How Realistic Or Desirable Was Marx’s Idea Of Communism? Essay College Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Introduction

Communism

Marx and the Idea of Communism

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Karl Marx is a well known individual in the field of history. Marx was a philosopher, a historian, and a social scientist who engaged himself with a variety of issues that affected the community. For this reason, Karl Marx is considered to be among the most influential socialist thinkers of the 19th century.

The socialist movement utilized Marx’s political, social as well as economic ideas to achieve success in its processes and practices. Among the many things that Marx is associated with is the idea of communism and socialism. This entails collective ownership of property and organization of labor in such a manner that all members benefit (Polan 1984).

This piece of paper looks at the concept of communism and all that surrounds it. Much emphasis will however be given to Karl Marx’s point of view or ideology in regard to communism and how realist or desirable it was.

Communism Communism can be defined as an economic system that is characterized by aspects such as collective ownership of property and an organization of labor that is meant for the common advantage of all the involved members.

It could also be said to be a system of government whereby the state is involved in the planning and control of the economy and an authoritarian party holds power and works towards establishing a higher social order where all goods and property are shared equally among the communities.

It is a doctrine that seeks to overthrow capitalism form of governance. Communism ideology aims at establishing a revolutionary, stateless, and classless socialist society that is based upon commonality particularly with regard to ownership and means of production or division of labor (Ashley and Orenstein 2004).

Marx and the Idea of Communism Marx is well known and remembered up to today for his idea of communism and his desire to do away with the capitalist form of governance. Communism and Marxist-Leninist interpretations played a critical role in influencing history of the 20th century.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was seen in the intense of rivalry that was built up between the western world that was characterized by liberal democratic form of government and market economies and the socialist world that entailed social states that were governed by communist parties. This was serious enough that it culminated the Cold War that existed between the Free World and the Eastern bloc (Gaus and Kukathas 2004).

In the communist manifesto, it is evident that Marx distinguished between socialism and communism. To him, socialism was a term that was more comprehensive while communism was an advanced stage of socialism. Socialism was a process that was deemed to be in a position of preparing the way for communism.

This was to be made possible through nationalization of the means of production and putting them under the control of the workers; the individuals who he viewed to be the major producers of wealth. To Marx, economic equality was an extremely significant aspect that was capable of making political equality and freedom complete.

This made Marx to consider the redistribution of economic power as a key process in allowing for success in all economic and political activities. He therefore advocated for its implementation with the main aim being the extension of democracy to a greater level than that which was achieved by the democratic revolutions that prevailed earlier.

One observation that Marx linked with socialism and communism is the provision of services such as housing, education as well as health to the people for free. In addition to this, people were to be paid wages that was equivalent to the work they were involved with. This sound pretty good and everyone would appreciate the system (Berki 1975).

According to Marx, an international communist society would come to pass once all the nations would develop and implement successful socialist economies. As mentioned earlier, the main vision of communism was simple; to have a classless and stateless society in which the central government had no powers and democracy was a key issue in the place of work (Levin 1989).

The system also advocated for the abolition of the market system. This means that there would be neither money nor the processes of buying and selling but instead, an establishment of a system where people would work on a voluntary basis for the common good (Ollman 2004). This was supposed to be led by the believe and understanding that they would receive whatever they needed in their day to day lives for free according to the combined efforts of all and the needs of everyone involved.

We will write a custom Essay on How Realistic or Desirable Was Marx’s Idea of Communism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through this, it was believed that there would be no conflicts and that national boundary and governments would be eliminated. Although Marx had a strong believe that this system would succeed, he knew that it would not come to pass immediately but rather, it would take a relatively long period of time to be established and flourish (Ashley and Orenstein 2004).

One stumbling block towards the success of socialism was considered to be ignorance or lack of knowledge of what the system of communism really entails. This therefore necessitated that the people be educated to get them out of the selfish orientation that was associated with capitalism but instead bring into their understanding the benefits associated with communism.

Although many people who worked with Marx insisted that it was not possible to realize communism by having to go through a period of governance that retained and reinforced the centralized state government, Marx was certain that that was the only way out since it could not in any way be possible to directly shift from capitalism to communism. It required some gradual change.

Giving a critical analysis of the two arguments, it seems that achievement of socialism or rather communism is not an easy thing especially due to the fact that it involves changing the attitudes of people who have been used to another form of governance. Dealing with human nature is also tricky.

This is more so because human nature is subject to change depending on the environment people live in for instance the economic system. Marx believed that the people who lived under capitalism were to a grater extent motivated by motives associated with capitalism and needed some form of education to enable them to change their minds and embrace communism.

Economic transformation is deemed to play a great role in changing people’s mind and perceptions towards various things and this is the idea that Marx clings on and hopes to achieve success. The fact that people’s values have changed in the past gave Marx hope that people would certainly change in the future and that they only needed some conditioning.

Although communal ownership of property such as factories is a principal element when it came to the system of socialism, it was not expected to be an easy and natural process (Momoh 1991). Under normal circumstances, human beings will always present some form of resistance to change and hence the need to introduce any form of change in a rather gradual mode as opposed to bringing up issues in a rapid way (Perry 1974).

Mark had a number of theories that were all aimed at advocating for the ideology of communism. The theories were all about the society, politics and economics. The theories also known as Marxism hold that all societies are constantly in a progressive move. They do so through means of class struggle.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Realistic or Desirable Was Marx’s Idea of Communism? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marx was critically against capitalism as a socio-economic form of society. He associated it with dictatorship. This is because it was run by people in the wealth and upper class who were basically led by their own desires and therefore sought ways of benefiting themselves at the expense of the societies.

Marx believed that just as the social-economic systems that ruled before the capitalist system, capitalism would not rule for a long period of time before its self-destruction as a result of internal tension. For this reason, there would be a need for a replacement of the system by another system known as socialism (Polan 1984).

According to Marx, socialism was still not the best option although better than capitalism. Under the system of socialism, the society would be run by the working class which would therefore still have some elements of dictatorship. Due to its inefficiencies, Marx believed that socialism would be replaced by communism which he described as a classless and stateless society.

Marx was involved in advocating for the implementation of both socialism as well as communism systems of governance. This made him to state that both the underprivileged individuals and the social theorists ought to come together and carry out appropriate revolutionary actions directed towards tumbling the capitalism system and bringing about socio-economic change that is beneficial to the majority of the society members.

Marx’s idea of communism was accepted and implemented by various governments in different countries in the 20th century since some benefits were associated with it. This led to of socialist states such as the People’s Republic of china (PRC) and the Soviet Union in 1949 and 1922 respectively.

Other aspects that are linked to the Marxist ideologies include Maoism, Trotskyism, Leninism as well as Stalinism. All this achievements and contributions made Karl Marx to be recognized as an influential figure in human history and the field of social science as a whole (Zakharov 1985).

Although Marx‘s ideology of communism sounds very encouraging and desirable, its practicability is somehow questionable. The fact that individuals irrespective of their location in the world should all own farms, tools and factories that are used in the production of food and goods does not for example seem practical and it is difficult to translate it into reality. This is a form of social process that is known of common ownership which stipulates that there is no private or individual property.

The main goal of communism is to allow workers to take full control of factories and businesses as a way of managing the economy in a democratic manner.

This was to be achieved through establishment of a government, by the workers, in the interest of all those involved after which they would gradually bring all tools of production under their control with the main aim being the creation of a stateless and classless society. Although it was an outdated idea, its popularity heightened after the French revolution and other common movements that took place in Europe in the early 19th century.

It is evident that all that is contained in Marx’s idea of communism sound positive and it could greatly enhance the lives of the society members if it were implemented successfully. However, it sound difficult especially due to the fact that the situation was to be established afresh thus necessitating active revolutionary actions to be put in place in order to achieve success. Marxist concepts have been greatly criticized.

Most of his prediction did not come to pass. For instance, Marx major presumption was that there could be a wave of socialist revolutions that would originate from the most industrialized nations, aimed at overturning capitalism. A specific example is his predictions that there would be an ultimate fall of capitalism that would be replaced by socialism for better governance and achievement of success. This did not happen because even the state socialism is in retreat since the late 19th century.

This has been attributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the shift of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) towards a market economy. This is enough justification that even though Marxist ideology of communism was deemed to be capable of bearing some positive results, the results were short-lived.

This therefore dictates that Marx’s idea of communist is not much of a reality but linked with over-emphasis of some concepts. Marx also asserted that profits are solely generated through surplus labor. However research indicates that profits could also be generated from investments in human capital as well as technology. These are some of the criticism that has been put forth with respect to communism as discussed or argued by Karl Marx (Zakharov 1985).

There are various reasons that can be put forth in regard to why Karl Marx’s ideas in the communist of manifesto may not happen or work out as expected. For instance, Marx does not seem to truly understand human nature and all that surround it. He seems to be too positive about human nature to appoint of overlooking some aspects that are key to human nature.

In the communist manifesto for instance, Marx seem to believe that people ought to work simply because they are supposed to work. This is not the case because people need some form of incentives or motivational elements in order to work to the best of their ability. This is human nature. Individuals require some form of appreciation and motivation to carry on and produce desired results (Graham 1986).

Under normal circumstances, most people may not be willing to work hard if they do not expect to get something in return. This is because human nature is characterized by competition and the need to succeed and move on to the next level. Human nature is also incentive-based. People usually work hard driven by the belief that they will get some personal benefits. Very few people could be in a position to work expecting nothing in return.

This is linked to the fact that individuals have various needs that ought to be catered for instance food, shelter, education, health services and clothing. It is however clear that despite there being a lot of negative criticism on the issue of Marxist communism, the Marxist concepts are still considered to be significant in modern social science. The concepts have found some applications even in modern times.

To have a clear understanding of Marx’s perception of communism, it is good to look at the issue with respect to Marx’s major critiques of capitalism. This will help in having a good picture of why he was in favor of communism and against capitalism and hence have a critical evaluation of how realistic communism was as form of governance. Marx claimed that capitalism would immoderate workers, that labor would be exploited in both ethical as well as economic senses.

According to Marx, there would be a fall in wages and working conditions were subject to deterioration. True to this argument, wages in advanced economies that practice capitalism are far below the productivity level. This does not however mean that communism would mean a complete opposite of this since some factors ought to remain constant (Marx and Engels 1999).

Crisis related to overproduction was also an issue of concern that Marx thought with respect to capitalism. Marx believed that as the workers continued to get less and less in terms of payment; capitalism would definitely suffer continuous crises as a result of overproduction. This was attributed to the fact that the workers would not be in a position to purchase or even invest well to keep the economy growing.

Looking at this argument in a critical manner, it sounds real. Over the recent past, global crises that are associated with the effect of overproduction have been experienced (Fanon 1968). Marx also argued against capitalism on the issue of alienation. Marx believed that as a result of separation between the workers and the output of their labor they would tend to be alienated.

The workers were subject to lack a sense of satisfaction, purpose and meaning, an aspect that is very crucial if success in the workplace and the economy at large is to be achieved. This is a concept that is real in modern work places and economies. Although communism would help in solving the issue of alienation among the workers, the need for motivation that lacks in it would make it to be no better.

Another issue that bothered Marx in regard to capitalism is stagnation. This is considered to be among the controversial predictions of Marx. He predicted that as economies would stagnate, the real rates of profit would without doubt fall. Marx also associated capitalism with false consciousness where people would not even realize that they were being exploited. These could be seen in the distribution of power among the existing classes where people would tend to accept the prevailing situation (Marx n.d).

Marx played two major roles in his life and in the world’s history. One, he was an advocate of socialism and communism and secondly, he was a critic of capitalism. However, it is worth noting that despite the fact that Marx was so much into socialism and communism, he wrote very little about it.

Most of his writings involve critiques that are laid against capitalism. This is considered ironic since he was a strong believer in the significance of enhancing socialism but used up most of his time and energy in criticizing the capitalist system. He used this as a tactic to support socialism. His critique has found a lot of application among historians, sociologists and people in other disciplines. Neo- Marxism has also been based on the original ideas that Marx put forth in regard to communism (Hook 1975).

From the above criticism that was raised by Marx against capitalism, it is clear that he had a reason fro fighting against capitalism and advocating for communism. All in all, communism does not seem to be a form of governance that would deal with or solve the problems of capitalism at all.

This is because it is also linked with a lot of limitation due to its simplification of human nature. Further more, it has also failed in areas where it has been implemented. Most of the communist world has crumpled. Although capitalism seems to have some limitation it is with no doubt that it is better and more realistic than communism form of governance (Marx 2008).

The communist theory asserts that there is only one way that can help in the abolishment of the inequalities that are associated with the capitalist form of governance. This is having the working class people who are generally involved in the production or generation of wealth in the society but consequently exploited by the wealthy class, overthrowing the capitalist system through a form of social revolution.

The communist revolution entailed some aspects of armed rebellion in most cases although it was experienced different in different parts of the world depending on the environment of origin of a particular communism theory (Engels 1978).

Marxism has been a significant concept even in today’s world. This is however not because it has succeeded but rather because there is much that can be learnt from it especially through the nations that applied it. Some of the countries that have given a try of communism include Vietnam, Korea, China and Cuba. Among these, none has been very successful. For instance, China and Vietnam are involved in practices that are aimed at building market economies.

This is considered to be a step towards defying the concepts that Marx brought up about communism. This shows that the form of governance have not bore positive results and hence the urge to go back to capitalism. With respect to Korea and Cuba, they are not doing any better. The economies seem to be barely surviving under communism form of governance and they are not to be desires (Burawoy 2000).

The communist theory asserts that there is only one way that can help in the abolishment of the inequalities that are associated with the capitalist form of governance. This is having the working class people who are generally involved in the production or generation of wealth in the society but consequently exploited by the wealthy class, overthrowing the capitalist system through a form of social revolution.

The communist revolution entailed some aspects of armed rebellion in most cases although it was experienced different in different parts of the world depending on the environment of origin of a particular communism theory (Engels 1978).

According to Oseni (2009), the understanding of human nature is of great importance in the development of any ideology that is deemed to excel. The drawbacks of both Marxist- Leninist African socialism and scientific socialism are mainly as a result of lack of a deeper understanding of the nature of human beings and what surrounds human nature in general.

Some of the aspects of human nature that Marx failed to recognize include; the desire to have a meaningful life, self-consciousness, the desire to have a life free from pain through its avoidance, the desire to acquire property, the zeal for distinction, the desire for freedom from any external interference and many more.

Most of these elements are absent in socialism system. The desire to acquire and own property is however the most elaborate. Another major observation is that both African and scientific socialism do not in any way enhance personal ambition, an aspect that is extremely crucial in allowing for self satisfaction and fulfillment.

This dictates that socialism and communism are not realistic enough as they overlook most attributes that define human nature. This is the number one cause of failure in the implementation of both forms of socialism (African socialism and Marxist-Leninist socialism) in different nations (Martell 2010).

For any form of governance to succeed in its operations, it should consider all the aspects that surround human nature in an effort to incorporate the needs in the system of governance to avoid any form of conflicts. The understanding of human nature and the elements that constitute it will help in coming up with a well organized society. This will be through understanding that there is much to human beings than just being historic or socio-economic beings (Held 2006).

Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that Karl Marx was determined to do anything to see to it that communism came to pass. However he faced a lot of opposition and it was only after his death that his economic, social and political ideas were accepted and utilized in the socialist movement. There has been a lot of criticism laid against Marx’s idea of communism with most critics claiming that it was not realistic or practical but could only apply in a theoretical setting.

Communism is a good form of governance and the concepts that are presented in its favor are pretty desirable. However socialism and communism do not sound realistic and even though they were applied in different parts of the world, their success were short lived. Most of the governments failed for instance the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The major problem however comes on the issue of how Marx perceives human nature.

For instance, in regard to labor or work people are not expected to work just for the sake of working and achieving good results without getting some returns or benefits accrued to their hard work as Marx asserts. In reality, people tend to work through motivation for example where they gain some incentives and rewards in return, for their hard work. Human nature is shaped by human needs for instance food, shelter clothing, education and proper health.

This therefore follows that people are on the move towards fulfilling these needs. The needs can only be satisfied through the returns they get from their hard work for instance money. Communal ownership is also tricky. People are driven by the desire to achieve more and gain some personal property.

Working hard to have one’s efforts shared equally among all people could not be appreciated by many. This therefore dictates that although there are many desirable concepts in communism form of governance, it is not realistic and practical. The major controversy is however on the issues of human nature and its constituents.

Reference List Ashley, D. and Orenstein, D. M., 2004. Sociological Theory: Classical Statements. 6th ed. Pennsylvania, Allyn and Bacon.

Berki, R.N., 1975. Socialism. Michigan, Dent.

Burawoy, M., 2000. Marxism after communism. Theory and Society 29: 151-174.

Engels, F., 1978. Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. New York, International Publishers.

Fanon, F., 1968. A Dying Colonialism. New York, Grove Press.

Gaus, G. F. and Kukathas, C., 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. New York, SAGE.

Graham, K., 1986. The Battle of Democracy: Conflict, Consensus And The Individual. California, Wheatsheaf.

Held, D., 2006. Models of Democracy. 3rd Ed. New York, Polity.

Hook, S., 1975. Revolution, Reform and Social Justice. New York, New York University Press.

Levin, M.,1989. Marx, Engels and Liberal Democracy. Michigan, Macmillan.

Martell, L. 2010. The Death of Socialism? Web.

Marx, K., n.d. Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844. Web.

Marx, K., 2008. Critique of the Gotha Program. London, Wildside Press LLC.

Marx, K. and Engels, F., 1999. The Civil War in France. Chicago, Charles H. Kerr

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Promoting Library Collection Policy Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction All libraries face complex challenges in identifying, acquiring and managing appropriate information resources. Traditional formats and ever more technologically interesting information sources are expected by patrons in communities of all sizes. Small and rural public libraries have always faced unique challenges in this arena.

Some of these challenges include: limited budgets for materials, licenses, and equipment, limited staffs (sometimes only one person performs all library functions), too many inappropriate and unsolicited gifts, limited space for print material and limited computers for electronic access, time constraints, and limited opportunities for library training and education within easy access (Evans

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Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country Research Paper essay help

Introduction Living as a non- English speaking artist in an English speaking country is a fascinating challenge and an advantage to a nation since aliens in a country are play pivotal role in promoting cultural activities as well as innovation. Empirical and past comparative studies indicate that in the history of civilization and human culture, aliens in any given country have always been known as one major source of social vibrancy since they share local traditions with the local people alongside passing their own cultural values to the local population.

In cases such aliens are quite intimate with the local population. Then it is indefinite that a lot of unprecedented cultural exchange will indeed take place leading to a positive outcome. Brandellero indicates that due to the uniqueness of strangers or immigrants, local milieus dealing with production have developed keen interest of attracting and retaining them for purposes of enhancing growth and sustaining their economies (10).

As this paper analyses, artists are important personalities in any cultural economy bearing in mind that they act as forerunners in harnessing and generating capabilities through their own artistic works. By so doing, they directly contribute towards economic growth of the respective countries they are living in. It is also against this scope that this paper explores non-English speaking artists living in English speaking countries, their impact on the economy and some of the challenges facing them.

Understanding cultural and ethnic diversity In her publication, Brandellero argues that cultural diversity and its link to the status of an outsider is a factor that creates tension, but has a positive effect towards innovative potential (11). While cultural diversity has myriad of similarities to ethnic diversity, it is prudent to mention that the former is a key driver and a potential source of innovation, creativity and building positive relationships. The latter are essential in enhancing mutual competitiveness.

In their cultural theory, Schwartz and Thompson elaborate that a new entrant into a foreign country may act as an intersection between the local community and outside world largely due to multiple ethnic and spatial ties. To emphasize on this, it is worth noting that contemporary immigrants, English or non-English speakers, are contributing immensely in strengthening of advanced urban economies by enhancing competitive advantages.

Effective understanding of cultural and ethnic differences have become some of the most fundamental requirements which businesses and immigrant artists need today since it assists them in building relationships by fostering understanding of the cultural values of members of different cultures alongside interpreting of their behaviors and actions.

The efficient performance of a non-English speaking artist as well as his or her participation in the growth of the economy of a host English speaking nation is to a larger extent, influenced by cultural differences experienced through complex interaction between the environment and individuals. Brandellero makes a significant contribution related to this argument by pointing out that an understanding of cultural diversity and ethnicity easily affect the degree of satisfaction, motivation results and behavior of individuals (35).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His argument concurs with Hofstede’s model and networking theory that demonstrate how cultural differences impact on the dimensions of an organization in terms of networking, gaining social capital, relationship marketing and development of human resource (Brandellero 54). Additionally, the differences also directly impact on intra organizational communication, problem-solving capabilities and creativity levels.

An artist who is living in the contemporary cultural economy has a greater advantage since the modern global economy has emerged as a thriving market offering colossal employment opportunities in many cities and countries globally.

Brandellero posits that the cultural economy offer potential support for artists of all nation whether English speaking or non- English speaking, and massive opportunities to generate artistic capabilities for productive purposes (20). This is made possible by the spatial manifestations created by the cultural economy, which play a pivotal role of attracting substantial and significant attention, which is an important playing field in the revolution of culture in a new economy.

Living as a non-English speaking artist Living as a non-English artist in another country as opposed to one’s own native land is a major challenge brought about by the diverse changes that are mainly structural, of global proportion and that continuously alter and impact on experiences. Research studies clearly indicate that living and working in a foreign country may affect a worker’s private realms and social life due to issues such as industrial capitalism and rational forms.

Scholars on modern sociology point out that a lot of transformations involving cultural, political, economic and social processes happen differently in diverse nations and result in the emergence, development and flourishing of new structures of social life that may affect an immigrant worker.

Brandellero argues that non-English speakers migrating to other English speaking nations in order to work ought to understand the culture of the country they are going to live in bearing in mind that this will shape how they relate with the locals and enhance their business performance (14).

Needless to say, cultural understanding in a foreign land is of great essence if an artist is to reap the optimum benefits out of his or her artistic work. It is also prudent to underscore the fact that should cultural differences between artists and locals clash at any given point, then the expected benefits either to the artist or host country will be null and void.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Importance of effective understanding of cultural differences by non-English speaking artists National culture is a phenomenon that distinguishes one group from another. Therefore, different nations have unique cultures that affect or largely determine how they run their affairs. A country may express its culture through conceptual elements such as arts, rituals or beliefs. For non-English speaking artists living in English speaking countries, it is definite that they indeed encounter myriad of challenges brought about by national culture.

Besides, when employed, they serve, co-work and interact with workers and customers from different cultural backgrounds who manifest various gender, ethnic, regional and national beliefs. This calls for an effective understanding of the local or national culture of a host nation and development of coping strategies in order to be productive. Most importantly, the barrier posed by language differences may not be eluded in most cases since an artist may not be a multilingual speaker.

According to Brandellero, for individuals or companies to perform successful business ventures in countries different from their own, they must have an effective understanding of different cultures (12). Besides, they must apply knowledge in management as tactics which are important for success.

It is imperative to mention that non-English speaking artists have to be flexible and keep changing their strategies to meet the needs and challenges a new cultural environment presents. Those intending to innovate or invest in the cultural economy must incorporate knowledge in management with the strategies they have devised. With globalization taking rapidly taking effect, these artists must come up with ways to overcome organizational and national cultures and the diverse challenges posed by the same.

Using Hofstede’s model, it is important to note that special cultures of diverse nations are based on different independent dimensions that include short term or long term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity or femininity, individualism or collectivism and power distance (Brandellero 62).

Understanding of the different independent dimensions will greatly assist a non-English speaking artist to predict how societies or nations that host them culturally operate. It is imperative to note that the culture of a given society is the sum of its assumptions, beliefs and values.

The man-made part of the culture of a society is influenced by the perceptions individuals have of their social environment. As such, a prescribed behavior of a particular society is shaped by those shared perceptions (Brandellero 43). An artist may not be able to directly observe culture, but can easily infer it from verbal exchanges and daily societal activities.

Knowledge of different cultures enhances networking

According to Pettigrew Whipp’s model of dimensions of change, effective understanding of different cultures assists business owner to develop their social networking behaviors (Brandellero 18). This argument clearly indicates that a non-English speaking artist who intends to succeed in his or her operations in an English speaking host country must possess or develop positive patterns of behavior necessary for social networking.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, many businesses today are operated with an intention of growth and maximization of profits. Positive networking behaviors should be enhanced by the non-English speaking artists as will not only aid them to effectively understand the cultures of the environment they are situated and build good relationship, but will also assist them to acquire scarce resources for business growth.

The effective understanding of factors such as masculinity and femininity cultures in a host country will enhance a positive networking behavior that will improve an artist’s relationship with the different cultures and aid it in obtaining external resources necessary to drive up arts business (Brandellero 19).

Brandellero supports the above notion and points out that effective understanding of different ethnic cultures of a host nation is a means of success for business owners who have developed networking skills (35). In fact, it is a common denominator underlying a business agenda and is suitable for establishing a higher networking behavior.

Mourkogiannis contributes to Brandellero’s argument by indicating in his moral purpose model that entrepreneurs, and in this case non-English speaking artists, should effectively and efficiently include social spheres in expanding their networks with a bid to develop a competitive advantage in a host nation (Brandellero 20). An artist can achieve this by raising his or her social status via vertical social mobility and learning the local language.

Additionally, studies have indicated that effective understanding of different cultures by a business creates for it a dyadic and interconnected relationship that has diverse ties such as influence, exchange and information. It is imperative to note that the aforementioned ties are part of a business’ assets that legitimizes the business, enables it to access resources and provides it with information.

In agreement, different scholars have used interactive perspective to link cultural and economic resources to economic opportunity structure in analyzing the effectiveness of businesses understanding diverse cultures. According to them different ethnic groups, depending on the structure of economic opportunities, brings income to a business.

From an interactive perspective, Brandellero points out that effective understanding of cultures helps in distribution of resources through built relationships (42).

Different societies vary in terms of status, power and class. As such a non-English speaking artist in an English speaking host country will be supplied with capital from ethnic networks depending on social relationships and ties built on social obligation and trust. It is imperative to note that customer relationship and ties with a business depend on a cultural enclave the business is in.

Knowledge of culture and relationship marketing

According to neoclassical microeconomic theory, relationship marketing is an important marketing activity that businesses having their operations in different countries carry out for successful establishment and sustenance of relational exchanges (Brandellero 32). An artist in a foreign nation can create a long-term relationship between his business and individuals or groups within a particular host culture in a relational market.

Neoclassical microeconomic theory presents a transactional school of thought that indicates that effective understanding of different cultures by a business will assists it in developing relational exchanges with the locals.

Consequently, this will aid it in the maximization of profits if it is found in a competitive market. Additionally, an artist living in an English speaking host country can develop exchanges with the locals and demonstrate rational behavior that shows a deep understanding of diverse cultures. Consequently, this will cause an artist to fashion his or her products to meet the cultural demands of the host country thereby making the artist to become a utility maximizer and a price taker.

Statistical literature revealing imbalance in art and theater

Past statistical research evidences have indicated that receive neglect in some countries. For instance, a report carried out in the nineties indicated that the Australian media failed to show a reflection of the diversity of the Australian people. Advertisement pictures and other programs conspicuously made exclusions to cultures that are not English speaking while portrayals in comedy only showed stereotypical images of the non-English speaking people.

Current statistics on non-English speaking representation in the media have shown estimations that slightly less than two percent of roles in the acting industry, especially in regards to mainstream drama in television, were directly played by other ethnic communities of Australia and the aboriginals (Bertone, Keating

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Potato Chips Industry Term Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

From monopolistically competitive market structure to a monopoly

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The question of which market structure accrues most benefits for all stakeholders can be attributed to a number of factors. There are four major market structures, but for the purpose of this assignment, focus is on monopolistically competitive and monopoly markets structures. “Wonks” is a conglomerate of many potato chips companies, which initially operated as monopolistically competitive firms in potato industry in the Midwest in 2007.

These firms were that run on equilibrium such that they achieved a normal rate of return, improved efficiency and other advantages which accrue added benefits to all stakeholders. However, in 2008 the firm were conglomerated into “Wonks” by two lawyers and thus operated in a monopoly market structure. As a monopoly “Wonks” accrues a number of benefits ranging from long term economic profits, market protection among others.

However, in a monopoly market structure, the social cost of a monopoly to both the stakeholder and the consumer is much higher than the cost of monopolistically competitive firm. Both monopolistically competitive market and monopoly structures offer certain advantages to “Wonks”; however, the company needs to revert to monopolistically competitive structure to accrue more benefits to both the entrepreneurs and consumers.

From monopolistically competitive market structure to a monopoly To bring up all the potato chips producers together meant that the market structure was changed from monopolistically competitive to a monopoly. This shift in market structure significantly affects the relationship between the input, the output and commodity prices. In the monopolistically competitive markets, various potato chips makers established competition on production efficacy rather than on pricing.

Hypothetically, one of the competitors enhances production efficiency more than others, thus leading to competition. Efficiency is further enhanced by increasing the output (production) at minimum cost of production (Mankiw, 2011; Taylor, 2009). This has a direct impact on the cost and quantity of commodities; increasing output means only minimum increases in cost of production. Thus, the average cost of production is lowered.

In a monopolistically competitive market, price (which is equal to marginal revenue) is determined by market demand among other factors. This implies that each of the competitors may sell as much commodities as it can on the current market price. This is achieved by improving production efficiency (and thus lowered cost of production).

This phenomenon is further compounded by the existence of more than one type of demand; demand seen by a particular competitor and the actual demand for the commodity. As such, to survive in a monopolistically competitive market, potato chips makers had to product-differentiate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This creates several types of demand for each of the products. Therefore, there are short term profits but on the long term there would not be any economic profits since with time, the demand for that differentiated product decreases while the cost of production increases. Thus, competitors are likely to increase prices of good without losing market share (since price must equal marginal cost).

The reorganization of the markets structure from monopolistically competitive to monopoly has several implications. While there are many determinants of monopoly, this type of monopoly is attained by having complete control of basic resources (potatoes) by one owner, “Wonks.”

To begin with, it is imperative to state that the shift in market structure affects the demand-supply mechanism. In a monopolistically competitive market structure there are various types of demands. These demands are determined, by the number of competing interests within this environment, thus production is based on product differentiation. However, in a monopoly, there is only one demand; the demand as perceived by the single seller (Mankiw, 1998).

As such, there is only one demand for potato chips, which is only defined by “Wonks”. This phenomenon is as a result of several factors. However, bringing all potato chips markers together mean that there is only one producer, in this case “Wonks”, who not only fails to product-differentiate but also becomes the only seller of potatoes chips. Monopolies esteem to produce as much goods as possible to supply the demand as they see it.

This also means that monopolies draw all the profits there is within their given markets (Lindeman, 2001). Since “Wonks” monopolizes production, demand and supply of potatoes chips, they are also able to monopolize prices with the aim of generating as much profits as possible. As such, for monopolistic business owners, there are direct financial returns.

In monopolistic markets structures, the government becomes a major stakeholder, either directly or indirectly. Regardless of this fact, the government stands to gain from market monopoly. In many countries, governments allow monopolies to operate, for both economic and political.

Controlling resources creates market entry barriers, since no competitor has access to those resources. However, most monopolies need government protection to create legal market entry barriers. This is usually aims at protecting monopolized markets from entry by external forces. While this to protect local entrepreneurs, it also benefits the government in two broad ways. First, the government protects local entrepreneurs, thus helping to build local production capacity.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Potato Chips Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is usually good for economic growth. Secondly, in the process of protecting local markets from infiltration by external producers, the government negotiates higher taxes payable by monopolistic firms. As such, in most countries, companies that have market monopolies end up paying relatively higher taxes, in return for protection against competition (Mankiw, 2011). Thus governments benefit in form of increased revenue from higher taxes paid by companies within monopolized market structures.

With time, companies within monopolized market structure realize that while they have the absolute power to adjust prices to suit their profits targets, such adjustments do have a general effect on total revenues. For instance, monopolies have the power to adjust prices upwards since they do not have any competitor which might offer price competitive goods. While this is aimed at increasing profits, it also has a negative effect on total revenues.

Unlike in competitively monopolistic markets, in a monopoly Price increase means that fewer consumers will be willing to buy those goods. In the long run, this reduces a company’s total revenue due to reduced sales. In this regard, “Wonks” would realize the need to increase profits through efficient production.

There are two ways through which monopolies achieve this. They either lower the cost of production by reducing wastages or add value to their products by improving on the product quality. Since Quality goods ensure the best value for money, customers are likely to pay more for those goods (Mankiw, 2011). In this case, by improving the quality of potatoes chips, “Wonks” benefits its consumers. As such, similar to monopolistic competition, consumers benefit from high quality goods as well as improved efficiency of production and delivery.

However, by conglomerating all potato chips makers into “wonks”, the Midwest potato chips market structure shifted from monopolistically competitive to a single monopoly market structure. This means that the output-input-price mechanism is changed. As explained earlier, in a monopoly, there is only one demand (the demand seen by the producer) and thus no product differentiation (Lindeman, 2001).

Thus, “Wonks” would only produce its own brands of potato chips. Unlike a monopolistically competitive market where profits are only sustained on the short term, monopolies are able to sustain profits for a long time, since there is no price competition. This is facilitated by the fact that there are strict market entry barrier and thus no chance for sharing those profits. Unlike a monopolized competitor, a monopoly operates at a level where marginal revenue is equated to marginal cost of production.

This also implies that either reduction or increase in a unit of production leads to increased profits; adding a unit of production increases revenues more than the cost of production while reducing a unit of production reduces the cost of production, thus increasing the profits (Lindeman, 2001). This is in stark contrast to a monopoly where a reduction in a unit of production is likely to increase the cost per unit of production.

“Wonks” is formed with a monopoly market structure in mind. However, the major question is on the cost of both the monopoly as well as monopolistically competitive market, and which of the two is most efficient for both the company and consumers. A monopoly has several inefficiencies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Potato Chips Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, inefficiency is achieved through setting the price of commodities above marginal cost, leading to higher prices as compared to monopolistically competitive market (Mankiw, 2011).

As such “Wonks” is likely to hike its prices. Additionally, monopolies accrue added expenses in terms of higher than normal taxes paid to government as kickback for market protection. While monopolies achieve productive efficiency, the level of such efficiency cannot be compared to the type of efficiency achieved in monopolistically competitive markets.

In a monopolistically competitive market structure, efficiency is achieved mainly through product differentiation as well as one of the ways of reducing the cost of production. As such, the more the competitive the market is, the more efficiency production becomes (Taylor, 2009).

This results not only to higher quality commodities which assure consumers of the best value for money. Due to this “Wonks” is likely to produce potato chips at a higher cost per unit (and eventually priced higher) than a monopolistically competitive firm. Additionally, product differentiation is common in monopolistically competitive markets. Thus this is likely to result to innovative products, which also add value to consumers’ lives.

Additionally, product differentiation ensures that there are numerous alternative commodities (Taylor, 2009). This increases the choice of consumer products, unlike in a monopoly where commodities have absolute distinctions (thus no choice of consumer products). Monopoly markets only have one demand; the demand as seen by the monopoly firm.

However, for a monopolistically competitive market there at least two types of demand; demand created by each competitor and the actual market demand for the product. In this case, while it seems a smart move to conglomerate all potato chips makers into a monopoly, for more benefits to the firm as well as the consumers it would be imperative for them to revert back to monopolistically competitive firms (Lindeman, 2001).

Conclusion The purpose of turning “wonks” into a monopoly was to probably control the market and create a market barrier. This would have ensured increased profits, since price is slightly higher than the marginal costs. However, while monopolizing the potato chips market seems like a smart idea, it is more costly to both the firm and consumers of potatoes chips.

Therefore, the two lawyer need to rethink their decision and revert to monopolistically competitive markets structure, in a monopoly there are fewer benefits to all stakeholders, limited productive efficiency among others limitation. This will ensure a more stable consumer friendly market.

Reference List Lindeman, J. (2001). EZ-101 Microeconomics. Arkansas: University of Arkansas

Taylor, A. (2009). Principles of microeconomics: global financial crisis edition. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning

Mankiw, G. (1998). Microeconomics. Orlando, FL: Ted Buchholz

Mankiw, G. (2011). Principles of economics. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning

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Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place Report college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Executive summary

Introduction

Distinguishing Emotional Intelligence from Intelligent Quotient

Emotional intelligence skills

Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence

Merging Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence

Conclusion

Recommendation

Reference List

Executive summary This paper analyses emotional intelligence and its applicability at places of work. The introductory part defines emotions and explains what emotional intelligence, and distinguishes it from academic intelligence or intelligent quotient. In the main body, deeper discussions of the tenets of emotional intelligence are explored.

The causes and underlying reasons for emotional breakdown are discussed with concrete examples. The paper further explains how modern organizations are trying to adopt emotional intelligence, and how this component of modern human resource management can impact the performance of organizations.

Introduction Have you ever been angry with your workmate? What prompted your anger and how did you react? Do you think your reaction was justified? These questions introduce us to the subject of managing emotions which is also referred to as emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence commonly abbreviated as (EQ) or emotional quotient is one of the key tenets of modern human resource management.

Emotions occupy a very big part of human life, thus this subject deserves much attention. Emotion is defined as the disturbance of the mind and passion, and which excites the mental state of a person. It is usually marked by a strong feeling to act. On a daily basis, people experience different happenings in or out of work.

The modern world economy is dominated by economic constraint, for instance the economic recession that was experienced in early 2008 (Weiten, 2009). For a longer period of time, it has been believed that the success of a person at the place of work depends on the level of intelligence of that person known as intelligence quotient (IQ).

This is presumed to work in the academic field and not the real open work field. It has been noted that the performance of a person at the place of work goes far beyond the intelligence quotient. The modern workplace demands for varied resourcefulness. What is needed is a different kind of mental smartness; that is, emotional intelligence (Singh, 2006).

Since the start of 1990s organizations and researchers in the United Kingdom began to accept and implement emotional intelligence. From then, consultants in management and psychologists have dug deep into research to know how important emotional intelligence is at places of work in relation to productivity, the general management and in sales. They appreciated that emotional intelligence is a basic need more so in jobs where interaction between people is a must (Gold and Mumford, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Distinguishing Emotional Intelligence from Intelligent Quotient Chakraborty (2008) observes that many people have failed to separate these two subjects. They use these terms in similar contexts with assumptions that each is the antonym of one another. It is good to note that the two have a kind of a complex relationship. Emotional intelligence is based on emotion while rational or intelligent quotient is based on academics.

Nonetheless, the two interact in a certain manner and go together in some instances. Emotional responses can be managed well through conscious efforts. When this awareness is inexistent, rational thinking is overridden by emotional actions (Chakraborty, 2008).

Emotional intelligence skills There are a number of emotional intelligence skills that are very fruitful when they are learnt and adopted. They include being empathetic. When a leader in any organization has grasped this skill, he or she is able to feel and listen to the demands and complaints from employees (Stein, 2009).

Responsibility is also an important skill of managing emotions. Managers who have a grasp of social responsibility give room for a participatory approach in management. Such managers take good care of the community and the environment they are working in and respect the rules that govern that society (Stein, 2009).

Leaders who are emotionally intelligence know how to relate well with other people. Good interpersonal relationship skills help these leaders to maintain a positive relationship with all other people in the organization. Good interpersonal relation skills help leaders to cultivate relationships they want in the organization (Stein, 2009). Emotional intelligence has to come with the ability to control impulses.

This skill comprises of patience, and it allows a leader to listen to the employers of the company. Therefore, employers are able to clearly understand the views of employees and they can make an attempt to integrate these views in the organizational working framework thus drawing away bad feelings and protests at the place of work.

Happiness is another important emotional management skill that leaders need to have in order to manage emotions in the organizations that they lead. Happiness pulls people closer to the organization. Employees will always prefer to work with joyful and rejuvenated leaders. On the contrary, they will shun from leaders who are gloomy and unfriendly (Stein, 2009).

We will write a custom Report on Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emotional intelligence has to be accompanied with tough mindedness. For any leader to gain success, he or she has to have a lot of resilience. This enables one to easily respond to tough and challenging situations. They manage to persevere when faced with obstacles. It is easy for them to overcome challenging situations and easily contain pressure arising from these constraints.

Tough minded leaders must have high self-regard because people with high self-regard have confidence and self-assurance. Leaders who possess the skill of self-regard have a strong understanding of their strongpoints and their weak points. They use confidence to counter tough situations and moments of the organization.

Tough minded leaders must have high levels of tolerating stress. This means that one must be ready and know how to deal with tough situations as they arise. Though attending to a taunting task, one is able to keep focus and control himself in relation to the activity that he or she is handling (Stein, 2009).

Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence The bottom line in operation of a business, companies or even the government are impacted by emotions that are derived from the work, the management and the customers. Organizational culture and climate are determined by emotions and how the emotions in the organization and how these emotions are managed. The feeling and performance of employees influences the feeling, satisfaction level and loyalty of customers to the company.

These in turn work to affect the performance of the organization. Emotions whether they are positive or negative affects everyone in the organization. In “What makes a leader” in the Harvard Business Review, Daniel Goleman (2005) states “When I calculate the ratio of technical skills, IQ and emotional intelligence as ingredients of excellent performance, emotional intelligence proved to be twice as important as others for jobs at all levels” (Stock, 2008, p.18).

He goes on to say, “When I compared star performers with average ones in senior leadership positions, nearly 90% of difference in their profile was attributable to Emotional Intelligence factors rather than cognitive abilities” (Stock, 2008, p.18).

There is evidence supported by many researchers that emotional intelligence lays at the centre of efficient leadership. Efficient leaders are modelled by their thoughts and state of mind as they perform their work. Good leaders have self awareness as well as the influence they have on other people.

Self awareness is more vital. Leaders who have performed well in management have high abilities to control or manage their emotions. They do not at any point let emotions control them but rather are always on top of their emotions are good in adjusting their feelings (Stock, 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizational culture is a combination of different tenets that include values, beliefs and behaviours. These tenets work together to determine the climate of an organization. Analysts argue that emotions have economic value. Profitability of companies are determined by behaviours of employee most of which are shaped by emotions (Stock, 2008). Research ascertains that the manner in which employees behave and treat one another affects the profit making patterns of the organization.

The improvement in the attitude of employees leads to an improvement. Research ascertains that the manner in which employees behave and treat one another affects the profit making patterns of the organization. The management of companies are in these times finding it important to handle employees in a nice way. It has been found out that if at any instance, the attitude of employees rises, the satisfaction of customers will equally raise (Spritzer, 2007).

Stress normally has a big impact on the management and the workers. Stress emanates from bad emotions and feeling that renders people unable to withstand what the environment demands from them. Demands of the jobs and the social setting of the society are unlikely to change soon. This is making it very important to develop skills to held cope with these demands thus a call for emotional intelligence skills. On the other hand, there is good stress also called eustress. This is fuelled by positive emotions (Stock, 2008).

Research indicates that when anxiety, fear or even despair enters a persons mind, a person become defensive and seek for personal security. On realization the people who surround cant offer the security, the person becomes frustrated. This results in a turndown in performance. The taunting nature of tasks at places of work is being accompanied by stress. Jobs that come with a lot of complexities call for high levels of emotional intelligence.

At the workplace there is rising need to help manage stress. Stress management is not a simple activity. It requires one to have high levels of emotional intelligence in order to solve this problem without harming the activities of the company where one works. Successful managing of stress and its related conditions has positive impact to the profit patterns of the company (Singh, 2006).

Social and emotional intelligence works have been adopted by organizations. A person’s social and emotional intelligence goes deep into making the person successful. If extrapolated, this can be reflective of the entire organizational culture. People who manage famous organizations keep in mind that their workers are their key assets thus by developing them; their organizations are bound to be successful.

In order for organizations to maximize on their competitive abilities, they have to pay maximum attention to motivating and satisfying the needs of their employees. Ability of the organization to weigh and fully understand the socio– emotional intelligence is a beginner step to see to ensuring that an organization has reached its maximum potential.

Organizations that are devoid of emotional intelligence stand a high risk of not attaining their goals. Emotionally intelligent organizations on the other hand, have a high rate of attaining their goals and objectives. They promote an open culture where issues of openness and transparency are the key norms (Singh, 2006).

Merging Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence Leslie works in a young advertising, and she has good friendship with the workmates. Much of the leisure time, she spends time with her friends. She describes the manner in which she relates with the bosses. The bosses are very nice, and they forward them online emails and jokes. A lot of workers gather on his computer to view latest emailed jokes (Spitzer, 2007). This is so creative of the leadership of the organization.

Though, after working for very long hours, she fills guilty leaving earlier whenever she has to do so. The reasons why people or employees get faded up with the work they do originate mostly from their supervisors or bosses. The leading teams in organizations affect the organization through directing, and guiding and the manner of responding both to the employees and the external world.

Leaders in any organization are the steers of the organizational ship. People needs to be full aware of where the ship they are travelling in is meant to reach. Employers need to understand that the leadership is competent when it comes to organizational decision making and that they are guided by the interests of the organization they are leading (Stein, 2007).

Conclusion From the discussion, it is clear the world we live in today is full of challenges that emanate from both the economic and social spheres of life. These challenges have a great impact on people and their behaviours. Therefore, the modern society has to accept the realities that these challenges pose to organizational performance.

In an effort to counter the challenges, they have resorted to introduce and cultivate the culture emotional intelligence and management. Emotional intelligence is however a subject that is still very young. Nonetheless, smart organizations that have adopted this technique are doing well. Emotion intelligence has become more of a necessity in organizations in current time. Each organization faces emotional related problems and thus by adopting this practice can help them maximize productivity.

Recommendation Organizations should conduct research about the changes on the emotions of their employees, so that they can determine the best motivational strategies to apply. In addition, employees should be consulted when implementing strategies in the organization to ensure they accept them.

Reference List Chakraborty, A., 2008, Emotional intelligence, Berlin, Springer.

Gold, J., Thorpe, R.,

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