How The Jungian Theory Has Contributed To The History And Systems Of Psychology Research Paper College Admission Essay Help

Abstract Born in 1875, Carl Jung grew up to study human life and eventually developed several thoughts concerning human behavior. His concepts have received exponents and opponents of equal measure. Most people claim that his arguments are illogical with no or minimal stringent structures.

Nonetheless, his exponents have utilized his thoughts and used them in conducting various psychological tests such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. This paper analyses the theories of Jung concerning human life coupled with how they have contributed to the history and systems of psychology.

Introduction Born in 1875, Carl Jung has definitely played a significant role in the field of psychology even after his demise in 1961. His theories have received support and opposition in equal measure. However, despite his controversial nature, most psychologist and scholars still use his theories in making various decisions. His theories aimed at creating and promoting an association between the cognizant and oblivious (Thorne


I need help writing a paper on cyber security. With the explosion of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices (including smart home and office appliances), a significant amount of data is being transmitte best essay help

With the explosion of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices (including smart home and office appliances), a significant amount of data is being transmitted to and stored on the cloud. In addition to malicious activity, data stored in the cloud can be lost due to accidental deletion or a physical catastrophe, such as a fire or earthquake, and lead to the permanent loss of customer data. In 8-10 pages (double spaced, font 12, including graphics and references as appropriate using APA formatting), highlight the most-recent top 10 cybersecurity risks to data that is processed on, stored on, and/or transmitted through the cloud. Address the following for each: What is the impact (financial and otherwise) of each risk? What is the best mitigation strategy to address each risk?


The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help

The book The Pillow of Sei Shonagon can be regarded as a comprehensive description of the life at Japanese court at the period of Heian society. Sei Shonagon provides her insightful accounts of the life at the court. The writing is very personal and it makes the book even more valuable as it does not only reveal certain customs and traditions, but unveils the way people thought. Remarkably, the book also helps understand peculiarities of the Heian society and gender roles in it.

In the first place, it is necessary to note that the Heian period is characterized by certain empowerment of women as they could take some roles in a social life of the state. Thus, women could obtain education which was really good and comprehensive. Earlier, education was considered to be a male task.

In Heian Japan, women had a specific role as they were leading personalities in literature. They wrote a variety of literary works which were admired by women as well as men. Women could also copy books, and this was also rather a privilege (Shonagon 1991, 148). Apart from working on literary masterpieces, women at the court did not have a privileged position.

Clearly, people of that period cherished education and mental as well as physical abilities. Sei Shonagon stresses that people who excel in studies, literature or art of war are exceptional. Therefore, such virtues as excellence in art of war, literature and politics were seen as primary.

It is also necessary to note that men were still regarded as superior creatures. Men were regarded as rulers and those who lead, while women were seen as subordinate creatures and had to play certain roles. These were roles of wives, mothers, mistresses and, of course, writers.

Thus, being a court lady, Sei Shonagon, was quite close to her Majesty Empress. Sei Shonagon enjoyed all privileges of an aristocrat of that period. Of course, she had to follow the conventions which existed at the court at that period. It is necessary to note that there were a lot of rules and traditions which had to be respected.

It is necessary to note that the court at that time was characterized by peculiarities of any medieval court. There were various intrigues, love affairs, coalitions, etc. Notably, the author pays a lot of attention to love affairs and eroticism in her book. Thus, she depicts a number of dates and night meetings. She also describes complicated traditions and customs associated with love affairs. Men and women had to write love letters, which had to have certain structure or rather form. These writings had to be deliberate and thoughtful.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author also describes how hypocritical the life at the court was as people often pretended to be better than they were in reality. Admittedly, it was a norm to have an exemplary family where the husband and the wife love each other. However, in reality the situation was different and many couples hid their feelings.

Sei Shonagon notes that there are hardly couples who “always treat each other with scrupulous care and respect” (Shonagon 1991, 146). Therefore, the Heian court life was not different from the life at any other court (or even at any other society where people tend to create certain images top fit the society).

It is also necessary to point out that even though family values were regarded as prior to anything, adultery was also a norm. Sei Shonagon mentions a man “with two mistresses who is obliged to see them being bitter and jealous towards each other” (Shonagon 1991, 171). The author also writes about waiting for a lover in the middle of the night. This may not refer to adultery, but it is not an exemplary marital relationship. Therefore, extramarital affairs were seen as something illicit but possible.

Another characteristic feature of the court was the aristocracy’s attitude towards representatives of other societal layers. This can be easily explained as one of the major virtues of an individual was education and only aristocrats could afford being educated. Wisdom and courtesy were seen as certain priorities. Admittedly, peasants did not have time or money to obtain education. Aristocrats did not take this into account and saw peasants as inferior creatures.

To sum up, it is possible to note that Sei Shonagon reveals major peculiarities of the life at the court. The writer describes a variety of traditions and conventions which existed at the court. Clearly, the Heian court can be regarded as a conventional court of the Middle Ages as those who lived there were hypocrites.

However, the court was also somewhat exceptional as women had quite a special place. Women were able to obtain education. Women were even regarded as major figures in literature at that period. However, it is also true that this was a partial empowerment as women were still seen as inferior in many other respects. Major roles assigned to women (apart from roles of writers) were roles of wives, mistresses and mothers.

References Shonagon, Sei, The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon. Translated by Ivan Morris, New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

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Employee Appraisal Report college essay help near me

Executive Summary The determination of whether an organization is on track or not in terms of meeting its key deliverables and objectives calls for the evaluation of employees’ performance and appraisal by the organizations’ managers. Using the National Bank of Kuwait as a case example in this report, the report reveals that there exists a dissonance or rather conflicts between employees and the evaluation managers on matters of appraisal.

The report therefore recommends that organizations’ managers should guide employees in order to make their appraisals high. Besides, the management should give employees some goal that they should achieve every year. Above all, organizations should test and hire good quality human resource managers to help in bringing on board a promising workforce.

Introduction and Overview The report addresses the problem of employee appraisal, bonuses, and conflicts in organizations. The research goes deep into carrying out a research interview with the human resource manager at the National bank of Kuwait. The research adopts the use of questionnaires with close –ended and open-ended questions as research tools.

From the findings of this interview, the research adopts various variables as parameters of organizational behavior. These variables include interpersonal skills, accountability, attention to details and quality focus, teamwork, customer focus, attitude, commitment, and sense of energy.

The research proceeds to weigh the scores from each variable on the scale of 100% comprising (A ) for ‘outstanding’ for scores above 100%, (A) for ‘exceeds expectations’ for scores between 100%- 90%, (B ) for ‘meets expectations’ for scores between 89%- 74%, (B) for ‘below expectations’ for scores between 73%-63%, and (C) for ‘unsatisfactory’ for scores between 63% and below.

The research goes on to evaluate various motivational methods applied by the National Bank of Kuwait especially the use of bonuses. These include December bonuses, March special bonuses, and April promotions. The impact of the appraisal and the bonus program is also evaluated. After analyzing the findings, the report offers several recommendations directed towards elimination of the problems in question.

Problem Statement In many organizations, employees do not appreciate the results of appraisals carried out by the human resource managers in their organizations. Employees will therefore discredit the competence of the human resource manager who carried out the evaluation instead of focusing on the results and their failures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, human resource managers face tough times in their bid to explain and convince employees to accept the results of their appraisals. This report hypothesizes that employees in the National Bank of Kuwait disregard the results of their performance appraisals due to the incompetency of human resource managers.

Failure of employees to appreciate performance appraisals is rooted on the idea that management does not provide employee with guidance towards organizational and individual goals. As Baroda, Sharma, and Batt put it, it is vital for workers to be well versed on the organization’s situation so that they can know what it is that they are required to change (53).

Findings The research relied on data collected from a sample of 1000 employees of the National Bank of Kuwait. The sample was randomly selected from the possible “4000 workers of the bank all the 17 countries across the four continents” (National Bank of Kuwait Para. 2).

Data Presentation

The findings were presented in the tables and pie charts as illustrated below

Table 1.0 performance of various employees on a 100% scale

Average grades 100 (A ) 100-90 (A) 89-74 (B ) 73-63 (B) Below 63 (C) No of employees out of 100 10 20 30 800 140 Pie chart 1.1 performance appraisal for employees and their scores on a 100% rating scale

Table 2.0 Reasons for employee disagreements with organizational appraisals

We will write a custom Report on Employee Appraisal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reason for disagreement No of employees Percentage Incompetence of HR manager 400 40% Unfair appraisal/Favoritism 100 10% Unfamiliar goals/targets 300 30% Infrequent appraisals 200 20% Pie chart 2.1 Reasons for employees’ disagreement with the performance appraisal

Discussion of Findings

From the findings presented above, various deductions and analysis can be realized. The research indicated that employees vary in performance and various areas of appraisal based on the evident difference in capabilities as put forth by Baroda, Sharma, and Batt (54). From table 1.0, when employee performance was coded and averaged, the research realized that the highest percentage of employees scored below average (80%).

The finding concurred with Khazal’s revelation that majority of institutions within the eastern region of Kuwait have to fight back the unwelcoming financial circumstances (2). Most of the employees therefore scored between 73% and 63%, which was rated as below expectations on the appraisal rating scale.

From the pie chart 1.1, it can be interpreted that the performance of the largest segment of employees in the National Bank of Kuwait performed below the organization’s expectations. The larger segment of 80% percent of all the employees performed below standard. However, within this range, there is potential to improve this performance in time. Such a group of employees can change for better performance in a small period.

There is quite a considerable level of laxity on the side of the management to train and direct employees based on the high number that performed below the expected standard yet they have the potential to perform better within a little duration of time depending on the ability of the human resource department and the management to train employees. From table 1.1, it is clear that 14% of the employees scored below the level of satisfaction of the organization and hence unsatisfactory.

It is also quite disturbing that the organization is not sure whether the 14% employees in this segment can be reformed. From the pie chart 1.1, this segment is the second largest in degrees. The interpretation is that the National bank of Kuwait is in the verge of either being forced to lay off these employees or develop an intensive training program for them. From the rating scale, it is almost impossible to revive the employees’ performance standard.

The other important result that came up from this research was that a very low percentage of employees at the National bank of Kuwait scored above B . From table 1.0, only 3% of the employees scored between 89% and 74% (B ) hence meeting the expectations of the organization. Out of 1000 employees, only 30 whose performance was at the required standards set by the management of the national bank of Kuwait.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Employee Appraisal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The expectations were that most of the employees from the bank would meet this threshold. Although most of the experienced employees are supposed to be in this range, the research proved otherwise. Having only 30 employees scoring a grade that indicates competency and experience is below the expectations of a competent national bank.

Therefore, the highest percentage of employees was not competent. The performance and quality of service in that bank is below the standard especially when one looks deeper into parameters like interpersonal skills, accountability, attention to details and quality, and customer service, which are crucial in the delivery of service in a banking system.

The high percentage of employees who scored below average (94%) is an indication that the National bank of Kuwait offers services that are below standard. In contrast with many other banking organizations, the research also realized that the standards of the national bank of Kuwait targeted only 30 employees to be awarded grade (B ).

Hence, the target of the National Bank of Kuwait is therefore below standards since, if (B ) is the expected performance and it is the grade that should comprise most of the competent employees, more than 3% of employees should attain it. The segment that this percentage represents on pie chart 1.1 is very low.

From table 1.1, the research also indicates that 2% of the employees scored between 100% and 90% to score (A). Only 20 employees exceeded the expectations of the National bank of Kuwait. The research interpreted that, since this data was gathered from a national bank, the number of employees who scored this grade should have been higher. Employees that are self-motivated are likely to exceed the limit.

Therefore, the level of motivation in National bank of Kuwait is below the expectations of the employees. When employees appreciate the motivation offered by their company, they work hard to achieve it. The fact that employees are rewarded in various months of the year does not seem to inspire them to work.

Only 20 out of 1000 employees exceeded the expected results. However, it is also worth to note that the order of the National bank of Kuwait targets only 20 employees to attain grade (A). One can therefore infer that a higher number of employees would not have reached the grade since the principles of this organization did not allow them. Such a limitation can act as a source of discouragement and de-motivation to work hard.

Employees with the ability of scoring between 100% and 90% may not work hard to achieve this target while they know that only two of them will be awarded with grade (A). In fact, employees will completely become disinterested with the rewards emanating from attainment of this score once they realize that certain employees are already scoring better marks or are going to be favored by the supervisors.

This great source of demoralization perhaps reveals why only 20 employees out of a whole 1000 score this grade. On the top-most grade (A ), the research realized that only one employee was allowed by the principles of National bank of Kuwait to be awarded with this grade.

Such a percentage was interpreted to mean that the employee had depicted a very high level of proficiency and was competent in the job. The bank also recommends that special notes be made about such an employee. It is also a requirement of the bank that such a performance be rated among the best 5% in the organization.

From pie chart 1.1, the grade had the least segment. A very small sector of the whole employee was able to attain it (only 1%). Therefore, from the standards of the national bank of Kuwait, it was very hard for employees to attain grade (A ). Attaining this grade would mean that an employee was very proficient in the variables used to measure performance.

The special notes that were to be made mean that such an employee would call for a special attention and consideration by the management. The level of competency and proficiency of employees in the National bank of Kuwait was very low, as many employees did not show any commitment, which is a key requirement for employees. Since the bank is a people-oriented organization, proficiency in execution of duties cannot be an excuse.

Employees in this organization should exhibit great proficiency in areas like attention to detail and quality focus. A banking institution ought to have a very high percentage of employees scoring high marks in this area. Winning customers’ trust calls for great efficiency, proficiency, and attention to details in execution of duties. Having only one employee score (A ) would therefore be interpreted to mean that this was not the case in national bank of Kuwait.

The reward and motivation program that the national bank of Kuwait applies may be a great hindrance to performance. For example, the bonuses that the bank gives every December are awarded to all employees meaning that all the 1000 employees of the bank would receive 25% of their basic salaries as bonus.

From table 1.1, even the 14% of employees who scored (C) are also given the bonuses and hence another reason for laxity in the organization. Every employee is aware that, even when he or she fails to attain the standards that are set by the bank, he or she will still receive the December bonuses.

Every bonus ought to have a score pegged on it to motivate employees. In fact, pie chart 1.1 indicates that the majority of employees (94%) did not attain the standards set by the organization. Consequently, the national bank of Kuwait will have to reward the entire employee with a 25% of each one’s salary amounting to a huge amount of money. The December bonuses may not motivate any employee to work extra hard towards the attainment of the bank’s mission since they are meant for all employees.

The only difference that the bonuses can bring about is that of making the employees want to remain in the organization for long. The December bonus may not increase the output of the organization, but it can reduce the rate of job turnover. Perhaps most of the employees are within below 63%, and between 73% and 63%.

The other bonus that is awarded as special bonuses in March is pegged on profit. From the data collected, the profitability of the national bank of Kuwait may not be very feasible based on the low percentage of employees who scored above 73%. If the performance of the employees is low, it means that their output is low. Hence, the profit of the organization is also low. The officer in charge of these rewards in the national bank of Kuwait awards these bonuses by performance.

Since this research indicated that only one person attained this percentage, the special March bonus will be awarded to one person only. It is also worth noting that 4% of the total profit that the bank realizes is a huge amount of money especially when it is given to one person. Perhaps the national bank of Kuwait should consider increasing the number of people who can attain this grade.

Employee Conflicts

The major problem with performance appraisals in most of the organizations in the world today is that a big number of employees do not appreciate the results. In fact, some past researches show that more than a half of the employees disagree with the results of performance appraisal in their organizations meaning that they disagree with the findings of the evaluation manager (Baroda, Sharma, and Batt 58).

From table 2.0, a considerable number of employees in the National Bank of Kuwait disagreed with the outcome of the November appraisals. The research indicated that employees had various reasons for their disagreements. The pie chart 2.1 also illustrates clearly various segments of employees and the reasons why they disagree with the appraisal results. From table 2.0, 400 of the employees cited incompetence of the human resource manager as the reason that would make them disagree with the results.

These employees comprised a 40% of the total number of employees in the national bank of Kuwait. From pie chart 2.1, the segment that the employees represent is also very huge compared to others. In fact, they take the largest sector in the pie chart. Therefore, incompetence of the human resource manager and other human resource officers in an organization may result in employees discrediting the appraisal processes (Baroda, Sharma, and Batt 61).

Consequently, organizations like the bank of Kuwait need to be very careful when hiring human resource managers and officers. Only the very competent and skillful employees are supposed to be hired as human resource managers.

They should be well inducted into the organization by experienced predecessors. If the human resource officer or manager is coming from another organization, proper induction should be done before such an officer is left to perform his or her duties since every organization has its own culture and that the culture of a banking organization cannot be learnt overnight.

Therefore, new comers in the office of human resource have to be properly inducted into the customs of the organization. The best practice in employee appraisal calls for understanding of the human resource manager on the duties, roles, and responsibilities of employees under him or her, support of on the employees, and cooperation between him or her and employees.

With such knowledge, employees can regain their confidence in the human resource department of their organization. When organizations hire competent human resource managers, they may not experience the problem of employees’ act of disregarding on performance appraisal results. Therefore, from the findings of this research, the national bank of Kuwait needs to hire competent human resource and evaluation managers in order to instill employee confidence in the appraisal results.

This step will lower the percentage of employees who refute the appraisal results citing this problem from 40% to a considerable level. From pie chart 2.1, the next largest segment of employees cited lack of information on the targets and goals set for employees by the bank.

Approximately 30 0employees from this bank cited this issue as the reason why they would disagree with appraisal results amounting to 30% of employees of the national bank of Kuwait. From table 2.0, the reason took a high percentage. In fact, from pie chart 2.1, it is clear that it took the second largest sector after incompetence of human resource managers.

One can therefore argue that 30% of the employees in the National bank of Kuwait do not know the parameters that the human resource managers and other evaluation officers use in appraisals. When employees do not know the goals that they should attain by the end of a given working period, they cannot work towards the same direction that the larger organization is working. Organizational goals can only be attained if they are subdivided among individual employees.

When employees are well informed about the goal and target that they should achieve, they gain a sense of direction. In every step that such employees take, they will be gearing their efforts towards the accomplishment of such a goal. When they reach their goals individually, the organization is also able to attain its larger goal and mission.

The larger goal of attaining larger customer base, offering better quality service, enhancing teamwork, and being proficient in service delivery can only be achieved if these goals are subdivided into sub-goals. Such sub-goals are then allocated to individual employees to ease the realization of the larger mission.

It is therefore important that employees be made aware of their goals and the expectations that the management has about them. Information and communication in performance appraisal is important. Employees should be provided with frequent feedback on their performance. Communication is power. When employees have information, they will know when they are headed for success and or when they are making the wrong progress.

The human resource management of the national bank of Kuwait and other institutions that can infer from this research should therefore ensure clear and complete communication to their employees. It is only through good communication and feedback that employees can raise the performance appraisal of their organization (Baroda, Sharma, and Batt 61). The 30% segment of employees who cited lack of information about goals and targets require being properly informed and their feedback evaluated occasionally for better results.

The third segment of employees cited infrequent appraisal as their reason for disregarding the results of performance appraisals. From table 2.0, the issue comprised 200 employees, which translated to 20% of the total number of employees. Therefore, this reason is also a problem to reckon when carrying out performance appraisal. Performance appraisal should be done frequently and when the employees are aware of the parameters used for evaluation.

Consistencies of performance appraisals make the employees develop a culture of high standard performance at all times. Performance appraisal at the National bank of Kuwait is normally done in November every year meaning that the bank carries out evaluation of its employees only once in a year. Several points of evaluation should be initiated to develop a performance culture in the employees. The intervals of evaluation should therefore be consistent throughout the year.

Whenever the organization decides to remove or add an evaluation parameter, employees should be informed are aware and or be become conscious of their conduct and the quality of service that they deliver. From such a development, the institution develops in terms of performance.

It is important that the feedback of every stage of evaluation be communicated to the employees. Workers should be made to know about information that concerns them before other publics of the bank. Such efforts by the human resource department and the appraisal team make the employees more responsible. It will also make them appreciate the need for continuous competition in performance.

The parameters of evaluation should remain constant over a given period. The inconsistency in evaluation that 20% of employee cited may also be linked with alterations in the parameters of performance appraisal. Finally, from table 2.0, 100 employees comprising a 10% of the total employee were for the idea that they would disagree with the results of performance appraisal if they realize bias or unfairness in the process.

The 100 employees thought that the appraisers were not objective in appraising them. The result of such thoughts were that employees would therefore refuse to sign the appraisal sheet making the human resource manager waste a lot of time in convincing them and the senior officers that the results were accurate. In some instances, employees would accept the results of the appraisal. However, when they realize that their workmates who they deem to be of lower performance than them scored better, they object the results.

Human resource managers are supposed to demonstrate high levels of accuracy and consistency to avoid conflicts with employees. Whenever there is conflict of interest from their point of view, the human resource managers should exempt themselves from evaluating such employees for example when appraising relatives and friends.

Every employee should be fairly and equally evaluated. Employees should also be trained to avoid being jealous of their workmates who perform better. Instead, they should be encouraged to work harder to attain their targets.

Conclusion The process of employee appraisal is crucial to every organization. Performance appraisal enables an institution to know its position in performance, realize the ability in its workforce, develop training programs and predict its future performance. In the performance appraisal of the national bank of Kuwait, the research realized that only 1% of employees scored (A ), 2% scored (A), and 3 % scored (B).

The rest majority scored below the expected standards by the human resource manager and the organization. The research also realized that a high number of employees from the National bank of Kuwait are bound to disagree with the results of performance appraisal.

The research informed that 40% of employees would disagree with the results due to incompetency of human resource managers, 30% would do so due to lack of information on targets and goals, 20% would object the results due to inconsistency, and 10% would object it due to bias and unfairness.

Therefore, report therefore concludes that most of the employees in organizations in the world are bound to object the results of performance appraisal. In most instances, this conflict will be caused by incompetency of the human resource managers, unfamiliar goals and targets, infrequency of appraisals, and biasness by the evaluating officers.

This report also concludes that some institutions like the national bank of Kuwait limit the potential in their employees by setting very low targets and by limiting the number of employees that can achieve high scores. Therefore, the performance of the employees cannot be pegged on the available bonuses or rewards.

Recommendation This report recommends that national bank of Kuwait and other similar institutions should involve direct managers in guiding employees on performance appraisal. Such guidance should indicate to the employee the parameters of evaluation, the points of evaluation, and the need for evaluation to avoid conflicts.

The direct manager should also establish constant communication and feedback with the employee. This strategy will enable them appreciate the results of performance appraisal. Secondly, the report also recommends that National bank of Kuwait and other institutions of the sort should provide their employees with information about their goals and targets. Such moves should be done at the beginning of every financial period.

Employees should be told what to have achieved at a certain time of the year. Informed employees will work hard to reach the goals that the organization sets.

Achievement of individual goals will then translate to achievement of organizational goals. The third recommendation that this research offers is that the national Bank of Kuwait and other similar institutions should hire qualified and competent human resource managers.

The research recommends that such human resource officers should go through a series of personality tests to assess whether they qualify to lead and to appraise others.

It is also the recommendation of this report that human resource managers that are hired from other organizations should have recommendation letters to approve that they are able to perform performance appraisal successfully to ensure that employees gain confidence in the human resource managers. Confidence and trust in the human resource managers will ensure that there are reduced objections and hence conflicts to performance appraisals.

Works Cited Baroda, Syatawan. “360 Degrees Feedback Appraisals: An Innovative Approach to Performance Management System.” International Journal of Management


White Collar Crime Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Champion (2011) defines white collar crimes as “a non violent crime, usually committed in commercial situations, for financial gain.” The Federal Bureau of Investigations cites the use of concealment, deceit or trust-violation as the primary mechanisms for committing these crimes.

Individuals often carry out these offenses in order to access property, services or property. Alternatively, they may do so as a protective measure against the loss of these latter incentives. Others engage in white-collar crime in order to gain an advantage over their colleagues at work or in business.

The public categorizes white-collar crime as non violent. Many wrongfully assume that it is a victimless crime because of this label. However cheating, stealing and deceit are synonymous to the crime, and have the potential to destroy families, companies, investors or even an economy.

Motivations, consequences and punishment for white-collar crime Parties affected by the crime and how it affects them

White collar criminals place more emphasis on their personal needs than their organization’s to the point of downplaying the real costs of their actions. For instance, a lawyer may dishonestly increase the number of billable hours that he did per file. If this same person handles about 70 cases per week, then the organization could lose about $150,000 dollars in revenue. Once the tactic becomes commonplace, then the organization could lose millions in annual returns (Naso, 2012).

Aside from the increased losses experienced by such firms, white collar crimes also shortchange clients. Professionals, sellers and business persons will make promises that they cannot deliver and this will render them uncompetitive. For instance, the above lawyer would claim that he has made a court appearance when he has not.

Clients will keep wondering why their cases are dragging on and may take their business elsewhere. This type of crime also harms coworkers because someone will get credit for work they have not done. The white-collar criminal may seem more hardworking or diligent than their peers, and this could attract incentives like promotions, salaries or other perks.

Honest coworkers may become demoralized over such a state of affairs and the institution will lose out. In the world of business, entrepreneurs who engage in white-collar crime may seem more lucrative for partnership than their honest counterparts. Customers may take their business there under the assumption that they will be better off. In the end, the white-collar criminals rarely deliver while the honest businessmen may become demoralized or even go out of business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In developing nations, white collar crime manifests as corruption. This stems from the fact that white collar crime is so deeply entrenched in their corporate system that it has become almost a necessity to do business. In places like Russia, a business has no chance of survival if it does not pay bribes to government bureaucrats (Healy


The portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria by Peter Paul Rubens Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction Rubens was born in Siege, Germany, in 1577. He was a prominent baroque artist. He supported Baroque movement of arts and travelled popularize it around Europe. The purpose of this paper is to use visual skills to analyze the portrait of “Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria”.

Analysis The title of the painting is “Marchesa Broginda Spinola Doria” by Peter Paul Rubens. Although the exact date is not known, Rubens indicates that he finished this work in 1606 at the time he was working in Genoa. The portrait shows a young Marchesa Broginda Spinola Doria in her wedding gown at the age of 22, just after she married Giacomo Massimiliano Doria in 1605.

The extravagant Baroque style, to which Rubens belonged, was one of the most popular artistic movements in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. This is because it placed a lot of emphasis on color, movement and sensuality (Andersen, 2006). Although this portrait does not provide evidence of movement, it is easy to analyze it in terms of Baroque movement, with the reference to exaggerations in color, light, emotions and sensationalism (Buci-Glucksmann, 1994).

Like most popular paintings of the Baroque movement, Reuben’s “Portrait of Marchesa Broginda Spinola Doria” was developed using oil on canvas. From an analysis of the portrait, the viewer notes the gaze and the angle of architecture. This indicates that Rubens intended his audience to use a worm’s eye view.

According to the National Gallery of Arts, the painting was initially large and more imposing, but it was cut into a smaller frame sometimes in the 19th century (National Gallery of Arts, 2013). Brigida’s pose is evidently static, with no evidence of movement. However, Rubens emphasized on the exaggerated light, which in this case, is successful in activating the pose.

In addition, some diagonal flow of red curtain behind Brigida provides a good way of activating the static pose. Moreover, it is worth noting how Reuben has used his skills in applying thin but fine brush. For instance, the slivery satin dress worn by Brigida as part of her attractive and seemingly expensive dress was developed using layers of almost translucent glazes.

In fact, to achieve this, Rubens highlighted it with thick and freely painted strokes of brush. It is clear that Rubens must have spent adequate amount of time in developing this portrait because it appears that he combined his bold style of painting with traditional style of focusing on details.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Emphasis on color is evident. Rubens has used both primary and secondary colors. The whitish-grey color of the dress, the bright-red curtain, the whitish brown color of the face, the red lips the black eyes of Brigida are the most eye-catching features of the portrait. Light and dark are also evident in the work. For instance, while exaggeration of light is evident on the particular details of the subject such as the face and the dress, the objects behind her are actually fading to give the subject ability to attract the viewer’s eye.

The symmetrical details of the portrait give the subject its dominance on the plane. Brigida occupies more than 80% of the portrait. The smooth texture of the dress other details shows the preciousness of the wedding gown, while the smooth texture of the face indicate the beauty with Brigida.

Reflection I selected this portrait as an example of age-old portraits that still show the skills and talent of the ancient artists. In addition, it demonstrates the need for appraising Baroque as one style that contributed to the evolution of modern arts. It is clear that Rubens was attempting to show the beauty of women in Genoa and the need for cities and states to appreciate, respect and appreciate their women.

References Andersen, L. (2006). Baroque and Rococo Art. New York: H. N. Abrams.

Buci-Glucksmann, N. (1994). Baroque Reason: The Aesthetics of Modernity. New York, NY: Sage

National Gallery of Arts. (2013). The portrait of Marchesa Brigida Spinola Doria, 1606 by Sir Peter Paul Rubens. Retrieved from


Ethical Leader Characteristics Essay best college essay help

In spite of the widespread study that focuses on leadership, the issue of ethical leadership continues to be challenged with inconsistencies, paradoxes, and contradictions. Desire to have ethical leaders has led to numerous changes in leadership styles. One of the recent leadership styles is transformative leadership.

Caldwell et al., posit, “One benefit of becoming a transformative leader is that greater trust will be developed between the leader and their followers” (2012, p. 176). Indeed, “…leadership is more about the followers than it is about the leader” (Bennis Caldwell et al. 2012, p. 176). Without followers, there can be no leader.

An individual becomes a leader if he or she has a group of people that he mobilizes to pursue a mutual objective. Bennis and Nanus allege, “To merit the trust of organizational stakeholders, the leaders of tomorrow’s organization must raise their standards, demonstrate their character and meet the expectations of a cynical but increasingly complex world” (2007, p. 123).

Bennis and Nanus posit that for a leader to succeed one ought to entrust cohorts with activities, transform the cohorts into leaders, and transform the leaders into instruments of change. The sentiment proves that for a leader to succeed, he or she has to depend on his followers.

A leader can hardly succeed in achieving organizational goals without drawing the followers close. The role of a leader is to oversee organizational operations and give advice on areas that require changes. Consequently, a leader has to rely on followers for all organizational activities.

Caldwell et al. (2012) formulated a “transformative leader” model that leads to ethical leadership by emphasizing on the importance of ethical practices like charisma, humility, values, principles, and servant leadership as some of the tenets of a transformative leader. According to Caldwell et al. (2012), a transformative leader is a servant leader. The leader ought to devote his or her attention to the interests of his or her subjects.

Caring about others is one of the organizational ethics. Charisma refers to the ability of a leader to inspire others. By emphasizing on charisma in their “transformative leader” model, Caldwell et al. implies that a leader ought to establish a cordial relationship with followers. Charismatic leaders back an exceedingly moral purpose. Hence, a leader that meets the model would surely be ethical.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mayer et al. allege, “A good ethical leader should first of all be truthful to themselves before they can effectively lead others” (2012, p. 152). Without moral identity, it would be difficult for a leader to become an ethical example. Moral identity is associated with good behavior like charitable giving.

A leader with moral identity treats all the followers with equality and is trustworthy. Conversely, a leader that does not have moral identity exhibits unethical features like dishonesty and greed. Hence, such a leader does not portray ethical behavior and cannot be an ethical example to cohorts.

Employees learn through observing their leaders. Hence, majority of the employees borrow their behaviors from their leaders (Mayer et al. 2012). A leader without moral identity would lead to employees becoming corrupt. Such a leader lacks self-regulatory mechanisms, which promote ethical behaviors. Consequently, he portrays unethical behaviors, which he or she transfers to cohorts.

For leaders to promote ethical behavior in organizations, they need to appreciate all the followers that behave in an ethical manner and reprimand, or even punish those that behave unethically. Punishing followers that behave unethically would go a long way towards promoting ethical behavior in an organization.

Rewarding employees that behave ethically would not have a significant impact in promoting ethical behavior (Fielder 1986). For instance, some followers could be using their unethical behavior to enrich themselves at the expense of the organization. In such an instance, rewarding followers that behave ethically would not deter the unethical followers from pursuing their immoral activities.

Nevertheless, punishing such employees by dismissing them, imposing enormous financial penalty, or withholding their salaries would compel them to change their behavior. Majority of the employees struggles to get jobs (Fielder 1986). After getting the job, they settle down and forget the challenges they faced when looking for a job.

Eventually, they cease to appreciate their employment and engage in activities that are detrimental to an organization. The best way to prevent such cases happening in an organization is to impose severe punishment on employees or cohorts that behave unethically. This would discourage the employees from engaging in unethical behavior.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Leader Characteristics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While this may sound plausible theoretically, it does not manifest itself in most cases. Even though some followers refrain from unethical behavior due to fear of losing jobs, those that benefit from the behavior hardly abandons it despite the threat of facing severe punishment.

In most cases, such threats only intensify their behavior as they try to reap enough before facing the punishment or losing their jobs. In other cases, such followers change their ways of propagating unethical behavior to avoid being noticed by their leaders. Hence, the organization continues incurring mysterious loses that it cannot blame on a particular follower.

There is a strong relationship between transformative leadership and trait theories of leadership. Trait theories focus on personal characteristics like personality, decisiveness, cooperativeness, and persistence (Derue et al. 2011). A leader with these features is likely to be successful. On the other hand, a transformative leader uses his or her traits to influence others. For instance, the leader applies his or her decisiveness to win trust from cohorts.

A decisive leader makes followers believe in goals they are pursuing, thus, dedicating their energy to the goals. Similarly, individual’s personality determines if one gains support from their followers. Furthermore, transformative leadership is associated with the contingency theory of leadership effectiveness. The theory suggests, “Leadership effectiveness depends on the interaction of two factors: the leader’s task or relations motivation and aspects of the situation” (Fielder 1986, p. 34).

Relations motivation is determined using coworkers that a leader prefers least. If the coworkers score high, it implies that the leader has managed to transform the workers into embracing organizational goals. On the other hand, if they score low, it means that the leader has not transformed the workers. In other words, employee commitment depends on the level of transformation a leader instills in them.

The concept of moral identity discussed in “transformative leader” model devised by Mayer et al. (2012) aligns with trait theories of leadership. Trait theories of leadership focus on personal aspects like personality, judgment, sociability, decisiveness, and socioeconomic background.

These aspects influence how a leader behaves. For instance, one’s judgment and personality are what determine if a leader becomes compassionate, caring, and honest. On the other hand, moral identity is what makes leaders exhibit certain traits. Hence, moral identity leads to either ethical or unethical traits.

Reference List Bennis, W


Concept of Capital Budgeting Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

The financial obligations of a government entity can be planned through effective capital budgeting (Peterson, 2004, p. 56). Most government entities have adopted capital budgeting as a way of enhancing economic stability and debt planning.

The government has been forced to have multiple roles when it comes to capital budgets because of the ever increasing government spending. Government entities are supposed to manage the resources allocated to them in the best way possible by finding a clear definition of capital and current expenditures (Peterson, 2004, p. 58).

The net worth of government expenditures can be improved by having the right tools of fiscal policy. Government entities have to implement all the debt strategies of the federal government and ensure a successful execution of all programs (Pecorella, 2006, p. 112). The New York State Government is a local authority that has been struggling with debts for a very long time and will be the centre of discussion in paper. The debt capacity of a government entity determines whether it can borrow money or not.

Every government entity has a debt limit that should not be exceeded in any way (Pecorella, 2006, p. 120). Government entities accrue some debt obligations in the course of their operations and their ability to repay debt obligations on time using their own revenues is what referred to as the debt capacity. It is important to note that the debt capacity of a government entity can not be determined if there is any kind of revenue deficit.

The amount of debt obligations should not in any way exceed the total government revenues (Pecorella, 2006, p. 120). Some of the most important factors that analysts use to determine the debt capacity of a government entity include annual revenues, the real property value and outstanding debts.

The three factors are used to measure the ability of an organization to borrow funds. Public administrators have the responsibility of ensuring that the allocated funds are utilized in best way possible for government entities to maintain an optimal debt capacity. A government entity that has high revenues and very small outstanding debts will definitely have a thigh debt capacity (Peterson, 2004, p. 145). The New York State authorities should ensure that public spending does not go beyond the debt capacity of the state.

The New York State Government can only deal with its debt problems by refunding or reorganizing existing debt obligations (Peterson, 2004, 2008, p. 166). The effectiveness of this kind of plan depends on how a government entity handles its debt obligations. The New York State Government should make repayment of debts with the highest interest rates the first priority.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prioritizing debts with high interest rates is one of the most appropriate ways of reorganizing existing debt obligations (Peterson, 2004, p. 166). Debts with high interest rates can prevent a government entity from undertaking other important financial obligations and hence the reorganization strategy of ensuring that such debts are given the first priority brings continuity.

Government entities incur a lot of expenditures in the course of their operations and therefore reducing their total expenditures is the other strategy of reorganizing their existing debt obligations (Ward, 2006, p. 24). A reduction in total expenditures means that extra funds will be available for the government entity to service its debts.

The New York State Government needs alternative funding options in order to reduce its debts. The high debt obligations that are normally accrued by government entities would be low if there were alternative funding options (Ward, 2006, p. 24). The most practical alternative that the New York State Government can use to fund its debt obligation is requesting for assistance from the federal government.

It is difficult for a government entity to fund its debt obligations without the necessary assistance from the government. The federal government can offer its assistance quarterly or annually. The New York State Government can increase its tax base as a way of maximizing its revenues. It is possible for a state to increase its revenues by expanding its tax base and increasing less sensitive tax rates (Ward, 2006, p. 69). The extra revenue collected can be used by the state to fund its debt obligations. There are other alternative funding options but the two that have been mentioned in this paper are the most appropriate for a state government.

In conclusion, capital budgeting by government entities is a very serious issue that needs a comprehensive evaluation. The determination the debt capacity of a government entity is an assessment process that takes into account total annual revenues, real property value and outstanding debts as the most appropriate measures (Peterson, 2004, p. 65). The reduction of the total debt of a government entity depends on how the entity reorganizes its debt obligations.

Prioritizing debts according to interest rates and the reduction of total expenditure are some of the best strategies of reorganizing existing debt obligations. Government entities should establish alternative funding options as a way of reducing their debts (Ward, 2006, p. 112). Government entities with high debts should seek assistance from the federal government for them to successfully fund their debt obligations.

References Pecorella, R. (2006). Governing New York State. Albany: State University of New York Press.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Concept of Capital Budgeting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Peterson, P. (2004). Capital budgeting: Theory and practice. New York, NY: John Wiley


Stages of Growth Diagnostic Essay essay help

Table of Contents Existence



Take Off

Resource Maturity

List of References

Various models illustrate the growth of businesses. The size of a company and stages of growth are used as the standards for determining business growth. This paper will examine a growth framework based on existence, survival, success, take-off and resource maturity phases.

Existence At this stage, the organisation is at infancy and the owner is struggling to attract clients. For a small business, the owner handles all management duties including supervision of junior staff and decision-making. Many small business start-ups fail at this stage due to various challenges. Some businesses that succumb to these challenges are sold off at net present value (Poole 2002, p. 75).

Survival Businesses at this stage have successfully overcome the challenges of the first stage. At this stage, the business has enough capacity of customers who are satisfied. The main objectives for the business are to break even and gather enough funds for expansion. The number of employees start to increase although the decision making function is still performed by the owner.

At the end of this stage, the business may achieve growth in size and profitability. Some businesses however remain at this stage for a long period surviving on marginal returns until they cease operations based on the decisions of the owner (McKeown 2007, p. 61).

Success Businesses at this phase have achieved growth and have collected enough funds that are capable of financing expansion. Market penetration and the volume of customers at this stage are healthy. The business can either expand or remain at this level while providing the owner with funds for diversification since the profits are above average.

An increase in size of operations and the accompanying revenues prompt the owner to hire competent managers to oversee various functions within the business (Singh 2010, p. 15). The systems are developed and financial planning and other methods are introduced to ensure smooth operations.

To ensure survival, the company should adapt to changing conditions in the industry especially competition. For instance, many automobile makers did not make it past the 1970s and 1980s since they could not adapt to changing conditions (Rao 2002, p. 214).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Take Off The company at this stage experiences rapid growth and the main concern is financing the growth. The owners delegate most of the duties to managers to improve efficiency. The managers should be competent enough to handle environmental dynamics. The systems at this stage are under duress from growth and they are therefore improved to accommodate the extra workload. Planning and decision making are improved.

For decisions to be made by the owner, various factors have to be considered due to the increase in stakeholders and independence of the business from the owner. To graduate to the next level, the owner of the business must show maturity in management and financial planning (Churchill and Lewis 1983, p. 126).

Resource Maturity The objectives of a company at this stage are to strengthen and manage well the financial gains achieved from the other stages. To cope up with the rapid growth, the company should also expand the management or it will succumb to the ineffectiveness arising from growth. At this stage, the business should be a separate entity from the owner. The systems should be broad and well developed. Moreover, the company should have adequate staffs who are experienced in their fields.

List of References Churchill, N


The Downfall of Pentheus: The Clash of a Monarch and a God Essay essay help free

Introduction: Pentheus, the Victim of Bacchanalia In his famous tragedy “The Bakkhai,” Euripides brings back the famous story of Pentheus and Dionysos. Although the mythology of the Ancient Greece is full of murder, the story of Pentheus’s death is one of the most shocking of all, which already says a lot, given the shocking brutality of Ancient Greek myths.

Thesis statement Although it is traditionally considered that the key reason behind Pentheus’s death was his denial of Dionysos as a god, it can also be argued that Pentheus’s non-acceptance of Dionysos was only the factor, while the key reason behind his death was taking the tradition of bacchanalias away from the citizen, as well as his acceptance of a feminine role and the resulting mistakes in political strategy, as well as the fact that Pentheus obviously underestimated the power of the crowd.

“The Bakkhai”: Summary and Mythological Background Though the tragic event known as the death of Pentheus, which was later on described by Euripides in his “the Bakkhai” is notoriously famous all over the world, recalling the key events will help analyzing the reasons behind Pentheus’s death more efficiently. Known as the monarch of the Thebes, Pentheus was against bacchanalias as very sinful and indecent events.

After Pentheus captures Dionysos, the latter feels outraged and makes Agave lose her mind and join him. Trying to stop the mother, Pentheus attends the bacchanalia, but his insane mother murders him, thinking he was a lion. As soon as the bacchanalia is over, however, she realizes what she has done and cries. Dionysos turns Agave’s father into a dragon and her mother into a snake, exiling Agave and her sisters forever.

The Reasons for Pentheus’s Downfall: Where It All Started from Though the reasons for Pentheus’s defeat are obvious, there might be some arguments concerning his own fault in what had happened. Even though Pentheus should have given Dionysos more credit, there are other factors that predetermined Pentheur’s downfall.

Pentheus’s refusal to accept Dionysos

The given reason for Pentheus downfall seems the most obvious. Indeed, according to the plot of the tragedy, the monarch is murdered by his own mother in the midst of bacchanalia that has got completely out of control:

AGAVE: Men are hunting us! We’ll fight them with our wands! (Euripides line 1000).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To start with, unless Panthos had prohibited the tradition of bacchanalia and mocked Dionysos, the latter would have not feel the urge to take his revenge on Pentheus; his priestesses and followers would have never become so enraged:

[…] Here’s the truth:

He’s a ‘god’ lightning burned up with his mother as a punishment for her great lie (Euripides lines 358–360).

Therefore, the bacchanalia feats would have not become so uncontrollable; in her turn, Pentheus’s mother would have not decided to join the protesting Bacchantes and, therefore, would have never gone so insane that she would devour her own son.

Playing a more feminine role: Pentheus’s retreat

It could also be argued that the downfall of Pentheus can be explained by the change in his policy as a monarch. If comparing the Pentheus of the first part of the story and the Pentheus that the readers encounter in the final part of the poem, one will see that these two have nothing in common with each other. The Pentheus that the readers see at the start of the poem is strong, powerful and confident:

I have arrested a handful already, they’re tied up now in a public stable (Euripides 336–337).

However, the Pentheus that appears in the final part of the poem is weak and doubting, performing a role that can be viewed as much more feminine:

We will write a custom Essay on The Downfall of Pentheus: The Clash of a Monarch and a God specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More DIONYSOS: […] hallucination fed his desires. That was how I humiliated him (Euripides 854–856).

Such weakness cost Pentheus a life.

When the power of the crowd is underestimated

Another reason for Pentheus to lose not only his throne, but also his life was the fact that he underestimated the power of the crowd. Considering himself above the people who technically were his subjects, he made a huge mistake. Once a crowd is out of control, there is nothing that a single person can do – the crowd will smash the person and continue protesting until it finally gets what it wants:

their voices swelling together, then the whole mountain started to dance for Bakkhos (Euripides lines 995–996).

Dionysos, his pride and his inferiority complex

It would be wrong, however, to believe that Dionysos was the only person to blame for what had happened; no matter how weird and irrational his actions might have become, there was still another person who actually had a lot to deal with the bacchanalia.

As long as Dionysos felt that he was underestimated and, in fact, was not considered a legitimate member of the Greek Pantheon, he would feel the urge to take his revenge on the people who were standing in his way. Therefore, Dionysos’ inferiority complex can also be considered the reason for Pentheus’s downfall:

DIONYSOS: But you, Pentheus, can be certain That the God you call “dead” – Is Dionysos, a god so real He’ll make you answer for every Outrage you do to him (Euripides lines 718–722).

Indeed, if Dionysos had not felt the urge to prove his divinity, he would have never gone so far as to make Pentheus’s mother kill her own son. The more power one has, the more responsible one becomes, realizing that his powers can be the source of not only justice, but also grief and sorrow if used irresponsibly. Therefore, Dionysos obviously lacked self-assurance and responsibility, which cost Pentheus his life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Downfall of Pentheus: The Clash of a Monarch and a God by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussion: Picking the Most Legitimate Reason When defining the point at which Pentheus’s fate becomes obvious, one must admit that Pentheus died because of his refusal to accept Dionysos as a god. If Pentheus did not prohibit bacchanalias, he would have stayed alive and would not have had been torn limb to limb to the enraged bacchantes. However, unless Dionysos would not have felt the urge to establish himself as a god, there would have been no conflict between him and Dionysos, which means that the inferiority complex of the latter serves as a prerequisite to the tragedy.

Conclusion: Pentheus and His Untimely Death Though it is generally accepted that Pentheus was murdered by his mother as a result of his refusal to accept Dionysos, it can also be claimed with certainty that the cause of Pentheus’s death was prohibiting the bacchanalian feasts to honor Dionysos. On the one hand, it is clear that Pentheus’s stubbornness led to his tragic and untimely death.

On the other hand, it would be a mistake to think that the denial of Dionysos was the only reason for Pentheus’s downfall. Also caused by the politics that Pentheus preferred to rule the land, the moods that were brewing among the Dionysos’s adepts, and many other reasons, this death is a graphic example of an unreasonable policy that lacked wisdom and caution. That said, the death of Pentheus still remains one of the most notorious monarch deaths in the Greek mythology.

Works Cited Euripides. “Bakkhai.” Classical Tragedy, Greek and Roman. Ed. Robert W. Corrigan. New York, NY: Applause Theater and Cinema Books, 1990. Print. 367–431.


American Calling Essay (Book Review) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Critical Review


Introduction Technology plays a significant role towards enhancing civilization because everything in the modern world depends on it. Studies suggest that people are recognized with the type of the device they carry indicating the level of civilization of an individual. To many people, living without technology is compared to living without the basic need, such as food. Technology affects life in all perspectives including politically, socially and economically.

This implies that life in the modern society would not be the same without technology. In the food industry, technology has continued to redirect the health of individuals all over the world. In the modern society, the shelf life of food products is augmented by using improved technology. Time taken to make food in the modern society is less as compared to that spent on preparing meals in the traditional society.

In the communication industry, technology has made human beings dependant on gadgets. For instance, an individual would be sitting in one corner of the world and be able to communicate with the other individual in a different corner. The world is now viewed as a global community based on the effectiveness of technology, which is interdependent and highly connected.

For instance, by use of telephone technology, communication among people in remote areas has been made possible. This paper looks at the impacts of technology on human life. To do this successfully, a critical review of the book, “American Calling,” is conducted. The book talks about the technological role of the telephone in the American society.

Summary In the first chapter, the author starts by questioning the real impact of technology on human life. He asks whether the telephone makes people active or lazy. Moreover, Fischer questions the role of the telephone in bringing the families together. In this regard, he observes that technology has both advantages and disadvantages.

Fischer confirms that inventions of previous technologies softened people. This implies that it made life easier because many things were produced with ease. The invention of the radio negatively affected people’s morality while electric lighting immobilized people because they would spend most of their time at home.

In 1926, the author observes that many people in the society were concerned with the rising rates of immorality owing to the technological inventions. By then, Americans were experiencing radical changes, particularly in terms of material changes. He further notes that material innovations are of value as compared to any other innovation because of its role in improving the living standards of individuals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, innovations in the food industry improved food distribution and sanitation, which lengthened human life. The inventions of cars enabled many Americans to travel to various places that they had never imagined in their lives (Fischer, 1992). This allowed them to interact with various individuals who had different experiences.

Regarding the question whether technology drives social change in the American society, the author has mixed reactions since he notes that technological changes influence the dynamics of all globalization theories. He is of the view that everything in the modern society depends mainly on technology.

For instance, food preservatives and artificial fabrics are the major necessities in the modern society. In his attempt to define technology, the author employs a dictionary explanation, which states that technology is an applied science. In this regard, he posits that technology brings about wealth hence it is not readily shared as compared to the findings of science. The author narrows down to discuss the aspects of technology regarding its application of devices and systems.

He introduces the role of technology in the life of an individual. Incidentally, he perceives technology in terms of material culture as it enables a person to realize his economic potential. Under the impact analysis section, the author presents various views regarding the impacts of technology. He employs Ogburn’s view that technology is a billiard-ball meaning that it originates from an external environment and affects the operations of society in a number of ways.

He gives an example by observing that the emergence of the automobile replaced the need for horses in the modern society. Through this, there is reduced need for feed-grain, which increases the land for planting edible grains. This reduces the costs of various food varieties (Fischer, 1992). By extension, this leads to the emergence of the feudal system of production.

In the second chapter, the author discusses the impacts of the telephone on the American society. He begins by appreciating the role of Alexander Graham, who invented the telephone. He goes on to argue that the telephone system developed rapidly between 1876 and 1940. His focus is on the consumers whose lives have changed greatly since they started using the phone.

He does not talk about the role of engineers, but rather the consumers. One of the impacts of the telephone on customers was that it affected the cost of communicating with other people because it reduced the prices. During the Second World War, consumers in the US and Canada had to subscribe for the telephone services from an expensive operator who had monopolized the sector.

We will write a custom Book Review on American Calling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Before the invention of the telephone technology, people had to pass information via the traditional means such as yelling or using the mail messenger. Telephone technology brought radical changes that shaped personal communication structures in society (Fischer, 1992). Even though businesspersons and the government still relied on letters, things changed because they also started using the telephone to pass urgent information.

In the third chapter, the author discusses the role of the telephone in educating the public. On the other hand, the introduction of the telephone in society was a complex idea that needed the intervention of the government and other state agencies. This was in the areas of capital and cost of education to disseminate the knowledge.

In the fourth chapter, Fischer shows how telephone technology spread nationally. It was the role of the government and other contracted organizations to spread telephone technology to other parts of the country. Chapter 5 is an extension of chapter four because it narrows down to a local level whereby he talks about the spread of telephone technology within the community.

The telephone affected the lives of many locals because families communicated easily with each other meaning that emergencies could be addressed faster as compared to the previous decades whereby a messenger had to be sent to the neighbour to inform them of an emergency.

He notes in the sixth chapter that telephone technology became a commonplace in the United States since everyone was using it. Each person was in need of the technology because of its role. In fact, few people would survive without the telephone in the house. This changed the relationships and interactions among members of society. In the seventh chapter, he suggests that the telephone had a local attachment, as it had become a basic need.

The telephone was used to fulfil various individual aspirations. In fact, he notes in chapter 8 that people made personal calls, which had personalized meanings. He concludes by noting in chapter nine that technology had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals because it defined their lives. Without technology, it would be difficult for individuals to conduct their normal businesses (Fischer, 1992).

Critical Review The works of Fischer are of benefit to any historian in at least three major ways. It should be remembered that his writings on the telephone are the most pervasive in the decade. His views were of essence mainly because he offerd an excellent summary of historiography, which were mainly utilized in studies touching on science and technology.

His works are strong because they offer a unique approach regarding the social aspects of communication technologies. This would be of great help to educators who are interested in developing and understanding technology in society. The research methods that he employed are also valid because they offer effective examples to both positivists and post-positivists scholars. In his analysis, the author started by analyzing the methods that are usually employed in historiography.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American Calling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his view, the methods that sociologists employ to report the impacts of modernity in the society have too many assumptions meaning that they cannot be relied upon. He observes that sociologists and economists have an assumption that socio-economic and psychological changes take place simultaneously, which is not always the case.

He opposes the idea of using technological determinism to construe the impacts of technology. On the other hand, he is against the view of those who believe that technological developments evolve independently out of social influence. To him, this view is too mechanical. From a soft determinist perspective, technology and social forces have a relationship, which is mutual. However, the author feels that this perspective is too imagery.

Fischer employed a model referred to as the user heuristic constructivist model. He developed this model after reviewing a number of theories carefully. He used this model to comprehend the impacts of the telephone on the American society. In fact, this approach is exceptional and distinct because it follows a clearly established method. He understood the impact of the telephone from a consumer’s perspective.

This is different from other analyses of technology, which view it in terms of technical artefact. In this view, the consumer has the power of deciding the type of technology that would dominate in society. The idea that the telephone is a space transcending technology makes Fischer’s analysis very strong mainly because it connects the telephone technology with other forms of technologies, which have continuously affected the human life.

For instance, he compares the effects of the telephone with those of the automobile, given the fact that their influence on human life is closely related. He makes use of statistical evidence to show that the telephone technology is similar to other forms of technologies. Finally, Fischer employs a mixed method research successfully. Other researchers are able to utilize his mixed method successfully by following his example.

Reference Fischer, C. (1992). America calling: A social history of the telephone to 1940. Berkeley: University of California Press.


New media technologies, ICTs, convergence and digitisation Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction The modern economic development is largely dependent on the investments in new media technologies. New media technologies, ICTs, convergence, and digitisation are seen as the new engines of economic growth for many countries from the perspectives of labour transactions and trade.

The digitisation together with technological convergence era have marked a new era for economic development through alteration of the traditional approaches to organisational governance, production systems, forms of labour organisation, and alterations of means of surveillance coupled with business counter surveillance strategies.

One of the peculiar advantages of new media and digitisation convergence akin to boosting economic development of many nations is attributed to the capacity of new digital communication developments. The argument is the capacity to make it possible for media organisations and or individuals to deliver various audio, text, and even video materials over the same wired, fibre optic, and or wireless connections to a myriad of destinations within seconds or fractions of seconds.

This way, the technological developments of the twentieth century have made it possible for multiple products to be merged together to one product that carries the advantages possessed by all other products. However, as argued in the a paper, although these changes have been instrumental in the propagation of many countries’ economies in terms of effectiveness and efficacy in the management of organisational communications systems, there are still dominant challenges that are associated with any form of convergence.

Such challenges include increased risks to which an organisation can be susceptible to among them being cyber security threats. With this challenge and many others notwithstanding, the main focus of the paper is to discuss and analyse why new media technologies, ICTs, convergence, and digitisation are seen as the new engines of economic growth for many countries coupled with offering an explanation of how countries have responded to the challenges.

New media technologies, ICT, digitisation and convergence as engines of economic growth ICT encompasses a myriad of services coupled with networks, which facilitate the accumulation without negating the flow of both private and public crucial information.

With regard to the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (2004), ICT involves “internet service provisions, telecommunications, and information technology equipment and services, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentation centres, commercial information providers, network- based information services and other related information and communication activities” (p.11).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scrutiny of this definition for ICT reveals that it is quite similar to the definition offered for information technology (IT). Chowdhury (2000) also notes this similarity but further makes a distinction that ICT comprises technologies, which capacitate the process transfer of a myriad of information such as data, audio, and textual.

Akwani (2005) notes the importance of ICT in the economic development using case example of Nigeria by claiming, “The fastest growing employer of labour in Nigeria is the telecommunications industry” (p.45). Growth of the telecommunication industry underlines the growth of other sectors of economy by virtue of the fact that telecommunication is an enhancing tool for ardent inter and intra- organisational communications and information sharing.

Researches on how investments in ICT and new media technologies can boost economic development have been advancing over the last two decades (Awoleye 2012). In 1950s, Lau Tokutsu (1992) argues that the economic development recorded in the US is widely instigated by technological changes as opposed to factors such as capital and labour.

Guided by this perception, several studies have also been advanced in the developing world to determine the implication of technological changes on economic growth. Such studies present contradictory findings since, while some people find positive correlations between investments in ICT and economic growths, some others record a negative correlation between the two.

For instance, Berndelt et al. (1998) conducted a research on the implication of ICT capital investments on the productivity growth of selected industries of the US. He found that a negative relationship existed between the two. These findings were reproduction of similar findings by Parsons et al. (1990) who argued that, in the Canadian context, “banks did not yield good benefits from their ICT capital investments” (p.23).

From the US context, Morrison (1997) reported that ICT investments had minimal implication on economic growth of the US-based organisations. However, Chowdhury (2000) contested these findings by claiming, “Many sceptics have not seen the roles of ICTs in the efforts intended to alleviate poverty and bring food security to developing countries” (p.425).

Nevertheless, the author acknowledged that the challenges of alleviating poverty are incredibly complex. However, he insisted that, for this to happen, nations must invest in efficient production systems. Investments in the ICT infrastructures are one of the noble strides to put up such systems.

We will write a custom Essay on New media technologies, ICTs, convergence and digitisation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the negative relationship between economic growth and investments in ICT findings, many countries have not brought to a halt their efforts to invest in the ICT capital. The justification for this endeavour is pegged on the positive findings in the relationship between ICT and new media communications with economic development.

For instance, Lau Tokutsu (1992) investigated roles of investments in ICT in the economic growth of the US between 1960 and 1990. Among the contributors of the growth listed by the scholars, “nearly half of the growth aggregate national output in the US was attributed to ICT investments than the non-ICT or labour” (Awoleye 2012, p.25).

Schreyer (2000) who sought to study the effects of investments in ICT on productivity of G7 nation’s labour echoed similar findings. By employing samples from nations such as Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and Canada, he found out that the tremendous growth in the labour productivity of the nations registered between 1990 and1996 was attributable by large proportion to the investments in the ICT infrastructures.

On a more general scale, Poh (2001) sought to know how investments in the ICT influenced Singapore’s productivity in overall. His findings indicated that investment in the ICT capital produced substantive rates of economic returns in the end.

Kim (2003) sought to confirm the validity of these findings though he based his research on the Korean context. According to Kim, “ICT capital contributed 16.3% to the output growth of Korean economy and has had strong positive effects on the growth of labour productivity in the long-run” (2003, p.57).

Although the findings are based on research conducted a decade ago, they are significant in the discussion of the current impacts of digitalisation era on economic growth of nations.

In fact, the advents of social media have created an immense opportunity for organisations to reach large numbers of potential consumers who would otherwise be impossible to reach using the conventional forms of media. Surprisingly, the operational platforms for these new media forms are principally rested on ICT and information technology developments.

Many nations, both in the developed and the developing world, have been implementing policies emanating from such research findings discussed above with the noble aim of ensuring that their countries keep at pace with new technological developments in the effort to raise their GDP.

Not sure if you can write a paper on New media technologies, ICTs, convergence and digitisation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Availability of digital-enhanced connectivity is an essential factor that investors consider in the making of decisions to make investments in any country especially the developing nations. Broadband technology being one of the means of interconnecting digital computers across the globe is a major engine that drives economic growth of many nations especially in the era of offshore business, technical support, and manufacturing outsourcing.

Awoleye (2012) contends with this argument by further maintaining that developing nations, which have better ICT infrastructure, are better placed to secure outsourcing, foreign investments, and or off shoring business (p.28). In this sense, internet connectivity is a major enhancing factor for fostering globalisation.

With regard to Paltridge (2008), internet interconnectivity enhanced through broadband is “beginning to have a fundamental impact on how economies work and on the global allocation of resources especially in the developing countries due to their greater integration in the global value chains than ever before” (p.13).

In the same extent, governments in many nations have hiked their investments in the internet and web-based service delivery in the public sector through an endeavour termed as the e-governance. The goal of investments in the e-governance is aimed at ensuring cost effective, efficient, and reliable service delivery in the public sector with noble objective of increasing attractiveness of e-business environments for both local and foreign investors.

E-governance fits within the theory on ICT systems, convergence, and new media technology theory on economic development since it is a tool for boosting economic development through the provision of integrated data centre, shared operation networks, and business processes coupled with one stop service delivery centres to all public consumers.

Another important facet for economic growth tied within the paradigms of the rapid development in the information communication systems developments recorded within the last two decades is the E-commerce. E- Commerce has boosted economic growth of many nations by enabling them to achieve higher levels of development through the creation of a fertile investment climate, which is an incredible catalyst for economic growth.

From national levels, studies, for instance, of Indjikian and Siegel (2005) show that e-commerce can create diverse and valid revenue streams to the governments through the development of new markets and products to trade in the markets. Meeting new challenges for propelling economic growth requires channels for information sharing.

This argument infers that organisations whose growth is influenced by the developments in ICT and new media communications systems deserve to be largely knowledge based. The implication is that they need to be constantly innovative and creative to meet the dynamics of the markets characterised by the influx of products and services that are availed for sale in a competitive mode on a daily basis.

E-Commerce as tool for economic development is immensely effective in this end since, through it, “new channels of knowledge diffusion and human interactivity in the work places are opened with an enhanced flexibility and adaptability” (Indjikian


Emergence and up rise of street gangs Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online: college essay help online

This article reviews two writings, Karen A. Joe and Meda Chesney’s article “Just Every Mother’s Angel”, an analysis of gender and ethic variations in youth gang members and another article by Suudhir Alladi Venkatesh, “The Social Organization of Secret Gang Activity in an Urban Ghetto”. I am going to review the two articles separately. I will also show the relation that the two documents share. First of all it is notable that both documents are based on the general impact of the street gangs to the society where they exist.

The article “Just Every Mother’s Angel” was written by Karen A. Joe and Meda Chesney in 1995 and published by Sage Publications. The article is based on analysis of a research that was conducted in Hawaii on 48 former ethnic gang members. In their study, the authors were in a bid to determine if membership to a gang group is in any way affected by gender, age or any variation in ethnicity and if there is any relationship between them.

The article reports of the results from the interviews which covered areas such as the cause of the increase in the number of street gangs, challenges facing the members of the gangs and any correlation between gender and gang membership. The article records a dramatic increase in the rate by which youths are joining the gangs.

This is also evident by the police records in the increase in crime rates around the cities. Majority of the members of the gangs have been documented to be black Americans. The article also indicates that gender and ethnic background also plays a great part in gang participation. Gangs are majorly made up of the males while the female members are always more dedicated to softer chores such as food preparation.

In the article it is noted that the media is always interested in the “girls in gangs”. This is so because the media always want to find out more about the enlightened “female crook”. Other causes for involvement in gang groups are as a result of seeking popularity, peer pressure and being poor.

This is from the emphasis of the society on male toughness, braveness and protectiveness. Though in most cases gangs are always formed for financial and property extortion from their victims, a number of gangs are also known to be for revenge and security reasons.

Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh’s article “The Social Organization of Street Gang Activity in an Urban Ghetto” on the other hand is an essay that shows results made after the analysis of data collected on both street gangs and the general community. The essay tries to identify any relationship between the neighboring community and the street gangs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the questions the article seeks to address include: Why do gangs tend to rise from specific communities? Did rural street gang action form autonomously or through contagion as well as the shifting of urban street gang groups? The article tries to identify if there is any organizational structure in the activities of the street gangs in the urban setup. In detail, the essay focuses on how the members of the street gangs correlate with their immediate neighbors.

The article incorporates the group characteristics with the social point of view. In this article the authors focus on data collected from Blackstone and further look at the patterns of activities displayed by the street gangs. To fully cover their scope of data collection, the writers considered factors such as response of the tenants, response to the presence of street gangs and also about the management of the community facilities.

The article notes that although the street gangs play a great role in community interactions, they do not get much public recognition when it comes to decision making. Their roles are majorly expressed in lowly considered activities such as drugs peddling and other negatively viewed activities.

This article dates the introduction of the rise in street gangs to have been caused by the massive loss in blue collar job employment in the 1960s. This resulted into scramble over casual jobs. Migration to urban areas also added to the effect of the rising numbers of the street gangs.

The rise in the number of street gangs is also as a result of the failing representation of the residents by both the law enforcers and the housing authority. Among the issues raised by the residents against the police include their unwillingness to conduct street and hallway patrols.

The residents believe that most fights among different gang groups are majorly as a result territorial conflicts. The article also bases its data collection on understanding the street gangs through their identity, culture, sexual relations and even their organizational structures. The author was able to identify that the gangs, apart from their primary goal of earning an increased amount of money extorted from the community and also tried to be accepted by the local community.

This was evidenced by the study where the author was able to identify that the gangs usually take part in social activities and in some cases provide security services to the local community. From the study, the author was also able to discover that though most of the gangs have revenue generation as their main objective, a number of them however maintain their values in providing security and defending themselves.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Emergence and up rise of street gangs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author however insists that to fully understand the interactions among the street gangs and other members of the society, it requires investing much attention in the organization structure and on how they co-relate. The article has in detail covered all the factors that influence the existence of street gangs.

The article summarizes that gangs in most cases arise where there are youths facing financial, family or social problems such as overpopulation, rising poverty level and racism. The gangs generally start as a source of console, friendship and acceptance to the youth facing these problems. The groups also provide a home and food to those physically, sexually and psychologically abused. The groups have indeed a commendable characteristic of providing protection to their members.

The two articles both address the issue of the rise in the number of street gangs. The articles seek to address the importance of the street gangs to their members in the provision of security and general protection. The both articles address the factors that have led to the increase in street gangs.

From both articles it is evident that the authors have the same feeling that financial problem is the major cause of the rise in street gangs. Other causes identified by both articles include peer pressure, rising level of unemployment, drug abuse and general societal pressure on men for their masculinity.


Brownson and Debs Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The subject of slavery and its different forms had been a thorny issue before the American Civil War. The country was divided into two factions. The South favored the slave labor system in which slaves were the property of their masters who took care of them. On the other hand, the North was in favor of the free labor wage system in which individuals were paid on the basis of their work done.

According to Orestes, in due consideration, the slave labor had several advantages over free labor (Dolbeare,


Global Leadership and Business Environment Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Global leadership refers to the study of various disciplines, where future leaders in the personal experience field are informed of the principal elements they require. This enables them to familiarize effectively with globalization impacts (anthropological, psychological, sociological, geopolitical, geographical, and physiological).

In global leadership, individuals assess the collaborative efforts of various stakeholders amidst environmental challenges, and develop a vision that incorporates a worldwide mind- set.

Trends begin with colonialism, and are accelerated by innovation and mass media. This leads to a variety of novel concerns, which mankind has to solve. This paper aims at assessing whether majority of the leaders adhere to global leadership, and the future requirements these leaders need to survive in the global business arena (Ghemawat, 2005: 98).

Do Majority of the Leaders Follow Global Leadership? Considering all the uncertainty and volatility present in the current workforce and world, there is a great need to create successful global leaders.

The world has increasingly become complicated, unpredictable, and volatile (Morrison, 2000: 120). It is worth pointing out that there is extreme urbanization, growth in the population, and assorted combination of young and old employees, which has resulted to changes in the universal workforce. The workplace is increasingly being shaped by social learning and mobile technology (Jokinen, 2005: 221).

Globally, leaders and their workforces are linked together by economic uncertainty. Majority of the leaders are aware of the shifts in the present world and workforce. Therefore, they have adopted global leadership, which is necessary for organizations to traverse transformation and complexity. Global leadership involves ensuring multicultural effectiveness, cultivating a sense of self- being in every human encounter, embracing personal differences, and efficiency in managing paradoxes (Mendenhall et al, 2012).

Presently, leaders possess a greater purpose, where they encourage employees to improve their output, and make them feel emotionally participative. Leaders aim at making the company a place where employees are proud of. For companies to build trust and acquire operational licences, they have increasingly become responsive to societies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to educating probable future workers, there is a need for companies to respond to the local people’s needs (Oddou, Mendenhall


Identity, Culture, and Organisation Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Organisations have recently encountered forces from some sources that encompass rivals, shareholders, and clients, which have caused them to adopt a “lean on mean” policy. For workers, this move has caused rationalisation and cutting back every expression demonstrating real or potential unemployment. Irrespective of the expression selected, this tendency has made many employees to reconsider concerns of dedication, faithfulness, and the identity of workers.

The usual mental treaty was typically relational with shared confidence supposedly at the core of the union between workers and employers (Gioia et al. 2010). In line with this comprehension, workers at National Health Service in the United Kingdom showed faithfulness and dedication whereas employers provided job security, future of the profession, as well as training and development.

The sense of the new psychological treaty argument affirms that there exists a decrease in the dedication and fading away of identity with bosses. The notion of reduced identity has also been studied in academic literature, which discloses that identity in organisations is associated with motivation, confidence, dedication, and nationality (Zachary et al. 2011).

Due to identity in organisations, there could be a great improvement in performance. In academic research, there are two different points of views, viz. the view of multiple identities and that of trade off. This paper discusses these two competing perspectives in the context of National Health Service and explores the function of identity dynamics at occupations, stating their significance, and elucidating them theoretically.

Organisational identity At the level of an individual worker in the National Health Service, the termination of organisational mooring lines denotes the lack of logic, belonging, and management, and thus the optional focal points for identity have turned out to be higher-flying. There are implications that workers presently focus on the externalities of organisations with adherences to the line of work or the internalities of organisations in the form of occupation or project teams.

Therefore, apparently the concern of identity has recently turned out to be more intricate with dissimilar concentrations on identity (Clark et al. 2010). Research vividly offers varying concentrations on identity and loyalty with the occupation or career.

Additionally, numerous academic advancements exist in the National Health Service though there is a lack of empirical activities specifically concerning the subject of nested identities. Two different points of view can be obtained from abiding academic research (Ravasi


Matewan and Harlan County USA Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help

Matewan ‘Matewan’ is an American drama film by John Sayles that narrates a story of the events of struggle to unionize the West Virginia coal-minors in 1920s. According to Sayles, the Stone Mountain Coal company was the only dominant company in the Western Virginia in the 1920s. Sayles (1987) notes that the Stone Mountain was the only mining company in the region at the time an advantage it used to monopolize every mining business opportunity in the region.

This monopoly forced miners into bondage contract with the company since they had no alternative with regard to employment. In addition, since workers had no alternative place to seek employment, it became easy for the Coal Company to oppress workers by offering low pay and making them work under poor conditions.

To make matters worse, employees did not even know their employers who did not even bother to show up in the company. Instead, company representatives took of every responsibility of supervising their work. Nonetheless, Sayles reveals that the representatives remained excessively oppressive as they used intimidation to force workers to deliver what they wanted (Sayles, 1987).

Sayles noted that apart from threats from company representatives, miners took home petty remuneration with no complaints. In addition, the Coal Company restricted workers freedom as consumers in, which miners had to buy everything from the company from food to clothes.

Equally, the management team forced workers to buy tools from the company to ensure that all the money they obtained circulated back to the company. Further, the Coal Company in most cases charged workers higher prices for their purchases than normal market charges (Sayles, 1987).

Therefore, growing intolerant of the hash and unjust rules, the miners decided to strike against the company. Strike motivation aimed at forcing the Coal Company to offer better working conditions. However, in order to drive their agenda, the miners found it prudent to unionize in order to form a stronger presence and opposition against the Coal Company. This is because the miners felt that it was only through union that they could mount a strong and formidable opposition to force the company to recognize their rights (Sayles, 1987).

Harlan County USA ‘The film Harlan County USA’ dramatizes a coal miner’s strike at the Brookside mine in Harlan County, Kentucky. According to the film director, the Brookside mine belongs to a private owner run under the Eastover Mining Company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike in Matewan, where workers found motivation to form a union to enable them push their agenda, Harlan County’s workers already belonged to a union called the Southern Labor Union. The union drew membership from the entire Eastern Kentucky to propagate the plight of the workers before company authorities (Kopple, 1976).

The documentary reveals that workers of Brookside mining company felt unhappy with the working condition at the mining site as observed in Matewan. This is because, despite doing a lot of hard work, they received extremely low salaries compared to what their unionized counterparts got.

Kopple (1976) reveals that these workers received a salary ranging from $17 to $32 per day, which was way below the $45 that their counterparts got. In addition, the company had not assured them of safety as several injuries used to occur, estimated at three times above the national average.

Therefore, they opted to strike demanding the right to form their own safety committee elected by the union members. They also wanted their salary increased to $45 per day as received among their counterparts. In addition, the miners wanted the company to pay the standard UMW rate of 75 cents for every ton, remitted directly to their medical and retirement benefits (Kopple, 1976).

The two films also share many similarities with regard to worker motivation and sustenance of morale in the mining industry depicted in US history (Blanchflower and Freeman, 2001). As witnessed in both films, workers unionize in order to form a formidable force to push for the recognition of workers’ rights.

However, the two films differ in the sense that whereas the Matewan workers struggle to unionize, Eastover readily allowed workers’ union. Despite unionized approach, workers in Eastover still fight for their rights seemingly violated by the company in breach of union terms.

References Blanchflower, D. D.,


McDonald’s Operations and Supply Chain Management Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Executive Summary




Executive Summary McDonald’s is one of the leading fast food brands worldwide. The first McDonald’s restaurant was opened in 1955 in Illinois, USA. The restaurant has since grown and expanded its operations to more than 119 countries in the world. The number of outlets has also grown to more than 31,000 serving an estimated 47 million customers (Yang et al. 2010).

McDonald’s serves a variety of fast food cuisines such as hamburger, chicken products, French fries, cream deserts and coffee, just to name but a few (Rtel and Härtel 2012, p.6). The company is today viewed as a symbol of globalization, as well as the American way of life.

Introduction McDonald’s is the first ever first food restaurant whose origin dates back to 1955. The restaurant has since emerged as the restaurant of choice among many customers going by its presence in many countries and the number of customers it serves.

However, the success of the restaurant has mainly been attributed to its best operation practices and supply chain management, which has given it a competitive edge over its rivals in the industry. This paper seeks to explore ways in which McDonald’s operations and supply chain management has given it an edge over its competitors.

To begin with, McDonald’s is a restaurant synonymous with famous hamburgers and other cuisines such as chicken McNuggest, Egg McMuffin, Quarter Pounder, Big Mac, French Fries and the recently introduced McCafe coffee (Boyer and Verma 2009, p.507). Despite the fact that other restaurants have also come up that serves similar cuisines, McDonald’s has since remained the most preferred restaurant of choice for many.

This is because its food and drinks and prepared based on quality and value for money. In this regard, the company has always ensured that its food meet the quality standards expected by customers. McDonald’s has been able to achieve this by employing professional chefs that ensure that quality standards are maintained (Boyer and Verma 2009, p.507).

Additionally, McDonald’s always seek for customer feedback as regards the quality and the manner they have been served so that adjustments can be made where necessary. Moreover, McDonald’s ensures that its food meet the health standards, which is one of the pillars in which the restaurant operates.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More McDonald’s also ensures that its customers are served on time and not kept waiting for too long, as is the case among some of its competitors. This is because the management of the restaurant ensures that all foods are available all the time, and no customer is turned away for lack of food. The waiters and chefs of the restaurant are also very customer-friendly something that has made many customers prefers the restaurant to others that serve similar cuisines (Li 2007, p.216).

The success of McDonald’s restaurant is also attributed to its supply chain, which is arguably the best. This is because, despite selling millions of items on a daily basis, McDonald’s has always ensured that all its customers get what they want. It is worth noting that all the supply chain of McDonald’s are outsourced since the company owns neither a factory nor a distribution center. In addition, McDonald’s owns about 30% of the restaurant while the rest are franchised (Raj 2013).

Singh 2012 reveals that McDonald’s has 16 major suppliers for its raw materials. However, the company has been able to ensure that all items are available based on its supply chain principle which states that no items need to be out of stock (Vitasek, Manrodt and Tillman 2012).

However, to ensure that this is achieved, the company has developed supply chain strategies, which ensures that enough stock is available all the time. The company has been doing this through the application of JDA Manugistics 7, as well as conducting regular analysis of its stock levels.

In this regard, McDonald’s has instituted a daily point-of-sale (POS) data at the product list, item level, and inventory level (Singh 2012). The POS is also used shipment so as to aid in forecasting. The application of this supply chain principle has ensured that McDonald’s do not run out of stock, which might affect the operation of its restaurants.

McDonald’s supply chain also focuses much on understanding how their supplies are brought to the restaurant. To ensure that this becomes a success, McDonald’s has maintained a close relationship with its suppliers by trusting them to the extent that the company finds no need of signing contracts with them (Saravanan 2011, p.4).

Report indicates that, despite the fact that McDonald’s currently operate about 14,000 restaurants in the U.S., it has not signed any contract with its suppliers to ensure that the restaurant gets what it orders from its suppliers every day (Saravanan 2011, p.4). Indeed this is a very good strategy since it has given McDonald’s a competitive edge over other companies operating in the same industry.

We will write a custom Essay on McDonald’s Operations and Supply Chain Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, McDonald’s ensures that the supplier’s products are not completely knocked out as this will make it hard working with such suppliers again. However, McDonald’s has been striving to ensure that it builds a positive and lasting relationship based on ethics, environment, and economies (Cheema 2010).

Another striking feature of McDonald’s supply chain pertains to how the company decides the menu items on offer. For instance, McGrath (2011) noted that McDonald’s served Blueberry Banana Nut Oatmeal over the summer as a breakfast choice. This is despite the fact that oatmeal has not been on offer for quite some time.

However, before this menu item could be adopted by other restaurants, McDonald’s sourced enough suppliers to plant blueberries, which was to be used in the restaurant during the summer. The adoption of this approach gave it an edge over other restaurants that were in short of the blueberries (McGrath 2011).

McDonald’s, unlike many other restaurants, have developed a peculiar Cold Chain, which ensures the integrity of food products are maintained, as well as ensuring that freshness and nutritional value of products are retained (Relph 2012). In addition, McDonald’s has also set up e-procurement, which allows the company to purchase and sell its products online.

The e-procurement has also made it easy for McDonald’s to find buyers and suppliers of its products with ease. Saravanan (2011, p.6) observed that the Emac Digital launched in 2001has given McDonald’s franchises all over the world the opportunity to purchase everything they need for the effective running of the restaurants, be it uniforms or hamburgers.

Edwards, the chief executive of McDonald’s argues that the installation of e-procurement has enabled the restaurant cut down its operation cost by over 85% (Saravanan 2011, p.6). This has also given McDonald’s a competitive edge over its competitors in the fast food industry.

Conclusion The world has experienced unprecedented upsurge of restaurants in recent time. The high growth has mainly been experienced in fast food industry that has flooded many cities across the world today. Nevertheless, McDonald’s, being the first ever fist food restaurant has maintained a competitive edge over the rest of the restaurants that have come after it.

This is attributable to its strong operation and supply chain management principles that have helped in building customer loyalty, as well as ensuring that the company maintains a close relationship with its suppliers. Based on these principles, it will be very hard for any restaurant to edge out McDonald’s in terms of operation and supply chain management.

Not sure if you can write a paper on McDonald’s Operations and Supply Chain Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Cheema, P. 2010, The big idea; McDonald’s unravels its supply chain. Web.

Boyer, K. K.,


International Human Resource Management Report essay help free: essay help free

Introduction International human resource has gained a lot of attention among the researchers in the recent past. The world has been reduced into a small village due to technological advancements. Technological advancements, especially in the field of transport and communication have had a massive effect on human resource.

Human resource can therefore, move from one geographical location to another with a lot of ease.1 The improved communication system has also brought about scenarios where a firm can employ individuals who are miles away from the company. It is currently a common phenomenon to find a situation where an Australian company employs an Indian staying in India as a customer service officer who receives calls and give direction to customers on phone.

This has resulted in what is popularly referred to as international human resource management.2 There is need to manage employees beyond the borders. This is especially so when it comes to globalized firms which have operations going beyond the borders of the parent country.

The world is experiencing radical changes in the labor environment. International human resource management globally is an area that is vital and requires special attention for it is the backbone of all sectors of the economy of any given country.3

This has become one of the legislative areas, calling for many political leaders to spend much of their time and brains in finding solutions to issues that emanate from work and labor. In search for the same, countries like the Australia have established several education centers that aim at expanding public understanding on important issues affecting the working group. In these institutions they admit under graduate who take studies in areas related to human resource management.

In Australia, laws have been enacted to guide the labor market. Managing employees in this century needs an understanding of various societal factors within the organization. It is important to understand different social settings of different employees in order to be able to understand their behavior within the organization. Understanding organizational behavior is the key to having employees working as a unit.

Managing and Developing Employees in International Setting The current world is experiencing a lot of changes in the labor market. The competition in the international labor market is becoming stiff each day.4 Globally, technology has posed both positive and negative impacts in the global labor market. Although it has made the work easier, it has again replaced the human labor that is vital in the world market.5

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economically, international or local trade is the backbone of any stable nation. In the working environment, employees have been faced with several challenges that need to be addressed by any nation seeking to compete in the world market. It is important to understand how both the expatriate and local employees. This is elaborated as stated below.

Expatriate Employee

The current world has greatly encouraged international trade. People from different countries meet together in the world market, competing with an aim of maximizing their output. There is an exchange of business experts from one field to another moving from one country to another, others reside in foreign countries for business purposes.

When dealing with the expatriate, it will be important to understand their social background in order to predict their behavior. The management should act having a clear understanding that expatriates have a number of factors that make them unique from the locals. This should be put into consideration when managing them.

Local employees

The local employees are always easier to manage than expatriates.6 Managing the locals involves understanding the local forces that affects their behavior. This would involve understanding the social factors that have direct impact to the human resource. Local employees have the capacity to transform the parent firm which should be a guide to other branches.

There are regulations that the Australian government has put in place to ensure that the rights of employees are respected, irrespective of their citizenship. These regulations protect both the locals and the expatriates working in this country. The following are some of the highly observed regulations in this country.

Regulation of Employment Relationship

The law clearly spells the type of relationship that should exist between various institutions within an organization. Within an organization, the two common types of relationship that exist are the employer-employee relationship, and employee-employee relationship.

There is a way in which the employer should relate with his or her employees.7 There should be mutual respect between the employer and the employee and each should ensure that they do not infringe into the others right. The employer should respect the right of the employee and ensure that he or she is appropriately compensated for the work done.8 The employee on the other hand has the responsibility to meet the standard expected of him or her at the workplace.

We will write a custom Report on International Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regulation of Discrimination in Employment

Discrimination of whatsoever form is strictly prohibited by the law of the land. The law clearly states that the employer should not discriminate on any basis when hiring or directing the employees. The country has enacted law that prohibits employers from discriminating employees based on race, gender, religion, age or any other demographic basis.9

The affirmative action was meant to demonstrate further that employers are not allowed to discriminate against women at their workplace simply because they are women. This is so even when a firm is dealing with expatriates. Legislation was enacted that protects employees both locally and in the international forum. Such an employer who engages in discriminative acts may face litigation in a court of law.

Regulation of Employment Environment

It is always very important for an employer to ensure that the working environment is safe enough for the employees. In various occasions, employees are always subjected to working environments that are not conducive to their health or such other factors based on their country of origin.10

The employees have right to their privacy. As such, it would be going against the law for the employer to intrude into the privacy of the employer. It would be wrong for the employer to demand information that can pass as confidential from the employees if the information does not directly relate to the task. This is irrespective of whether this information is gotten directly from the employee by inquiry, or through the third party, the employer is not allowed obtain information from the employer against the employees wish.

Occupational Safety and Health

An employee should be safe when working in various units of the organization irrespective of their country of origin. At no given point should the general well being of the employee be at risk. The employer has the responsibility to ensure that the safety of all employees is well taken care of both within the plant and when sent on duties outside the firm. The employer must also factor in health of the employees.11 At no point should the employees be subjected to working conditions that may have adverse effects on their health.

Fair Labor Standards Act

The Fair Labor Standards Act was a legislation that was meant to help the employer and the employee relate well. The employer needs perfection from the employees for the compensation paid on a monthly or weekly basis. On the other hand, there is a capacity that an employee should have. The law regulates the expectation of the employer and the output of employee to ensure fairness.

Importance of IHRM to Organizations and Individuals from a Practical Perspective

From a practical perspective, international human resource management is very important both to individuals and organization. To an organization which hopes to venture into international markets, there is need to understand international human resource management in order to operate successfully in the international market.12

The organizational factors that are considered locally are very different from that that affects the labor market internationally. It would therefore, be important to understand the labor market of each individual country because it would always be unique from others. This would require unique treatment in order to achieve the desired results.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Human Resource Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Implementing the Strategies

For a long time, labor has not been given its rightful position in many organizations. Many of the managements have not thought of viewing their employees as very important asserts. However, the happenings of the recent past have proven that labor force is one of the most important asserts to any given organization.13

When the management lays down objectives to be achieved, it is always the employees who are expected to implement the policies that would bring the desired results. It is this work force that would be expected to turn the policies from paper to reality. Therefore, retention of employees is very important. Employees should be retained within the organization to ensure that the firm’s operations are consistent. High turnover rate of employees is not healthy for the firm’s prosperity.

This is because it does not only affect the smooth implementation of policies within the firm, but also leads to increased cost of training new employees. It is even worse that the employees would go away having learnt the strategies of the firm, making the firm vulnerable to its competitors.14 The management should therefore device methods of hiring qualified employees and retaining them within the firm. One of the best ways to achieve this is through motivation. It is through motivation that employees will feel attached to the firm and therefore feel committed to the firm. Motivation is very important in international human resource management.

Relationship between Employee Motivation and Success of a Firm in the Global Market

Employees are the implementing arm of the organization. While the top executives formulate the policies to be implemented by the organization, most of their tasks always end in the paper.15 It is upon the employees to make these blueprints a reality. In his words, employees are the engine of the organization.

When well taken care of and put in a proper condition, they would always give the best of the results to the organization. However, when they are neglected and left to ‘rust’ they will always give leap service and the output will be very disappointing. Motivating employees within the organization is very important.

There is a direct link between employee motivation and success of a firm. It is very important that a firm increases the rate of employee motivation because of a number of reasons. In most of the occasions, policies are always developed to last for one whole year.16 However, these policies are always units in the larger vision of the firm.

A vision may be developed to be achieved in a time span of say thirty year or so. This duration is long and the firm may not take a direct approach towards achieving this vision. It therefore has to split this vision into yearly strategic objectives. When the year begins, the firm would plan with its current work force.

When some of the employees leave along the year because of lack of motivation, it would be a blow to the success of that year’s strategic objectives. The firm would be forced to look for a replacement and train them and make them understand the objectives to be achieved. This is time consuming and costly venture that would reduce the success of the organization. Changing the employees on a yearly basis is not good either.

This is because in so doing, the vision of the firm will be lost. It will not be possible to realize the vision because every year, the firm would be forced to start with new employees who may not understand the vision, and how it was developed in the first place. This minimizes chances of achieving expected goals within the organization.

Strategies of Employee Motivation

To ensure that there is a constantly motivated workforce, it would require the management to employ the right strategies that would ensure that it succeeds in this. It may appear as a simple task of making employees happy.17 However, it goes beyond this, especially when it comes to managing employees in overseas countries.

To motivate employees within the firm, there are a series of strategies that a firm should employ in order to ensure that employees are constantly satisfied. The secret behind retention lies in ensuring that the employee is satisfied and feels challenged with the present task. This will cause the drive in him to want to come tomorrow and beat the challenge.18 The recommendations below gives a detailed strategy of how to employ the right individuals to the firm, and how such individuals should be retained, once employed.

Conclusion International human resource management has become very relevant in the current global society. The world has been reduced into a small global village where labor can move from one part of the country to another. Firms are also investing in the global market. This means that human resource managements should have a sound understanding of the global labor market in order to operate successfully in the global market.

Bibliography Arthur, Joan. “Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover.” The academy of management journal, 37.3 (2008): 670-687.

Barney, John. “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage.” Journal of management, 17.1 (2010): 99.

Baruch, Yusuf. “Response rate in academic studies-A comparative analysis.” Human relations, 52.4 (2006): 421-438.

Boselie, Paul. “Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research.” Human Resource Management Journal, 15.3 (2005): 67-94.

Brewster, Charles. “A continent of diversity.” Personnel management London, 5.9 (2008): 36-40.

Budhwar, Prisca. “Rethinking comparative and cross-national human resource management research.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12.3 (2006): 497-515.

Cutcher, Gershenfeld. “Impact on Economic Performance of a Transformation in Workplace Relations.” Management Journal, 44 (2007): 241.

Evans, Paul. The global challenge: international human resource management. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2011.

Fey, Cecil. “The effect of human resource management practices on MNC subsidiary performance in Russia.” Journal of International Business Studies, 32.1 (2012): 59-75.

Grobler, Pieter. Human resource management in South Africa. London: Thomson Learning, 2006.

Guest, Daniel. “Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8.3 (2009): 263-276.

Guest, Edwin. “Human resource management and industrial relations.” Journal of management Studies, 24.5 (2001): 503-521.

Guthrie, James. “High-involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand.” The Academy of Management Journal, 44.1 (2002): 180-190.

Hamill, Jane. “Labour relations decision making within multinational corporations.” Industrial Relations Journal, 15.2 (2006): 30-34.

Hedlund, Gerald. “The hypermodern MNC—a hierarchy?” Human resource management, 25.1 (2004): 9-35.

Jensen, Titus. “The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance.” Academy of management journal, 38.3 (2011): 635-672.

Marchington, Moses. “Involvement and participation.” Human Resource Management: A Critical Text, 7(67): 280-305.

Stahl, Günter. Handbook of research in international human resource management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers, 2012.

Footnotes 1 Hedlund, Gerald. “The hypermodern MNC—a hierarchy?” Human resource management, 25.1 (2004): 9-35.

2 Pieter Grobler, Human resource management in South Africa (London: Thomson Learning, 2006), 28.

3 Marchington, Moses. “Involvement and participation.” Human Resource Management: A Critical Text, 7(67): 280-305.

4 James Guthrie. “High-involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand.” The Academy of Management Journal, 44.1 (2002): 180-190.

5 Titus Jensen. “The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance.” Academy of management journal, 38.3 (2011): 635-672.

6 Edwin Guest. “Human resource management and industrial relations.” Journal of management Studies, 24.5 (2001): 503-521.

7 Daniel Guest. “Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8.3 (2009): 263-276.

8 Jane Hamill. “Labour relations decision making within multinational corporations.” Industrial Relations Journal, 15.2 (2006): 30-34.

9 Paul Evans, The global challenge: international human resource management (New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2011), 34.

10 Cecil Fey. “The effect of human resource management practices on MNC subsidiary performance in Russia.” Journal of International Business Studies, 32.1 (2012): 59-75.

11 Prisca Budhwar. “Rethinking comparative and cross-national human resource management research.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12.3 (2006): 497-515.

12 Gershenfeld Cutcher. “Impact on Economic Performance of a Transformation in Workplace Relations.” Management Journal, 44 (2007): 241.

13 Paul Boselie. “Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research.” Human Resource Management Journal, 15.3 (2005): 67-94.

14 Charles Brewster. “A continent of diversity.” Personnel management London, 5.9 (2008): 36-40.

15 Günter Stahl, Handbook of research in international human resource management (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers,( 2012), 56.

16 Joan Arthur, “Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover.” The academy of management journal, 37.3 (2008): 670-687.

17 John Barney. “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage.” Journal of management, 17.1 (2010): 99.

18 Yusuf Baruch. “Response rate in academic studies-A comparative analysis.” Human relations, 52.4 (2006): 421-438.


Case of Debenhams Report essay help

Introduction Business marketing has become one of the integral business features that organisations use as a competitive advantage to strive through market pressures. The mechanisms of businesses and corporations normally determine companies’ present success and expectations. The physical appearances as well as customs governing a business are good determinants that anticipate the growth and development of any single business with such prospects mutually influencing multinational corporations as well as small and medium business units.

Minor decisions, as they may seem, frequently have long lasting influence on businesses and may automatically determine the growth and development of such enterprises. Central to this argument, any business unit inclusive of retail stores principally requires comprehensive marketing planning from product determination and product arrangement to the final selling.

For several decades, the impact of store layout and design, merchandise assortment, and store location as retail managerial aspects have constantly remained undervalued. Therefore, this essay seeks to examine these aspects in a survey of three retail stores: Debenhams, Saks Fifth Avenue, and Marks and Spenser.

Industrial synopsis of retailers The three retail stores operating in major economies including the United States and the United Kingdom and other parts of the European continent belong to the fashion and design industry, an internationally acknowledged industry that employs millions of designers. They compose the topmost designing companies across Europe, with reports indicating that most of these companies have stretched beyond the European continent.

Fashion and designing typically refers to the art of applying techniques in aesthetic or even natural beauty to garnishes and garments. The fashion and designing industry streams from social-cultural persuasions and for numerous decades, the industry is proving substantial in connecting different cultures to the international limelight through socio-cultural designs.

Fashion and designing commerce has constantly proven one of the most imperative apertures to cultural growth in a more sophisticated manner with different industries rapidly growing to meet the dire needs to consumer interests. Over the years, this industry has been influential in peoples living styles with numerous changes constantly taking place in this industry each successive year.

Concerning Debenhams Company Debenhams is an internationally renowned fashion and designing company currently operating in over 28 countries globally. The history of Debenhams fashion and Designing Company “dates back to the 1778, when William Clark established a store of drapers, along 44 Wigmore Street in the west of London, selling luxurious gloves, bonnets, fabrics and parasols that constantly grew to a company” (Debenhams Plc. Para. 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As early as 1813, Debenhams grew exponentially through William’s innovations and the firm, Clark and Debenhams emerged, followed by the emergence of the first store in the London’s outskirts, Cheltenham in 1818, giving an exact facsimile of Wigmore Street Stores.

Came 1851, Clement Freebody “invested heavily in the firm and renamed it Debenhams


Third World War will be Over Water Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction According to Robert et al. (1027), the quest for a cleaner and sustainable environment is ongoing. The reason for the growth of environmental activism is that the resources that are vital for the sustenance of human life, like water, have been declining at a quick pace. Taking an example from the issue of climate change, it is noted that one of the impacts of the degradation of the environment is growing desertification.

This denotes a decline in the supply of water to the population in areas that are affected by desertification. The rate at which clean water sources are declining is quite high, leaving populations exposed to waterborne ailments. Cases of waterborne diseases are often reported in the developing world.

The severity of the case of water scarcity can be best explained by the inclusion of the problem of water as one of the main goals of one of the greatest development frameworks in the world- the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The issue of access to safe drinking water occupies goal seven in the millennium development goals (UNICEF and World Health Organization 5).

According to Third World Academy of Sciences (6), approximately 75 percent of all diseases in the developing world emanate from the consumption of unclean water. According to the United Nations Report of issue of sanitation and safe drinking water, there is still a large gap between the demand and the supply of safe drinking water.

While the efforts of meeting the demand for clean drinking water are ongoing, the report revealed that approximately 780 million people in the world do not have access to safe drinking water (UNICEF and World Health Organization 5). This denotes an improvement on the research that was conducted by Basani, Isham and Reilly (953) in the year 2008, which showed that over a billion people across the world did not have access to safe drinking water.

This implies that there is still a need to speed the efforts of assuring the global population of the supply of clean and safe water. The implication of the observation that was made by the UNICEF and WHO is that most people in the world still use contaminated water for drinking and accomplishing a series of other domestic chores, irrespective of the risks of using that water. It should be noted that these people use contaminated water out of desperation.

They cannot access clean and hygienic water, while at the same time they cannot do without this basic necessity. By extension, this means that people are caught in desperate situations, implying a smouldering crisis. In this paper, it is argued that the demand for clean water far much surpasses the ability of governments to offer clean water to their citizens, leading to the struggle for access to clean water.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The continued contamination and the subsequent usage of clean water are likely to compound the problems that are associated with the demand and supply of clean water.

This paper explores the issues surrounding the scarcity of drinking water and the implications. The paper brings out findings on the problems and trends of demand and supply of clean water to the global populace and the likely impacts of the quest for clean water.

Health Issues Water Borne Diseases

The provision of clean and safe drinking water is part of the initiatives of most governments, especially in the developing world. Governments are often backed by international agencies and non-governmental organizations in fulfilling the obligation. As observed in the introduction, there are a substantial number of people in the world today who do not have access to clean drinking water.

As people continue to strive for clean and safe water, the usage of unsafe water continues to cause harm to millions of people around the world. Unclean water, as noted in the introduction, is the cause of most of the maladies in the developing world.

Cases of the spread and prevalence of waterborne diseases in the world cannot be overemphasized. Millions of people in the world succumb to diseases that emanate from the consumption of polluted water. Common waterborne diseases that are reported include cholera, diarrhoea, typhoid, and dysentery (Tulchinsky and Varavikova 339).

The question that ought to be asked is what the source of contamination of the water is and the reasons to whether people are informed of the risks of consuming such water. What happens is that people often find themselves in dire need of water, while the environment in which they inhabit cannot offer them clean water.

Thus, they are forced to utilize the available water, which is often contaminated, thence, a health hazard. The prevailing conditions of hygiene in the world are a predisposing factor for waterborne diseases. This makes water borne diseases as one of the main epidemics in the developing regions of the world.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Third World War will be Over Water specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Natural sources of water are often polluted through exposure to un-hygienic compounds that come from sewers and poor disposal of refuse. The state of health and productivity of the affected populations is put in jeopardy, thereby exposing the global population to economic problems (Basani, Isham and Reilly 954).

Water-Washed diseases

While a lot of efforts are directed towards treating the conditions that emanate from the consumption of unclean water, research reveals that the main means of controlling the spread of diseases that are caused by consumption of polluted water is by ensuring that populations are supplied with adequate volumes of clean water. This mainly applies to the water-washed diseases, where patients require to be supplied with adequate volumes of cleans water.

Water-washed diseases are another complication that emanates from the prevalence of poor conditions of hygiene, which comes from insufficient supply of clean water to a given population. Contamination with a number of diseases is caused by contact of the infected people with the healthy population.

The diseases are spread by virtue of direct contact of the skin, mucus membrane and conjunctiva. Amidst the rise in the cases of disease transmission through contact, there is a clear pointer to the fact that the supply of clean water to populations is paramount if a stoppage it to be put to the break-up and spread of water-washed diseases.

However, attending to such a situation is quite hard, bearing in mind that most populations, especially in the developing regions of the world, are still struggling with food insecurity. This makes the issue of clean water supply a secondary issue, meaning that water-washed diseases are likely to prevail within these populations (Webber 72).

Water based diseases

Water is one of the most common mediums of passage of infectious diseases from one person to the other. Given the nature of the social environment in which global populations prevail, water-based diseases cannot be easily stopped because the conditions of water supply are poor.

This predisposes the global population to poor hygienic conditions and the spread of water based diseases. The socio-environmental characteristics of the global population make it difficult to plan and maintain the required standards of hygiene. The carrying capacity of most ecosystems in the world surpasses the recommended standards, yet there are no better plans to maintain the recommended size of population. This leaves the populations prone to water-based diseases (Yang et al. 1484).

Water storage

According to Juuti (136), water storage comes out as one of the means of preserving water and guaranteeing populations of supply of water. However, the main concern is whether populations have the capacity to safely store water. There have been a lot of cases on the capacity of populations to store water.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Third World War will be Over Water by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The means of water storage is a critical issue. While the developed world is doing well in terms of developing technologies of storing water, a different scenario is witnessed in the developing world. The capacity to safely store water is quite low, which in most cases increases the vulnerability of the populations.

The mechanisms of water storage are hazardous. For instance, dams are left exposed, making them harbour other disease causing vectors like mosquitoes. Malaria, which is spread by mosquitoes, is one of the ailments that affect a substantial number of lives of people in the developing world and the tropics. The stored water is also not properly treated, thus it is contaminated with other disease causing pathogens (Juuti 136).

Agriculture Shortage of water and food

Food security is one of the main problems that are crumpling development in the world. Most households in the developing world cannot afford food, which is one of the basic needs for human beings. There is a close relationship between scarcity of food and the shortage of water supply. This issue can be approached from two perspectives.

One perspective is the issue of lack of food, which makes most of people to concentrate on the search for food, leaving out the issue of seeking for clean water. Shortage of water has been termed as the main impediment to the practicing of agriculture. The second issue, which is perhaps more broad, concerns the scarcity of water.

This scarcity jeopardizes the production of food. Reliance on primary agriculture in most parts of the world makes water an essential factor in the production of food. In most parts of the developing world, there is a lot of reliance on the rain as a source of water for agriculture and the production of food.

With the changing patterns of rainfall as a result of climate change and the effects of environmental pollution, the sequence of rainfall keeps changing, thereby impeding the practice of agriculture. Secondary means of water supply are impeded by the lack of technology and resources. This results in the problem of food insecurity. Conflicts over natural resources also arise as a result of the strife for favourable land for agriculture (Behnassi, Draggan, and Sanni, 25).

Farming/ toxic farming

Farming cannot be done without supply of water. The growth in the challenge of water supply results in the constriction of farming activities in most of the regions of the world. The shrinkage in farming has several implications for local communities in different parts of the world.

One of the main implications of minimal farming activities is reduction in the amount of food supply. The other notable thing is that the lack of active farming weakens the economic base of communities, thus predisposing them to a series of other social derived conditions. However, different tactics of producing food are deployed by population in the regions with scarcity of safe water.

Some of the methods that are deployed in farming are argued to be unsound for agriculture production since they result in the production of food that has toxic substances and unfit for human consumption. This is what is referred to as toxic farming (Schulzová, Hajšlová, Botek and Peroutka 2763).

According to Bilibio, Hensel and Selbach (356), more than ten percent of the global population consumes food that is produced using toxic water. This is a critical observation as people continue to seek for alternative means of enhancing the production of food. An example is the use of sewer water in urban areas to irrigate vegetables.

The toxic chemical compounds in the water are often deposited in the food that is produced, making the food harmful for human consumption. Also, the natural sources of water like rivers that are deemed to have clean water are no longer safer sources of water since the water is contaminated with chemical deposits that are released from industries that are mushrooming across the world. Animals are also affected by the population of water, thus they are also exposed to diseases (Bilibio, Hensel and Selbach 357).

The seemingly solutions to water shortage in agriculture

As mentioned earlier, there are a lot of efforts that have been directed towards attaining a solution to the problem of water shortage in agriculture. The most critical question that ought to be posed at this point is how sustainable the solutions are, amidst the growing challenges of environmental conservation.

One of the solutions to the scarcity of water for agriculture has been the construction of water reservoirs like dams in the tropics. However, dams have outstanding negative impacts on water ecosystems. Among the impacts is the increased concentration of mud/sand flats, which encrypts on the survival of the animal species like fish.

This implies that the solutions that are devised are not workable since they result in other complexities that hinder food security. The balance of flora and fauna in ecosystems where dams and other water reservoirs are built cannot be guaranteed. (Thorpe 244).

Population Growth and urbanization Demand for energy

The growth of population results in population pressure. Population pressure means that the carrying capacity of the ecosystem is far less than the amount of the population that is accommodated in by ecosystems. A common example of this problem is witnessed in urban centres.

The growth in the number of people in urban centres results in the increase in demand for resources in the urban centres. Resources that are demanded for in the urban areas include water, food and energy. The scarcity of water in the urban centres is attributed to the population pressure, which supersedes the capacity of the institutions that are responsible for supplying water in the urban areas.

As observed earlier, scarcity of water results in unhygienic conditions, which brings about water-based diseases. The other angle to the issue of urbanization and water scarcity is that the demand for energy in the urban centres keeps growing with the increase in the number of people moving into urban areas. These cases are common in the developing world (Mathew et al. 7444).

Growth in urbanization and pollution

According to Mathew et al. (7445), urban centres are deemed to be the main location for industries, which give people employment. With the reliance on water as the main source of energy in the urban areas of the developing nations, it becomes quite challenging to meet the demand for energy.

The rationale behind this observation is that the need for energy keeps rising amidst a constant or even in some cases a reduction in the main resource that is used to generate energy- hydroelectricity. The number of industries in the developing world is growing. The number of people is also growing.

This denotes a swell in the demand for energy. The available options of power generation seem to be expensive, leaving the water-drawn power as the main source of power for industries and for domestic consumption. Increased industrialization puts pressure on the available water resources by virtue of the number of people who reside in the urban centres. The other dimension to the problem of increased industrialization is that the amount of pollution rises with the rise in the level of industrialization in a given country.

A proper mechanism of disposing of toxic waste gases and other substances from industries has not been fully developed. This case prevails both in the developed world, which has a higher number of industries, as well as the developing world, which has fewer numbers of industries.

Water is often on the receiving end when it comes to contamination from industries. There are other direct impacts of industrial actions on water resources. An example that can be given in this case is the BP Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Both industries and population pressure combine, resulting in massive pollution of the available sources of clean water. These two factors are the primary sources of pollution of water resources (Mathew et al.7445).

Urge to save water in urban areas

Urban populations are encouraged to save water as a means of conserving water resources in the urban areas. Water saving is used a means of augmenting the supply of water amidst the problems of water shortage on urban areas. The main concern over the usage of water in the urban areas is whether the demand can meet the needs of the urban population.

This is what can allow the urban populations to save water, thus conserving this precious resource. Water conservation is a misnomer, considering the rate at which urbanization and industrialization are taking place and the scale of pollution that results from households and industries in the urban populations. Initiatives of saving water have materialized in a substantial number of the developed countries (Thoren, Atwater and Berube 1202).

Ways of Conserving water Cooperating in water conservation

Water conservation has been one of the main areas of focus by a substantial number of environmental scientists across the world. The reason why researchers focus on the area of water conservation is that it is the main means of conserving water resources amidst the rise in the demand for clean water across the world.

The level of participation of diverse groups in conserving water is quite pleasing. This denotes the scale of the impact of the destruction of the global ecosystem, which calls for the application of ecological economics in the attendance of the desired state of the ecology.

The cooperation in the conservation of water is quite broad. It ranges from collaboration in the development and exchange of water conservation technology to the support in capacity building of populations. Both technology and the creation of awareness among the population are playing out well in as far as the conservation of water is concerned.

Different stakeholders, among them national governments, local populations, local organizations, non-governmental organizations and academic institutions are working together to ensure that there is a high level of water conservation (“Public Participation in Water Demand Management and Conservation” 60).

Water infrastructure and training

Part of the efforts of dealing with the impacts of unsafe water consumption ought to be directed towards the development of water infrastructure. Part of the initiatives in dealing with such problems is ensuring the delivery of clean water through the construction of water lines in order to deliver clean and safe water to populations in both rural and urban areas.

The other critical thing in curbing the problem of safe water scarcity is the training of populations on water purification and conservation techniques. However, a number of challenges are witnessed in training and empowerment. The challenges revolve around the scarcity of resources to sustain such initiatives (Heare 24).

Conclusion Water is one of the most critical resources for the sustenance of human beings and other living creatures. Scarcity of water has been termed as one of the main problems that are facing people in the world. The scarcity of clean water has a negative connotation on the supply of other human necessities like food, energy and sanitation.

The problem of scarcity of clean water is compounded by a number of activities like industrial development and urbanization, which result in the pollution of the available clean water sources. From the research conducted, it can be concluded that shortage of clean water remains to be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century.

Most of the efforts that are directed at solving the problem do not target the underlying issues like pollution, which is one of the key factors in limiting the availability of safe water for consumption. Therefore, a number of issues need to be addressed in order to limit the problem of clean water shortage, which causes a lot of pressure in human population groups.

The first thing that needs to be done is paying attention to the root causes of the problem of scarcity of safe water. The main problem of water scarcity is the pollution of the environment. Addressing the issue of pollution is one of the means of curbing the pollution of the available sources of clean water.

A lot of efforts have been directed towards the development and application of water conservation technologies. There is need for increased cooperation in the minimization of pollution, which is one of the means through which water resources become unfit for consumption.

There is also need to increase research in the field of ecological economics to develop more solutions and better techniques for utilizing water for production like it is used in agriculture. Such solutions have to be built around the populations in areas that have water problems.

Works Cited Basani, Marcello, Jonathan Isham and Barry Reilly. “The Determinants of Water Connection and Water Consumption: Empirical Evidence from a Cambodian Household Survey.” World Development 36.5(2008): 953-968. Print.

Behnassi, Mohamed, Sidney Draggan, and Yaya H. Sanni. Global Food Insecurity: Rethinking Agricultural and Rural Development Paradigm and Policy. Dordrecht: Springer, 2011. Print.

Bilibio, Carolina, Oliver Hensel and Jeferson Francisco Selbach. Sustainable Water Management in the Tropics and Subtropics -And Case Studies in Brazil. Vol. I. Fundacao Universidade Federal do Pampa: Brazil, 2011. Print.

Heare, Steve. “Achieving Sustainable Water Infrastructure.” American Water Works Association Journal 99.4(2007): 24-26. Print.

Juuti, Petri S. Environmental History of Water: Global Views on Community Water Supply and Sanitation. London: IWA Publ, 2007. Print.

Mathew et al. “Fracking vs Faucets: Balancing Energy Needs and Water Sustainability at Urban Frontiers.” Environmental Science


Love and Relationships Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Understanding Love

What Constitutes Love?

Importance of Passion in a Relationship


Works Cited

Introduction Try to immerse yourself into the following scenario: you are a boy and you have been friends with a girl for the past 5 years. You know almost everything about her and she knows almost everything about you. Not a single day passes without the two of you talking and you start to believe that what you feel is love.

One day you go up to her and confess your feelings thinking that she must feel the same way about you since you have both been so close over the past 5 years. She accepts and the both of you start dating, however, she refuses any and all sexual advances and says that she wants to wait for marriage before having sex.

She says she loves you and you know you love her as well so you wait and wait even more till the point that she breaks up with you and a few months later you find that she had sex within the first month of being with her new boyfriend. Does this sound familiar to anything you have experienced so far within your life? The answer to that is most likely “yes” since many of us out there have mistaken feelings of love for friendship and have even thought that what we feel is reciprocal when in fact it was not.

The end result has always been a depressed state of affairs where one has not only lost the person that they have loved but the friend that they have cherished for so long. Many out there would state that what occurred between the two of them was a normal and healthy relationship, that a woman’s decision to wait is her right and should be respected by the man in the relationship if he respects her.

While this paper agrees with the notion that a man should respect the desire of a woman to wait, he should not automatically think that they are in a healthy relationship or that love truly exists between the two of them. It is based on this that this paper presents the assumption that a relationship without sex is one where true love does not exist.

Understanding Love Researchers such as Bauermeister et al. (2011) explain that love is not unilateral (meaning that it is observed and acted upon by one individual) rather love is something that is bi-lateral (i.e. given and espoused between two people) or multi-lateral (between family members) (Bauermeister et al., 102).

Bauermeister et al. (2011) goes on to explain that love requires reciprocity, that it should be reflected and given back at you by the person that you love. However, what most people fail to realize is that love encompasses not only intimacy in the form of liking a person and having feelings for them but encompasses aspects related to passion and commitment as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If such conditions are not in place then what a person has is merely affection or at the worst of times obsession, however, it is not love. I believe the poet T.S. Eliot said it best when he stated in the poem The Love Song “Arms that lie along a table, or wrap about a shawl. And should I then presume? And how should I begin?” The poem in its essence is about a man, J. Alfred Prufrock that has spent his entire life hesitating to confess till the point that he actually never winds up doing so and dies.

He focused so much on presumption over the “what ifs” that he failed to notice the “what is”. In the case of relationships where a man says that he is willing to wait till marriage to have sex with a woman he ignores the present “what is” and focuses on the “what will be”. He believes that by respecting her that he is showing his love for her yet he neglects to think on the lack of passion in their relationship which is symbolized by sex.

He does not take into consideration that his own needs are not being met and he focuses on the presumption that things will work out in the end just like Prufrock in the poem. However, just like the man in the poem it does not, such a relationship is filled with frustration, doubt and continues on since what a person thought of as love has regressed into obsession with the future rather than loving someone at the present.

What Constitutes Love? One of the best ways of understanding love is through the triangular theory of love by Robert Sternberg who states that love is a direct result of three distinct factors: intimacy, passion and commitment. Intimacy is related to the feelings of attachment that one person feels for another, this can encompass feelings which make them feel like they are close, connected and have a distinct bond with one another.

However, as Sternberg explains these feelings should not be mistaken for love since they are normally found in friendships (Shimp and Madden, 163-168). It is the presumption that the affection one feels for a friend is love that causes them to confuse love and friendly relationships. The end result is at times a relationship that does have intimacy but lacks passion and commitment resulting in an eventual breakup since what they have is not love at all.

The second factor in Sternberg’s triangular theory of love is passion. This aspect encompasses aspects related to sexual attraction at which point there is a certain degree of reciprocation resulting in sex (Shimp and Madden, 163-168). It is often times that those with “crushes” feel this particular type of love, however, it should be noted that this is not true love either since it lacks the closeness brought about by the intimacy factor and completely lacks the commitment aspect as well.

The end result is that infatuation usually disappears quickly over time due to the lack of any solid type of love. The last factor in the Sternberg triangular theory of love constitutes commitment which encompasses a decision to remain with another person (in the short and mid-term) and to incorporate them into plans and achievements in the long term (Lemieux and Hale, 1109).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Love and Relationships specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A relationship that is completely composed of the “committed factor” is often seen in the case of arranged marriage where a form of “empty love” is present wherein there is no intimacy or passion, rather, what is present is merely the desire to be with the other person out of necessity or obligation.

For, Sternberg what constitutes true love is an incorporation of the aspects of intimacy, passion and commitment into what is known as consummate love (Diessner, Frost and Smith, 683-690). This is a “complete form of love” so to speak which symbolizes the ideal type of love that people should strive towards.

Sternberg even goes on to state that sex is one of the fundamental aspects of this form of love since it encapsulates the passion aspect that is necessary in order to make this type of love work (Diessner, Frost and Smith, 683-690). Without sex, there is no passion, there is no feeling of closeness and what they end up having is something close to companionate love which is what is found among family members or with a long term friend that you have a platonic relationship with.

Importance of Passion in a Relationship So far it has been shown that there are different kinds of love yet the love that encompasses an actual relationship with another person needs a sexual element in order for it to be considered real love. Researchers such as Madey and Rodgers (2009) in their study involving infidelity has shown that one of the primary reasons why men cheat is due to a lack of passionate love in their relationship.

Madey and Rodgers (2009) explains that humans in general crave passion when they are in a relationship and this often takes the form of sex (Madey and Rodgers, 76-84). Without sex, a regression in love occurs where only aspects related to intimacy and commitment are present making the people more like long term friends rather than husband/wife or girlfriend/boyfriend (Madey and Rodgers, 76-84). Passion for Madey and Rodgers (2009) is a solidifying factor that helps to people feel connected beyond simple words and gestures.

It is an affirmation of love and is necessary in order to complete the triarchic theory of love which creates consummate love. A lack of passion in a relationship often causes men to seek it out from other sources resulting in what we know as infidelity. Love is not defined simply by affection; rather, it is distinctly influenced by action which requires passion and intimacy.

It is based on this that when looking at someone that says that true love exists between him and his girlfriend, despite the fact that she has stated that she wants to wait for marriage before having sex, is to look at someone that is lying to himself. A lack of passion in the form of sex in a relationship is an indicator that what a person has at best is companionate love or at worst a mere friendship.

To continue to mistake what they have as love is to delude one’s self into thinking that this is how love is suppose to work, that it is sacrificial and that you should be able to understand your partner’s wishes. The fact is though, that a lack of desire for sex from your partner is an indicator that there is no desire or passion in your relationship. Without such factors in place your relationship is doomed from its inception since you would be acting exactly like J. Alfred Prufrock.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Love and Relationships by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Waiting for marriage before having sex is almost similar to the case of Prufrock since he keeps on waiting for the right opportunity to confess to the person he has feelings for. However, just like Prufrock, you wait and wait for your need for passion to be fulfilled till the point that it will never manifest itself since the person that you think you love simply does not have the same feelings you have for them.

Conclusion Based on what this paper has shown so far, it can be stated that a relationship without sex is one where true love does not exist. Such a case is nothing more than a friendship since passion, intimacy and commitment is necessary for true love.

Works Cited Bauermeister, JosE A.Johns, Michelle M.Pingel, EmilyEisenberg, AnnaSantana, Matt LeslieZimmerman, Marc. “Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics.” Journal Of LGBT Issues In Counseling 5.2 (2011): 102. MasterFILE Premier. Web.

Diessner, Rhett, Nellie Frost, and Titus Smith. “Describing The Neoclassical Psyche Embedded In Sternberg’s Triangular Theory Of Love.” Social Behavior


Raising Minimum Wage Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Summary


Examining the Validity of the Articles Arguments

The Current Competitiveness of the American Workforce


Works Cited

Summary The article “Raising minimum wage would ease income gap but carries political risks” examines the proposal of President Obama to raise the current minimum wage within the U.S. from $7.25 an hour to $9 an hour (Lowrie, 1).

His argument centers around his view on how American minimum wage at the present has failed to keep up with the increase in the price of goods and services and, as a result, needs to be increased in order to address the issue of income disparity between the various consumer groups at the present (i.e. the poor, the middle class and high income families) (Hicks, 24).

However, the article goes on to mention that despite the justification behind the request to raise the minimum wage, the author believes that it would be difficult given that the issue is not only a political one (i.e. the Republicans within Congress are sure to veto the request) but an economical one as well given the potential on how higher minimum wages would result in companies leaving the U.S. for destinations abroad where it would be cheaper to manufacture their goods (Lowrie, 1).

Critic When examining the article there are two distinct factors that come to mind:

a.) The competitiveness of the American workforce

b.) The current economic recession that continues to impact the U.S. economy

The main problem with the proposal of President Obama lies in what the article states as the possibility of companies leaving the U.S. due to the increased cost in business that would come with higher minimum wage levels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With globalization in effect enabling a company to transfer its manufacturing and operations divisions from one country to the next, it would be easy for a company to transfer their current operations from the U.S. into some other country. Not only that, with the ease of outsourcing at the present, this would result in job loss for millions of workers within the U.S. as companies attempt to find cheaper labor alternatives.

Examining the Validity of the Articles Arguments On the other end of the spectrum comes the article “minimum human wages” which states that due to monopsony power within the labor market is it likely that increases in minimum wage at the lower end of the employment scale would actually cause an increase in the higher end of the spectrum as well (The Economist, 1).

This comes about as a direct result of employees becoming motivated to work harder due to higher minimum wage levels resulting in increased company productivity. In fact, the article even compares the situation between the U.S. and Britain and explains that increases in minimum wage may not necessarily result in a considerable level of outsourcing but would instead result in greater levels of automation.

For example, jobs that used to require people such as tellers and greeters could eventually be replaced by automated processes. The only reason why this has not been done yet is due to the fact that some companies still perceive employee wages as a more affordable alternative to automation. With a minimum wage increase this may in fact tip the balance resulting in more automated processes which would create better operational savings for a company.

It is based on this that it can be stated that while the article was able to show one of the possible scenarios that could occur, it neglected to delve into other possible outcomes some of which may in fact be positive.

It should be noted though that in a labor market that is controlled by a monopsony seller, the establishment of a minimum wage would actually result in a reduction in unemployment as the seller adjusts rates based on the established wage. However, this is based on a monopsony market and not all markets within the U.S. are classified as such.

The Current Competitiveness of the American Workforce When taking into consideration the section on outsourcing and comparing it to the competitiveness of the U.S. workforce, it immediately becomes obvious that an average American worker is simply paid far too much as compared to their counterparts in the other countries who do the same level of work.

We will write a custom Essay on Raising Minimum Wage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aside from salaries, companies need to take into account extensive healthcare benefits, 401K plans as well as an assortment of other costs associated with hiring someone from the U.S.

While some companies continue to base themselves in the U.S. through various cost cutting measures such as workforce reductions and creating more efficient methods of operation, the fact is that as soon as an increase in minimum wage will be applied the cost of operations for them would increase by several million dollars. This creates the possibility that in order for them to survive they would need to shift operations to other countries where the cost of doing business is lower.

Conclusion Overall, I would have to say that the article was right in stating that an increase in the minimum wage of the U.S. could possibly result in companies leaving the country. While President Obama is right in thinking that wages should match the increased cost of products, the fact is that right now is the worst possible time to implement such an endeavor.

Consumer demand within the U.S. has yet to increase to significant enough levels while at the same time companies are all too willing to leave the U.S. due to the increasing cost of doing business. Based on what I have learned about labor economics, I would have to say that this is a terrible idea and would result in job loss as companies scramble to find some degree of profitability which usually consists of terminating workers to do so.

Works Cited Hicks, Mike. “Stagnant Pay For Low-Wage Workers A Problem.” Indianapolis Business Journal 33.53 (2013): 24. Regional Business News. Web.

Lowrie, Annie. “Raising Minimum Wage Would Ease Income Gap but Carries Political Risks.” New York Times. 13 Feb 2013: 1. Web..

The Economist. “Minimum human wages.” The Economist., 15 Feb 2013. Web.


MGM Grand Hotel college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Name, Date and Location of fire

The 5 W’s of fire

Codes and technologies in existence at the time of the fire.

Safety features in the building

Codes changes that were prompted as a result of this fire.

Proposals to avoid another fire like this

Works Cited

Name, Date and Location of fire In the history of the United States, MGM Grand Hotel and Casino experienced one of the largest fire tragedies that claimed eighty five lives and injured a dozen more.

The fire tragedy was named as the MGM Hotel Fire which took place on 21 November 1980 in a town called Las Vegas, Nevada. “The MGM Grand Hotel/Casino was located at 3645 Las Vegas Boulevard South, City of Las Vegas, County of Clark, Nevada (southeast corner of the intersection of East Flamingo Road and Las Vegas Boulevard South (“MGM HOTEL FIRE REPORT” par. 3)”.

The first units that came to put out the fire were the Clark County Fire Department and it got assistance form the local fire department. At the time of the fire, there were approximately five thousand people in the hotel including staff of the hotel. Some of the people were able to evacuate the building on their own while approximately three hundred people were evacuated by use of a helicopter that answered the police call for assistance. Many other people were evacuated by fire fighters and people of goodwill who had come to help.

The 5 W’s of fire The people who were involved were the firefighters, the local people, the police department, the guests and the staff. What was involved was the fire that broke out in the Deli of the hotel. The fire took place in Las Vegas, Nevada in Clark County. The people who died were as a result of smoke inhalation and burns. The fire happened because of an electrical fault in the restaurant (Craighead, 2009).

Codes and technologies in existence at the time of the fire. There were emergency evacuation plans in the MGM Hotel that were meant for fire evacuation in case of an emergency such as fire or a terrorist bomb attack. The security statement stated the route to be followed in case of an emergency, and people were to follow the outside stairways. The security statement was categorical that only the outside stairway was to be used and not the inside stairway (Mirkhah, 2010).

Safety features in the building The safety policy of the hotel stated that safety glasses had to be worn in some areas within the hotel in order to protect the eyes. It was also required that one had to wear protective gear such as gloves, apron, helmet and gumboots when they were undertaking any task requiring them to wear this protective gear.

It was against the policy of the MGM Hotel and Casino to wear high heeled shoes, soft shoes, moccasins and tennis shoes. Also, loose clothes and neck-tie were not permitted in the area of work especially in the kitchen and when someone was operating a machine that would easily catch them (Stewart, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was also required that those employees who had hair longer than the collar had to cover it properly. It was required that, where safety equipment was a requirement in ones place of work, then the employee had no alternative but to wear them.

Codes changes that were prompted as a result of this fire. Since the hotel had partial sprinklers, it was changed such that the whole building would have fire sprinklers all over. The other code to be implemented was to put in place a fire assembly point where people would converge in case of a fire in the hotel. It was also agreed that all hotels that were taller that fifty five feet were to be with fire sprinklers (Craighead, 2009).

Proposals to avoid another fire like this The following are proposals to avoid this kind of fire in the future,

Fire prevention duties. It is of paramount importance to conduct fire preventions to protect the larger society. This is safe for the citizens as well as for the firefighters.

The fire prevention unit should be part and parcel of fire department. It should be actively involved in all phases of a development project from planning to review. Non-code compliance can have adverse effects if an accident was to occur.

The fire prevention and plan review units should be highly financed. This would ensure that the fire department is well equipped and financed.

Works Cited Craighead, Geoff. High-Rise Security and Fire Life Safety. New York: Butterworth- Heinemann, 2009. Print.


Mirkhah, Azarang. Lessons from the Past: MGM Grand Fire. 2010. Web.09 April 2013 .

Stewart, James. Lessons from the Past: Learning Fire Prevention Basics from the MGM Grand Fire. 2010. Web. .

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Marijuana: The Issues of Legalization in the USA Essay college admission essay help

The legalization of drugs is one of the most controversial social and legal issues which can be discussed from two opposite perspectives. The legalization of marijuana is discussed during a long period of time, and the debates are based on the complicated history of using marijuana in the USA.

To understand all the possible effects of the marijuana legalization, it is necessary to pay attention to the definition and classification of the drug with references to determining the most important social and legal aspects of the problem. Marijuana, or cannabis, is the specific mixture made of the plant Cannabis sativa, and it can be classified as the psychoactive drug which changes the person’s mood and often relives pain.

The active constituent of Cannabis sativa is also used to make the synthetic variant of this drug. Thus, marijuana can affect people negatively while changing their moods and provoking socially deviant behaviors, and it can influence the people’s physical and psychological state, relieving pain and helping cope with depressions.

From this point, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of legalizing marijuana in the USA, it is necessary to pay attention to the potential causes and effects of the process. In spite of the fact the discussion is still not resolved, it is possible to observe the changes of the public’s attitude to the issue because of becoming more tolerant toward the usage of marijuana within the society.

The chain of causes and effects associated with the legalization of marijuana can be rather long. It is stated that marijuana influences the changes in the people’s moods while affecting their brain processes. As a result, people can feel relief from pain, the raise of the mood, and the improved appetite.

These effects of marijuana are significant for medicine (Klofas). The opposite side of the process is the uncontrolled behavior, anxiety, apathy, anger, and the negative effect on the cognitive processes. Thus, discussing the usage of marijuana as a cause, it is possible to observe the variety of different effects on the mental and physical health of people.

Furthermore, these effects are more intensive in relation to youth because young people’s organisms are more exposed to the harmful effects of marijuana. The medicinal value of marijuana is one of the key arguments to speak about the legalization of the drug in definite states of the country (Klofas). The usage of marijuana becomes more typical for the American society that is why the definite examples of tolerance in relation to the question can be observed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, “legalizing marijuana for medical purposes has … higher levels of support, according to Gallup, with 70 percent of Americans favoring making cannabis legally available for doctors to prescribe” (Steve 42). From this point, marijuana can be classified as the medicine and drug at the same time. The problem is in the fact that the negative social consequences of marijuana legalization for medical needs should be taken into consideration.

Paying attention to the social effects of legalizing marijuana, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that today marijuana can be discussed as medicine rather than drug, and this situation can influence the changes in the social visions of the problem. According to Steve, “an October 2010 Gallup Poll showed 50 percent opposed to legalizing pot and 46 percent in favor.

The number of people favoring legalization has grown to today’s 46 percent from 12 percent 40 years ago” (Steve 41). The opinions of the public are divided, and both the variants of the situation’s resolution are discussed as equally possible. The effects of resolving the problem in relation to this or that opposite point of view can be rather difficult to predict.

The usage of marijuana is based on the necessity to reduce the social anxiety and raise the people’s moods as a kind of medicine prescribed by a doctor. On the one hand, the effect is the stimulation of the person’s activity and the improvement of his or her social relations. On the other hand, marijuana can provoke the intensification of the social anxiety with references to the high-risk population (Buckner et al.).

Marijuana which is used to decrease anxiety can provoke more anxiety and socially deviant behaviors. It is rather difficult to find the balance of the cause and effects while using drugs to change the people’s moods.

Being impossible to control their reactions and behaviors while using marijuana, a lot of young people provoke workplace incidents, and they become the victims in the car accidents. People are also inclined to agree that marijuana causes the antisocial behavior and make people commit a crime because the drug affects the person’s significant addiction.

There are also effects of using marijuana not only on the social life but also on the economic development of the country. The legalization of marijuana can lead to changing the economic situation because of taxing the production and selling the drug. It is necessary to look at the problem from the larger perspective.

We will write a custom Essay on Marijuana: The Issues of Legalization in the USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The popularity of marijuana in the USA leads to the worsening of the situation in such countries where the production of this drug is one of the main illegal financial sources. Marie Javdani states that the demand for drugs in the USA directly affects the development of the drug production in Colombia, and this process influences the lives of millions of people (Javdani). That is why, it is impossible to limit the discussion of the marijuana legalization only to the issues of its medical use and effects on the people’s health and behavior.

The drug production depends on the complicated system in which many people are involved. The addiction of one person can affect the lives of many other people because of their economic and social connections. If the legalization of marijuana becomes the reality in the USA, people should be ready for a lot of unexpected positive and negative effects because the controversy of the question makes it difficult to discuss the issue only from one perspective.

It is possible reduce the spread of the drugs in the American society, but there are several approaches to the problem. If marijuana is legalized, patients with cancer receive the necessary relief, the psychological and physical recreational practices become more effective, and the country’s economy becomes stronger.

However, if marijuana is legalized, it becomes more available for different social and age groups, and the risk of the uncontrolled and violent social behaviors increases. From this point, if the legalization of marijuana can be discussed as the cause, the effects can be numerous. That is why, the opinions of the American public are not only different, but they are rather opposite.

Works Cited Buckner, Julia, Richard Heimberg, Russell Matthews, and Jose Silgado. Marijuana-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Role of Marijuana Behaviors in Social Situations. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 26.1(2012): 151-156. Print.

Javdani, Marie. “Plata o Plomo: Silver or Lead”. The Bedford Reader. Ed. Dorothy Kennedy and Jane Aaron. USA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005. 448-455. Print.

Klofas, John. The Social and Legal Effects of Medical Marijuana: State Legislation and Rules. 2012. PDF file. Web.

Steve, Elliott. The Little Black Book of Marijuana: The Essential Guide to the World of Cannabis. USA: Peter Pauper Press, Inc., 2011. Print.

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Air Pollution Characteristics and Effect Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Classification of Air Pollutants

Characteristics of Air pollutants

Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health

Effect of Air Pollutants in the Environment

Works Cited

Air pollution occurs when gaseous substances are released into the atmosphere. Industrialization is the major source of air pollution. An alteration in the gaseous composition of the atmosphere is called air pollution. Air pollution is caused by the release of gaseous elements into the atmosphere (Schwartz 7). The gaseous substances contaminate the atmosphere and causes harm to living and nonliving things.

The chemical composition of the atmosphere can be seen below:

Gas Symbol Percentage Composition Nitrogen N2 78.1 Oxygen O2 20.9 Neon Ne 0.92 Argon Ar Helium He Krypton Kr Xenon Xe Carbon dioxide CO2 Methane CH4 Nitrous oxide N2O Water vapor H2O 0.004 to 4 (Variable) The composition table shows that gaseous elements can combine to cause adverse effect on humans and the atmosphere. Gaseous emissions from the atmosphere can cause short and long-term hazards. Air pollutants can be divided into primary and secondary pollutants.

Classification of Air Pollutants Air pollutants can be classified into two types namely: Primary and secondary pollutants

Primary Pollutants: Gaseous substances released into the atmosphere are called primary pollutants. These substances have direct access to the atmosphere and can cause great danger to human health and the environment. When these gases are released in large quantities they combine to form a harmful product. These substances include compounds of carbon, Nitrogenous compounds, compounds of sulphur, compounds of halogen and solid particles (koop 4).

Secondary Pollutants: Primary pollutants react to form secondary pollutants. The accumulation of gaseous elements produces secondary air pollutants. Secondary pollutants include acidic oxides which are formed from the release of nitrogen oxides.

Characteristics of Air pollutants Particles of matter: Pollutants in this category consist of residues from bush burning, construction sites, combustion engines, dust particles, soot or smoke and heavy metals. When this particulate suspensions are inhaled there cause harm to the respiratory system.

Nitrogen oxides: Oxides of nitrogen are released from heavy-duty engines. Accumulation and deposition of this substance can damage the ozone layer and affect the visibility of the environment.

Oxides of sulphur: The emission of this substance produces a pungent smell. Oxides of sulphur are released into the atmosphere during gas flaring. Sulphur dioxide cause irritation of the skin and affects the lungs.

Oxides of carbon: This gas is not visible; it is a colorless gas and has an adverse effect on human health. Oxides of carbon are produced from the combustion engines. High volumes of this substance can cause brain damage and immediate death.

Depleted Ozone: when gaseous substances are released into the atmosphere, they cause depletion of the ozone layer. Ozone depletion is caused by the emission of primary pollutants into the atmosphere. The ozone becomes depleted and causes damage to the central nervous system.

Lead particles: The burning of crude oil produces huge deposits of lead. The accumulation of this pollutant in the atmosphere can cause severe damage to the reproductive organs, lungs and the central nervous system.

Toxic and radioactive pollutants: Toxic pollutants are found in products containing gasoline. Toxic substances increase the mortality rate in children and affect the female reproductive organs. Radioactive pollutants can cause breast cancer and other respiratory diseases (Wai 4).

The table below shows a list of some common pollutants and their sources

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Common pollutants Sources Particulate matter suspensions Heavy industries, cement plants, power plants, automobile industries. Fluoride Components of fertilizer, aluminium chippings, heavy metals. Chlorine Deposits from water plants. Sulphur dioxide Petroleum plants, heavy metals, power plants. Lead Battery manufacturing plants, Ore plants. Peroxyacetyl nitrate Indirect pollutant. Oxides of nitrogen and its compounds Heavy metals, power plants, automobiles Carbon monoxide Combustion engines. Hydrogen sulphide Power plants, paper industries. Ozone Indirect pollutants. Formaldehyde Indirect pollutants. Ammonia Fertilizer, deposits from fertilizer plants. Hydrocarbons Crude oil plants, automobiles. Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health Previous literatures indicate that air pollution is a major source of health problems globally (Daly and Zannetti 3). Air pollution has short and long term effect; it affects the climate and human beings. Depletion of the ozone layer is a long-term effect of air pollution. Health workers believe that the rate of gaseous emission has increased geometrically, this account for the health hazards and death of children.

Children are more vulnerable to air pollutants because the accumulated chemical substance would reduce the metabolic rate in the body (Daly and Zannetti 5). Health workers argue that the high rate of infant mortality and abnormalities is caused by the accumulation of gaseous substances in the atmosphere. Children have been diagnosed with lung cancer, a trend that began with industrialization. There are many other ailments associated with air pollution.

The table below summarizes the effects of air pollution on human health.

Pollutants Effects on human health Particles of matter Cause heart diseases, affects the lungs, and causes premature death due to prolonged exposure and cardiac arrest. Ozone depletion Affects the respiratory organs, induces symptoms such as cough, breath disorders, lung infection. Lead Causes renal failure, affects the memory of children, can lead to anemia, causes nervous breakdown. Oxides of Nitrogen Causes renal failure in children, affects the lungs. Oxides of sulphur Can lead to asthma, causes chest pain in children and the aged. Reduces the lifespan of children, can cause serious respiratory problems in pregnant women. Carbon monoxide Affects oxygen circulation in the body, causes respiratory disorders. Ammonia Associated with heart failures and low blood pressure. Organic compounds Volatile compounds cause cancer, affects the metabolic breakdown of the body. Causes renal failure and respiratory infections. Mercury Induces brain damage, causes liver and kidney failures, affects the growth of children. Toxic wastes Causes lung cancer, affects the reproductive organs, can lead to death of the victim. The table below summarizes the effects of air pollutants on the environment

Effect of Air Pollutants in the Environment Pollutants Effects in the environment Particles of matter Affects visibility and the ecosystem, distorts the pattern of rainfall, damages the soil structure and affects plant growth. Ozone depletion Affects vegetation cover, affects leaves and flowering plants, reduces photosynthesis, reduces crop yield, affects carbon dioxide uptake in plants. Causes stunted growth in plants. Lead Harmful to aquatic life, reduces the availability of trace elements in the soil. Oxides of Nitrogen Causes climate change, increases ozone depletion, affects soil nutrients when the accumulated in higher amounts. Oxides of sulphur Reduces the vegetation cover, damages soil structure. Carbon monoxide Influences the formation of carbon dioxide and affects greenhouse compounds. Ammonia Influences the eutrophication of soil water, leads to contamination of ground water, and affects climate change. Organic compounds Influence the ozone process, affects the greenhouse process. Mercury Distorts aquatic life and the deposits in rivers affects the vegetative cover. Toxic wastes Affects wildlife and reduces the growth of livestock, affects the ecosystem. Finally, air pollution must be controlled in order to guarantee a safe environment. Burning of fuels must be controlled and proper care must be taken to ensure proper management of these air pollutants.

Works Cited Daly, Arter and Zannetti Paker 2007, Introduction to Air Pollution. PDF file. Web.

Koop, Gary 2002, Measuring the Health Cost of Air Pollution. PDF file. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Air Pollution Characteristics and Effect specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schwartz, Joel 2006, The Health Effects of Air Pollution. PDF file. Web.

Wai, Wong 2008, Air Pollution and Health Studies in China: A Literature Review. Web.


Need for Authoritarian Rule Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Authoritarian Rule in Yugoslavia

The African Case: Genocide in Rwanda

Main Features of Authoritarian Regimes

The Need of Dictatorship

Works Cited

Introduction Recent studies on international relations reveal that the world is troubled with primeval ethnic conflict. This implies that tribal groups lie in wait for one another. Ethnic groups nurture a long-standing revulsion, but they cannot engage in war because powerful authoritarian leaders control them. From this perspective, it is difficult for tribal groups to coexist without the use of force, which can only be implemented by powerful leaders who have absolute authority.

In Eastern Europe, former Yugoslavia serves as an example whereby the Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians coexisted yet they belonged to different ethnic groups. The groups lived for several years peacefully, but they rose against each other without a valid reason. This was after the fall of the authoritarian rule, which held them together for a long time. Serbs, Croats and Bosnians share a common language and history, but they differ in terms of other cultural aspects.

They have always viewed each other with suspicion as regards to resource distribution. Ethnicity becomes nationalism when various groups attempt to control major state resources, such as land and power. The Serbs and Croats advocated for their rights by joining other European nations that demanded self-governance.

While Serbs drew examples from the short-lived nation-state, Croats were in advanced stages of developing a nationalist ideology (Geertz 67). Croats believed that their rival regarding resource allocation were the Serbs. Therefore, the best alternative was to eliminate them. This could not materialize given the fact that a powerful authoritarian leader could not allow this to happen.

This paper evaluates the statement that antagonistic ethnic groups can live together for years due to the presence of the authoritarian leader. The article therefore supports the hypothesis that soft authoritarianism is needed to maintain peace and political stability.

Authoritarian Rule in Yugoslavia Yugoslavia was formed after the First World War following the despicable conflicts that characterized the region. Serbs dominated the state since they owned major businesses. This was never received well by the Croats who felt that their position was under threat, as they owned nothing.

In this regard, the Croats formed a militant organization referred to as Ustashe, which aimed at fighting for the rights of all Croats. The militant organization could not do much before the Second World War because of the presence of an authoritarian leader. Following the collapse of the state during the Second World War, the Croats collaborated with the Nazis to exterminate the Serbs. The Serbs were forced to work in concentration camps together with the Jews while others were expelled from the region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Serb leader Slobodan Milosevic declared war on the Croats when he noticed that his people were dying in large numbers. After the Second World War, a strong authoritarian leader took over in Yugoslavia, who controlled occurrence of another massacre until 1990s when the two warring communities rose against each other once more. Marshall Tito ensured that civil groups were not formed in the country since they could easily derail the peace efforts.

Instead, he developed shared political values that were to be observed by both communities. Political opposition was expected to obey certain political values, irrespective of the region. This meant that both the Serbs and the Croats were to abide by the national political principles (Friedman 56). Moreover, the authoritarian ruler ensured that Croats owned land in Serbia while Serbs also owned land in Croatia.

The African Case: Genocide in Rwanda In Africa, the issue of ethnicity started with colonialism whereby the settlers ensured that each African identifies him or herself with a certain ethnic group. This was to enable easy identification, which was perceived to be a strategy for preventing conflicts with the whites. Belgian administrators supported the Tutsis when they gave them a monopoly regarding state power. Tutsis accumulated power to an extent of making the Hutus the poorest in the country.

Hutus had to wait for an opportunity to revenge because the Belgian administration could not tolerate any conflicts. In this case, it is true that authoritarian rule prevented conflicts in Rwanda. Colonialists noticed that they could govern the African continent by collaborating with certain ethnic groups.

In many cases, they collaborated with groups that embraced Christianity or minorities. Europeans applied force in Africa because they did not have numbers. Authoritarianism was applied successfully to safeguard their rule. Nationalism is closely related to culture and industrialization, something that encouraged many colonialists (Spencer and Wollman 34).

When African leaders took over power, particularly in Rwanda, authoritarianism was applied successfully to keep the Hutus and the Tutsis together. Things changed in 1994 when authoritarian rule was condemned, paving way for openness, which resulted to the genocide (Hintjens 21).

Since authoritarian leaders have absolute control over the state machinery, they will always ensure that peace prevail in society. Such leaders do not give ethnic groups time to reorganize in order kill many people. Individuals would be reluctant to participate in violence once they realize that the consequences would be stern. Groups would be waiting for opportunities to come for them to engage in violent demonstration that usually result to deaths.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Need for Authoritarian Rule specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It should be understood that strong leadership at the top determines whether ethnic groups rise against each other in any society. The Rwandan (Hutus and Tutsis) and Balkan (Croats, Bosnians and Serbs) cases would be used as example to show that powerful leadership, which is complimented with authoritarian, does not give room to violent conflicts.

In Rwanda, the president started assembling gangs in 1990 in order to wipe out his closest opponents, who were the Hutus and the Tutsis. He formed a militia group referred to as the Interahamwe, which conducted a massacre in 1992. Since the Tutsis were accused of siding with colonialists to deprive the Rwandese of their wealth, all radio stations were ordered to spread hate messages against them. This resulted to systematic killing of the Tutsis and the Hutu moderates.

Main Features of Authoritarian Regimes As earlier noted in the introduction section, authoritarian leaders are always in opposition of multiparty politics mainly because they fear competitive politics. They do not allow divergent views to infiltrate the electorate because their leadership would be in danger. Such leaders would do everything to ensure that the opposition does not exist in the country.

For instance, they would incorporate other unscrupulous techniques such as political assassination and constant frustration of the opposition. To these leaders, the end will always justify the means implying that their techniques of rule do not matter so much, but what matters is the acquisition of power and its subsequent maintenance (Diamond 117).

Another feature that characterizes authoritarianism is that a group of few individuals control all state organs implying that the idea of checks and balances do not apply. Usually, the president is in charge of everything that should be undertaken in government. Separation of powers plays a critical role in checking the excess of the executive.

Unfortunately, this principle is not observed in an authoritarian regime because the legislature will never challenge the decision of the president, even though it has a mandate of ensuring that the law-making process is smooth.

In extreme cases, the legislature would be used as a rubber stamp meaning that its role is to approve the bills that originates from the executive arm of government. Any politician that opposes the decision of the executive is viewed as an opponent of the state and is often subjected to inhumane treatment whereby security forces would harass him or her frequently.

Authoritarian regimes are also referred to as the single party states because of certain features. One of the features is that the freedom of speech is highly controlled whereby an individual is not allowed to assemble without the permission of the government. This implies that demonstrations, strikes, and picketing are not allowed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Need for Authoritarian Rule by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People found demonstrating without obtaining necessary documentation from the state agencies are arrested and would be charged in the court of law (Bremmer 110). The judiciary is always dependent because it observes the instructions issued by one arm of the government, which is usually the executive. In this regard, it is eminent that freedom of assembly is not permitted in an authoritarian regime because an individual cannot hold a meeting without approval from the police.

In other authoritarian regimes, an individual would be expected to obtain a local travelling document, which means that the freedom of movement even within the state borders is highly restricted. The opposition leaders perceived to be a threat to the authoritarian ruler are often denied passports to travel within the state boundaries.

Apart from local restrictions regarding travelling, an individual must also receive approval from the government before travelling abroad. Authoritarian leaders fear the pressure of the west or developed countries meaning that they will always ensure opposition leaders do not meet with foreign donors (Huntington 68).

Regarding the media freedom, the press is only allowed to report matters that are positive whereby information is censored before being reported. Any information perceived to go against the will of the government is always subjected to close scrutiny before being allowed to reach the public.

Corruption, misappropriation of funds, poor governance, neglect of the rule of law, non-observance of the bill of rights, and inequality regarding resource distribution are some of the features that characterize authoritarian regimes. The media must always be guided on what to report concerning the performance of the government. Those that go against the wishes of the government are harshly punished by being detained for long periods without trail.

Others are frustrated to an extent of fleeing the country in fear of assassination. The opposition should never operate within the state borders because its leaders are considered political dissidents who must operate outside the state borders. In the African continent, authoritarian leaders are usually referred to as personal rulers because their major aim is to fulfil individual needs, such as resource accumulation.

It should be noted however that authoritarian rulers differ in their style of leadership because some may possess all the above-mentioned qualities while others might be having just some of the features. Moreover, some might be more oppressive while others might be accommodative meaning that they allow some political competition of opposing views.

Nevertheless, all authoritarian leaders tend to employ similar strategies regarding the control of state. In fact, they all use the state machineries, including the police, the military, the courts, and government ministries to frustrate the opposition. The main aim of all authoritarian leaders is to hold on to power hence they would be willing to use all available methods.

The Need of Dictatorship In the 1960s, many scholars and even religious leaders called for the establishment of authoritarian regimes because they were efficient in terms of managing the country’s security, as well as realizing the economic and socio-political dreams. The influential Buddhist Rajakeeya Panditha suggested in his works Sinhala that dictatorship would be the perfect form of leadership in some parts of Asia because it would bring sanity and efficiency in matters related to resource management and distribution.

In Sri Lanka, the religious leader commented that authoritarianism would perhaps guarantee prosperity in the country, as well as help the country regain its socio-political and economic glory. Many people supported the view that dictatorship would ensure growth in Sri Lanka mainly because democracy had flopped. Leaders in government welcomed the views of this religious leader because they aimed at clinging on to power for long.

However, the views of many leaders regarding the works of the cleric were misplaced because he gave his own reasons for opposing democracy. Democratic regimes had failed to address the issues that affected the people of Sri Lanka. The cleric questioned why the country was still crippling with human problems that would be avoided, such as poverty, drought, poor representation, and even misappropriation of public funds.

Some studies suggest that authoritarianism brings out the best from an individual, which means that its results are instantaneous. If an individual is deprived his or her right and fear instilled in him or her, an alternative survival means would be sought. This means that an individual will have to work hard to avoid the negative consequences.

If people were informed that a tsunami is approaching, they would scamper for their lives because they understand its dangers. Similarly, people would have to fight for their survival if they are informed that they would be arrested if they do not achieve certain objectives. Under ordinary state of affairs, an individual would not engage him or herself in busy work because there are no repercussions. Therefore, authoritarianism plays a critical role in ensuring that people join hands in realizing certain aims and goals.

Democracy is the worst form of leadership that would force individuals to work together because it relies on people’s consent. One of the major tenets of authoritarianism is that it does not allow people to question the authority, unlike democracy, which allows the populace to be involved in designing major decisions. If development were to be achieved, people should not be allowed to argue over some common facts.

Other scholars are of the view that authoritarianism is the perfect form of leadership as far as resource creation and accumulation is concerned. In order to proper, any give society should create and accumulate wealth. People should not be allowed to spend everything they produce because they would not have anything to invest and use in the future. In the 4th century, an Indian scholar tried to understand the role of authoritarianism by using aphorism.

His examination was that a monster could only be controlled using another giant. Democracy would not promote wealth creation and saving for the future because it allows people to spend their resources without state intervention. Democracy is an illusion that does not achieve anything for the state. In fact, it compromises the interests of the state (Ramsay 168). The use of force would definitely help people in the end because they would have something to spend.

Hitler has always been cited as an example of economic development because he applied authoritarian rule successfully to develop Germany. He ensured that Germany developed from poverty to riches since it was considered an economic powerhouse during the Second World War.

Through his efforts, the country was able to develop some of the mostly admired infrastructural deigns in the world. Hitler utilized forced to mobilize resources, which accelerated economic growth. He transferred resources belonging to Jews to the government, which was utilized effectively to develop the military.

The military would bring glory to the state, unlike the Jews who were self-centred. The regime took over the fixed material goods, such as office blocks and industrial units, which were utilized in developing the country. Germany could not have attained its goals of conquering the world were it not for Hitler’s authoritarian rule. Hitler forced the Jews to work in concentration camps mainly to produce weapons and other valuable products that would be used in developing the country.

After death, the bones of Jews were used in making fertilizers for the German famers meaning that their bodies were not wasted. However, this is the worst example of using authoritarian rule to ensure that state interests are met. This could not have been achieved in a democratic society because people have the right to do as they wish (Kagan 112). Therefore, Germany could not have challenged the existing the international system at the time.

The civil society has always been a menace as far as realization of state interests is concerned. Forced labour camps in China, the Soviet Union, and Kampuchea received criticism from civil groups because such camps were considered slavery. Workers were not paid, but they were provided with adequate basic needs including food and clothing. The proceeds attained through forced labour would be used to develop the country.

The civil groups demanded that all workers be given what belongs to them meaning that they had to be paid suitable salaries. Regarding environmental degradation, civil groups claimed that the government, as well as private investors, had to keep off the forests. Moreover, investors had to use production methods are environmentally friendly.

This would actually derail production because the methods suggested could perhaps be inefficient. In a democratic society, leaders must be willing to accommodate divergent views. In reality, extensive consultations and unnecessary arguments are likely to derail economic development.

Totalitarian rule is well placed to control the affairs of the social groups and disobedient trade unions, which seem to compete with the state for power. In an authoritarian regime, decisions are made faster because the chain of command is always reduced. In fact, bureaucracy and hierarchies have contributed to the failure of many policies and programs, which would have otherwise contributed to economic development.

For development to take place in an urban centre, population must be evicted to pave way for reconstruction. In a democratic society, extensive consultation would be undertaken, which would even discourage potential investors from committing their funds. However, the case would be different in an authoritarian regime because people would be ordered to live within a specified time. Issues of court cases would not surface.

Under a dictator, a city planner would have powers to evict people at will hence paving way for city development. In China, this idea was effectively utilized to develop Shanghai, which is currently one of the most respected cities in the world. Shanghai is the world’s populous industrial city because subsequent authoritarian leaders in China have always ensured that land is available for investment.

In 2008, similar rule was applied in developing Beijing given the fact that it was expected to host the Olympics games. People were relocated to pave way for the extension of the city. China could not have hosted the Olympic Games were it not for the authoritarian rule that ordered forceful eviction of the locals to pave way for expansion of the field. In China, it is always believed that a little bit of authoritarian rule would guarantee prosperity.

Research shows that authoritarian regimes are better placed to implement unpopular reforms as compared to democratic regimes. This is because the central authority has monopoly over decision making and implementation process. This is compared to the democratic regimes, which must always seek the views of the majority before implementing any policy. The writings of various political philosophers suggest that authoritarianism is the best system of governance because the central authority has the power to act unilaterally.

Plato observed that democracy is the worst form of governance because it amounts to the tyranny of the multitude given the fact that the majority might sometimes be wrong. The populace is usually appetitive meaning that they only support something that seems to be pleasant yet they do not understand its tenets. Plato suggested that a good leadership is the one that is based on a certain system, such as an education system.

The leader should be knowledgeable for him or her to make effective decisions. Therefore, it is justifiable for a leader to exercise full authority without consultation if only he or she is knowledge. In the modern society, authoritarian leaders are in a position to resolve the many issues that affect both the state and non-state actors. For instance, an authoritarian leader would be in a position to deal with issues related to the environment, such as climatic change and resource deterioration.

In China, the policy suggesting that an individual should have only one child has been successful as compared to the similar policy being applied in India. Similarly, China refused to give in to the demands of the west regarding the sale of opium due to nationalism (Maalouf 78).

Authoritarianism has played a major role in ensuring that the governmental program on population management is effective. Similarly, antagonistic communities in various parts of the world have been able to coexist peacefully mainly because of the authoritarian rule. In Rwanda, the Tutsi and the Hutu communities fought each other in 1994 because there was a power vacuum in the state. The communities could not rise against each other because of the presence of the authoritarian authority.

Works Cited Bremmer, Ian. The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006. Print.

Diamond, Larry. Introduction: Persistence, Erosion, Breakdown, and Renewal. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1989. Print.

Friedman, Andrew. “Kagame’s Rwanda: Can an Authoritarian Development Model be squared with Democracy and Human Rights”. Oregon Review of International Law, 253.2 (2012): 113-212.

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2000. Print.

Hintjens, Helen. Explaining the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda. Journal of Modern African Studies, 37.2 (1999): 241-286.

Huntington, Samuel. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Kagan, Robert. The Return of History and the End of Dreams. New York: Vintage, 2009. Print.

Maalouf, Amin. In the Name of Identity: Violence and the Need to Belong. New York: Arcade Pub, 2000. Print.

Ramsay, Fey. Africa. Guilford: McGraw-Hill, 1999. Print.

Spencer, Philip, and Wollman, Howard. Nationalism: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage, 2002. Print.


Synopsis and Critical Evaluation of Angel Investment Criteria Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction and Overview

Qualitative Method

Quantitative Method

Critical Evaluation


Work Cited

Introduction and Overview Entrepreneurs often need external funding to grow. Angel Investors is one of the groups that provide financial support for start-up businesses. The Journal of Small Business Strategy shows the outstanding elements in Angel’s investment criteria. This paper provides a synopsis of the journal and indicates a personal crucial evaluation of the journal.

The journal uses a two-phase approach involving a qualitative first phase and a quantitative second phase to evaluate the investment criteria. The journal is based on a survey and observation of members of Tech Coast Angel organization (TCA). TCA is the largest US Angel organization. As of August 2004, it consisted of 173 Angels (Winter 89).

Qualitative Method Qualitative phase was used to identify decision criteria of Angel that could be helpful in the quantitative phase. The study used observed screenings and associated discussions, which led to the emergence of common themes. The leading theme was passion. Entrepreneurs who showed passion for their work received more funding than those who may have had good business plans but showed no passion. Angel believes that dedication and passion can make a business succeed.

This is particularly because it believes that managing business start-ups is challenging and requires passionate and committed managers. The journal uses an example of financial services entrepreneur who impressed Angel when he said he had put almost all his money, including residential house mortgage, into the business. Subsequently, trustworthiness played a role in Angel’s success.

From its perspective, if an entrepreneur is avoiding a question, he/she is not trustworthy. Further, entrepreneurs who provide contradictory answers lose reliability and trust. The survey showed that lack of trust would lead to cancelling of the merits of the investment venture.

Another theme was the effectiveness of the management team. Angel did not investigate the shortcomings of the current team. It was interested in finding out if the team had passion, devotion, and understanding of their responsibilities. Management that was part of a previous successful team had an added advantage. Moreover, Angels often inquired from the entrepreneurs if they understood the team they needed for success.

It also wanted to know the characteristics of the management teams that are important to the client. The easiness to coach the team was another important theme that featured. Teams that were perceived to be easy to train always had an advantage over the others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other essential themes that were discussed were experiences of advisors, experiences of the teams, records of accomplishment of members of the team and corresponding skills of the advisors. Finally, Angel seeks to know who the potential acquirers for a particular venture would be (winter 95).

Quantitative Method The qualitative method was used to confirm the results of the quantitative phase. It confirmed that the top most important themes are trustworthiness (4.81), management team (4.64), enthusiasm (4.81), and exist (4.53), five being excellent and one low rating.

The journal indicates that these results are similar to those of Van Onsnabruggle, which showed that enthusiasm ranked first and trustworthiness second. Moreover, exist which emerged top in the qualitative study ranked fourth in the survey. Onsnabruggle reported that exist is at the 24th. Most researchers hold that the management team ranks high in investment criteria. However, this study indicates that it ranks second (Winter 97).

Critical Evaluation The journal has both positive and negative aspects. Investors can use it with care and successfully identify viable entrepreneurs. First, the article provides that having a vast business model is not sufficient to help organizations obtain funding. Moreover, a good model is not a guarantee that the business will succeed.

Notably, an entrepreneur’s ability to convince an investor that he/she understands the challenges ahead and are prepared to deal with the challenges is highly crucial. Further, the traders’ management teams must consist of those who are qualified. In everyday life, one understands that an effective plan that is not fully implemented serves no purpose. As a result, Angel is right to gauge business success by evaluating the passion, trustworthiness, and competency of management teams and the entrepreneurs.

Start –up businesses face exceptional challenges and, as a result, passion is a leading theme. Despite the useful information the journal provides, it fails to address certain investment concerns. For instance, the respondents were predominantly male (sixty-eight males against four females).

Therefore, no evaluation was carried out relating to gender disparity. Moreover, only one Angel investing organization out of 173 was surveyed (Winter 89).

We will write a custom Essay on Synopsis and Critical Evaluation of Angel Investment Criteria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sample size was, therefore, inadequate to predict accurately the investing behavior of the US population. This possibly indicates the reason for the disparity in the results of the study and the results of other surveys. The study simply confirms that effective management is useful in determining the future of a business, but fails to confirm that the difference in the rating of certain themes is accurate.

Conclusion Angel’s investment criteria correspond to those in the findings of Onsnabruggle and other researchers. The two-phase approach consisting of a qualitative first phase and a quantitative second phase shows that Angel’s main investing criteria include passion, honesty, and trustworthiness of the entrepreneurs. Most studies confirm that honesty and trustworthiness are some of the main themes that determine the successes of a business.

Work Cited Winter, Fall. “Angel Investment Criteria.” Journal of Small Business Strategy 17.2 (2007): 89-101. Print.


The Influence of Twitter as a Social Perception Driver in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election Campaigns Proposal college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Research Questions

Topic Description


Annotated Bibliography

Research Questions One of the most recent surveys by the U.S Department of State indicates that approximately 50% of the American population is actively involved in social networking. However, existing data is inconclusive on the extent to which social networking, especially twitter, has an influence on social perception (Ridout 2013, p.48).

This research therefore seeks to quantify the influence of Twitter as a perception driver by evaluating the use of Twitter as a source of information and sentiment. In particular, this research will focus on the 2012 U.S. presidential election campaigns and seek to explore the impact of the tweets disseminated by Barrack Obama and Mitt Romney Twitter accounts on their supporters and on swing voters (Ridout 2013, p.46).

It is hypothesized that Twitter played a major role in consolidating votes by underscoring the agenda of the candidates and this proposal therefore seeks to answer the following questions:

To what extent did Twitter influence the results of the 2012 presidential election?

Which presidential candidate benefited the most from using Twitter?

To what extent is the effect of Twitter to particular demographic such as age, gender, ethnicity, race and religion?

How far has Twitter as a campaign device penetrated society with regard message segmentation as compared to previous campaign years?

Topic Description In America today two thirds of all social network users are now using twitter which is now not only limited to the youths but has also being adopted by older people as a social network tool. Recent statistics show that 35% of Americans who are 65 years old and above use twitter (Krugman 2009, p.212).

There is a change in the age bracket of Twitter users which was initially composed of individuals aged between age 30 and 40 but in the recent years, the population is now composed of young people in their 20’s and teens. It is true that the 2012 elections campaigns were greatly discussed on Twitter, however not everyone who is on Twitter is interested in political campaigns (Ridout 2013, p.51).

Most of them indulge in socializing with friends thus reducing the percentage of those engaging in political discourse via Twitter to 39%. Nonetheless, despite the low percentage of Twitter users who engage in politics, this group is able to indulge their friends who are not interested in politics into discussions and even argues their views increasing the total percentage to those interested in political talk by 16% (Giuliani 2007, p.20).

There has been a positive move towards effective use of Twitter as campaign handle but sadly 18% of Twitter users have dropped their accounts as a result of friends who tweet too much politics and/or do not agree with the users’ point of view. The research on the effects of Twitter as a campaign strategy has been put under observation since 2000 (Tocqueville 2000, p.95).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the past years the use of internet to campaign was ignored and other channels like television and radio were prioritized but in the year 2008 there was a change. The candidate Barrack Obama wanted to reach out to the youth and this was achieved through the use of Twitter. Since then the internet has continued to be used as a fundamental campaign tool (Powell and Persico 2010, p.260).

Approaches Qualitative and quantitative research will be applied to analyze the research data whereby the research data will be obtained from diverse sources that are concerned with different areas of study. The development process of the research will require the objective analysis of relevant data which will be support decision making process.

The data will require qualitative approval which will necessitate organizing the data and deriving cogent interpretation of the research in an articulate and structured configuration. The data will be sourced from both materials and online secondary sources from well-known authors and publishers.

Quantitative data will be attained through a survey with a 5 point Likert scale from -2 to 2.The survey will be presented to Twitter users who will be selected at random N=200. Questions such as “How often did you the 2012 presidential candidate on twitter”, “How far did the presidential candidates’ twitter sentiments influence your voting decision” will be presented and the answer rated on a 5 points scale of “very often, fairly often, once in a while, very few times and never” or “very high, high, average, low, very low”.

The scale will be reversed across questions in the survey to ensure the participants pay attention to the questions. Statistical software and regression models will then be utilized to evaluate the correlation between voting decisions and use of twitter.

If the correlation is positive whereby the correlation coefficient between variables and either progression and alignment variables is between 0.1 and 1, then we will be able to deduce that twitter has a positive influence on these variables. If the correlation is negative, we can affirm that twitter has a negative or non-existent influence on political decisions.

Annotated Bibliography Giuliani, R 2007, Leadership, Miramax Books, Boston.

We will write a custom Proposal on The Influence of Twitter as a Social Perception Driver in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election Campaigns specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book evaluates the values of good and effective leadership and all the available tools to make a leader effective. The book provides essential material for this research that illustrates the use of social network in leadership.

Krugman, P 2009, The Conscience of a Liberal, W. W. Norton, New York.

Written from an economic perspective this book evaluates the development of American society in a historical context. This book will be essential to this research by providing an economic point of view through which political alignment and social perceptions can be analyzed.

Powell, C and Persico, J 2010, My American Journey, Random House Publishing Group, Washington D.C.

This biography examines a person’s own experience on penetration of social media tool into the political sphere. It offers empirical data on the progression of internet based campaigns. The author provides useful information on recent political strategies that utilize social media as a key campaign platform.

Ridout, N 2013, New Directions in Media and Politics, Routledge, New York.

This book evaluates the impact of social media on the political sphere. It evaluates the influence of demography on political agenda through the internet. In this text, it provides information on how media and politics interact and creating a starting point for the research.

Tocqueville, D 2000, Democracy in America, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Influence of Twitter as a Social Perception Driver in the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election Campaigns by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is a book that majors on praising the United States of America for the continued expansion of civil rights and democratic space. It is rated to be among the best books in U.S. and is useful to the research by offering insight into the expression of legal ideas through social media without fear of political ramifications.


How the Way of Reading Books Changed due to Rapid Evolution of Technology Research Paper essay help: essay help

Technological evolution has led to the development of electronic sources that are about to replace hardcopy books. The discovery of tablets and e-readers has completely changed the way people read (Mayer 34). The use of reading devices such as iPads and computers has increasingly become very popular among readers and there are no signs of this changing in the near future.

Authors and publishers have been forced to adapt to the new development in order to guarantee their survival in the industry. The development of electronic sources such e-books, blogs, websites and e-journals provides readers with a very rich reading experience because of the interactive nature these kind of sources (Mayer 34).

Technology has transformed reading from just being a passive experience into a very interactive experience where the reader can watch and listen to content apart from reading. Technology has enhanced content by offering a variety of electronic sources (Nord 74). Electronic magazines and books have enhanced content compared to print sources. Technological advancement has a significant impact on reading practices and habits.

Many publishers have changed from the traditional printing of hardcopy books to the more efficient and stylish electronic formats such as e-books, e-journals and other digital publications (Nord 74). Technology has made it possible for book buyers to buy any book they want online without visiting a bookstore. This is a clear indication that many people are willing to embrace the use of technology when it comes to buying and reading books (Nord 74).

The fact that the most popular titles are found in their e-book format means that many readers will have to shift from the traditional hard copy format to the e-book format (Nord 112). Although print books still control almost 80 percent of the book market, the number of e-book sales keeps on growing every year. This is a clear indication that many readers are embracing the use of technology in reading.

Students claim that it is more convenient to use e-books while travelling compared to traditional books because they can easily access content from their digital devices such as laptops, mobile phones and iPads without moving around with large volumes of books (Nord 112).

E-readers allow the multi-tasking and converging of technology which enable the user to access a variety of applications that make the reading process very interactive (Nord 128). The introduction of digital reading has led to an increase in the number of readers because e-books and other online publications are cheap and more accessible (Liu 64).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The development of technological devices such as iPads and tablets will continue to increase the variety and number of e-readers (Liu 66). Technology has really enhanced the reading culture because many people can now access digital sources on their computers without going to the bookstore.

The iPad is a new revolution in the world of reading because of its numerous applications (Liu 79). Although an iPad has many uses, the device is in most cases used to read e-books. An iPad can be used to read content during official duties and even leisure time. The device can be used to read e-books and other online publications depending on the type of applications that that the user has (Liu 79).

The number of newspaper and magazine readers has increased because readers are only required to have a computer with internet connectivity to access magazines in their electronic format. The majority of newspaper and magazine publishers have online electronic versions meant to satisfy the needs of internet users. The reading culture has been changed in a great way because of the internet (Nord 137).

The internet revolution has changed the scope of reading sources and in the process making the reading experience to be more interesting.

The internet has got a variety of multimedia documents that include web pages, blogs, e-journals, websites and e-books which provide readers with a lot of options to choose from (Nord 137). The internet has emerged as major source of content in recent years that is attractive to the digital generation of readers. Readers are able to download a lot of information in electronic form for present and future use.

Internet surfing enables a reader to access interconnected information from different sources in one instance (Raven 122). The internet revolution has been of great benefit to students because they can access a variety of reading materials form different online sources. Research findings have shown that many students prefer doing their academic research using internet sources compared to print sources form bookstores.

Many young people have grown up in the digital environment and this has a very significant effect on their reading habits (Raven 122). Applications such as e-readers have led to selective reading where readers can move directly to their preferred content as opposed to extensive and in-depth reading associated with print sources. Internet sources enable readers to read in all directions because the arrangement of content is non-linear. This kind of arrangement makes reading to be very interesting, flexible and interactive (Raven 145).

We will write a custom Research Paper on How the Way of Reading Books Changed due to Rapid Evolution of Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The digital generation of readers can not read continuously for a very long time because of the type of devices they use (Raven 145). It is not easy to read for a prolonged period of time from an iPad or a computer screen because of visual fatique. Reading has become very superficial because readers using digital devices are always tempted to explore different topics in one instance.

The need to carry out extensive reading within the shortest time possible does not allow for an in-depth exploration of content (Richardson 106). Reader software enhancements have been developed to solve the problem of poor screen resolution which discourages many digital readers because of visual fatigue.

The advocates of digital reading are doing their level best to ensure that reading from the screen becomes very comfortable. The new reading software and devices have enhanced features such videos, animations and a variety of images that are meant to introduce fun in reading (Richardson 106).

Online reading materials affect the choice of content. Readers have a variety of information to choose from compared to hardcopy books. Readers no longer depend on print sources because they have access to both local and foreign content through the internet. Technological advancement has enabled users to develop an interest in reading news because of affordability and accessibility (Richardson 109). Sequential and continuous reading has significantly decreased as a result of digital reading that is very flexible.

In conclusion, the traditional reading culture has completely changed as a result of technological advancement. The internet revolution has had a significant impact on the reading practices of many readers (Nord 115). Digital reading has encouraged superficial and interactive reading.

In-depth reading is no longer possible because electronic sources provide very little room for that. Online readers can not concentrate for long periods of time because of the temptation to read a variety of sources. Online sources do not encourage sequential reading because of their non-linear arrangement.

General knowledge reading has increased in recent times due to internet surfing (Richardson 156). Digital devices such as iPads, mobile phones, computers and tablets have introduced convenience in reading because readers can access information in the comfort of their homes (Richardson 159). The majority of bookstores will soon close down because many readers prefer electronic sources.

Works Cited Liu, Ziming. Paper to Digital: Documents in the Information Age. London: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How the Way of Reading Books Changed due to Rapid Evolution of Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nord, David. The Enduring Book: Print Culture in Postwar America. New York: UNC Press Books, 2009. Print.

Raven, James. The Practice and Representation of Reading in England. London: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.

Richardson, Judy. Reading to Learn in the Content Areas. New York: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Mayer, Richard. Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction. New York: Taylor


The Roots of Religious and Social Opposition between Catholicism and Pentecostalism Essay best college essay help

The question of opposition between religions is rather controversial because religions are based on the system of beliefs which are associated with the human spirituality, but not with any rationales and efforts to achieve the definite goal. In reality, religions in their association with such institutions as churches have more similarities with the market brands than with the aspects of the people’s spirituality.

From this point, modern churches compete within the market of the people’s beliefs, and this statement is not a metaphor because the victory in the competition guarantees the progress of the church not only in the religious sphere but also in the social and economic fields. Today, churches are closely connected with the social aspects of the people’s life within communities. As a result, it is possible to speak about ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ of the religious competition.

This idea is discussed in detail in the book The Churching of America, 1776-2005: Winners and Losers in Our Religious Economy written by Finke and Stark. According to the authors, traditional religions or mainline denominations lost their positions when upstart sects developed in the field as ‘winners’ (Finke


Current Trends Affecting Marriage and Family Formation in Asia Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The average age at first marriage has been increasing in Asia over decades. Though this phenomenon is worldwide, it is more prominent in Asia. Related to timing of marriage is family structure. The outlook of Asian families has been changing alongside the timing of marriage. This paper will explore various trends that affect timing of marriage and structure of families.

Socio-economic variables like education and religion have important impact on the timing of marriage and timing of marriage (Quah 7). However, it is important to note that these factors are not universal across the continent. Asia is vast continent with various cultural and religious groups.

Education is by far the influential factor. Education influences marriage both directly and indirectly. Educated Asians tend to delay marriage regardless of gender. However, other gender related factors influence how people view marriage. Young people in Asia may decide to delay marriage in order to enjoy government subsidies.

Available resources are limited and people could wish to pursue education first before they settle down. In addition, many young people may find it hard to balance the demands of married life with those of studying. Young people find it easy delaying marriage up to a time in future when they have completed their education.

Educated women tend to delay marriage as compared to their less educated counterparts. This may be attributed to the fact that education enables women to break away from the traditional mindset. Traditionally, most cultures expected women to be married early to a man of her parents’ choice. Education has enabled both men and women to choose their own spouses based on personal values sand expectations.

Previously women were expected to perform domestic chores while men were expected to be the providers. This greatly restricted women’s access to formal employment. To overcome this challenge many women opted to delay marriage until such a time when they have established carriers. Others may opt not to get married at all. This is related to the fact that women are expected to take care of their families after work.

Education also provides economic empowerment to women. Women who are educated are more likely to have well paying jobs than women with little or no education at all. In most parts of Asia, women are increasingly being empowered through education. In some parts women literacy levels is almost equal to that of men. Since employed women can provide for themselves, economic gains previously attached to marriage have greatly disappeared.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women are free to choose whether to and when get married. Therefore, economic empowerment is accompanied by freedom of choice. Economic outlook of individuals is a reflection of the overall economy of a country. In rich Asian countries like Japan and South Korea, women tend to delay marriage by a large margin as compared to their developing counterparts.

Education has also influenced the view on extended family. The extended family had profound influence on when a member of the family got married. Girls were married off early. On the flipside women’s education may affect men negatively. Less educated men may encounter difficulties in finding a mate.

Age at first marriage influences the number of children one is likely to get. Generally, people who get married late are likely to have few children (Jones 90. This is more applicable to women than men. This in turn affects the structure of the family. Focus has been shifting from how many children one has to the quality of life. People are likely to postpone marriage until when they are economically stable (Gubhaju 20). Single parent families have also become acceptable.

Economic difficulties also influence when people get married. Harsh economic realities have made many men to delay marriage (Bajracharya


The Colonial War in Southwest Africa Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help

The colonial war in Southwest Africa in 1904-1907 is the example of genocide against the Herero people realized by the German authorities and military within the territories of Southwest Africa. The Herero people rose up to bring down the suppressive order of the German rulers to become the independent nation in 1904.

The actions of the German authorities and military leaders as a reaction to the revolt were too radical and oriented to the mass destruction of the Herero people. This fact allows speaking about genocide against the African people based on the threat of losing power by the German leaders.

Furthermore, this situation became the first example of genocide at the beginning of the twentieth century. In the article “German Military Culture and the Colonial War in Southwest Africa, 1904-1907”, Isabel Hull states that the reaction of the German militaries to the revolt in Southwest Africa can be classified from the point of the destructive extremes, and the source of this reaction is in the German military culture, usage of typical military practices, focus on doctrines and order, and inability to adapt to the non-European methods of war.

From this point, genocide against the Herero people became the result of the focus of the German military leaders on destruction, pursuit, racism, and mass killing in order to confirm their state’s power.

Genocide can be discussed as one of the most controversial global problems which is based on the issues of people’s intolerance and racism in relation to some nations and ethnicities. The revolt of the Herero people against the German rule in Southwest Africa was the reasonable reaction of the people to the suppression of the colonialists.

However, the German leaders focused on the quick victory in order to overcome the revolt and accentuate the country’s power. To achieve the goal and to become winners in the war, the German military concentrated on the traditional or habitual methods of the fighting and warfare patterns typical for the Western world.

Nevertheless, the approaches of the African nations to fighting are rather different basing on their culture and society’s development (Walther, 2004). Focusing on the European patterns, the German military did not expect a lot of difficulties associated with developing the war at the African territories. As a result, the German soldiers were destabilised psychologically when the Herero people were in their comfortable environments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this point, it is possible to speak about the psychological effects of the risk to be defeated by the non-organized African people (Steinmetz, 2003). Thus, the focus of the German military on the policies of destruction can be considered as the extreme approach to state the power of the country’s with the effective military and organizational culture.

The conflict of two different cultures ended in the opposition of two military cultures which methods were aggressive and destructive. Therefore, ideologies, psychological factors, and social impacts are significant for forming the military culture of the country.

The quick victory became impossible for the German military that is why the course was changed to mass killing and pursuit. From the point of political concerns, mass killings of the Herero people and their pursuit were effective methods to stabilize the situation in the region and state the power of the country which can overcome any revolt. The main political idea of the war was the statement of German superiority.

Nevertheless, discussing the situation from the point of the historical development, it is necessary to pay attention to realizing the principle of achieving the definite goal “by all means” at the beginning of the twentieth century (Hull, 2011). Thus, the concentration on emphasizing the state’s power made the German military able to kill thousands of people without following the traditional principles of the war.

If the actions of the German army are the example of achieving the goal “by all means” from the point of military culture, the situation with the Herero people should be discussed as genocide from the sociological perspective. There are no political or military goals which can justify mass killings and racism realized in Southwest Africa in 1904-1907. The actions of the German military destroyed the life of the whole community because of the authorities’ fears to lose the power and status (Walther, 2004).

The colonial war in Southwest Africa in 1904-1907 can be discussed from many perspectives, including historical, psychological, sociological, and political ones. The role of the colonial war in Southwest Africa in history is significant because it is the vivid example of the country’s usage of all the means in realization the definite goals.

Losing its position at the stage of preparation for the war, the German military focused not only on overcoming the revolt but also on destructing the nation with the help of mass killings. Nevertheless, the end results of the war could be less dramatic. From this point, it is necessary to pay attention to the psychological discussion of the problem.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Colonial War in Southwest Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The German leaders chose the extreme methods of warfare because of the fear to lose the status within the European colonial countries. The fear became the driving force for developing the war and realizing mass killings of the Herero people.

Being ready to sacrifice everything to emphasize the political power of the state, the Germans not only re-established the German authority in the region but also contributed to the development of one of the main social problems for all the historic periods. This problem is genocide based on racism.

According to Hull, the origins of the German authorities’ violence are in the vision of the Africans as inferior peoples and in the focus on the order and power (Hull, 2011).

The colonial war in Southwest Africa should be examined from the all the mentioned perspectives because of the role of the experience for the development of the global citizenship. There cannot be reasons for any extreme human destruction when the war leads to killing soldiers as well as civilians. Focusing on the aim to defeat the enemy completely, the German military pursued the goal to develop the war according to the standard procedures and principles.

Nevertheless, the plan did not work within the environments of the Southwest Africa because of the people’s specific identity, culture, values, and visions of the world (Steinmetz, 2008). Thus, it is possible to speak about the responsibility of the authorities for actions which can be threatening for the life of local communities.

The German leaders ruling the territories of the Southwest Africa failed in relation to their responsibility as local citizenship because they followed the principles of colonialism and mass destruction. As a result, not only the Herero people but also German settlers became the victims of the German soldiers’ inhuman actions.

However, the actions by the German military can be explained from the point of the military culture and social patterns typical for the German society. Thus, the German authorities used to win quickly because of their unique order, effective organizational structures, planned actions, and developed strategies.

Nevertheless, all these principles were ineffective to fight with the Herero people who did not follow any specific war principles (Steinmetz, 2008). The inability to adapt to the specific war environments made the German military focus on mass destruction without focusing on any principles in order to avoid the loss by any means.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Colonial War in Southwest Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result, the decision-making process realized by the German militaries in relation to the Herero people is based on the differences in cultures. From the sociological perspective, the decision-making process regarding genocide actions was planned and used as the effective method to defeat the nation physically and psychologically.

The colonial war in Southwest Africa is the dramatic example of genocide against the nation because of discussing it as inferior and unable to build the independent state. The destructive actions and pursuits of the German military led to the catastrophic outcomes. Thus, genocide as one of the issues of global development was based on the elements of the German military culture, practices, and doctrines.

References Hull, I. (2011). German military culture and the colonial war in Southwest Africa, 1904-1907. In W. E. Lee (ed.), Warfare and Culture in World History (pp. 143-164). New York: New York University Press.

Steinmetz, G. (2003). “The Devil’s Handwriting”: Precolonial discourse, ethnographic acuity, and cross-identification in German colonialism. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 45(1), 41-95.

Steinmetz, G. (2008). The colonial state as a social field: Ethnographic capital and native policy in the German Overseas Empire before 1914. American Sociological Review, 73(4), 589-612.

Walther, D. (2004). Gender construction and settler colonialism in German Southwest Africa, 1894–1914. Historian, 66(1), 1-18.


Political Consequences of Globalization Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Foundations of Globalization

Globalization and Politics


Reference List

Introduction While there is little consensus on a precise definition, globalization usually refers to a multidimensional process whereby markets, firms, production, and national financial systems are integrated on a global scale (Brawley 2008, p. 12). This definition, however, emphasizes the economic aspects of globalization.

Globalization in other areas of life such as communication, has ramifications in non-economic too, as in cultural affairs, and these can have subsequent political consequences. According to Müller (2003, p. 7), globalization may be described as a new social architecture of cross border human interactions. It breaks down the old international division of labor and the associated hierarchy of rich and poor countries.

Through the process of globalization, the integrity of the national territorial state as a more or less coherent political economy is eroded, and the functions of the state become reorganized to adjust domestic economic and social policies to fit the exigencies of the global market and global capitalist accumulation.

Foundations of Globalization Although theoretical concepts offer useful insights and directions for inquiry, specific social arrangements are always historical. That is to say, in inquiring into the issues of that have been resolved in the building of globalization; it is important to remember that what exists today has emanated from previous experience.

Among the conditions that have supported the concept of globalization include power, institutions, authority, and democracy. As the fundamental concept of politics, power has been thought of in many ways. One prominent conceptualization stresses the domination of one person or entity over others, whereas another emphasizes the construction of power through interactive speech that leads to acting together.

A favorite of political scientists focuses on the specific acts by which one individual or group induces another to do things that the other would not otherwise do. In addition to power and identification of interests in a global context, different nations have desired to lead the way and gain the cooperation of other states through institutional arrangements that make the coordination of policies easier and steadier.

According to Prechel (2007, p. 35), institutionalization has followed a practical and quite diverse course. In the late nineteenth century, the United States helped to found the Pan American Union as a means of gaining the cooperation of western hemisphere states. At the same time, the United States retained its discretion to intervene in those same states when its interests led it to at unilaterally. Authority has also been considered a key pillar of globalization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When power is exercised by some people over others in circumstances in which both sides agree that there is an obligation to obey, one party has a right to act with authority (Cohen 2001, p. 21). In states with established governments and ordered societies based on justice, authority tends to be recognized to such an extent that citizens obey laws even when they disagree with them, and violators of law recognize that they are doing wrong in the face of legitimate authority.

The basis upon which those running a political system claim authority to rule and those subject to it find an obligation to obey forms one important line of inquiry in political philosophy as well as an important practical issue for political leaders and followers. Finally, there is democracy. In an ideal democratic society, power rests with the people. As a result, governments are often pushed to act in a way that takes public interest into consideration.

Globalization and Politics The politics of globalization includes two dimensions. The first embodies the efficient distribution of power and the constraints imposed by existing arrangements. Ordinarily, these constraints flow from choices that have established and now manage existing structures and processes.

The second dimension embraces a more visionary quest for alternative arrangements in the future. As is true of all politics, both cooperation and struggle are involved, domination and resistance are evident, and contestation abounds. To a large extent, globalization is most commonly presented as an inexorable process that consists in bringing the world together through technology.

Although the fundamental processes bringing human beings into contact with one another have been at work for millennia, high-speed transport and especially the computer have speeded up the process in the last quarter-century or so (Lindquist


Global Capital Markets in Crisis Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help

Since the beginning of the financial crisis, the big question is whether the crisis will ever reoccur. Many players in the financial sector fear that re-occurrence of the crisis is imminent given the fact that the full stability have not been achieved. In addition, weak growths in almost all sectors of the economy have been persistent particularly in the major economies (Kalter and Holland 145).

Moreover, unemployment rates have remained persistently high as investment banks and individuals continue to pay back the excessive debts they accumulated during the bubble years. The result is stifled investments, slowed economic growth that in turn negatively affects the rate of employment (Kalter and Holland 146).

The problem has been exacerbated by lack of international co-operation on ways through which the crisis can be brought to an end. More worse is the high possibility of the global economic recession because of the US economic slow growth and the divisions in the euro zone. The major European economies require political determination to enforce international co-operation required to prevent breakdown of the euro as a single currency (Eichengreen 16).

In addition, major economies such as US and the euro zone are reluctant to co-operate with emerging economies such as China, which are still immune to the global financial crisis and can inject more capital flows into the global capital markets.

Moreover, countries are planning for short-term measures such as austerity measures rather than long-term policies that can finally end the crisis. The reluctance by countries to borrow for fiscal stimulus packages offered by major investment banks deepens the possibility for the re-occurrence of the crisis (Kalter and Holland 147).

The deregulations in the capital markets can still lead to the re-occurrence of the crisis. The regulatory measures that have been put in place are short-term while long-term measures and policies have not been formulated. In addition, many countries are still indifferent on whether to apply regulatory measures that can avert the crisis in the end or to live the whole problem to the market forces, which have failed in the past (Kregel 5). Given these failures, the likelihood of the re-occurrence of the crisis is high.

The re-regulations of the capital markets Though the capital markets crisis was blamed on longer periods of deregulations, the debate whether the re-regulations should be imposed still rages on. The fact is that there were regulations that governed the capital markets institutions that brought about the crisis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem was poor implementation of the regulatory measures and the non-compliant of the regulatory measures by the capital markets institutions (Watt and Botsch 1007). Financial history indicates that there are greater gains when the financial markets are deregulated. Therefore, the gains of deregulations cannot easily be devalued.

However, following the crisis, there have been calls by the public and the players to develop and better implement the regulations that were put in place. Nevertheless, there have been problems with the re-regulations. The first problem is the where to re-regulate. The second issue is how to effect re-regulations and finally how to deal with effects of restrictive regulations.

With these complexities and the failure of the complicated and elaborative measures, regulatory institutions have been pondering over the best policy or regulatory measures to adopt (Eichengreen 17). Whether to go back to the old gold standards or to continue with the complex and elaborative measures such as that of Basel II or to innovate simple measures.

The old gold standards have already been taken over by events and the Basel II is too restrictive and costly (Eichengreen 17). The only option is to adopt simplistic measures that minimize the lines of businesses that investment banks can engage in and the types of assets in which they can invest.

Moreover, investment banks are required to balance the ratio of their assets to their capital or this ratio should not exceed the required number the regulators feel could not affect the banks liquidity. In addition, the investment banks should implement short-term liquidity measures to stabilize the asset values (Kregel 6).

All these measures are regulatory though not stringent as was before. In essence re-regulations are necessary, however, in a more flexible and innovative way. In other words, capital markets institutions must comply with the regulatory measures and appropriate policies that have been put in place in order to avert further crisis (Eichengreen 17).

The future of Eurocurrency and Eurobonds The Eurocurrency has expanded enormously in the past two decades because of many factors. The growth was due to the belief that the currencies can earn more interest in other countries as opposed to being deposited in the domestic banks.

We will write a custom Case Study on Global Capital Markets in Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the US regulations policy that discouraged lending to the non-US nationals encourage investors to borrow outside the US thus enhancing the growth of Eurodollars market (Watt and Botsch 1014). Another factor is the oil crises in the 1970s that led to the increase of dollars within the London banks enabling the Eurodollar market to expand considerably.

Due to its un-regulatory operations by any governments, the Eurocurrency market has remained attractive to many investors as banks can charge higher interest rates on deposits of the Eurocurrency compared to home currency and lower interest rates to any borrowers of the Eurocurrency as compared to the home currency. Further, the interest rate spread between the Eurocurrency deposits and lending is less as compare to that of domestic lending and deposit rates. As a result, the Eurocurrency banks become more competitive over the domestic banks (Watt and Botsch 1005).

Eurobond market also lacks regulatory interference thereby reducing the cost of issuing the bonds. In addition, Eurobond markets have less disclosure requirements saving the cost and time as compared to the domestic bond markets (Watt and Botsch 1007). Eurobonds can be sold directly to the investors making the bond to become more favorable from the perspective of taxes. These attributes have made the Eurobond market becomes more attractive hence its rapid expansion in the last two decades.

However, this rapid growth in the Eurocurrency and the Eurobonds markets will be hampered by many factors majorly the continued global uncertainty within the capital markets. The uncertainty increases risk of depositors losing funds as banks continue to take measures to prevent collapse or failure in case of a crisis (Watt and Botsch 1007).

Though the risk can be reduced by lower returns on the domestic deposits, the domestic banks are also faced with the similar situation. The current global financial uncertainty has double effect on the Eurocurrency and the Eurobonds markets.

In addition, hedging companies can go under due to the global financial uncertainty exposing borrowing companies to foreign exchange risks. In essence, the crises in the capital markets have heightened sensitivity to corporate exposure and probable international volatility (Watt and Botsch 1007).

Works Cited Eichengreen, Barry. “Overcoming the Crisis: Financial Re-regulations.” Economic Development Quarterly 14.1 (2011): 15–35. Print.

Kalter, Elio and Allison Holland. “The Global Financial Crisis: Implications for Emerging Capital Markets.” Journal of International Business Studies 18.2 (2008): 145-175. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Capital Markets in Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kregel, Jan. “Is Regulations of the Financial System an Oxymoron?” Management International Review 33.4 (2009): 5-13. Print.

Watt, Andrew and Andreas Botsch. “After the Crisis: Towards a Sustainable Growth Model.” Economic Journal 39.11 (2010): 1005-1016. Print.


Risk Management in the Health Sector Research Paper essay help free

All organizations aim at making profits in the long run. In this regard, efforts are always directed towards the activities that can not only increase income to the organization, but also activities that reduce expenses. However, in doing this the organization comes across various risks that might be detrimental if they are not properly addressed. It is important to note that health organizations are not special as far as risks are concerned.

They are faced with a variety of risks that can negatively impact the organization or its clients. Therefore, health organizations have to choose the risks that they have to take in their endeavors to earn income. More importantly, the organizations need to implement mechanisms that will help in risk avoidance or control. As a result, risk management is an integral part in health care organizations throughout the process of health delivery.

Arguably, the change in technology that has led to changes in the way health services are offered has greatly influenced the risks that health organizations face. It is becoming increasingly difficult to predict the costs that organizations will have to incur whenever they are offering health services because of the increasing number of services that are offered as well as the number of people covered.

On the same note, there has been increase in health care service providers in recent times. This increase in competition within the health care sector has also increased the effects of risks while reducing income margins (Dyro, 2004). Health organizations have to make the decision of either avoiding risks which means reducing their profit margins or taking some risks and increase their chances of making high profits.

The emergence of electronic medical and health records also poses a new challenge to health organizations. Health organizations have to find a way of securing confidentiality of their patient’s health information while at the same time making it available to other authorized parties. It is important to note that electronic health records are susceptible to cyber criminals.

Furthermore, it is important to ensure that patients and employees are safe throughout that process of health services delivery. Unfortunately, health mistakes occur more so due to the improved technology that is currently used in health delivery. Challenges are being witnessed in the efforts of health organization to reduce medical mistakes.

Notably, the health sector is becoming even more fragmented as time goes by. This is in itself a problem because getting other services or information from other professionals is a challenge. Nonetheless, sharing of information is vital in enhancing health care quality. On the same note, policies have been implemented which define certain offences of health care organizations and define the civil and criminal penalties of each activity (Kavaler, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, not all organizational employees know which activities can be classified as civil or criminal offences. Similarly, health professionals are very scarce and shortage of staff is the order of the day for health organizations yet they are expected to provide services according to the health reforms.

Moreover, operational efficiency has to be ensured yet the organizations are increasing in size. The increasing threats of terrorism as well as the probability of medical malpractice have to be taken into consideration. In a nut shell, the high rate risk dynamism is a risk in itself.

Some people will ask why risk management is such an important issue in health organizations. To begin with, technology has advanced and many people are becoming technologically advanced (Youngberg, 2010). As a result, patient information especially the ones stored electronically can easily find their way to unauthorized hands if care is not taken. Cyber criminals are increasing their activities of hacking into various organizational systems and disrupting important functioning of these organizations.

It is therefore crucial to have information systems security upgraded to avert any such attempt. On the same note, financial crisis has hit various health organizations in recent times. While the health care industry was assumed to be shielded from financial crises by the nature of its formation, increase in the health care cover has opened it to any kind of economic downturns. As a result, it has become important to have financial risks also included in the risk management process (Kavaler


Scientific Approach of Collecting Biological Evidence in Criminal Investigation Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Forensic science is one of the accurate methods of collecting and analyzing evidence from a scene of a crime. Since courts require substantial evidence, investigators ought to use the most accurate forensic equipments and to follow all the necessary steps. Investigators use different approaches to collect biological evidence at the scene of a crime.

Chisum and Turvey posit, “All biological evidence is subject to deterioration and requires a lot of care” (2000, p. 23). Investigators may collect a number of biological evidence ranging from blood, hair, seminal fluid, to bones and organs. In case the investigators collect blood sample as their evidence, they do it using two five-milliliter tubes. Saferstein alleges, “The blood should be collected in vacutainers with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as anti coagulant” (2000, p. 45).

On the other hand, if researchers are to collect a blood sample from a postmortem subject, they ought to “get it from the non-body cavity areas such as heart or chief internal blood vessels” (Saferstein, 2000, p. 46). For easy identification, researchers need to label all blood samples accordingly.

In case the researchers wish to collect liquid semen as their evidence, they use disposable pipettes or clean syringes to put it into disinfected tubes. Otherwise, they may use cotton wool to collect the liquid semen. They can use the cotton wool to absorb the semen, air-dry the content, and utilize it in forensic investigations.

In many cases, scientists use swabs to collect trace samples (Chisum


Democratic Racism in Canada Essay online essay help: online essay help

Despite historical and modern displays of racism as an intractable and pervasive reality in Canadian society, the overt denial of racism is delusionary because it allows Canadian to neglect the abhorrent reality in which a community is divided into white, privileged population and ethnical minorities. Indeed, the country ignores its rich historical background in which a rigid confrontation between the representative of the First Nations people and non-native population was presented.

The Canadian residents and institutions function on the basis of collective denial of the existing racial confrontation, which admits the presence of democratic racism. Canadians have forgotten their racial issues, including laws, practices, and policies that previously shaped their political, social, cultural, and economic institutions for more than three centuries.

The phenomenon of democratic racism will be analyzed through two lenses of social institutions – justice system and police to define how policy respond to the concerns of Aboriginal population and what role individual’s racial identity plays in their actions.

In fact, police officers are law enforcers that should develop an objective, unbiased attitude to all groups residing in Canada, irrespective of their racial affiliation. Nevertheless, racialized practices and beliefs are often implicit to everyone, except to those individuals who face them. The situation appeals to the importance of the dominance of white population, which does not only premise on race, but also on the construction of social identity.

However, victim’s testimonies and unrecognized experiences are still on the current agenda. Recently, a plethora of documentary films has been launched to discover the evidence of inappropriate treatment and give the experiences of the Aboriginal population to publicity. Specifically, the documentary Two World Colliding, centers on the story of Darrel Night, an Aboriginal man, who faced cruelties on the part of the police officers.

The representatives of the police department dumped the man in the outskirts of Saskatoon in January 2000, when the temperature reached 20 º C below zero. However, Mr. Night managed to survive and testify to the cruelties he had to experience. Moreover, the victim was shocked to find out that his case was not unique and there were many other Native people who had been frozen in the barren fields.

In response to unequal treatment, the Aboriginal community decided to resist to a police force and make it be responsible for the deaths of Native Canadian population. Despite the fact that the police officers were accused of improper treatment of Mr. Night, the court found them not guilty. They spent eight months in provincial correctional centre. So, the justice system failed to acknowledge the fact of racism, and therefore, this case is underestimated and biased because of unequal treatment and negligence on the part of official justice bodies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A significant change in ideology dates back to 90s of the past century, the time when the Canadian government introduced its anti-racism reforms and encouraged funding programs. Apparently, the electing a neoconservative government was considered the most tangible change that occurred in Ontario.

The government was headed by Mike Harris who put an end to racial resistance. These initiatives were spread among other governments, but racial inequality and improper treatment of Aboriginal people is still on the rise in Canada. Biased and prejudiced assumptions are displayed and are apparent, both in the classroom and in the workplace, as it is presented in the film Race is Four Letter Word directed by Sobaz Benjamin.

Specifically, the movie focuses on the skin color as the apparent feature that allow the white population to divide the Canadian community into privileged and inferior strata. The director also highlights conflict and controversies around race by exploring his personal experience as well.

Benjamin steps away from the disguised nature of racial policies in Canada concerning whiteness and blackness and reveals the actual attitude of white people to minorities in cultural and psychological terms. Specifically, the author makes the point about the fact that white people take their identity for granted to dominate over the black community. As a result, such an attitude enhances social racism.

There are many other concerns with the concept of social identity in Canadian society that is specifically connected with the concept of whiteness. At this point, the analysis of the connection between racial issues and the white population is presented to discuss whiteness as an advantage over racial groups.

The patterns of attitudes and immigration policies toward the Canadian minority communities across the country are still predetermined by racial discrimination, leading to unequal treatment of certain groups, including Indigenous and black peoples (Justice System/Policing 2).

In the presentation, it is argued that the justice system fails to provide equal and fair treatment of the Native population because Eurocentric restrictions hamper the delivery of appropriate and acceptable services by health care agencies (Seline 2). As a proof, the movie The Mishuau Innu: Surviving Canada written and directed by Ed Martin provides evidence for extremely low living standards among the Indian population in Canada.

We will write a custom Essay on Democratic Racism in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The legislature policies reinforce neoliberal practices that put the welfare of racial groups under the threat. Overt discrimination of the Native population is not recognized by the Canadian government, although there are numerous cases of inappropriate consideration of the problems that occurred to the representatives of the minority population.

Although the country is considered as one of the most developed economies in the world, many representatives of indigenous people suffer from social exclusion. However, this inferiority exercised by the white population is denied due to the existence of social democracy.

Widespread resistance to anti-racism policies are presented at various levels, including individuals, communities, organizations, and systems. At the governmental level, the failure to introduce substantive policy against racism leads to even more challenging situation. Multicultural dimensions of legislative policies create a solid framework for consideration racial and cultural diversity and developing a new set of regulation for Canadian community, regardless racial and national affiliation.

Nevertheless, although multicultural awareness refers to the pluralistic nature of the community, there is explicit ambivalence about acknowledgement of other cultures to sustain unique identities and insure the equality of rights among all members of Canadian society.

Although the Canadian government recognizes the problem of racism, the reforms failed to progress because stereotypical beliefs remain unchanged (Justice System/Policing 3). In film project Miss Canadiana by Camille Turner, the focus is made on the Canadian outlook on democratic racism that overtly denies the presence of stereotypes and prejudices.

In conclusion, racism in Canada can be considered as the driving force of misconceptions and conflicts between the Native and Non-native population. It emphasizes the challenges that society faces while espousing such principles as social harmony, equality, tolerance, and respect for human rights.

At the same time, the Canadian community is reluctant to recognize racial prejudice and discrimination, which leads to a failure to develop the corresponding policies. Canadians are deeply committed to the policies and provisions regarding democratic society. However, the democratic principles contradict the recognition of physical differences as the basis for valuing individual rights.

More importantly, those people who face unequal treatment hold responsibility for the existence of racism in society. The controversies between collective and democratic racism shape the underpinning for Canadian racial heritage and, these issues should be considered in terms of the evidence of various forms of resistance to anti-racial policies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Democratic Racism in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Justice System/Policing. Presentation. n. d. pp. 1-6. Miss Canadiana. Ex. Prod. Camille Turner. Canada: Toronto Film Festival. 2012.

Race is Four Letter Word Ex. Prod. Sobaz Benjamin. Canada: National Film Board of Canada. 2006. DVD.

Seline. Presentation. Section Three. n. d. The Mushuau Innu: Surviving Canada. Ex. Prod. Ed Martin. Canada: Best Boy Productions. 2004. DVD.

Two Words Colliding. Ex. Prod. Tasha Habbard, Canada: National Film Board of Canada. 2005. DVD.


The Age of Hyperspecialization Report college essay help near me

In their article, Thomas Malone, Robert Laubacher and Tammy Johns discuss such a concept as hyperspecialization. This term can be defined as breaking or decomposing the work that is usually performed by a single person into separate elements or pieces. Moreover, these pieces should be done by two or more people.

The authors believe that this approach can greatly increase the performance of many businesses. In my opinion, this question is very important nowadays when business administrators try to find ways of raising the productivity of their firms, especially manufacturers. Moreover, this question can have significant implications for employees who want to find work that suits their interests or expertise.

The discussion presented by the scholars is based on the model of comparative advantage that originates from the ideas of Adam Smith. This theoretical model implies that individuals and groups are more likely to succeed, if they are engaged in the activities in which they are most skilled.

Furthermore, the authors rely on such a concept as the division of labor which means that by dividing the manufacturing process into several short tasks that should be completed by several workers. From their standpoint, the principles of labor division can be applied to many modern companies in which employees do not have an opportunity to display their expertise. These are the main arguments that the scholars put forward and they should not be neglected by managers and executives.

One should take into consideration that the authors of this article do not claim that their idea of hyperspecialization is entirely innovative. As it has been said before, they recognize the influence of Adam Smith on their discussion. Nevertheless, they want to show that many firms can benefit from hyperspecialization.

This issue is particularly relevant at the time when information technologies have become extremely sophisticated. Business administrators can do it by enabling workers to do the jobs that they can do best. They justify their recommendation by investigating the use of this method by different firms.

The authors rely mostly on the qualitative information collected from several companies. Their research technique can be described as a case study. The scholars paid close attention to the opinions of managers who applied the principles of hyperspecialization. Furthermore, they examined the views of clients who used the services of companies in which the principles of hyperspecialization were fully implemented. This approach enabled them to look at this issue from different perspectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One should keep in mind that the researchers did not carry out statistical tests which could confirm the relationship between the productivity of a firm and the manufacturing technique that this organization adopted. Moreover, their sample of companies was very limited. This is the main limitation of this research article. Certainly, this drawback does not completely undermine the arguments of the authors. However, it indicates that the findings of these scholars cannot be generalized.

On the whole, the findings presented in the article suggest that hyperspecialization can improve the operational efficiency of businesses because it enables people to focus on those tasks in which they are most competent.

Nevertheless, the scholars acknowledge the drawbacks of this strategy since it can result in the lack of coordination, disappearance of many jobs, and increased supervision of workers. Nevertheless, despite these risks, hyperspecialization can be viewed as one of the techniques that can increase the productivity of many companies.


Definition of Sustainability and Its Underpinnings in Tourism Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Tourism and Sustainability: Defining the Concept

Sustainability in Tourism: Theories and Implications

Measuring Sustainability in Tourism

Sustainability in Tourism: Application



Introduction Sustainability has become a buzzword in contemporary tourism research and practice. Thousands of businesses claim themselves to be sustainable, because they provide their services without damaging the environment. More often than not, sustainability is understood in the context of environmental protection and community development.

Sustainable tourism is expected to be able to balance its profitability concerns with the needs of communities. Apparently, the tools and resources used to promote sustainable tourism differ considerably across communities and settings.

This paper is a review of the current theoretical and empirical literature related to the topic of sustainable tourism. The main themes to be discussed in this review include: definition of sustainability and its theoretical underpinnings, the problems of measuring sustainability and tourism, as well as the case studies of sustainable tourism presented in literature.

Tourism and Sustainability: Defining the Concept Sustainability is a common topic in contemporary literature. However, its meaning is often taken for granted. Few, if any, researchers discussed the concept of sustainability in detail. Of all articles retrieved in this literature search, only Lansing and De Vries (2007) decided to review the meaning of the sustainability concept, as applied in tourism.

According to Lansing and De Vries (2007), the concept of sustainability in tourism has numerous categorisations and definitions, and this is also why the debate over sustainable tourism remains so fragmented and confusing. Saarinen (2006) supports this view and suggests that the concept of sustainable tourism continues to interest and irritate researchers. Lansing and De Vries (2007) take the definition of the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) as the starting point for their analysis.

This is also the definition, which is to be used in this review of literature: “sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability” (Lansing


Nana Children’s Home Essay best essay help

Introduction Organization Description

Nana children home is a non-profit organization with a goal to provide for needy children. They offer God’s love and heal children for the sake of their security, safety and life. The incorporated children in this organization are needy, abused or neglected before the age of eighteen years.

The organization is located at Malabar in Florida. It relies on worldwide well wishers for provision to the children. Consequently, they have extended their reach among the continents including Australia. It relies on various advertisement strategies that facilitate their effect to most countries. Its funds arise from fundraising (40%), businesses/individuals (35%) and churches (25%) (Nana House 2007).


The systems applied by Nana Children’s Home management have been advanced by technology. They are able to reach their donors through websites, social media, newsletters, inquiries, public meeting, television and radio. These factors have facilitated the development of the organization into achieving the goals.

Social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, have managed to create a network that allows contribution from potential donors. Apparently, they have made the system easier to manage and reach many people simultaneously than in the previous times. The trend of advertisement applies high effort behaviour by applying various advertisement strategies.

In fact, if they do not reach their donors, it is probable to close the organization due to lack of funds. Therefore, they spread their operations and request for funding through high effort advertisements. The main issues of advertisement involve funding, parent responsibility to children, seminars and fundraising events.

Their advertisement websites have options for online donations that facilitate worldwide reach. This website has been advertised to other websites for connection purposes. Apart from the social media, the website has integrated with other websites that fight children abuse and neglect. Events are held to talk about and discourage communities from some issues. For instance, on 2nd and 3rd April 2013, the organisation arranged an occasion to pronounce their urge on child abuse prevention.

Analysis Exposure to the Advertisement

There are multidimensional strategies of exposure. The technological methods allow more exposures to many people than the traditional media strategies (Sandhusen 2000). Social sites have made a divergent and explicit interaction with people. Therefore, people are able to get advertisements and information easily.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may happen through sharing of the website with friends and other people. Another way of exposure is through contextual internet searching. The organization has a formal website with all condition fulfilled. Therefore, the search engines, such as Google and Yahoo, could retrieve the websites when a person is searching. Media advertisement allows people to receive information through hearing on televisions and radios. It is a way that a person could be exposed to the information.

The website has a connection with many other childcare websites and donors’ websites that enhance the chances of encounter. Information moves within and around a targeted community through contact. This could be facilitated when people are talking about this organisation.

Calling is another way that information moves from one person to another and in a wide area. For instance, calls could move information from one person enlightened about the children’s home and reached a person without this knowledge. Consequently, it can be seen clearly that there are reliable methods of spreading information.

Theory of Attraction

It is apparent that a person cannot stay with people s/he does not like or adore (Morrison, 2002). The theory of attraction postulated that people pay attention to those who make them happy (Canham 2005). Otherwise, the theory suggested that people are happy when they are around other individuals who remind them about people they love (Pride