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They could only use their weaponry in self defense. Nevertheless, they in due course became aggressively occupied in repressing the attempted secession of Katanga. The pulling out of Belgian soldiers was accomplished by September of the same year.

Following this, Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba went ahead in an effort to invade Katanga on his own, looking up to the Soviet Union for assistance. The raid effort never got to Katanga and resulted in discord within the Central Administration, the fall down of that administration and in the end to Patrice Lumumba’s apprehension in December.

The United Nations soldiers remained in the country until 1964 and during all this time they were assisting the administration to uphold tranquility and in strengthening the autonomy of the nation. After all this, Katanga remained a province.

United Nations Operations in Mozambique The United Nations operations in Mozambique in the early 90s are abbreviated ONUMOZ. The operations were instituted in December of 1992 to help in the enactment of the harmony accord involving the administration of Mozambique and the opposition faction RENAMO.

The nation’s post-independence civil strife took place from 1976 to 1992 and led to the death of approximately 1 million people (Handicap International). It also led to the devastation of the nation’s infrastructure and farming capability, and forced millions of immigrants into next-door nations.

Mozambique’s Portuguese colonial cream of the crop departed right away after independence. After a few years, the country, like a number of other African nations, got caught up in the area disorder fired by Cold War enmities and the procedures of the Apartheid administration in neighboring South Africa. Just about two decades of civil conflict at last ended in 1992.

The fall down of white administrations all through southern Africa, the coming to an end of the Cold War, and a destructive food crisis, offered the setting for the General Peace Agreement marked between the war factions in Rome.

ONUMOZ kept an eye on the truce and disbandment of armed groups and offered safety for humanitarian aid. The being there of ONUMOZ shored up safety and assurance as the conditions of the tranquility agreements were enacted and free polls conducted.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The United Nations in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Countrywide polls, conducted in October 1994, were confirmed to be free and fair by the United Nations. Up to 90% of entitled voters took part in the exercise and both competing sides honored the outcome of the poll.

The command of ONUMOZ came to an end with the putting in place of the freshly voted national administration in December 1994. All the United Nations troops were pulled out as of January 31, the following year.

In this country, the United Nations did well in disbanding armed foes exhibiting great hostility and animosity, getting immigrants back home, and building an atmosphere within which free and fair polls could be conducted (United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs).

In this, it ensured better stableness all through the southern African expanse, serving as a case in point for continuing United Nations efforts to put an end to Angola’s lengthy civil strife.

United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia This is abbreviated UNOL and as instituted in November 1997 after the conclusion of UNOMIL’s command at the end of September of the same year. UNOMIL was the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia that had been running since 1993.

UNOL was led by an envoy of the Secretary General and was basically the first UN post-war maintenance organization whose task was to principally help the administration strengthen harmony after the July 1997 multiparty polls.

Civil conflict in Liberia took away more than 250,000 lives and resulted in a full collapse of law and order (The United Nations Statistics Division). A lot of civilians were displaced, both inland and beyond the nation’s borders.

There were about 850,000 expatriates in the next-door nations. Warfare commenced towards the end of 1989, and by the beginning of 1990, quite a lot of hundred deaths had taken place in conflicts involving government troops and opposition rebels of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia, NPFL. NPFL was led by a previous government officer, Mr. Charles Taylor.

As of the beginning of the war, a sub regional association, the Economic Community of West African States, embarked on a number of ideas directed at a diplomatic agreement. The UN shored up ECOWAS in its labors. Some of the help that UN offered was instituting of an ECOWAS observer unit, enforcing an arms restriction on Liberia and providing a Special Envoy to help in negotiations involving ECOWAS and the groups in conflict.

Following ECOWAS’s negotiation of a peace accord in Benin in 1993, the UN Security Council instituted UNOMIL. UNOMIL was tasked with shoring up the enactment of the Benin peace accord, particularly falling in line with and unbiased enactment of the accord by all parties.

UNOMIL became the initial UN international relations exercise carried out in collaboration with a peacekeeping exercise previously instituted by another association.

Holdups in the enactment of the tranquility accord and restarted warfare among Liberian splinter groups made it unworkable to conduct polls in early 1994, as pre-arranged. In the upcoming months, some complimentary tranquility accords, adjusting and shedding light on the Benin accord was bargained (Johnson).

With the truce in effect, the UN effectively monitored the July 1997 polls. Mr. Charles Taylor emerged as the winner. He was sworn in and instituted a new administration and declared a course of action of ceasefire and national harmony. UNOMIL’s main aim was attained.

UNOL came in after UNOMIL and by way of complete back up by the Security Council, it made possible the endorsement of national ceasefire and first-rate administration and assisted in drumming up global back up for the enactment of restoration and growth agendas.

In the most up to date stage, UNOL directed its efforts toward accomplishment of the stipulations of a reworked consent, permitted by the Security Council on April 23, 2003.

Under the stipulations of that reworked consent, and to add to its original duties, UNOL was to lay emphasis on helping the administration of Liberia in tackling its articulated facility requirements in the areas of civil rights and the carry-out of polls, as well as on building up a peace building tactic putting together opinionated intentions, agenda aid and civil rights contemplations.

Nonetheless, the peace building labors of UNOL were badly deterred by the lack of ability of the administration and opposition party leading lights to settle their discrepancies over major issues of administration.

In the meantime, the endorsement of national squaring off was chip away at by organized maltreatment of civil liberties, the omission persecution of political rivals and lack of security sector reorganization and improvement.

These factors had a major role to play to the recommencement of civil strife in Liberia, propelling the international community to call on the fighting factions to go after a bargained resolution of the disagreement (Human Rights Watch Africa).

On July 8, 2003, the UN Secretary General assigned Jacques Paul Klein of the US as his Special Envoy to Liberia. This was a period in which the war involving Government troops and the various militaristic groups stepped up and the humanitarian catastrophe in danger.

Jacques was tasked with organizing the actions of the United Nations organs in Liberia and shoring up the up-and-coming changeover preparations. On July 29 of the same year the UN Secretary General charted a three-pronged set out of intercontinental forces to Liberia, directing to a multifaceted mediation exercise.

He also stated that, with the selection of Mr. Jacques, and the foreseen institution of a United Nations exercise in Liberia, the command of UNOL would of course have to be concluded.

Works Cited Anon 2004. “Can Africans keep their own peace?” Web.

Anon 2004 Strategic Comments. “African peacekeeping: Revival or relapse?” 2004 (5 Strategic Comments. Anyidoho. “Political Control and Guidance of Peace Support Operations in Africa: A UN Commander’s View” (2002). Ghana Armed Forces. p. 13

Grey-Johnson. “Beyond Peacekeeing; The Challenge of Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peacebuilding in Africa” (2006) (1) UN Chronicle Online Edition. Web.

Handicap International, 2010. Web.

Human Rights Watch Africa, 2009. Web.

The United Nations Statistics Division. “World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook, 2008.” Web.

United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, Landmine Clearance Unit Report on Mozambique. 2003. Web.

United Nations Cyberschoolbus Country at a Glance. 2008. Web.

Washington CRS Report for Congress 2001. “Copson RW Democratic Republic of the Congo: Peace Process and Background.” (2001). p. 12.


Nuclear Deterrence Essay best essay help

Both Thomas Schelling and Herman Kahn agree that nuclear weapons serve as efficient deterrence tools. However, the two have different ideologies on just how the weapons play the deterrence role. Schelling argues that nuclear weapons do not have to pose a credible threat in order to be an effective deterrence tool, while Kahn argues that the threat posed by nuclear weapons have to be credible in order to serve the deterrence role effectively.

This paper argues that though Schelling’s theory was more valid during the cold war, it is no longer applicable in the contemporary world. In fact, Kahn’s theory seems more relevant considering the different dynamics that has surfaced in the 21st century threat environment.

Schelling proposed that the power of deterrence in the nuclear age is pegged not only on the equality or balance of the nuclear-possessing countries, but on the “stability of the balance” (Pennings 314). This proposition is further supported by his argument that parties in a conflict need to “coolly and rationally calculate their advantages according to consistent value systems” (Schelling 18).

Combined, these two propositions suggest that the mere possession of nuclear weapons is not deterrent enough; rather, opponents need to be in an equal position, where a first strike the aggressor party cannot diminish the defender’s ability to strike back.

Clearly, Schelling’s views on deterrence were based on uncertainty. More specifically, the theorist suggested that both sides had to be vulnerable for deterrence to work.

Notably, Schelling’s theory appeared plausible in 1972 when the US and USSR signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM). According to the treaty, both parties could only have one ABM deployment area, located near each party’s capital city, or at a singled-out deployment area.

The treaty held until June 2002 when United States withdrew from it. If Schelling’s theory was indeed plausible, the withdrawal of the US from the treaty could have led to a disruption in international security and peace.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kahn argued that countries use nuclear weapons for two kinds of deterrence; “Deterring an enemy’s first nuclear strike,” and, “using the threat of [our] own first strike to deter lesser aggression” (Levine and Levine 3). (Garnett 76) however notes that Kahn identified three deterrence modes of the nuclear weapon.

First, Kahn hypothesized that countries feared that a direct attack on a nuclear state would lead to a second-retaliatory attack. On this point, Kahn and Schelling share the same views.

Second, he posited that countries feared that provocation could trigger the probability of a credible first nuclear strike; and third, he hypothesized that countries could encourage the use of tit-for-tat deal brokering, which could deter the escalation of conflicts and provocations.

The latter supposition is similar to Schelling’s view that opponents would try other means of resolving conflict, by maintaining some sort of ‘respect’ for the other party, in order to avoid situations where nuclear weapons can be used.

Notably, Kahn’s ideologies have been criticized for providing more than deterrence principles. Specifically, some critics have accused him of offering directives on “how to fight a nuclear war, how to win it, and how to get away with it” (Kahn


Total Supply Net Work of Coca Cola Report (Assessment) online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Supply Network of the Coca Cola Company

Factors Affecting Coca Cola out Sourcing Decisions

How Coca Cola Company Has Planned for Location of its Capacity


Introduction A supply network refers to interrelated business processes whose main aim is successful delivery of products or services of an organization to its end users or consumers. The aim of this task is to identify and describe the total supply net work of the Coca Cola Corporation and to identify factors that have influenced its determination of the parts of business to outsource or keep in-house.

The Supply Network of the Coca Cola Company Coca Cola Company is one of the biggest multinational companies in the world, with business operations in virtually all independent nations. Busa and Wright (2007, p. 92) states that Coca Cola Corporation has for over a century been manufacturing and selling bottled beverages.

They further add that the actual manufacturing and bottling of its beverages is carried out by its world wide system of business partners. The Company has local bottling branches in various countries world over where its products are made and packaged for markets in the immediate environs.

In reality, success of the production network of a company like Coca Cola which acts globally relies mainly on how well the logistics collaboration between partners is working Stangford-Smith, et al. (2002, p. 640).

These authors argues that the Coca Cola Company maximizes the possible saving possibilities within the European food processing sector through an enhanced collaboration in production systems Stanford-Smith et al. (2002, p. 640). With respect to the supply section the company has automated order taking processes especially in the developed countries.

For instance, in USA its sales agents does this by entering sales on transportable terminals while out in the field which are in turn transferred automatically to the companies main database Scott (1986, p. 33).This enables the company to maintain a superior customer service and satisfaction.

Factors Affecting Coca Cola out Sourcing Decisions Business out sourcing process refers to situation whereby an organization’s part of its business is done by another partner as opposed to its actual employees. For example, a company can seek I.T services for its business from another organization specializing in provision of services in that field.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An organization’s decisions regarding business process out sourcing is influenced by many factors which can be economic, social, and political in nature. Russell and Taylor(2005, p. 245) for instance argues that the Coca Cola Company can not in its endeavors to out source reveal its formula to another partner even under circumstances where secrecy is guaranteed.

Most of the factors that have influenced Coca cola Corporation decisions on what parts of its business to out source and which to keep in-house are socioeconomic in nature in that most of the services outsourced are geared towards cutting the cost of operating and enhancing a superior customer service that guarantees satisfaction.

The company for instance aims at reducing its labour and distribution costs through partnership with companies that specialize in certain kind of business processes like distribution. Government policies also play a critical role in determining how Coca Cola Company makes its decisions regarding business out sourcing process.

How Coca Cola Company Has Planned for Location of its Capacity Coca Cola Company capacity is largely hinged on its ever expanding global market floor space and other competitive strategies such as purchasing of own premises like warehouses in its operational bases. In addition to expanding, the company partners with other organizations whose business activities impacts directly upon its activities.

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America for instance points out that various companies in the food and beverage sectors have been breaking into new markets by either competing or partnering with MNCs like Coca Cola UNECLA 2008, p. 67).

Reference Busa, R. and Wright. N. (2007) Total Supply Chain Management. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Russell, R. S., Taylor, B. W. (2005) Operations management: quality and competitiveness in a global environment. New York: John Wiley.

We will write a custom Assessment on Total Supply Net Work of Coca Cola specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scott, K. (1986) Data to go: Portables a profusion of portables permeate the market place, Net work World. Vol. 3, No. 23, p.33

Stanford-Smith, B., Chiozza, E. and Edin, M. (2002) Challenges and achievements in E-business and E-work. New York: IOS Press.

United Nations Publications, United Nations: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLA) (2008) Foreign Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean 2007. New York: United Nations Publications.


Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction The education enables people to gain new skills in a formal and governmentally controlled way which then benefits the individual’s professional training and promotional ladder movement. Though some people think education to be a rudiment of the renaissance age when this was a concept available to rich people only, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of education on different levels and in different ages.

The age groups of learners vary regarding the essence of learning. For instance, elementary and secondary education is obligatory aspect of ordinary life in most countries of the world whereas ESL learning is the area available to people who want to learn English and master it to the degree of native speaking.

At the same time, many nations acknowledge necessity of learning other languages than the native one in the context of the globalisation and developing cultural diversity issues. The syllabus will include vocabulary, language focus, listening, and speaking sections that consist of specific topics necessary for adequate development of language skills in whole.

The present learning syllabus in Taiwan elementary schools was introduced to make the learning-teaching process more effective. Along with the new syllabus, a new assessment scale was introduced to functions as the following:

understanding the strengths and weaknesses of students’ learning ability,

assisting teachers in monitoring student learning progress,

evaluating students’ learning,

placing students in learning groups based on given institutional standards (Chan, 2006, p. 37).

So, the syllabus for the primary school in Taiwan includes interventions for reading (phonemic awareness), writing, listening, and speaking.

Reforms can be considered another important aspect of many sectors of human activity including education that should be adjusted to changing needs and preferences of the population with regard to the expansion of businesses into the global market, development of new areas in new fields of industry with the help of foreign partners or involvement of foreign investors.

In this respect, ESL learners in Taiwan are facing the necessity of introducing new English literature learning syllabus in accordance with the importance of being in the mainstream of the language learning. Besides, a combination of the most effective approaches to design of the literature learning syllabi can be more effective than the application of a single approach or in-turn application of different approaches.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, ESL learners can benefit from introduction of the new approach that is aimed at using the task-based and topic-based learning syllabi. The present project is designed in order to outline an English literature learning syllabus for ESL learners of 8-12 years old in Taiwan.

The subject will include reading, speaking, writing, listening, and pronunciation interventions for ESL students that would contribute positively to the development of language skills necessary for adequate academic development which is impossible without good reading, speaking, writing, listening, and pronunciation skills.

Background The English literature learning syllabus should include the features of the topic-based and task-based approaches because ESL students should benefit more from the introduction of new instructions. The syllabus should include clear instructions and be more oriented on gaining the knowledge on a specific topic rather than on a definite text that is aimed at developing knowledge in a concrete area.

General aims of the course include design of a new English learning syllabus or ESL learners in Taiwan. The social, cultural, and educational environments are under the influence of the political and economical ones because of the emerging tendencies in the economy and growth of globalisation.

Participants of this syllabus are ESL learners in Taiwan and well-qualified teachers who have experience in primary teaching and ESL teaching as well. The English literature learning syllabus is introduced for the primary EFL students in Taiwan to enable them to gain knowledge in English language and understand the peculiarities of culture better.

Theoretical Framework The globalization and the development of an international perspective have pushed English to become an international language or global communication language. Many countries see English as a basic educational requirement (Maurais and Morris, 2003). The motivation and environment have been examined as factors that influence the language acquisition progress by many researchers.

As reported in the study by Gunderson (2008), “Cummins argued that learning occurs in different contexts [that] provide substantial cues to the learner” (p. 41). Corson (1999) reviews the methods that can be applied to increase the language and literature learning efficiency in the ESL class.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, increase of motivation, reduce the level of anxiety, and increase the level of pupils’ self-confidence and others (p. 199). This means that environment and motivation are of great importance for the ESL students’ effectiveness in learning.

The current situation is such as the ESL learning syllabus is mostly based on the insufficient teacher training resources, content-based or topic-based approach to the presentation of new learning material in class, cooperative learning, and learning in groups when students are divided into smaller groups than the class usually comprises for better acquisition of the presented material.

In addition, the current situation with ESL students in primary school in Taiwan is such that students start learning English as a second language in a younger age than they used to before; so, students may experience difficulties related to associations built in the native and the foreign language. Moreover, students are taught to build analogies and simplify more complicated terms and concepts using new vocabulary.

Qualification of teachers plays one of the major roles in effectiveness of instructions and the expected outcomes of the teaching process. “Students who are not isolated in ESL programs are thrust into mainstream classrooms with teachers little prepared to accommodate them” (Flood, International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English, 2003, p. 430).

As suggested by Carder (2007), “ESL teachers for primary (ages 6-11 or 12) should be well-qualified teachers of this age group, with additional training in second language teaching” (p. 38). Besides, the student teacher ratio should not exceed 8:1 (eight students per one teacher) if the ESL syllabus concerns the primary school (Carder, 2007, p. 40).

The history of ESL reading instructions was reviewed by Gunderson (2008) who analysed the approaches and reading programmes used by different scholars and practicing teachers of ESL learners with regard to effectiveness of each approach and benefits gained by learners.

The first approach includes a bottom-up model of teaching according to which “most teachers appear to believe students should be taught skills such as phonics and letter-sound relationship” (Gunderson, 2008, p. 36). The second model, in this case, concerns the top-down approach when students are “asked to read meaningful material” which excludes teaching the letter-sound correspondence directly (Gunderson, 2008, p. 36).

The compromise between these two models is reached in the third one called interactive which is supposed to combine the designs of both the top-down and the bottom-up models (Gunderson, 2008, pp. 36-37). Combination of different learning syllabi is welcomed in the educational system in order to promote educational level of ESL learners.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Variety of views and approaches makes it easier for teachers to use and combine the most effective educational models for ESL students to benefit from them.

Ferris and Hedgcock (2005) report about the variety of views developed in terms of the ESL composition writing, namely the opinion of expressivists who think that expressing oneself in the process of writing is the most important part of writing and cognitivists who consider problem-solving and analysis the main components of the writing process (pp. 5-6).

Task-based learning can be useful in addressing conditions related to ESL students’ writing practice (Cumming, 2006, p. 163). Hinkel (2004a) reports about the varieties of instructions for writing classes and importance of writing skills for ESL students.

As such, opinion-based reports and essays are aimed at reflecting personal thoughts and vision of a student (Hinkel, 2004a, p. 10) whereas the fact-based exemplification allows the instructor to assess the cognitive concept and the knowledge gained by the ESL student (p. 24).

Topic- or content-based approach to the learning syllabus which was introduced in the late 1970s in Australia to cope with the problem of ESL students that should have been included into mainstream school curriculum became a real innovation (Evans, 1996, pp. 179-180).

As suggested by Evans (1996), the structure of the lesson was based on a topic, its visual presentation, building of a reading passage, analysis of the passage, and the final writing (pp. 180-182).

Besides, careful structuring of the task has been identified as the primary factor for effective teaching-learning process using the task-based approach (Clegg, 1996, p. 17). In addition, the pace of language and inter-language development should be increased to ensure that an ESL student succeeds in learning (Clegg, 1996, p. 18).

Different approaches used with ESL students enable the teacher to perform the teaching-learning process more effectively. The study by Brownlie, Feniak and McCarthy (2004) enables the readers to understand the benefits of different models of learning.

For instance, ESL students are claimed to benefit more from lessons if they find the tasks a bit difficult and challenging and the instructions do not take the most part of the lesson (Brownlie, Feniak and McCarthy, 2004, p. 2). A literature learning syllabus for ESL primary learners may focus more on topics and vocabulary rather than on specific works of literature (Carder, 2007, p. 55).

The process of reading is not only a part of the English literature learning syllabus but also an important element of second language acquisition that has a number of benefits (Carder, 2007, p. 59).

Language learning syllabus should be aimed at developing such skills as recognition and identification of definite “sounds, letters, lexicogrammar, sentence…”, “awareness of language”, and other useful components that would be applied during the entire learning course (Carder, 2007, p. 58).

Mississippi Department of Education (1998) insisted on the importance of instructing students how to read; so, clear instructions facilitate learning. Grade books may appear to be too difficult and easier variants can be used. The book by Barchers (1991) is structured in an interesting way including texts and explanations and clear instructions to each of them making it really simple:

Read the book aloud. Allow the students to fill in words as they listen. During the second reading, list a variety of examples of alliteration on the board. Find the 60 objects in the book that begin with the letter “f”. Then list all the foods mentioned in the story (Barchers, 1991, p.146).

The study by Honig (2001) advocates the importance of associating the typed text with the speech heard by students. Larkin (2003) insists on the importance of reading words correctly; this method “… helps students to improve their reading comprehension, increase their vocabulary, and work cooperatively with peers” (p.156).

Assessment of the ESL learners enables the teachers to thrust them into mainstream curriculum school so that they became an integral part of the learning process paying no attention to their previous achievement and gaining knowledge in other subjects as well as mastering their language skills.

The skills gained by ESL learners are assessed by the teachers in order to identify whether they are ready to enter the mainstream of the curriculum with other students whose native language is English; assessment includes measurement of listening, reading, writing, and speaking skills and pronunciation (McKay, 2006).

At the same time, some learners may feel anxiety while being assessed and demonstrate poorer skills and knowledge than was previously seen in ordinary classes without introducing tests and assessment scales.

The task-based curriculum requires students to be capable of fulfilling various tasks that are claimed to become useful for future learning; topic-based curriculum is supposed to be limited to specific topics taught through various visual aids and instructions to facilitate understanding of the topic and build bridges between the native language and second language.

Literature-based approach in teaching-learning is isolated in terms of the definite number of literary sources in accordance to which the ESL students are expected to acquire knowledge about the environment and cultural peculiarities of the second language.

Competency-based syllabus is designed in a way that makes the ESL students gain knowledge and experience in the areas that are believed to be of primary importance; for instance, students are taught to identify letter-sound relations in order to pas the text on this activity later.

Context Analysis The effectiveness of every model that has been in operation should not be questioned because it appeared to be effective for the period in which it operated. At the same time, the model or design is updated as soon as it becomes inappropriate for the audience, other methodologies applied to it, and the results anticipated from its work.

In this respect, the effect of the communicative language teaching model has been analysed by Hinkel (2011b), “The communicative competence model proved highly successful in broadening the scope of classroom teaching and applied linguistics” (p. 348). In this case, this model is worth being used for design of a new English literature learning syllabus for ESL students in Taiwan.

Needs analysis can be fulfilled using the needs assessment tool introduced in the study by Nunan (1992, p. 248), can be seen in the Appendices section. According to this tool, students should be surveyed with the help of simple questions that concern their language skills and language difficulties experienced in their ordinary environment.

So, this survey enables the teacher to identify without any stressful tests how a student feels about his/her progress in English, communication in different levels, listening skills, and other areas that might require more attention in the process of teaching-learning.

Material and visual resources should contain word cards and pictures where all the objects and most situations in different topics are depicted. In this respect, a teacher would not need to write down the words on the blackboard every time. Besides, it would be interesting for children to draw pictures on different topics by themselves to put those up when the teacher asks them in English.

Visual perception of the text as well association of words with specific objects is very important. Preparation for every lesson will take a lot of time if a teacher is going to provide every; time limitation would not be a problem in case of clear organization of the lesson with comprehensive instructions.

The use of vocabulary and other tools to enrich the students’ understanding of the language structure and meaning and develop ESL students’ desire to learn the language further are the primary tasks of the course.

Course Rationale, Organisation, And Approach Aims of the course include a variety of assignments aimed at developing listening and reading skills, writing and speaking skills, and pronunciation.

Besides, comprehension of the read material should be an integral part of the expected results of the learning syllabus because lack of understanding contributes negatively to the further learning achievements and influences the entire concept of language learning as it includes many aspects. The course is designed for the ESL learners in Taiwan taking into account the primary school aged 8-12 years.

Instructional language with a prevailing number of infinitive constructions will be used to provide instructions in the classroom. The lexical range of verbs will be developed as the class progresses including adequate translations as soon as the verb is introduced for the first time and repetition of the verb accompanied by specific actions.

For instance, if a teacher tells “take your books”, he/she should do what he/she says to show pupils, repeat the same phrase in their native language and repeat it in English again. The assessment of achievement will be performed right after the class (using a 5-10 minute period to find out what pupils got to know). In addition, every class should start with a brainstorming activity to recollect what was said and learn at the previous class.

The learning-teaching context will concern an ordinary classroom that will be steadily filled in with words and pictures on the walls referring to the topics studied in the language acquisition, in literature, and grammar. This course strives to help students to gain more abilities for reading, writing and speaking.

The following areas will be components of the syllabus analysis and justification: description of entry level to course, description of intended exit level, description of assessment, course description, and course goals.

Description of entry level to course

The entry level to the course will include needs analysis using the model offered in the appendices section and evaluation of the gaps students may have in terms of the English language acquisition and use in everyday life and activities requiring the use of English language. At this stage, it is necessary to recognise that a student has or might have problems and he/she needs help in coping with those issues.

Dividing the class into groups should not be fulfilled in accordance with the language competence level but on the basis of the types of information perception. For instance, some students may read and remember the typed text better while others are better listeners and understand the speech on the TV and on the radio better than their classmates.

Description of intended exit level

The exit level for ESL students that are going to finish this course include achievement of the goals enumerated below.

Description of Assessment

The assessment of the preliminary stage was already discussed while assessment of each student’s achievement in terms of language acquisition concerns the tests and quizzes aimed at analysis of the speaking, reading, writing, listening, and pronunciation skills.

Course Description

The course includes information on topics to improve the ESL students’ speaking, writing, listing, reading, and pronunciation skills.

Course Goals Improve listing and comprehension skills

Strengthen vocabulary

Develop students’ basic English communication abilities (speaking including formulation of their thoughts)

Raise students’ interest in learning English

Broaden students’ cross-culture awareness

The importance of grammar cannot be excluded from the learning syllabus. The study by Gordon (2007) contains analysis of different approaches used to teach grammar as a part of the language learning syllabus.

However, everything can be arranged in the following way: the first phase of teaching-learning should concern noun phrases (nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, noun clauses, and infinitives) (Lester, 2008, pp. 3-119). The next phase of learning should enable ESL students to acquire verb phrases using basic forms of the verbs, special verbs, adverbs, and vary tenses of the verbs (Lester, 2008, pp. 119-273).

Finally, active and passive sentences including affirmative and interrogative statements should be introduced to the ESL students so that they could find the application of their knowledge on parts of speech in practice (Lester, 2008, pp. 273-334). In this respect, grammar can be arranged in the way that meets the topic of the speaking and reading parts of the syllabus.


The vocabulary should include the topics indicated in the appendices section in order to make the learning process more well-organized and structured for better understanding of the foreign culture by ESL students in Taiwan.

Speaking: The topics for speaking include the same as those for development of ESL students’ vocabulary because the topics should coincide in order to be effective in the learning syllabus. As such, the topics are the same as for vocabulary area:

Listening: The same as the speaking and vocabulary areas concerns the listening area because it is important to develop different skills using the topic-based approach.

Writing: This area of the learning syllabus should combine the grammar and vocabulary/speaking/listening topics in order to be effective. Nouns and pronouns should be introduced with the topic about ‘myself’ and family while the adjectives would be better used with such topics as weather and appearance.

Adverbs can be introduced together with the topic of directions and geography while differences between direct and indirect speech should be learnt in the framework of the discussion of literary sources.

Pronunciation: This area should include the same sources as for other areas such as speaking and vocabulary.

Grading Scale

Writing Assignments 30%

Tests/quizzes 50%

Class Participation 20%

Anticipated Problems And Limitations Limitation of the course includes the number of teacher necessary to accomplish every lesson because the learning groups should consist of 8-10 students and no more. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the amount of materials necessary for every topic and importance of variety of assignments so that students were not bored.

Approach To Course Evaluation The assessment of the needs was already offered in the Appendices section while the evaluation of the outcomes should be performed after every class and after every topic using standard tests and evaluation sheets. For instance, Hedge (2000), uses 2 stages of textbook selecting process.

The syllabus is designed in the way suggested in this paper using specific topics for instruction and clear explanation of assignments for students. The further gaps of the syllabus can be identified in the process of operation and indicated by the teacher and survey aimed at analysing the students’ opinion and their satisfaction level.

Other limitations of the syllabus include the previous experience of the students in English language acquisition and their achievements. The course evaluation should comprise at least two approaches aimed at analysis of the achievements before and after the implementation of the new syllabus.

As such, it is possible to introduce a test based on multiple-choice questions for students of 8-12 age group so that a teacher could see their literacy level and divide them adequately into groups for teaching-learning a new syllabus.

The next step in the assessment should include evaluation of students’ achievements after being in the program for some time (at least two months); this means that evaluation should be performed in a stage-by-stage manner to understand the effectiveness of the syllabus and its influence on the learning process of ESL students in primary school in Taiwan.

Conclusion The reforms are always important for different sectors of human activity but education is one of the areas where reforms also can be either positive or negative. As a rule, the gaps in the methodologies and techniques are identified after their implementation into full operation. This also causes multiple problems and necessity for solving them.

As such, the importance of education was advocated in many studies while others think education to be a rudiment of the ancient ages when this was a method for achieving some goals.

At the same time, education remains the method of achieving one’s goals because it enables people to think differently, read books, and learn something new due to their skills. The age of learners can vary but the methodologies remain the same because of their proven effectiveness.

English is claimed to be an international language and every country attempts to introduce it as a foreign language into the system of education to develop the learners’ interest and desire to learn it in a more advanced level. Every syllabus should be designed in the way that facilitates understanding and learning of the material offered by the teacher.

Social, cultural and educational values may shift priorities but the desires remain the same and people often need formal education to go further up the career promotional ladder. In Taiwan, education has a strong basis for English language acquisition and instructions but they want to achieve more in giving their students the best practices and making them more experienced in English.

Reference List Barchers, S. (1991). Bridges to Reading: Grades K-3. Florida: Libraries Unlimited.

Brownlie, F., Feniak, C. and McCarthy, V., 2004. Instruction and assessment of ESL learners: promoting success in your classroom. 2nd ed. Winnipeg, MB: Portage


Migration and Development Essay essay help site:edu

Since time immemorial, people have always moved from their original or cradle land and found settlements in other places. This movement is caused by a number f reasons some of which are intentional while others are as a result of catastrophic occurrences.

This movement of people from one place to another is referred to as migration (Giddens, 1984). The aim of this discussion is to look at some of the impacts that migration has on the immigrant, the people around the immigrant and the community at large. In addition, this discussion will also focus on the link between migration and development.

There are quite a number of developmental issued that have emerged as a result of migration. This is because; most of the people who migrate are part of a workforce in a given society. This therefore means that their departure will leave a gap in the workforce of their society and will also add to the workforce of the so city where the immigrants will finally settle.

The United States of America for instance has continued to receive immigrants from many parts of the world with most of the immigrants to America coming from Mexico. This has created a relationship of dependency considering that America is a 1st world country while Mexico is still a developing country.

Many European countries have also seen immigrants from North America move into these countries permanently (Agunias, 2006).

During the boom period that was experienced in the 60s and 70s there were several agreements that were reached between the countries that were receiving labour and those that were providing labour. However, when this period came to an end, the needs of the countries that were receiving labour changed and this broke the ties between these countries.

Migration from various anthropological studies has been viewed in various angles some of which have been addressed in this discussion. Migration has been looked at from the angle of modernization. This is where anthropologists have argued that migration was used a tool of modernization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This meant that since people in third world countries would migrate to 1st word countries in search of labour, they would get to earn of the new ways of life and when they went back to their native countries the would take back the new practices.

At the same time, by the immigrants providing labour in the 1st wor1d countries they would contribute to development and this enhanced modernization. Thus, if an immigrant from North Africa moved to Europe both the native country and the country that the immigrant settles in stand to benefit as a result of the migration.

On the other hand, migration has been said to create dependency between the third world countries and the already developed countries. This is because, the immigrants who are from the periphery countries always depend on the core countries to provide them with labour opportunities so that they can migrate and set their base of work there.

The immigrants therefore do not consider how they can look for ways to develop their own countries and develop a sense of livelihood without having to migrate. Therefore, an immigrant from North Africa would prefer to migrate to a European country in search of labour opportunities instead of looking for labour opportunities in his or her own country.

Migration has also been considered in two main ways. There is migration from a peripheral or a third world country to first world country that is the most common (Kapur, 2003). There is also a new trend whereby people from third world countries are migration from the rural areas into the urban areas of their country in search of job opportunities.

While the latter is different from the former, the concept is still the same. This trend has brought about other issues of development (Kearney, 1986). While on one hand this issue encouraged development and urbanization, there is also slow growth in the rural areas as almost everybody has moved to the big cities and towns in search of work.

Impacts of Migration The impacts that migration has on the immigrant, the people around him or her like the family members and the community at large can be looked at from two perspectives. There are some impacts that are negative while others are positive.

We will write a custom Essay on Migration and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To begin with, when an immigrant moves from his native country to another country, the society from he come from is deprived of one of the most important pillars of development that is the labour force (Kuhn, 1962).

This means that even though the immigrants is likely to come back with new concepts that could enhance development, already the native country of the immigrant is likely to suffer as far as development is concerned due to lack of sufficient labour force. As a result, the local and regional economies are greatly undermined (Rodenburg, 1997).

This situation leads to a continued trend of dependence on the first world countries to provide labour opportunities. The end result is that since the native country is experiencing sluggish growth or the growth is almost ground to a halt for lack of enough labour, poverty crops in, and this encourages even greater migration as people sort of seek refuge in greener pastures (Hass, 2010).

Migration is also seen as creating inequality especially in third world countries (Sen, 1999). This is because the labour opportunities that are provided by the developed countries are such that not every person in the developing country can qualify to take them up. This means that for those who are not able to take up the opportunities. Their fate is sort of sealed.

Looking at it from this angle, then one clearly concedes that migration is not a tool for development especially for the counties from where the immigrants come from. Migration has not in any way helped the alleviation or reduction of poverty in the developing countries. If anything, it has helped increase poverty levels by high margins as the productivity of the community has gone low for lack of enough labour force.

There is yet another argument that has been developed regarding the role played by migration in development (Myrdal, 1957). It is argued that most of the immigrants together with their families do not have a proper investment strategy of the money they earn upon migration.

Instead, they spend their money on various consumer goods since most of the 1st world countries encourage consumerism. This therefore means that when the immigrants go back to their native countries, they have nothing to shoe for their work and this paralyses development (Glick et al, 1991).

Migration and development are intertwined but whether migration has aided development remains a subject of debate and the controversy surrounding the subject does not seem to go away any time soon.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Migration and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Agunias, D. (2006) Remittances and Development: Trends, Impacts, and Policy Options. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.

Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Glick, Szanton et al. (1991) Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Hass, H. (2010) Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective. Oxford: University of Oxford.

Kapur, D. (2003) Remittances: The New Development Mantra? Paper prepared for the G-24 Technical Group Meeting, September. 15–16. New York and Geneva: United Nations.

Kearney, A. (1986) From the invisible hand to visible feet: Anthropological Studies of Migration and Development. California: University of California.

Kuhn, T. S. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Myrdal, G. (1957) Rich Lands and Poor. New York: Harper and Row.

Rodenburg, J. (1997) In the Shadow of Migration: Rural Women and their Households in North Tapanuli, Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.


The relationship between effective feedback and customer satisfaction Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online

Executive Summary The following paper is a thought experiment, a work in progress that is unfolding as I observe today’s dynamic industries struggle to exploit multiple avenues to respond to customer complains. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of feedback system as one of the mechanism that supports functional element of organizational climate.

The study methodology uses a trail group consisting of 35 members from the United States, Philadelphia region dispersed across a variety of demographic location and environments to determine how companies A, B and C quickly respond to their complains.

The trial attempted to measure how fast companies A,B, C effectiveness responded to customers’ complains in relation to their defective devices in service industry perspective, and to evaluate the collective processes and outcomes.

To effectively measure feedback system performance and satisfaction, the study uses variables that included technical-customer support, action orientation, phone-based technical support and information exchange. Changes in subject cognition were assessed using a series of conceptual model to measure reliability of the results obtained.

Results of this study did however demonstrate that companies that engaged in feedback system and actively involved in strategic activities that requires introduction of innovative products and outreach program that mitigate customer problems before they occur reported high returns.

Our conclusive results reveal that all the variables that related to feedback system positively linked to customer satisfaction. This study provides evidence of a relationship between effective feedback system in relation to solving customers’ complains and customer satisfaction.

Introduction Feedback system remains to be the most significant factor of organisational climate in resolving customer complains. For example, majority of computer companies in the United States continued to expand their products through implementation of effective and up to date feedback system.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since many companies are thriving to survive through the competitive markets, many new and efficient products are such as iPod, Mac, iPhone are being introduced to the markets everyday. These products are reported to be widely successful due to the organisations’ communication system. This requires the organisation to implement effective feedback system with eminent good customer support that quickly responds to customers complains (Kaplan, 2006).

The three companies assessment results present us an investigative framework to examine extend to which service firm utilises customer satisfaction data obtained from formal feedback mechanism. The essay further explores the effectiveness of feedback system using a questionnaire methodology to find out the relationship between overall feedback and customer satisfaction in computer companies in the United States (Fred, 2001): Fox, 2004).

Literature Review Feedback system

Lately, the three companies have been using feedback system for paying out customers with defective machines. For example, one of the Company’s products “iMac” was widely reported for to be giving clients problems and the company responded by giving 15% refund bonuses to all faulty 27 inch iMac in the UK and was also reported to extend $300 apologies to all its aggrieved customers in the US.

In resolving the issue, the company responded quickly by offering free repairs to all the affected machines and launched a support page where it described how minor problems could be resolved and the resulting warranty extension for each affected machine. The company also reimbursed customers who used their own money to repair the faulty machines and advised them take their drives to official company repair channels (Moore


SimVenture Essay scholarship essay help

SimVenture is a medium sized company started in the month of January and thus has been in existence for the last several months. The business has been set up on a strong base of research and a fully understand the market as well as the product. This report explains the performance analysis for the few months of operation.

A comprehensive view if the business performance indicates a healthy business plan which has already helped break-even and offer a good return. In the month of January 2010, the profit and loss account could not be accurately prepared due to incompleteness of the records available. What is noticeable though is the fact that there was substantial expenditure in activities of research and development.

Most of the activities in the month involved setting up the business. However, estimates show that the company made a gross profit of about £61 from the one order which was delivered during the month. The net loss amounted to -£329.

It should be noted that under the expenses, the portion of research was the largest registering £300 of the £390. This is indicative of the solid basis on which the company is found. At this time, the product could only be priced at £460 due to limitations in quality, features, performance and style.

In February, 2010, the company made impressive sales revenue of £1380. The gross profit rose to £114 from the £61 registered in January. However, this time round, focus was on sales and marketing. Of the total expense totaling to £1590, £1500 was used to finance an aggressive marketing campaign geared towards familiarizing the products to the customers.

We were able to accurately identify our target market as well as fully understanding their needs. This was aimed ensuring that we focus all our energies on producing products which meet the needs of our target customers. Appropriate product designs were developed to suite the customer requirements.

A small IT business market was identified as the target market. Still many activities were part of the business set up. As a result, the company recorded losses amounting to £1,476. Notably, the products were now priced at £495 up from £465 due to improvements in product design.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the month of March, the situation changed. We were able to make a profit of £177. This was as a result of an increase in sales as well as a reduction in costs. The turnover may have dropped to £990 but the gross profit rose to £267. Notably, overheads drastically reduced to £90. This was mainly as a result of the pay-offs from the marketing campaigns held in the previous month.

Again in a bid to improve efficiency, the company changed its supplier and engaged a cheaper source of materials for production. The company also increased its efficiency from 63% in February to 74%.

The number of features available in the Company products was also increased with the aim of appealing to an even wider customer based. By this time the quality of the product had significantly risen to warrant a higher price of £550. This significantly improved the gross profits.

In April, turnover rose to £1100. The marketing strategies were responding even better. Gross profits were a whooping £378. However, the company saw it fit to obtain feedback from the customers. The intention here was to establish possible areas of improvement. This necessitated significant expenditure in research a situation which resulted in a loss of £12.

Expenditure on research alone stood at £300. Therefore excluding the research element of the expenses, the company’s profits would have risen even higher than the previous month. Notably, efficiency level rose to 77% indicating the company’s commitment to improving efficiency both internally and externally.

The Month of May saw a drop in both the gross and net profits. The company produced too many products for the market which saw a rise in costs. This was done together with an aggressive sales and marketing campaign which accounted for about 90% of the expenses. Efficiency in this month fell to 74% mainly due to excess production. However, the order book showed significant growth as a result of the marketing campaign.

In June, the situation improved drastically. Net profit rose to £449. The situation was a show of the effectiveness of our marketing tools. Again, the number of orders remained high. Efficiency remained at 74%. Sales levels rose to £1650 and the number of orders kept rising.

We will write a custom Essay on SimVenture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In July, efficiency rose to 80% while gross profits rose to £1433 leading to a net profit of £543. From this point on, the company has managed to maintain profitability and consistently increase the level of efficiency. August saw a gross profit of £1577 which was the highest figure recorded. The company continued to record improved activities in production and even engaged in house research and marketing.

September saw a rise in the price of the product after improvement in product design and in consideration of market trends. The new price was set at £576. This made net profits rise to £1430. We managed to move to an even bigger premise.

Wages were also hiked as profits started streaming in to motivate the employees hence improves on productivity. However it is notable that as the production keeps increasing, the company continues to accumulate debts. Again, the company continues to get more orders hence requiring even higher production.

The entire first year of operation has proved profitable for the company. The overall profits add up to £5,401. 41. This is definitely a positive start which gives a very strong foundation to the company. The strength comes from the fact that the company has significantly engaged in research as well as marketing activities which have enabled it to not only learn valuable information about the market and the products but also grow the market significantly.

The following is a graphical representation of the trend in profits

Graph showing trend in profits

The fact that the last few months have seen consistent profitability tells strongly about the future of the company. It is thus prudent to inject further capital with the aim of achieving three main objectives. First is the need to maintain debts from creditors at manageable levels so as to win them over.

Secondly, there is an urgent need to increase the production so as to effectively cater for the increasing demand for the company’s products. This puts extra demand on the need to boost working capital. Finally, despite the expansions, there is the need to acquire even bigger space which will ensure higher production in the future.

Not sure if you can write a paper on SimVenture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the balance sheet, the company has accumulated a large portfolio of current assets and more importantly no long-term liabilities. This means that the company is lowly geared meaning that the company is strong meaning that risk of lending to us is significantly low.

The future presents great opportunities for the company. The market uptake of the company’s products is high as witnessed by the rapid rise in revenues across the short period of operation. Market research shows that the target market is still very lowly penetrated. This is got from the market surveys conducted during the in the last few months.

The penetration rate stands at a paltry 15% in within the locality of the company. Again new businesses are being set up a factor which is rapidly increasing the demand levels for the company’s products. There is also the need to invest in even better and more effective technologies which are likely to attract the clients even better.

The objectives of the company go beyond the region. The intention to go regional is very viable. There is the need to aggressively expand in the region where the company is based. This will give us an edge over the competitors and guarantee a much better and bigger growth for the company. Achieving these objectives will require us to raise funds but which will considerably present very low risk.

In the upcoming year we expect to expand our operations consistently to at least four times the current level of operation. This means that the balance sheet should go up by four times.

In February, we intend to scale up on production so as to generate total revenue of £11000. This will ensure that the gross profit rises to £3500 and that net profits rise to £2200. This trend is expected to continue for the next three months.

After this, we expect to relocate to an even bigger spacious building which under the current market prices should cost double the current rent. This amounts to about £376 monthly. This extra space should help us scale up production to at least five times in the next two years.

This being the case, the net profit for March is projected to be about £2600. This is after a rise in gross profits to about £3800. April net profits are projected to be about £2900. In May this is expected to fall due to the expansions expected to be undertaken then. The profitability stream is expected to follow at a much bigger scale.

Projections for profits expected for the next three years are as follows

Year Profit

2011 £11000

2012 £22000

2013 £23000

To fund these expansions, we require a loan of at least £15000. £6000 is expected to be used to boost the working capital so as to make operations more efficient while the remainder will be used to improve technology as well as build on machinery and equipment after relocating to an even bigger space. A repayment installment of about £1,000 per month will be favorable for the company.

By the end of the year, the balance sheet extract should have changed to the following estimates:

Fixed Assets £9550

Current Assets £26000

Long term Liabilities £15000

I find that the above projections are fairly accurate and hence warrant the company a profitable future. This means that our engagement will be of mutual benefit.

Reflective report SimVenture offered a unique opportunity to interact and cooperate with a team with the aim of achieving the best results. Working as a team was a great experience due to a number of reasons. First, it offered me the opportunity to learn different application of different ideas in business practice.

Each member would come up with unique but informed interpretation of the situation facing the company a situation which would help me view the same issue from many different angles and thus develop the best way forward given the circumstances. Secondly, I was able to improve my skills in teamwork and cooperation towards achieving a common goal.

There were some difficulties especially in developing a common way forward on issues where the views of the members were too divergent. I think this was driven b the different personalities in the team. Some are gambles while others are conservatives. While the gamblers were less risk averse, conservatism made other team members reject rapid expansions.

Again, it was difficult to convince all the team members on the right amounts of money to apply in different situations. As can be seen from the report, there were several instances when an amount of money would be set aside for research or for marketing. Setting these amounts was a challenge.

We needed to undertake lengthy negotiations within the team before engaging third parties who would agree or disagree with our resolutions hence requiring us to go back and discuss again. In the month of April, many team members thought that it was too soon to obtain meaningful feedback from customers.

They wanted the research on customer’s feelings about the company’s products to be conducted much later in the year after the product had been widely tested. However, another group argued that getting feedback early would ensure prompt response to customer’s requirements hence a better future for the company. This issue brought in a lengthy but constructive debate and at the end the group proposing the obtaining early feedback succeeded in convincing the other.

Planning ahead was always a priority for my team. Before starting off in January, we developed a complete plan for implementation within the next six months. The plan included some set targets which were to be achieved within certain time frames. This greatly guided our decisions subsequently.

It is however true that in some situations we had to deviate from the set plans. The plans gave a clear indication of where focus would be during any period. In the early months, market surveys and marketing activities were prioritized in the plans. In later months the need for marketing was the focus.

The team constantly made trade-offs in a bid to achieve certain goals. In January, the decision to engage in research was a trade-off for profits. If the research was not done the company would have incurred a loss of a paltry £61. However, the research was in the long term interest of the firm. Again in February, we incurred a loss of -£1476 after spending £1500 in sales and marketing.

This trade-offs continued in the following months. They were informed by the need to achieve long-term sustainability of the business as opposed to short term goals. It is clear that activities such as marketing always paid off in the subsequent periods and also ensured that our products were able to penetrate the markets even better by creating awareness.

The commitment needed to run a small business is enormous. SimVenture may be a small business entity but it demands full attention from all the team members in a bid to ensure that correct decisions are made and implemented. As team members we had subdivided ourselves in groups of two and would alternate the running of the business on a weekly basis.

However, it required that all the members be present at least twice a week either to make important decisions or to assist in the implementation of the agreed ideas and strategies. An eight hour day is simply not enough to ensure things run smoothly. A great deal of personal sacrifice is required.

The exercise has helped me better understand the intrigues of running a small business. The first and most important lesson is that one should develop a plan way before starting off the business. This is very instrumental in guiding the subsequent decisions in a bid to build a strong business entity. Secondly, the plan should contain fairly accurate cash flows.

These helps establish the financial requirements of the business ahead of time. Such projections ensure that the business does not encounter problems of liquidity which are likely to hamper progress. Again, it is very important to give priority to long term growth as opposed to short term gains as this boosts the ability of the business to ensure continuity as well as growth.

Finally, I have learnt that achieving a successful business entails a great deal of personal sacrifices and commitment towards the implementation of decisions aimed at achieving set targets.

The experiences gained here are arguably the best teaching in business management.